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Sample records for adult human testis

  1. Fas and Fas ligand expression in fetal and adult human testis with normal or deranged spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, S; D'Abrizio, P; Rucci, N; Silvano, G; Properzi, G; Straface, E; Cordeschi, G; Necozione, S; Gnessi, L; Arizzi, M; Ulisse, S

    2000-08-01

    In mice, the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system has been shown to be involved in germ cell apoptosis. In the present study we evaluated the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) in fetal and adult human testis. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of Fas and FasL messenger ribonucleic acids in adult testis, but not in fetal testis (20-22 weeks gestation). In situ RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry experiments on adult human testis demonstrated the expression of FasL messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in Sertoli and Leydig cells, whereas the expression of Fas was confined to the Leydig cells and sporadic degenerating spermatocytes. The number of Fas-positive germ cells per 100 Sertoli cell nuclei was increased in 10 biopsies with postmeiotic germ cell arrest compared to 10 normal testis biopsies (mean, 3.82 +/- 0.45 vs. 2.02 +/- 0.29; P = 0.0001), but not in 10 biopsies with meiotic germ cell arrest (mean, 1.56 +/- 1.07). Fas and FasL proteins were not expressed in cases of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Together, these findings may suggest that Fas/FasL expression in the human testis is developmentally regulated and under gonadotropin control. The increased germ cell expression of Fas in patients with postmeiotic germ cell arrest suggests that the Fas/FasL system may be involved in the quality control mechanism of the produced gametes. PMID:10946867

  2. Analysis of activin/TGFB-signaling modulators within the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis reveals evidence of altered signaling capacity in a subset of seminomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Vinali L; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; McLachlan, Robert;

    2009-01-01

    adult human testes samples. Signaling transducers phosphorylated SMAD2/3, and signaling modulators SMAD6, MAN-1, inhibin alpha (INHA), and beta-glycan were detected in Bouins fixed, paraffin-embedded adult human testis sections using immunohistochemistry. Additional samples examined were from testicular...

  3. Expression of FGFR3 during human testis development and in germ cell-derived tumours of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewen, Katherine A; Olesen, Inge A; Winge, Sofia B;

    2013-01-01

    development and to ascertain whether FGFR3 signalling is linked to germ cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of young adult men. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we examined 58 specimens of human testes throughout development for FGFR3...... expression, and then compared expression of FGFR3 with proliferation markers (PCNA or Ki67). We also analysed for FGFR3 expression 30 TGCTs and 28 testes containing the tumour precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fetal and adult testes expressed exclusively the FGFR3IIIc isoform. FGFR3 protein expression......Observations in patients with an activating mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) suggest a role for FGFR3 signalling in promoting proliferation or survival of germ cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the FGFR3 subtype and the ontogeny of expression during human testis...

  4. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Young, J; Nielsen, J E;

    2014-01-01

    limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects. METHODS: Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were...... and testis cancer samples can be employed to delineate mechanisms governing growth of normal, CIS and tumorigenic germ cells retained within their niche....

  5. Human testis steroidogenesis is inhibited by phthalates

    OpenAIRE

    Desdoits-Lethimonier, C.; Albert, O.; Le Bizec, B.; Perdu, E.; Zalko, D.; Courant, F; Lesne, L; Guille, F.; Dejucq-Rainsford, N.; Jegou, B.

    2012-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters are widely used in the manufacture of plastics. Numerous studies have shown that these phthalates impair testicular testosterone production in the rat. However, the scarce and contradictory data concerning humans have cast doubt over whether these compounds are also anti-androgenic in man. We therefore investigated the direct effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on organo-cultured adult human testis and a human cell line A...

  6. Expression of a novel pyridoxal kinase mRNA splice variant, PKH-T, in human testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XingFang; Zuo-MinZhou; LiLu; Lan-LanYin; Jian-MinLi; YinZhen; HuiWang; Jia-HaoSha

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify the genes specifically expressed in human adult and fetal testes and spermatozoa.Methods: A human testis cDNA microarray was established. Then mRNAs of human adult and fetal testis and spermatozoa were purified and probes were prepared by a reverse transcription reaction with mRNA as the template.The microarray was hybridized with probes of adult and fetal testes and spermatozoa. The nucleic acid sequences of differentially expressed genes were determined and homologies were searched in the databases of GenBank. Results:A novel human testis-specific gene, PKH-T, was identified by hybridizing adult and fetal testis and spermatozoa probes with a human testis cDNA microarray. The cDNA of PKH-T was 1069 bp in length. The cDNA sequence of this clone was deposited in the Genbank (AY303972) and PKH-T was also determined as Interim GenSymbol (Unigene,HS.38041). PKH-T contained most PKH conserved motif. The 239 amino acid sequences deduced from the 719 bp open reading frame (ORF) had a homology with the gene PKH (U89606). PKH-T was specifically and strongly expressed in the testis. Comparison of the differential expressions of PKH and PKH-T in testes of different develop-mental stages indicated that PKH-T was expressed in the adult testis and spermatozoa, while PKH, in the adult, fetal and aged testes. PKH-T had no expression in the testis of Sertoli cell only and partially spermatogenic arrest patients.Conclusion: PKH-T is a gene highly expressed in adult human testis and spermatozoa. It may play an important role in spermatogenesis and could be related to male infertility.

  7. Reg I protein in healthy and seminoma human testis

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, V.; Carette, D.; Chevallier, D.; Michiels, J F; Segretain, D; Pointis, G.; Sénégas-Balas, F.

    2008-01-01

    Regenerating gene (Reg), encodes a secretory protein with growth and differentiation stimulating effects mostly in digestive tissues. Overexpression of Reg proteins and specifically of Reg I, one member of the Reg family, is associated with several human diseases and cancers. In the present study we analyzed the expression of Reg I in normal rodent and human testes where germ cells normally proliferate and differentiate into spermatozoa, and in seminoma testis, the ...

  8. Morphological Study of the Testis of Adult Sudanese Duck (Anas platyrhynchos)

    OpenAIRE

    Salwa Ismail Abdelgader Elbajory; Muddthir D. El Tingari; Mohamed Ahmed Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work to show the morphology of the testis of Adult Sudanese duck (Anas platyrhynchos). The adult duck testes were two bean-shaped‚ large and soft‚ the left testis was usually higher in position and larger in size than the right one. The testis was active during cold weather with the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules being 124 µm in the duck. It was less active during the hot season with the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules being 134 µm in the duck. The non-bree...

  9. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.V. Chikhovskaya; M.J. Jonker; A. Meissner; T.M. Breit; S. Repping; A.M.M. van Pelt

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have de

  10. Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony DeFalco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs. Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues.

  11. Distribution of the DAZ gene transcripts in human testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Warchoł

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of variety of genes, especially located on Y chromosome, is critical for the regulation of spermatogenesis. In particular, fertility candidate genes such as deleted in azoospermia (DAZ are believed to have important function in sperm production, since DAZ is frequently deleted in azoospermic and severy oligozoospermic men. The role of the DAZ gene is supported by its exclusive expression in the testis and by its deletion in about 10% of azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic patients. The distribution of DAZ transcripts in seminiferous epithelium of human testis is reported in the present study. The use of Adobe Photoshop and Scion Image softwares allowed for semi-quantitative analysis of in situ RT-PCR (ISRT-PCR results. The intensity of ISRT-PCR product's fluorescence was different within individual seminiferous tubules. It was clearly shown by using the pseudocolour scale and transforming the intensity of the fluorescence into levels of greyscale images. The more intense fluorescence characterised single spermatogonia and those organized in small groups inside separate tubules. The most intense accumulation of DAZ mRNA was observed in spermatogonia.

  12. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8(-/-) mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. PMID:27328324

  13. Morphological Study of the Testis of Adult Sudanese Duck (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Ismail Abdelgader Elbajory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work to show the morphology of the testis of Adult Sudanese duck (Anas platyrhynchos. The adult duck testes were two bean-shaped‚ large and soft‚ the left testis was usually higher in position and larger in size than the right one. The testis was active during cold weather with the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules being 124 µm in the duck. It was less active during the hot season with the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules being 134 µm in the duck. The non-breeding season seemed to be characterized by a decline in the spermatogenic activity only and not by complete spermatogenesis. The mean volume of left testis in the adult duck was 9.12 cm’. They exceeded those of the right testes by 8%; the relative volume of the components remained essentially the same in both testes. The seminiferous tubules formed 90% of the volume of the testes in duck.

  14. Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

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    Diane Rebourcet

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health.

  15. Adult granulosa cell tumor of the testis masquerading as hydrocele

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    Archana George Vallonthaiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult testicular granulosa cell tumor is a rare, potentially malignant sex cord-stromal tumor, of which 30 cases have been described to date. We report the case of a 43-year-old male who complained of a left testicular swelling. Scrotal ultrasound showed a cystic lesion, suggestive of hydrocele. However, due to a clinical suspicion of a solid-cystic neoplasm, a high inguinal orchidectomy was performed, which, on pathological examination, was diagnosed as adult granulosa cell tumor. Adult testicular granulosa cell tumors have aggressive behaviour as compared to their ovarian counterparts. They may rarely be predominantly cystic and present as hydrocele. Lymph node and distant metastases have been reported in few cases. Role of MIB-1 labelling index in prognostication is not well defined. Therefore, their recognition and documentation of their behaviour is important from a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic point of view.

  16. Evidence for an androgen receptor in human testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M.L.; Razel, A.J.; Spelsberg, T.C.; Coulam, C.B.

    1984-11-01

    The present study identified and characterized an androgen-binding protein in human testicular tissue. Human testes were homogenized in dilute Tris buffer containing thioglycerol, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, and molybdate. The supernatant (termed cytosol) was incubated with radiolabeled androgen methyltrienolone (tritium-labeled R1881), and nonspecific binding was determined by adding 100-fold excess of unlabeled R1881 together with (/sup 3/H)R1881 to cytosol. Specific binding with saturation at 24 hours was observed. Scatchard analysis of the specific binding with the use of increasing concentrations of (/sup 3/H)R1881 alone and (/sup 3/H)R1881 plus 200-fold excess unlabeled R1881 demonstrated a high-affinity (dissociation constant . 2.18 X 10(-10) mol/L), low-capacity (2924 molecules per cell) class of binding sites. A second class of lower-affinity sites was identified with a dissociation constant equaling 1.2 X 10(-8) and 26,300 molecules per cell. The bulk of the higher-affinity class of sites was precipitated at 35% ammonium sulfate. In competitive binding assays, dihydrotestosterone and testosterone greatly diminished binding to this high-affinity class of sites. Progesterone also diminished binding but to a lesser degree. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone failed to compete for these sites. Analysis of the receptor, using sucrose gradients, revealed a major peak in the 4S region and a small peak at 8S. A similar high-affinity (dissociation constant . 4.28 X 10(-9), low-capacity (4860 molecules per cell) binding protein was identified in purified nuclei. Binding to nuclear chromatin was demonstrated in the cell-free binding assay, and nuclear binding was further illustrated in the biopsy assay of intact tissue, suggesting translocation in vivo. These properties are characteristic of the androgen receptor and suggest that human testis is a target tissue for androgen, as has been found in animal tissue.

  17. Evidence for an androgen receptor in human testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study identified and characterized an androgen-binding protein in human testicular tissue. Human testes were homogenized in dilute Tris buffer containing thioglycerol, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, and molybdate. The supernatant (termed cytosol) was incubated with radiolabeled androgen methyltrienolone (tritium-labeled R1881), and nonspecific binding was determined by adding 100-fold excess of unlabeled R1881 together with [3H]R1881 to cytosol. Specific binding with saturation at 24 hours was observed. Scatchard analysis of the specific binding with the use of increasing concentrations of [3H]R1881 alone and [3H]R1881 plus 200-fold excess unlabeled R1881 demonstrated a high-affinity (dissociation constant . 2.18 X 10(-10) mol/L), low-capacity (2924 molecules per cell) class of binding sites. A second class of lower-affinity sites was identified with a dissociation constant equaling 1.2 X 10(-8) and 26,300 molecules per cell. The bulk of the higher-affinity class of sites was precipitated at 35% ammonium sulfate. In competitive binding assays, dihydrotestosterone and testosterone greatly diminished binding to this high-affinity class of sites. Progesterone also diminished binding but to a lesser degree. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone failed to compete for these sites. Analysis of the receptor, using sucrose gradients, revealed a major peak in the 4S region and a small peak at 8S. A similar high-affinity (dissociation constant . 4.28 X 10(-9), low-capacity (4860 molecules per cell) binding protein was identified in purified nuclei. Binding to nuclear chromatin was demonstrated in the cell-free binding assay, and nuclear binding was further illustrated in the biopsy assay of intact tissue, suggesting translocation in vivo. These properties are characteristic of the androgen receptor and suggest that human testis is a target tissue for androgen, as has been found in animal tissue

  18. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  19. 18F FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on 18F FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. 18F FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8±13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of 18F FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. 18F FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7±7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4±11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p18F FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular 18F FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  20. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of primary vaginal hydrocoele of testis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis is a common condition which is primarily treated surgically. Many patients with Hydrocoele of testis are either not willing or are unfit for surgery. This study was done to know the safety, efficacy and out come of tetracycline induced sclerotherapy of Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults. This quasi experimental study was done in Shahina Jamil Hospital, attached with Frontier Medical College and Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from March 2006 to April, 2007. Thirty-seven patients with primary vaginal hydrocoele were included in the study. Aspiration and instillation of Tetracycline was done after spermatic cord block with 2% lignocaine. Procedure time, Peri and Post-procedure complications, number of injections for cure and patients satisfaction with the procedure were recorded. Patients were discharged home 3 to 4 hours after the procedure and followed up after one week, one month, three months and six months. Direct admission and re-admissions were recorded. The mean age of patients was 47 years. Mean procedure time was 45 minutes. All patients were cured. Mild postoprocedure pain occurred in 12 (40%), moderate pain in 14 (46%) patients and severe pain in 4 (13.3%) patients. No patient developed haematoma or local infection. One patient (3.3%) had micturition problem. Two (6.6%) patients had minimal recurrence. One injection was sufficient for cure in all patients, 28 (93%) patients were satisfied while 2 (6.6%) patients were not satisfied with this procedure. No patient was admitted in the hospital after the procedure. Aspiration and injection of tetracycline in Primary vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults is safe, effective and very economical procedure. (author)

  1. Adult type granulosa cell tumor in adult testis: report of a case and review of the literature

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    Zhao Song

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors can be classified into juvenile and adult types and more commonly occur in ovaries. Adult testicular granulosa cell tumors are extremely rare and only 29 cases of adult type have previously been reported. We report here a 28-year-old Caucasian man with a left testicular adult type granulosa cell tumor. The tumor measured 2.6 x 2.6 x 2.5 cm and was mitotically active (10/10 HPF. Immunohistochemical stains showed the tumor diffusely positive for inhibin and vimentin, and negative for epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratins, synaptophysin, HMB-45, OCT-4, placental-like alkaline phosphatase and lymphoid markers . The reported granulosa cell tumors in adult testis were briefly reviewed.

  2. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are expressed in several cancers and during normal adult male germ cell differentiation. Little is known about their role in fetal development of human germ cells. METHODS: We examined expression of the CTAs MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 in fetal gonads by...... cells and the staining intensity of all three CTAs peaked during the second trimester and gradually decreased towards birth in both male and female germ cells. In oocytes, MAGE-A1 expression terminated around birth, whereas NY-ESO-1 expression persisted through the neonatal stage and GAGE expression was...

  3. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

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    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  4. Chronic Effects of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate on Stereological Parameters of Testis in Adult Wistar Rats

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    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIn recent years concerns have been raised regarding the incidence of male reproductive disorders from exposure to endocrine disruptors. So, chronic effects of di(2-ethylhexylphthalate were studied on histological and stereological structure of testis in adult Wistar rats. Materials and MethodsThirty two adult Wistar rats were randomly divided in four equal experiment groups; oil vehicle group and three treated groups which received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day di(2-ethylhexylphthalate by gavage for 90 days, respectively. At the end of exposure period the volume of testes was measured by Cavellieri method, testes weight was recorded and then fixed in Bouin’s solution. Following tissue processing, 5 µm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Seminiferous tubule diameter, germinal epithelium height, relative and total volumes of seminiferous tubules, tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were estimated.ResultsThe results showed that mean weight and volume of testis were decreased significantly (35.2% and 23.9% respectively in rats treated with 500 mg/kg/day DEHP for 90 days. Seminiferous tubules diameter reduced, 4.4% and 13.4% in 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP-treated groups, respectively. Relative volumes of tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were increased significantly in 100 (P< 0.05 and 500 (P< 0.01 mg/kg/day doses groups. Also, testosterone serum levels were significantly higher (P< 0.05 in rats exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. ConclusionPresent study indicated dose-dependent reductions of testicular parameters in adult male rats chronically exposed to di(2-ethylhexylphthalate.

  5. Expression of 5α-Reductase Type 2 Gene in Human Testis, Epididymis and Vas Deferens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德瑜; 吴燕婉; 罗宏志; 张桂元

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the expression pattern of 5α-reductase type 2 gene in human malereproductive organsMethods The expression level of 5α-reductase type 2 gene inhuman testis, epididymisand vas deferens tissues was determined by in situ hybridization using Digoxin labeled5α-reductase type 2 cRNA probe.Results The brown granules of hybridizing signals distributed in the cytoplasm ofSertoli and Leydig cells of the testis, the principle cells of epididymis and the epithe-lial cells of vas deferens, but there was no positive signal in the nuclei of above-men-tioned cells. No positive signal was observed in germ cells, basement of the testis,interstium of epididymis and basement, as well as smooth muscle of vas deferens.Conclusion This study confirmed that the 5α-reductase type 2 gene expressed in Ser-toli, Leydig cells of the testis, and the principle cells of epididymis. The expressionpattern of the gene in these cells in human was similar to that of rat and monkey. Thepresence of 5a-reductase type 2 gene in epithelial cells of the vas deferens suggested itmight possess an important physiological role in human reproduction.

  6. Protective role of garlic oil against oxidative damage induced by furan exposure from weaning through adulthood in adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2016-06-01

    Furan is produced in a wide variety of heat-treated foods via thermal degradation. Furan contamination is found to be relatively high in processed baby foods, cereal products, fruits juices, and canned vegetables. Several studies have demonstrated that furan is a potent hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen in rodents. However, few studies have investigated the toxic effects of furan in the testis. In addition, the exact mechanism(s) by which furan exerts toxicity in the testis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of furan exposure from weaning through adulthood to induce oxidative stress in adult rat testis, as well as the potential of garlic oil (GO) to ameliorate the induced toxicity. Our results reveal that furan administration significantly reduced serum testosterone levels and increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); furthermore, furan administration decreased significantly the enzymatic activity of testicular antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and induced histopathological alterations in the testis. GO co-administration ameliorated the reduction in testosterone levels and dramatically attenuated the furan-induced oxidative and histopathological changes. In addition, Go significantly down-regulated the increased caspase-3 and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression in the furan-treated testis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the furan-induced oxidative changes in the adult rat testis and the protective role of GO to ameliorate these changes through its antioxidant effects and its ability to inhibit CYP2E1 production. PMID:27130490

  7. The Effect of Orally Administered L-carnitine on Testis Tissue Sperm Parameters and Daily Sperm Production in Adult Mice

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    Zohre Zare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate body and testis weight, testis tissue,counts, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm, aswell as the testicular spermatid number (TSN per gram of testis, and daily sperm production(DSP in L-carnitine treated mice.Materials and Methods: In the present study, adult male NMRI mice (mean age of 4weeks were administered L-carnitine by gavage for two weeks. The experimental groupsreceived 1mg L-carnitine/100 μl deionized water and 10 mg L-carnitine/100 μl deionizedwater, respectively. The control group did not receive L-carnitine. All samples were assessedaccording to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Sperm morphology wasassessed with papanicula staining. Sperm chromatin quality was assessed using anilinebluestaining.The left testes were fixed in Bouins solution for histological examination and the end sliceswere stained with hematoxilin and eosin (H&E. The right testis was homogenized, andTSN and DSP were calculated with an improved neubauer haemocytometer and respectiveformula.Results: Administration of L-carnitine induced significant reduction in body weight (p<0.05and an increase in tchromatine quality (p<0.05. Amongst the other parameters no significantdifferences were observed in all groups.Conclusion: These results show that oral administration of L-carnitine to mice with normalspermatogenesis does not have any significant effect on the reproductive systems.Thus, L-carnitine seems to be ineffective in normospermic animals.

  8. Recovery, isolation, identification, and preparation of spermatozoa from human testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Charles H; Pagel, Erin R

    2013-01-01

    In some cases, human spermatozoa to be used for in vitro fertilization are processed from testicular or epididymal biopsies collected in the clinic or operating room. An appropriately equipped Andrology or Embryology Laboratory is required. Sterility must be maintained at all stages from collection and transport to identification and processing to insemination or cryopreservation. The technologist must be able to properly process and identify spermatozoa from aspirates, seminiferous tubules or pieces of testicular tissue. Recovery of undamaged spermatozoa from tubules or tissue requires mincing, squeezing, or vortexing the tissue, usually without the need of enzymatic digestion. A motility stimulant such as Pentoxifylline is commonly used to calculate the number of functionally competent spermatozoa. After recovery, spermatozoa may be used immediately for IVF-ICSI, incubated overnight prior to IVF-ICSI, or cryopreserved for future use. Methods for identifying, purifying, and determining the number and motility of spermatozoa during these processes are presented. PMID:22992917

  9. Quantitative microscopical and histochemical changes in the Liver and Testis of adult rabbit under the effect of oral intakeof cotton seeds Gossypol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S. El-Dawi, Ahmed N. Al-Kasaby, Bassem S. Ahmed

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Gossypol is a natural yellowish phenolic compound (dimeric or bis-naphthalene isolated from the seeds of cotton plants (Gossypium species. The aim of the present work was to study the possible microscopical and histochemical changes in the liver and testis of adult rabbit under the effect of oral intake of cotton seeds Gossypol. Eighteen 6month age adult male rabbits were subdivided into 3 equal groups (control, experimental and recovery. The experimental and recovery groups were subjected to 1.05mg/day Gossypol suspended in olive oil intubation for 9weeks and the recovery rabbits were left 9weeks after last dose. Liver and testis paraffin sections were processed and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin stain for morphological changes. Glycosaminoglycans in the seminiferous tubules were stained by PAS technique. Studying of the nucleic DNA in the spermatogenic cells was done by Feulgen technique. Quantitative study included seminiferous tubules thickness; spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes cell areas. Also the distribution of PAS positive materials analyzed as area percent and nucleic DNA as optical density. All analysis was done by the aid of image analysis System. The study showed that liver was affected by gossypol administration. The changes appeared as distinct pinpoint foci of coagulative necrosis, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes and dilation of the sinusoids with mild perivascular lymphoid aggregation. The testis showed distortion loss of spermatogenic cells, Sertoli and germ organization under the effect of gossypol. Sertoli cells showed an intracellular vacuolization. Also, there were luminal multinucleated giant cells as well as a prominent DNA fragmentation in the spermatogonia nuclei. The quantitative study showed statistically significant decrease in the mean thickness of seminiferous tubules , the mean area of spermatogonia, and primary spermatocyte , mean area percent of distribution of PAS positive materials of

  10. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  11. MicroRNA expression profiling of carcinoma in situ cells of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, Guy Wayne; Belling, Kirstine Christensen; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram;

    2012-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours, seminoma (SE) and non-seminoma (NS), of young adult men develop from a precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS), which resembles foetal gonocytes and retains embryonic pluripotency. We used microarrays to analyse microRNA (miRNA) expression in 12 human testis samples...... with CIS cells and compared it with miRNA expression profiles of normal adult testis, testis with Sertoli-cell-only that lacks germ cells, testis tumours (SE and embryonal carcinoma (EC), an undifferentiated component of NS) and foetal male and female gonads. Principal components analysis revealed...... that the miRNA expression profile changes during testis development and that the miRNA profile of adult testis with CIS cells shares characteristic similarities with the expression in foetal gonocytes....

  12. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Driesche, Sander; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A; Johnston, Zoe C; Chetty, Tarini; Smith, Lee B; McKinnell, Chris; Dean, Afshan; Homer, Natalie Z; Jorgensen, Anne; Camacho-Moll, Maria E; Sharpe, Richard M; Mitchell, Rod T

    2015-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons......, but effects on fetal testosterone production have not been demonstrated. We used a validated xenograft model to expose human fetal testes to clinically relevant doses and regimens of acetaminophen. Exposure to a therapeutic dose of acetaminophen for 7 days significantly reduced plasma testosterone (45......% reduction; P = 0.025) and seminal vesicle weight (a biomarker of androgen exposure; 18% reduction; P = 0.005) in castrate host mice bearing human fetal testis xenografts, whereas acetaminophen exposure for just 1 day did not alter either parameter. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations (at 1 hour after the...

  13. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase [LDHC4, LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27] has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC4 is as different from rodent LDHC4 (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA4 (76% homology) and porcine LDHB4 (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC4 and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC4 reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC4 sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine

  14. 5α—reductase type 2 gene expression in human testis,epididymis and vas deferens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuDY; WuYW

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression patterm of 5-α-reductase type 2 gene in human male reproductive organs.Methods:The expression level of 5α-reductase type 2 gene in human testis,epididymis and vas deferens tissues was determined by in situ hybridization using a digoxin-labeled 5α-reductase type 2 cRNA probe.Results:The brown granules of hybridizing signals distributed in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli and Leydig cells of the testis,the principle cells of epididymis and the epithelial cells of vas deferens,but there was no positive signal in the nuclei of these cellsNo positive signal was observed in the germ cells,basement of the testis, interstium of the epididymis and basement and the smooth muscle cells of vas deferens.conclusion:This study confirmed that the 5α-reductase type 2 gene expressed in the Sertoli and Leydig cells of the testis and the principle cells of the epididymis.The expression pattern of the gene in these cells in the human was similar to that in the rat and monkey.The presence of 5α-reductase type 2 gene in the epithelial cells of the vas deferens suggests that it may play a physiological role in human reproduction.

  15. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Steven F. T. Thijsen; Leontine van Elden; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children ...

  16. Evolutionary origin and human-specific expansion of a cancer/testis antigen gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are encoded by germline genes and are aberrantly expressed in a number of human cancers. Interestingly, CT antigens are frequently involved in gene families that are highly expressed in germ cells. Here, we presented an evolutionary analysis of the CTAGE (cutaneous T-cell-lymphoma-associated antigen) gene family to delineate its molecular history and functional significance during primate evolution. Comparisons among human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, macaque, marmoset, and other mammals show a rapid and primate specific expansion of CTAGE family, which starts with an ancestral retroposition in the haplorhini ancestor. Subsequent DNA-based duplications lead to the prosperity of single-exon CTAGE copies in catarrhines, especially in humans. Positive selection was identified on the single-exon copies in comparison with functional constraint on the multiexon copies. Further sequence analysis suggests that the newly derived CTAGE genes may obtain regulatory elements from long terminal repeats. Our result indicates the dynamic evolution of primate genomes, and the recent expansion of this CT antigen family in humans may confer advantageous phenotypic traits during early human evolution. PMID:24916032

  17. Osteocalcin regulates murine and human fertility through a pancreas-bone-testis axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oury, Franck; Ferron, Mathieu; Huizhen, Wang; Confavreux, Cyrille; Xu, Lin; Lacombe, Julie; Srinivas, Prashanth; Chamouni, Alexandre; Lugani, Francesca; Lejeune, Herve; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Plotton, Ingrid; Karsenty, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin promotes testosterone biosynthesis in the mouse testis by binding to GPRC6A in Leydig cells. Interestingly, Osteocalcin-deficient mice exhibit increased levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), a pituitary hormone that regulates sex steroid synthesis in the testes. These observations raise the question of whether LH regulates osteocalcin’s reproductive effects. Additionally, there is growing evidence that osteocalcin levels are a reliable marker of insulin secretion and sensitivity and circulating levels of testosterone in humans, but the endocrine function of osteocalcin is unclear. Using mouse models, we found that osteocalcin and LH act in 2 parallel pathways and that osteocalcin-stimulated testosterone synthesis is positively regulated by bone resorption and insulin signaling in osteoblasts. To determine the importance of osteocalcin in humans, we analyzed a cohort of patients with primary testicular failure and identified 2 individuals harboring the same heterozygous missense variant in one of the transmembrane domains of GPRC6A, which prevented the receptor from localizing to the cell membrane. This study uncovers the existence of a second endocrine axis that is necessary for optimal male fertility in the mouse and suggests that osteocalcin modulates reproductive function in humans. PMID:23728177

  18. THE EFFECT OF TRANSIENT AND PERSISTENT NEONATAL HYPOTHYROIDISM ON THE ADULT ALBINO RAT TESTIS (LIGHT ANDELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila M. Elshall

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim of work: thyroid hormone is known to play a critical role in the development and growth of the testis. So, this study was designed to compare between the effect of transient and persistent neonatal hypothyroidism on the testis of adult rats. Material and Methods: Thirty newborn rats (1 day old were classified equally into control group and two experimental groups. In experimental group I, the transient hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by giving their lactating mothers 0.05%, 6-propyl-2 thiouracil (PTU through drinking water for 30 days after birth then the treatment was withdrawal for 60 days. In experimental group II, the persistent hypothyroidism was induced by giving the neonates 0.05% PTU through their mother milk until weaning then directly through drinking water for 90 days after birth. After 90 days postpartum, all animals were anaesthetized and their testes were dissected out and processed for light and electron microscope examination. Results: In experimental group I, the testes of transient hypothyroid rats appeared with large seminiferous tubules (ST that the length of their diameters and the height of their lining epithelium were significantly increased as compared to those of control rats. They were lined by many Sertoli cells, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, early spermatides and late spermatids. The interstitial spaces contained some Leydig cells and few fluid. In experimental group II, the testes of persistent hypothyroid rats appeared with small ST that the length of their diameters and the height of their lining epithelium were significantly decreased as compared to those of control rats. They were lined by thin disorganized germinal epithelium containing many Sertoli cells and few germ cells. Many sloughed degenerating cells and large multinucleated giant cells were seen in the lumen of ST. The interstitial spaces contained many connective tissue cells, congested blood vessels

  19. Reduced body mass, food intake, and testis size in response to short photoperiod in adult F344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heideman Paul D

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although laboratory rats are often considered classic nonseasonal breeders, peripubertal rats of two inbred strains, F344 and BN, have both reproductive and nonreproductive responses to short photoperiods. Unmanipulated adult rats have not been reported to have robust responses to short photoperiod alone, although several treatments can induce photoperiodic responses in adults. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that unmanipulated F344 rats retain responses to short photoperiod as adults and that they have the necessary elements for an endogenous circannual rhythm of sensitivity to short photoperiod. Results Relative to rats kept in long photoperiods (L16:D8, adult F344 rats transferred at 4.5 months of age to short photoperiods (L8:D16 had significantly lower testis size, food intake, and body weight. In a second experiment, newly weaned F344 rats underwent an initial period of inhibition of reproductive maturation, lower food intake, and lower body weight in short photoperiod or intermediate photoperiod (L12:D12 relative to rats in long photoperiod. By 18 weeks of treatment, rats in the two inhibitory photoperiods no longer differed from long photoperiod controls. In short photoperiod, rats underwent a second period of slight reproductive inhibition between weeks 35 and 48, but there was an effect on body weight and slight inhibition of food intake only in an intermediate photoperiod. Conclusion Male F344 rats retain photoresponsiveness as adults, with less reproductive inhibition but equivalent nonreproductive responses. There was only weak evidence for an endogenous timer controlling a circannual cycle of sensitivity to short photoperiod.

  20. Expression Patterns of Cancer-Testis Antigens in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Cell Derivatives Indicate Lineage Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Gordeeva; Tatyana Yakovleva; Galina Poljanskaya; Tatyana Krylova; Anna Koltsova; Nadya Lifantseva

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into various lineages but undergo genetic and epigenetic changes during long-term cultivation and, therefore, require regular monitoring. The expression patterns of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) MAGE-A2, -A3, -A4, -A6, -A8, -B2, and GAGE were examined in undifferentiated human embryonic stem (hES) cells, their differentiated derivatives, teratocarcinoma (hEC) cells, and cancer cell lines of neuroectodermal and mesodermal origin. Undifferentiated hES ce...

  1. Plasmablastic lymphoma of the testis in a human immunodeficienecy virus patient - report of a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandyala Hariharanadha Sarma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular lymphoma is the second most common extra nodal lymphomas. It is a highly lethal disease with a median survival of 1-2 years. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients, primary testicular lymphomas are estimated to comprise > 6% of testicular tumors, and they tend to occur in younger patients. Testicular lymphoma can occasionally be the initial manifestation of the disease in HIV patients.Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL, which is considered as a variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a highly aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. PBL has a well-established association with HIV infection and occurs most commonly in the oral cavity. The presentation at extra nodal sites and absence of usual hematolymphoid markers makes its diagnosis more difficult. PBL of the testis as the primary lesion in HIV patients has not been reported so far. We report a case of PBL presenting as a primary testicular lesion in a HIV patient with a grave prognosis.

  2. In Utero Exposure to Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Decreases Mineralocorticoid Receptor Expression in the Adult Testis

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Arguelles, D B; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B. R.; Papadopoulos, V.

    2009-01-01

    In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been shown to result in decreased androgen formation by fetal and adult rat testes. In the fetus, decreased androgen is accompanied by the reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes. The mechanism by which in utero exposure results in reduced androgen formation in the adult, however, is unknown. We hypothesized that deregulation of the nuclear steroid receptors might explain the effects of in utero DEHP exposure on adult testosteron...

  3. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenneke E. M. Haas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination.

  4. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  5. Targeted expression of human FSH receptor Asp567Gly mutant mRNA in testis of transgenic mice: role of human FSH receptor promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VerenaNordhoff; JorgGromoll; LucaFoppiani; C.MarcLuetjens; StefanSchlatt; ElenaKostova; IlpoHuhtaniemi; EberhardNieschlag; ManuelaSimoni

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To specifically express the Asp567Gly human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) under the control of its promoter to evaluate the phenotypic consequences in the presence of normal pituitary function.Methods:We produced transgenic mice overexpressing the Asp567Gly human FSHR under the control of a 1.5kb 5’-flanking region fragment of its promoter.Results: Mice were phenotypically normal and fertile.In males,mRNA could be detected in the testis and the brain, indicating that the 1.5kb promoter fragment drives expression not only in the gonads. The testis weight/body weight ratio and the testosterone levels in transgenic and non-transgenic littermates were similar. By in situ hybridisation we found that the transgenic FSHR was highly expressed in Sertoli cells,spermatocytes and round spermatids. However, a radioligand receptor assay failed to show a significant difference in total FSHR binding sites in testis homogenates of transgenic and wild type animals, suggesting that the transgenic FSHR is probably not translated into functional receptor protein. Conclusion: A 1.5kb 5"-region of the human FSHR drives mRNA expression of the transgene in the testis but leads to ectopic expression in germ cells and in the brain. No phenotypic consequences could be documented due to the lack of protein expression.

  6. Human Fetal Testis Xenografts Are Resistant to Phthalate-Induced Endocrine Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Heger, Nicholas E; Hall, Susan J; Sandrof, Moses A; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Hensley, Janan B; McDowell, Erin N; Martin, Kayla A.; Gaido, Kevin W; Johnson, Kamin J.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may contribute to testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a proposed constellation of increasingly common male reproductive tract abnormalities (including hypospadias, cryptorchidism, hypospermatogenesis, and testicular cancer). Male rats exposed in utero to certain phthalate plasticizers exhibit multinucleated germ cell (MNG) induction and suppressed steroidogenic gene expression and testosterone production in the fetal testis, ca...

  7. Effect of Cucurbita pepo L. Fruit Pulp on Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M Mohsen pour; M. Shariati; Esfandiari, A

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: The Cucurbita pepo L. fruit pulp contains anti-oxidant, vitamins A, C and E, cucurbitacin, β-carotene and α-carotene, B complex vitamins, vitamin B6, pantetonic acid and contains minerals as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pumpkin fruits on spermatogenesis and testicular tissue changes in male rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on forty adult male Wistar rats in four groups of ten. The control group received no drug tre...

  8. Alterations of gene profiles in Leydig-cell-regenerating adult rat testis after ethane dimethane sulfonate-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fei Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Only occupying about 1%-5% of total testicular cells, the adult Leydig cell (ALC is a unique endocrine cell that produces androgens. Rat Leydig cells regenerate after these cells in the testis are eliminated with ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS. In this study, we have characterized Leydig cell regeneration and messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA profiles of EDS treated rat testes. Serum testosterone, testicular gene profiling and some steroidogenesis-related proteins were analyzed at 7, 21, 35 and 90 days after EDS treatment. Testicular testosterone levels declined to undetectable levels until 7 days after treatment and then started to recover. Seven days after treatment, 81 mRNAs were down-regulated greater than or equal to two-fold, with 48 becoming undetectable. These genes increased their expression 21 days and completely returned to normal levels 90 days after treatment. The undetectable genes include steroidogenic pathway proteins: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, Scarb1, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp2a1. Seven days after treatment, there were 89 mRNAs up-regulated two-fold or more including Pkib. These up-regulated mRNAs returned to normal 90 days after treatment. Cyp2a1 did not start to recover until 35 days after treatment, indicating that this gene is only expressed in ALCs not in the precursor cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and semi-quantitative immunohistochemical staining using tissue array confirmed the changes of several randomly picked genes and their proteins.

  9. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on human and mouse fetal testis: In vitro and in vivo approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to determine whether exposure to the mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) represents a genuine threat to male human reproductive function. To this aim, we investigated the effects on human male fetal germ cells of a 10−5 M exposure. This dose is slightly above the mean concentrations found in human fetal cord blood samples by biomonitoring studies. The in vitro experimental approach was further validated for phthalate toxicity assessment by comparing the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure in mouse testes. Human fetal testes were recovered during the first trimester (7–12 weeks) of gestation and cultured in the presence or not of 10−5 M MEHP for three days. Apoptosis was quantified by measuring the percentage of Caspase-3 positive germ cells. The concentration of phthalate reaching the fetal gonads was determined by radioactivity measurements, after incubations with 14C-MEHP. A 10−5 M exposure significantly increased the rate of apoptosis in human male fetal germ cells. The intratesticular MEHP concentration measured corresponded to the concentration added in vitro to the culture medium. Furthermore, a comparable effect on germ cell apoptosis in mouse fetal testes was induced both in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests that this 10−5 M exposure is sufficient to induce changes to the in vivo development of the human fetal male germ cells. -- Highlights: ► 10−5 M of MEHP impairs germ cell development in the human fetal testis. ► Organotypic culture is a suitable approach to investigate phthalate effects in human. ► MEHP is not metabolized in the human fetal testis. ► In mice, MEHP triggers similar effects both in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on human and mouse fetal testis: In vitro and in vivo approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muczynski, V. [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Development of the Gonads, Unit of Stem Cells and Radiation, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, LDRG, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); INSERM, Unité 967, F-92265, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Cravedi, J.P. [INRA, INP, Université de Toulouse, UMR1331 TOXALIM, F-31027, Toulouse (France); Lehraiki, A.; Levacher, C.; Moison, D.; Lecureuil, C.; Messiaen, S. [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Development of the Gonads, Unit of Stem Cells and Radiation, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, LDRG, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); INSERM, Unité 967, F-92265, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Perdu, E. [INRA, INP, Université de Toulouse, UMR1331 TOXALIM, F-31027, Toulouse (France); Frydman, R. [Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Hôpital A. Béclère, Université Paris Sud F-92141 Clamart (France); Habert, R. [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Development of the Gonads, Unit of Stem Cells and Radiation, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, LDRG, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); INSERM, Unité 967, F-92265, Fontenay aux Roses (France); and others

    2012-05-15

    The present study was conducted to determine whether exposure to the mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) represents a genuine threat to male human reproductive function. To this aim, we investigated the effects on human male fetal germ cells of a 10{sup −5} M exposure. This dose is slightly above the mean concentrations found in human fetal cord blood samples by biomonitoring studies. The in vitro experimental approach was further validated for phthalate toxicity assessment by comparing the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure in mouse testes. Human fetal testes were recovered during the first trimester (7–12 weeks) of gestation and cultured in the presence or not of 10{sup −5} M MEHP for three days. Apoptosis was quantified by measuring the percentage of Caspase-3 positive germ cells. The concentration of phthalate reaching the fetal gonads was determined by radioactivity measurements, after incubations with {sup 14}C-MEHP. A 10{sup −5} M exposure significantly increased the rate of apoptosis in human male fetal germ cells. The intratesticular MEHP concentration measured corresponded to the concentration added in vitro to the culture medium. Furthermore, a comparable effect on germ cell apoptosis in mouse fetal testes was induced both in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests that this 10{sup −5} M exposure is sufficient to induce changes to the in vivo development of the human fetal male germ cells. -- Highlights: ► 10{sup −5} M of MEHP impairs germ cell development in the human fetal testis. ► Organotypic culture is a suitable approach to investigate phthalate effects in human. ► MEHP is not metabolized in the human fetal testis. ► In mice, MEHP triggers similar effects both in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Microscopic morphology and testis morphometry of captivity-bred Adult bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the testicular morphometry of captivity-bred adult bullfrogs. Fifteen young adult male were studied, in the rainy season and a lengthy photoperiod. The GSI was established at 0.15%. The nuclear diameter of germinative and Leydig cells, the nucleolus diameter of Sertoli cells and the area of cysts and tubules were determined and the mean number of ISPC, IISPC and SPT per cyst and the mean number of cysts per tubule was estimated. The nucleoplasmatic proportion of the nucleus of the Leydig cell was 76.22%, indicating less cytoplasmic activity. Eight generations of spermatogonia were found. The spermatogenesis efficiency in meiosis and in mitosis was 63 and 49%, respectively. The spermatogenesis of bullfrog fited in the pattern of other captivity Anurans, with differences as the morphology of Sertoli and Leydig cells nuclei.A morfometria é uma importante ferramenta para a biologia estrutural, permitindo estudos estereológicos e análises quantitativas. Existem muitos pontos a serem esclarecidos sobre a morfometria testicular desta espécie, que objetivamos desvendar neste trabalho. Quinze machos adultos foram estudados, em período chuvoso e de fotoperíodo longo (dezembro, 2000. O IGS encontrado foi de 0.15%. O diâmetro nuclear das células germinativas e da célula de Leydig, o diâmetro nucleolar das células de Sertoli e a área dos cistos e túbulos foram determinados. O número médio de ISPC, IISPC e SPT por cisto e o número médio de cisto por túbulo foi estimado. A proporção nucleoplasmática do núcleo da célula de Leydig foi de 76.22%, indicando pouca atividade citoplasmática. Oito gerações de espermatogônia foram estimadas. A eficiência da espermatogênese na meiose e mitose foi de 63% e49%, respectivamente. A espermatogênese de rãtouro segue os padrões dos demais Anuros de cativeiro, apresentando diferenças nos núcleos das c��lulas de Sertoli e Leydig.

  12. Effect of Cucurbita pepo L. Fruit Pulp on Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohsen pour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The Cucurbita pepo L. fruit pulp contains anti-oxidant, vitamins A, C and E, cucurbitacin, β-carotene and α-carotene, B complex vitamins, vitamin B6, pantetonic acid and contains minerals as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pumpkin fruits on spermatogenesis and testicular tissue changes in male rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on forty adult male Wistar rats in four groups of ten. The control group received no drug treatment whereas the experimental groups were treated with 20, 40 and 80 percent of Cucurbita pepo L. fruit pulp orally for 28 days. At the end of the twenty-eighth day, the animals were operated and tissue sections were prepared after testes were removed. Histological changes between the experimental and control groups were examined by light microscopy. Using t-test, ANOVA and Tukey test data were analyzed. . Results: The consumption of pumpkin fruit at amounts of 40 and 80 percent increase in the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatids were (p <0.05. It also showed that at 80% increase in the concentration of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules was observed. Conclusion: The results indicated that the pumpkin fruits containing ingredients such as cucurbitacin, pantothenic acid, vitamins and minerals that can increase testosterone level and improve the process of spermatogenesis.

  13. Thymoquinone supplementation ameliorates lead-induced testis function impairment in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Aymen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2016-06-01

    This study was realized to investigate the possible beneficial effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active component of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against lead (Pb)-induced inhibition of rat testicular functions. Adult rats were randomized into four groups: a control group receiving no treatment; a Pb group exposed to 2000 parts per million (ppm) of Pb acetate in drinking water; a Pb-TQ group co-treated with Pb (as in Pb group) plus TQ (5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day, per orally (p.o.)); and a TQ group receiving TQ (5 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.). All treatments were for 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed for the body weight gain or for relative testes weight among the four groups of animals. Testicular Pb content significantly increased in metal-intoxicated rats compared with that in control rats. TQ supplementation had no effect on this testicular Pb accumulation. Interestingly, when coadministrated with Pb, TQ significantly improved the low plasma testosterone level and the decreased epididymal sperm count caused by Pb. In conclusion, the results suggest, for the first time, that TQ protects against Pb-induced impairment of testicular steroidogenic and spermatogenic functions. This study will open new perspectives for the clinical use of TQ in Pb intoxication. PMID:25216800

  14. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in normal germ cells and carcinoma in situ of the human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Müller, J

    1990-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ of the testis may appear many years prior to the development of an invasive tumour. Using point-sampled intercepts, base-line data concerning unbiased stereological estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vV) were obtained in 50 retrospective serial...... testicular biopsies from 10 patients with carcinoma in situ. All but two patients eventually developed an invasive growth. Testicular biopsies from 10 normal adult individuals and five prepubertal boys were included as controls. Nuclear vV in testicular carcinoma in situ was significantly larger than that of...... in carcinoma in situ with or without co-existing invasion, and no characteristic pattern of nuclear vV was disclosed by following the lesion in serial biopsies over time from individual patients. Estimation of nuclear vV may represent an adjuvant tool in morphologically puzzling cases of testicular...

  15. Undescended testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Trinchet Soler

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Undescended testis constitute one of the most common congenital anomalies in newborn; it affects more than 3% of the children were born at the end of the gestation, and until 33% of premature infants. Surgical treatment reduces the risk of torsion, facilitates the exploration of the testicle, improves the endocrine function of the same one, make a scrotum with normal appearance and it is based on the theory that the early intervention prevents the secondary degeneration of the testicles caused by the high temperatures to those that it is subjected outside of the bag escrotal. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Undescended testis, approved by consensus in the 4th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Las Tunas, Cuba; March 2005.

  16. Histological evaluation of the human testis--approaches to optimizing the clinical value of the assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLachlan, R I; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Hoei-Hansen, C E; de Kretser, D M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2007-01-01

    Testicular biopsy is a crucial assessment in reproductive practice with diagnostic and prognostic importance for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and risk of testicular neoplasia. Endocrine and genetic tests cannot reliably distinguish obstructive azoospermia (OA) from non-obstructive az......Testicular biopsy is a crucial assessment in reproductive practice with diagnostic and prognostic importance for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and risk of testicular neoplasia. Endocrine and genetic tests cannot reliably distinguish obstructive azoospermia (OA) from non......-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) or predict recovery of mature spermatids by testicular sperm extraction (TESE). Currently, divergent histological reporting systems and the use of imprecise terminology seriously degrade the value of the literature on TESE recovery rates and hamper evaluation of treatments and research on...... genotype-phenotype relationships. The rising incidence of testis cancer and carcinoma in situ (CIS), especially in infertile populations, requires that every effort be made for its early detection. We provide a systematic approach to the histological classification of spermatogenic disorders and detection...

  17. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Singh Mahla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Water buffalo is an economically important livestock species and about half of its total world population exists in India. Development of stem cell technology in buffalo can find application in targeted genetic modification of this species. Testis has emerged as a source of pluripotent stem cells in mice and human; however, not much information is available in buffalo. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Pou5f1 (Oct 3/4 is a transcription factor expressed by pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, in the present study, expression of POU5F1 transcript and protein was examined in testes of both young and adult buffaloes by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Further, using the testis transplantation assay, a functional assay for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, stem cell potential of gonocytes/spermatogonia isolated from prepubertal buffalo testis was also determined. RESULTS: Expression of POU5F1 transcript and protein was detected in prepubertal and adult buffalo testes. Western blot analysis revealed that the POU5F1 protein in the buffalo testis exists in two isoforms; large (∼47 kDa and small (∼21 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that POU5F1 expression in prepubertal buffalo testis was present in gonocytes/spermatogonia and absent from somatic cells. In the adult testis, POU5F1 expression was present primarily in post-meiotic germ cells such as round spermatids, weakly in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and absent from elongated spermatids. POU5F1 protein expression was seen both in cytoplasm and nuclei of the stained germ cells. Stem cell potential of prepubertal buffalo gonocytes/spermatogonia was confirmed by the presence of colonized DBA-stained cells in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings strongly indicate that gonocytes/spermatogonia, isolated for prepubertal buffalo testis can

  18. Comparative Effects of Di(n-Butyl) Phthalate Exposure on Fetal Germ Cell Development in the Rat and in Human Fetal Testis Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, Chris; Calarrão, Ana; Kennedy, Laura; Hutchison, Gary R.; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Jobling, Matthew S.; Macpherson, Sheila; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.; Mitchell, Rod T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phthalate exposure induces germ cell effects in the fetal rat testis. Although experimental models have shown that the human fetal testis is insensitive to the steroidogenic effects of phthalates, the effects on germ cells have been less explored. Objectives We sought to identify the effects of phthalate exposure on human fetal germ cells in a dynamic model and to establish whether the rat is an appropriate model for investigating such effects. Methods We used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine Sertoli and germ cell markers on rat testes and human fetal testis xenografts after exposure to vehicle or di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP). Our study included analysis of germ cell differentiation markers, proliferation markers, and cell adhesion proteins. Results In both rat and human fetal testes, DBP exposure induced similar germ cell effects, namely, germ cell loss (predominantly undifferentiated), induction of multinucleated gonocytes (MNGs), and aggregation of differentiated germ cells, although the latter occurred rarely in the human testes. The mechanism for germ cell aggregation and MNG induction appears to be loss of Sertoli cell–germ cell membrane adhesion, probably due to Sertoli cell microfilament redistribution. Conclusions Our findings provide the first comparison of DBP effects on germ cell number, differentiation, and aggregation in human testis xenografts and in vivo in rats. We observed comparable effects on germ cells in both species, but the effects in the human were muted compared with those in the rat. Nevertheless, phthalate effects on germ cells have potential implications for the next generation, which merits further study. Our results indicate that the rat is a human-relevant model in which to explore the mechanisms for germ cell effects. Citation van den Driesche S, McKinnell C, Calarrão A, Kennedy L, Hutchison GR, Hrabalkova L, Jobling MS, Macpherson S, Anderson RA

  19. Adult Type Granulosa Cell Tumor: A Very Rare Case of Sex-Cord Tumor of the Testis with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimosthenis Miliaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumor (GST is a sex-cord/stromal neoplasm of the gonads, more commonly arising in the ovaries, while approximately 80 cases have been reported in the testes. Out of these, 30 cases were of the adult type, while the remainder 50 cases were of the juvenile type. The latter mostly concerned infants and followed a benign course. However, the adult type testicular GCTs may be potentially malignant as it also happens in female patients with such neoplasms. We present a case of an adult type GCT located at the left testis. The patient was subjected to total orchiectomy and received no further treatment. Histology showed typical GCT histomorphology with Call-Exner bodies in some places. The immunoprofile of the tumor was CD99 (+, calretinin (+, inhibin (+, alpha smooth muscle actin (+, vimentin (+, ER (−, PR (−, keratin AE1/AE3 (−, alpha fetoprotein (−, CD117 (−, and placental alkaline phosphatase (−. Two years after surgery, the patient is alive and well with no signs of recurrence.

  20. Identity of M2A (D2-40) antigen and gp36 (Aggrus, T1A-2, podoplanin) in human developing testis, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ-cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Herlihy, Amy S; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E;

    2006-01-01

    , human gp36, T1A-2), a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in lymphatic endothelium and various solid tumours. To examine a potential role for PDPN in testicular neoplasms and during testicular development, we investigated its expression pattern during the development of human testis and in a series of...... function in developing testis, most likely at the level of cell-cell interactions among pre-meiotic germ cells and immature Sertoli cells....

  1. The effects on steroidogenesis and histopathology of adult male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) testis following pre-pubertal exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Umar M; Madekurozwa, Mary-Catherine; Groenewald, Herman B; Aire, Tom A; Arukwe, Augustine

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effects of 30-day dietary (pre-pubertal) exposure to different doses (0 (control), 1, 10, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight/day) of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) on Leydig cells of adult male Japanese quails by quantifying the transcript levels for P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc), P450c17 (CYP17), and 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd) using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, the plasma testosterone levels were analysed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and testis was examined for evidence of gross pathology and histopathology. Our data showed that pre-pubertal exposure to DBP produced alterations in testicular architecture as evident by poorly developed or mis-shaped testis, and altered spermatogenesis due to tubular degeneration and atrophy of seminiferous tubules especially in the high DBP dose (200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups. In addition, DBP altered several key enzymes involved in testicular steroidogenesis pathways in an apparent dose-dependent manner. For example, biphasic effects of DBP were observed for P450scc and 3β-hsd mRNA, that were generally increasing at low dose 10 mg/kg, and thereafter, an apparent dose-dependent decrease between 50 and 400mg/kg. The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein was at the lowest detectable limits and therefore not quantifiable. These effects did not parallel the non-significant changes observed for plasma testosterone levels. The present data is consistent with previous reports showing that DBP modulates Leydig cell steroidogenesis in several species, with a potential negative effect on reproduction in those avian species that are vulnerable to endocrine disrupting chemicals. PMID:24983780

  2. Development and descent of the testis in relation to cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Cortes, Dina; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Ritzén, E Martin; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma

    2007-01-01

    The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown and th...... aetiology is possibly multifactorial. Histological changes in cryptorchid testes demonstrate disturbed development. Conclusion: Since testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones, cryptorchidism may reflect a functional defect of the testis....

  3. Analysis of SOX2 expression in developing human testis and germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Perrett, Rebecca M.; Nielsen, John Erik;

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional regulators of pluripotency, POU5F1 (OCT4), NANOG and SOX2, are highly expressed in embryonal carcinoma (EC). In contrast to OCT4 and NANOG, SOX2 has not been demonstrated in the early human germ cell lineage or carcinoma in situ (CIS), the precursor for testicular germ cell...

  4. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable. PMID:23612449

  5. Primary bilateral plasmablastic lymphoma of the testis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Kumari Badyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related lymphomas are predominantly aggressive B-cells lymphomas. The most prevalent of the HIV-related lymphomas are diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, which includes primary central nervous system lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma, whereas primary effusion lymphoma, plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL, and classic Hodgkin lymphoma are far less frequent. Of these, PBL is relatively uncommon and displays a distinct predilection for presentation in the oral cavity. In this manuscript, we report a primary testicular form of PBL in 44 year-old Border Security HIV positive patient who presented with bilateral testicular swelling of 1-year duration. On cytopathological and subsequent histopathological examination, the diagnosis of bilateral plasmablastic NHL was made. Extensive systemic work-up failed to reveal any disease outside the testes. Immune suppression rather than HIV itself is implicated in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Herein, we report a case of PBL as AIDS-related malignancy presenting in testes and its correlation with CD4+ count.

  6. The impact of long-term exposure to space environment on adult mammalian organisms: a study on mouse thyroid and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Masini

    Full Text Available Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis.In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10(-7M and 10(-8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains.In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3β- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1β were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3β and 17β steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 β expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. -90% vs. laboratory and ground controls, indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules.Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis

  7. Effect of Pistacia Vera Oil on Pituitary Gonad Axis and Histological Testis Changes in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    f Porhemmat; M Shariati; L Sepehrara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Pistachio oil contains the chemical compounds such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids can inhibit 5-α- reductase enzyme and unsaturated fatty acids increase cholesterol levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of pistachio oil on adult male rats’ reproductive status. Methods: In the present experimental study, 40 male Wistar rat were divided into five groups of eight. The control group received ...

  8. Abnormally rotated undescended testis arrested in the deep inguinal ring of an adult: A case report with histological study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma RK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normally testis is developed in the abdomen and descends in to the designated scrotal sac at the time of birth or within one or two years after birth. Several factors are associated with proper descent of the testis. Failure to descend, may lead to undescended testis or cryptorchidism. In the present case, we found an undescended testis partly in the inguinal canal and partly in the abdomen in a 71-year-old male cadaver. The epididymis descended first and its major portion was outside the superficial inguinal ring. The rest of the flattened epididymis was found inside the canal attached to the upper tapered pole of the testis and the vas deferens was found arising from this portion. The testicular vessels traversing through the deep inguinal ring then entered the postero-lateral portion of the tapered portion of the testis within the canal. No torsion and necrotic changes were observed in the undescended testis. Histological examination revealed a normal pattern in the epididymis which was outside the canal and a primitive duct system in the part of the epididymis within the canal. However, the entire testis showed only non-canalized smaller seminiferous tubules with very few cellular components and large inter-tubular spaces. The most common problems associated with such undescended testes are altered fertility, testicular cancer, inguinal hernia and testicular torsion with necrosis. Therefore, identifying the condition, evaluating the associated syndromes, proper diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are very important to prevent the adverse consequences mentioned above. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 662-668

  9. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of gene expression levels in cells and tissues typically depends on a suitable point of reference for inferring biological relevance. For quantitative (or real-time) RT-PCR assays, the method of choice is often to normalize gene expression data to an endogenous gene that is stably...... recommend that such studies should be accompanied by additional assessment of histology and cellularity of each sample....

  10. D-type cyclins in adult human testis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E;

    1999-01-01

    D-type cyclins are proto-oncogenic components of the 'RB pathway', a G1/S regulatory mechanism centred around the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor (pRB) implicated in key cellular decisions that control cell proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, quiescence, and differentiation. This study focused on...

  11. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis dm3 All antigens Adult Testis SRX017854,SRX017856,SRX017857...,SRX390503,SRX390501,SRX390502 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX017856,SRX0...17854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis dm3 All antigens Adult Testis SRX017857,SRX017854,SRX017856...,SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX390503 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis dm3 All antigens Adult Testis SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX390503...,SRX017856,SRX017854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX017856,SRX0...17854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX017854,SRX017856,SRX390501,SRX3...90502 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX017854,SRX017856,SRX390502,SRX3...90501 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis dm3 All antigens Adult Testis SRX017857,SRX390502,SRX390501...,SRX017856,SRX390503,SRX017854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  19. Carcinoma in situ in the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Andersson, L;

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the testis is a common precursor of germ-cell tumours in adults and adolescents, with the exception of spermatocytic seminoma. This article reviews existing knowledge on the pathobiology, genetic aspects and epidemiology of CIS, discusses current hypotheses concerning...

  20. Comparison between human fetal and adult skin

    OpenAIRE

    Coolen, N.A.; Schouten, K.C.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2009-01-01

    Healing of early-gestation fetal wounds results in scarless healing. Since the capacity for regeneration is probably inherent to the fetal skin itself, knowledge of the fetal skin composition may contribute to the understanding of fetal wound healing. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profiles of different epidermal and dermal components in the human fetal and adult skin. In the human fetal skin (ranging from 13 to 22 weeks’ gestation) and adult skin biopsies, the expression...

  1. Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Enriched Human Spermatogonia after Short- and Long-Term Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Conrad, S.; Azizi, H.; Hatami, M.; Kubista, Mikael; Bonin, M.; Hennenlotter, J.; Renninger, M.; Skutella, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 138350 (2014). ISSN 2314-6133 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : ADULT HUMAN TESTIS * GERM-CELL DEVELOPMENT * HUMAN EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.579, year: 2014

  2. Building the mammalian testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Koopman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Development of testes in the mammalian embryo requires the formation and assembly of several cell types that allow these organs to achieve their roles in male reproduction and endocrine regulation. Testis development is unusual in that several cell types such as Sertoli, Leydig, and spermatogonial...... the architecture of the testis unfolds and highlights the questions that remain to be explored, thus providing a roadmap for future studies that may help illuminate the causes of XY disorders of sex development, infertility, and testicular cancers....

  3. Enhancement of mouse germ cell-associated genes expression by injection of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into the testis of chemical-induced azoospermic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Feng Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various methods are currently under investigation to preserve fertility in males treated with high-dose chemotherapy and radiation for malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs, which possess potent immunosuppressive function and secrete various cytokines and growth factors, have the potential clinical applications. As a potential alternative, we investigate whether injection of HUC-MSCs into the interstitial compartment of the testes to promote spermatogenic regeneration efficiently. HUC-MSCs were isolated from different sources of umbilical cords and injected into the interstitial space of one testis from 10 busulfan-treated mice (saline and HEK293 cells injections were performed in a separate set of mice and the other testis remained uninjected. Three weeks after MSCs injection, Relative quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the expression of 10 of germ cell associated, which are all related to meiosis, demonstrated higher levels of spermatogenic gene expression (2-8 fold in HUC-MSCs injected testes compared to the contralateral uninjected testes (five mice. Protein levels for germ cell-specific genes, miwi, vasa and synaptonemal complex protein (Scp3 were also higher in MSC-treated testes compared to injected controls 3 weeks after treatment. However, no different expression was detected in saline water and HEK293 cells injection control group. We have demonstrated HUC-MSCs could affect mouse germ cell-specific genes expression. The results also provide a possibility that the transplanted HUC-MSCs may promote the recovery of spermatogenesis. This study provides further evidence for preclinical therapeutic effects of HUC-MSCs, and explores a new approach to the treatment of azoospermia.

  4. Serological identification of Tektin5 as a cancer/testis antigen and its immunogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of new cancer antigens is necessary for the efficient diagnosis and immunotherapy. A variety of tumor antigens have been identified by several methodologies. Among those antigens, cancer/testis (CT) antigens have became promising targets. The serological identification of antigens by the recombinant expression cloning (SEREX) methodology has been successfully used for the identification of cancer/testis (CT) antigens. We performed the SEREX analysis of colon cancer. We isolated a total of 60 positive cDNA clones comprising 38 different genes. They included 2 genes with testis-specific expression profiles in the UniGene database, such as TEKT5 and a CT-like gene, A kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of TEKT5 was restricted to the testis in normal adult tissues. In malignant tissues, TEKT5 was aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers, including colon cancer. A serological survey of 101 cancer patients with different cancers by ELISA revealed antibodies to TEKT5 in 13 patients, including colon cancer. None of the 16 healthy donor serum samples were reactive in the same test. We identified candidate new CT antigen of colon cancer, TEKT5. The findings indicate that TEKT5 is immunogenic in humans, and suggest its potential use as diagnostic as well as an immunotherapeutic reagent for cancer patients

  5. Regulatory and junctional proteins of the blood-testis barrier in human Sertoli cells are modified by monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and bisphenol A (BPA) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, André Teves Aquino Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Mariana Antunes; Pinho, Cristiane Figueiredo; Peixoto, André Rebelo; Domeniconi, Raquel Fantin; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2016-08-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is responsible for providing a protected environment and coordinating the spermatogenesis. Endocrine disruptors (EDs) might lead to infertility, interfering in the BTB structure and modulation. This study aimed to correlate the actions of two EDs, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in different periods of exposure, in a low toxicity dose to the human Sertoli cells (HSeC) and its effects on the proteins of the BTB and regulatory proteins involved in its modulation. HSeC cells were exposed to MBP (10μM) and BPA (20μM) for 6 and 48h. Western Blot assay indicated that MBP was able to reduce the expression of occludin, ZO-1, N-cadherin and Androgen Receptor (AR), while BPA leads to a reduction of occludin, ZO-1, β-catenin and AR. TGF-β2 and F-actin were not modified. Phalloidin and Hematoxylin and Eosin assay revealed phenotically disruption in Sertoli cells adhesion, without changes in F-actin expression or localization. Our data suggested both EDs present potential for disrupting the structure and maintenance of the human BTB by AR dependent pathway. PMID:26922907

  6. Normal and varicocele testis in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Santoro; C. Romeo

    2001-01-01

    The authors reviewed the results of their research on the structure and composition of normal and varicocele seminiferous tubules in adolescents. They give new evidences of normal structure of adolescent testis and demonstrate, for the first time, the ultrastructural and immunohistochemical modifications of the lamina propria and basal lamina in the adolescent varicocele patients, which are similar to those observed in adults, but less severe, and of the adherence junctions in seminiferous tubules. They also report the presence of oxidative stress in adolescents limited to testis and not generalised as in the adults. These data are well correlated to different clinical studies that support the hypothesis of a progressive course of varicocele and the need for surgical treatment in adolescent varicocele patients.

  7. Identification and complete sequencing of novel human transcripts through the use of mouse orthologs and testis cDNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Elisa N; Pires, Lilian C; Parmigiani, Raphael B;

    2004-01-01

    The correct identification of all human genes, and their derived transcripts, has not yet been achieved, and it remains one of the major aims of the worldwide genomics community. Computational programs suggest the existence of 30,000 to 40,000 human genes. However, definitive gene identification ...

  8. The increased number of Leydig cells by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate comes from the differentiation of stem cells into Leydig cell lineage in the adult rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► DEHP increases rat Leydig cell number. ► DEHP induces the proliferation of stem Leydig cells. ► DEHP induces the formation of progenitor Leydig cells. - Abstract: The objective of the present study is to determine whether di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure at adulthood increases rat Leydig cell number and to investigate the possible mechanism. 90-day-old Long–Evans rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, and were gavaged with the corn oil (control) or 10 or 750 mg/kg DEHP daily for 7 days, and then received an intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) to eliminate Leydig cells. Serum testosterone concentrations were assessed by RIA, and the mRNA levels of Leydig cell genes were measured by qPCR. EDS eliminated all Leydig cells in the control testis on day 4 post-EDS, as judged by undetectable serum testosterone level and no 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase positive (3β-HSDpos) cells in the interstitium. However, in DEHP-treated groups, there were detectable serum testosterone concentrations and some oval-shaped 3β-HSDpos cells in the interstitium. These 3β-HSDpos cells were not stained by the antibody against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), a marker for Leydig cells at a more advanced stage. The disappearance of mRNAs of Leydig cell biomarkers including Lhcgr, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Insl3 and Hsd11b1 in the control testis was observed on day 4 post-EDS. However, there were detectable concentrations of Lhcgr, Cyp11a1 and Cyp17a1 mRNAs but undetectable concentrations of Insl3, Hsd17b3 and Hsd11b1 in the DEHP-treated testes, indicating that these 3β-HSDpos cells were newly formed progenitor Leydig cells. The mRNA level for nestin (Nes, biomarker for stem Leydig cells) was significantly increased in the control testis on day 4 post-EDS, but not in the DEHP treated testes, suggesting that these nestin positive stem cells were differentiated into progenitor Leydig cells in the DEHP-treated testes

  9. Circadian rhythm of lactate dehydrogenase in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermouth, N T; Ponce, R H; Carriazo, C S; Blanco, A

    1984-01-01

    Activity of total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and of the isozyme X (LDH X or C4) have been determined at 2 hr intervals during 24 hr cycles in testis of adult rats maintained since birth in a photoperiod of 14 hr light: 10 hr dark. LDH X activity of epididymal sections (caput, corpus and cauda) from the same animals was also determined. Total LDH and LDH X activities in testis exhibited circadian rhythms with different timing. LDH X in the three portions of epididymis showed diurnal variations similar to those in testis. Rats subjected to constant light or constant dark presented marked modifications of LDH X profiles, indicating that the photoperiod plays a synchronizer role. While total soluble proteins did not show variations in testis of rats exposed to the photoperiod, a circadian rhythm was demonstrated in animals maintained in constant light or dark. PMID:6467917

  10. Cloning and identification of a novel RNF6 transcrip tional splice variant Spg2 in human development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li; TONG GuoQin; CHEN Jie; WANG Yun; WANG SaiQun; ZHAO MuZhi; LI JianMin; MA JianHua

    2008-01-01

    RING finger proteins are zinc finger proteins containing the RING motifs. They act mainly as E3 ubiquitin ,gases, bind the ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme and promote degradation of targeted proteins,Many novel genes have been isolated and differentially expressed in human adult and embryo testis by a testis cDNA-array differential display technique. A novel RING finger cDNA is highly expressed in adult testis and at low level in fetal testis. It was named Spg2. It contains a 2055 nucleotide ORF, encodes a 685-amino-acid RNF6 protein, and has a RING finger in its C terminal. NCBI Blast shows that the gene is located on chromosome 13 and contains five exons. A multiple tissue expression profile also indicates that it is highly expressed in human testis, so we speculate that it may be associated with human spermatogenesis by virtue of the action of its RING domain.

  11. Cloning and identification of a novel RNF6 transcrip-tional splice variant Spg2 in human development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    RING finger proteins are zinc finger proteins containing the RING motifs. They act mainly as E3 ubiq-uitin ligases, bind the ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme and promote degradation of targeted proteins, Many novel genes have been isolated and differentially expressed in human adult and embryo testis by a testis cDNA-array differential display technique. A novel RING finger cDNA is highly expressed in adult testis and at low level in fetal testis. It was named Spg2. It contains a 2055 nucleotide ORF, en-codes a 685-amino-acid RNF6 protein, and has a RING finger in its C terminal. NCBI Blast shows that the gene is located on chromosome 13 and contains five exons. A multiple tissue expression profile also indicates that it is highly expressed in human testis, so we speculate that it may be associated with human spermatogenesis by virtue of the action of its RING domain.

  12. Timing in the Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Eric L

    2016-02-01

    The testis provides not just one but several models of temporal organization. The complexity of its rhythmic function arises in part from its compartmentalization and diversity of cell types: not only does the testis produce gametes, but it also serves as the major source of circulating androgens. Within the seminiferous tubules, the germ cells divide and differentiate while in intimate contact with Sertoli cells. The tubule is highly periodic: a spermatogenic wave travels along its length to determine the timing of the commitment of spermatogonia to differentiate, the phases of meiotic division, and the rate of differentiation of the postmeiotic germ cells. Recent evidence indicates that oscillations of retinoic acid play a major role in determining periodicity of the seminiferous epithelium. In the interstitial space, Leydig cells produce the steroid hormones required both for the completion of spermatogenesis and the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics throughout the body. This endocrine output also oscillates; although the pulse generator lies outside the gonad, the steroidogenic function of Leydig cells is tuned to a regular episodic input. While the oscillations of the intratubular and interstitial cells have multihour (ultradian) and multiday (infradian) periodicities, respectively, the functions of both compartments also display dramatic seasonal rhythms. Furthermore, circadian rhythms are evident in some of the cell types, although their amplitude and pervasiveness are not as great as in many other tissues of the same organism, and their detection may require methods that recognize the heterogeneity of the testis. This review examines the periodicity of testicular function along multiple time scales. PMID:26656623

  13. Producing Recombinant mTEX101; a Murine Testis Specific Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Barzegar Yarmohammadi, Leila; Modarresi, Mohammad Hossein; Talebi, Saeed; Hadavi, Reza; Ostad Karampour, Mahyar; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad mehdi; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Production of antibodies against specific proteins of testis germ cells is of great significance for the investigation of processes involved in spermatogenesis, study of infertility problems and determination of the probable role of these proteins as cancer-testis antigens. Murine Testis Specific Recombinant Protein 101 (mTEX101) is a 38kDa, GPI-anchored protein which is expressed in testis germ cells of adult mice but it seems to be absent in other tissues. The structure and fun...

  14. Testis size and spermatogenesis of tsessebes from Nylsvley Nature Reserve, Transvaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Penzhorn

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Testis mass of adult tsessebes (mean 45,3 g and relative testis size (0,56 were consistent with the Class D social organisation of tsessebes. In singleale breeding systems, testes are relatively small. Spermatogenesis reached a peak in January, prior to the onset of the mating season.

  15. Radiation sensitivity of adult human parenchymal hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the radiosensitivity and repair kinetics of adult human parenchymal hepatocytes. Discarded viable human liver was obtained from the surgical pathology laboratory, and the cells were enzymatically isolated via a modification of the 2-step in situ collagenase perfusion technique used for the rat. The isolated hepatocytes were cultured with MEM media (10% FCS) in collagen coated 60 mm plates. Three hr after the cells were placed in culture, the media was changed to remove any dead unattached hepatocytes. After 24hr the viable hepatocytes were removed from the plates with collagenase and irradiated (40C, 21% O/sub 2/) with /sup 60/Co (1 Gy/min). The alkaline elution technique was used to quantify the single strand breaks (SSB). A linear dose response curve was obtained when the strand scission factor was plotted versus radiation dose and the slopes for the rat (4 cases) and human hepatocytes (6 cases) were 0.0302 and 0.0221 Gy/sup -1/, respectively. Thus, human hepatocytes are approximately 25% more radioresistant than those from the rat; this correlates with the GSH levels in the human hepatocytes (15 mM) being 20% greater than that in rat hepatocytes (12 mM). In contrast, the kinetics of repair of SSB in human hepatocytes was t/sub 1/2 fast/ = 20 min. t/sub 1/2 slow/ = 267 min) approximately 3 times slower than that in rat hepatocytes (t/sub 1/2 fast/ = 6 min, t/sub 1/2 slow/ = 98 min) and after 3 hr of repair the percent of the initial damage remaining was 20% and 15%, respectively. These date imply that in comparison to rat hepatocytes, human hepatocytes would be more radioresistant to large single doses, but equal if not more sensitive to fractionated radiation treatment

  16. UNDESCENDED TESTIS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarta Lesmana Handrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Undescended testis (UDT or cryptorchidism is one of the commonest abnormalities in male infants. In this anomaly, testes are not located normally in the scrotum. The incidence of UDT is 4-5% of term male infants, and 20-33% of premature male infants. The occurrence of abnormalities of hormones control or anatomy process that is required in the normal process of lowering the testes can cause UDT. UDT can be differentiated into palpable and nonpalpable. The diagnosis of UDT can be known through physical examination. However, if the testes are impalpable, laparoscopy can be done to determine the position of the testis. Hormonal therapy to overcome UDT is still under controversy. The action that often done is surgery, called orchidopexy. The most serious complication of orchidopexy is testicular atrophy. It occurs in a small percentage, which is about 5-10%. Infertility may occur in 1 to 3 of 4 adult males and the risk of occurrence of malignancies is increased by as much as 5-10 times higher in men with a history of UDT. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. Cell pattern in adult human corneal endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Wörner

    Full Text Available A review of the current data on the cell density of normal adult human endothelial cells was carried out in order to establish some common parameters appearing in the different considered populations. From the analysis of cell growth patterns, it is inferred that the cell aging rate is similar for each of the different considered populations. Also, the morphology, the cell distribution and the tendency to hexagonallity are studied. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that this phenomenon is analogous with cell behavior in other structures such as dry foams and grains in polycrystalline materials. Therefore, its driving force may be controlled by the surface tension and the mobility of the boundaries.

  18. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Nygaard, Marie; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbæk, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog signalling, including Smoothened, Patched-1, and GLI2, which are involved in regulating Leydig cell differentiation. Stimulation of Hedgehog signalling increases the localization of Smoothened to the cilium, which is followed by transactivation of the Hedgehog target genes, Gli1 and Ptch1. Our...... findings provide new information on the spatiotemporal formation of primary cilia in the testis and show that primary cilia in immature Leydig cells mediate Hedgehog signalling....

  19. Conserved and divergent patterns of expression of DAZL, VASA and OCT4 in the germ cells of the human fetal ovary and testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutts Shona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cells arise from a small group of cells that express markers of pluripotency including OCT4. In humans formation of gonadal compartments (cords in testis, nests in ovary takes place during the 1st trimester (6–8 weeks gestation. In the 2nd trimester germ cells can enter meiotic prophase in females whereas in males this does not occur until puberty. We have used qRTPCR, Westerns and immunohistochemical profiling to determine which of the germ cell subtypes in the human fetal gonads express OCT4, DAZL and VASA, as these have been shown to play an essential role in germ cell maturation in mice. Results OCT4 mRNA and protein were detected in extracts from both 1st and 2nd trimester ovaries and testes. In ovarian extracts a marked increase in expression of VASA and DAZL mRNA and protein occurred in the 2nd trimester. In testicular extracts VASA mRNA and protein were low/undetectable in 1st trimester and increased in the 2nd trimester whereas the total amount of DAZL did not seem to change. During the 1st trimester, germ cells were OCT4 positive but did not express VASA. These results are in contrast to the situation in mice where expression of Vasa is initiated in Oct4 positive primordial germ cells as they enter the gonadal ridge. In the 2nd trimester germ cells with intense cytoplasmic staining for VASA were present in both sexes; these cells were OCT4 negative. DAZL expression overlapped with both OCT4 and VASA and changed from the nuclear to the cytoplasmic compartment as cells became OCT4-negative. In males, OCT4-positive and VASA-positive subpopulations of germ cells coexisted within the same seminiferous cords but in the ovary there was a distinct spatial distribution of cells with OCT4 expressed by smaller, peripherally located, germ cells whereas DAZL and VASA were immunolocalised to larger (more mature centrally located cells. Conclusion OCT4, DAZL and VASA are expressed by human fetal germ cells but their

  20. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  1. Human Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis? Novelty Is the Best Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Macklis, Jeffrey Daniel

    2012-01-01

    There is ongoing controversy as to whether the understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis gained from rodent studies is applicable to humans. In this issue of Neuron, Bergmann et al. (2012) propose that adult human olfactory bulb neurogenesis with long-term neuronal survival is extremely limited.

  2. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  3. Adult Human Neurogenesis: from Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmandaSierra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of gene-rating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases.

  4. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  5. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  6. Dopaminerge Differenzierung adulter humaner hippocampaler Stammzellen

    OpenAIRE

    Türk, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele: Nachdem seit der ersten Hälfte des letzten Jahrhunderts durch mehrere Experimente adulte Neurogenese schließlich nachgewiesen und somit Cajals Dogma widerlegt werden konnte, erlebten die Neurowissenschaften durch die Möglichkeit zur Isolation adulter neuraler Stammzellen ein exponentielles Wachstum. Gleichzeitig mit der basiswissenschaftlichen Aufarbeitung der adulten Neurogenese sowohl im Tier, als auch im Menschen, kam die Idee der therapeutischen Verwendung dieser, v...

  7. Perineal Ectopic Testis: A Rare Congenital Anomally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Cicek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Perineal ectopic testis is a rare congenital anomally. The incidence of perineal ectopic testis is less than 1% in all undescended testis. Patient usually applied to urology with empty scrotum and testicular agenesia. The main treatment is surgical and hormonal therapy is not indicated in these patients. We report an eleven years old patient with right perineal ectopic testis that was underwent scrotal orchidopexy [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 138-141

  8. Metastatic Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis: Clinical Presentation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs of the testis are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are present in both juvenile and adult subtypes. While most adult GCTs are benign, those that present with distant metastases manifest a grave prognosis. Treatments for aggressive GCTs are not well established. Options that have been employed in previous cases include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a painless left testicular mass and painful gynecomastia. Serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen were negative. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with a testicular GCT. He underwent a left-template laparoscopic RPLND which revealed 2/19 positive lymph nodes. Final pathological stage was IIA. He remains free of disease 32 months after surgery.

  9. Bacteriology of moderate (chronic) periodontitis in mature adult humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1983-01-01

    A total of 171 taxa was represented among 1,900 bacterial isolates from 60 samples of sites affected with moderate periodontitis in 22 mature adult humans. The composition of the subgingival sulcus flora was statistically significantly different from that of the adjacent supragingival flora and the subgingival flora of 14 people with healthy gingiva, but was not significantly different from that of sulci affected with severe periodontitis in 21 young human adults. The sulcus floras of moderat...

  10. Editorial: Technology for higher education, adult learning and human performance

    OpenAIRE

    Minhong Wang; Chi-Cheng Chang; Feng Wu

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to technology-enabled approaches for improving higher education, adult learning, and human performance. Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals, institutions, and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages. It becomes crucial to help adult learners and knowledge workers to improve their self-directed and life-long learning capabilities. Meanwhile, advances in t...

  11. Ontogenesis and cell specific localization of Fas ligand expression in the rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrizio, Piera; Baldini, Enke; Russo, Paola F; Biordi, Leda; Graziano, Filomena M; Rucci, Nadia; Properzi, Giuliana; Francavilla, Sandro; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2004-10-01

    Over the past few years, a number of experimental evidences suggested the involvement of Fas Ligand (FasL) expressing Sertoli cells to induce apoptosis of Fas bearing germ cells. However, the FasL expression during testicular development and its cell specific localization within the testis is still a matter of debate. In the present study, we have monitored FasL expression during rat testis development by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and evaluated cell specific localization of FasL expression, by in situ RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, on adult rat testis. RT-PCR analysis, performed on total RNA from rat testes obtained from 1 day up to 1-year-old animals, demonstrated the presence of FasL transcripts at all developmental stages examined. In situ RT-PCR analysis clearly indicated the presence of FasL mRNA in Sertoli cells of adult testis, while we could never detect FasL transcripts in germ cells. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed a strong immunostaining for FasL in Sertoli cells of adult testis and again, no immunopositivity was observed in germ cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that FasL expression in rat testis is present from the early postnatal days up to the adult, and the Sertoli cells is the main FasL expressing cell within the seminiferous tubule. PMID:15379972

  12. Ontogenesis of testicular function in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GaĂŤlle Angenard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of the testis, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, take place during fetal life. These two functions have been extensively studied in rodents and adult humans. However, their onset during fetal life is poorly documented in humans. In the first part of this work we presented both our experimental data and some data of literature concerning the development of the human fetal testis. In the second part of this article, using the organ culture system we previously developed, we have investigated the regulations or perturbations of fetal testis development both in rodent and human models. Our findings provide important insight into the potential role of exposure to environmental pollutants (physical factors, in particular ionizing radiation, cadmium and endocrine disruptors such as phthalates during fetal testicular development and their potential deleterious effects on male fertility in adulthood. Our results highlight the specificity of the human model compared with rodent models.

  13. Embryonal Carcinoma in Cryptorchid Abdominal Testis of an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atia Zaka-ur-Rab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptorchidism is a known predisposing factor for the development of testicular tumors in adults. Age of patient at the time of treatment of undescended testes has some bearing on the risk of neoplasia. Testicular neoplasia at the time of primary surgery for cryptorchidism has been reported rarely in prepubertal period. We report a case where embryonal carcinoma was detected in a cryptorchid testis of an infant.

  14. 0610009K11Rik, a testis-specific and germ cell nuclear receptor-interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an in silico approach, a putative nuclear receptor-interacting protein 0610009K11Rik was identified in mouse testis. We named this gene testis-specific nuclear receptor-interacting protein-1 (Tnrip-1). Tnrip-1 was predominantly expressed in the testis of adult mouse tissues. Expression of Tnrip-1 in the testis was regulated during postnatal development, with robust expression in 14-day-old or older testes. In situ hybridization analyses showed that Tnrip-1 is highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids. Consistent with its mRNA expression, Tnrip-1 protein was detected in adult mouse testes. Immunohistochemical studies showed that Tnrip-1 is a nuclear protein and mainly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that endogenous Tnrip-1 protein can interact with germ cell nuclear receptor (GCNF) in adult mouse testes. Our results suggest that Tnrip-1 is a testis-specific and GCNF-interacting protein which may be involved in the modulation of GCNF-mediated gene transcription in spermatogenic cells within the testis

  15. Expression of the cystic fibrosis gene in adult human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, J F; Zepeda, M; Cohn, J.A.; Yankaskas, J R; Wilson, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Critical to an understanding of the pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the development of effective gene therapies is a definition of the distribution and regulation of CF gene expression in adult human lung. Previous studies have detected the product of the CF gene, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), in submucosal glands of human bronchi. In this report, we have characterized the distribution of CFTR RNA and protein in the distal airway and alveoli of human lungs. ...

  16. Review on Adult Neurogenesis in Humans and Other Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfamichael Berhe

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of adult neurogenesis has recently indicated significant progress.The objective of this paper is to review the basic concepts, new findings and clinical implications of neurogenesis making emphasis on the significance, especially in humans. Although scientists still debate the extent and purpose of neurogenesis in the adult brain, research has identified certain areas of the brain where it is most evident. These areas include the hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and olfacto...

  17. A testis-specific gene, TPTE, encodes a putative transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase and maps to the pericentromeric region of human chromosomes 21 and 13, and to chromosomes 15, 22, and Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Rossier, C; Morris, M A; Scott, H S; Gos, A; Bairoch, A; Antonarakis, S E

    1999-11-01

    To contribute to the creation of a transcription map of human chromosome 21 (HC21) and to the identification of genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome, exon trapping was performed from HC21-specific cosmids covering the entire chromosome. More than 700 exons have been identified to date. One such exon, hmc01a06, maps to YAC 831B6 which contains marker D21Z1 (alphoid repeats) and had previously been localized to the pericentromeric region of HC21. Northern-blot analysis revealed a 2.5-kb mRNA species strongly and exclusively expressed in the testis. We cloned the corresponding full-length cDNA, which encodes a predicted polypeptide of 551 amino acids with at least two potential transmembrane domains and a tyrosine phosphatase motif. The cDNA has sequence homology to chicken tensin, bovine auxilin and rat cyclin-G associated kinase (GAK). The entire polypeptide sequence also has significant homology to tumor suppressor PTEN/MMAC1 protein. We termed this novel gene/protein TPTE (transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology). Polymerase chain reaction amplification, fluorescent in situ hybridization, Southern-blot and sequence analysis using monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids showed that this gene has highly homologous copies on HC13, 15, 22, and Y, in addition to its HC21 copy or copies. The estimated minimum number of copies of the TPTE gene in the haploid human genome is 7 in male and 6 in female. Zoo-blot analysis showed that TPTE is conserved between humans and other species. The biological function of the TPTE gene is presently unknown; however, its expression pattern, sequence homologies, and the presence of a potential tyrosine phosphatase domain suggest that it may be involved in signal transduction pathways of the endocrine or spermatogenetic function of the testis. It is also unknown whether all copies of TPTE are functional or whether some are pseudogenes. TPTE is, to our knowledge, the gene located closest to the human

  18. A Case of Testis Sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Young; Bae, Hun; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Kil Sun; Song, Hyung Keun [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    Sparganosis of the testis is extremely rare and there have been no prior reports of this disorder in Korea. We describe the sonographic findings of a 60-year-old man who presented with multiple palpable nodules in the left scrotum and inguinal area, which he had experienced for the past 1 year, and which was confirmed to be sparganosis. Sonography showed multiple, variable sized, round or tubular shaped, hypoechoic lesions with partial posterior acoustic enhancement in the left inguinal area and multiple echogenic nodules with peripheral low echoic rim in the left testis. These nodules were linearly arranged and interconnected, in the form of a serpentine tubular lesion. Surgery and pathologic examination confirmed the presence of live sparganum surrounded by a chronic granulomatous inflammation

  19. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  20. The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walpole Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. Regarding human populations, although considerable attention is given to estimating the number of people, much less is given to estimating average mass, despite evidence that average body mass is increasing. We estimate global human biomass, its distribution by region and the proportion of biomass due to overweight and obesity. Methods For each country we used data on body mass index (BMI and height distribution to estimate average adult body mass. We calculated total biomass as the product of population size and average body mass. We estimated the percentage of the population that is overweight (BMI > 25 and obese (BMI > 30 and the biomass due to overweight and obesity. Results In 2005, global adult human biomass was approximately 287 million tonnes, of which 15 million tonnes were due to overweight (BMI > 25, a mass equivalent to that of 242 million people of average body mass (5% of global human biomass. Biomass due to obesity was 3.5 million tonnes, the mass equivalent of 56 million people of average body mass (1.2% of human biomass. North America has 6% of the world population but 34% of biomass due to obesity. Asia has 61% of the world population but 13% of biomass due to obesity. One tonne of human biomass corresponds to approximately 12 adults in North America and 17 adults in Asia. If all countries had the BMI distribution of the USA, the increase in human biomass of 58 million tonnes would be equivalent in mass to an extra 935 million people of average body mass, and have energy requirements equivalent to that of 473 million adults. Conclusions Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food energy demands as an extra half a billion people living on the earth.

  1. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  2. Testis expressed 19 is a novel cancer-testis antigen expressed in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianhua; Chen, Yan; Liao, Xinhui; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Han; Wu, Chenglong; Zou, Xiaowen; Yang, Gang; Shi, Jing; Luo, Liya; Liu, Litao; Deng, Jianping; Tang, Aifa

    2016-06-01

    Bladder cancer exhibits high mortality as a result of limited therapeutic options and a high recurrence rate. Accordingly, novel treatments such as immunotherapy have emerged as promising therapeutic modalities to prolong overall patient survival and effect a disease cure, which has renewed enthusiasm for the identification of tumor-specific target antigens. Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are recognized as ideal targets for immunotherapy because of their expression features and high immunogenicity profiles. Here, we investigate the expression pattern of a novel CT antigen, testis-expressed 19 (TEX19), in patients with bladder carcinoma and among multiple human tissues. Six bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UM-UC-3, J82, 5637, SW780, and RT4) were also analyzed for TEX19 expression. Our results reveal that TEX19 expression in normal tissue is restricted to human testis. In addition, TEX19 mRNA expression was detected in 60 % (24/40) bladder cancer samples, whereas 58.20 % (110/189) were positive for TEXT19 protein expression. Compared to low-grade tumors, TEX19 exhibited increased expression in high-grade tumors, from 53.69 to 77.14 %, respectively (P = 0.011). TEX19 was also expressed in all six bladder cancer cell lines. Together, our findings suggest that TEX19 represents a novel CT gene and might play a role in the progression of bladder cancer and that this gene therefore provides a potential target for immunotherapy treatment strategies against bladder cancer. PMID:26695143

  3. Two adult human voxel phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models used in radiation protection, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images, became very popular in recent years. Although being a true to nature representation of the scanned individual the scanning is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the anatomy of a person in upright standing position, which in turn can influence absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study proposes a method for human phantom design using tools recently developed in the areas of computer graphics and animated films and applies them to the creation and modeling of artificial 3D human organs and tissues. Two models, a male and a female adult human phantom have been developed based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time the anatomical specifications published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult. The phantoms are called FAXAA (Female Adult voXelAverage-Average) and MAXAA (Male Adult voXelAverage-Average) because they represent female and male adults with average weight and average height. (author)

  4. Asymptomatic torsion of intra-abdominal testis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Amin El-Gohary

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular torsion, of eight years old boy who presented with asymptomatic left impalpable testis. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a twisted small intra-abdominal testis in which the spermatic cord twisted 3 times over a band attached to the internal ring. The cord was long enough to bring the small testis into the scrotal sac. This case highlights the pole of laparoscopy in the management of impalpable testes.

  5. The immune privilege of testis and gravid uterus: same difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arck, Petra; Solano, María Emilia; Walecki, Magdalena; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2014-01-25

    The fetus in the gravid uterus and the developing spermatogenic cells in the adult testis both comprise special challenges for the host immune system. Protection of the neoantigens of the fetus and male germ cells from immune attack, defined as immune privilege, is fundamental for the propagation of species. Immune privilege is not simply the absence of leukocytes, but involves immune and non-immune cells acting synergistically together at multiple levels to create a unique tolerogenic environment. A number of the pathways are shared by the testis and gravid uterus. Amongst them steroid hormones, namely testosterone in the male and progesterone in the female, seem to function as key molecules that govern the local production of immunoregulatory factors which finally control the overall immune environment. PMID:24076096

  6. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawrylycz, M.J.; Beckmann, C.F.; et al., et al.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising

  7. Supernumerary testis: Imaging appearance of a rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Jakhere, Sandeep G.; Saifi, Shenaz A.; Ranwaka, Abhinav A.

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary testis is a rare congenital anomaly of the testis arising from abnormal division in the genital ridge during the embryogenesis of testis. We describe a case of polyorchidism detected incidentally in a 52-year-old with renal failure.

  8. Telocytes of the human adult trigeminal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Cretoiu, Dragos; Vrapciu, Alexandra Diana; Hostiuc, Sorin; Dermengiu, Dan; Manoiu, Vasile Sorin; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria; Mirancea, Nicolae

    2016-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are typically defined as cells with telopodes by their ultrastructural features. Their presence was reported in various organs, however little is known about their presence in human trigeminal ganglion. To address this issue, samples of trigeminal ganglia were tested by immunocytochemistry for CD34 and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that TCs are CD34 positive and form networks within the ganglion in close vicinity to microvessels and nerve fibers around the neuronal-glial units (NGUs). TEM examination confirmed the existence of spindle-shaped and bipolar TCs with one or two telopodes measuring between 15 to 53 μm. We propose that TCs are cells with stemness capacity which might contribute in regeneration and repair processes by: modulation of the stem cell activity or by acting as progenitors of other cells present in the normal tissue. In addition, further studies are needed to establish if they might influence the neuronal circuits. PMID:27147447

  9. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M S; Gundgaard, M.G.; Daugaard, G

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ testis (CIS) is known as the precursor of germ cell cancer of the testis. International guidelines on diagnosis and treatment are inconsistent. Some countries offer routine biopsies of the contralateral testicle in relation to orchidectomy for testicular cancer, whereas other...

  10. 骨桥蛋白在人睾丸及精子上的表达和意义%Expression of osteopontin in human testis and sperm and its potential role in male reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 谢青贞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression of osteopontin (OPN) in human testis and sperm,and evaluate its effect on sperm motility and viability.Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the OPN expression in testis,and cyto-immunofluorescent staining for sperm.Semen samples collected from 10 healthy fertile men by masturbation were separated with Earle's upper swimming method.After incubation with different concentrations (0,0.01,0.10,1.00 mg/L) of OPN antibody,the sperm motility and viability were observed under microscope at 1 and 2 h.Results (1) In the testis,OPN was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of spermatogonium and Sertoli cells,weak expression was also detected in spermatocyte and round spermatid,whereas no positive activation was observed in elongating spermatid;(2) On ejaculated sperm,OPN was localized in the acrosome of head and midpiece of flagellum,as well as the postacrosomal region on the head occasionally ; (3) After treatment of OPN antibody,progressive motility (percentage of a ± b sperms) of sperm treated by 0.01,0.10 and 1.00 mg/L OPN antibody was significantly slower than in control group (P <0.01).High concentration (1.0 mg/L) of OPN antibody obviously inhibited the sperm viability at 2 h (P < 0.05).Besides,no significant difference in sperm viability was obseved (P > 0.05).Conclusion OPN expression in human testis and ejaculate sperm is widespread and specific,and in vitro experiment demonstrated OPN has a positive effect on sperm motility and viability,suggesting OPN is very likely involved in the process of spermatogenesis and sperm function.%目的 检测骨桥蛋白(OPN)在健康成年男性睾丸及精子上的表达,观察其对精子活动能力及存活率的影响.方法 以正常生育能力男性为试验对象.用免疫组织化学方法检测OPN在睾丸组织中的表达.免疫细胞荧光技术检测OPN在其射出精子上的表达.以不同浓度(0、0.01、0.10、1.00 mg/L)的OPN抗体处理精子,孵育1

  11. Heterochromatin marks HP1γ, HP1α and H3K9me3, and DNA damage response activation in human testis development and germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Moudry, P; Hodny, Z;

    2011-01-01

    germ cells vs. somatic tissues in early tumourigenesis. Conceptually interesting findings were that subsets of human cells in vivo proliferate despite enhanced heterochromatinization, and that cells can strongly express even multiple heterochromatin features in the absence of functional retinoblastoma...

  12. Editorial: Technology for higher education, adult learning and human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhong Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to technology-enabled approaches for improving higher education, adult learning, and human performance. Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals, institutions, and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages. It becomes crucial to help adult learners and knowledge workers to improve their self-directed and life-long learning capabilities. Meanwhile, advances in technology have been increasingly enabling and facilitating learning and knowledge-related initiatives.. They have largely extended learning opportunities through the provision of resource-rich and learner-centered environment, computer-based learning support, and expanded social interactions and networks. Papers in this special issue are representative of ongoing research on integration of technology with learning for innovation and sustainable development in higher education institutions and organizational and community environments.

  13. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Møller; Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito; Corin Badiu

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passag...

  14. Impact of electronic-cigarette refill liquid on rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Golli, N; Rahali, D; Jrad-Lamine, A; Dallagi, Y; Jallouli, M; Bdiri, Y; Ba, N; Lebret, M; Rosa, J P; El May, M; El Fazaa, S

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming the fashionable alternative to decrease tobacco smoking, although their impact on health has not been fully assessed yet. The present study was designed to compare the impact of e-cigarette refill liquid (e-liquid) without nicotine to e-liquid with nicotine on rat testis. For this purpose, e-liquid with nicotine and e-liquid without nicotine (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to adult male Wistar rats via the intraperitoneally route during four weeks. Results showed that e-liquid with or without nicotine leads to diminished sperm density and viability, such as a decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity and testosterone level. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis identified a reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450 scc) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) mRNA level, two key enzymes of steroidogenesis. Following e-liquid exposure, histopathological examination showed alterations in testis tissue marked by germ cells desquamation, disorganization of the tubular contents of testis and cell deposits in seminiferous tubules. Finally, analysis of oxidative stress status pointed an outbreak of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione-S-transferase, as well as an important increase in sulfhydril group content. Taken together, these results indicate that e-liquid per se induces toxicity in Wistar rat testis, similar to e-liquid with nicotine, by disrupting oxidative balance and steroidogenesis. PMID:27098213

  15. [Endocrine tumors of the testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, V; Linke, J

    2003-07-01

    The most characteristic endocrine tumours of the testis are germ cell tumours and sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours. They include the primary carcinoid, the relation of which to teratomas is still unclear. In general, gonadal stromal tumours are rare, however, endocrine activity occurs in at least 10%-20%. Among gonadal stromal tumours, only Leydig cell tumours and Sertoli cell tumours are of practical importance. Endocrine disorders are mostly related to Leydig cell tumours (gynaecomastia, pubertas praecox). Although less frequent than the other gonadal stromal tumours, they can, in principle, occur. The large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour occurs in association with other complex disorders (i.e. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome). Valuable markers are: inhibin, calretinin, cytokeratin, melan-A, CD-99, Ki-67, androgen receptor and p53. As the conventional morphology and immunohistological markers frequently overlap, unclear cases should be referred to specialised centres. PMID:14513279

  16. Identification of human candidate genes for male infertility by digital differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE). PMID:11134355

  17. METABOLOMIC EVALUATION OF RAT LIVER AND TESTIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for...

  18. EFFECT OF MULTIGLYCOSIDES OF TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDH (GTW) ON RAT TESTIS, HEART, LIVER AND KIDNEY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULan-Fang; LEIHai-Peng

    1989-01-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were given GTW orally at 50 rag/kg or 20 mg / kg for 4 or 5 weeks. Control animals were given the vehicle only. ARer treatment, testis, heart, liver and kidney were removed and examined. The scminiferous tubules of the treated

  19. In vitro proliferation of adult human beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    Full Text Available A decrease in functional beta-cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 analogues induce proliferation of rodent beta-cells. However, the proliferative capacity of human beta-cells and its modulation by GLP-1 analogues remain to be fully investigated. We therefore sought to quantify adult human beta-cell proliferation in vitro and whether this is affected by the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide.Human islets from 7 adult cadaveric organ donors were dispersed into single cells. Beta-cells were purified by FACS. Non-sorted cells and the beta-cell enriched ("beta-cells" population were plated on extracellular matrix from rat (804G and human bladder carcinoma cells (HTB9 or bovine corneal endothelial ECM (BCEC. Cells were maintained in culture+/-liraglutide for 4 days in the presence of BrdU.Rare human beta-cell proliferation could be observed either in the purified beta-cell population (0.051±0.020%; 22 beta-cells proliferating out of 84'283 beta-cells counted or in the non-sorted cell population (0.055±0.011%; 104 proliferating beta-cells out of 232'826 beta-cells counted, independently of the matrix or the culture conditions. Liraglutide increased human beta-cell proliferation on BCEC in the non-sorted cell population (0.082±0.034% proliferating beta-cells vs. 0.017±0.008% in control, p<0.05.These results indicate that adult human beta-cell proliferation can occur in vitro but remains an extremely rare event with these donors and particular culture conditions. Liraglutide increases beta-cell proliferation only in the non-sorted cell population and only on BCEC. However, it cannot be excluded that human beta-cells may proliferate to a greater extent in situ in response to natural stimuli.

  20. Expression of a novel beta adaptin subunit mRNA splice variant in human testes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Dong Zhang; Lan-Lan Yin; Ying Zheng; Li Lu; Zuo-Min Zhou; Jia-Hao Sha

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To identify a novel isoform of adaptin 2 beta subunit (named Ap2β-NY) and to investigate its relationship with testicular development and spermatogenesis. Methods: Using a human testis cDNA microarray, a clone (Ap2β-NY),which was strongly expressed in adult testes but weakly expressed in embryo testes, was sequenced and analyzed.Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the tissue distribution and expression time pattern of Ap2β-NY were determined.Results: Ap2β-NY was identified and has been deposited in the GenBank (AY341427). The expression level of Ap2β-NY in the adult testis was about 3-fold higher than that in the embryo testis. PCR analysis using multi-tissue cDNA indicated that Ap2β-NY was highly expressed in the testis, spleen, thymus, prostate, ovary, blood leukocyte and brain, but not in the heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. In addition, Ap2β-NY was variably expressed in the testes of patients with spermatogenesis-disturbance and spermatogenesis-arrest but not expressed in those of Sertoli-cell-only syndrome, which implied that, in the testis, Ap2β-NY was restrictively expressed in germ cells. Conclusion: Ap2β-NY is an isoform of Ap2β and may be involved in regulating the process of spermatogenesis and testis development.

  1. Proteolytic processing of anti-Müllerian hormone differs between human fetal testes and adult ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn; Petersen, TS; Jeppesen, JV;

    2015-01-01

    From early embryonic life, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is produced by Sertoli cells and is essential for male sex differentiation. In females, AMH is produced by immature granulosa cells (GCs) but a definitive function in females is uncertain. We have assessed the cellular localization...... and specificity of a panel of five novel high-affinity AMH monoclonal antibodies. Two recognize the mature C-terminal form of AMH, whereas three recognize the active pro-mature form of AMH in human tissue. The antibodies were tested on fetal male testicular and mesonephric tissue aged 8-19 weeks post conception...... (pc), fetal male serum aged 16-26 weeks pc and human immature GCs by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and western blotting. The active pro-mature forms of AMH were expressed in both Sertoli cells from human fetal testis and human immature GCs. In contrast, the mature C-terminal form...

  2. The adult boar testicular and epididymal transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyonnet Benoît

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalians gamete production takes place in the testis but when they exit this organ, although spermatozoa have acquired a specialized and distinct morphology, they are immotile and infertile. It is only after their travel in the epididymis that sperm gain their motility and fertility. Epididymis is a crescent shaped organ adjacent to the testis that can be divided in three gross morphological regions, head (caput, body (corpus and tail (cauda. It contains a long and unique convoluted tubule connected to the testis via the efferent ducts and finished by joining the vas deferens in its caudal part. Results In this study, the testis, the efferent ducts (vas efferens, VE, nine distinct successive epididymal segments and the deferent duct (vas deferens, VD of four adult boars of known fertility were isolated and their mRNA extracted. The gene expression of each of these samples was analyzed using a pig generic 9 K nylon microarray (AGENAE program; GEO accession number: GPL3729 spotted with 8931 clones derived from normalized cDNA banks from different pig tissues including testis and epididymis. Differentially expressed transcripts were obtained with moderated t-tests and F-tests and two data clustering algorithms based either on partitioning around medoid (top down PAM or hierarchical clustering (bottom up HCL were combined for class discovery and gene expression analysis. Tissue clustering defined seven transcriptomic units: testis, vas efferens and five epididymal transcriptomic units. Meanwhile transcripts formed only four clusters related to the tissues. We have then used a specific statistical method to sort out genes specifically over-expressed (markers in testis, VE or in each of the five transcriptomic units of the epididymis (including VD. The specific regional expression of some of these genes was further validated by PCR and Q-PCR. We also searched for specific pathways and functions using available gene ontology

  3. First Evidence of DAAM1 Localization During the Post-Natal Development of Rat Testis and in Mammalian Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariante, Paolo; Dotolo, Raffaele; Venditti, Massimo; Ferrara, Diana; Donizetti, Aldo; Aniello, Francesco; Minucci, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1) is a formin-family protein involved in nucleation of unbranched actin filaments and in cytoskeletal organization through Wnt-Dishevelled PCP pathway, which participates in essential biological processes, such as cell polarity, movement, and adhesion during morphogenesis and organogenesis. While its role has been investigated during development and in somatic cells, its potential association with the germinal compartment and reproduction is still unexplored. In this work, we assessed the possible association of DAAM1 with the morphogenesis of rat testis. We studied its expression and profiled its localization versus actin and tubulin, during the first wave of spermatogenesis and in the adult gonad (from 7 to 60 dpp). We show that, in mitotic phases, DAAM1 shares its localization with actin in Sertoli cells, gonocytes, and spermatogonia. Later, during meiosis, both proteins are found in spermatocytes, while only actin is detectable at the forming blood-testis barrier. DAAM1, then, follows the development of the acrosome system throughout spermiogenesis, and it is finally retained inside the cytoplasmic droplet in mature gametes, as corroborated by additional immunolocalization data on both rat and human sperm. Unlike the DAAM1, actin keeps its localization in Sertoli cells, and tubulin is associated with their protruding cytoplasm during the process. Our data support, for the first time, the hypothesis of a role for DAAM1 in cytoskeletal organization during Mammalian testis morphogenesis and gamete progression, while also hinting at its possible investigation as a morphological marker of germ cell and sperm physiology. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2172-2184, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26831620

  4. Of Mice and Men (and Rats): Phthalate-Induced Fetal Testis Endocrine Disruption Is Species-Dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kamin J.; Heger, Nicholas E; Boekelheide, Kim

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years, reproductive toxicologists have explored the physiological outcomes and mechanism of fetal phthalate exposure to determine the risk posed to human male reproductive health. This review examines the fetal male reproductive system response to phthalate exposure across species including rat, mouse, and human, with emphasis on the testis. In the rat, in utero phthalate exposure causes male reproductive tract malformations, in large part, by targeting the testis and inhibiting f...

  5. TORSION TESTIS : ROLE OF COLOR DOPPLER : A STUDY OF 50 CASES

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    Anand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T orsion testis is one of the catast r ophic conditions in children and young a d u lts. Traditionally the diagnosis was made clinical presentation and suspicion. Critical decision making is essential to save the testis . OBJECTIVE: To study the usefu lness and efficacy of Doppler ultrasound in correctly diagnosing acute scrotal conditions in children and young adults to save the testis and to avoid negative explorations. METHODS: Over a period of two years 50 patients with acute scrotum were admitted i n general surgery department who underwent Doppler ultrasound scrotum and its efficacy in correctly diagnosing the pathology was analysed. RESULTS: 50 patients with age group <25 years were included in study. Scrotal pain was the most frequent presenting s ymptom of acute scrotum (98% followed by Swelling of the hemiscrolum on the involved side present in 86% of the patients. Doppler ultrasound showed torsion of testis in 18 patients. On Scrotal exploration, torsion of spermatic cord was confirmed in 16 pat ients, one patient had torsion of appendix of testis and the other had Epididymo - orchitis. Thus the sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for testicular torsion was 86.9% and 92.6% respectively. 2 patients with equivocal Doppler findings, but strong clinical suspicion of testicular torsion were explored, and testis was found to be torsed in both two patients. Doppler ultrasonography showed Epididymo - orchitis in 22 patients, torsion of testicular appendage in 2 patients, Idiopathic scrotal edema in one, and in 5 pts no significant pathology found. All twenty patients of epididymo - orchitis, two patients of torsion of testicular appendage, and one patient of idiopathic scrotal edema were managed conservatively. At three weeks follow up, all th e patients were free of symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for epididymo - orchitis was 95% and 100% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: color

  6. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  7. Testis-sparing surgery in the benign testicular tumors in boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Testicular neoplasm in boys are rare. In despite of the adult testicular, neoplasm in children non-seminoma germ cell tumors are seen much more frequent, also in 30-70% of cases benign lesions exist and those tumors do not require chemo- and radiotherapy. Recently there is a great enthusiasm for testis sparing surgery. Objectives. Authors would like to present six boys with testicular mass operated with testis sparing surgery for benign tumors. Material and Methods. Between 1995 and 2004 in Department of Pediatric Surgery and Urology 33 boys were operated because of testicular malignances. In six cases in age from 1 to 17 years after histological (interoperation) confirmation of the benign origin of the tumor testis sparing surgery were performed. Results. In all six operated boys follow up is from 2 to 5 year and all are free from disease's symptoms. Ultrasound view of the operated testes are normal. (authors)

  8. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja;

    2016-01-01

    . Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone......The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter of...... debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts...

  9. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  10. Blockade of P-selectin reduces neutrophil infiltration into the ischemia-reperfusion induced murine testis

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    Celebi M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell apoptosis after ischemia-reperfusion (IR of the testis is dependent on neutrophil recruitment to the testis. Intravascular adhesion molecules like the P- and E- selectins play an important role in this recruitment. The purpose of this study was to inhibit neutrophil recruitment to the IR- induced testis by using a function-blocking monoclonal anti-mouse P-selectin antibody. Adult mice were subjected to a 2 h period of testicular torsion (ischemia followed by detorsion (reperfusion. Ten minutes after the onset of reperfusion mice received either the function-blocking monoclonal P-selectin antibody (FBMAB group or the isotype-matched control antibody (IMCA group. Separate groups of mice underwent a sham operation (SO group or received 500 ng of TNFα (IF group to induce inflammation. Mice were sacrificed 24 hr after reperfusion and testiscular interstitial cells were isolated and analyzed for the presence of neutrophils by means of flow cytometry. The function-blocking monoclonal P-selectin antibody reduced neutrophil recruitment to the IR-induced testis significantly. Therefore, blocking P-selectin may be therapeutically beneficial to protect postischemic testis.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of testis during sexual maturation stages in Eriocheir sinensis using Illumina sequencing.

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    Lin He

    Full Text Available The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.

  12. Rapid evolution of mammalian X-linked testis microRNAs

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    Zhou Zuomin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs, which are small, non-coding RNAs approximately 21-nucleotides in length, have become a major focus of research in molecular biology. Mammalian miRNAs are proposed to regulate approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes. Previous studies have focused on highly conserved miRNAs, but nonconserved miRNAs represent a potentially important source of novel functionalities during evolution. Results An analysis of the chromosome distribution of miRNAs showed higher densities of miRNAs on the X chromosome compared to the average densities on autosomes in all eight mammalian species analyzed. The distribution pattern did not, however, apply well to species beyond mammals. In addition, by comparing orthologous human and mouse miRNAs, we found that X-linked miRNAs had higher substitution rates than autosomal miRNAs. Since the highest proportion of X-linked miRNAs were found in mouse testis, we tested the hypothesis that testis miRNAs are evolving faster on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Mature X-linked testis miRNAs had an average substitution rate between mouse and human that was almost 25-fold higher than mature testis miRNAs on autosomes. In contrast, for mature miRNAs with precursors not expressed in testis, no significant difference in the substitution rate between the X chromosome and autosomes was found. Among mammals, the rapid evolution of X-linked testis miRNAs was also observed in rodents and primates. Conclusion The rapid evolution of X-linked testis miRNAs implies possible important male reproductive functions and may contribute to speciation in mammals.

  13. An attempt to distinguish a modified genetic response of the mouse testis to X-ray exposure by the action of a spermatogonial chalone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an experiment designed to distinguish whether the action of a spermatogonial chalone in the mouse testis could modify the genetic response of a depleted stem spermatogonial population to X-radiation are reported. The results are consistent with the view that the stem cell population of the depleted adult testis a few days after damage closely approximates that of the early post-natal or immature animal, do not provide any indication that the testis extract in any way influence the response of the depleted testis to the 500-rad challenging dose. The yield of genetic damage was almost identical to that in the two control groups and the sterile period and testis weight data provided little reason to suspect that the amount of spermatogonial killing was altered. (Auth.)

  14. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

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    Morten Møller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  15. Human behavioral momentum in a sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J; Plaud, D M; von Duvillard, S P

    1999-04-01

    Behavioral momentum, the persistence of behavior under altered environmental contingencies, is derived from Newtonian physics and operant psychology. It has relevance to behavior analysis in terms of shaping strong behaviors and ensuring effective relapse prevention strategies in behavior modification and therapy. The authors investigated whether changing the operant schedule contingencies affects the responses of older humans to different stimuli when reinforcement density is systematically manipulated. Fifteen older adults participated in a computer study in which each of 2 keys in a baseline condition was associated with the same schedule of reinforcement and multiple variable intervals; the only difference was that 1 reinforcer was 10 times larger than the other. After 6 sessions, the authors changed the contingency schedule to either an extinction condition, a variable-time schedule, or a different variable-interval schedule, to assess how participants' responses persisted when reinforcement contingencies were systematically changed. The results were consistent with the predictions of behavioral momentum. The participants not only biased their responses in favor of the more densely reinforcing key, but when contingencies changed, they showed significantly biased responses. Results supported the conclusion that healthy older adults allocate their behaviors in a manner very sensitive to training stimuli conditions; consistent with the basic principles of behavioral momentum, they show a degree of resistance to change in their behaviors when the behavioral contingencies are altered. PMID:10368942

  16. Expression of a novel alternative transcript of the novel retinal pigment epithelial cell gene NORPEG in human testes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wa Yuan; Ying Zheng; Ran Huo; Li Lu; Xiao-Yan Huang; Lan-Lan Yin; Jian-Min Li; Zuo-Min Zhou; Jia-Hao Sha

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To identify a novel alternative transcript of the novel retinal pigment epithelial cell gene (NORPEG) expressed in the human testis. Methods: A human testis cDNA microarray was established and hybridized with cDNA probes from human fetal testes, adult testes and human spermatozoa. Differentially expressed clones were sequenced and analyzed. One of these clones was a short transcript of NORPEG which we proceeded to analyze by RT-PCR.Results: The novel short alternative transcript of NORPEG was isolated and named sNORPEG. It was 3486 bp in length and contained a 2952-bp open reading frame, encoding a 110.4-kDa protein of 983 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the sNORPEG protein contains six ankyrin repeats and two coiled-coil domains. It shares a high homology with the NORPEG and ankycorbin proteins in both its sequence and motifs. Blasting the human genome database localized sNORPEG to human chromosome 5p13.2-13.3. Expression profiles showed that sNORPEG was expressed in human fetal testes, adult testes and spermatozoa. Moreover, sNORPEG was found to be ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. Conclusion: sNORPEG is expressed in different developmental stages of the testis and encodes a protein that may have roles in human testis development and spermatogenesis.

  17. Phthalates Impair Germ Cell Number in the Mouse Fetal Testis by an Androgen- and Estrogen-Independent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Lehraiki, Abdelali; Racine, Chrystèle; Krust, Andrée; Habert, René; Levacher, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Data from experiments conducted almost exclusively in the rat have established that some phthalates have deleterious effects on the fetal testis probably due to their antiandrogenic and/or estrogenic effects, but their mechanisms of action remain unknown. A recent study reported that phthalates also have deleterious effects on human fetal testis with germ cell number, but not steroidogenesis altered. Therefore, we used organ culture of fetal testes at different stages of development to analyz...

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Testis and Ovary Transcriptomes in Zebrafish by Combining Experimental and Computational Tools

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    Laszlo Orban

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the zebrafish model have contributed to our understanding of several important developmental processes, especially those that can be easily studied in the embryo. However, our knowledge on late events such as gonad differentiation in the zebrafish is still limited. Here we provide an analysis on the gene sets expressed in the adult zebrafish testis and ovary in an attempt to identify genes with potential role in (zebrafish gonad development and function. We produced 10 533 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from zebrafish testis or ovary and downloaded an additional 23 642 gonad-derived sequences from the zebrafish EST database. We clustered these sequences together with over 13 000 kidney-derived zebrafish ESTs to study partial transcriptomes for these three organs. We searched for genes with gonad-specific expression by screening macroarrays containing at least 2600 unique cDNA inserts with testis-, ovary- and kidney-derived cDNA probes. Clones hybridizing to only one of the two gonad probes were selected, and subsequently screened with computational tools to identify 72 genes with potentially testis-specific and 97 genes with potentially ovary-specific expression, respectively. PCR-amplification confirmed gonad-specificity for 21 of the 45 clones tested (all without known function. Our study, which involves over 47 000 EST sequences and specialized cDNA arrays, is the first analysis of adult organ transcriptomes of zebrafish at such a scale. The study of genes expressed in adult zebrafish testis and ovary will provide useful information on regulation of gene expression in teleost gonads and might also contribute to our understanding of the development and differentiation of reproductive organs in vertebrates.

  19. Free Radicals in Adolescent Varicocele Testis

    OpenAIRE

    Carmelo Romeo; Giuseppe Santoro

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using “adolescent,” “varicocele,” “free radicals,” “oxidative...

  20. Human herpesvirus 7 is a constitutive inhabitant of adult human saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, L S; Frenkel, N

    1992-01-01

    We report the frequent isolation of human herpesvirus 7 from the saliva of healthy adults. Virus isolates recovered from different individuals exhibited minimal restriction enzyme polymorphism, which was mostly confined to heterogeneous (het) sequences in the genome. DNAs of isolates recovered from the same individual over a period of several months showed the same characteristic het fragments, indicating the stability of the het sequences upon virus replication and shedding in vivo. In contr...

  1. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development.

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    Jin Sun

    Full Text Available Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old and adult (8-week-old mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.

  2. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood

  3. Professional Fulfillment and Satisfaction of US and Canadian Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shari L.; Wiesenberg, Faye

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study explored the professional fulfillment and job satisfaction of US and Canadian college and university faculty in the fields of Adult Education and Human Resource Development. In Autumn 2001, we disseminated electronically "The Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty Survey" to a selected sample of Canadian and…

  4. Senfølger efter torsio testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L; Brasso, K; Kay, L; Wille-Jørgensen, P A

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-five patients were examined six to eleven years after having been operated for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with a low postoperative spermcount. No indications of autoimmunization affecting...

  5. Molecular cloning of a novel nuclear factor, TDRP1, in spermatogenic cells of testis and its relationship with spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported the identification of a novel gene termed TDRP (encoding testis development-related protein) that might be involved in spermatogenesis. The human TDRP gene had two distinct transcripts, TDRP1 and TDRP2, which encoded proteins of 183 aa and 198 aa respectively. Tdrp mRNA was predominantly expressed in testis tissue. We generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific against human TDRP1. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed TDRP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells, especially with high expression in spermatocytes. We provided evidence that TDRP1 distributed in both cytoplasm and nuclei of spermatogenic cells. Expression patterns of Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were investigated in the rat testis tissues of different developmental stages. Both Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were barely detected in the testis of neonatal rats, increased remarkably at 3 weeks postpartum, and peaked at 2 months postpartum. We also investigated TDRP1 expressions in testis tissues of azoospermic men with defective spermatogenesis. Western blot analysis showed that TDRP1 expressions were significantly lower in the testis tissues of azoospermic men compared with normal controls. These current data demonstrated that as a nuclear factor, TDRP1 might play an important role in spermatogenesis.

  6. Producing Recombinant mTEX101; a Murine Testis Specific Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar Yarmohammadi, Leila; Modarresi, Mohammad Hossein; Talebi, Saeed; Hadavi, Reza; Ostad Karampour, Mahyar; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Production of antibodies against specific proteins of testis germ cells is of great significance for the investigation of processes involved in spermatogenesis, study of infertility problems and determination of the probable role of these proteins as cancer-testis antigens. Murine Testis Specific Recombinant Protein 101 (mTEX101) is a 38kDa, GPI-anchored protein which is expressed in testis germ cells of adult mice but it seems to be absent in other tissues. The structure and function of mTEX101 is not completely understood yet, but it is speculated that it may transduce biochemical signals into the cytoplasm since mTEX101 does not have an intracellular domain but the precise mechanisms are still ambiguous. Materials and Methods RNA was extracted from three adult mice testis. The RNA was used in RT-PCR, employing a pair of specific primers for mTEX101 ORF region. TA-cloning technique was performed by the insertion of mTEX101 into a pGEM-T Easy Vector, followed by its subcloning into a His-tagged expression vector, pET-28a (+). The recombinant mTEX101 was then produced by transfection of the expression vector into BL 21 (DE3) E. coli strain. Results A recombinant protein, weighing 27kDa, was produced upon IPTG-induction of the bacterial host. The presence of mTEX101 protein was detected through Western blot analysis by anti-mTEX101 peptide antibodies. Conclusion We produced mTEX101 recombinant protein that could be used for the production of mono and polyclonal antibodies. PMID:23926468

  7. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, R; Giussani, A

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on data for pertechnetate TcO(-)(4) the most commonly encountered form of technetium and the form expected to be present in body fluids. The model is intended as a default model for occupational or environmental intake of technetium, i.e. applicable in the absence of form- or site-specific information. Tissues depicted explicitly in the model include thyroid, salivary glands, stomach wall, right colon wall, liver, kidneys, and bone. Compared with the ICRP's current biokinetic model for occupational or environmental intake of technetium (ICRP 1993, 1994), the proposed model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the systemic behaviour of technetium and is based on a broader set of experimental and medical data. For acute input of (99m)Tc (T(1/2) = 6.02 h) to blood, the ratios of cumulative (time-integrated) activity predicted by the current ICRP model to that predicted by the proposed model range from 0.4-7 for systemic regions addressed explicitly in both models. For acute input of (99)Tc (T(1/2) = 2.1 × 10(5) year) to blood, the corresponding ratios range from 0.2-30. PMID:25859762

  8. Protective Effect of Ginger on Gentamicin-Induced Apoptosis in Testis of Rats

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    Afshin Zahedi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. Methods: In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I (n=10, gentamicin control (group II, ginger control (group III and gentamicin + ginger (group IV each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05.However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.

  9. Characterization and localization of in vivo phospholipid methylation in the hamster testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although previous studies have demonstrated that phospholipid methylation occurs in the testis and may be involved in Leydig cell function, phospholipid methylation in spermatogenic cells has not been characterized. In this study we describe the occurrence, time course, and localization of phospholipid methylation in the hamster testis following intratesticular injection of radioactive methyl precursor. Adult and pubertal (seven day old) hamsters were injected intratesticularly with [3H-methyl]-methionine and sacrificed 10 min. to 31 hours thereafter. The testes were then removed and homogenized or dispersed into cell suspensions. Spermatogenic cell and Leydig cell enriched preparations were isolated from the dispersed cell preparations using elutriation and Percoll gradient centrifugation and assayed for methylated phospholipids and proteins. These experiments demonstrated that (1) phospholipid methylation occurs in the hamster testis at a level seven-fold greater than protein methylation, (2) the incorporation of radioactivity associated with phospholipid methylation is progressive over time, and (3) in vivo, spermatogenic cell preparations enriched with pachytene spermatocytes have an almost four-fold higher level of measurable phospholipid methylation when compared to whole testis preparations. Taken together, these results suggest that phospholipid methylation may play an important stage-specific role in spermatogenesis

  10. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study included 36 male adults with a broad range of age and body-mass indices (BMIs, among which 18 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes type 2. The fecal bacterial composition was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR and in a subgroup of subjects (N = 20 by tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The proportions of phylum Firmicutes and class Clostridia were significantly reduced in the diabetic group compared to the control group (P = 0.03. Furthermore, the ratios of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes as well as the ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella group to C. coccoides-E. rectale group correlated positively and significantly with plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.04 but not with BMIs. Similarly, class Betaproteobacteria was highly enriched in diabetic compared to non-diabetic persons (P = 0.02 and positively correlated with plasma glucose (P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota.

  11. PARTICIPANT’S ASSESSMENT TOWARDS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razaq Ahmad; Norhasni Zainal Abiddin; Wan Hasmah Wan Mamat

    2009-01-01

    Adult education has been sidelined by mainstream educational researchers in Malaysia. The purpose of this article was to survey the effect of Society Development Department (KEMAS) adult education from the participants’ perspectives. The focus was on the participants’ achievements in cognitive, affective, and skill in the KEMAS programs especially in Human Development. Human intellectual is an important resource to develop a country. Thus, this study was used to focus on human development t...

  12. Primary Adult Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Cultures on Human Amniotic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Shweta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells grow well on surfaces that provide an extracellular matrix. Our aim was to establish primary adult human RPE cell cultures that retain their epithelial morphology in vitro using human amniotic membrane (hAM as substrate. Materials and Methods: Human cadaver eyeballs (16 were obtained from the eye bank after corneal trephination. RPE cells were harvested by a mechanical dissection of the inner choroid surface (10, group 1 or by b enzymatic digestion using 0.25% Trypsin/0.02% EDTA (6, group 2. The cells were explanted onto de-epithelialized hAM, nourished using DMEM/HAMS F-12 media and monitored for growth under the phase contrast microscope. Cell cultures were characterised by whole mount studies and paraffin sections. Growth data in the two groups were compared using the students′ ′t′ test. Results: Eleven samples (68.75% showed positive cultures with small, hexagonal cells arising from around the explant which formed a confluent and progressively pigmented monolayer. Whole mounts showed closely placed polygonal cells with heavily pigmented cytoplasm and indistinct nuclei. The histologic sections showed monolayers of cuboidal epithelium with variable pigmentation within the cytoplasm. Growth was seen by day 6-23 (average 11.5 days in the mechanical group, significantly earlier ( P Conclusions: Primary adult human RPE cell cultures retain epithelial morphology in vitro when cultured on human amniotic membranes . Mechanical dissection of the inner choroid surface appears to be an effective method of isolating RPE cells and yields earlier growth in cultures as compared to isolation by enzymatic digestion

  13. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Fu, Jianfang [Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Shun [Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Jie [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Xie, Nianlin, E-mail: xienianlin@126.com [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Cai, Guoqing, E-mail: firstchair@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  14. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  15. HISTOLOGICAL SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN ADULT HUMAN PARATHYROID GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fating Anita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND: Increasing problems of calcium deficiency with physiological conditions like pregnancy, lactation etc. it becomes the need of time to focus attention towards these glands as one of the essential entity. Hence we have undertaken this study to have an idea about normal variation in the gland as per sex. AIMS: To reveal sexual differences in adult human parathyroid glands. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Parathyroid glands from 25 autopsied cases of 20 to 59 years were studied after staining with Hematoxylin & Eosin, Masson’s Trichrome & Reticulin stains. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data is analyzed on statistical software intercooled STATA version 8.0. Data was presented in mean± standard deviation & categorical variables were expressed in percentages. Comparison of oxyphil scores in male & female was done by unpaired‘t’ test. P < 0.05 was taken as statistical significance. RESULTS: Stroma composed of short often branching reticular fibres along with blood vessels and fat cells. By statistical examination the amount of fat was more in case of females than in males of same age groups. Oxyphil cells being less numerous than chief cells were distinguished by their dark eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and were arranged mostly in closely packed groups without interstitial fat in between the cells. Oxyphil cells also found as placed singly among chief cells. It was also observed as continuous masses or anastomosing columns. As compared with males oxyphil cells are more in females. CONCLUSIONS: By statistical analysis 1 Percentage of stromal fat in case of females was slightly greater than in males of same age group. 2 The score of oxyphil cells in females was double to more than triple as compared to male score of same age group. 3 This study is clinically important as hormonal changes occurs early in females than in males and it is in favor of providing supplementary calcium with D3 along with minimal dose of estrogen as age advances in

  16. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

  17. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fu, Jianfang; Zhang, Shun; Zhao, Jie; Xie, Nianlin; Cai, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli-germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli-germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. PMID:25886977

  18. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were suggested by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. Whatever the way to obtain interfacial films (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after...

  19. Overhead Squat -testi : Urheilijan liikkuvuuden arviointi

    OpenAIRE

    Jokela, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Urheilijan liikkuvuutta voidaan arvioida havainnoimalla liikesuoritusta. Havainnoin-tituloksia hyödyntämällä voidaan urheilijan suorituskykyä parantaa sekä ennaltaehkäistä urheiluvammojen syntymistä. Perehdyin opinnäytetyössäni National Academy of Sports Medicinen kehittämään Overhead Squat -testiin, joka on suunniteltu arvioimaan urheilijan toiminnallista liikkuvuutta, keskivartalon voimaa, tasapainoa ja neuromuskulaarista kontrollia. Overhead Squat -testi on yksi liikesuoritus, jota hav...

  20. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Geetha; Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V

    2016-04-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  1. Testis stereology, seminiferous epithelium cycle length, and daily sperm production in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R C; Costa, G M J; Andrade, L M; França, L R

    2010-01-15

    Similar to most wild felids, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is an endangered species. However, knowledge regarding reproductive biology of the ocelot is very limited. Germ cell transplantation is an effective technique for investigating spermatogenesis and stem cell biology in mammals, and the morphologic characterization of germ cells and knowledge of cycle length are potential tools for tracking the development of transplanted germ cells. Our goal was to investigate basic aspects related to testis structure, particularly spermatogenesis, in the ocelot. Four adult males were used. After unilateral orchiectomy, testis samples were routinely prepared for histologic, stereologic, and autoradiographic analyses. Testis weight and the gonadosomatic index were 11+/-0.6g and 0.16+/-0.01%, respectively, whereas the volume density of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells was 83.2+/-1.6% and 9.8+/-1.5%. Based on the acrosomic system, eight stages of spermatogenesis were characterized, and germ cell morphology was very similar to that of domestic cats. Each spermatogenic cycle lasted 12.5+/-0.4 d, and the entire spermatogenic process lasted 56.3+/-1.9 d. Individual Leydig cell volume was 2522mum(3), whereas the number of Leydig and Sertoli cells per gram of testis was 38+/-5x10(6) and 46+/-3x10(6). Approximately 4.5 spermatids were found per Sertoli cell, whereas daily sperm production per gram of testis was 18.3+/-1x10(6), slightly higher than values reported for other felids. The knowledge obtained in this study could be very useful to the preservation of the ocelot using domestic cat testes to generate and propagate the ocelot genome. PMID:19853903

  2. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  3. Reaching beyond the United States: Adventures in International Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience of how travel and adult education merged, for him, into a major emphasis in international adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD). International ventures have been some of the most exciting and learning-filled aspects of the author's career in AE and HRD. His involvement in…

  4. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Aaraby Yoheswaran Nielsen; Morten Frier Gjerstorff

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the ...

  5. Expression of the retinoic acid-metabolizing enzymes RALDH2 and CYP26b1 during mouse postnatal testis development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Wen Wu; Ru-Yao Wang; Qiang-Su Guo; Chen Xu

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the expression pattern of the retinoic acid metabolizing enzymes RALDH2 and CYP26bl during mouse postnatal testis development at both mRNA and protein levels. Methods: Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the relative quantity of RALDH2 and CYP26bl at both mRNA and protein levels at postnatal day 1, 5, 10, 20, and in adult mice (70 days testes). Testicular localization of RALDH2 and CYP26bl during mouse postnatal development was examined using immunohistochemistry assay. Results: Aldhla 2 transcripts and its protein RALDH2 began to increase at postnatal day 10, and remained at a high level through postnatal day 20 to adulthood. Cyp26bl transcripts and CYP26bl protein did not change significantly during mouse postnatal testis development. RALDH2 was undetectable in the postnatal 1, 5 and 10 day testes using immunohis- tochemistry assay. At postnatal day 20 it was detected in pachytene spermatocytes. Robust expression of RALDH2 was restricted in round spermatids in the adult mouse testis. In the developing and adult testis, CYP26bl protein was confined to the peritubular myoepithelial cells. Conclusion: Our results indicate that following birth, the level of retinoic acid in the seminiferous tubules might begin to increase at postnatal day 10, and maintain a high level through postnatal day 20 to adulthood. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 569-576)

  6. Propagation of Adult SSCs: From Mouse to Human

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laura A.; Marco Seandel

    2013-01-01

    Adult spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) represent a distinctive source of stem cells in mammals for several reasons. First, by giving rise to spermatogenesis, SSCs are responsible for the propagation of a father’s genetic material. As such, autologous SSCs have been considered for treatment of infertility and other purposes, including correction of inherited disorders. Second, adult spermatogonia can spontaneously produce embryonic-like stem cells in vitro, which could be used a...

  7. POST TRAUMATIC DISPLACEMENT OF TESTIS- A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avadhut

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Traumatic displacement of the testis is a rare occur rence and is defined as the displacement of one or both testis to a position othe r than the scrotum (1 .Traumatic displacement of testis is commonly a delayed diagnos is during treatment occurs as a consequence of high velocity road traffic accident (2 usually following a motorcycle collision, in what is referred to as "fuel tank injury”. Early id entification and subsequent surgical management is of utmost importance to maintain norm al spermatogenesis in the displaced testis. We report a case of traumatic displacement o f testis in superficial inguinal pouch in a young man presented 1 year after a road traffic acci dent. The clinical diagnosis was well supported by USG. The patient was successfully treated by inguinal exploration and repositioning of testis in scrotum, under spinal anes thesia.

  8. Effects of bisphenol-A on male reproductive success in adult Kadaknath chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram P; Shafeeque, Chathathayil M; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Singh, Renu; Kannan, Maharajan; Sastry, Kochiganti V H; Raghunandanan, Sajith; Mohan, Jag; Azeez, Parappurath A

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) adversely affects human and animal reproductive success in many ways, but this information is scant on birds. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of BPA in adult Kadaknath chicken using two BPA dosages orally (1 or 5mg/kg body weight) for seven weeks. In order to assess BPA toxicity, sperm functions, fertilizing ability, serum testosterone concentration and testis histopathology were measured in treated and control chickens. The semen volume was highest in birds exposed to 1mg/kg body weight BPA compared to other groups. 5mg/kg body weight BPA reduced sperm concentration significantly more than other treatment and controls. However, overall fertility and testis histology were unaffected. These results indicate that BPA adversely affects sperm characteristics in adult kadaknath chicken without affecting fertilization potential. PMID:26895245

  9. Isolation of alveolar epithelial type II progenitor cells from adult human lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Naoya; Kubo, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takaya; Ota, Chiharu; Hegab, Ahmed E.; He, Mei; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Takashi; Kato, Hidemasa; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2010-01-01

    Resident stem/progenitor cells in the lung are important for tissue homeostasis and repair. However, a progenitor population for alveolar type II (ATII) cells in adult human lungs has not been identified. The aim of this study is to isolate progenitor cells from adult human lungs with the ability to differentiate into ATII cells. We isolated colony-forming cells that had the capability for self-renewal and the potential to generate ATII cells in vitro. These undifferentiated progenitor cells ...

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE BASILAR ARTERY IN ADULT HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish A. Wankhede

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The basilar artery is the large median and major artery of the posterior circulation of the brain. Many variations are seen in the basilar artery, majority of them in position, origin and shape of the artery. Many authors have documented various anomalies as well as differences of the anatomy in this area in the Indian population as compared to the Western literature. Context and purpose of study: Many studies are available on the anterior circulation of the brain i.e. on vessels of the circle of Willis but studies on the posterior circulation are very few. And such studies so far had been done mostly in the American and European races and are mostly based on imaging techniques. Studies in the Indian population have been few. Hence the present study is concentrated on the morphological study of the basilar artery of human adult brain, to show the frequency and type of variations in the morphology of the basilar artery. Results: The basilar artery most commonly takes origin from the vertebral artery where left vertebral artery is greater in size than the right vertebral artery (72.5%. Level of formation of the basilar artery is most commonly observed at the ponto-medullary junction (62.5%. Length of the basilar artery varied from minimum 2.4cm to maximum 3.6cm. More commonly artery lies in the range of 2.6-3.0cm (57.5%. Diameter of the basilar artery at origin ranges from 3.2-4.2mm, at mid level from 3-4mm and at termination 3.1-4mm. Level of termination of the basilar artery is more commonly at the mid brain-pons junction (50%. Most of the basilar arteries are of straight type (55% and next common is bent or curved type (37.5%. Fenestration of 4mm is seen in proximal part of the one basilar artery (2.5%. Conclusion: Variations of the basilar artery are common. Neurosurgical importance of this study lies during the exposure of the region for different purposes. Knowledge of the vascular variations will increase the success of the

  11. Presumed normal ultrasonographic findings of the testis and epididymis of botos (Inia geoffrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio Ribeiro; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Martin, Anthony Richard; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-12-01

    Fifteen live adult male botos, or Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis), were examined using ultrasonography during the yearly capture expedition, between October and November 2005, at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, within the Brazilian Amazon (3 degrees S, 65 degrees W). All examinations were performed with a Sonosite 180 plus ultrasound unit in conjunction with a 2- to 5-MHz multifrequency transducer convex array 180 Plus/Elite-C60. Age and maturity estimates were determined considering the body length, weight, and external characteristics. In all examinations, the testes were discerned by the presence of a hyperechoic central line, called the mediastinum testis, a landmark for their identification during ultrasonography. No significant differences in echogenicity were detected on the ultrasonographic appearance of the testes among the studied animals. On adult male botos, apparent parenchymal nodulation of the testis was observed on scanning in most of the animals and probably constituted evidence of reproductive maturity. Using the color Doppler technique, blood flow was detected along the mediastinum testis that progressively decreased toward the periphery of this organ. Little blood flow could be identified by color Doppler. Power Doppler allowed better accuracy to identify testicular vessels, their topography, and their differentiation from adjacent structures. Ultrasonographic examination provides useful data for morphologic characterization of the boto's testes. Examination using Doppler techniques was considered a valuable tool to evidence blood flow through the testicular parenchyma. PMID:23272345

  12. Kihutav politseijuht Antropov testis Saaremaal Hummerit / Risto Berendson, Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Politsei pressishefi sõnul testis politseijuht Robert Antropov Saaremaal julgestuspolitsei tarbeks maastikuautot Hummer. Endise politseijuhi Ain Seppiku kommentaare. Tabel: Tavaline politseimaastur võrreldes Hummeriga

  13. A novel cancer testis antigen protein phosphates gamma 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel cancer-testis antigen PP1a2, which is a serine/threonine phosphatase and known to regulate sperm motility and sperm maturation during spermeogenesis. Here we have identified PP1a2 as a cancer biomarker in Cervical (C33, Hela), Prostate (PC3, DU145) and Ovarian (PA1) cancer cell lines. PP1a2 expression was also found in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK 293) cell lines. As a result PP1a2 was found to be a marker of germ cells, cancerous cells as well as embryonic cells. This invention led to the theory that aberrant expression of germline genes in cancer reflects the activation of the silenced gametogenic programme in somatic cells, and that this programmatic acquisition is one of the driving forces of tumorigenesis. (author)

  14. Changes in the Spermatogenesis and Histology of Testis in Rat Treated with Matricaria recutita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jamshidiyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the anti-spermatogenic potential of ethanolic extract of Matricaria recutita a plant belonging to Asteraceae family. The effects of an ethanolic extract of theMatricaria recutita on spermatogenesis, histology of testis and level of testosterone were examined in control and experimental groups. Results showed that Matricaria recutita extract did not cause any changes in body weight, but significantly decreased the testis weight (p<0.05. The sperm motility and the epididymal sperm counts and serum testosterone levels of rats treated for 56 days were significantly reduced (p<0.05. There were various degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules including; disorganized germinal epithelium, degenerated and necrotic cells and reduction in the diameter of seminiferous tubules. It can be concluded that that alcoholic extract of Matricaria recutita has anti-spermatogenic properties in adult male rats through its compounds and it may be useful to regulate spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  15. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne;

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex....... Stimulus–response curves were constructed by recording the intensity of the reported phosphenes evoked in the contralateral visual field at range of TMS intensities. Phosphene measurements revealed that MD produced a rapid and robust decrease in cortical excitability relative to a control condition without...

  16. Testis hormone-sensitive lipase expression in spermatids is governed by a short promoter in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, R; Guillaudeux, T; Tavernier, G; Daegelen, D; Evrard, B; Mairal, A; Holm, C; Jégou, B; Langin, D

    2001-02-16

    A testicular form of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL(tes)), a triacylglycerol lipase, and cholesterol esterase, is expressed in male germ cells. Northern blot analysis showed HSL(tes) mRNA expression in early spermatids. Immunolocalization of the protein in human and rodent seminiferous tubules indicated that the highest level of expression occurred in elongated spermatids. We have previously shown that 0.5 kilobase pairs of the human HSL(tes) promoter directs testis-specific expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in transgenic mice and determined regions binding nuclear proteins expressed in testis but not in liver (Blaise, R., Grober, J., Rouet, P., Tavernier, G., Daegelen, D., and Langin, D. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 9327-9334). Mutation of a SRY/Sox-binding site in one of the regions did not impair in vivo testis-specific expression of the reporter gene. Further transgenic analyses established that 95 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site were sufficient for correct testis expression. In gel retardation assays using early spermatid nuclear extracts, a germ cell-specific DNA-protein interaction was mapped between -46 and -29 base pairs. The DNA binding nuclear protein showed properties of zinc finger transcription factors. Mutation of the region abolished reporter gene activity in transgenic mice, showing that it is necessary for testis expression of HSL(tes). PMID:11076952

  17. Granulosa cell tumor of testis: Clinicopathological correlation of a rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Ulhas Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Granulosa cell tumor of testis is a rare tumor accounting for less than 4% of adult testicular tumors though they account for nearly 30% of childhood testicular tumors. Due to the rarity of these tumors, exact etiology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors and best treatment approach are not well known. The molecular events in pathogenesis of these stromal tumors have begun to unravel and these developments put forth a reasonable and scientific explanation for the association of these tumors with developmental anomalies like undescended testis. However, many questions remain unanswered. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinicopathological features of all Granulosa Cell Tumors of testis from our archives in addition to an extensive literature search using PUBMED with the key words "Granulosa Cell Tumor, testis". Results: We found six cases in our archives, two of which were of juvenile type and four of adult type. One out of these six cases presented with metastases. All cases underwent radical orchidectomy. Morphology and immunohistochemistry were classical in all cases and there was no diagnostic dilemma. Literature search revealed 63 cases of testicular Granulosa Cell Tumor in addition to highlighting the similarities in the biology and the dissimilarities in the clinical behavior as compared to ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor. Conclusion: Testicular Granulosa Cell Tumor is a rare tumor, which although histologically similar to its ovarian counterpart, differs in clinical behavior. Further detailed investigations are needed to reveal the mystery behind the differing clinical behavior despite histological and immunohistochemical similarity between the testicular and ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumors.

  18. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  19. Ectasia of the rete testis: Beware of this masquerader

    OpenAIRE

    Gadodia, Ankur; Goyal, Ankur; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Cystic/tubular ectasia of the rete testis is a rare benign entity and must be differentiated from testicular neoplasm. We report a case of bilateral rete testis-associated epididymal cyst in patient with abdominal mass. Scrotal swelling clinically was interpreted as testicular neoplasm.

  20. Imaging of mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, M. [University of Trieste, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Boulay-Coletta, I. [Fondation Hopital Saint Joseph, Service d' Imagerie Medical, Paris (France); Butini, R. [Ospedale S. Giacomo, Department of Radiology, Castelfranco Veneto, TV (Italy); Dudea, S.M. [Univ. Med. Pharm. ' ' Iuliu Hatieganu' ' , Department of Radiology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Oltmanns, G. [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ramchandani, P. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Stein, M.W. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Valentino, M. [Sant' Antonio Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tolmezzo, UD (Italy); Derchi, Lorenzo E. [University of Genoa, Department of Health Sciences, Genova (Italy); IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino IST, Radiologia d' Urgenza, Genova (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To describe the imaging findings in a series of patients with mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. We reviewed clinical data, imaging findings and follow-up information in a series of 10 pathology-proven cases of mesothelioma (all had US; 2 had MR) of the tunica vaginalis. A variety of patterns could be observed, the most common (5/10) being a hydrocele with parietal, solid and hypervascular vegetations; one patient had a septated hydrocele with hypervascular walls; one had multiple, solid nodules surrounded by a small, physiological quantity of fluid; one a cystic lesion with thick walls and vegetations compressing the testis; two had a solid paratesticular mass. MR showed multiple small nodules on the surface of the tunica vaginalis in one case and diffuse thickening and vegetations in the other one; lesions had low signal intensity on T2-w images and were hypervascular after contrast injection. A preoperative diagnosis of mesotheliomas presenting as solid paratesticular masses seems very difficult with imaging. On the contrary, the diagnosis must be considered in patients in whom a hydrocele with parietal vegetations is detected, especially if these show high vascularity. (orig.)

  1. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  2. Protective Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on Testis Spermatogenic Injury Induced by Bisphenol A in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caili Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To observe the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP on testis spermatogenic injuries induced by Bisphenol A (BPA in mice. BPA was subcutaneously injected into mice at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW for 7 consecutive days. LBP was administered simultaneously with BPA by gavage daily at the dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW for 7 days. After treatment, the weight and the histopathology changes of testis and epididymis were examined; the contents of T, LH, GnRH, antioxidant enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA in serum were detected; proapoptotic protein Bax and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 were also detected by immunohistochemical method. Results showed that the weights of testis and epididymis were all increased after supplement with different dosages of LBP compared with BPA group, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were significantly increased in LBP groups, while MDA contents were gradually decreased. Moreover, the levels of T, LH, and GnRH were significantly elevated in serum treated with 100 mg/kg LBP. LBP also shows significant positive effects on the expression of Bcl-2/Bax in BPA treated mice. It is concluded that LBP may be one of the potential ingredients protecting the adult male animals from BPA induced reproductive damage.

  3. Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

  4. Clinical characteristics analysis of adult human adenovirus type 7 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients infected with human adenovirus type 7 and to provide guidance for early diagnosis and timely control of the outbreak.Methods A total of 301 patients infected with the human adenoviruses who were quarantined in hospital from December 2012 to February 2013 were observed.Epidemiological questionnaires were used to collect data of clinical features of the disease including

  5. The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Walpole Sarah; Prieto-Merino David; Edwards Phil; Cleland John; Stevens Gretchen; Roberts Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. Regarding human populations, although considerable attention is given to estimating the number of people, much less is given to estimating average mass, despite evidence that average body mass is increasing. We estimate global human biomass, its distribution by region and the proportion of biomass due to overweight and obesity. M...

  6. Pathogenesis of teratoid tumors of the ovary and testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, R M

    1975-01-01

    Based upon a representative sample of testicular tumors studied at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, several testicular and ovarian tumors observed in Denver, pertinent papers in the literature, and the singular thesis of Chevassu on tumors of the testis, the pathogenesis of such neoplasms is elaborated. The findings are philosophical, speculative, and established. Man is a multicellular individual to be regarded as a vehicle for the transmission of unicellular organisms or germ cells from one generation to the next. These cells remain distinct from somatic and trophoblastic cells. The mature human female not only tolerates the normal expression of the fertilized ovum during pregnancy (sex cells, blastoderm, and trophoblast) but also seems capable of greater differentiation of immature somatic cells resulting from parthenogenesis of one or more ova into cells of the three germ layers, as well as the suppression of the growth of neoplastic sex cells and trophoblast cells, with benign cystic teratoma as the most common culmination. The preponderance of malignant teratoid tumors before sexual maturity is a corollary. In contrast, the human male is not equipped with organizers postulated for the human female and thus is unable to differentiate malignant immature somatic cells, the most common cancerous element in testicular tumors. The explanation for such neoplasms must be on the basis of segregation of such cells and abnormal spermatogonia or less often trophoblastic cells in the embryo, with later expression as neoplastic cells, since spermatogonia and progeny are unable to form a new individual. To paraphrase Wilms, the statement may be made that malignant testicular and ovarian tumors of teratoid type are related, despite their different microscopic appearance, to a common form. They differ only in the quality, not in the quantity, of the different tissues comprising them. These tumors contain neoplastic blastodermic cells and differentiated cells of the

  7. A century of trends in adult human height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  8. Gene expression profiling in liver and testis of rats to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected for hormone measurements, and liver and testes were collected for histology, enzyme biochemistry, or gene expression profiling. Body and testis weights were unaffected, but liver weights were significantly increased by all four triazoles, and hepatocytes exhibited centrilobular hypertrophy. Myclobutanil exposure increased serum testosterone and decreased sperm motility, but no treatment-related testis histopathology was observed. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles would identify potential mechanisms of toxicity and used DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to generate profiles. Triazole fungicides are designed to inhibit fungal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51 enzyme but can also modulate the expression and function of mammalian CYP genes and enzymes. Triazoles affected the expression of numerous CYP genes in rat liver and testis, including multiple Cyp2c and Cyp3a isoforms as well as other xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) and transporter genes. For some genes, such as Ces2 and Udpgtr2, all four triazoles had similar effects on expression, suggesting possible common mechanisms of action. Many of these CYP, XME and transporter genes are regulated by xeno-sensing nuclear receptors, and hierarchical clustering of CAR/PXR-regulated genes demonstrated the similarities of toxicogenomic responses in liver between all four triazoles and in testis between myclobutanil and triadimefon. Triazoles also affected expression of multiple genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in the two tissues. Thus, gene expression profiles helped identify possible toxicological mechanisms of the triazole fungicides

  9. Development and application of the Chinese adult female computational phantom Rad-HUMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad-HUMAN is a whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult woman which contains 46 organs and tissues and was created by MCAM6 software using the color photographs of the Chinese Visible Human dataset. This dataset was obtained from a 22-year old Chinese female cadaver judged to represent normal human anatomy as much as possible. The density and elemental composition recommended in the ICRP Publication 89 and in the ICRU report 44 were assigned to the organ and tissue in Rad-HUMAN for radiation protection purpose. The last step was to implement the anatomical data into a Monte Carlo code. Rad-HUMAN contains more than 28.8 billion tiny volume units, which produces an accurately whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult female

  10. Adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on the foetal testis development: focus on the phthalates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pairault

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are great concerns about the increasing incidence of abnormalities in male reproductive function. Human sperm counts have markedly dropped and the rate of testicular cancer has clearly augmented over the past four decades. Moreover, the prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias are also probably increasing. It has been hypothesized that all these adverse trends in male reproduction result from abnormalities in the development of the testis during foetal and neonatal life. Furthermore, many recent epidemiological, clinical and experimental data suggest that these male reproductive disorders could be due to the effects of xenobiotics termed endocrine disruptors, which are becoming more and more concentrated and prevalent in our environment. Among these endocrine disruptors, we chose to focus this review on the phthalates for different reasons: 1 they are widespread in the environment; 2 their concentrations in many human biological fluids have been measured; 3 the experimental data using rodent models suggesting a reprotoxicity are numerous and are the most convincing; 4 their deleterious effects on the in vivo and in vitro development and function of the rat foetal testis have been largely studied; 5 some epidemiological data in humans suggest a reprotoxic effect at environmental concentrations at least during neonatal life. However, the direct effects of phthalates on human foetal testis have never been explored. Thus, as we did for the rat in the 1990s, we recently developed and validated an organ culture system which allows maintenance of the development of the different cell types of human foetal testis. In this system, addition of 10-4 M MEHP (mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, the most produced phthalate, had no effect on basal or LH-stimulated production of testosterone, but it reduced the number of germ cells by increasing their apoptosis, without modification of their proliferation. This is the first experimental demonstration

  11. Happiness, depression and human benevolence beliefs in institutionalized and non institutionalized major adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter L. Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the relations between happiness, depression and human benevolence beliefs in a group of major people who live in asylums (24 and others who live with their families (38. We use Lima’s happiness scale, Yesavage’s Geriatric depression scale and Belief in human scale. We found that there were no significant differences between two groups of major adults in depression levels, but in happiness, positive sense of life and satisfaction with life, non institutionalized older adults had higher punctuations than major people who lived in asylums.

  12. The human traffickers and exploitation of children and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the traffic of children, who are kidnapped, cheated and purchased by their families to be exploited in many ways. These victims have severe mental and physical traumas. Many of them, slaves of their exploiters, remain invisible and live their lifes without fundamental rights and without any kind of support or help. The traffic in human beings is a new kind of slavery, which acts in the dark, is criminal and involves different subjects of different ages, different nationalities and generations. The traffic in human beings is managed by transnational criminal organizations and is a disturbing and growing phenomena around the world.

  13. Histologi dan Histomorfometri Testis dan Epididimis Muncak (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak pada Periode Ranggah Keras (HISTOLOGY AND HISTOMORPHOMETRY OF THE TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS OF MUNTJAC (MUNTIACUS MUNTJAK MUNTJAK DURING HARD ANTLER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the histology and histomorphometry of testis and epididymisof muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak during hard antler period. The tissues of the testis and epididymisof an adult male muntjac were processed for histological examination and stained with haematoxylineosine(HE. The parenchyma of muntjac’s testis during hard antler period showed tubuli seminiferi waslined with germinal epithelium: spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid that differentiated intospermatozoa. Sertoli cells were found among the germinal cells. In addition, Leydig cells were foundaround the blood vessel of interstitial tissue along with macrophages. Diameter of the seminiferous tubuleand epithelial thickness were 176,60±7,06 ?m and 50,27±3,62 ?m respectively. The epididymal duct wassubdivided into three segments: caput, corpus and cauda. They were lined predominantly withpseudostratified columnar epithelium which was varied in its thickness. The largest diameter of epididymalduct was found in cauda region (324,26±25,79 ?m, while caput epididymidis had the thickest of epithelialcell (62,21±4,21 ?m and tended to ce thinner in corpus (49,53±3,01 ?m and cauda epididymidis(16,30±2,27?m. The density of spermatozoa was observed the most in the lumen of cauda region comparedto caput and corpus epididymidis. In conclusion, the structure of histology and histomorphometry of theseminiferous tubule of testis and epididymal duct of muntjac were similar with small ruminants andother Cervidae during hard antler period.

  14. Developmental toxicity of toluene in male rats: effects on semen quality, testis morphology, and apoptotic neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Hossaini, A.; Hougaard, K.S.;

    2001-01-01

    In one study, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 1200 ppm toluene by inhalation 6 h a day from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 18. Sperm analysis was performed in the adult male offspring at PND 110 bp using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Toluene if id not affect the semen...... quality of exposed rats. In another study, pregnant rats were exposed to 1800 ppm from GD 7 to GD 20, and the male offspring were killed at PND 11, 21 or 90. Paired testes weight, histopathology and immunoexpression of vimentin in Sertoli cells were used as markers of testis toxicity. In the brain, the...

  15. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J;

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control...... control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota....... = 0.04). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies to...

  16. The effect of 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene on glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues of rats

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Fikriye; DERE, Egemen; GÜL, Eylem; YELKUVAN, İzzet; ÖZDEMİR, Öztürk; BİNGÖL, Günsel

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of separate and combined applications of 3-methylcholanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and potent carcinogenic agent, and butylated hydroxytoluene, the antioxidant food additive, on the glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats weighing 100-110 g at 8 weeks of age were used in this study. This study consisted of a control group (n = 9) and 3 different experiment groups in which rats were chronic...

  17. Two animated adult human voxel phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models used in radiation protection, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images, became very popular in recent years. Although being a true to nature representation of the scanned individual the scanning is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the anatomy of a person in upright standing position, which in turn can influence absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study proposes a method for human phantom design using tools recently developed in the areas of computer graphics and animated films and applies them to the creation and modelling of artificial 3 D human organs and tissues. Two animated models, a male and a female adult human phantom have been developed based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time the anatomical specifications published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult. The phantoms are called FAXAA (Female Adult voXelAverage-Average) and MAXAA (Male Adult voXelAverage-Average) because they represent female and male adults with average weight and average height. (author)

  18. RFX1 maintains testis cord integrity by regulating the expression of Itga6 in male mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Qi, Tao; Chen, Shi-Qin; Ye, Lei; Huang, Zhan-Sen; Li, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Formation and maintenance of testis cords during embryogenesis are essential for establishing testicular structure and function in adults. At least five genes (Wt1, Dhh, Sox8/Sox9, and Dax1) appear to be required for the maintenance of testis cord integrity in mice. Here, we report that RFX1 is specifically expressed in fetal Sertoli cells. Mouse embryos conditionally deficient in Rfx1 (Rfx1(flox/flox) , Amh-Cre) possessed disrupted testis cords, as the basal lamina lining was fragmented or completely absent in some areas of the testes. Spermatogenesis was blocked, leading to complete infertility. Expression of integrin alpha-6 was significantly decreased in Rfx1-deficient testes compared to control testes; indeed, luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that RFX1 directly activates transcription of Itga6 (the gene coding for integrin alpha-6). Taken together, RFX1 transcriptionally targets Itga6 in Sertoli cells, thereby, helping maintain the integrity of the basal lamina during testis cord development. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 606-614, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27228460

  19. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Anil G. Jegga; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological ann...

  20. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  1. Adult human neural stem cell therapeutics: Currentdevelopmental status and prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Nam; Kee-Hang Lee; Do-Hyun Nam; Kyeung Min Joo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, regenerative therapies usingstem cell technologies have been developed for variousneurological diseases. Although stem cell therapy is anattractive option to reverse neural tissue damage and torecover neurological deficits, it is still under developmentso as not to show significant treatment effects in clinicalsettings. In this review, we discuss the scientific andclinical basics of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), andtheir current developmental status as cell therapeuticsfor neurological disease. Compared with other typesof stem cells, aNSCs have clinical advantages, suchas limited proliferation, inborn differentiation potentialinto functional neural cells, and no ethical issues. Inspite of the merits of aNSCs, difficulties in the isolationfrom the normal brain, and in the in vitro expansion,have blocked preclinical and clinical study using aNSCs.However, several groups have recently developed noveltechniques to isolate and expand aNSCs from normaladult brains, and showed successful applications ofaNSCs to neurological diseases. With new technologiesfor aNSCs and their clinical strengths, previous hurdlesin stem cell therapies for neurological diseases could beovercome, to realize clinically efficacious regenerativestem cell therapeutics.

  2. Human-derived neural progenitors functionally replace astrocytes in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hong; Qian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Hu, Baoyang; Blackbourn, Lisle W.; Du, Zhongwei; Ma, Lixiang; Liu, Huisheng; Knobel, Karla M.; Ayala, Melvin; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are integral components of the homeostatic neural network as well as active participants in pathogenesis of and recovery from nearly all neurological conditions. Evolutionarily, compared with lower vertebrates and nonhuman primates, humans have an increased astrocyte-to-neuron ratio; however, a lack of effective models has hindered the study of the complex roles of human astrocytes in intact adult animals. Here, we demonstrated that after transplantation into the cervical spinal co...

  3. Shifts in human skin and nares microbiota of healthy children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Julia; Conlan, Sean; Polley, Eric C.; Segre, Julia A.; Kong, Heidi H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Characterization of the topographical and temporal diversity of the microbial collective (microbiome) hosted by healthy human skin established a reference for studying disease-causing microbiomes. Physiologic changes occur in the skin as humans mature from infancy to adulthood. Thus, characterizations of adult microbiomes might have limitations when considering pediatric disorders such as atopic dermatitis (AD) or issues such as sites of microbial carriage. The objective of this st...

  4. Happiness, depression and human benevolence beliefs in institutionalized and non institutionalized major adults

    OpenAIRE

    Walter L. Arias; Luis Yepez; Ana L. Núñez; Adriana Oblitas; Susana Pinedo; María A. Masías; Joice Hurtado

    2013-01-01

    In this study we analyze the relations between happiness, depression and human benevolence beliefs in a group of major people who live in asylums (24) and others who live with their families (38). We use Lima’s happiness scale, Yesavage’s Geriatric depression scale and Belief in human scale. We found that there were no significant differences between two groups of major adults in depression levels, but in happiness, positive sense of life and satisfaction with life, non institutionalized olde...

  5. An Assessemnt of Graduate Adult Education and Human Resource Development Programs: A U.S. Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdere, Mesut; Conceicao, Simone C. O.

    2009-01-01

    Due to recent changes in the workplace, the workforce and higher education have driven academic programs of adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) in the U.S. to become more integrated as part of the mission of institutions of higher education. In this exploratory study, existing graduate programs in AE and HRD in the U.S. were…

  6. An Instrument Development Model for Online Surveys in Human Resource Development and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachota, Elaine M.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Schmidt, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of a schematic model for developing and distributing online surveys. Two empirical studies that developed and implemented online surveys to collect data to measure satisfaction in various aspects of human resource development and adult education exemplify the use of the model to conduct online survey research. The…

  7. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  8. Plasticity of adult human pancreatic duct cells by neurogenin3-mediated reprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swales, Nathalie; Martens, Geert A; Bonné, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    Duct cells isolated from adult human pancreas can be reprogrammed to express islet beta cell genes by adenoviral transduction of the developmental transcription factor neurogenin3 (Ngn3). In this study we aimed to fully characterize the extent of this reprogramming and intended to improve it....

  9. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  10. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  11. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  12. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  13. Profile of the Adult Education and Human Resource Development Professoriate: Characteristics and Professional Fulfillment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shari L.; Provo, Joanne

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 113 members of the Commission of Professors of Adult Education and 50 of the Academy of Human Resource Development found few differences except in age, rank, and salary. The two faculties are compatible and could be integrated. Overall job satisfaction is high. Professors tended to come from other fields and to remain. (SK)

  14. Human-derived neural progenitors functionally replace astrocytes in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Qian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Hu, Baoyang; Blackbourn, Lisle W.; Du, Zhongwei; Ma, Lixiang; Liu, Huisheng; Knobel, Karla M.; Ayala, Melvin; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are integral components of the homeostatic neural network as well as active participants in pathogenesis of and recovery from nearly all neurological conditions. Evolutionarily, compared with lower vertebrates and nonhuman primates, humans have an increased astrocyte-to-neuron ratio; however, a lack of effective models has hindered the study of the complex roles of human astrocytes in intact adult animals. Here, we demonstrated that after transplantation into the cervical spinal cords of adult mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), human pluripotent stem cell–derived (PSC-derived) neural progenitors migrate a long distance and differentiate to astrocytes that nearly replace their mouse counterparts over a 9-month period. The human PSC-derived astrocytes formed networks through their processes, encircled endogenous neurons, and extended end feet that wrapped around blood vessels without altering locomotion behaviors, suggesting structural, and potentially functional, integration into the adult mouse spinal cord. Furthermore, in SCID mice transplanted with neural progenitors derived from induced PSCs from patients with ALS, astrocytes were generated and distributed to a similar degree as that seen in mice transplanted with healthy progenitors; however, these mice exhibited motor deficit, highlighting functional integration of the human-derived astrocytes. Together, these results indicate that this chimeric animal model has potential for further investigating the roles of human astrocytes in disease pathogenesis and repair. PMID:25642771

  15. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria. PMID:21327755

  16. Canonical genetic signatures of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L; Jegga, Anil G; Aronow, Bruce J; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F; Dierker, Donna L; Menche, Jörg; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-12-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure and function. We applied a correlation-based metric called differential stability to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing mesoscale genetic organization. The genes with the highest differential stability are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related annotations, disease associations, drug targets and literature citations. Using genes with high differential stability, we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely patterned genes displayed marked shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  17. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  18. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  19. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  20. Epidermoid cyst of the testis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docal, I.; Crespo, C.; Pardo, A.; Prieto, A.; Alonso, P. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Da Costa, Burela (Lugo) (Spain); Calzada, J. [Servicio de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Da Costa, Burela (Lugo) (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is an uncommon benign tumour, with an overall incidence of 1-2 % of all resected testicular masses. When imaging findings suggest that an intratesticular mass is likely to be an epidermoid cyst, conservative management (enucleation with testicular preservation) can be performed rather than orchidectomy. This case report records an epidermoid cyst in a 12-year-old boy in whom the US findings allowed testis-sparing surgery instead of orchidectomy. (orig.)

  1. Primary Follicular Lymphoma of the Testis in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lones, Mark A.; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Terrier-Lacombe, Marie-Josee; Ramsay, Alan D.; MacLennan, Ken; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Gerrard, Mary; Michon, Jean; Patte, Catherine; Pinkerton, Ross; Sender, Leonard; Auperin, Anne; Sposto, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study reports six cases of primary follicular lymphoma of the testis (PFLT) in children and adolescents correlated with clinical presentation, pathologic features, treatment and outcome. All six patients (ages 3 to 16 years, median 4 years) had PFLT grade 3 with disease limited to the testis, completely resected and treated with two courses of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, doxorubicin) (COPAD). Event-free survival was 100% (follow-up: median 73 months, mean 53 ...

  2. Primary Carcinoid Tumor of the Testis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kwai-Fong Ng; Chun-Te Wu; Cheng-Keng Chuang; Ying-Hsu Chang; Shuen-Kuei Liao

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoid tumor of the testis is exceedingly rare. Most carcinoid tumors occur in theappendix or ileocecal region (85%), while others are found in the lung, liver, and genitourinarytract (15%). A primary carcinoid testis tumor may originate from argentaffin orKulchitsky's cells, which are located in the Lieberkuhn crypt. Preoperative ultrasound mayshow a solid, hypoechoic, well-defined margin mass combined with calcification or a cyst.Differential diagnosis of the ultrasound appearance is tes...

  3. Polyorchidism: a torted right-sided supernumerary testis

    OpenAIRE

    Thyoka, Mandela; Lall, Anupam; Godse, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly defined by the presence of more than two histologically proven testes. The commonest variant is triorchidism, the supernumerary testis being commonly reported on the left side. Most cases of polyorchidism are found incidentally in association with undescended testis, hydrocele, hernia or torsion. We report a right-sided triorchidism in a 15-year-old boy found at time of groin exploration for an irreducible right inguinal hernia.

  4. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  5. Spinal cord injury causes sustained disruption of the blood-testis barrier in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N Dulin

    Full Text Available There is a high incidence of infertility in males following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. Quality of semen is frequently poor in these patients, but the pathophysiological mechanism(s causing this are not known. Blood-testis barrier (BTB integrity following SCI has not previously been examined. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of spinal contusion injury on the BTB in the rat. 63 adult, male Sprague Dawley rats received SCI (n = 28, laminectomy only (n = 7 or served as uninjured, age-matched controls (n = 28. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI, BTB permeability to the vascular contrast agent gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd was assessed at either 72 hours-, or 10 months post-SCI. DCE-MRI data revealed that BTB permeability to Gd was greater than controls at both 72 h and 10 mo post-SCI. Histological evaluation of testis tissue showed increased BTB permeability to immunoglobulin G at both 72 hours- and 10 months post-SCI, compared to age-matched sham-operated and uninjured controls. Tight junctional integrity within the seminiferous epithelium was assessed; at 72 hours post-SCI, decreased expression of the tight junction protein occludin was observed. Presence of inflammation in the testes was also examined. High expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta was detected in testis tissue. CD68(+ immune cell infiltrate and mast cells were also detected within the seminiferous epithelium of both acute and chronic SCI groups but not in controls. In addition, extensive germ cell apoptosis was observed at 72 h post-SCI. Based on these results, we conclude that SCI is followed by compromised BTB integrity by as early as 72 hours post-injury in rats and is accompanied by a substantial immune response within the testis. Furthermore, our results indicate that the BTB remains compromised and testis immune cell infiltration persists for months after the initial injury.

  6. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  7. The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria Recutita on the Hormonal Pituitary-Testis Axis and Testis Tissue Changes of Mature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laili Hatami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Matricaria recutita is one of the most ancient and well- known medicinal plants, and its role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases has been studied . The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Matricaria recutita on spermatogenesis and the pituitary-gonadal axis in male adult rats.   Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, the animals were divided into two groups: the control group, which received 1 ml of distilled water orally, and the experimental group, which received 100 mg/kg of Matricaria recutita extract via gavage feeding once daily for an 8-week period. After the treatment period, several fertility indices such as the weight of the reproductive organs, sperm count, sperm motility and vitality, and testis histological changes as well as blood serum levels of testosterone, estrogen, FSH, and LH were measured.   Results: Our statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the weight of the reproductive organs, sperm count, and blood testosterone in the group which received 100 mg/kg of Matricaria recutita hydroalcholic extract .   Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that hydroalcholic extract of Matricaria recutita could increase the function of the hormonal pituitary-testis axis and spermatogenesis in male rats.  

  8. Induction of GLUT-1 protein in adult human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Franch, J; Staehr, P;

    2000-01-01

    Prompted by our recent observations that GLUT-1 is expressed in fetal muscles, but not in adult muscle fibers, we decided to investigate whether GLUT-1 expression could be reactivated. We studied different stimuli concerning their ability to induce GLUT-1 expression in mature human skeletal muscle...... fibers. Metabolic stress (obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), contractile activity (training), and conditions of de- and reinnervation (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) could not induce GLUT-1 expression in human muscle fibers. However, regenerating muscle fibers in polymyositis expressed...... GLUT-1. In contrast to GLUT-1, GLUT-4 was expressed in all investigated muscle fibers. Although the significance of GLUT-1 in adult human muscle fibers appears limited, GLUT-1 may be of importance for the glucose supplies in immature and regenerating muscle....

  9. Effects of silver nanoparticles on neonatal testis development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XF

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Feng Zhang,1,2 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,1 Jin-Hoi Kim1 1Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Background: Metal nanoparticles (MNPs play an important role in consumer products. An increasing use of MNPs has raised concerns about potential risks for human health. Therefore, in vivo tests of MNPs are urgently required. Using mice as a model animal, the aim of the present study was designed to investigate the effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on spermatogenesis in neonatal mice. Methods: AgNPs were synthesized using Bacillus funiculus. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using various analytical techniques such as UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared AgNPs were used to investigate testis development in neonatal mice. Institute of Cancer Research neonatal male mice were used in all experiments and were treated with different doses (0, 1, and 5 mg/kg of AgNPs five times (interval of 3 days from postnatal day [PND] 8–21 by abdominal subcutaneous injection. Results: The results showed that the sperm abnormalities such as quality and quantity were significantly increased by the synthesized AgNPs. The diameter of the convoluted tubules shrank significantly in mice treated with AgNPs on PND28 and PND42. The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that the E1f1ay, Gsta4, and Fdx1 genes were up-regulated, and the Amh, Cx43, and Claudin-11 genes were down-regulated in response to AgNPs exposure on PND28; however, these genes recovered at PND60. AgNPs had no effect on the recombination levels of chromosomes in germ cells. Conclusion: These results demonstrated the adverse effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive

  10. Short-term monocular deprivation alters GABA in the adult human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Claudia; Emir, Uzay E; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Bridge, Holly

    2015-06-01

    Neuroplasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system that is maximal early in life, within the critical period [1-3]. Resting GABAergic inhibition is necessary to trigger ocular dominance plasticity and to modulate the onset and offset of the critical period [4, 5]. GABAergic inhibition also plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity of adult animals: the balance between excitation and inhibition in the primary visual cortex (V1), measured at rest, modulates the susceptibility of ocular dominance to deprivation [6-10]. In adult humans, short-term monocular deprivation strongly modifies ocular balance, unexpectedly boosting the deprived eye, reflecting homeostatic plasticity [11, 12]. There is no direct evidence, however, to support resting GABAergic inhibition in homeostatic plasticity induced by visual deprivation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that GABAergic inhibition, measured at rest, is reduced by deprivation, as demonstrated by animal studies. GABA concentration in V1 of adult humans was measured using ultra-high-field 7T magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after short-term monocular deprivation. After monocular deprivation, resting GABA concentration decreased in V1 but was unaltered in a control parietal area. Importantly, across participants, the decrease in GABA strongly correlated with the deprived eye perceptual boost measured by binocular rivalry. Furthermore, after deprivation, GABA concentration measured during monocular stimulation correlated with the deprived eye dominance. We suggest that reduction in resting GABAergic inhibition triggers homeostatic plasticity in adult human V1 after a brief period of abnormal visual experience. These results are potentially useful for developing new therapeutic strategies that could exploit the intrinsic residual plasticity of the adult human visual cortex. PMID:26004760

  11. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Vrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  12. Ultrastructural Evidence of Exosome Secretion by Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Myocardium and Adult Human Cardiospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Barile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34+ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an “off-the-shelf” product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  13. Microscopical studies on the effects of gamma radiation and/or pyriproxyfen (IGR) on the testis and ovary of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larval artificial diet of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.) was treated with the Lc50 of the juvenile hormone, pyriproxyfen. The produced full grown pupae were gamma irradiated at doses of 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gy. The produced four days-old adults were dissected for removing the testis or the ovary for microscopical investigations. The study revealed that pyriproxyfen and/or irradiation affected insignificantly the volume of the male testis and significantly the ovary of the female, injured the process of spermatogenesis and caused gross damage to the female ovary. The damage was increased with increasing the gamma dose level. Deformations were observed including shrinkage of testis and ovary contents, vacuolations and disturbances in the process of sperm and oocyte maturation

  14. Immuno-localisation of anti-thyroid antibodies in adult human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kogie; Botha, Julia; Raidoo, Deshandra Munsamy; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2011-03-15

    Expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) has been demonstrated in adipocytes, lymphocytes, bone, kidney, heart, intestine and rat brain. Immuno-reactive TSH-R has been localised in rat brain and human embryonic cerebral cortex but not in adult human brain. We designed a pilot study to determine whether anti-thyroid auto-antibodies immuno-localise in normal adult human cerebral cortex. Forensic samples from the frontal, motor, sensory, occipital, cingulate and parieto-occipito-temporal association cortices were obtained from five individuals who had died of trauma. Although there were no head injuries, the prior psychiatric history of patients was unknown. The tissues were probed with commercial antibodies against both human TSH-R and human thyroglobulin (TG). Anti-TSH-R IgG immuno-localised to cell bodies and axons of large neurones in all 6 regions of all 5 brains. The intensity and percentage of neurones labelled were similar in all tissue sections. TSH-R immuno-label was also observed in vascular endothelial cells in the cingulate gyrus. Although also found in all 5 brains and all six cortical regions, TG localised exclusively in vascular smooth muscle cells and not on neurones. Although limited by the small sample size and number of brain areas examined, this is the first study describing the presence of antigenic targets for anti-TSH-R IgG on human cortical neurons, and anti-TG IgG in cerebral vasculature. PMID:21196016

  15. Di(n-butyl phthalate has no effect on the rat prepubertal testis despite its estrogenic activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Długoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP on the rat’s prepubertal testis. Male Wistar rats were given daily subcutaneous injections with DBP (20 or 200 μg or a vehicle from the 5th to the 15th postnatal day (pd. On the 16th pd, the rats were euthanized, and the testes were dissected, weighed, and paraffin embedded. The blood was collected to determine the serum levels of testosterone (T, estradiol (E and FSH. The following parameters were assessed in the testis sections: diameter and length of seminiferous tubules (st, numbers of spermatogonia A + intermediate + B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene + zygotene + pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. An estrogenicity in vitro test was performed by means of a transgenic yeast strain expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. At both doses, DBP had no influence on testis and seminal vesicle weight, st diameter and length, number of germ and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. DBP did not change E, T or FSH serum levels. The in vitro yeast screen showed that DBP was a weak estrogenic compound, approximately six to seven orders of magnitude less potent than 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, exposure of a rat to DBP in doses 100 or 1,000-fold higher than a Tolerable Daily Intake for humans had no effect on its testicular development. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 685–689

  16. Identification and characterization of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream of the adult human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congmin Wang; Qiangqiang Zhang; Yue Zhang; Rui Chen; Hongjun Song; Zhengang Yang; Fang Liu; Ying-Ying Liu; Cai-Hong Zhao; Yan You; Lei Wang; Jingxiao Zhang; Bin Wei; Tong Ma

    2011-01-01

    It is of great interest to identify new neurons in the adult human brain,but the persistence of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the existence of the rostral migratory stream (RMS)-like pathway in the adult human forebrain remain highly controversial.In the present study,we have described the general configuration of the RMS in adult monkey,fetal human and adult human brains.We provide evidence that neuroblasts exist continuously in the anterior ventral SVZ and RMS of the adult human brain.The neuroblasts appear singly or in pairs without forming chains; they exhibit migratory morphologies and co-express the immature neuronal markers doublecortin,polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule and βI-tubulin.Few of these neuroblasts appear to be actively proliferating in the anterior ventral SVZ but none in the RMS,indicating that neuroblasts distributed along the RMS are most likely derived from the ventral SVZ.Interestingly,no neuroblasts are found in the adult human olfactory bulb.Taken together,our data suggest that the SVZ maintains the ability to produce neuroblasts in the adult human brain.

  17. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  18. Evidence for a stem cell hierarchy in the adult human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, René; Fridriksdottir, Agla J; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone;

    2007-01-01

    Cellular pathways that contribute to adult human mammary gland architecture and lineages have not been previously described. In this study, we identify a candidate stem cell niche in ducts and zones containing progenitor cells in lobules. Putative stem cells residing in ducts were essentially...... laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels. Staining for the lineage markers keratins K14 and K19 further revealed multipotent cells in the stem cell zone and three lineage-restricted cell types outside this zone. Multiparameter cell sorting and functional characterization with reference to anatomical sites...... in situ confirmed this pattern. The proposal that the four cell types are indeed constituents of an as of yet undescribed stem cell hierarchy was assessed in long-term cultures in which senescence was bypassed. These findings identify an adult human breast ductal stem cell activity and its earliest...

  19. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Andrew R.; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian;

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated similar to 2,0......TOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants....

  20. Adult human neural stem cells : Properties in vitro and as xenografts in the spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Though the presence of stem cells in the adult human brain has been presented earlier, much has yet to be discovered about these cells. However, the mere potential of these cells has had a significant impact of how we today evaluate the regenerative capacity of the central nervous system and, importantly, on the possible means for science to provide insights in neural repair. In this thesis a series of in vitro studies, based on the formation of neurospheres, was used to...

  1. Effect of exercise on fluoride metabolism in adult humans: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh V. Zohoori; Alison Innerd; Azevedo, Liane B; Whitford, Gary M.; Anne Maguire

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is critical to identify its biological effects and avoid fluoride toxicity in humans. Fluoride metabolism and subsequently its body retention may be affected by physiological responses to acute exercise. This pilot study investigated the effect of exercise on plasma fluoride concentration, urinary fluoride excretion and fluoride renal clearance following no exercise and three exercise intensity conditions in nine healthy adults after taki...

  2. Dynamic Gene Expression in the Human Cerebral Cortex Distinguishes Children from Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sterner, Kirstin N.; Weckle, Amy; Chugani, Harry T.; Tarca, Adi L.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Hof, Patrick R; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Boddy, Amy M.; Abbas, Asad; Raaum, Ryan L.; Grégoire, Lucie; Lipovich, Leonard; Grossman, Lawrence I; Uddin, Monica; Goodman, Morris

    2012-01-01

    In comparison with other primate species, humans have an extended juvenile period during which the brain is more plastic. In the current study we sought to examine gene expression in the cerebral cortex during development in the context of this adaptive plasticity. We introduce an approach designed to discriminate genes with variable as opposed to uniform patterns of gene expression and found that greater inter-individual variance is observed among children than among adults. For the 337 tran...

  3. The Human Adult Skeletal Muscle Transcriptional Profile Reconstructed by a Novel Computational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bortoluzzi, Stefania; d'Alessi, Fabio; Romualdi, Chiara; Danieli, Gian Antonio

    2000-01-01

    By applying a novel software tool, information on 4080 UniGene clusters was retrieved from three adult human skeletal muscle cDNA libraries, which were selected for being neither normalized nor subtracted. Reconstruction of a transcriptional profile of the corresponding tissue was attempted by a computational approach, classifying each transcript according to its level of expression. About 25% of the transcripts accounted for about 80% of the detected transcriptional activity, whereas most ge...

  4. Telomere Length in Human Adults and High Level Natural Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Birajalaxmi Das; Divyalakshmi Saini; Seshadri, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Telomere length is considered as a biomarker of aging, stress, cancer. It has been associated with many chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Although, telomere shortening due to ionizing radiation has been reported in vitro, no in vivo data is available on natural background radiation and its effect on telomere length. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present investigation is an attempt to determine the telomere length among human adults residing in high level na...

  5. Effect of histamine on proliferation of normal human adult lung fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordana, M; Befus, A D; Newhouse, M T; Bienenstock, J; Gauldie, J

    1988-01-01

    Fibrotic lung tissue shows increased connective tissue deposition and fibroblast proliferation and in addition a substantial increase in mast cell numbers in and around the fibrotic area. To elucidate the question of whether products of mast cells affect the proliferative behaviour of structural cells in the lung and thereby contribute to fibrogenesis, the effect of histamine, a prominent mast cell derived mediator, on the in vitro proliferation of primary cultures of normal adult human lung ...

  6. Comparison of plutonium distribution and radiation dose received by mouse and dog testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of the potential risk of genetic damage to the human testis from internally deposited 239Pu is mainly based on rodent data. Because of species-dependent variations in ratios of testis to body weight and in seminiferous tubule to interstitial tissue volume, an interspecies comparison of the concentration and microdistribution of 239Pu in the mouse and dog testis was carried out to estimate the radiation dose delivered to spermatogonial stem cells. Twenty-seven B6CF, and fifteen C3Hx101 male mice received an intravenous injection of 10 μCi/kg of monomeric 239Pu-citrate; nine beagle dogs received 0.3 μCi/kg. The animals were sacrificed 6 hrs, 6 days, and 100 days later, and testes were taken for 239Pu analyses and quantitative auto-radiography. The testicular Pu burdens in the B6CF1 mice and in the dogs dropped from 0.16% and 0.14% of the injected dose (ID), respectively, at 6 hours, to 0.05% ID and 0.02% ID, respectively, at 6 days, and remained constant thereafter. The testicular Pu burden in the C3Hx101 mice at 6 days was 30% higher than in the B6CF1 mice; but by 100 days the burdens in the two mouse strains were nearly equal. The ratio of testis to body weight declined 19% by 100 days in B6CF1 mice and 23% in C3Hx101 mice; this ratio remain unchanged in the dogs. Based on autoradiographic track counts, about 95% of the 239Pu in the dog testes and about 88% of the 239Pu in the testes of both mouse strains was associated with interstitial and peritubular cells. Because of this preferential distribution of 239Pu, the radiation dose received by spermatogonial stem cells is calculated to be 3.5 times higher in the mouse and 4.5 times higher in the dog than the average dose to the whole testis. Implications of these data for man will be discussed. (author)

  7. Long-Term Culture of Genome-Stable Bipotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; van Boxtel, Ruben; Hamer, Karien; Blokzijl, Francis; Verstegen, Monique M.A.; Ellis, Ewa; van Wenum, Martien; Fuchs, Sabine A.; de Ligt, Joep; van de Wetering, Marc; SASAKI, Nobuo; Boers, Susanne J.; Kemperman, Hans; de Jonge, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite the enormous replication potential of the human liver, there are currently no culture systems available that sustain hepatocyte replication and/or function in vitro. We have shown previously that single mouse Lgr5+ liver stem cells can be expanded as epithelial organoids in vitro and can be differentiated into functional hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. We now describe conditions allowing long-term expansion of adult bile duct-derived bipotent progenitor cells from human live...

  8. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  9. Rabbit neonates and human adults perceive a blending 6-component odor mixture in a comparable manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Sinding

    Full Text Available Young and adult mammals are constantly exposed to chemically complex stimuli. The olfactory system allows for a dual processing of relevant information from the environment either as single odorants in mixtures (elemental perception or as mixtures of odorants as a whole (configural perception. However, it seems that human adults have certain limits in elemental perception of odor mixtures, as suggested by their inability to identify each odorant in mixtures of more than 4 components. Here, we explored some of these limits by evaluating the perception of three 6-odorant mixtures in human adults and newborn rabbits. Using free-sorting tasks in humans, we investigated the configural or elemental perception of these mixtures, or of 5-component sub-mixtures, or of the 6-odorant mixtures with modified odorants' proportion. In rabbit pups, the perception of the same mixtures was evaluated by measuring the orocephalic sucking response to the mixtures or their components after conditioning to one of these stimuli. The results revealed that one mixture, previously shown to carry the specific odor of red cordial in humans, was indeed configurally processed in humans and in rabbits while the two other 6-component mixtures were not. Moreover, in both species, such configural perception was specific not only to the 6 odorants included in the mixture but also to their respective proportion. Interestingly, rabbit neonates also responded to each odorant after conditioning to the red cordial mixture, which demonstrates their ability to perceive elements in addition to configuration in this complex mixture. Taken together, the results provide new insights related to the processing of relatively complex odor mixtures in mammals and the inter-species conservation of certain perceptual mechanisms; the results also revealed some differences in the expression of these capacities between species putatively linked to developmental and ecological constraints.

  10. A Comparison between the Purpose and Goals of Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Whose Interests Are Being Served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, John Stuart; Byxbe, Ferris

    2002-01-01

    The purposes and goals of adult education and human resource development (HRD) differ and even clash. They find common ground in the personal development function but differ in the control and motivation for learning. Adult education seeks to enable learner self-determination; HRD's focus is enabling organizational control through employee…

  11. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shafiq A

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells.

  12. TGF-β superfamily: how does it regulate testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yun-Shu; Hu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-04-01

    Testis development is a highly regulated sequence of developmental process that spans from the establishment of germ cell lineage during embryonic development to the periodic wave of spermatogenesis in adulthood. The normal development of testes and the fertility of male animals require specific cell types to respond correctly at a specific time point, the process of which is precisely regulated by various factors. Several members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily are shown to be the key mediators. They act as the extracellular ligand of signaling transduction that regulates the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cell behaviors to help coordinate the physiology of the cells to the overall development of the testis and the organism. This paper reviews the current understanding of some of TGF-βs' major regulatory roles in the overall process of testis development, analyzes the current studies and their limitations and points out the research areas that need further investigation. PMID:21947950

  13. Evaluating human papillomavirus vaccination programs in Canada: should provincial healthcare pay for voluntary adult vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith? Robert J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, provincial health programs in Canada and elsewhere have begun rolling out vaccination against human papillomavirus for girls aged 9–13. While vaccination is voluntary, the cost of vaccination is waived, to encourage parents to have their daughters vaccinated. Adult women who are eligible for the vaccine may still receive it, but at a cost of approximately CAN$400. Given the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the vaccine, the possibility of eradicating targeted types of the virus may be feasible, assuming the vaccination programs are undertaken strategically. Methods We develop a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination against human papillomavirus, accounting for a widespread childhood vaccination program that may be supplemented by voluntary adult vaccination. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The critical vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity thresholds are derived, and the minimum level of adult vaccination required for eradication of targeted types is determined. Results We demonstrate that eradication of targeted types is indeed feasible, although the burden of coverage for a childhood-only vaccination program may be high. However, if a small, but non-negligible, proportion of eligible adults can be vaccinated, then the possibility of eradication of targeted types becomes much more favourable. We provide a threshold for eradication in general communities and illustrate the results with numerical simulations. We also investigate the effects of suboptimal efficacy and immunogenicity and show that there is a critical efficacy below which eradication of targeted types is not possible. If eradication is possible, then there is a critical immunogenicity such that even 100% childhood vaccination will not eradicate the targeted types of the virus and must be supplemented with voluntary adult vaccination. However, the level of adult

  14. Sulphation and glucuronidation of ritodrine in human foetal and adult tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, G M; Kubrich, M; Giuliani, L; de Vries, M; Rane, A

    1993-01-01

    Ritodrine is a beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist used for the management of preterm labour. It is inactivated by conjugation with sulphate and glucuronic acid. There is more ritodrine sulphate than ritodrine glucuronide in urine from the newborn whereas equal amounts of ritodrine glucuronide and sulphate are excreted in maternal urine [Clin. Pharmacol. Ther 44, 634-641, 1988]. We show that, in the mid-gestational human fetal liver, ritodrine sulphotransferase is well expressed, whereas the glucuronidation of ritodrine is little developed compared to the adult liver. The average sulphotransferase activity was 308 pmol.min-1 per mg protein in fetal (N = 48) and 145 pmol.min-1 per mg protein in adult (N = 32) liver. The rates of ritodrine sulphation in fetal gut, lung and kidney were higher than in the corresponding adult tissues. The development and tissue distribution patterns of ritodrine sulphotransferase are consistent with those of dopamine sulphotransferase. Ritodrine and dopamine are sulphated by thermolabile enzymes. The activity of glucuronyl transferase was measurable in only 5 of the 48 foetal livers assayed, and in those in which could be assayed, the average activity was 44.6 pmol.min-1 per mg protein, one-tenth of that in adult livers (524 pmol.min-1 per mg protein). PMID:8491241

  15. Primary follicular lymphoma of the testis in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lones, Mark A; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Terrier-Lacombe, Marie-Josee; Ramsay, Alan D; Maclennan, Ken; Cairo, Mitchell S; Gerrard, Mary; Michon, Jean; Patte, Catherine; Pinkerton, Ross; Sender, Leonard; Auperin, Anne; Sposto, Richard; Weston, Claire; Heerema, Nyla A; Sanger, Warren G; von Allmen, Daniel; Perkins, Sherrie L

    2012-01-01

    This study reports 6 cases of primary follicular lymphoma of the testis (PFLT) in children and adolescents correlated with clinical presentation, pathologic features, treatment, and outcome. All 6 patients (age, 3 to 16 y; median, 4 y) had PFLT grade 3 with disease limited to the testis, completely resected and treated with 2 courses of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, doxorubicin). Event-free survival was 100% (follow-up: median, 73 mo; mean, 53 mo; range, 6 to 96 mo). In conclusion, clinical outcome in children and adolescents with PFLT is excellent with treatment including complete surgical resection and 2 courses of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, doxorubicin. PMID:22215099

  16. Body size and human energy requirements: Reduced mass-specific total energy expenditure in tall adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian resting energy expenditure (REE) increases as approximately weight(0.75) while mass-specific REE scales as approximately weight(-0.25). Energy needs for replacing resting losses are thus less relative to weight (W) in large compared with small mammals, a classic observation with biological implications. Human weight scales as approximately height(2) and tall adults thus have a greater weight than their short counterparts. However, it remains unknown if mass-specific energy requirements are less in tall adults; allometric models linking total energy expenditure (TEE) and weight with height (H) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that mass-specific energy requirements scale inversely to height in adults by evaluating TEE (doubly labeled water) data collected by the National Academy of Sciences. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated from TEE, REE (indirect calorimetry), and estimated diet-induced energy expenditure. Main analyses focused on nonmorbidly obese subjects TEE as a function of height (range H(1.5-1.7)) in both men and women. TEE/W scaled negatively to height ( approximately H(-0.7), P TEE (kcal/kg/d) at +/-2 SD for US height lower in tall compared with short men (40.3 vs. 46.5) and women (37.7 vs. 42.7). REE/W also scaled negatively to height in men (P human stature and energy requirements that have implications for modeling efforts and provide new links to mammalian biology as a whole. PMID:19856424

  17. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forand, A; Messiaen, S; Habert, R; Bernardino-Sgherri, J

    2009-03-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to gamma-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. PMID:19109333

  18. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forand, A.; Messiaen, S.; Habert, R.; Bernardino-Sgherri, J. [Laboratory of Differentiation and Radiobiology of the Gonads, CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); Unit of Gametogenesis and Genotoxicity, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); INSERM, U566, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to {gamma}-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. (authors)

  19. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to γ-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. (authors)

  20. Multipotent somatic stem cells contribute to the stem cell niche in the Drosophila testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voog, Justin; D'Alterio, Cecilia; Jones, D Leanne

    2008-08-28

    Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, or niches, that have an important role in regulating stem cell behaviour. Therefore, tight control of niche number, size and function is necessary to ensure the proper balance between stem cells and progenitor cells available for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. The stem cell niche in the Drosophila male gonad is located at the tip of the testis where germline and somatic stem cells surround the apical hub, a cluster of approximately 10-15 somatic cells that is required for stem cell self-renewal and maintenance. Here we show that somatic stem cells in the Drosophila testis contribute to both the apical hub and the somatic cyst cell lineage. The Drosophila orthologue of epithelial cadherin (DE-cadherin) is required for somatic stem cell maintenance and, consequently, the apical hub. Furthermore, our data indicate that the transcriptional repressor escargot regulates the ability of somatic cells to assume and/or maintain hub cell identity. These data highlight the dynamic relationship between stem cells and the niche and provide insight into genetic programmes that regulate niche size and function to support normal tissue homeostasis and organ regeneration throughout life. PMID:18641633

  1. Cancer/testis antigens: novel tools for discerning aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Shiraishi; Robert H Getzenberg; Prakash Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1980s has dramatically altered and benefited the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer.However,the widespread use of PSA testing has resulted in overdetection and overtreatment of potentially indolent disease.Thus,a clinical dilemma today in the management of prostate cancer is to discern men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men whose disease are not lethal.Although several serum and tissue biomarkers have been evaluated during the past decade,improved markers are still needed to enhance the accuracy,with which patients at risk can be discerned and treated more aggressively.The cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of proteins that are restricted to the testis in the normal adult,but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers.Because of their restricted expression pattern,the CTAs represent attractive biomarker candidates for cancer diagnosis/prognosis.Furthermore,several studies to date have reported the differential expression of CTAs in prostate cancer.Here,we review recent developments that demonstrate the potential of the CTAs as biomarkers to discern the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer.

  2. Effect of age on expression of spermatogonial markers in bovine testis and isolated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassetti, Mariana Ianello; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Moreira, Pedro Vale; de Barros, Flavia Regina Oliveira; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz D'Ávila; Visintin, José Antônio

    2016-07-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are the most undifferentiated germ cell present in adult male testes and, it is responsible to maintain the spermatogenesis. Age has a negative effect over stem cell, but the aging effect on SSC is not elucidated for bovine. The present study aim to evaluate the effect of age on the expression of undifferentiated spermatogonial markers in testis and in enriched testicular cells from prepubertal calves and adult bulls. In this matter, testicular parenchyma from calves (3-5 months) (n=5) and bulls with 3 years of age (n=5) were minced and, isolated cells were obtained after two enzymatic digestions. Differential platting was performed for two hours onto BSA coated dish. Cell viability was assessed by Trypan Blue solution exclusion method and testicular cells enriched for SSC was evaluated by expression of specific molecular markers by qRT-PCR (POU5F1, GDNF, CXCR4, UCHL1, ST3GAL, SELP, ICAM1 and ITGA6) and flow cytometry (GFRA1, CXCR4 and ITGA6). CXCR4 and UCHL1 expression was evaluated in fixated testes by immunohistochemistry. We observed that age just affected the expression of selective genes [SELP (Fold Change=5.61; p=0.0023) and UCHL1 (Fold Change=4.98; p=0.0127)]. By flow cytometry, age affected only the proportion of ITGA6+ cells (P<0.001), which was higher in prepubertal calves when compared to adult bulls. In situ, we observed an effect of age on the number of UCHL1+ (p=0.0006) and CXCR4+ (p=0.0139) cells per seminiferous tubule. At conclusion, age affects gene expression and the population of cells expressing specific spermatogonial markers in the bovine testis. PMID:27180120

  3. Limits on efficient human mindreading: convergence across Chinese adults and Semai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Hadi, Nur Shafiqah Abdul; Low, Jason

    2015-11-01

    We tested Apperly and Butterfill's (2009, Psychological Review, 116, 753) theory that humans have two mindreading systems whereby the efficient-system guiding anticipatory glances displays signature limits that do not apply to the flexible system guiding verbal predictions. Experiments 1 and 2 tested urban Mainland-Chinese adults (n = 64) and Experiment 3 tested Semai children living in the rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia (3- to 4-year-olds, n = 60). Participants - across different ages, groups and methods - anticipated others' false-beliefs about object-location but not object-identity. Convergence in signature limits signalled that the early-developing efficient system involved minimal theory-of-mind. Chinese adults and older Semai children showed flexibility in their direct predictions. The flexible mindreading system in ascribing others' beliefs as such was task-sensitive and implicated maturational and cultural contributions. PMID:25631400

  4. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  5. Extrasynaptic location of laminin beta 2 chain in developing and adult human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Thornell, L E; Loechel, F; Zhang, X; Durkin, M E; Amano, S; Burgeson, R E; Engvall, E; Albrechtsen, R; Virtanen, I

    1997-01-01

    to the laminin beta 2 chain. We found that laminin beta 1 chain was detected at all times during development from 10 weeks of gestation. Laminin beta 2 chain was first detected in 15 to 22-week-old fetal skeletal muscle as distinct focal immunoreactivity in the sarcolemmal basement membrane area of...... some myofibers. In the adult skeletal muscle, laminin beta 2 chain immunoreactivity was found along the entire perimeter of each of the individual myofibers in a large series of different muscles studied. Laminin beta 2 chain was similarly found in the skeletal muscle basement membranes in patients......We have investigated the distribution of the laminin beta 2 chain (previously s-laminin) in human fetal and adult skeletal muscle and compared it to the distribution of laminin beta 1. Immunoblotting and transfection assays were used to characterize a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...

  6. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic testis SRX1156635 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis hg19 TFs and others Gonad Testis SRX663450,SRX663441,SRX663...438,SRX663444,SRX663451 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis hg19 All antigens Gonad Testis ERX096851,ERX096875,SRX66344...441,SRX663438,SRX663451,SRX663439,SRX663445,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis hg19 Input control Gonad Testis SRX663452,SRX663439,SRX6634...45,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis hg19 TFs and others Gonad Testis SRX663441,SRX663451,SRX663...450,SRX663444,SRX663438 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX237510,SRX244355 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis hg19 All antigens Gonad Testis ERX096851,SRX663448,ERX09687...438,SRX663444,SRX663451,SRX663439,SRX663445,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis mm9 All antigens Gonad Testis SRX689499,SRX027441,SRX027437...ERX144545,SRX118378,SRX112536,SRX112537,ERX144532,SRX112541,SRX118389 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 All antigens Gonad Testis SRX118383,SRX112538,SRX118394...ERX144545,ERX144553,SRX118378,SRX118389,SRX112536,ERX144532,SRX112537 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX237510,SRX244355 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 Input control Gonad Testis SRX112534,SRX349389,SRX02744...X118388,SRX118389 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. Effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult human osteoblasts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 陶天遵; 王新婷; 杜宁; 陈伟珍; 陶树清; 王志成; 吴丽萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult human osteoblasts in vitro. Methods Iliac trabecular bone specimens were obtained from adult patients undergoing necessary surgery. After the bone pieces were digested with collagenase-trypsin, osteoblasts were released and incubated at 37℃ in a relative humidity of 95% and 5% CO2. Then, the cells were purified, and their passages were given DMEM-F12 and fetal bovine serum medium. Subsequently, 10-8 mol/L dexamethasone was added into the culture medium to incubate the osteoblasts for three days, and the cells from control groups were incubated without any drugs. All cells were observed continually with phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope. Finally, apoptosis was detected by the use of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and biochemical indices, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) were used to determine the effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult osteoblasts in vitro. Results In the adult osteoblasts obtained by collagenase-trypsin digestion, it achieved high survial, stable biochemical indices and excellent purification. Under the condition of dexamethasone 10-8 mol/L and osteoblasts 10 000/ml, there was significant promotion of ALP and OCN secretion without cell apoptosis.Conclusions Dexamethasone has a significant effect on the proliferation and differentiation of adult osteoblasts in vitro without apoptosis, and dexamethasone at the suggested concentration can be used as positive control in drug studies for osteoporosis treatment.

  1. Inventory of Research on Adult Human Resource Development in Canada. Inventaire de la Recherche sur le Developpement des Ressources Humaines Adultes au Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Garnet T.; Caldwell, George

    This bilingual directory of research (1963-68) in the development of adult human resources in Canada indicates types of projects undertaken, principal objectives, institutions involved, amounts and sources of funding. It also shows which areas of research have been well covered, those with little or no coverage, and those which might be given a…

  2. Naïve adult stem cells isolation from primary human fibroblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Vera; Roedl, Daniela; Ring, Johannes; Djabali, Karima

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, several adult stem cell populations have been identified in human skin (1-4). The isolation of multipotent adult dermal precursors was first reported by Miller F. D laboratory (5, 6). These early studies described a multipotent precursor cell population from adult mammalian dermis (5). These cells--termed SKPs, for skin-derived precursors-- were isolated and expanded from rodent and human skin and differentiated into both neural and mesodermal progeny, including cell types never found in skin, such as neurons (5). Immunocytochemical studies on cultured SKPs revealed that cells expressed vimentin and nestin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural and skeletal muscle precursors, in addition to fibronectin and multipotent stem cell markers (6). Until now, the adult stem cells population SKPs have been isolated from freshly collected mammalian skin biopsies. Recently, we have established and reported that a population of skin derived precursor cells could remain present in primary fibroblast cultures established from skin biopsies (7). The assumption that a few somatic stem cells might reside in primary fibroblast cultures at early population doublings was based upon the following observations: (1) SKPs and primary fibroblast cultures are derived from the dermis, and therefore a small number of SKP cells could remain present in primary dermal fibroblast cultures and (2) primary fibroblast cultures grown from frozen aliquots that have been subjected to unfavorable temperature during storage or transfer contained a small number of cells that remained viable (7). These rare cells were able to expand and could be passaged several times. This observation suggested that a small number of cells with high proliferation potency and resistance to stress were present in human fibroblast cultures (7). We took advantage of these findings to establish a protocol for rapid isolation of adult stem cells from primary fibroblast cultures that are

  3. Epithelial cells with hepatobiliary phenotype: Is it another stem cell candidate for healthy adult human liver?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dung Ngoc Khuu; Mustapha Najimi; Etienne M Sokal

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence and role of liver epithelial cells in the healthy human adult liver.METHODS: Fifteen days after human hepatocyte primary culture, epithelial like cells emerged and started proliferating. Cell colonies were isolated and sub-cultured for more than 160 d under specific culture conditions. Cells were analyzed for each passage using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that liver epithelial cells expressed common markers for hepatic and stem cells such as CD90, CD44 and CD29 but were negative for CD34 and CD117. Using immunofluorescence we demonstrated that liver epithelial cells expressed not only immature (a-fetoprotein) but also differentiated hepatocyte (albumin and CK-18) and biliary markers (CK-7 and 19), whereas they were negative for OV-6. RT-PCR analysis confirmed immunofluorescence data and revealed that liver epithelial cells did not express mature hepatocyte markers such as CYP2B6, CYP3A4 and tyrosine amino-transferase. Purified liver epithelial cells were transplanted into SCID mice. One month after transplantation, albumin positive cell foci were detected in the recipient mouse parenchyma.CONCLUSION: According to their immature and bipotential phenotype, liver epithelial cells might represent a pool of precursors in the healthy human adult liver other than oval cells.

  4. Expression pattern of thymosin beta 4 in the adult human liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nemolato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a member of beta-thymosins, a family of small peptides involved in polymerization of G-actin, and in many critical biological processes including apoptosis, cell migration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. Previous studies in the newborn liver did not reveal any significant reactivity for Tβ4 during the intrauterine life. The aim of the present study was to investigate by immunohistochemistry Tβ4 expression in the adult normal liver. Thirty-five human liver samples, including 11 needle liver biopsies and 24 liver specimens obtained at autopsy, in which no pathological change was detected at the histological examination, were immunostained utilizing an anti-Tβ4 commercial antibody. Tβ4 was detected in the hepatocytes of all adult normal livers examined. A zonation of Tβ4 expression was evident in the vast majority of cases. Immunostaining was preferentially detected in zone 3, while a minor degree of reactivity was detected in periportal hepatocytes (zone 1. At higher power, Tβ4-reactive granules appeared mainly localized at the biliary pole of hepatocytes. In cases with a strong immunostaining, even perinuclear areas and the sinusoidal pole of hepatocytes appeared interested by immunoreactivity for Tβ4. The current work first evidences a strong diffuse expression of Tβ4 in the adult human liver, and adds hepatocytes to the list of human cells able to synthesize large amounts of Tβ4 in adulthood. Moreover, Tβ4 should be added to the liver proteins characterized by a zonate expression pattern, in a descending gradient from the terminal vein to the periportal areas of the liver acinus. Identifying the intimate role played by this peptide intracellularly and extracellularly, in physiology and in different liver diseases, is a major challenge for future research focusing on Tβ4.

  5. Polyamines in spermatocytes and residual bodies of rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Masashi; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Fujiwara, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry for polyamines in the rat testis revealed intense staining of small bodies close to the lumen of seminiferous tubules of spermatogenic stage VII and VIII as well as of spermatocytes. Methyl green-pyronin and proppidium iodide staining combined with DNase or RNase predigestion ...

  6. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  7. MONITORING OF REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE LEVELS AFTER TESTIS TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNXuc-Dong; XIAWen-Jia; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    The reproductive hormones in blood were measured by radioirnmunoassay (RIA) including FSH, interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH or LH) and testosterone (T) in 6 patients (average age 24.0±3.4, ranged 20-30 years old) before testis

  8. Normal uptake of F-18 FDG in the testis as assessed by PET/CT in a pediatric study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the normal testis as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET)-CT and patient age in a pediatric study population. The study population consisted of 22 subjects aged between 9 and 17 years. For these subjects 42 PET-CT scans were available for analysis. The testis was identified on the CT images. Mean standard uptake values and testicular volume were calculated based on manually drawn regions-of-interest over the organ. The correlation between mean standardized uptake value (SUV) and age as well as between testicular volume and age was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A strong and statistically significant positive correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the testis and age was documented. The correlation coefficient was 0.406 in the analysis based on 42 PET-CT studies (p=0.005). The correlation between tracer uptake and age was reassessed based on 22 PET-CT studies including the last recorded PET-CT scan per patient. The correlation coefficient was 0.409 (p=0.05). In addition, based on 22 PET-CT scans, a strong and statistically significant positive correlation between testicular volume and age was documented (r=0.67, p<0.001). Whereas it was previously shown that in adult men there was a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the normal testis and age, we found a strong and statistically significant positive correlation in children and teenage boys. (author)

  9. Cervical and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adult Women in American Samoa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Ka’opua, Lana S.; Scanlan, Luana; Ah Ching, John; Kamemoto, Lori E.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Zhu, Xuemei; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Tofaeono, Jennifer; Williams, Victor Tofaeono

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and risk factors associated with infections were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 211 adult women in American Samoa. Overall, 53% of women reported ever having a Pap smear. Cervical and anal HPV was detected in 10% and 16% of women, respectively; 4% of women had concurrent cervical and anal HPV. The most common cervical genotypes were HPV 6, HPV 16, and HPV 53. Cutaneous HPV types were detected in 40% of anal infections. Ce...

  10. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans

  11. Extrasynaptic location of laminin beta 2 chain in developing and adult human skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Wewer, U M; Thornell, L. E.; Loechel, F; Zhang, X.; Durkin, M. E.; Amano, S; Burgeson, R. E.; Engvall, E; Albrechtsen, R.; Virtanen, I.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the distribution of the laminin beta 2 chain (previously s-laminin) in human fetal and adult skeletal muscle and compared it to the distribution of laminin beta 1. Immunoblotting and transfection assays were used to characterize a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the laminin beta 2 chain. We found that laminin beta 1 chain was detected at all times during development from 10 weeks of gestation. Laminin beta 2 chain was first detected in 15 to 22-week-old f...

  12. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Aaraby Yoheswaran; Gjerstorff, Morten Frier

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27275820

  13. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis. A retrospective analysis of seven stage IE patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (stage IE) of the testis is a rare disease, it does occur in middle-aged and elderly men who are susceptible to other adult diseases and often progresses rapidly and becomes generalized. There have been few reports on the methods of treating this disease. We evaluated treatments after high orchiectomy, focusing especially on the need to irradiate the scrotum on the affected side and the contralateral testis, as well as on the efficacy and safety of half-dose chemotherapy (50%-dose ACOP). The subjects were seven stage IE patients treated in the radiology department of Shinshu University Hospital during 10 years from 1983 to 1992. Two of the patients underwent postoperative irradiation (40 Gy) of the regional lymph nodes (the postoperative irradiation group), while the other five were treated with a combination of postoperative regional lymph node irradiation and the half-dose chemotherapy (the postoperative irradiation-chemotherapy group). The 5-year disease-free survival rate for all patients was 85% (6/7). No relapses were observed in the radiation field, or even in the scrotum on the affected side or in the contralateral testis, which were not included in the radiation field. The 5-year disease-free survival rate in the postoperative irradiation-chemotherapy group was 100% (5/5), versus 50% (1/2) in the postoperative irradiation group. Administration of regional lymph node irradiation (30 Gy) and half-dose chemotherapy (50%-dose ACOP) following high orchiectomy is a safe and useful approach to treatment of stage IE primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis in middle-aged and elderly patients having other adult diseases. In patients in which local extension beyond the tunica albuginea has not occurred, irradiation of the scrotum on the affected side after high orchiectomy is unnecessary nor is it necessary to include the contralateral testis in the irradiation field. (author)

  14. Results of the use of autotransplantation of the intraabdominal testis using microsurgical vascular anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, R A; O'Brien, B M; Aberdeen, J; Richardson, W; Cussen, L J

    1980-02-01

    This study indicates that where facilities are available, the use of autotransplantation of the intraabdominal testis with microsurgical anastomosis to vessels of the groin is an acceptable, and possibly the best, alternative to orchidectomy for the intraabdominal testis. It is certainly justifiable in the case of the bilateral intraabdominal testis but in the case of the unilateral intraabdominal testis with a normally descended and apparently normal testis in the opposite hemiscrotum, the incresed incidence of neoplasia in intraabdominal testes should be taken into account in the decision on the method of treatment. PMID:6102597

  15. Selection of apoptotic cell specific human antibodies from adult bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Grönwall

    Full Text Available Autoreactive antibodies that recognize neo-determinants on apoptotic cells in mice have been proposed to have protective, homeostatic and immunoregulatory properties, although our knowledge about the equivalent antibodies in humans has been much more limited. In the current study, human monoclonal antibodies with binding specificity for apoptotic cells were isolated from the bone marrow of healthy adults using phage display technology. These antibodies were shown to recognize phosphorylcholine (PC-associated neo-determinants. Interestingly, three of the four identified apoptotic cell-specific antibody clones were encoded by VH3 region rearrangements with germline or nearly germline configuration without evidence of somatic hypermutation. Importantly, the different identified antibody clones had diverse heavy chain CDR3 and deduced binding surfaces as suggested by structure modeling. This may suggest a potentially great heterogeneity in human antibodies recognizing PC-related epitopes on apoptotic cells. To re-construct the postulated structural format of the parental anti-PC antibody, the dominant clone was also expressed as a recombinant human polymeric IgM, which revealed a substantially increased binding reactivity, with dose-dependent and antigen-inhibitable binding of apoptotic cells. Our findings may have implication for improved prognostic testing and therapeutic interventions in human inflammatory disease.

  16. Telomere length in human adults and high level natural background radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birajalaxmi Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomere length is considered as a biomarker of aging, stress, cancer. It has been associated with many chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Although, telomere shortening due to ionizing radiation has been reported in vitro, no in vivo data is available on natural background radiation and its effect on telomere length. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present investigation is an attempt to determine the telomere length among human adults residing in high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA and the adjacent normal level radiation areas (NLNRA of Kerala coast in Southwest India. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 310 individuals (HLNRA: N = 233 and NLNRA: N = 77. Telomere length was determined using real time q-PCR. Both telomere (T and single copy gene (S specific primers were used to calculate the relative T/S and expressed as the relative telomere length. The telomere length was determined to be 1.22+/-0.15, 1.12+/-0.15, 1.08+/-0.08, 1.12+/-0.11, respectively, among the four dose groups (5.00 mGy per year, which did not show any dose response. The results suggested that the high level natural chronic radiation did not have significant effect on telomere length among young adult population living in HLNRA, which is indicative of better repair of telomeric ends. No significant difference in telomere length was observed between male and female individuals. In the present investigation, although the determination of telomere length was studied among the adults with an age group between 18 to 40 years (mean maternal age: 26.10+/-4.49, a negative correlation was observed with respect to age. However, inter-individual variation was (0.81-1.68 was clearly observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this preliminary investigation, we conclude that elevated level of natural background radiation has no significant effect on telomere length among the adult population residing in HLNRAs of

  17. Cancer testis antigens and NY-BR-1 expression in primary breast cancer: prognostic and therapeutic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer–testis antigens (CTA) comprise a family of proteins, which are physiologically expressed in adult human tissues solely in testicular germ cells and occasionally placenta. However, CTA expression has been reported in various malignancies. CTAs have been identified by their ability to elicit autologous cellular and or serological immune responses, and are considered potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. The breast differentiation antigen NY-BR-1, expressed specifically in normal and malignant breast tissue, has also immunogenic properties. Here we evaluated the expression patterns of CTAs and NY-BR-1 in breast cancer in correlation to clinico-pathological parameters in order to determine their possible impact as prognostic factors. The reactivity pattern of various mAbs (6C1, MA454, M3H67, 57B, E978, GAGE #26 and NY-BR-1 #5) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue micro array series of 210 randomly selected primary invasive breast cancers in order to study the diversity of different CTAs (e.g. MAGE-A, NY-ESO-1, GAGE) and NY-BR-1. These expression data were correlated to clinico-pathological parameters and outcome data including disease-free and overall survival. Expression of at least one CTA was detectable in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 37.2% of the cases. NY-BR-1 expression was found in 46.6% of tumors, respectively. Overall, CTA expression seemed to be linked to adverse prognosis and M3H67 immunoreactivity specifically was significantly correlated to shorter overall and disease-free survival (p=0.000 and 0.024, respectively). Our findings suggest that M3H67 immunoreactivity could serve as potential prognostic marker in primary breast cancer patients. The exclusive expression of CTAs in tumor tissues as well as the frequent expression of NY-BR-1 could define new targets for specific breast cancer therapies

  18. Reprogramming of adult human neural stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Li-qian; SUN Hua-ping; WANG Tian; TANG Hai-liang; WANG Pu; ZHU Jian-hong; YAO Zheng-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Since an effective method for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human neural stem cells (hNSCs) can offer us a promising tool for studying brain diseases,here we reported direct reprogramming of adult hNSCs into iPSCs by retroviral transduction of four defined factors.Methods NSCs were successfully isolated and cultured from the hippocampus tissue of epilepsy patients.When combined with four factors (OCT3/4,SOX2,KLF4,and c-MYC),iPSCs colonies were successfully obtained.Results Morphological characterization and specific genetic expression confirmed that these hNSCs-derived iPSCs showed embryonic stem cells-like properties,which include the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo.Conclusion Our method would be useful for generating human iPSCs from NSCs and provide an important tool for studying neurological diseases.

  19. Insulin, pioglitazone and Zingiber officinale administrations improve proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining effects on diabetic and insulin resistant rat testis

    OpenAIRE

    DARAMOLA, Adetola Olubunmi; OLATUNJI-BELLO, Ibiyemi Ibitola; OBIKA, Leonard Fidelis

    2013-01-01

    This study accessed the effects of hypoglycaemic drugs on spermatogenesis in diabetic and insulin resistant rat testis following proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (120-140 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 served as control group; fed on normal rat pellets. Group 2 served as streptozotocin-insulin treated group; received a single dose IP Injection of streptozotocin 45 mg/kg BW in Na+ citrate buffer pH 4.5 and treated with in...

  20. Expression of nestin by neural cells in the adult rat and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Neurons and glial cells in the developing brain arise from neural progenitor cells (NPCs. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, is thought to be expressed exclusively by NPCs in the normal brain, and is replaced by the expression of proteins specific for neurons or glia in differentiated cells. Nestin expressing NPCs are found in the adult brain in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus. While significant attention has been paid to studying NPCs in the SVZ and SGZ in the adult brain, relatively little attention has been paid to determining whether nestin-expressing neural cells (NECs exist outside of the SVZ and SGZ. We therefore stained sections immunocytochemically from the adult rat and human brain for NECs, observed four distinct classes of these cells, and present here the first comprehensive report on these cells. Class I cells are among the smallest neural cells in the brain and are widely distributed. Class II cells are located in the walls of the aqueduct and third ventricle. Class IV cells are found throughout the forebrain and typically reside immediately adjacent to a neuron. Class III cells are observed only in the basal forebrain and closely related areas such as the hippocampus and corpus striatum. Class III cells resemble neurons structurally and co-express markers associated exclusively with neurons. Cell proliferation experiments demonstrate that Class III cells are not recently born. Instead, these cells appear to be mature neurons in the adult brain that express nestin. Neurons that express nestin are not supposed to exist in the brain at any stage of development. That these unique neurons are found only in brain regions involved in higher order cognitive function suggests that they may be remodeling their cytoskeleton in supporting the neural plasticity required for these functions.

  1. Difference of Sodium Currents between Pediatric and Adult Human Atrial Myocytes: Evidence for Developmental Changes of Sodium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzhi Cai, Xiaoqin Mu, Dongmei Gong, Shulin Jiang, Jianping Li, Qingxin Meng, Yunlong Bai, Yanju Liu, Xinyue Wang, Xueying Tan, Baofeng Yang, Yanjie Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium currents and potassium currents were shown to undergo developmental changes in postnatal human and animal cardiomocytes. However, so far, there is no evidence whether sodium currents also presented the developmental changes in postnatal human atrial cells. The aim of this study was to observe age-related changes of sodium currents between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes. Human atrial myocytes were acutely isolated and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record sodium currents isolated from pediatric and adult atrial cardiomocytes. The peak amplitude of sodium currents recorded in adult atrial cells was significantly larger than that in pediatric atrial myocytes. However, there was no significant difference of the activation voltage for peak sodium currents between two kinds of atrial myocytes. The time constants for the activation and inactivation of sodium currents were smaller in adult atria than pediatric atria. The further study revealed that the voltage-dependent inactivation of sodium currents were more slow in adult atrial cardiomyocytes than pediatric atrial cells. A significant difference was also observed in the recovery process of sodium channel from inactivation. In summary, a few significant differences were demonstrated in sodium currents characteristics between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes, which indicates that sodium currents in human atria also undergo developmental changes.

  2. Adult human nasal mesenchymal-like stem cells restore cochlear spiral ganglion neurons after experimental lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Esperanza; Van De Water, Thomas R; Lumbreras, Vicente; Rajguru, Suhrud; Goss, Garrett; Hare, Joshua M; Goldstein, Bradley J

    2014-03-01

    A loss of sensory hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons from the inner ear causes deafness, affecting millions of people. Currently, there is no effective therapy to repair the inner ear sensory structures in humans. Cochlear implantation can restore input, but only if auditory neurons remain intact. Efforts to develop stem cell-based treatments for deafness have demonstrated progress, most notably utilizing embryonic-derived cells. In an effort to bypass limitations of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells that may impede the translation to clinical applications, we sought to utilize an alternative cell source. Here, we show that adult human mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) obtained from nasal tissue can repair spiral ganglion loss in experimentally lesioned cochlear cultures from neonatal rats. Stem cells engraft into gentamicin-lesioned organotypic cultures and orchestrate the restoration of the spiral ganglion neuronal population, involving both direct neuronal differentiation and secondary effects on endogenous cells. As a physiologic assay, nasal MSC-derived cells engrafted into lesioned spiral ganglia demonstrate responses to infrared laser stimulus that are consistent with those typical of excitable cells. The addition of a pharmacologic activator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway concurrent with stem cell treatment promoted robust neuronal differentiation. The availability of an effective adult autologous cell source for inner ear tissue repair should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic. PMID:24172073

  3. Essential Microenvironment for Thymopoiesis is Preserved in Human Adult and Aged Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shiraishi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal human thymuses at various ages were immunohistologically examined in order to determine whether adult or aged thymus maintained the microenvironment for the T cell development and thymopoiesis was really ongoing. To analyze the thymic microenvironment, two monoclonal antibodies (MoAb were employed. One is MoAb to IL-1 receptor (IL-1R recognizing medullary and subcapsular cortical epithelial cells of normal infant human thymus. The other is UH-1 MoAb recognizing thymic epithelial cells within the cortex, which are negative with IL-1R-MoAb. Thymus of subjects over 20 years of age was split into many fragments and dispersed in the fatty tissue. However, the microenvironment of each fragment was composed of both IL-1R positive and UH-1 positive epithelial cells, and the UH-1 positive portion was populated with lymphocytes showing a follicle-like appearance. Lymphocytes in these follicle-like portions were mostly CD4+CD8+ double positive cells and contained many proliferating cells as well as apoptotic cells. Thus these follicle-like portions in adult and aged thymus were considered to be functioning as cortex as in infant thymus. Proliferative activity of thymocytes in the thymic cortex and the follicle-like portions definitely declined with advance of age, while incidence of apoptotic thymocytes increased with aging.

  4. The Human Adult Skeletal Muscle Transcriptional Profile Reconstructed by a Novel Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Stefania; d'Alessi, Fabio; Romualdi, Chiara; Danieli, Gian Antonio

    2000-01-01

    By applying a novel software tool, information on 4080 UniGene clusters was retrieved from three adult human skeletal muscle cDNA libraries, which were selected for being neither normalized nor subtracted. Reconstruction of a transcriptional profile of the corresponding tissue was attempted by a computational approach, classifying each transcript according to its level of expression. About 25% of the transcripts accounted for about 80% of the detected transcriptional activity, whereas most genes showed a low level of expression. This in silico transcriptional profile was then compared with data obtained by a SAGE study. A fairly good agreement between the two methods was observed. About 400 genes, highly expressed in skeletal muscle or putatively skeletal muscle-specific, may represent the minimal set of genes needed to determine the tissue specificity. These genes could be used as a convenient reference to monitor major changes in the transcriptional profile of adult human skeletal muscle in response to different physiological or pathological conditions, thus providing a framework for designing DNA microarrays and initiating biological studies. PMID:10720575

  5. Cloning of a novel gene, Cymg1, related to family 2 cystatins and expressed at specific stages of mouse testis development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. Xiang; D. S. Nie; G. X. Lu

    2004-12-01

    We have cloned a novel gene, Cymg1 (GenBank accession number AY600990), from a mouse testis cDNA library. Cymg1 is located in 2G3 of mouse chromosome 2. The cDNA includes an open reading frame that encodes 141 amino acid residues. The encoded polypeptide has a cysteine protease inhibitor domain found in the family 2 cystatins but lacks critical consensus sites important for cysteine protease inhibition. These characteristics are seen in the proteins of the CRES subfamily of the family 2 cystatins which are expressed specifically in the reproductive tract. CYMG1 protein shows 44% identity with mouse CRES and 30% identity with mouse cystatin C. Northern blot analysis showed that the Cymg1 gene was specifically expressed in adult mouse testis. RT-PCR also showed that Cymg1 was expressed in testis and spermatogonial cells. Cymg1 expression level varied in the different developmental stages of mouse testis, and were coincidental with spermatogenesis and sex maturation. These results indicate that Cymg1 may play important roles in mouse spermatogenesis and sex maturation

  6. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L.

    2013-12-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  7. The cloning and expression characterization of the centrosome protein genes family (centrin genes) in rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Xiaodong(孙晓冬); GE; Yehua(葛晔华); MA; Jing(马静); YU; Zuoren(俞作仁); LI; Sai(李赛); WANG; Yongchao(王永潮); XUE; Shepu(薛社普); HAN; Daishu(韩代书)

    2002-01-01

    Centrins are members of the centrosome protein family, which is highly conserved during revolution. The homologous genes of centrin in many organisms had been cloned, but the sequences of the rat centrin genes were not reported yet in GenBank. We cloned the cDNA fragments of centrin-1, -2 and -3 from the rat testis by RT-PCR, and analyzed the homology of the deduced amino acid sequences. The expression characterization of centrin genes in rat spermatogenesis was carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results show that the homology of the corresponding centrin proteins in human, mouse and rat is high. The expression of centrin-1 is testis-specific, spermatogenic cell-specific and developmental stage-related. Centrin-1 begins to be transcribed when the meiosis occurs, and its mRNA level reaches the peak in round spermatids. Centrin-2 and centrin-3 are highly expressed in spermatogonia and their mRNA level decreases markedly when meiosis occurs. These results suggest that centrin-1 may play roles in meiosis and spermiogenesis, and centrin-2 and centrin-3 may be related to mitosis.

  8. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-03-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis, since the onset of meiosis and spermiogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular, at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin-binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  9. Characterization of pancreatic stem cells derived from adult human pancreas ducts by fluorescence activated cell sorting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Tso Lin; Shih-Hwa Chiou; Chung-Lan Kao; Yi-Ming Shyr; Chien-Jen Hsu; Yih-Wen Tarng; Larry L-T Ho; Ching-Fai Kwok; Hung-Hai Ku

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To isolate putative pancreatic stem cells (PSCs)from human adult tissues of pancreas duct using serumfree, conditioned medium. The characterization of surface phenotype of these PSCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. The potential for pancreatic lineage and the capability of β-cell differentiation in these PSCs were evaluated as well.METHODS: By using serum-free medium supplemented with essential growth factors, we attempted to isolate the putative PSCs which has been reported to express nestin and pdx-1. The MatrigelTM was employed to evaluate the differential capacity of isolated cells. Dithizone staining, insulin content/secretion measurement, and immunohistochemistry staining were used to monitor the differentiation. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)was used to detect the phenotypic markers of putative PSCs.RESULTS: A monolayer of spindle-like cells was cultivated. The putative PSCs expressed pdx-1 and nestin.They were also able to differentiate into insulin-, glucagon-, and somatostatin-positive cells. The spectrum of phenotypic markers in PSCs was investigated; a similarity was revealed when using human bone marrow-derived stem cells as the comparative experiment, such as CD29,CD44, CD49, CD50, CD51, CD62E, PDGFR-α, CD73 (SH2),CD81, CD105(SH3).CONCLUSION: In this study, we successfully isolated PSCs from adult human pancreatic duct by using serumfree medium. These PSCs not only expressed nestin and pdx-1 but also exhibited markers attributable to mesenchymal stem cells. Although work is needed to elucidate the role of these cells, the application of these PSCs might be therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus.

  10. Prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4), an intrinsically disordered cancer/testis antigen, is a novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prakash; Dunker, A Keith; Weninger, Keith; Orban, John

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4) is a remarkably prostate-specific Cancer/Testis Antigen that is highly upregulated in the human fetal prostate and its diseased states but not in the adult normal gland. PAGE4 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that functions as a stress-response protein to suppress reactive oxygen species as well as prevent DNA damage. In addition, PAGE4 is also a transcriptional regulator that potentiates transactivation by the oncogene c-Jun. c-Jun forms the AP-1 complex by heterodimerizing with members of the Fos family and plays an important role in the development and pathology of the prostate gland, underscoring the importance of the PAGE4/c-Jun interaction. HIPK1, also a component of the stress-response pathway, phosphorylates PAGE4 at T51 which is critical for its transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation induces conformational and dynamic switching in the PAGE4 ensemble leading to a new cellular function. Finally, bioinformatics evidence suggests that the PAGE4 mRNA could be alternatively spliced resulting in four potential isoforms of the polypeptide alluding to the possibility of a range of conformational ensembles with latent functions. Considered together, the data suggest that PAGE4 may represent the first molecular link between stress and prostate cancer (PCa). Thus, pharmacologically targeting PAGE4 may be a novel opportunity for treating and managing patients with PCa, especially patients with low-risk disease. PMID:27270343

  11. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  12. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  13. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes at...... 12, 16, 20 and 27 weeks was investigated using a porcine cDNA microarray. The morphological status and androgenic levels of the same individuals have been described in a previous publication. In the present paper, expression of genes and pathways has been analysed with reference to these findings....... Nine clusters of genes with significant differential expression over time and 49 functional charts were found in the analysed testis samples. Prominent pathways in the prepubertal testis were associated with tissue renewal, cell respiration and increased endocytocis. E-cadherines may be associated with...

  14. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran P. Sajadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  15. Bilateral cystic dysplasia of the rete testis with renal adysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Harvey, Isabelle; Jovanovic, Mubina; Oligny, Luc L; Fournet, Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Cystic dyplasia of the rete testis (CDRT) is an uncommon, generally unilateral lesion characterized by anastomosing cystic spaces lined by a flattened simple cuboidal epithelium in the rete testis. In the literature this lesion often is associated with an ipsilateral urogenital lesion such as renal agenesia or multicystic dysplasia of the kidney, in order of frequency. The pathogenesis is explained by some authors by their common embryologic origin. We are reporting the finding of bilateral CDRT associated with ultrasound-diagnosed renal adysplasia in a 20-week gestational age fetus with oligohydramnios. Although CDRT has been referred to as being associated with multicystic renal dysplasia or renal agenesis, the present case appears to be unique in combining all the malformations together. PMID:16822083

  16. Comparative testis proteome dataset between cattleyak and yak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Mipam, TserangDonko; Sun, Lei; Yu, Shumin; Cai, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Cattleyak are hybrid between cattle and yak, which exhibit equivalent adaptability on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as yak and much higher capability in economic traits. However, the F1 males of cattleyak are infertile due to spermatogenic arrest and this greatly restricts the effective utilization of this hybrid. In this data article, differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified from testis proteome of cattleyak and yak using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). All the DEPs were subjected to functional classification by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and gene-pathway annotation by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The comparative testis proteome dataset here can shed new light on the molecular characteristics of male infertility of cattleyak on proteome level, "Comparative iTRAQ proteomics revealed proteins associated with spermatogenic arrest of cattleyak" [1]. PMID:27366779

  17. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072555

  18. Drug transporters, the blood–testis barrier, and spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Linlin; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2010-01-01

    The blood–testis barrier (BTB), which is created by adjacent Sertoli cells near the basement membrane, serves as a ‘gatekeeper’ to prohibit harmful substances from reaching developing germ cells, most notably postmeiotic spermatids. The BTB also divides the seminiferous epithelium into the basal and adluminal (apical) compartment so that postmeiotic spermatid development, namely spermiogenesis, can take place in a specialized microenvironment in the apical compartment behind the BTB. The BTB ...

  19. Testis-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: origin and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frishman Dmitrij

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD catalyses one of the glycolytic reactions and is also involved in a number of non-glycolytic processes, such as endocytosis, DNA excision repair, and induction of apoptosis. Mammals are known to possess two homologous GAPD isoenzymes: GAPD-1, a well-studied protein found in all somatic cells, and GAPD-2, which is expressed solely in testis. GAPD-2 supplies energy required for the movement of spermatozoa and is tightly bound to the sperm tail cytoskeleton by the additional N-terminal proline-rich domain absent in GAPD-1. In this study we investigate the evolutionary history of GAPD and gain some insights into specialization of GAPD-2 as a testis-specific protein. Results A dataset of GAPD sequences was assembled from public databases and used for phylogeny reconstruction by means of the Bayesian method. Since resolution in some clades of the obtained tree was too low, syntenic analysis was carried out to define the evolutionary history of GAPD more precisely. The performed selection tests showed that selective pressure varies across lineages and isoenzymes, as well as across different regions of the same sequences. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that GAPD-1 and GAPD-2 emerged after duplication during the early evolution of chordates. GAPD-2 was subsequently lost by most lineages except lizards, mammals, as well as cartilaginous and bony fishes. In reptilians and mammals, GAPD-2 specialized to a testis-specific protein and acquired the novel N-terminal proline-rich domain anchoring the protein in the sperm tail cytoskeleton. This domain is likely to have originated by exonization of a microsatellite genomic region. Recognition of the proline-rich domain by cytoskeletal proteins seems to be unspecific. Besides testis, GAPD-2 of lizards was also found in some regenerating tissues, but it lacks the proline-rich domain due to tissue-specific alternative splicing.

  20. Characterization of Ewing sarcoma associated cancer/testis antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlendorf, Dorothea E.; Staege, Martin Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from tumors of the Ewing family (EFT) is still poor. Immunotherapy strategies are pursued and EFT-specific antigens have to be identified as targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Due to the lack of expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTA) in normal tissues, these antigens are partially able to induce immune responses in cancer patients. Therefore, they are promising targets for immunotherapy. EFT are characterized by chromosomal rearrangements involv...

  1. Nogo-A is a reliable oligodendroglial marker in adult human and mouse CNS and in demyelinated lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Maruschak, Brigitte;

    2007-01-01

    strongly expressed in mature oligodendrocytes in vivo. In the present investigation we analyzed the expression patterns of Nogo-A in adult mouse and human CNS as well as in demyelinating animal models and multiple sclerosis lesions. Nogo-A expression was compared with that of other frequently used...... oligodendroglial markers such as CC1, CNP, and in situ hybridization for proteolipid protein mRNA. Nogo-A strongly and reliably labeled oligodendrocytes in the adult CNS as well as in demyelinating lesions and thus represents a valuable tool for the identification of oligodendrocytes in human and mouse CNS tissue...

  2. Prevalence of human norovirus and Clostridium difficile coinfections in adult hospitalized patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Janelle N; Niendorf, Sandra; Taube, Stefan; Hoehne, Marina; Young, Vincent B; Rogers, Mary AM; Wobus, Christiane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. Study design and setting For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxins from patients (n=290), whom the provider suspected of C. difficile infections. Subsequent testing was then performed for HuNoV genogroups I and II. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine symptoms more frequently associated with coinfections. Results The final cohort consisted of the following outcome groups: C. difficile (n=196), C. difficile + HuNoV coinfection (n=40), HuNoV only (n=12), and neither (n=136). Coinfected patients were more likely to develop nausea, gas, and abdominal pain and were more likely to seek treatment in the winter season compared with individuals not infected or infected with either pathogen alone. Conclusion Our study revealed that patients with coinfection are more likely to experience certain gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular abdominal pain, suggesting an increased severity of disease symptomatology in coinfected patients. PMID:27418856

  3. Differential Oxidative Stress Induced by Dengue Virus in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Adult and Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Añez, Germán; Levy, Alegria; Marcucci, Rafael; de Mon, Melchor Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Changes in immune response during lifespan of man are well known. These changes involve decreased neonatal and elderly immune response. In addition, it has been shown a relationship between immune and oxidative mechanisms, suggesting that altered immune response could be associated to altered oxidative response. Increased expression of nitric oxide (NO) has been documented in dengue and in monocyte cultures infected with different types of dengue virus. However, there is no information about the age-dependent NO oxidative response in humans infected by dengue virus. In this study, monocyte cultures from neonatal, elderly and adult individuals (n = 10 each group) were infected with different dengue virus types (DENV- 1 to 4) and oxidative/antioxidative responses and apoptosis were measured at days 1 and 3 of culture. Increased production of NO, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic anti-oxidative responses in dengue infected monocyte cultures were observed. However, neonatal and elderly monocytes had lower values of studied parameters when compared to those in adult-derived cultures. Apoptosis was present in infected monocytes with higher values at day 3 of culture. This reduced oxidant/antioxidant response of neonatal and elderly monocytes could be relevant in the pathogenesis of dengue disease. PMID:24069178

  4. Human-figure drawing and memory functioning across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K; Winblad, B; Nilsson, L -G.

    2001-03-01

    The main objective was to evaluate changes in the ability to draw the human figure (HFD) across adult life span and to relate these changes to those known to exist in memory function. Healthy adults (1000) from each of 10 five-year cohorts between 35 and 80 years were recruited randomly from a population in northern Sweden. Each participant was administered a health examination including cognitive testing and a drawing test, and an extensive examination of memory functions. For the drawing variables HFDarch and HFDtot, there is a steady decrease in episodic memory with poor drawers performing at a lower level. For semantic memory up to 65 years of age, there is no difference in performance, but thereafter a decrease. Good drawers show a better memory performance than poor drawers. For priming data for both HFDarch and HFDtot, there seems to be an interaction between age and drawing, such that poor drawers perform at a lower level for the two oldest groups but not for the youngest group. The HFDess is a valuable instrument and can support clinical evaluation as a screening for cognitive decline. The reduction of essential body details was strongly related to dementia progression, and thus as good a predictor of cognitive decline as episodic memory performance. The reduced capacity to perform a complex HFD declines with age and is most pronounced in the oldest age groups. PMID:11313105

  5. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890892

  6. Micropatterning control of tubular commitment in human adult renal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciancalepore, Anna G; Portone, Alberto; Moffa, Maria; Persano, Luana; De Luca, Maria; Paiano, Aurora; Sallustio, Fabio; Schena, Francesco P; Bucci, Cecilia; Pisignano, Dario

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of renal injury by autologous, patient-specific adult stem cells is still an unmet need. Unsolved issues remain the spatial integration of stem cells into damaged areas of the organ, the commitment in the required cell type and the development of improved bioengineered devices. In this respect, biomaterials and architectures have to be specialized to control stem cell differentiation. Here, we perform an extensive study on micropatterned extracellular matrix proteins, which constitute a simple and non-invasive approach to drive the differentiation of adult renal progenitor/stem cells (ARPCs) from human donors. ARPCs are interfaced with fibronectin (FN) micropatterns, in the absence of exogenous chemicals or cellular reprogramming. We obtain the differentiation towards tubular cells of ARPCs cultured in basal medium conditions, the tubular commitment thus being specifically induced by micropatterned substrates. We characterize the stability of the tubular differentiation as well as the induction of a polarized phenotype in micropatterned ARPCs. Thus, the developed cues, driving the functional commitment of ARPCs, offer a route to recreate the microenvironment of the stem cell niche in vitro, that may serve, in perspective, for the development of ARPC-based bioengineered devices. PMID:27105437

  7. Large-scale remapping of visual cortex is absent in adult humans with macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseler, Heidi A; Gouws, André; Haak, Koen V; Racey, Christopher; Crossland, Michael D; Tufail, Adnan; Rubin, Gary S; Cornelissen, Frans W; Morland, Antony B

    2011-05-01

    The occipital lobe contains retinotopic representations of the visual field. The representation of the central retina in early visual areas (V1-3) is found at the occipital pole. When the central retina is lesioned in both eyes by macular degeneration, this region of visual cortex at the occipital pole is accordingly deprived of input. However, even when such lesions occur in adulthood, some visually driven activity in and around the occipital pole can be observed. It has been suggested that this activity is a result of remapping of this area so that it now responds to inputs from intact, peripheral retina. We evaluated whether or not remapping of visual cortex underlies this activity. Our functional magnetic resonance imaging results provide no evidence of remapping, questioning the contemporary view that early visual areas of the adult human brain have the capacity to reorganize extensively. PMID:21441924

  8. Preliminary Study on Biological Properties of Adult Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; BAI Hai; WANG Jingchang; SHI Jingyun; WANG Cunbang; LU Jihong; OU Jianfeng; WANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method of culture and expansion of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs in vitro and to explore their biological properties. Methods: Mononuclear cells were obtained from 5 mL adult human bone marrow by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll solution. Adult human MSCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with low glucose (LG-DMEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum at a density of 2× 105 cell/cm2. The morphocytology was observed under phase-contrast microscope. The cell growth was measured by MTT method. The flow cytometer was performed to examine the expression of cell surface molecules and cell cycle. The ultrastructure of MSCs was observed under transmission electron microscope. The immunomodulatory functions of MSCs were measured by MTT method. The effects of MSCs on the growth of K562 cells and the dynamic change of HA, Ⅳ-C, LN concentration in the culture supernatant of MSCs was also observed. Results: The MSCs harvested in this study were homogenous population and exhibited a spindle-shaped fibroblastic morphology. The cell growth curve showed that MSCs had a strong ability of proliferation. The cells were positive for CD44,while negative for hematopoietic cell surface marker such as CD3, CD4, CD7, CD13, CD14, CD15, CD19,CD22, CD33, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, which was closely related to graft versus host disease. Above 90% cells of MSCs were found at G0/G1 phase. The ultrastructure of MSCs indicated that there were plenty of cytoplasmic organelles. Allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes proliferation was suppressed by MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 60.68% (P<0.01). The suppressive effect was also existed in the culture supernatant of MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 9.00% (P<0.05). When lymphocytes were stimulated by PHA, the suppression effects of the culture supernatant were even stronger and the inhibition ratio was 20.91%(P<0.01). Compared with the cell growth curve of the K562 cells alone, the K562

  9. The evidence for increased L1 activity in the site of human adult brain neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Kurnosov

    Full Text Available Retroelement activity is a common source of polymorphisms in human genome. The mechanism whereby retroelements contribute to the intraindividual genetic heterogeneity by inserting into the DNA of somatic cells is gaining increasing attention. Brain tissues are suspected to accumulate genetic heterogeneity as a result of the retroelements somatic activity. This study aims to expand our understanding of the role retroelements play in generating somatic mosaicism of neural tissues. Whole-genome Alu and L1 profiling of genomic DNA extracted from the cerebellum, frontal cortex, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, and the myocardium revealed hundreds of somatic insertions in each of the analyzed tissues. Interestingly, the highest concentration of such insertions was detected in the dentate gyrus-the hotspot of adult neurogenesis. Insertions of retroelements and their activity could produce genetically diverse neuronal subsets, which can be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

  10. Differentiation of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into Schwann-like cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-ye; ZHENG Jia-kun; WANG Chao-yang; LI Wen-yu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differentiative capability of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into Schwann-like cells. Methods: Bone marrows were aspirated from healthy donors and mononuclear cells were separated by Percoll lymphocytes separation liquid (1.073 g/ml) with centrifugation, cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 20 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Cells of passage 1 were identified with immunocytochemistry. Conclusions: Bone marrow contains the stem cells with the ability of differentiating into Schwann-like cells, which may represent an alternative stem cell sources for neural transplantation.

  11. A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Reynold; Robert Snodgrass, S; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-11-01

    In this review, a companion piece to our recent examination of choroid plexus (CP), the organ that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we focus on recent information in the context of reliable older data concerning the composition and functions of adult human CSF. To accomplish this, we define CSF, examine the methodology employed in studying the CSF focusing on ideal or near ideal experiments and discuss the pros and cons of several widely used analogical descriptions of the CSF including: the CSF as the "third circulation," the CSF as a "nourishing liquor," the similarities of the CSF/choroid plexus to the glomerular filtrate/kidney and finally the CSF circulation as part of the "glymphatic system." We also consider the close interrelationship between the CSF and extracellular space of brain through gap junctions and the paucity of data suggesting that the cerebral capillaries secrete a CSF-like fluid. Recently human CSF has been shown to be in dynamic flux with heart-beat, posture and especially respiration. Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP. The CSF also presents many exogenous compounds to CP for metabolism or removal, indirectly cleansing the extracellular space of brain (e.g., of xenobiotics like penicillin). The CSF also carries hormones (e.g., leptin) from blood via CP or synthesized in CP (e.g., IGF-2) to the brain. In summary the CP/CSF, the third circulation, performs many functions comparable to the kidney including nourishing the brain and contributing to a stable internal milieu for the brain. These tasks are essential to normal adult brain functioning. PMID:26247808

  12. Adult growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients demonstrate heterogeneity between childhood onset and adult onset before and during human GH treatment. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attanasio, A F; Lamberts, S W; Matranga, A M;

    1997-01-01

    The onset of adult GH deficiency may be during either adulthood (AO) or childhood (CO), but potential differences have not previously been examined. In this study the baseline and GH therapy (12.5 micrograms/kg per day) data from CO (n = 74; mean age 29 yr) and AO (n = 99; mean age 44 yr) GH......-deficient adult patients have been compared. The first 6 months comprised randomized, double-blind treatment with GH or placebo, then all patients were GH-treated for a further 12 months. At baseline the height, body weight, body mass index, lean body mass, and waist/hip ratio of AO patients were significantly (P...

  13. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Cyrus; Hassan Solhi; Mahdi Azizabadi Farahani; Hamid Reza Khoddami Vishteh; Davoud Goudarzi; Ghasem Mosayebi; Hamed Mohamadian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amoun...

  14. Human parvovirus PARV4 DNA in tissues from adult individuals: a comparison with human parvovirus B19 (B19V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotellini Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PARV4 is a new member of the Parvoviridae family not closely related to any of the known human parvoviruses. Viremia seems to be a hallmark of PARV4 infection and viral DNA persistence has been demonstrated in a few tissues. Till now, PARV4 has not been associated with any disease and its prevalence in human population has not been clearly established. This study was aimed to assess the tissue distribution and the ability to persist of PARV4 in comparison to parvovirus B19 (B19V. Results PARV4 and B19V DNA detection was carried out in various tissues of individuals without suspect of acute viral infection, by a real time PCR and a nested PCR, targeting the ORF2 and the ORF1 respectively. Low amount of PARV4 DNA was found frequently (>40% in heart and liver of adults individuals, less frequently in lungs and kidneys (23,5 and 18% respectively and was rare in bone marrow, skin and synovium samples (5,5%, 4% and 5%, respectively. By comparison, B19V DNA sequences were present in the same tissues with a higher frequency (significantly higher in myocardium, skin and bone marrow except than in liver where the frequency was the same of PARV4 DNA and in plasma samples where B19V frequency was significantly lower than that of PARV4 Conclusions The particular tropism of PARV4 for liver and heart, here emerged, suggests to focus further studies on these tissues as possible target for viral replication and on the possible role of PARV4 infection in liver and heart diseases. Neither bone marrow nor kidney seem to be a common target of viral replication.

  15. Relative concentrations of serum neutralizing antibody to VP3 and VP7 proteins in adults infected with a human rotavirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R. L.; Knowlton, D R; Schiff, G M; Hoshino, Y.; Greenberg, H B

    1988-01-01

    Two outer capsid rotavirus proteins, VP3 and VP7, have been found to elicit neutralizing-antibody production, but the immunogenicity of these proteins during human rotavirus infection has not been determined. The relative amounts of serum neutralizing antibody against the VP3 and VP7 proteins of the CJN strain of human rotavirus were, therefore, determined in adult subjects before and after infection with this virus. Reassortant strains of rotavirus that contained the CJN gene segment for onl...

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Sustained-Release Recombinant Human Growth Hormone in Korean Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngsook; Hong, Jae Won; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Sung-Woon; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jin Hwa; Kim, Byung-Joon; Lee, Eun Jig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The administration of recombinant human growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency has been known to improve metabolic impairment and quality of life. Patients, however, have to tolerate daily injections of growth hormone. The efficacy, safety, and compliance of weekly administered sustained-release recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH, Declage™) supplement in patients with growth hormone deficiency were evaluated. Materials and Methods This trial is 12-week prospect...

  17. Electrophysiological Profiles of Induced Neurons Converted Directly from Adult Human Fibroblasts Indicate Incomplete Neuronal Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppensteiner, Peter; Boehm, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The direct conversion of human fibroblasts to neuronal cells, termed human induced neuronal (hiN) cells, has great potential for future clinical advances. However, previous studies have not provided an in-depth analysis of electrophysiological properties of adult fibroblast-derived hiN cultures. We have examined the electrophysiological profile of hiN cells by measuring passive and active membrane properties, as well as spontaneous and evoked neurotransmission. We found that hiN cells exhibited passive membrane properties equivalent to perinatal rodent neurons. In addition, 30% of hiN cells were incapable of action potential (AP) generation and did not exhibit rectifying membrane currents, and none of the cells displayed firing patterns of typical glutamatergic pyramidal neurons. Finally, hiN cells exhibited neither spontaneous nor evoked neurotransmission. Our results suggest that current methods used to produce hiN cells provide preparations in which cells do not achieve the cellular properties of fully mature neurons, rendering these cells inadequate to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25437871

  18. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian’an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna AE; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex SF; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor VA; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John JP; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela AF; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul IW; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L.; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth JF; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explain one-fifth of heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ~2,000, ~3,700 and ~9,500 SNPs explained ~21%, ~24% and ~29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured the majority (60%) of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci enriched for genes, pathways, and tissue-types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin, and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  19. Effect of the N-terminal residues on the quaternary dynamics of human adult hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shanyan; Mizuno, Misao; Ishikawa, Haruto; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2016-05-01

    The protein dynamics of human hemoglobin following ligand photolysis was studied by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy. The time-resolved spectra of two kinds of recombinant hemoglobin expressed in Escherichia coli, normal recombinant hemoglobin and the α(V1M)/β(V1M) double mutant, were compared with those of human adult hemoglobin (HbA) purified from blood. A frequency shift of the iron-histidine stretching [ν(Fe-His)] band was observed in the time-resolved spectra of all three hemoglobin samples, indicative of tertiary and quaternary changes in the protein following photolysis. The spectral changes of the α(V1M)/β(V1M) double mutant were distinct from those of HbA in the tens of microseconds region, whereas the spectral changes of normal recombinant hemoglobin were similar to those of HbA isolated from blood. These results demonstrated that a structural change in the N-termini is involved in the second step of the quaternary structure change of hemoglobin. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the allosteric pathway of HbA.

  20. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrew R; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V A; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela A F; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth J F; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2014-11-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  1. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Causes Perturbation of the Human Gut Microbiome in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Wan-Chen Yap

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome.As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18-30 years-old volunteers. The same cohort was followed up 6, 12 and 18 months-post H. pylori eradication. The impact of H. pylori on the human gut microbiome pre- and post-eradication was investigated using high throughput 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region sequencing using the Illumina Miseq followed by data analysis using Qiime pipeline.We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in the fecal microbiome of the H. pylori-positive volunteers, before and after H. pylori eradication therapy. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced at an average of 150,000-170,000 reads/sample. The microbial diversity were similar pre- and post-H. pylori eradication with no significant differences in richness and evenness of bacterial species. Despite that the general profile of the gut microbiome was similar pre- and post-eradication, some changes in the bacterial communities at the phylum and genus levels were notable, particularly the decrease in relative abundance of Bacterioidetes and corresponding increase in Firmicutes after H. pylori eradication. The significant increase of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA-producing bacteria genera could also be associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders.Our preliminary stool metagenomics study shows that eradication of H. pylori caused perturbation of the gut microbiome and may indirectly affect the health of human. Clinicians should be aware of the effect of broad spectrum antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication regimen and be cautious in the clinical

  2. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Causes Perturbation of the Human Gut Microbiome in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Gan, Han-Ming; Lee, Yin-Peng; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Francois, Fritz; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Loke, Mun-Fai; Goh, Khean-Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome. Methods As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths) study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18–30 years-old) volunteers. The same cohort was followed up 6, 12 and 18 months-post H. pylori eradication. The impact of H. pylori on the human gut microbiome pre- and post-eradication was investigated using high throughput 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina Miseq followed by data analysis using Qiime pipeline. Results We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in the fecal microbiome of the H. pylori-positive volunteers, before and after H. pylori eradication therapy. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced at an average of 150,000–170,000 reads/sample. The microbial diversity were similar pre- and post-H. pylori eradication with no significant differences in richness and evenness of bacterial species. Despite that the general profile of the gut microbiome was similar pre- and post-eradication, some changes in the bacterial communities at the phylum and genus levels were notable, particularly the decrease in relative abundance of Bacterioidetes and corresponding increase in Firmicutes after H. pylori eradication. The significant increase of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-producing bacteria genera could also be associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders. Conclusions Our preliminary stool metagenomics study shows that eradication of H. pylori caused perturbation of the gut microbiome and may indirectly affect the health of human. Clinicians should be aware of the effect of broad spectrum antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication regimen

  3. GH safety workshop position paper: A critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, t...

  4. The Model Human Processor and the Older Adult: Parameter Estimation and Validation within a Mobile Phone Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzembski, Tiffany S.; Charness, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The authors estimate weighted mean values for nine information processing parameters for older adults using the Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) Model Human Processor model. The authors validate a subset of these parameters by modeling two mobile phone tasks using two different phones and comparing model predictions to a sample of younger (N = 20;…

  5. TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus status of oral squamous cell carcinomas in young adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.M. Braakhuis; M.M. Rietbergen; M. Buijze; P.J.F. Snijders; E. Bloemena; R.H. Brakenhoff; C.R. Leemans

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the molecular carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in young adult patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status of OSCC in patients, younger than 45 years. Methods TP53 mutations w

  6. Effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on local radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the normal group, the model group, positive control group and LJP treatment group (50 mg·kg-1·d-1). LJP was applied to the treatment group for 10 d before local irradiation with γ-ray (6.0 Gy). The morphological change of the testis, organ index of testis and epididymides, sperm count, motility rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonic aldehyde (MDA) contents were measured. Results: LJP could make the damaged testis recover to near normal, elevate the organ index of testis and epididymides, promote the sperm count and motility rate, increase the activity of SOD and decrease the contents of MDA in testis tissue. Conclusions: LJP could inhibit testis tissue damage induced by local radiation, hence enhance the significant radioprotective effect to testis tissue. LJP has the conspicuous protective effect on radiation damage of testis tissue. (authors)

  7. Gadd45g is essential for primary sex determination, male fertility and testis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Johnen

    Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

  8. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Mammalian Testis Function: Emerging Preclinical Protein Biomarker and Integrative Biology Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mariana; Freitas, Maria João; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-09-01

    Exercise and physical activity have long been recognized for health promotion and to delay the onset of many pathological situations such as diabetes and cancers. Still, there appears to be an upper limit on the beneficial health effects regarding intensity and frequency of exercise training. In humans, the effect of exercise training in the male reproductive system has been studied mainly through the analysis of semen quality parameters, with inconsistent results. Less is known on molecular biomarkers of exercise-related changes in testis at the protein/proteome level. This review offers an in-depth analysis on the small scale protein studies available primarily from the preclinical studies and interprets their functional impact on the reproductive health with a view to humans. In all, exercise training in preclinical models seems to negatively modulate, in the course of health, critical functions that directly affect spermatogenesis, such as testosterone biosynthesis, energy supply, and antioxidant system components. Exercise training induces apoptosis, leading to the impairment of spermatogenesis and, consequently, to male infertility. In pathological conditions, an improvement in the testicular functions is observed by increases in steroidogenic enzymes and antioxidant defenses, and reductions in activity of inflammatory pathways. Importantly, the mechanisms by which exercise training modulates the reproductive function are far from being fully understood. The analyses of the testis proteome in varying exercise conditions would inform the molecular mechanisms involved and identify putative theranostics opportunities. Such future research is a cornerstone for health promotion in the pursuit of reproductive health informed by omics systems sciences. PMID:26284990

  9. Detection of embryonic stem cell markers in adult human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarasa Bharati Arumugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone marrow transplantation is already an established therapy, which is now widely used in medicine to treat leukemia, lymphoma, and several inherited blood disorders. The culture of multilineage cells from easily available adipose tissue is another source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, and is referred to as adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs. While ADSCs are being used to treat various conditions, some lacuna exists regarding the specific proteins in these. It was therefore decided to analyze the specific proteins of embryonic cells in ADSCs. Aims: To analyze the specific protein of embryonic stem cells (ESCs in ADSCs. Materials and Methods: Adult human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs were harvested from 13 patients after obtaining patients′ consent. The specific markers of ESCs included surface proteins CD10, CD13, CD44, CD59, CD105, and CD166, and further nucleostemin,(NS NANOG, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gγ, collagen type 1 (Coll1, alkaline phosphate, (ALP osteocalcin (OC, and core binding factor 1 (Cbfa1 were analyzed using by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, (RT-PCR immunofluorescence (IF, and western blot. Results: All the proteins were expressed distinctly, except CD13 and OC. CD13 was found individually with different expressions, and OC expression was discernable. Conclusions: Although the ESC with its proven self-renewal capacity and pluripotency seems appropriate for clinical use, the recent work on ADSCs suggests that these adult stem cells would be a valuable source for future biotechnology, especially since there is a relative ease of procurement.

  10. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew H; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject's whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference. PMID:26948153

  11. Expression profiling of rainbow trout testis development identifies evolutionary conserved genes involved in spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquerré Diane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatogenesis is a late developmental process that involves a coordinated expression program in germ cells and a permanent communication between the testicular somatic cells and the germ-line. Current knowledge regarding molecular factors driving male germ cell proliferation and differentiation in vertebrates is still limited and mainly based on existing data from rodents and human. Fish with a marked reproductive cycle and a germ cell development in synchronous cysts have proven to be choice models to study precise stages of the spermatogenetic development and the germ cell-somatic cell communication network. In this study we used 9K cDNA microarrays to investigate the expression profiles underlying testis maturation during the male reproductive cycle of the trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Results Using total testis samples at various developmental stages and isolated spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, 3379 differentially expressed trout cDNAs were identified and their gene activation or repression patterns throughout the reproductive cycle were reported. We also performed a tissue-profiling analysis and highlighted many genes for which expression signals were restricted to the testes or gonads from both sexes. The search for orthologous genes in genome-sequenced fish species and the use of their mammalian orthologs allowed us to provide accurate annotations for trout cDNAs. The analysis of the GeneOntology terms therefore validated and broadened our interpretation of expression clusters by highlighting enriched functions that are consistent with known sequential events during male gametogenesis. Furthermore, we compared expression profiles of trout and mouse orthologs and identified a complement of genes for which expression during spermatogenesis was maintained throughout evolution. Conclusion A comprehensive study of gene expression and associated functions during testis maturation and germ cell differentiation in

  12. Autopubblicazione e pubblicazione coordinata di testi storici in formato digitale

    OpenAIRE

    Delle Donne, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    L'articolo presenta due diverse esperienze di pubblicazione di testi scientifici in formato digitale: Reti medievali (www.retimedievali.it), un’iniziativa online nata nel 1998 per volontà di un gruppo di docenti delle università di Firenze, Napoli, Palermo, Venezia e Trento, ed ora ulteriormente allargata a colleghi di altri atenei italiani ed europei; ClioPress (www.cliopress.it), un progetto di editoria digitale per la didattica e la ricerca storica realizzato nell’ambito del Dipartimento d...

  13. Gonadal Identity in the Absence of Pro-Testis Factor SOX9 and Pro-Ovary Factor Beta-Catenin in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Barbara; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2015-08-01

    Sex-reversal cases in humans and genetic models in mice have revealed that the fate of the bipotential gonad hinges upon the balance between pro-testis SOX9 and pro-ovary beta-catenin pathways. Our central query was: if SOX9 and beta-catenin define the gonad's identity, then what do the gonads become when both factors are absent? To answer this question, we developed mouse models that lack either Sox9, beta-catenin, or both in the somatic cells of the fetal gonads and examined the morphological outcomes and transcriptome profiles. In the absence of Sox9 and beta-catenin, both XX and XY gonads progressively lean toward the testis fate, indicating that expression of certain pro-testis genes requires the repression of the beta-catenin pathway, rather than a direct activation by SOX9. We also observed that XY double knockout gonads were more masculinized than their XX counterpart. To identify the genes responsible for the initial events of masculinization and to determine how the genetic context (XX vs. XY) affects this process, we compared the transcriptomes of Sox9/beta-catenin mutant gonads and found that early molecular changes underlying the XY-specific masculinization involve the expression of Sry and 21 SRY direct target genes, such as Sox8 and Cyp26b1. These results imply that when both Sox9 and beta-catenin are absent, Sry is capable of activating other pro-testis genes and drive testis differentiation. Our findings not only provide insight into the mechanism of sex determination, but also identify candidate genes that are potentially involved in disorders of sex development. PMID:26108792

  14. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms-modeled entirely in mesh surfaces-of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo

  15. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  16. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Yong Hum; Xu, X George [Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Zhang Binquan; Zhang Juying; Caracappa, Peter F, E-mail: xug2@rpi.ed [Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms-modeled entirely in mesh surfaces-of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  17. Immunomodulatory properties of human adult and fetal multipotent mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sytwu Huey-Kang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a large number of studies have contributed to our understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms used by multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Initially isolated from the bone marrow (BM, MSCs have been found in many tissues but the strong immunomodulatory properties are best studied in BM MSCs. The immunomodulatory effects of BM MSCs are wide, extending to T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, and are therapeutically useful for treatment of immune-related diseases including graft-versus-host disease as well as possibly autoimmune diseases. However, BM MSCs are very rare cells and require an invasive procedure for procurement. Recently, MSCs have also been found in fetal-stage embryo-proper and extra-embryonic tissues, and these human fetal MSCs (F-MSCs have a higher proliferative profile, and are capable of multilineage differentiation as well as exert strong immunomodulatory effects. As such, these F-MSCs can be viewed as alternative sources of MSCs. We review here the current understanding of the mechanisms behind the immunomodulatory properties of BM MSCs and F-MSCs. An increase in our understanding of MSC suppressor mechanisms will offer insights for prevalent clinical use of these versatile adult stem cells in the near future.

  18. Morphometry Of Jugular Foramen Of Dry Adult Human Skulls Of South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Krishnamurthy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Jugular foramen (JF lies between the occipital and the petrosal part of the temporal bone, and allows the passage of important nerves and vascular elements i.e. the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves and the internal jugular vein. It is a potential site for development of schwannomas, metastatic lesions, and infiltrative inflammatory processes from the surrounding structures such as middle ear. JF is difficult to approach surgically, but recent advanced techniques especially image intensifier to guide the suboccipital lateral approach have made the treatment possible despite the difficulties. Hence a detailed morphological and anatomical knowledge of this region is required. The morphologic dimensions, presence or absence of septation etc varies in various races and ethnic groups as reported in previous literature. But such detailed study has been lacking in south Indian population .Thus the present descriptive study was conducted in department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore on 50 dried adult human skulls i.e. 100 JF of Dravidian (south Indian origin. The maximum antero-posterior and transverse diameter and depth of the jugular fossa of both sides were measured and septation was 6% on the right side and 8% on the left side using vernier calipers. The presence of spicules / septation of the jugular foramen were also observed on both sides. The obtained results presented variations regarding some parameters when compared to previous studies, thus making it evident the significance of race in the morphometric measurements and characteristics of the JF.

  19. Growth of the human lens in the Indian adult population: Preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashik Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The eye lens grows throughout life by the addition of new cells inside the surrounding capsule. How this growth affects the properties of the lens is essential for understanding disorders such as cataract and presbyopia. Aims: To examine growth of the human lens in the Indian population and compare this with the growth in Western populations by measuring in vitro dimensions together with wet and dry weights. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the research wing of a tertiary eye care center in South India and the study design was prospective. Materials and Methods: Lenses were removed from eye bank eyes and their dimensions measured with a digital caliper. They were then carefully blotted dry and weighed before being placed in 5% buffered formalin. After 1 week fixation, the lenses were dried at 80 °C until constant weight was achieved. The constant weight was noted as the dry weight of the lens. Statistical Analysis Used: Lens parameters were analyzed as a function of age using linear and logarithmic regression methods. Results: Data were obtained for 251 lenses, aged 16-93 years, within a median postmortem time of 22 h. Both wet and dry weights increased linearly at 1.24 and 0.44 mg/year, respectively, throughout adult life. The dimensions also increased continuously throughout this time. Conclusions: Over the age range examined, lens growth in the Indian population is very similar to that in Western populations.

  20. Open-Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Adult Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Finoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cell culture within three-dimensional structures provides an improved culture system for various applications in basic research, pharmacological screening, and implantable or extracorporeal liver support. Biodegradable calcium-based scaffolds in such systems could enhance liver cell functionality by providing endothelial and hepatic cell support through locally elevated calcium levels, increased surface area for cell attachment, and allowing three-dimensional tissue restructuring. Open-porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated and seeded with primary adult human liver cells, which were embedded within or without gels of extracellular matrix protein collagen-1 or hyaluronan. Metabolic functions were assessed after 5, 15, and 28 days. Longer-term cultures exhibited highest cell numbers and liver specific gene expression when cultured on hydroxyapatite scaffolds in collagen-1. Endothelial gene expression was induced in cells cultured on scaffolds without extracellular matrix proteins. Hydroxyapatite induced gene expression for cytokeratin-19 when cells were cultured in collagen-1 gel while culture in hyaluronan increased cytokeratin-19 gene expression independent of the use of scaffold in long-term culture. The implementation of hydroxyapatite composites with extracellular matrices affected liver cell cultures and cell differentiation depending on the type of matrix protein and the presence of a scaffold. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds enable scale-up of hepatic three-dimensional culture models for regenerative medicine applications.

  1. Low Power Laser Irradiation Stimulates the Proliferation of Adult Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing; Uygun, Basak; Banerjee, Ipsita; Nahmias, Yaakov; Zhang, Quan; Berthiaume, François; Latina, Mark; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low power laser irradiation on the proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Adult human RPE cells were artificially pigmented by preincubation with sepia melanin, and exposed to a single sublethal laser pulse (590 nm, 1 µs, <200 mJ/cm2). DNA synthesis, cell number, and growth factor activity in irradiated RPE cells were subsequently monitored. The effect of sublethal laser irradiation on the “wound” healing response of an RPE monolayer in an in vitro scratch assay was also investigated. Single pulsed laser irradiation increased DNA synthesis in pigmented RPE cells measured 6 h post-treatment. In the scratch assay, laser irradiation increased the rates of cell proliferation and wound closure. Conditioned medium, collected 48 h following laser treatment, increased cell proliferation of unirradiated cells. Irradiation increased RPE cell secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B chain, and increased mRNA levels of several growth factors and their receptors, including PDGF, transforming growth factor-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, as well as heat shock proteins. This demonstrates, for the first time, that low power single pulsed laser irradiation stimulates the proliferation of RPE cells, and upregulates growth factors that are mitogenic for RPE cells. PMID:26740823

  2. Open-Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Adult Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Eva; Over, Patrick; Nettleship, Ian; Gerlach, Joerg C.

    2016-01-01

    Liver cell culture within three-dimensional structures provides an improved culture system for various applications in basic research, pharmacological screening, and implantable or extracorporeal liver support. Biodegradable calcium-based scaffolds in such systems could enhance liver cell functionality by providing endothelial and hepatic cell support through locally elevated calcium levels, increased surface area for cell attachment, and allowing three-dimensional tissue restructuring. Open-porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated and seeded with primary adult human liver cells, which were embedded within or without gels of extracellular matrix protein collagen-1 or hyaluronan. Metabolic functions were assessed after 5, 15, and 28 days. Longer-term cultures exhibited highest cell numbers and liver specific gene expression when cultured on hydroxyapatite scaffolds in collagen-1. Endothelial gene expression was induced in cells cultured on scaffolds without extracellular matrix proteins. Hydroxyapatite induced gene expression for cytokeratin-19 when cells were cultured in collagen-1 gel while culture in hyaluronan increased cytokeratin-19 gene expression independent of the use of scaffold in long-term culture. The implementation of hydroxyapatite composites with extracellular matrices affected liver cell cultures and cell differentiation depending on the type of matrix protein and the presence of a scaffold. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds enable scale-up of hepatic three-dimensional culture models for regenerative medicine applications.

  3. Dynamic gene expression in the human cerebral cortex distinguishes children from adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Kirstin N; Weckle, Amy; Chugani, Harry T; Tarca, Adi L; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Boddy, Amy M; Abbas, Asad; Raaum, Ryan L; Grégoire, Lucie; Lipovich, Leonard; Grossman, Lawrence I; Uddin, Monica; Goodman, Morris; Wildman, Derek E

    2012-01-01

    In comparison with other primate species, humans have an extended juvenile period during which the brain is more plastic. In the current study we sought to examine gene expression in the cerebral cortex during development in the context of this adaptive plasticity. We introduce an approach designed to discriminate genes with variable as opposed to uniform patterns of gene expression and found that greater inter-individual variance is observed among children than among adults. For the 337 transcripts that show this pattern, we found a significant overrepresentation of genes annotated to the immune system process (pFDR ~/= 0). Moreover, genes known to be important in neuronal function, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are included among the genes more variably expressed in childhood. We propose that the developmental period of heightened childhood neuronal plasticity is characterized by more dynamic patterns of gene expression in the cerebral cortex compared to adulthood when the brain is less plastic. That an overabundance of these genes are annotated to the immune system suggests that the functions of these genes can be thought of not only in the context of antigen processing and presentation, but also in the context of nervous system development. PMID:22666384

  4. An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eHartley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between human hippocampal structure and topographical memory was investigated in healthy adults (N=30. Structural MR images were acquired, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to estimate local gray matter volume throughout the brain. A complementary automated mesh-based segmentation approach was used to independently isolate and measure specified structures including the hippocampus. Topographical memory was assessed using a version of the Four Mountains Task, a short test designed to target hippocampal spatial function. Each item requires subjects to briefly study a landscape scene before recognizing the depicted place from a novel viewpoint and under altered non-spatial conditions when presented amongst similar alternative scenes. Positive correlations between topographical memory performance and hippocampal volume were observed in both VBM and segmentation-based analyses. Score on the topographical memory task was also correlated with the volume of some subcortical structures, extra-hippocampal gray matter and total brain volume, with the most robust and extensive covariation seen in circumscribed neocortical regions in the insula and anterior temporal lobes. Taken together with earlier findings, the results suggest that global variations in brain morphology affect the volume of the hippocampus and its specific contribution to topographical memory. We speculate that behavioral variation might arise directly through the impact of resource constraints on spatial representations in the hippocampal formation and its inputs, and perhaps indirectly through an increased reliance on non-allocentric strategies.

  5. The effect of microgravity on tissue structure and function of rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ding

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether an environment of weightlessness will cause damage to the reproductive system of animals, we used the tail-suspension model to simulate microgravity, and investigated the effect of microgravity on the tissue structure and function of the testis in sexually mature male rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly assigned to three groups (N = 16 each: control, tail traction, and tail suspension. After the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days, morphological changes of testis were evaluated by histological and electron microscopic methods. The expression of HSP70, bax/bcl-2 and AR (androgen receptor in testis was measured by immunohistochemistry. Obvious pathological lesions were present in the testis after the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days. We detected overexpression of HSP70 and an increase of apoptotic cells, which may have contributed to the injury to the testis. The expression of AR, as an effector molecule in the testis, was significantly decreased in the suspended groups compared to control (P < 0.01. We also observed that, with a longer time of suspension, the aforementioned pathological damage became more serious and some pathological injury to the testis was irreversible. The results demonstrated that a short- or medium-term microgravity environment could lead to severe irreversible damage to the structure of rat testis.

  6. Screening for Y microdeletions in men with testicular cancer and undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, Pinar; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Kølvraa, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate a possible association between testicular cancer or undescended testis and Y microdeletions. METHODS: It was designed as a retrospective clinical study. A total of 225 men with testicular cancer or undescended testis were included to study. Fertile men (n = 200) were inves...

  7. Building the mammalian testis: origins, differentiation, and assembly of the component cell populations

    OpenAIRE

    Svingen, Terje; Koopman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Testis development in the mammalian embryo requires the formation and assembly of several cell types that allow these organs to achieve their roles in male reproduction and endocrine regulation. In this review, Svingen and Koopman focus on the issues of cell differentiation and development of the testis architecture and highlight the questions that remain to be explored.

  8. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manceur, Aziza P. [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tseng, Michael [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Holowacz, Tamara [Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Witterick, Ian [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); McCurdy, Richard D. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); Warsh, Jerry J. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Audet, Julie, E-mail: julie.audet@utoronto.ca [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Human parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis in an adult patient with hereditary spherocytosis: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Yujin; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Ishiwatari, Yusaku; Kanno, Hitoshi; Takei, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there are several case reports of human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with hereditary spherocytosis, no systematic reviews of adult patients with hereditary spherocytosis with human parvovirus B19 infection have been published as clinical case reports. In this study, we report a case of aplastic crisis due to human parvovirus B19 infection in an adult patient with hereditary spherocytosis. Case presentation A 33-year-old woman with hereditary spherocytosis and galls...

  11. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPIAM and female RPIAF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  12. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  13. Protocol to isolate a large amount of functional oligodendrocyte precursor cells from the cerebral cortex of adult mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María Medina-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available During development, oligodendrocytes are generated from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs, a cell type that is a significant proportion of the total cells (3-8% in the adult central nervous system (CNS of both rodents and humans. Adult OPCs are responsible for the spontaneous remyelination that occurs in demyelinating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS and they constitute an interesting source of cells for regenerative therapy in such conditions. However, there is little data regarding the neurobiology of adult OPCs isolated from mice since an efficient method to isolate them has yet to be established. We have designed a protocol to obtain viable adult OPCs from the cerebral cortex of different mouse strains and we have compared its efficiency with other well-known methods. In addition, we show that this protocol is also useful to isolate functional OPCs from human brain biopsies. Using this method we can isolate primary cortical OPCs in sufficient quantities so as to be able to study their survival, maturation and function, and to facilitate an evaluation of their utility in myelin repair.

  14. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  15. Estimated Human and Economic Burden of Four Major Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, John M; McGinnis, Justin J; Tan, Litjen; Mercatante, Annette; Fortuna, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific incidence rates obtained from the literature by age-specific 2013 Census population data. We then multiplied the estimated number of cases for a given population by age-specific, estimated medical and indirect (non-medical) costs per case. Adult VPDs examined were: (1) influenza, (2) pneumococcal disease (both invasive disease and pneumonia), (3) herpes zoster (shingles), and (4) pertussis (whooping cough). Sensitivity analyses simulated the impact of various epidemiological scenarios on the total estimated economic burden. Estimated US annual cost for the four adult VPDs was $26.5 billion (B) among adults aged 50 years and older, $15.3B (58 %) of which was attributable to those 65 and older. Among adults 50 and older, influenza, pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, and pertussis made up $16.0B (60 %), $5.1B (19 %), $5.0B (19 %), and $0.4B (2 %) of the cost, respectively. Among those 65 and older, they made up $8.3B (54 %), $3.8B (25 %), $3.0B (20 %), and 0.2B (1 %) of the cost, respectively. Most (80-85 %) pneumococcal costs stemmed from nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NPP). Cost attributable to adult VPD in the United States is substantial. Broadening adult immunization efforts beyond influenza only may help reduce the economic burden of adult VPD, and a pneumococcal vaccination effort, primarily focused on reducing NPP, may constitute a logical starting place. Sensitivity analyses revealed that a pandemic influenza season or change in size of the US elderly population

  16. Application of Jean Piaget's theory of human development for nursing children in an adult intensive therapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1991-12-01

    Piaget (1964) believed that interaction with the environment has a large part to play in human development. Matthew (1986) states that in an ideal world critically ill children should be cared for by staff trained in paediatrics, within designated paediatric intensive therapy units. Unfortunately, there are only 28 paediatric intensive therapy units in Great Britain (CMA Medical Data, 1987), consequently each year a third of children requiring intensive care are admitted to adult intensive therapy units (ITU). A knowledge and understanding of developmental psychology can therefore be beneficial to nurses in assessing which stage of development a child has reached, in order to plan the correct level of stimulation, and hence facilitate progress rather than regression in the accomplishment of developmental tasks. The psychological and social processes involved in Jean Piaget's (1896-1980) theory of human development are discussed with regard to nursing children requiring intubation and ventilation in an adult ITU. PMID:1765639

  17. Role of light in the mediation of acute effects of a single afternoon melatonin injection on steroidogenic activity of testis in the rat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saumen K Maitra; Arun K Ray

    2000-09-01

    Young adult male rats, maintained either in an LD 12 : 12 or in continuous illumination (LL) for one week, were given a single injection of 25 g melatonin/100 g body wt or ethanolic-saline (control) at 17.00 h. Animals from each group were sacrificed at 11.00 h on the following day. The activity of two important steroidogenic enzymes, 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-HSD) and Δ5-3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Δ5-3-HSD), and serum concentrations of testosterone, were measured following highly specific and sensitive spectrophotometric techniques and RIA, respectively. A significant decrease in the activity of both the steroidogenic enzymes was noted in the testes of melatonin-treated rats maintained under normal light-dark schedules, but this response was found to be lacking in the LL rats. However, no significant changes in the level of serum testosterone were noted in either group of melatonin-treated rats from the values in respective groups of ethanolic saline-administered LD and LL rats. Exposure of ethanolic saline-injected rats to continuous light also did not cause any change in the steroidogenic activity of the testis from those in LD rats. The study indicates that continuous light as such does not affect the endocrine function of testis but abolishes suppressive effects of melatonin on the steroidogenic activity of the testis in rat.

  18. Cross-species variation in gaze following and conspecific preference among great apes, human infants and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Fumihiro; Call, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that many species follow gaze, few have directly compared closely related species, and thus its cross-species variation remains largely unclear. In this study, we compared three great ape species (bonobos, Pan paniscus, chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, orang-utans, Pongo abelii) and humans (12-month-olds and adults) in their gaze-following responses to the videos of conspecific and allospecific models. In the video, the model turned his head repeatedly to one...

  19. Development and application of human adult stem or progenitor cell organoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, Maarten B; Schutgens, Frans; Verhaar, Marianne C; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem or progenitor cell organoids are 3D adult-organ-derived epithelial structures that contain self-renewing and organ-specific stem or progenitor cells as well as differentiated cells. This organoid culture system was first established in murine intestine and subsequently developed for sever

  20. Adult Continuing Education and Human Resource Development: Present Competitors, Potential Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas H.

    2013-01-01

    "Author's Note": In May 1989, this article was published in "Livelong Learning," the monthly practitioner journal of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (Vol. 12, No. 7, pp. 13-17). Now viewed as a period reference article, it presents the relationship of adult and continuing education (ACE) and…

  1. Human adult stem cells from diverse origins: an overview from multiparametric immunophenotyping to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Bruna R; Parreira, Ricardo C; Fonseca, Emerson A; Amaya, Maria J; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Lacerda, Samyra M S N; Lalwani, Pritesh; Santos, Anderson K; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Kihara, Alexandre H; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells are known for their capacity to self-renew and differentiate into at least one specialized cell type. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated initially from bone marrow but are now known to exist in all vascularized organ or tissue in adults. MSCs are particularly relevant for therapy due to their simplicity of isolation and cultivation. The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) has proposed a set of standards to define hMSCs for laboratory investigations and preclinical studies: adherence to plastic in standard culture conditions; in vitro differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondroblasts; specific surface antigen expression in which ≥95% of the cells express the antigens recognized by CD105, CD73, and CD90, with the same cells lacking (≤2% positive) the antigens CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79a or CD19, and HLA-DR. In this review we will take an historical overview of how umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, adipose-derived, placental and amniotic fluid, and menstrual blood stem cells, the major sources of human MSC, can be obtained, identified and how they are being used in clinical trials to cure and treat a very broad range of conditions, including heart, hepatic, and neurodegenerative diseases. An overview of protocols for differentiation into hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, neuronal, adipose, chondrocytes, and osteoblast cells are highlighted. We also discuss a new source of stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and some pathways, which are common to MSCs in maintaining their pluripotent state. PMID:24700575

  2. Hybrid mathematical model of cardiomyocyte turnover in the adult human heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A Elser

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The capacity for cardiomyocyte regeneration in the healthy adult human heart is fundamentally relevant for both myocardial homeostasis and cardiomyopathy therapeutics. However, estimates of cardiomyocyte turnover rates conflict greatly, with a study employing C14 pulse-chase methodology concluding 1% annual turnover in youth declining to 0.5% with aging and another using cell population dynamics indicating substantial, age-increasing turnover (4% increasing to 20%. OBJECTIVE: Create a hybrid mathematical model to critically examine rates of cardiomyocyte turnover derived from alternative methodologies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Examined in isolation, the cell population analysis exhibited severe sensitivity to a stem cell expansion exponent (20% variation causing 2-fold turnover change and apoptosis rate. Similarly, the pulse-chase model was acutely sensitive to assumptions of instantaneous incorporation of atmospheric C14 into the body (4-fold impact on turnover in young subjects while numerical restrictions precluded otherwise viable solutions. Incorporating considerations of primary variable sensitivity and controversial model assumptions, an unbiased numerical solver identified a scenario of significant, age-increasing turnover (4-6% increasing to 15-22% with age that was compatible with data from both studies, provided that successive generations of cardiomyocytes experienced higher attrition rates than predecessors. CONCLUSIONS: Assignment of histologically-observed stem/progenitor cells into discrete regenerative phenotypes in the cell population model strongly influenced turnover dynamics without being directly testable. Alternatively, C14 trafficking assumptions and restrictive models in the pulse-chase model artificially eliminated high-turnover solutions. Nevertheless, discrepancies among recent cell turnover estimates can be explained and reconciled. The hybrid mathematical model provided herein permits further examination of

  3. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhamre, Hanna [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Thorvaldsson, Anna, E-mail: anna.thorvaldsson@swerea.se [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Enochson, Lars [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Walkenström, Pernilla [Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Lindahl, Anders [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brittberg, Mats [Cartilage Research Unit, University of Gothenburg, Department Orthopaedics, Kungsbacka Hospital, Kungsbacka (Sweden); Gatenholm, Paul [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum.

  4. Genome engineering uncovers 54 evolutionarily conserved and testis-enriched genes that are not required for male fertility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Castaneda, Julio M; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Yu, Zhifeng; Archambeault, Denise R; Isotani, Ayako; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Kriseman, Maya L; Mashiko, Daisuke; Matsumura, Takafumi; Matzuk, Ryan M; Mori, Masashi; Noda, Taichi; Oji, Asami; Okabe, Masaru; Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Renata; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Zhang, Qian; Ikawa, Masahito; Matzuk, Martin M

    2016-07-12

    Gene-expression analysis studies from Schultz et al. estimate that more than 2,300 genes in the mouse genome are expressed predominantly in the male germ line. As of their 2003 publication [Schultz N, Hamra FK, Garbers DL (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(21):12201-12206], the functions of the majority of these testis-enriched genes during spermatogenesis and fertilization were largely unknown. Since the study by Schultz et al., functional analysis of hundreds of reproductive-tract-enriched genes have been performed, but there remain many testis-enriched genes for which their relevance to reproduction remain unexplored or unreported. Historically, a gene knockout is the "gold standard" to determine whether a gene's function is essential in vivo. Although knockout mice without apparent phenotypes are rarely published, these knockout mouse lines and their phenotypic information need to be shared to prevent redundant experiments. Herein, we used bioinformatic and experimental approaches to uncover mouse testis-enriched genes that are evolutionarily conserved in humans. We then used gene-disruption approaches, including Knockout Mouse Project resources (targeting vectors and mice) and CRISPR/Cas9, to mutate and quickly analyze the fertility of these mutant mice. We discovered that 54 mutant mouse lines were fertile. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of these genes in vertebrates and in some cases in all eukaryotes, our results indicate that these genes are not individually essential for male mouse fertility. Our phenotypic data are highly relevant in this fiscally tight funding period and postgenomic age when large numbers of genomes are being analyzed for disease association, and will prevent unnecessary expenditures and duplications of effort by others. PMID:27357688

  5. Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 μm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

  6. Genome engineering uncovers 54 evolutionarily conserved and testis-enriched genes that are not required for male fertility in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Castaneda, Julio M.; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Yu, Zhifeng; Archambeault, Denise R.; Isotani, Ayako; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Kriseman, Maya L.; Mashiko, Daisuke; Matsumura, Takafumi; Matzuk, Ryan M.; Mori, Masashi; Noda, Taichi; Oji, Asami; Okabe, Masaru; Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Renata; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Zhang, Qian; Ikawa, Masahito; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Gene-expression analysis studies from Schultz et al. estimate that more than 2,300 genes in the mouse genome are expressed predominantly in the male germ line. As of their 2003 publication [Schultz N, Hamra FK, Garbers DL (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(21):12201–12206], the functions of the majority of these testis-enriched genes during spermatogenesis and fertilization were largely unknown. Since the study by Schultz et al., functional analysis of hundreds of reproductive-tract–enriched genes have been performed, but there remain many testis-enriched genes for which their relevance to reproduction remain unexplored or unreported. Historically, a gene knockout is the “gold standard” to determine whether a gene’s function is essential in vivo. Although knockout mice without apparent phenotypes are rarely published, these knockout mouse lines and their phenotypic information need to be shared to prevent redundant experiments. Herein, we used bioinformatic and experimental approaches to uncover mouse testis-enriched genes that are evolutionarily conserved in humans. We then used gene-disruption approaches, including Knockout Mouse Project resources (targeting vectors and mice) and CRISPR/Cas9, to mutate and quickly analyze the fertility of these mutant mice. We discovered that 54 mutant mouse lines were fertile. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of these genes in vertebrates and in some cases in all eukaryotes, our results indicate that these genes are not individually essential for male mouse fertility. Our phenotypic data are highly relevant in this fiscally tight funding period and postgenomic age when large numbers of genomes are being analyzed for disease association, and will prevent unnecessary expenditures and duplications of effort by others. PMID:27357688

  7. The Drosophila BCL6 homolog Ken and Barbie promotes somatic stem cell self-renewal in the testis niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issigonis, Melanie; Matunis, Erika

    2012-08-15

    Stem cells sustain tissue regeneration by their remarkable ability to replenish the stem cell pool and to generate differentiating progeny. Signals from local microenvironments, or niches, control stem cell behavior. In the Drosophila testis, a group of somatic support cells called the hub creates a stem cell niche by locally activating the Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway in two adjacent types of stem cells: germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we find that ken and barbie (ken) is autonomously required for the self-renewal of CySCs but not GSCs. Furthermore, Ken misexpression in the CySC lineage induces the cell-autonomous self-renewal of somatic cells as well as the nonautonomous self-renewal of germ cells outside the niche. Thus, Ken, like Stat92E and its targets ZFH1 (Leatherman and Dinardo, 2008) and Chinmo (Flaherty et al., 2010), is necessary and sufficient for CySC renewal. However, ken is not a JAK-STAT target in the testis, but instead acts in parallel to Stat92E to ensure CySC self-renewal. Ken represses a subset of Stat92E targets in the embryo (Arbouzova et al., 2006) suggesting that Ken maintains CySCs by repressing differentiation factors. In support of this hypothesis, we find that the global JAK-STAT inhibitor Protein tyrosine phosphatase 61F (Ptp61F) is a JAK-STAT target in the testis that is repressed by Ken. Together, our work demonstrates that Ken has an important role in the inhibition of CySC differentiation. Studies of ken may inform our understanding of its vertebrate orthologue B-Cell Lymphoma 6 (BCL6) and how misregulation of this oncogene leads to human lymphomas. PMID:22580161

  8. Levels of oxidative stress parameters and the protective effects of melatonin in psychosis model rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bekir S.Parlaktas; Birsen Ozyurt; Huseyin Ozyurt; Ayten T.Tunc; Ali Akbas

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzyme levels and histopathologic changes in dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced psychosis model rat testis. Methods: A total of 24 adult male Wistar-Albino rats were divided into three groups with 8 in each. Group Ⅰ was used as control. Rats in Group Ⅱ were injected with MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p. for 5 days). In addition to MK-801, melatonin (50 mg/kg body weight i.p. once a day for 5 days) was injected into the rats in Group Ⅲ. The testes were harvested bilaterally for biochemical and histopathological examinations. Antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and nitric oxide (NO) levels in tes-ticular tissues were analyzed using spectrophotometric analysis methods. Histopathological examinations of the testes were also performed. Results: MK-801 induced testicular damage, which resulted in significant oxidative stress (OS) by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. The malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and NO levels were increased in testicular tissues of rats. Treatment with melatonin led to significant decrease in oxidative injury.Administration of melatonin also reduced the detrimental histopathologic effects caused by MK-801. Conclusion:The results of the present study showed that MK-801 cause OS in testicular tissues of rats and treatment with melatonin can reduce the harmful effects of MK-801.

  9. Sensitive Tumorigenic Potential Evaluation of Adult Human Multipotent Neural Cells Immortalized by hTERT Gene Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da Eun; Kim, Sung Soo; Song, Hye Jin; Pyeon, Hee Jang; Kang, Kyeongjin; Hong, Seung-Cheol; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells and therapeutic genes are emerging as a new therapeutic approach to treat various neurodegenerative diseases with few effective treatment options. However, potential formation of tumors by stem cells has hampered their clinical application. Moreover, adequate preclinical platforms to precisely test tumorigenic potential of stem cells are controversial. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of various animal models for in vivo stem cell tumorigenicity testing to identify the most sensitive platform. Then, tumorigenic potential of adult human multipotent neural cells (ahMNCs) immortalized by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene was examined as a stem cell model with therapeutic genes. When human glioblastoma (GBM) cells were injected into adult (4–6-week-old) Balb/c-nu, adult NOD/SCID, adult NOG, or neonate (1–2-week-old) NOG mice, the neonate NOG mice showed significantly faster tumorigenesis than that of the other groups regardless of intracranial or subcutaneous injection route. Two kinds of ahMNCs (682TL and 779TL) were primary cultured from surgical samples of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the ahMNCs were immortalized by lentiviral hTERT gene delivery (hTERT-682TL and hTERT-779TL), they did not form any detectable masses, even in the most sensitive neonate NOG mouse platform. Moreover, the hTERT-ahMNCs had no gross chromosomal abnormalities on a karyotype analysis. Taken together, our data suggest that neonate NOG mice could be a sensitive animal platform to test tumorigenic potential of stem cell therapeutics and that ahMNCs could be a genetically stable stem cell source with little tumorigenic activity to develop regenerative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27391353

  10. Shielding for Scattered Radiation to the Testis During Pelvic Radiotherapy: Is it worth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the value of external shielding of the testis during pelvic radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Nineteen patients, receiving radiotherapy to the pelvis with the lower border of the field at the obturator foramen, were randomly selected. A 5 half value layer cerro bent shield was positioned at the inferior border of the field. The dose to the testis was measured with and without the shield. Observations were made regarding the reflex cre master contraction and phantom measurements were done at different distances from the perineum. Results: The mean radiation dose to the testis for patients receiving treatment with no shield was 7.4 cGy (±) and it was 5.7c Gy (±) for patients with external shield, this difference was statistically significant by the paired t test p<0.0001. This accounted for a 22% decrease in the dose received by the testis. The position of the testis with the contraction of the cre master muscle and the dartos fascia after manipulation of the testis during diodes placement changed up to 3.5 cm (mean 1.5). Phantom measurements showed 37% increase in the dose with 2 cm change in the position of the testis to the pelvic direction. Conclusion: External shield at the inferior border of the pelvic field is a simple, easy reproducible, convenient shielding method. Clam-shell scrotal shield is not free of drawbacks, but still its benefits overweigh its harms and should be used with caution

  11. Testis cancer. Ichthyosis constitutes a significant risk factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, G; Bennett, P; Lykkesfeldt, A E;

    1991-01-01

    dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and estrone sulfate levels tended to be slightly higher than normal. However, no conspicuous aberrations in any of the parameters examined were observed, and why men with ichthyosis are at high risk for testicular cancer remains an unresolved issue.......Testis cancer and ichthyosis are both relatively rare diseases. Hence the finding of six individuals with both these conditions in a small population with testicular cancer is highly conspicuous and indicates some kind of connection among such persons. Despite the identical clinical appearances of...... ichthyosis (ADI). The STS activity in patients with testicular cancer who do not have ichthyosis (N = 30) was also within the normal range. The patients with testicular cancer with no skin disease had elevated serum levels of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing...

  12. Epidermoid cyst of the testis: An atypical sonographic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Pan, Chin-Chen; Shen, Shu-Huei; Chou, Yi-Hong; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Lai, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yung-Hui; Wang, Jane; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2016-09-01

    Epidermoid cysts are rare. They represent the most common benign tumor of the testis. The sonographic appearances of testicular epidermoid cysts usually include avascular, mostly lamellated, heterogeneous internal echotexture, with hypoechoic and hyperechoic concentric rings, accounting for the typical onion-ring appearance. On MRI, epidermoid cysts show a low-signal-intensity center, with internal concentric rings of alternating high- and low-signal intensity on T2-weighted images, which correlates with the onion-ring appearance. We report a patient with testicular epidermoid cyst with atypical ultrasound and MRI appearances that led to the erroneous initial diagnosis of "burned-out" tumor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:448-451, 2016. PMID:27028726

  13. The right sided syndrome, congenital absence of kidney and testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral renal agenesis (URA is a developmental defect associated with ano-malies of the genitourinary system. The associations vary from absence of testis alone to high anorectal anomalies in other patients. We present two interesting patients with URA, encountered recently. Our first case was diagnosed with URA at the age of 11 years, which was detected on sonography, when he presented with pain abdomen. The presence of an epididymal cyst masked the absence of ipsilateral testes leading to delay in the diagnosis. Our second case was diagnosed with URA during the neonatal period when he presented with anorectal agenesis. He underwent abdomino-anal pull-through operation and later clinical course was complicated by recurrent cystitis, secondary vesicoureteral reflux and hydroureteronephrosis of solitary kidney, progressing to chronic kidney disease.

  14. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Azizabadi Farahani, Mahdi; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Davoud; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups. Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001). Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency. PMID:25246920

  15. Rapid evolution of cancer/testis genes on the X chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Andrew J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer/testis (CT genes are normally expressed only in germ cells, but can be activated in the cancer state. This unusual property, together with the finding that many CT proteins elicit an antigenic response in cancer patients, has established a role for this class of genes as targets in immunotherapy regimes. Many families of CT genes have been identified in the human genome, but their biological function for the most part remains unclear. While it has been shown that some CT genes are under diversifying selection, this question has not been addressed before for the class as a whole. Results To shed more light on this interesting group of genes, we exploited the generation of a draft chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes genomic sequence to examine CT genes in an organism that is closely related to human, and generated a high-quality, manually curated set of human:chimpanzee CT gene alignments. We find that the chimpanzee genome contains homologues to most of the human CT families, and that the genes are located on the same chromosome and at a similar copy number to those in human. Comparison of putative human:chimpanzee orthologues indicates that CT genes located on chromosome X are diverging faster and are undergoing stronger diversifying selection than those on the autosomes or than a set of control genes on either chromosome X or autosomes. Conclusion Given their high level of diversifying selection, we suggest that CT genes are primarily responsible for the observed rapid evolution of protein-coding genes on the X chromosome.

  16. Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E; von der Maase, H;

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volume...... cryptorchidism or both had been screened. Since the natural course of carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis of patients with germinal testicular cancer has not been established, the patients are being re-evaluated frequently. To date two patients with carcinoma in situ have developed a second cancer....

  17. Repopulation of adult and neonatal mice with human hepatocytes: A chimeric animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Le, Tam T.; Woods, Niels-Bjarne; Verma, Inder M.

    2007-01-01

    We report the successful transplantation of human hepatocytes in immunodeficient, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient (fah−/−) mice. Engraftment occurs over the entire liver acinus upon transplantation. A few weeks after transplantation, increasing concentrations of human proteins (e.g., human albumin and human C3a) can be measured in the blood of the recipient mouse. No fusion between mouse and human hepatocytes can be detected. Three months after transplantation, up to 20% of the mouse ...

  18. Comparison of the Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of Cervarix and Gardasil Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in HIV-Infected Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Toft; Storgaard, Merete; Müller, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Cervarix(®) or Gardasil(®) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in HIV-infected adults.Methods. A double-blind, controlled trial randomizing HIV-positive adults to receive three doses of Cervarix(®) or Gardasil(®) at 0, 1.5 and 6 months.......Results. Ninety-two participants were included in the study. Anti-HPV-18 antibody titers were higher in the Cervarix(®) group compared with the Gardasil(®) group at 7 and 12 months. No significant differences in anti-HPV-16 antibody titers were found among vaccine groups. Among Cervarix(®) vaccinees, women had.......Conclusions. Both vaccines were immunogenic and well tolerated. Compared with Gardasil(®), Cervarix(®) induced superior vaccine responses among HIV-infected women whereas in HIV-infected men the difference in immunogenicity was less pronounced....

  19. Herpes simplex virus type-1 and human lymphocytes: virus expression and the response to infection of adult and foetal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in human lymphocytes of adult and foetal origin was studied. Virus DNA synthesis, antigen and particle production and the yield of infectious progeny were determined in cultured lymphocytes with or without exposure to stimulating concentrations of the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen. Separated subpopulations of cells were examined and the conclusion reached that only the stimulated T-lymphoblast was permissive for full virus expression. Stimulation of cell DNA synthesis in response to infection was observed in cultures of adult and foetal lymphocytes under conditions which were non-permissive for virus growth. Morphological change and prolonged culture survival were a feature of foetal lymphocytes exposed to u.v. irradiated HSV-1. (author)

  20. Growth Hormone Safety Workshop Position Paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, David B; Backeljauw, Philippe; Bidlingmaier, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society......Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the...... statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to...

  1. Pluripotency of adult stem cells derived from human and rat pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, C.; Birth, M.; Rohwedel, J.; Assmuth, K.; Goepel, A.; Wedel, T.

    Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found within fully developed tissues or organs of an adult individuum. Until recently, these cells have been considered to bear less self-renewal ability and differentiation potency compared to embryonic stem cells. In recent studies an undifferentiated cell type was found in primary cultures of isolated acini from exocrine pancreas termed pancreatic stellate cells. Here we show that pancreatic stellate-like cells have the capacity of extended self-renewal and are able to differentiate spontaneously into cell types of all three germ layers expressing markers for smooth muscle cells, neurons, glial cells, epithelial cells, chondrocytes and secretory cells (insulin, amylase). Differentiation and subsequent formation of three-dimensional cellular aggregates (organoid bodies) were induced by merely culturing pancreatic stellate-like cells in hanging drops. These cells were developed into stable, long-term, in vitro cultures of both primary undifferentiated cell lines as well as organoid cultures. Thus, evidence is given that cell lineages of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal origin arise spontaneously from a single adult undifferentiated cell type. Based on the present findings it is assumed that pancreatic stellate-like cells are a new class of lineage uncommitted pluripotent adult stem cells with a remarkable self-renewal ability and differentiation potency. The data emphasize the versatility of adult stem cells and may lead to a reappraisal of their use for the treatment of inherited disorders or acquired degenerative diseases.

  2. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  3. Comparative study of the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells, neonatal chondrocytes and adult chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sushmita [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS29LU (United Kingdom); Kirkham, Jennifer [Biomineralisation Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS29LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leeds, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS74SA (United Kingdom); Wood, David [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS29LU (United Kingdom); Curran, Stephen [Smith and Nephew Research Centre, YO105DF (United Kingdom); Yang, Xuebin, E-mail: X.B.Yang@leeds.ac.uk [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS29LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leeds, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS74SA (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} This study has characterised three different cell types under conditions similar to those used for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for applications in cartilage repair/regeneration. {yields} Compared for the first time the chondrogenic potential of neonatal chondrocytes with human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and adult chondrocytes. {yields} Demonstrated that adult chondrocytes hold greatest potential for use in ACI based on their higher proliferation rates, lower alkaline phosphatise activity and enhanced expression of chondrogenic genes. {yields} Demonstrated the need for chondroinduction as a necessary pre-requisite to efficient chondrogenesis in vitro and, by extrapolation, for cell based therapy (e.g. ACI or cartilage tissue engineering). -- Abstract: Cartilage tissue engineering is still a major clinical challenge with optimisation of a suitable source of cells for cartilage repair/regeneration not yet fully addressed. The aims of this study were to compare and contrast the differences in chondrogenic behaviour between human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs), human neonatal and adult chondrocytes to further our understanding of chondroinduction relative to cell maturity and to identify factors that promote chondrogenesis and maintain functional homoeostasis. Cells were cultured in monolayer in either chondrogenic or basal medium, recapitulating procedures used in existing clinical procedures for cell-based therapies. Cell doubling time, morphology and alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPSA) were determined at different time points. Expression of chondrogenic markers (SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1) was compared via real time polymerase chain reaction. Amongst the three cell types studied, HBMSCs had the highest ALPSA in basal culture and lowest ALPSA in chondrogenic media. Neonatal chondrocytes were the most proliferative and adult chondrocytes had the lowest ALPSA in basal media. Gene expression analysis revealed

  4. Comparative study of the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells, neonatal chondrocytes and adult chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → This study has characterised three different cell types under conditions similar to those used for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for applications in cartilage repair/regeneration. → Compared for the first time the chondrogenic potential of neonatal chondrocytes with human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and adult chondrocytes. → Demonstrated that adult chondrocytes hold greatest potential for use in ACI based on their higher proliferation rates, lower alkaline phosphatise activity and enhanced expression of chondrogenic genes. → Demonstrated the need for chondroinduction as a necessary pre-requisite to efficient chondrogenesis in vitro and, by extrapolation, for cell based therapy (e.g. ACI or cartilage tissue engineering). -- Abstract: Cartilage tissue engineering is still a major clinical challenge with optimisation of a suitable source of cells for cartilage repair/regeneration not yet fully addressed. The aims of this study were to compare and contrast the differences in chondrogenic behaviour between human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs), human neonatal and adult chondrocytes to further our understanding of chondroinduction relative to cell maturity and to identify factors that promote chondrogenesis and maintain functional homoeostasis. Cells were cultured in monolayer in either chondrogenic or basal medium, recapitulating procedures used in existing clinical procedures for cell-based therapies. Cell doubling time, morphology and alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPSA) were determined at different time points. Expression of chondrogenic markers (SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1) was compared via real time polymerase chain reaction. Amongst the three cell types studied, HBMSCs had the highest ALPSA in basal culture and lowest ALPSA in chondrogenic media. Neonatal chondrocytes were the most proliferative and adult chondrocytes had the lowest ALPSA in basal media. Gene expression analysis revealed a difference in the

  5. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and uranium in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice: application to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium and uranium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice. For both baboons and mice, the GI absorptions of plutonium and uranium were 10 to 20 times higher in 24 h fasted animals than in fed ones. For plutonium, GI absorption values in baboons were almost identical to those in mice for both fed and fasted conditions, and values for fed animals agreed with estimates for humans. For uranium, GI absorption values in fed and fasted baboons were 6 to 7 times higher than those in mice, and agreed well with those fed and fasted humans. For one baboon that was not given its morning meal, plutonium absorption 2 h after the start of the active phase was the same as that in the 24 h fasted animals. In contrast, for baboons that received a morning meal, plutonium absorption did not rise to the value of 24 h fasted baboons even 8 h after the meal. We conclude that GI absorption values for plutonium and uranium in adult baboons are good estimates of the values in humans and that the values for the fasted condition should be used to set standards for oral exposure of persons in the workplace. (author)

  6. Migrating neuroblasts in the adult human brain: a stream reduced to a trickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miriam E van Strien; Simone A van den Berge; Elly M Hol

    2011-01-01

    It has long been thought that neurogenesis (birth of neurons) in the mammalian brain only occurs while the central nervous system is still developing.Although the first indications to the contrary already appeared in the 1960s,it took more than 30 years for the neuroscience community to accept that the mammalian adult brain also generates new neurons.Today it is completely accepted that neurogenesis occurs in two mammalian adult brain areas,the subventricular zone (SVZ) near the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the hippocampus.

  7. Testicular Somatic Cells, not Gonocytes, Are the Major Source of Functional Activin A during Testis Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Archambeault, Denise R.; Tomaszewski, Jessica; Childs, Andrew J.; Anderson, Richard A.; YAO, HUMPHREY HUNG-CHANG

    2011-01-01

    Proper development of the seminiferous tubules (or testis cords in embryos) is critical for male fertility. Sertoli cells, somatic components of the seminiferous tubules, serve as nurse cells to the male germline, and thus their numbers decide the quantity of sperm output in adulthood. We previously identified activin A, the protein product of the activin βA (Inhba) gene, as a key regulator of murine Sertoli cell proliferation and testis cord expansion during embryogenesis. Although our genet...

  8. Influence of selenium induced oxidative stress on spermatogenesis and lactate dehydrogenase-X in mice testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ParminderKaur; M.P.Bansal

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on the spermatogenesis and lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) activity in mouse testis. Methods: For creating different levels of oxidative stress in mice, three selenium (Se) level diets were fed in separate groups for 8 weeks. Group 1 animals were fed yeast-based Se-deficient (0.02 ppm) diet. Group 2 and Group 3 animals were fed with the same diet supplemented with 0.2 ppm and 1 ppm Se as sodium selenite, respectively. After 8 weeks, biochemical and histopathological observations of the testis were carried out. LDH-X levels in the testis were analyzed by western immunoblot and ELISA. Results: A significant decrease in testis Se level was observed in Group 1 animals, whereas it was enhanced in Group 3 as compared to Group 2. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly reduced in both the liver and testis in Group 1, but not in Group 2 and 3. A significant increase in the testis glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed in Group 1,whereas no significant change was seen in Groups 2 and 3. Histological analysis of testis revealed a normal structure in Group 2. A significant decrease in the germ cell population in Group 1 was observed as compared to Group 2 with the spermatids and mature sperm affected the most. Decrease in the lumen size was also observed. In the Se-excess group (Group 3), displacement of germ cell population was observed. Further, a decrease in the LDH-X level in testis was observed in Group 1. Conclusion: Excessive oxidative stress in the Se deficient group, as indicated by changes in the GSH-Px/GST activity, affects the spermatogenic process with a reduction in mature sperm and in turn the LDH-X level. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 227-232)

  9. Low/Negative Expression of PDGFR-α Identifies the Candidate Primary Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Adult Human Bone Marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongzhe; Ghazanfari, Roshanak; Zacharaki, Dimitra;

    2014-01-01

    Human bone marrow (BM) contains a rare population of nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which are of central importance for the hematopoietic microenvironment. However, the precise phenotypic definition of these cells in adult BM has not yet been reported. In this study, we show...... cells exhibited high levels of genes associated with mesenchymal lineages and HSC supportive function. Moreover, lin(-)/CD45(-)/CD271(+)/CD140a(low/-) cells effectively mediated the ex vivo expansion of transplantable CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. Taken together, these data indicate that CD140a is a...

  10. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Annie Schtscherbyna; Carla Gouveia; Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar Pinheiro; Ronir Raggio Luiz; Maria Lucia Fleiuss de Farias; Elizabeth Stankiewicz Machado

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral...

  11. Destruction and regeneration of seminiferous tubules after local x-irradiation of testes of the adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was established that the local X-irradiation (1000 R) of testes of the adult rats results in a total destruction of seminiferous tubules. The restitution of the organ structure proceeds via formation of new seminiferous tubules in which spermatogenic epithelium later develops. Rete testis and germ cells preserved in its epithelium from embryogenesis are a source of regeneration material. The results obtained favour the suggestion about the dynamic structure of mammalian testis

  12. Using "The Simpsons" to Teach Humanities with Gen X and Gen Y Adult Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Maxwell A.; Foote, Deborah C.

    2007-01-01

    Many educators lament the UNESCO study showing that by the time the average teen graduates from high school he or she has spent more than fifteen thousand hours watching television and only eleven thousand in the classroom (Gorebel, 1998). Rather than regretting this "condition," colleges, universities, and educators of adults and children should…

  13. Isolation and Culture of Adult Epithelial Stem Cells from Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhiru; Draheim, Kyle; Lyle, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The homeostasis of all self-renewing tissues is dependent on adult stem cells. As undifferentiated stem cells undergo asymmetric divisions, they generate daughter cells that retain the stem cell phenotype and transit-amplifying cells (TA cells) that migrate from the stem cell niche, undergo rapid proliferation and terminally differentiate to repopulate the tissue.

  14. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Wood (Andrew); T. Esko (Tõnu); J. Yang (Jian); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); T.H. Pers (Tune); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); A.Y. Chu (Audrey Y); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); J. Luan; Z. Kutalik; N. Amin (Najaf); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); F.R. Day (Felix); Y. Duan (Yanan); M. Fall (Magnus); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Karjalainen (Juha); K.S. Lo (Ken Sin); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); E. Mihailov (Evelin); E. Porcu (Eleonora); J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.H. Zhao; D. Absher (Devin); E. Albrecht (Eva); D. Anderson (David); J. Baron (Jeffrey); M. Beekman (Marian); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); B. Feenstra; M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); K. Fischer (Krista); R.M. Fraser (Ross); A. Goel (Anuj); J. Gong (Jian); A.E. Justice (Anne); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson; U. Lim (Unhee); V. Lotay (Vaneet); J.C. Lui (Julian C); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); M.A. Nalls (Michael); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J.S. Ried (Janina); S. Ripke (Stephan); D. Shungin (Dmitry); A. Stancáková (Alena); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); S. Trompet (Stella); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); J. van Setten (Jessica); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); U. Afzal (Uzma); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); J.L. Bolton (Jennifer); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); H.A. Boyd; M. Bruinenberg (M.); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Buyske (Steven); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); P.S. Chines (Peter); R. Clarke (Robert); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); M.N. Cooper (Matthew); E.W. Daw (E Warwick); P.A. De Jong (Pim A); J. Deelen (Joris); G. Delgado; J.C. Denny (Josh C); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); M. Dimitriou (Maria); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); M. Dörr (Marcus); N. Eklund (Niina); E. Eury (Elodie); L. Folkersen (Lasse); M. Garcia (Melissa); F. Geller (Frank); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); A. Go (Attie); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja B); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); H. Grönberg (Henrik); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); C.J. Groves (Christopher J.); J. Haessler (Jeff); P. Hall (Per); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); M. Hannemann (Mario); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); Q. Helmer (Quinta); G. Hemani; A.K. Henders (Anjali); H.L. Hillege (Hans); M.A. Hlatky (Mark); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); P. Hoffmann (Per); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); T. Illig (Thomas); A. Isaacs (Aaron); A.L. James (Alan); J. Jeff (Janina); B. Johansen (Berit); A. Johansson (Åsa); G.J. Jolley (Jason); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); M.J. Junttila (Juhani); M.M.L. Kho (Marcia); L. Kinnunen (Leena); N. Klopp (Norman); T. Kocher; W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); Y. Lu (Yingchang); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); M. Maillard (Marc); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); S. McLachlan (Stela); P.J. McLaren (Paul J); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); L. Milani (Lili); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); M.A. Morken (Mario); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); A.W. Musk (Arthur); N. Narisu (Narisu); M. Nauck (Matthias); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Oozageer (Laticia); S. Pilz (Stefan); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); R. Roussel (Ronan); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick R); H. Schunkert (Heribert); R.A. Scott (Robert); J.S. Sehmi (Joban); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); J. Shi (Jianxin); K. Silventoinen (Karri); J.H. Smit (Johannes H.); G.D. Smith; J. Smolonska (Joanna); A. Stanton (Alice); K. Stirrups (Kathy); D.J. Stott (David J); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); S. Van Dijk (Suzanne); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); D. van Heemst (Diana); F.V.A. Van Oort (Floor V A); S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith M); L. Waite (Lindsay); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); R. Wennauer (Roman); L.R. Wilkens (Lynne R.); C. Willenborg (Christina); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); A. Wright (Alan); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan J L); J. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); R. Biffar; J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); P. Bovet (Pascal); P. Brambilla (Paolo); M.J. Brown (Morris); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Caulfield (Mark); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); F.S. Collins (Francis); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); R. Erbel (Raimund); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); J. Eriksson; M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); I. Ford; N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Golay (Alain); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); D.W. Haas (David W); A.S. Hall (Alistair); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A.C. Heath (Andrew C); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L.A. Hindorff (Lucia A); A. Hingorani (Aroon); A. Hofman (Albert); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); S.E. Humphries (Steve E.); S.C. Hunt (Steven); E. Hypponen (Elina); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); J.J.P. Kastelein (John); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F. Kee (Frank); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); S. Lupoli (Sara); P.A. Madden; S. Männistö (Satu); P. Manunta (Paolo); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); B. McKnight (Barbara); T. Meitinger (Thomas); F.L. Moll (Frans); G.W. Montgomery (Grant W.); A.D. Morris (Andrew); A.P. Morris (Andrew); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); L. Qi (Lu); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); P. Sever (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Sinisalo (Juha); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk; J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); J. Virtamo (Jarmo); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); P. Amouyel (Philippe); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert W.); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin P.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Stéphane); J.C. Chambers (John C.); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P.W. Franks; P. Froguel (Philippe); L. Groop (Leif); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); A. Hamsten (Anders); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Hui (Jennie); D. Hunter (David); K. Hveem (Kristian); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (Yongmei); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); W. März (Winfried); M. Melbye (Mads); S. Moebus (Susanne); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); J.E. Powell (Joseph); C. Power (Christine); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); E. Reinmaa (Eva); P.M. Ridker (Paul); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; D. Schlessinger (David); P.E. Slagboom (P Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); K. Strauch (Konstantin); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); H. Völzke (Henry); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); J.F. Wilson (James F); P. Zanen (Pieter); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); I.M. Heid (Iris); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); I. Barroso (Inês); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); K.E. North (Kari); D.P. Strachan (David P.); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); A. Metspalu (Andres); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Franke (Lude); C.J. Willer (Cristen); A. Price (Alkes); G. Lettre (Guillaume); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Ingelsson (Erik); J.R. O´Connell; G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.E. Goddard (Michael); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); T.M. Frayling (Timothy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractUsing genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated 1/42,

  15. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, Andrew R.; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chun, Audrey Y.; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltan; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E.; Maegi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, Andre; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M.; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C.; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancakova, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnloev, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blueher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Boettcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M.; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H.; Chines, Peter S.; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E. Warwick; De Jong, Pim A.; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Doerr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S.; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Juergen; Groenberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Groves, Christopher J.; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K.; Hillege, Hans L.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Bent; Johansson, Asa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N.; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstroem, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M.; Noethen, Markus M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A.; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shin, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J.; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W.; Hall, Alistair S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mannisto, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, Andre; Matise, Tara C.; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stephane; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G.; Maerz, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njolstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E.; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Voelzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Ines; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Kari E.; Strachan, David P.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J.; Price, Alkes L.; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Weedon, Michael N.; Ingelsson, Erik; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Goddard, Michael E.; Visscher, Peter M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Frayling, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated similar to 2,000,

  16. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, A.R.; Esko, T.; Yang, J.; Vedantam, S.; Pers, T.H.; Gustafsson, S.; Chu, A.Y.; Estrada, K.; Luan, J.; Kutalik, Z.; Amin, N.; Buchkovich, M.L.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Duan, Y.; Fall, T.; Fehrmann, R.; Ferreira, T.; Jackson, A.U.; Karjalainen, J.; Lo, K.S.; Locke, A.E.; Magi, R.; Mihailov, E.; Porcu, E.; Randall, J.C.; Scherag, A.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.; Westra, H.J.; Winkler, T.W.; Workalemahu, T.; Zhao, J.H.; Absher, D.; Albrecht, E.; Anderson, D.; Baron, J.; Beekman, M.; Demirkan, A.; Ehret, G.B.; Feenstra, B.; Feitosa, M.F.; Fischer, K.; Fraser, R.M.; Goel, A.; Gong, J.; Justice, A.E.; Kanoni, S.; Kleber, M.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Lim, U.; Lotay, V.; Lui, J.C.; Mangino, M.; Leach, I.M.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Nalls, M.A.; Nyholt, D.R.; Palmer, C.D.; Pasko, D.; Pechlivanis, S.; Prokopenko, I.; Ried, J.S.; Ripke, S.; Shungin, D.; Stancakova, A.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Sung, Y.J.; Tanaka, T.; Teumer, A.; Trompet, S.; Laan, S.W. van der; Setten, J. van; Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V. Van; Wang, Z.; Yengo, L.; Zhang, W.; Afzal, U.; Arnlov, J.; Arscott, G.M.; Bandinelli, S.; Barrett, A.; Bellis, C.; Bennett, A.J.; Berne, C.; Bluher, M.; Bolton, J.L.; Bottcher, Y.; Boyd, H.A.; Bruinenberg, M.; Buckley, B.M.; Buyske, S.; Caspersen, I.H.; Chines, P.S.; Clarke, R.; Claudi-Boehm, S.; Cooper, M.; Daw, E.W.; Jong, P.A. de; Deelen, J.; Delgado, G.; Vermeulen, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated approximately 2,0

  17. Hiding and Searching Strategies of Adult Humans in a Virtual and a Real-Space Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Katherine J.; Legge, Eric L. G.; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2009-01-01

    Adults searched for or cached three objects in nine hiding locations in a virtual room or a real-space room. In both rooms, the locations selected by participants differed systematically between searching and hiding. Specifically, participants moved farther from origin and dispersed their choices more when hiding objects than when searching for…

  18. 21st Century African Philosophy of Adult and Human Resource Education in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    This paper will attempt to define a philosophy of adult education for the purpose of workforce development in Southern Africa. The different influences such as Ubuntu and communalism, indigenous education, diversity western philosophy, globalization and technology are explored in the context of the Southern African region.

  19. ATLANTE ON-LINE DI GEOGRAFIA: FACILITAZIONE DI TESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Baccella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Al centro di questo lavoro vi è la proposta di un intervento di facilitazione su un testo di geografia contenuto nell'Atlante online Unimondo, un sito che si rivolge a studenti delle scuole primarie e secondarie. Obiettivo di questo lavoro è individuare quelle che sono in generale le criticità dei testi disciplinari e gli ostacoli che essi pongono dinnanzi a uno studente straniero (e non solo, proponendo in seguito alcuni interventi didattici mirati ad accompagnare il discente nella comprensione del testo e nello sviluppo della lingua dello studio. Dopo aver presentato brevemente le due opzioni della semplificazione e della facilitazione e aver fatto alcune considerazioni sulla preferibilità dell’una piuttosto che dell’altra, si è preso in esame il testo in questione. Ad una dettagliata analisi linguistica delle principali difficoltà ivi contenute, segue la proposta di un percorso di facilitazione mediante attività tese a permettere allo studente un approccio di successo con il testo autentico. Obiettivo della proposta è presentare un modello applicabile ad altri testi dello stesso tipo, mirato allo sviluppo da parte dello studente di una sempre maggiore consapevolezza circa i propri processi cognitivi e le strategie di lettura che può mettere in atto, puntando verso una sempre maggiore autonomia.   Online Geography Atlas: facilitation of texts This paper focuses on the proposal to facilitate use of a geography text contained in the online Unimondo Atlas. This site caters to primary and secondary school students. This paper aims to identify the critical aspects of disciplinary texts and the obstacles they pose to foreign students (and not only, proposing some educational interventions aimed at accompanying the student in understanding the text and in developing the language of study. After a brief presentation of two ways to simplify and facilitate the materials, and a discussion of how one or the other might be preferable, we

  20. Developmental changes of prefrontal activation in humans: a near-infrared spectroscopy study of preschool children and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kawakubo

    Full Text Available Previous morphological studies indicated that development of the human prefrontal cortex (PFC appears to continue into late adolescence. Although functional brain imaging studies have sought to determine the time course of functional development of the PFC, it is unclear whether the developmental change occurs after adolescence to adulthood and when it achieves a peak because of the narrow or discontinuous range in the participant's age. Moreover, previous functional studies have not focused on the anterior frontal region, that is, the frontopolar regions (BA9/10. Thus, the present study investigated the developmental change in frontopolar PFC activation associated with letter fluency task by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in subjects from preschool children to adults. We analyzed the relative concentration of hemoglobin (ΔHb in the prefrontal cortex measured during the activation task in 48 typically-developing children and adolescents and 22 healthy adults. Consistent with prior morphological studies, we found developmental change with age in the children/adolescents. Moreover, the average Δoxy-Hb in adult males was significantly larger than that in child/adolescent males, but was not true for females. These data suggested that functional development of the PFC continues into late adolescence. Although the developmental change of the frontopolar PFC was independent of gender from childhood to adolescence, in adulthood a gender difference was shown.

  1. Detection of human bocavirus from children and adults with acute respiratory tract illness in Guangzhou, southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bocavirus (HBoV is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positive samples from ARTI patients with a wide age distribution from Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=2811 were collected and analyzed from children and adults with ARTI over a 13-month period. The HBoV complete genome from a 60 year-old female patient isolate was also determined. Results HBoV DNA was detected in 65/2811 (2.3% samples, of which 61/1797 were from children (Mycoplasma pneumoniae had the highest frequency of 16.9% (11/65. Upper and lower respiratory tract illness were common symptoms, with 19/65 (29.2% patients diagnosed with pneumonia by chest radiography. All four adult patients had systemic influenza-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome revealed a close relationship with other HBoVs, and a more distant relationship with HBoV2 and HBoV3. Conclusions HBoV was detected from children and adults with ARTI from Guangzhou, southern China. Elderly people were also susceptive to HBoV. A single lineage of HBoV was detected among a wide age distribution of patients with ARTI.

  2. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults. PMID:27009447

  3. Cancer-testis antigens and immunotherapy in the light of cancer complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzi, F; Mirandola, L; Qehajaj, D; Cobos, E; Figueroa, J A; Chiriva-Internati, M

    2015-03-01

    The ability of immunotherapy to evoke successful antitumor immune responses has been well documented over the past decade. Despite abundant preclinical data, it is only with the recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the drugs such as sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab that immunotherapy is finally being recognized as a viable alternative to traditional therapies for treatment of various cancers. Despite the ability of immunotherapy to elicit successful antitumor immune responses, its efficacy is hindered by several factors. Among these are the paucity of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) that can be used as effective targets and the systemic toxicities that often lead to treatment interruption. Indeed, such adverse effects, which can be immunological and/or parenchymal, can be particularly severe and even fatal to some patients. A family of TAA called cancer-testis antigens (CTA) has been identified and their encoding genes have been extensively investigated. CTA expression has been demonstrated in a variety of human cancer tissues, and at least 19 CTA have been found to elicit humoral and/or cellular immune responses in cancer patients. Here we discuss how CTA and immunotherapy will most likely play a major role in the cure of cancer in the light of cancer complexity. PMID:25901859

  4. Identification of bovine doppel protein in testis, ovary and ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondena, Marco; Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Comazzi, Stefano; Pocacqua, Vanessa; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Luvoni, Cecilia; Chigioni, Sara; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2005-03-01

    Doppel (Dpl) protein is a recently identified prion-like protein. Although Dpl might be expressed in the brain after prion gene deletion, in both human and mice Dpl is normally expressed only in testis and spermatozoa, where it appears to be involved in male fertility. Little information is available so far about the expression pattern of Dpl in bovines, thus, hampering possible research on the role of this protein in bovine infertility. We have thus, designed, produced and validated through Western blotting a polyclonal antibody against bovine Dpl. With this antibody we then screened bovine tissues for Dpl expression by immunohistochemistry. Ejaculated spermatozoa were screened by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Bovine Dpl was expressed in all the developing stages of germinal cells, from spermatogones to ejaculated spermatozoa, in Sertoli cells and in ovarian follicles (granulosa cells and follicular fluid). Dpl immunoreactivity was also found on other tissues, where endothelial cells, peripheral nerves and scattered lymphocytes stained positive. This distribution pattern suggests that Dpl might be involved in sperm maturation/capacitation in bovines, like it might be in mice. This hypothesis needs to be verified by widespread application of the flow cytometric protocol established in this paper on spermatozoa from animals with reduced fertility. PMID:15710203

  5. Role of preoperative versus post-operative HCG therapy in bilateral nonpalpable undescended testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangopadhyay A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of human chronic gonadotropin (HCG and compare the results when it is given preoperatively and postoperatively in bilateral nonpalpable undescended testes (BNUDT to facilitate the surgical outcome. Sixty-six cases of BNUDT, from January 1997 to January 2004, were divided equally into two groups on a random basis: Group A - control group received HCG doses which were completed 7-10 days preoperatively and Group B - test group received postoperative HCG doses started 7-10 days after surgery. The HCG was given as per WHO recommendation. The results were assessed clinically, by color Doppler ultrasound and HCG stimulated testosterone assay. Standard orchidopexy was done in all cases. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, testicular size, and vascularity as assessed by the Doppler ultrasonographic study. The mean basal serum testosterone and the HCG stimulation were also comparable in both the groups. At the sixth week follow up, the difference in the serum testosterone level was statistically significant, Group A 60.50 + 7.19 ng/dl vs Group B 81.17 + 5.88 ng/dl. The testicular vascularity at the sixth week follow up was more in Group B (74% normal vs 55% normal. Sixteen (24% testis were retracted in Group A, while none were in Group B. Postoperative HCG therapy has been proved to be more effective than conventional preoperative therapy for better surgical outcome in BNUDT.

  6. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

    Full Text Available Sperm protein (Sp17 is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. This is the first time that a mouse counterpart of a cancer testis antigen (Sp17 was shown to be expressed in an OC mouse model, and that vaccination against this antigen significantly controlled tumor growth. Our study shows that the CpG-adjuvated Sp17 vaccine overcomes the issue of immunologic tolerance, the major barrier to the development of effective immunotherapy for OC. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of OC biology by showing that Th-17 cells activation and contemporary immunosuppressive T-reg cells inhibition is required for vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations can induce long-standing protection against OC and delay tumor growth, suggesting that this strategy may provide additional treatments of human OC and the prevention of disease onset in women with a family history of OC.

  7. Cancer-testis antigen expression and immunogenicity in AL amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a plasma cell dyscrasia closely related to multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, the cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) CT7 (MAGE-C1), CT10 (MAGE-C2) and MAGE-A CTAs are expressed in up to 80% of cases. In this study, we investigated the expression and immunogenicity of several CTAs in patients with AL amyloidosis in a total of 38 bone marrow specimens by employing standard immunohistochemistry techniques on paraffin-embedded archival tissues. Plasma samples from 35 patients (27 with matched bone marrow samples) were also analyzed by ELISA for sero reactivity to a group of full-length CTA proteins. CT7 was present in 25/38 (66%) while CT10 was demonstrated in 3/38 and GAGE in 1/38 AL amyloid cases. The expression pattern was mostly focal. There were no significant differences with regard to organ involvement, response to treatment, or prognosis in CTA positive compared to negative cases. None of the specimens showed spontaneous humoral immunity to CT7, but sero reactivity was observed in individual patients to other CTAs. This study identifies CT7 as the prevalent CTA in plasma cells of patients with AL amyloidosis. Further analyses determining the biology of CTAs in AL amyloidosis and their value as potential targets for immunotherapy are warranted

  8. Characterizing active and inactive brown adipose tissue in adult humans using PET-CT and MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F; Walker, Ronald C; Avison, Malcolm J; Welch, E Brian

    2016-07-01

    Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermogenesis and whole body metabolism in mammals. Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging has identified depots of BAT in adult humans, igniting scientific interest. The purpose of this study is to characterize both active and inactive supraclavicular BAT in adults and compare the values to those of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 25 healthy adults. Unlike [(18)F]FDG PET, which can detect only active BAT, MRI is capable of detecting both active and inactive BAT. The MRI-derived fat signal fraction (FSF) of active BAT was significantly lower than that of inactive BAT (means ± SD; 60.2 ± 7.6 vs. 62.4 ± 6.8%, respectively). This change in tissue morphology was also reflected as a significant increase in Hounsfield units (HU; -69.4 ± 11.5 vs. -74.5 ± 9.7 HU, respectively). Additionally, the CT HU, MRI FSF, and MRI R2* values are significantly different between BAT and WAT, regardless of the activation status of BAT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify PET-CT and MRI FSF measurements and utilize a semiautomated algorithm to identify inactive and active BAT in the same adult subjects. Our findings support the use of these metrics to characterize and distinguish between BAT and WAT and lay the foundation for future MRI analysis with the hope that some day MRI-based delineation of BAT can stand on its own. PMID:27166284

  9. MAX06 and FAX06: update of two adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently preparing new recommendations which will replace those released in ICRP 1991, 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP ICRP Publication 60 (Oxford: Pergamon). The draft report previews a change for the effective dose with respect to the number of organs and tissues to be included in its calculation. In the future, adipose tissue, connective tissue, the extrathoracic airways, the gall bladder, the heart wall, the lymphatic nodes, the prostate and the salivary glands have to be taken into account for the determination of the effective dose. This study reports on a second segmentation of the recently introduced male adult voxel (MAX) and female adult voxel (FAX) phantoms with regard to the new organs and tissues, but also presents a revised representation of the skeletons, which had not been adjusted to ICRP-based volumes in the first release of the two phantoms

  10. Adult human neural stem cell therapeutics: Current developmental status and prospect

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Hyun; Lee, Kee-Hang; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, regenerative therapies using stem cell technologies have been developed for various neurological diseases. Although stem cell therapy is an attractive option to reverse neural tissue damage and to recover neurological deficits, it is still under development so as not to show significant treatment effects in clinical settings. In this review, we discuss the scientific and clinical basics of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), and their current developmental status as ce...

  11. Impact of robot responsiveness and adult involvement on children's social behaviours in human-robot interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, David; Fernando, Samuel; Collins, Emily; Millings, Abigail; Moore, Roger; Sharkey, Amanda; Prescott, Tony

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in developing engaging social robots is creating convincing, autonomous and responsive agents, which users perceive, and treat, as social beings. As a part of the collaborative project: Expressive Agents for Symbiotic Education and Learning (EASEL), this study examines the impact of autonomous response to children's speech, by the humanoid robot Zeno, on their interactions with it as a social entity. Results indicate that robot autonomy and adult assistance during HRI can subs...

  12. Porcine embryos produced after intracytoplasmic sperm injection using xenogeneic pig sperm from neonatal testis tissue grafted in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Honaramooz, Ali; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-01-01

    Embryo development after homologous intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with sperm from testis tissue xenografts from pigs or any other farm animal species has not been evaluated critically. Here, we report development of porcine embryos in vitro following ICSI with sperm retrieved from xenografted neonatal pig testis. Small pieces of testis tissue from newborn piglets were grafted under the back skin of castrated immunodeficient mice (n = 4) and the xenografts were collected 8 months aft...

  13. Induction of Stem Cell Gene Expression in Adult Human Fibroblasts without Transgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Raymond L.; Ambady, Sakthikumar; Holmes, William F.; Vilner, Lucy; Kole, Denis; Kashpur, Olga; Huntress, Victoria; Vojtic, Ina; Whitton, Holly; Dominko, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has potential for derivation of patient-specific cells for therapy as well as for development of models with which to study disease progression. Derivation of iPS cells from human somatic cells has been achieved by viral transduction of human fibroblasts with early developmental genes. Because forced expression of these genes by viral transduction results in transgene integration with unknown and unpredict...

  14. Magnetization transfer imaging of normal and abnormal testis: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to determine the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal testes, possible variations with age and to assess the feasibility of MTR in characterizing various testicular lesions. Eighty-six men were included. A three-dimensional gradient-echo MT sequence was performed, with/without an on-resonance binomial prepulse. MTR was calculated as: (SIo-SIm)/(SIo) x 100 %, where SIm and SIo refers to signal intensities with and without the saturation pulse, respectively. Subjects were classified as: group 1, 20-39 years; group 2, 40-65 years; and group 3, older than 65 years of age. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the least significant difference test was used to assess variations of MTR with age. Comparison between the MTR of normal testis, malignant and benign testicular lesions was performed using independent-samples t testing. ANOVA revealed differences of MTR between age groups (F = 7.51, P = 0.001). Significant differences between groups 1, 2 (P = 0.011) and 1, 3 (P < 0.001) were found, but not between 2, 3 (P = 0.082). The MTR (in percent) of testicular carcinomas was 55.0 ± 3.2, significantly higher than that of benign lesions (50.3 ± 4.0, P = 0.02) and of normal testes (47.4 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). MTR of normal testes decreases with age. MTR might be helpful in the diagnostic work-up of testicular lesions. (orig.)

  15. Magnetization transfer imaging of normal and abnormal testis: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, Athina C.; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Maliakas, Vasilios; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Baltogiannis, Dimitrios; Sylakos, Anastasios; Sofikitis, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Urology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Stavrou, Sotirios [University of Ioannina, Department of Urology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University Hospital of Ioannina, Leoforos S. Niarchou, Department of Urology, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    The aim was to determine the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal testes, possible variations with age and to assess the feasibility of MTR in characterizing various testicular lesions. Eighty-six men were included. A three-dimensional gradient-echo MT sequence was performed, with/without an on-resonance binomial prepulse. MTR was calculated as: (SIo-SIm)/(SIo) x 100 %, where SIm and SIo refers to signal intensities with and without the saturation pulse, respectively. Subjects were classified as: group 1, 20-39 years; group 2, 40-65 years; and group 3, older than 65 years of age. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the least significant difference test was used to assess variations of MTR with age. Comparison between the MTR of normal testis, malignant and benign testicular lesions was performed using independent-samples t testing. ANOVA revealed differences of MTR between age groups (F = 7.51, P = 0.001). Significant differences between groups 1, 2 (P = 0.011) and 1, 3 (P < 0.001) were found, but not between 2, 3 (P = 0.082). The MTR (in percent) of testicular carcinomas was 55.0 ± 3.2, significantly higher than that of benign lesions (50.3 ± 4.0, P = 0.02) and of normal testes (47.4 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). MTR of normal testes decreases with age. MTR might be helpful in the diagnostic work-up of testicular lesions. (orig.)

  16. Normative data for subcortical regional volumes over the lifetime of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Dieumegarde, Louis; Duchesne, Simon

    2016-08-15

    Normative data for volumetric estimates of brain structures are necessary to adequately assess brain volume alterations in individuals with suspected neurological or psychiatric conditions. Although many studies have described age and sex effects in healthy individuals for brain morphometry assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, proper normative values allowing to quantify potential brain abnormalities are needed. We developed norms for volumetric estimates of subcortical brain regions based on cross-sectional magnetic resonance scans from 2790 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting subcortical regional volumes of each hemisphere were produced including age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors. The mean explained variance by the models was 48%. For most regions, age, sex and eTIV predicted most of the explained variance while manufacturer, magnetic field strength and interactions predicted a limited amount. Estimates of the expected volumes of an individual based on its characteristics and the scanner characteristics can be obtained using derived formulas. For a new individual, significance test for volume abnormality, effect size and estimated percentage of the normative population with a smaller volume can be obtained. Normative values were validated in independent samples of healthy adults and in adults with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27165761

  17. Expression of the neurotrophin receptors Trk A and Trk B in adult human astrocytoma and glioblastoma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shashi Wadhwa; Tapas C Nag; Anupam Jindal; Rahul Kushwaha; Ashok K Mahapatra; Chitra Sarkar

    2003-03-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors of the Trk family play a critical role in proliferation, differentiation and survival of the developing neurons. There are reports on their expression in neoplasms too, namely, the primitive neuroectodermal tumours of childhood, and in adult astrocytic gliomas. The involvement of Trk receptors in tumour pathogenesis, if any, is not known. With this end in view, the present study has examined 10 tumour biopsy samples (identified as astrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and glioblastoma) and peritumoral brain tissue of adult patients, for the presence of Trk A and Trk B receptors, by immunohistochemistry. The nature of the tumour samples was also confirmed by their immunoreactivity (IR) to glial fibrillary acidic protein. In the peritumoral brain tissue, only neurons showed IR for Trk A and Trk B. On the contrary, in the tumour sections, the IR to both receptors was localized in the vast majority of glia and capillary endothelium. There was an obvious pattern of IR in these gliomas: high levels of IR were present in the low-grade (type I and II) astrocytoma; whereas in the advanced malignant forms (WHO grade IV giant cell glioblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme) the IR was very weak. These findings suggest that Trk A and Trk B are involved in tumour pathogenesis, especially in the early stage, and may respond to signals that elicit glial proliferation, and thus contribute to progression towards malignancy.

  18. Effective Delivery of Male Contraceptives Behind the Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) - Lesson from Adjudin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiqi; Mruk, Dolores D; Xia, Weiliang; Bonanomi, Michele; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, Chuen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body. It divides the seminiferous epithelium of the seminiferous tubule, the functional unit of the testis, where spermatogenesis takes place, into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Functionally, the BTB provides a unique microenvironment for meiosis I/II and post-meiotic spermatid development which take place exclusively in the apical compartment, away from the host immune system, and it contributes to the immune privilege status of testis. However, the BTB also poses major obstacles in developing male contraceptives (e.g., adjudin) that exert their effects on germ cells in the apical compartment, such as by disrupting spermatid adhesion to the Sertoli cell, causing germ cell exfoliation from the testis. Besides the tight junction (TJ) between adjacent Sertoli cells at the BTB that restricts the entry of contraceptives from the microvessels in the interstitium to the adluminal compartment, drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), are also present that actively pump drugs out of the testis, limiting drug bioavailability. Recent advances in drug formulations, such as drug particle micronization (male contraceptives for men. PMID:26758796

  19. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  20. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal

  1. Identification of a testis-expressed creatine transporter gene at 16p11.2 and confirmation of the X-linked locus to Xq28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, G.S.; Funanage, V.L.; Proujansky, R. [Alfred I. duPont Institute, Wilmington, DE (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-15

    Creatine and creatine phosphate act as a buffer system for the regeneration of ATP in tissues with fluctuating energy demands. Following reports of the cloning of a creatine transporter in rat, rabbit, and human, we cloned and sequenced a creatine transporter from a human intestinal cDNA library. PCR amplification of genomic DNAs from somatic cell hybrid panels localized two creatine transporter (CT) genes: CT1 to Xq26-q28 and CT2 to 16p11.2. Refinement of CT1 to Xq28 was confirmed by FISH. Identification of CT2 sequences in YACs and cosmid contigs that had been ordered on human chromosome 16 enabled its assignment to the proximal end of 16p11.2. Sequencing of the CT2 gene identified sequence differences between CT1 and CT2 transcripts that were utilized to determine that CT2 is expressed in testis only. CT2 is the most proximally identified gene on chromosome 16p to date. The existence of an autosomal, testis-specific form of the human creatine transporter gene suggests that creatine transporter activity is critical for normal function of spermatazoa following meiosis. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Invasion by Neisseria meningitidis varies widely between clones and among nasopharyngeal mucosae derived from adult human hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert; Goodwin, Linda; Stevanin, Tania M; Silcocks, Paul B; Parker, Andrew; Maiden, Martin C J; Read, Robert C

    2002-05-01

    Colonization of the human nasopharynx is a feature of some species of Neisseria, and is a prerequisite of invasive meningococcal disease. The likelihood of colonization by Neisseria meningitidis varies widely between humans, and very few develop invasive disease. Explants of nasal mucosa derived from adult patients with non-allergic nasal obstruction were infected experimentally with Neisseria spp. At intervals over 18 h incubation, washed explants were homogenized, and viable bacteria were counted. To estimate bacterial invasion of mucosa, explants were exposed to 0.25% sodium taurocholate for 30 s prior to homogenization. N. meningitidis was recovered from the mucosa and the organism invaded and replicated within the tissue, in contrast to N. lactamica and N. animalis (n=9, Pcoefficient of variation of recovered viable counts was 1335% after 4 h and 77% after 18 h incubation. It is concluded that the distinctive colonization and disease potential of Neisseria spp. may be partly a consequence of their ability to invade and survive within human nasopharyngeal mucosa, but that this is influenced greatly by genetic or environmental factors operating on the host mucosa. This is consistent with the unpredictable epidemiology of meningococcal disease. PMID:11988521

  3. The presence and absence of lymphatic vessels in the adult human intervertebral disc: relation to disc pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the normal adult human intervertebral disc is considered to be avascular, vascularised cellular fibrous tissue can be found in pathological conditions involving the disc such as disc herniation. Whether lymphatics vessels form a component of this reparative tissue is not known as the presence or absence of lymphatics in herniated and normal disc tissue is not known. We examined spinal tissues and discectomy specimens for the presence of lymphatics. The examination used immunohistochemistry to identify the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, podoplanin and LYVE1. Lymphatic vessels were not found in the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus of intact, non-herniated lumbar and thoracic discs but were present in the surrounding ligaments. Ingrowth of fibrous tissue was seen in 73% of herniated disc specimens of which 36% contained LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels were not seen in the sacrum and coccyx or biopsies of four sacrococcygeal chordomas, but they were noted in surrounding extra-osseous fat and fibrous tissue at the edge of the infiltrating tumour. Our findings indicate that lymphatic vessels are not present in the normal adult intervertebral disc but that, when there is extrusion of disc material into surrounding soft tissue, there is ingrowth of reparative fibrous tissue containing lymphatic vessels. Our findings also indicate that chordoma, a tumour of notochordal origin, spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics in para-spinal soft tissues. (orig.)

  4. Validation of case-finding algorithms derived from administrative data for identifying adults living with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Antoniou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to validate a case-finding algorithm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection using administrative health databases in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We constructed 48 case-finding algorithms using combinations of physician billing claims, hospital and emergency room separations and prescription drug claims. We determined the test characteristics of each algorithm over various time frames for identifying HIV infection, using data abstracted from the charts of 2,040 randomly selected patients receiving care at two medical practices in Toronto, Ontario as the reference standard. RESULTS: With the exception of algorithms using only a single physician claim, the specificity of all algorithms exceeded 99%. An algorithm consisting of three physician claims over a three year period had a sensitivity and specificity of 96.2% (95% CI 95.2%-97.9% and 99.6% (95% CI 99.1%-99.8%, respectively. Application of the algorithm to the province of Ontario identified 12,179 HIV-infected patients in care for the period spanning April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Case-finding algorithms generated from administrative data can accurately identify adults living with HIV. A relatively simple "3 claims in 3 years" definition can be used for assembling a population-based cohort and facilitating future research examining trends in health service use and outcomes among HIV-infected adults in Ontario.

  5. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults: differences in risk factors and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Lee, Young Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, most have failed to show differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. This study was designed to identify differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among HIV-infected adults in Seoul. A face-to-face survey of 457 HIV-infected adults was conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Government in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Among 422 participants, 44% had suicidal ideation, and 11% had suicide attempts. The independent risk factors for suicidal ideation were young and middle age, living with someone, history of AIDS-defining opportunistic disease, history of treatment for depression, lower social support, and psychological status. Beneficiaries of National Medical Aid, economic barriers to treatment, history of treatment for depression, and lower psychological status were independently associated with suicide attempts. Patients with HIV in Korea were treated without cost in some centers. Thus, experiencing an economic barrier to treatment might be due in part to ignorance of HIV care policies. Our findings indicate that suicide attempts are associated with socioeconomic factors and information inequality regarding medical care. In conclusion, suicidal ideation closely associated with the psychosocial factors, whereas suicide attempt demonstrates a stronger association with socioeconomic factors. Suicide prevention measures should be implemented to provide information to help HIV-infected patients. PMID:26444525

  6. The presence and absence of lymphatic vessels in the adult human intervertebral disc: relation to disc pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliskey, Karolina; Williams, Kelly; Yu, J.; Urban, Jill; Athanasou, Nick [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); Jackson, David [Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Human Immunology Unit, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Although the normal adult human intervertebral disc is considered to be avascular, vascularised cellular fibrous tissue can be found in pathological conditions involving the disc such as disc herniation. Whether lymphatics vessels form a component of this reparative tissue is not known as the presence or absence of lymphatics in herniated and normal disc tissue is not known. We examined spinal tissues and discectomy specimens for the presence of lymphatics. The examination used immunohistochemistry to identify the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, podoplanin and LYVE1. Lymphatic vessels were not found in the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus of intact, non-herniated lumbar and thoracic discs but were present in the surrounding ligaments. Ingrowth of fibrous tissue was seen in 73% of herniated disc specimens of which 36% contained LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels were not seen in the sacrum and coccyx or biopsies of four sacrococcygeal chordomas, but they were noted in surrounding extra-osseous fat and fibrous tissue at the edge of the infiltrating tumour. Our findings indicate that lymphatic vessels are not present in the normal adult intervertebral disc but that, when there is extrusion of disc material into surrounding soft tissue, there is ingrowth of reparative fibrous tissue containing lymphatic vessels. Our findings also indicate that chordoma, a tumour of notochordal origin, spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics in para-spinal soft tissues. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of a novel testicular form of human hormone-sensitive lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, Aline; Melaine, Nathalie; Laurell, Henrik; Grober, Jacques; Holst, Lena Stenson; Guillaudeux, Thierry; Holm, Cecilia; Jégou, Bernard; Langin, Dominique

    2002-02-22

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an esterase and lipase, which are essential for spermatogenesis. Two HSL mRNAs are expressed in human testis. A long form is encoded by a testis-specific exon and nine exons common to testis and adipocyte HSL. Here we show that the short-form 3.3-kb mRNA possesses a unique 5' end that is transcribed from a novel testis-specific exon. The corresponding protein is similar to the 775-amino-acid-long adipocyte HSL. Immunohistochemistry experiments on human testis sections revealed that the long form is strictly expressed in haploid germ cells whereas the short form is expressed in interstitial and tubular somatic cells as well as premeiotic germ cells. PMID:11846402

  8. Theoretical study of interactions between human adult hemoglobin and acetate ion by polarizable force field and fragmentation quantum chemistry methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN XiuFen; JIANG Nan; MA Jing

    2009-01-01

    A series of theoretical approaches,including conventional FF03 and FF03-based polarization model,as well as the generalized energy-based fragmentation (GEBF) quantum chemistry method,have been applied to investigate the interactions between acetate ion (CH_3COO~-) and the α-subunit of human adult hemoglobin (designated as Hb-α) at four binding sites (Lys16,Lys90,Arg92,and Lys127),respectively.The FF03-based polarizable force fields show that the interaction energies between the CH_3COO~-group and Hb-α follow the trend of Arg92>Lys127>Lys90>Lys16.The complexation of CH_3COO~-with Hb-α is governed by the long-range electrostatic interactions and steric effect.

  9. Human fetal cardiac progenitors: The role of stem cells and progenitors in the fetal and adult heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatovic, Ivana; Månsson-Broberg, Agneta; Sylvén, Christer; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik

    2016-02-01

    The human fetal heart is formed early during embryogenesis as a result of cell migrations, differentiation, and formative blood flow. It begins to beat around gestation day 22. Progenitor cells are derived from mesoderm (endocardium and myocardium), proepicardium (epicardium and coronary vessels), and neural crest (heart valves, outflow tract septation, and parasympathetic innervation). A variety of molecular disturbances in the factors regulating the specification and differentiation of these cells can cause congenital heart disease. This review explores the contribution of different cardiac progenitors to the embryonic heart development; the pathways and transcription factors guiding their expansion, migration, and functional differentiation; and the endogenous regenerative capacity of the adult heart including the plasticity of cardiomyocytes. Unfolding these mechanisms will become the basis for understanding the dynamics of specific congenital heart disease as well as a means to develop therapy for fetal as well as postnatal cardiac defects and heart failure. PMID:26421632

  10. Role of the Subunits Interactions in the Conformational Transitions in Adult Human Hemoglobin: an Explicit Solvent Molecular Dynamics Study

    CERN Document Server

    Yusuff, Olaniyi K; Bussi, Giovanni; Raugei, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin exhibits allosteric structural changes upon ligand binding due to the dynamic interactions between the ligand binding sites, the amino acids residues and some other solutes present under physiological conditions. In the present study, the dynamical and quaternary structural changes occurring in two unligated (deoxy-) T structures, and two fully ligated (oxy-) R, R2 structures of adult human hemoglobin were investigated with molecular dynamics. It is shown that, in the sub-microsecond time scale, there is no marked difference in the global dynamics of the amino acids residues in both the oxy- and the deoxy- forms of the individual structures. In addition, the R, R2 are relatively stable and do not present quaternary conformational changes within the time scale of our simulations while the T structure is dynamically more flexible and exhibited the T\\rightarrow R quaternary conformational transition, which is propagated by the relative rotation of the residues at the {\\alpha}1{\\beta}2 and {\\alpha}2{\\b...

  11. Effects of magnesium alloys extracts on adult human bone marrow-derived stromal cell viability and osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chunxi; Dai Kerong [Department of Orthopedics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yuan Guangyin; Zhang Jia [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloys Net Forming (LAF), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tang Ze; Zhang Xiaoling [Lab of Osteopaedic Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine - SJTUSM, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2010-08-01

    In this study, adult human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) were cultured in extracts of magnesium (Mg) and the Mg alloys AZ91D and NZ30K for 12 days. We studied the indirect effects of Mg alloys on hBMSC viability. Alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteogenic differentiation marker genes were used to evaluate the effects of the Mg alloys on the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. The results indicate that {<=}10 mM concentration of Mg in the extracts did not inhibit the viability and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. However, the results suggest that the high pH of the extracts, which is a result of the rapid corrosion of Mg and the Mg alloys, is unfavorable to the viability and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs.

  12. Effects of magnesium alloys extracts on adult human bone marrow-derived stromal cell viability and osteogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, adult human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) were cultured in extracts of magnesium (Mg) and the Mg alloys AZ91D and NZ30K for 12 days. We studied the indirect effects of Mg alloys on hBMSC viability. Alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteogenic differentiation marker genes were used to evaluate the effects of the Mg alloys on the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. The results indicate that ≤10 mM concentration of Mg in the extracts did not inhibit the viability and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. However, the results suggest that the high pH of the extracts, which is a result of the rapid corrosion of Mg and the Mg alloys, is unfavorable to the viability and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs.

  13. Contribution of non-genetic factors to dopamine and serotonin receptor availability in the adult human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J; Cervenka, S; Kuja-Halkola, R; Matheson, G J; Jönsson, E G; Lichtenstein, P; Henningsson, S; Ichimiya, T; Larsson, H; Stenkrona, P; Halldin, C; Farde, L

    2016-01-01

    and environmental factors, respectively, on dopaminergic and serotonergic markers in the living human brain. Eleven monozygotic and 10 dizygotic healthy male twin pairs were examined with PET and [(11)C]raclopride binding to the D2- and D3-dopamine receptor and [(11)C]WAY100635 binding to the......The dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission systems are of fundamental importance for normal brain function and serve as targets for treatment of major neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite central interest for these neurotransmission systems in psychiatry research, little is known about...... binding and a major contribution of environmental factors (pairwise shared and unique individual; 0.70-0.75) on neocortical 5-HT1A receptor binding. Our findings indicate that individual variation in neuroreceptor availability in the adult brain is the end point of a nature-nurture interplay, and call for...

  14. hCG-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers apoptosis and reduces steroidogenic enzyme expression through activating transcription factor 6 in Leydig cells of the testis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sun-Ji; Kim, Tae-Shin; Park, Choon-Keun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Jeen-Woo; Mark A. Lawson; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress generally occurs in secretory cell types. It has been reported that Leydig cells, which produce testosterone in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), express key steroidogenic enzymes for the regulation of testosterone synthesis. In this study, we analyzed whether hCG induces ER stress via three unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways in mouse Leydig tumor (mLTC-1) cells and the testis. Treatment with hCG induced ER stress in mLTC-1 cells via the A...

  15. Epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in Hejiang and Santai Counties, Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changhua, L; Xiaorong, Z; Dongchuan, Q; Shuhua, X; Hotez, P J; Defu, Z; Hulian, Z; Mingden, L; Hainan, R; Bing, Z; Haichou, X; Hawdon, J; Zheng, F

    1999-10-15

    Hookworm infection as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic to Sichuan Province in China. In order to research the prevalence and intensity of these infections we visited two villages in Hejiang County (southern Sichuan Province) and Santai County (northwestern Sichuan Province) between July and October of 1997. Fecal examinations were performed on adult villagers over the age of 15 years (currently children under this age are dewormed annually with anthelmintic drugs). Among 310 residents of Lugao Village (Hejiang County), 87, 63 and 60% were infected with hookworm, Ascaris or Trichuris, respectively. The prevalence of hookworm determined to rise linearly with age (r = 0.97). High intensity infections with hookworm still occur in this region as 22% of the residents have over 3000 eggs per gram (PEG) of feces as determined by quantitative egg counts. The majority of these individuals harbored mixed infection with Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, although the former predominated when adult hookworms were collected from 30 village residents treated with pyrantel pamoate. In contrast, among the 334 Xinjian villagers examined (Santai County) the majority harbored predominantly light hookworm infections--66.1% of the residents has less than 400 EPG by quantitative fecal examination and only 3.7% exhibited greater than 3000 EPG. Again, N. americanus was the predominant hookworm seen after worm expulsion. We have round that despite economic development which is occurring in some parts of China, significant hookworm infections and clinical hookworm anemia still exist in areas of Sichuan Province. In Hejiang County we found that the intensity of hookworm infection has actually risen within the last 10 years. Hookworm is a medical problem among the elderly in Sichuan. PMID:10546842

  16. Integration of Human Resource Development and Adult Education Theories and Practices: Implications for Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdere, Mesut; Conceicao, Simone

    2006-01-01

    The field of Human Resource Development has initially evolved and executed practice around a behaviorist business approach which has become inadequate and inefficient in addressing the multilevel challenges of today's complex organizations and meeting the needs of a new workforce that is increasingly becoming diverse. However, this trend is now…

  17. Localization of laminin alpha4-chain in developing and adult human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjäniemi, Noora; Korhonen, Matti; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Tryggvason, Karl; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Sorokin, Lydia; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Wondimu, Zenebech; Assefa, Daniel; Patarroyo, Manuel; Virtanen, Ismo

    2002-08-01

    Recent studies suggest important functions for laminin-8 (Ln-8; alpha4beta1gamma1) in vascular and blood cell biology, but its distribution in human tissues has remained elusive. We have raised a monoclonal antibody (MAb) FC10, and by enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) and Western blotting techniques we show that it recognizes the human Ln alpha4-chain. Immunoreactivity for the Ln alpha4-chain was localized in tissues of mesodermal origin, such as basement membranes (BMs) of endothelia, adipocytes, and skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle cells. In addition, the Ln alpha4-chain was found in regions of some epithelial BMs, including epidermis, salivary glands, pancreas, esophageal and gastric glands, intestinal crypts, and some renal medullary tubules. Developmental differences in the distribution of Ln alpha4-chain were detected in skeletal muscle, walls of vessels, and intestinal crypts. Ln alpha4- and Ln alpha2-chains co-localized in BMs of fetal skeletal muscle cells and in some epithelial BMs, e.g., in gastric glands and acini of pancreas. Cultured human pulmonary artery endothelial (HPAE) cells produced Ln alpha4-chain as M(r) 180,000 and 200,000 doublet and rapidly deposited it to the growth substratum. In cell-free extracellular matrices of human kidney and lung, Ln alpha4-chain was found as M(r) 180,000 protein. PMID:12133914

  18. Low Proliferation and Differentiation Capacities of Adult Hippocampal Stem Cells Correlate with Memory Dysfunction in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coras, Roland; Siebzehnrubl, Florian A.; Pauli, Elisabeth; Huttner, Hagen B.; Njunting, Marleisje; Kobow, Katja; Villmann, Carmen; Hahnen, Eric; Neuhuber, Winfried; Weigel, Daniel; Buchfelder, Michael; Stefan, Hermann; Beck, Heinz; Steindler, Dennis A.; Blumcke, Ingmar

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus maintains its capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In animal models, hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by cognitive tasks, and experimental ablation of neurogenesis disrupts specific modalities of learning and memory. In humans, the impact of neurogenesis on cognition remains unclear. Here, we…

  19. Human recombinant protein C for severe sepsis and septic shock in adult and paediatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan; Gluud, Christian; Lathyris, Dimitrios; Cardona, Andrés Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis is a common and frequently fatal condition. Human recombinant activated protein C (APC) has been introduced to reduce the high risk of death associated with severe sepsis or septic shock. This systematic review is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2007....

  20. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…