WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult human bone

  1. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja;

    2016-01-01

    . Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone...... demonstrates that reversal cells colonizing bone surfaces right after resorption are osteoblast-lineage cells, and extends to adult human bone remodeling their role in rendering eroded surfaces osteogenic....

  2. A physical mechanism for coupling bone resorption and formation in adult human bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Skorzynska, Katarzyna Ewa;

    2009-01-01

    within strict limits throughout adult life. Here, we determined that the bone marrow microanatomy adjacent to remodeling areas is a central player in this process. By using histomorphometry and multiple immunostainings, we demonstrated in biopsies exhibiting coupled bone resorption and formation...

  3. Increased presence of capillaries next to remodeling sites in adult human cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene Bjoerg; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Marcussen, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    by pericytes. Furthermore, the BRC canopy cells were found to express SMA. These ordered distributions support the existence of an osteogenic-vascular interface in adult human cancellous bone. The organization of this interface fits the current knowledge on the mode of action of vasculature on osteogenesis...

  4. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072555

  5. Differentiation of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into Schwann-like cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-ye; ZHENG Jia-kun; WANG Chao-yang; LI Wen-yu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differentiative capability of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into Schwann-like cells. Methods: Bone marrows were aspirated from healthy donors and mononuclear cells were separated by Percoll lymphocytes separation liquid (1.073 g/ml) with centrifugation, cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 20 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Cells of passage 1 were identified with immunocytochemistry. Conclusions: Bone marrow contains the stem cells with the ability of differentiating into Schwann-like cells, which may represent an alternative stem cell sources for neural transplantation.

  6. Sustained Engraftment of Cryopreserved Human Bone Marrow CD34(+) Cells in Young Adult NSG Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiekmeijer, Anna-Sophia; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Brugman, Martijn H; Salvatori, Daniela C F; Egeler, R Maarten; Bredius, Robbert G M; Fibbe, Willem E; Staal, Frank J T

    2014-06-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are defined by their ability to repopulate the bone marrow of myeloablative conditioned and/or (lethally) irradiated recipients. To study the repopulating potential of human HSCs, murine models have been developed that rely on the use of immunodeficient mice that allow engraftment of human cells. The NSG xenograft model has emerged as the current standard for this purpose allowing for engraftment and study of human T cells. Here, we describe adaptations to the original NSG xenograft model that can be readily implemented. These adaptations encompass use of adult mice instead of newborns and a short ex vivo culture. This protocol results in robust and reproducible high levels of lympho-myeloid engraftment. Immunization of recipient mice with relevant antigen resulted in specific antibody formation, showing that both T cells and B cells were functional. In addition, bone marrow cells from primary recipients exhibited repopulating ability following transplantation into secondary recipients. Similar results were obtained with cryopreserved human bone marrow samples, thus circumventing the need for fresh cells and allowing the use of patient derived bio-bank samples. Our findings have implications for use of this model in fundamental stem cell research, immunological studies in vivo and preclinical evaluations for HSC transplantation, expansion, and genetic modification.

  7. Selection of apoptotic cell specific human antibodies from adult bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Grönwall

    Full Text Available Autoreactive antibodies that recognize neo-determinants on apoptotic cells in mice have been proposed to have protective, homeostatic and immunoregulatory properties, although our knowledge about the equivalent antibodies in humans has been much more limited. In the current study, human monoclonal antibodies with binding specificity for apoptotic cells were isolated from the bone marrow of healthy adults using phage display technology. These antibodies were shown to recognize phosphorylcholine (PC-associated neo-determinants. Interestingly, three of the four identified apoptotic cell-specific antibody clones were encoded by VH3 region rearrangements with germline or nearly germline configuration without evidence of somatic hypermutation. Importantly, the different identified antibody clones had diverse heavy chain CDR3 and deduced binding surfaces as suggested by structure modeling. This may suggest a potentially great heterogeneity in human antibodies recognizing PC-related epitopes on apoptotic cells. To re-construct the postulated structural format of the parental anti-PC antibody, the dominant clone was also expressed as a recombinant human polymeric IgM, which revealed a substantially increased binding reactivity, with dose-dependent and antigen-inhibitable binding of apoptotic cells. Our findings may have implication for improved prognostic testing and therapeutic interventions in human inflammatory disease.

  8. Preliminary Study on Biological Properties of Adult Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; BAI Hai; WANG Jingchang; SHI Jingyun; WANG Cunbang; LU Jihong; OU Jianfeng; WANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method of culture and expansion of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs in vitro and to explore their biological properties. Methods: Mononuclear cells were obtained from 5 mL adult human bone marrow by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll solution. Adult human MSCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with low glucose (LG-DMEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum at a density of 2× 105 cell/cm2. The morphocytology was observed under phase-contrast microscope. The cell growth was measured by MTT method. The flow cytometer was performed to examine the expression of cell surface molecules and cell cycle. The ultrastructure of MSCs was observed under transmission electron microscope. The immunomodulatory functions of MSCs were measured by MTT method. The effects of MSCs on the growth of K562 cells and the dynamic change of HA, Ⅳ-C, LN concentration in the culture supernatant of MSCs was also observed. Results: The MSCs harvested in this study were homogenous population and exhibited a spindle-shaped fibroblastic morphology. The cell growth curve showed that MSCs had a strong ability of proliferation. The cells were positive for CD44,while negative for hematopoietic cell surface marker such as CD3, CD4, CD7, CD13, CD14, CD15, CD19,CD22, CD33, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, which was closely related to graft versus host disease. Above 90% cells of MSCs were found at G0/G1 phase. The ultrastructure of MSCs indicated that there were plenty of cytoplasmic organelles. Allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes proliferation was suppressed by MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 60.68% (P<0.01). The suppressive effect was also existed in the culture supernatant of MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 9.00% (P<0.05). When lymphocytes were stimulated by PHA, the suppression effects of the culture supernatant were even stronger and the inhibition ratio was 20.91%(P<0.01). Compared with the cell growth curve of the K562 cells alone, the K562

  9. Interleukin-1β modulates endochondral ossification by human adult bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mumme

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines present in the milieu of the fracture site are important modulators of bone healing. Here we investigated the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β on the main events of endochondral bone formation by human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC, namely cell proliferation, differentiation and maturation/remodelling of the resulting hypertrophic cartilage. Low doses of IL-1β (50 pg/mL enhanced colony-forming units-fibroblastic (CFU-f and -osteoblastic (CFU-o number (up to 1.5-fold and size (1.2-fold in the absence of further supplements and glycosaminoglycan accumulation (1.4-fold upon BM-MSC chondrogenic induction. In osteogenically cultured BM-MSC, IL-1β enhanced calcium deposition (62.2-fold and BMP-2 mRNA expression by differential activation of NF-κB and ERK signalling. IL-1β-treatment of BM-MSC generated cartilage resulted in higher production of MMP-13 (14.0-fold in vitro, mirrored by an increased accumulation of the cryptic cleaved fragment of aggrecan, and more efficient cartilage remodelling/resorption after 5 weeks in vivo (i.e., more TRAP positive cells and bone marrow, less cartilaginous areas, resulting in the formation of mature bone and bone marrow after 12 weeks. In conclusion, IL-1β finely modulates early and late events of the endochondral bone formation by BM-MSC. Controlling the inflammatory environment could enhance the success of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of fractures by resident MSC and as well as improve the engineering of implantable tissues.

  10. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V.; Kaila, R.; Wilson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the safety and efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) compared with bone graft when used specifically for revision spinal fusion surgery secondary to pseudarthrosis. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched using defined search terms. The primary outcome measure was spinal fusion, assessed as success or failure in accordance with radiograph, MRI or CT scan review at 24-month follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was time to fusion. Results A total of six studies (three prospective and three retrospective) reporting on the use of BMP2 met the inclusion criteria (203 patients). Of these, four provided a comparison of BMP2 and bone graft whereas the other two solely investigated the use of BMP2. The primary outcome was seen in 92.3% (108/117) of patients following surgery with BMP2. Although none of the studies showed superiority of BMP2 to bone graft for fusion, its use was associated with a statistically quicker time to achieving fusion. BMP2 did not appear to increase the risk of complication. Conclusion The use of BMP2 is both safe and effective within the revision setting, ideally in cases where bone graft is unavailable or undesirable. Further research is required to define its optimum role. Cite this article: Mr P. Bodalia. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:145–152. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000418. PMID:27121215

  11. MRI manifestations of bone marrow changes after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor was subcutaneous for healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate MRI manifestations of lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow changes before and after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was subcutaneous injected for healthy adults. Methods: Twenty healthy blood stem cell donors without hematologic disease were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent lumbar sagittal and proximal femur coronal MRI examination with spin echo T1WI and fat-suppressed T2WI. The first examination were performed before subcutaneous injection of rhG-CSF for comparison. In 4-7 days and 30-60 days after injection, the other two examinations were performed. The signal changes of lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow were investigated by reading pictures and calculating the contrasted noise ratio (CNR). Results: Before rhG-CSF injection, all patients presented normal signal intensity of bone marrow. In 4- 7 days after injection, all the 20 cases presented homogeneous signal decrease in lumbar vertebral bodies on T1WI, accompanied by reduced fatty signal. In proximal femur, patchy or stripped hypointensity areas were found in intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric areas on T1WI. On fat-suppressed T2WI images, the signal of' lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow changed to equal or slightly-high signal intensity. In all cases, abnormal signal areas presented in lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow occurred simultaneously in the same case. In the 10 cases received the third MRI during 30-60 days after rhG-CSF injection, signal intensity of lumbar bone marrow turned to normal in all sequence, but abnormal signal intensity areas were still existed and extended to distal part in femoral bone marrow, which appeared as symmetric stripped or patchy equal or slightly-low signal intensity on T1WI and equal or slightly-high signal intensity on T2WI. The CNR of lumbar bone marrow to subcutaneous fat before rhG-CSF injection, in 4-7 days and 30-60 days after rhG-CSF injection were 114.11±15.11, 71.04

  12. Comparative study of the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells, neonatal chondrocytes and adult chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → This study has characterised three different cell types under conditions similar to those used for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for applications in cartilage repair/regeneration. → Compared for the first time the chondrogenic potential of neonatal chondrocytes with human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and adult chondrocytes. → Demonstrated that adult chondrocytes hold greatest potential for use in ACI based on their higher proliferation rates, lower alkaline phosphatise activity and enhanced expression of chondrogenic genes. → Demonstrated the need for chondroinduction as a necessary pre-requisite to efficient chondrogenesis in vitro and, by extrapolation, for cell based therapy (e.g. ACI or cartilage tissue engineering). -- Abstract: Cartilage tissue engineering is still a major clinical challenge with optimisation of a suitable source of cells for cartilage repair/regeneration not yet fully addressed. The aims of this study were to compare and contrast the differences in chondrogenic behaviour between human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs), human neonatal and adult chondrocytes to further our understanding of chondroinduction relative to cell maturity and to identify factors that promote chondrogenesis and maintain functional homoeostasis. Cells were cultured in monolayer in either chondrogenic or basal medium, recapitulating procedures used in existing clinical procedures for cell-based therapies. Cell doubling time, morphology and alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPSA) were determined at different time points. Expression of chondrogenic markers (SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1) was compared via real time polymerase chain reaction. Amongst the three cell types studied, HBMSCs had the highest ALPSA in basal culture and lowest ALPSA in chondrogenic media. Neonatal chondrocytes were the most proliferative and adult chondrocytes had the lowest ALPSA in basal media. Gene expression analysis revealed a difference in the

  13. Low/Negative Expression of PDGFR-α Identifies the Candidate Primary Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Adult Human Bone Marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongzhe; Ghazanfari, Roshanak; Zacharaki, Dimitra;

    2014-01-01

    Human bone marrow (BM) contains a rare population of nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which are of central importance for the hematopoietic microenvironment. However, the precise phenotypic definition of these cells in adult BM has not yet been reported. In this study, we show...... that low/negative expression of CD140a (PDGFR-α) on lin(-)/CD45(-)/CD271(+) BM cells identified a cell population with very high MSC activity, measured as fibroblastic colony-forming unit frequency and typical in vitro and in vivo stroma formation and differentiation capacities. Furthermore, these cells...... exhibited high levels of genes associated with mesenchymal lineages and HSC supportive function. Moreover, lin(-)/CD45(-)/CD271(+)/CD140a(low/-) cells effectively mediated the ex vivo expansion of transplantable CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. Taken together, these data indicate that CD140a is a key...

  14. In-vivo generation of bone via endochondral ossification by in-vitro chondrogenic priming of adult human and rat mesenchymal stem cells

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farrell, Eric

    2011-01-31

    Abstract Background Bone grafts are required to repair large bone defects after tumour resection or large trauma. The availability of patients\\' own bone tissue that can be used for these procedures is limited. Thus far bone tissue engineering has not lead to an implant which could be used as alternative in bone replacement surgery. This is mainly due to problems of vascularisation of the implanted tissues leading to core necrosis and implant failure. Recently it was discovered that embryonic stem cells can form bone via the endochondral pathway, thereby turning in-vitro created cartilage into bone in-vivo. In this study we investigated the potential of human adult mesenchymal stem cells to form bone via the endochondral pathway. Methods MSCs were cultured for 28 days in chondrogenic, osteogenic or control medium prior to implantation. To further optimise this process we induced mineralisation in the chondrogenic constructs before implantation by changing to osteogenic medium during the last 7 days of culture. Results After 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in mice, bone and bone marrow formation was observed in 8 of 9 constructs cultured in chondrogenic medium. No bone was observed in any samples cultured in osteogenic medium. Switch to osteogenic medium for 7 days prevented formation of bone in-vivo. Addition of β-glycerophosphate to chondrogenic medium during the last 7 days in culture induced mineralisation of the matrix and still enabled formation of bone and marrow in both human and rat MSC cultures. To determine whether bone was formed by the host or by the implanted tissue we used an immunocompetent transgenic rat model. Thereby we found that osteoblasts in the bone were almost entirely of host origin but the osteocytes are of both host and donor origin. Conclusions The preliminary data presented in this manuscript demonstrates that chondrogenic priming of MSCs leads to bone formation in vivo using both human and rat cells. Furthermore, addition of

  15. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  16. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates proliferation maintaining the multipotency of human adult bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoli; H'ng, Shiau-Chen; Leong, David T; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Melendez, Alirio J

    2010-08-01

    High renewal and maintenance of multipotency of human adult stem cells (hSCs), are a prerequisite for experimental analysis as well as for potential clinical usages. The most widely used strategy for hSC culture and proliferation is using serum. However, serum is poorly defined and has a considerable degree of inter-batch variation, which makes it difficult for large-scale mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expansion in homogeneous culture conditions. Moreover, it is often observed that cells grown in serum-containing media spontaneously differentiate into unknown and/or undesired phenotypes. Another way of maintaining hSC development is using cytokines and/or tissue-specific growth factors; this is a very expensive approach and can lead to early unwanted differentiation. In order to circumvent these issues, we investigated the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), in the growth and multipotency maintenance of human bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs. We show that S1P induces growth, and in combination with reduced serum, or with the growth factors FGF and platelet-derived growth factor-AB, S1P has an enhancing effect on growth. We also show that the MSCs cultured in S1P-supplemented media are able to maintain their differentiation potential for at least as long as that for cells grown in the usual serum-containing media. This is shown by the ability of cells grown in S1P-containing media to be able to undergo osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation. This is of interest, since S1P is a relatively inexpensive natural product, which can be obtained in homogeneous high-purity batches: this will minimize costs and potentially reduce the unwanted side effects observed with serum. Taken together, S1P is able to induce proliferation while maintaining the multipotency of different human stem cells, suggesting a potential for S1P in developing serum-free or serum-reduced defined medium for adult stem cell cultures.

  17. Long-term three-dimensional perfusion culture of human adult bone marrow mononuclear cells in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Eva; Finoli, Anthony; Nettleship, Ian; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2015-04-01

    The construction and long-term maintenance of three-dimensional in vitro bone marrow models is of great interest but still quite challenging. Here we describe the use of a multi-compartment hollow-fiber membrane based three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor for long-term culture of whole human bone marrow mononuclear cells. We also investigated bioreactors with incorporated open-porous foamed hydroxyapatite scaffolds, mimicking the in vivo bone matrix. Cells in bioreactors with and without scaffolds were cultured to 6 weeks and compared to Petri dish controls. Cells were analyzed for gene expression, surface markers by flow cytometry, metabolic activity, hematopoietic potential, viability, and attachment by immunocytochemistry. Cells in bioreactors were metabolic active during long-term culture. The percentages of hematopoietic stem cell and mature endothelial cell fractions were maintained in bioreactors. The expression of most of the analyzed genes stabilized and increased after long-term culture of 6 weeks. Compared to Petri dish culture controls, bioreactor perfusion culture improved in both the short and long-term, the colony formation unit capacity of hematopoietic progenitors. Cells attached to the ample surface area provided by hydroxyapatite scaffolds. The implementation of a hydroxyapatite scaffold did not influence colony formation capacity, percentages of cell type specific fractions, gene expression, cell viability or metabolic turnover when compared to control cells cultured in bioreactors without scaffolds. In conclusion, three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor culture enables long-term maintenance of primary human bone marrow cells, with hydroxyapatite scaffolds providing an in vivo-like scaffold for three-dimensional culture.

  18. Establishment of human-rhesus chimeric liver using adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells%应用成人骨髓间充质干细胞建立人-猴肝脏嵌合体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何保丽; 马丽花; 陈丽玲; 刘汝文; 杨仁华

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Human-mammal chimeric liver chimera has been a vital significance for the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. OBJECTIVE:To establish an animal model of human-rhesus chimeric liver using adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. METHODS:Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, purified and cultured for the sixth generation. The number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was no less than 5×108. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells labeled with green fluorescent protein were transplanted into the liver of the embryo rhesus with pregnancy of 10 weeks under guided by type-B ultrasound. At the 1st and 3rd months of birth, the liver tissue of the infant rhesus was taken for biopsy. After routine pathological section, histological specimens were observed under fluorescence microscope to confirm if there were adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells positive for green fluorescent protein and their distribution, and detected by immunohistochemical staining to identify if human albumin expressed in the liver of infant rhesus. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Fluorescence microscope observation indicated that at the 1st and 3rd months after birth, there were surviving bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from human with green fluorescence in the liver of infant rhesus, and these cells migrated to form more concentrated distribution. The immunohistochemical results demonstrated that functional liver cells expressing human albumin were observed in the liver of infant rhesus at the 1st and 3rd months after birth, and their distribution was in accordance with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with green fluorescence. Human-rhesus chimeric liver can be established using adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which can generate functional liver cells in the liver of infant rhesus.%BACKGROUND:Human-mammal chimeric liver chimera has been a vital significance for the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow

  19. Osteoblast recruitment routes in human cancellous bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene B; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Marcussen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly proposed that bone forming osteoblasts recruited during bone remodeling originate from bone marrow perivascular cells, bone remodeling compartment canopy cells, or bone lining cells. However, an assessment of osteoblast recruitment during adult human cancellous bone remodeling is...... lacking. We addressed this question by quantifying cell densities, cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation markers, and capillaries in human iliac crest biopsy specimens. We found that recruitment occurs on both reversal and bone-forming surfaces, as shown by the cell density and osterix levels on...

  20. Plutonium microdistribution in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount and location of plutonium in bone from three humans injected during the mid-1940's has been studied by autoradiography and alpha particle spectrometry. Concentrations are similar on endosteal surfaces, Haversian canal surfaces and periosteal surfaces of long bone midshafts 17 months after injection. Endosteal surface concentrations are higher in the axial skeleton than in the appendicular skeleton 15 and 17 months post injection. For dosimetric purposes, volume deposits may be considered to be infinitely thick whereas surface deposits may be considered to have zero thickness. Secondary surface deposits are dosimetrically important, even when the plutonium is almost completely deposited in bone volume

  1. Exercise and bone mass in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Fuentes, Teresa; Guerra, Borja; Calbet, Jose A L

    2009-01-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that exercise prior to the pubertal growth spurt stimulates bone growth and skeletal muscle hypertrophy to a greater degree than observed during growth in non-physically active children. Bone mass can be increased by some exercise programmes in adults and the elderly, and attenuate the losses in bone mass associated with aging. This review provides an overview of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies performed to date involving training and bone measurements. Cross-sectional studies show in general that exercise modalities requiring high forces and/or generating high impacts have the greatest osteogenic potential. Several training methods have been used to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and content in prospective studies. Not all exercise modalities have shown positive effects on bone mass. For example, unloaded exercise such as swimming has no impact on bone mass, while walking or running has limited positive effects. It is not clear which training method is superior for bone stimulation in adults, although scientific evidence points to a combination of high-impact (i.e. jumping) and weight-lifting exercises. Exercise involving high impacts, even a relatively small amount, appears to be the most efficient for enhancing bone mass, except in postmenopausal women. Several types of resistance exercise have been tested also with positive results, especially when the intensity of the exercise is high and the speed of movement elevated. A handful of other studies have reported little or no effect on bone density. However, these results may be partially attributable to the study design, intensity and duration of the exercise protocol, and the bone density measurement techniques used. Studies performed in older adults show only mild increases, maintenance or just attenuation of BMD losses in postmenopausal women, but net changes in BMD relative to control subjects who are losing bone mass are beneficial in

  2. Co-transplantation of human fetal thymus, bone and CD34(+) cells into young adult immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice optimizes humanized mice that mount adaptive antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Shin; Son, Jin Kyung; Choi, Bongkum; Joo, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Yong-Soo; Park, Jae Berm; Moon, Hana; Kim, Tae Jin; Kim, Se Ho; Hong, Seokmann; Chang, Jun; Kang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2015-04-01

    Both the thymus (T) and bone (B) are necessary hematopoietic niches in adult humans. We previously showed that co-transplantation of human fetal T and B tissues into neonatal immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) (NSG, N) mice facilitated hematopoiesis. However, transplantation into neonatal mice resulted in high frequency of early death, making it unrealistic for repetitive experiments. In this study, young adult N mice were pre-engrafted with T and B, T alone, B alone or no tissues. The animals were irradiated and injected with autologous fetal liver (FL)-derived CD34(+) cells (34). The resultant mice were TB34N, T34N, B34N and 34N, respectively, and challenged with T cell dependent antigens (Ags). The humanized TB34N mice showed best performance of these mouse models in many aspects resembling the adult human Ag-experienced spleen. The TB34N mice exhibited better hematopoietic reconstitution; balanced development of T- and B-cell, and common progenitor cells; follicular lymphoid structures with a functional germinal center (GC) enriched with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and plasma cells (PCs); secretion of hIgG in the sera in response to Ags at comparable levels to those of human; derivations of hIgG mAb-secreting hybridoma clones. Collectively, the humanized TB34N mice could develop an adaptive immunity that was capable of producing Ag-specific hIgG at a significant level via class switching. This unprecedented TB34N platform in humanized mice would be useful in dissecting human immunity, for generating human Abs and clinical applications.

  3. Co-transplantation of human fetal thymus, bone and CD34(+) cells into young adult immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice optimizes humanized mice that mount adaptive antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Shin; Son, Jin Kyung; Choi, Bongkum; Joo, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Yong-Soo; Park, Jae Berm; Moon, Hana; Kim, Tae Jin; Kim, Se Ho; Hong, Seokmann; Chang, Jun; Kang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2015-04-01

    Both the thymus (T) and bone (B) are necessary hematopoietic niches in adult humans. We previously showed that co-transplantation of human fetal T and B tissues into neonatal immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) (NSG, N) mice facilitated hematopoiesis. However, transplantation into neonatal mice resulted in high frequency of early death, making it unrealistic for repetitive experiments. In this study, young adult N mice were pre-engrafted with T and B, T alone, B alone or no tissues. The animals were irradiated and injected with autologous fetal liver (FL)-derived CD34(+) cells (34). The resultant mice were TB34N, T34N, B34N and 34N, respectively, and challenged with T cell dependent antigens (Ags). The humanized TB34N mice showed best performance of these mouse models in many aspects resembling the adult human Ag-experienced spleen. The TB34N mice exhibited better hematopoietic reconstitution; balanced development of T- and B-cell, and common progenitor cells; follicular lymphoid structures with a functional germinal center (GC) enriched with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and plasma cells (PCs); secretion of hIgG in the sera in response to Ags at comparable levels to those of human; derivations of hIgG mAb-secreting hybridoma clones. Collectively, the humanized TB34N mice could develop an adaptive immunity that was capable of producing Ag-specific hIgG at a significant level via class switching. This unprecedented TB34N platform in humanized mice would be useful in dissecting human immunity, for generating human Abs and clinical applications. PMID:25725428

  4. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  5. Chromatin remodeling agent trichostatin A: a key-factor in the hepatic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells derived of adult bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinken Mathieu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC derived of adult bone marrow to undergo in vitro hepatic differentiation was investigated. Results Exposure of hMSC to a cocktail of hepatogenic factors [(fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite (ITS and dexamethasone] failed to induce hepatic differentiation. Sequential exposure to these factors (FGF-4, followed by HGF, followed by HGF+ITS+dexamethasone, however, resembling the order of secretion during liver embryogenesis, induced both glycogen-storage and cytokeratin (CK18 expression. Additional exposure of the cells to trichostatin A (TSA considerably improved endodermal differentiation, as evidenced by acquisition of an epithelial morphology, chronological expression of hepatic proteins, including hepatocyte-nuclear factor (HNF-3β, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, CK18, albumin (ALB, HNF1α, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2 and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα, and functional maturation, i.e. upregulated ALB secretion, urea production and inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP-dependent activity. Conclusion hMSC are able to undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. TSA is hereby essential to promote differentiation of hMSC towards functional hepatocyte-like cells.

  6. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    2001-07-01

    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  7. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India

    OpenAIRE

    R R Marathe; A S Yogesh; S V Pandit; Joshi, M.; G N Trivedi

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. Objectives: To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from v...

  8. Electron absorbed fractions of energy and S-values in an adult human skeleton based on {mu}CT images of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; De O Lira, C A B [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Richardson, R B [Radiation Protection Research and Instrumentation Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Brown, K Robson, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-21

    When the human body is exposed to ionizing radiation, among the soft tissues at risk are the active marrow (AM) and the bone endosteum (BE) located in tiny, irregular cavities of trabecular bone. Determination of absorbed fractions (AFs) of energy or absorbed dose in the AM and the BE represent one of the major challenges of dosimetry. Recently, at the Department of Nuclear Energy at the Federal University of Pernambuco, a skeletal dosimetry method based on {mu}CT images of trabecular bone introduced into the spongiosa voxels of human phantoms has been developed and applied mainly to external exposure to photons. This study uses the same method to calculate AFs of energy and S-values (absorbed dose per unit activity) for electron-emitting radionuclides known to concentrate in skeletal tissues. The modelling of the skeletal tissue regions follows ICRP110, which defines the BE as a 50 {mu}m thick sub-region of marrow next to the bone surfaces. The paper presents mono-energetic AFs for the AM and the BE for eight different skeletal regions for electron source energies between 1 keV and 10 MeV. The S-values are given for the beta emitters {sup 14}C, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 131}I, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y. Comparisons with results from other investigations showed good agreement provided that differences between methodologies and trabecular bone volume fractions were properly taken into account. Additionally, a comparison was made between specific AFs of energy in the BE calculated for the actual 50 {mu}m endosteum and the previously recommended 10 {mu}m endosteum. The increase in endosteum thickness leads to a decrease of the endosteum absorbed dose by up to 3.7 fold when bone is the source region, while absorbed dose increases by {approx}20% when the beta emitters are in marrow.

  9. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  10. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 158 adults (76 males born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF: Short (≤3 months, Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively, favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  11. Recent advances in bone regeneration using adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigdon-Giladi, Hadar; Rudich, Utai; Michaeli Geller, Gal; Evron, Ayelet

    2015-04-26

    Bone is a highly vascularized tissue reliant on the close spatial and temporal association between blood vessels and bone cells. Therefore, cells that participate in vasculogenesis and osteogenesis play a pivotal role in bone formation during prenatal and postnatal periods. Nevertheless, spontaneous healing of bone fracture is occasionally impaired due to insufficient blood and cellular supply to the site of injury. In these cases, bone regeneration process is interrupted, which might result in delayed union or even nonunion of the fracture. Nonunion fracture is difficult to treat and have a high financial impact. In the last decade, numerous technological advancements in bone tissue engineering and cell-therapy opened new horizon in the field of bone regeneration. This review starts with presentation of the biological processes involved in bone development, bone remodeling, fracture healing process and the microenvironment at bone healing sites. Then, we discuss the rationale for using adult stem cells and listed the characteristics of the available cells for bone regeneration. The mechanism of action and epigenetic regulations for osteogenic differentiation are also described. Finally, we review the literature for translational and clinical trials that investigated the use of adult stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and CD34(+) blood progenitors) for bone regeneration.

  12. In-vivo generation of bone via endochondral ossification by in-vitro chondrogenic priming of adult human and rat mesenchymal stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong Robert; O'Brien Fergal J; Kops Nicole; Koevoet Wendy; Odörfer Kathrin I; Both Sanne K; Farrell Eric; Verhaar Jan A; Cuijpers Vincent; Jansen John; Erben Reinhold G; van Osch Gerjo JVM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bone grafts are required to repair large bone defects after tumour resection or large trauma. The availability of patients' own bone tissue that can be used for these procedures is limited. Thus far bone tissue engineering has not lead to an implant which could be used as alternative in bone replacement surgery. This is mainly due to problems of vascularisation of the implanted tissues leading to core necrosis and implant failure. Recently it was discovered that embryonic ...

  13. Induction of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into functional astrocyte-like cells: potential for restorative treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat-Stroomza, Merav; Barhum, Yael; Levy, Yossef S; Karpov, Olga; Bulvik, Shlomo; Melamed, Eldad; Offen, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with its motor phenomena due mostly to loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra. Pharmacological treatments aimed to increase the deficient dopaminergic neurotransmission are effective in ameliorating the cardinal symptoms, but none of these therapies is curative. It has been suggested that treatment with neurotrophic factors (NTFs) might protect and prevent death of the surviving dopaminergic neurons and induce proliferation of their axonal nerve terminals with reinnervations of the deafferented striatum. However, long-term delivery of such proteins into the CNS is problematic. We therefore aimed to differentiate ex vivo human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells into astrocyte-like cells, capable of generating NTFs for future transplantation into basal ganglia of PD patients. Indeed, mesenchymal stromal cells treated with our novel astrocyte differentiation medium, present astrocyte-like morphology and express the astrocyte markers S100beta, glutamine synthetase and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Moreover, these astrocyte-like cells produce and secrete significant amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor as indicated by messenger RNA, real-time polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, and Western blot analyses. Such NTF-producing cells transplanted into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, a model of PD, produced a progressive reduction in the apomorphine-induced contralateral rotations as well as behavioral improvement in rotor-rod and the "sunflower seeds" eating motor tests. Histological assessments revealed that the engrafted cells survived and expressed astrocyte and human markers and acted to regenerate the damaged dopaminergic nerve terminal system. Findings indicate that our novel procedure to induce NTF-producing astrocyte-like cells derived from human bone marrow stromal cells

  14. Reducing the Risk of Bone Fracture: A Review of the Research for Adults with Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Research for Adults With Low Bone Density Formats View PDF (PDF) 1.0 MB Download ... cfm . Understanding Your Condition What is low bone density? Low bone density is a condition where the ...

  15. A preliminary study of in vitro osteogenesis of culture-expanded,bone marrow-derived adult human mesenchymal stem cells%成人间充质干细胞体外成骨的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱六龙; 孔荣; 孙自敏; 尚希福; 童元; 方诗元; 汪健; 翟志敏; 吴竞生

    2001-01-01

    Objective To establish a method of isolating and culturing adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) and to investigate their ex vivo osteogenic potential. Methods Adult human MSCs derived from marrow were isolated from the Percoll fraction of mononuclear cells, cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with low glucose containing 10% fetal bovine serum, and proliferated through a process of subculturing. For in vitro osteogenic differentiation,adult hMSCs from the fifth passage were grown in the presence of osteogenic supplements (100 nmol/L dexamethasone, 10 mmol/L glycerophosphate,and 50 μmol/L vitamin C). On days 4 and 12 of culture, flow cytometric analysis was performed to examine the expression of cell surface molecules on adult hMSCs and samples were assayed for alkaline phosphatase histochemistry and for mineral deposition by Von Kossa staining respectively. Results Adult human MSCs were a homogenous population of adherent bone marrow cells with a distinct cell surface protein expression and morphology. Passaged adult hMSCs responded to the osteogenic supplements by forming interconnected nodular aggregates on the surface of the dish, increasing A Pase-postive cells, and depositing a calcified matrix. Conclusion The isolation and culture conditions established for adult hMSCs may select a distinct population of bone marrow-derived adherent cells. Adult human MSCs possess osteogenic potential in vitro.%目的建立一种分离和培养成人骨髓来源的间充质干细胞(MSCs)的方法,观察成人MSCs体外成骨潜能。方法用Percoll 分离液分离出骨髓中的单个核细胞,并在含10%胎牛血清的低糖DMEM培养液中培养。通过传代培养扩增MSCs。为促进成人MSCs体外成骨性分化,第5传代培养时加入成骨性添加剂,培养第4、12天分别用流式细胞仪分析成人MSCs表面分子的表达,并用碱性磷酸酶组化染色和Von Kossa 染色。结果成人MSCs是骨

  16. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple, yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions. (orig.)

  17. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27 of unknown age and sex availablein the Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Surat were included in the study. Result: Overall incidence of wormian bone was 44.4%. They occurred more frequently at lambdoid suture (48.14%.Wormian bones were also presentat asterion (18.5%, along the coronal suture (0.03%, along the parito-temporal suture (0.07%, along the occipito-mastoid suture (0.03%,andat pterion (0.03 %. Wormain bones were found 48.1% on left half of skull and 37.03% on right half of skull. Conclusion: The Wormian bones were more frequent at the lambdoid suture. The clinical importances of these variant bones were emphasized with relevant review of literature. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 222-225

  18. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  19. Stimulation of chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived stromal cells by a moderate-strength static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Harsh D; Brady, Mariea Alice; St-Pierre, Jean-Philippe; Stevens, Molly M; Overby, Darryl R; Ethier, C Ross

    2014-06-01

    Tissue-engineering strategies for the treatment of osteoarthritis would benefit from the ability to induce chondrogenesis in precursor cells. One such cell source is bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs). Here, we examined the effects of moderate-strength static magnetic fields (SMFs) on chondrogenic differentiation in human BMSCs in vitro. Cells were cultured in pellet form and exposed to several strengths of SMFs for various durations. mRNA transcript levels of the early chondrogenic transcription factor SOX9 and the late marker genes ACAN and COL2A1 were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and production of the cartilage-specific macromolecules sGAG, collage type 2 (Col2), and proteoglycans was determined both biochemically and histologically. The role of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway was also examined. Results showed that a 0.4 T magnetic field applied for 14 days elicited a strong chondrogenic differentiation response in cultured BMSCs, so long as TGF-β3 was also present, that is, a synergistic response of a SMF and TGF-β3 on BMSC chondrogenic differentiation was observed. Further, SMF alone caused TGF-β secretion in culture, and the effects of SMF could be abrogated by the TGF-β receptor blocker SB-431542. These data show that moderate-strength magnetic fields can induce chondrogenesis in BMSCs through a TGF-β-dependent pathway. This finding has potentially important applications in cartilage tissue-engineering strategies. PMID:24506272

  20. Distribution and viability of fetal and adult human bone marrow stromal cells in a biaxial rotating vessel bioreactor after seeding on polymeric 3D additive manufactured scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eLeferink

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the conventional approaches in tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds in combination with cells to obtain mechanically stable tissue constructs in vitro prior to implantation. Additive manufacturing by fused deposition modeling is a widely used technique to produce porous scaffolds with defined pore network, geometry, and therewith defined mechanical properties. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are promising candidates for tissue engineering based cell therapies due to their multipotent character. One of the hurdles to overcome when combining additive manufactured scaffolds with MSCs is the resulting heterogeneous cell distribution and limited cell proliferation capacity. In this study, we show that the use of a biaxial rotating bioreactor, after static culture of human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs seeded on synthetic polymeric scaffolds, improved the homogeneity of cell and extracellular matrix (ECM distribution and increased the total cell number. Furthermore, we show that the relative mRNA expression levels of indicators for stemness and differentiation are not significantly changed upon this bioreactor culture, whereas static culture shows variations of several indicators for stemness and differentiation. The biaxial rotating bioreactor presented here offers a homogeneous distribution of hfMSCs, enabling studies on MSCs fate in additive manufactured scaffolds without inducing undesired differentiation.

  1. Recent advances in bone regeneration using adult stemcells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadar Zigdon-Giladi; Utai Rudich; Gal Michaeli Geller; Ayelet Evron

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a highly vascularized tissue reliant on theclose spatial and temporal association between bloodvessels and bone cells. Therefore, cells that participatein vasculogenesis and osteogenesis play a pivotalrole in bone formation during prenatal and postnatalperiods. Nevertheless, spontaneous healing of bonefracture is occasionally impaired due to insufficientblood and cellular supply to the site of injury. In thesecases, bone regeneration process is interrupted, whichmight result in delayed union or even nonunion ofthe fracture. Nonunion fracture is difficult to treatand have a high financial impact. In the last decade,numerous technological advancements in bone tissueengineering and cell-therapy opened new horizon inthe field of bone regeneration. This review starts withpresentation of the biological processes involved inbone development, bone remodeling, fracture healingprocess and the microenvironment at bone healingsites. Then, we discuss the rationale for using adultstem cells and listed the characteristics of the availablecells for bone regeneration. The mechanism of actionand epigenetic regulations for osteogenic differentiationare also described. Finally, we review the literature fortranslational and clinical trials that investigated the useof adult stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells, endothelialprogenitor cells and CD34+ blood progenitors) for boneregeneration.

  2. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo;

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  3. Bilateral Transplantation of Allogenic Adult Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Subventricular Zone of Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Venkataramana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of PD and its related disorders cannot be prevented with the medications available. In this study, we recruited 8 PD and 4 PD plus patients between 5 to 15 years after diagnosis. All patients received BM-MSCs bilaterally into the SVZ and were followed up for 12 months. PD patients after therapy reported a mean improvement of 17.92% during “on” and 31.21% during “off” period on the UPDRS scoring system. None of the patients increased their medication during the follow-up period. Subjectively, the patients reported clarity in speech, reduction in tremors, rigidity, and freezing attacks. The results correlated with the duration of the disease. Those patients transplanted in the early stages of the disease (less than 5 years showed more improvement and no further disease progression than the later stages (11–15 years. However, the PD plus patients did not show any change in their clinical status after stem cell transplantation. This study demonstrates the safety of adult allogenic human BM-MSCs transplanted into the SVZ of the brain and its efficacy in early-stage PD patients.

  4. Enhancement of bone formation in rabbits by recombinant human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of human recombinant growth hormone on diaphyseal bone in 40 adult rabbits. The diaphyseal periosteum of one femur in each animal was mechanically stimulated by a nylon cerclage band. The bands induced an increase in bone formation, bone mineral content, and maximum torque capacity of the diaphyseal bone at 1 and 2 months. Growth hormone enhanced the anabolic effect of the cerclage bands on bone metabolism, evidenced by a further increase in torsional strength of the femurs. (au) (32 refs.)

  5. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mineral density (125I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups

  6. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  7. Age changes in human bone: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1977-12-03

    The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.

  8. Isolation of osteocytes from human trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Matthew; Schutz, Christine; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Findlay, David M; Campbell, David G; Solomon, Lucian B; Atkins, Gerald J

    2016-07-01

    Osteocytes are essential regulators of bone homeostasis. However, they are difficult to study due to their location within the bone mineralised matrix. Although several techniques have been published for the isolation of osteocytes from mouse bone, no such technique has been described for human osteocytes. We have therefore developed a protocol for the isolation of osteocytes from human trabecular bone samples acquired during surgery. The cells were digested from the bone matrix by sequential collagenase and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) digestions and the cells from later digests displayed characteristic dendritic osteocyte morphology when cultured ex vivo. Furthermore, the cells expressed characteristic osteocyte marker genes, such as E11, dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), SOST, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and phosphate regulating endopeptidase homologue, X-linked (PHEX). In addition, genes associated with osteocyte perilacunar remodelling, including matrix metallopeptidase-13 (MMP13), cathepsin K (CTSK) and carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAR2) were expressed. The cells also responded to parathyroid hormone (PTH) by downregulating SOST mRNA expression and to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) by upregulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) mRNA expression. Therefore, the cells behave in a similar manner to osteocytes in vivo. These cells represent an important tool in enhancing current knowledge in human osteocyte biology. PMID:27109824

  9. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  10. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  11. Optimal therapy for adults with Langerhans cell histiocytosis bone lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Cantu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is little data on treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH in adults. Available data is on small numbers of patients with short follow-up times and no comparison of results from different treatment regimens. We analyzed the responses of adult LCH patients with bone lesions to three primary chemotherapy treatments to define the optimal one. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifty-eight adult patients with bone lesions, either as a solitary site or as a component of multisystem disease, were analyzed for disease location and response to surgery, curettage, steroids, radiation, vinblastine/prednisone, 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA, or cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C. The mean age of patients was 32 years, with equal gender distribution. Twenty-nine patients had 1 lesion; 16, 2 lesions; 5, 3 lesions; and 8 had 4 or more. Most bone lesions were in the skull, spine, or jaw. Chemotherapy, surgery, curettage, or radiation, but not steroids alone, achieved improvement or resolution of lesions in a majority of patients. Comparison of the three chemotherapy regimens revealed 84% of patients treated with vinblastine/prednisone either did not respond or relapsed within a year, whereas 59% of patients treated with 2-CdA and 21% treated with ARA-C failed. Toxicity was worse with the vinblastine/prednisone group as 75% had grade 3-4 neuropathy. Grade 3-4 cytopenias occurred in 37% of the 2-CdA -treated patients and 20% of the ARA-C-treated patients. The major limitation of this study is it is retrospective and not a clinical trial. CONCLUSIONS: ARA-C is an effective and minimally toxic treatment for LCH bone lesions in adults. In contrast, vinblastine/prednisone results in poor overall responses and excessive toxicity.

  12. An approach to the histomorphological and histochemical variations of the humerus cortical bone through human ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra-Moo, Oscar; Nacarino Meneses, Carmen; Rodríguez Barbero, Miguel Ángel; García Gil, Orosia; Rascón Pérez, Josefina; Rello-Varona, Santiago; D'Angelo, Manuel; Campo Martín, Manuel; González Martín, Armando

    2014-06-01

    For many years, clinical and non-clinical investigations have investigated cortical bone structure in an attempt to address questions related to normal bone development, mineralisation, pathologies and even evolutionary trends in our lineage (adaptations). Research in the fields of medicine, materials science, physical anthropology, palaeontology, and even archaeobiology has contributed interesting data. However, many questions remain regarding the histomorphological and histochemical variations in human cortical bone during different stages of life. In the present work, we describe a study of long bone cortex transformations during ontogeny. We analysed cross-sections of 15 human humeri histomorphologically and histochemically from perinatal to adult age, marking and quantifying the spatial distribution of bone tissue types using GIS software and analysing the mineral composition and crystallinity of the mineralised cortex using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our results allowed us to propose that human cortical bone undergoes three main 'events' through ontogeny that critically change the proportions and structure of the cortex. In early development, bone is not well mineralised and proportionally presents a wide cortex that narrows through the end of childhood. Before reaching complete maturity, the bone mineral area increases, allowing the bone to nearly reach the adult size. The medullary cavity is reduced, and the mineral areas have a highly ordered crystalline structure. The last event occurs in adulthood, when the 'oldest' individuals present a reduced mineralised area, with increasing non-mineralised cavities (including the medullary cavity) and reduced crystalline organisation. PMID:24660964

  13. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Coulson-Thomas

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs. Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA. In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  14. Diagnostic dry bone histology in human paleopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida

    2016-10-01

    Paleopathology is the study of trauma and disease as may be observed in ancient (human) remains. In contrast to its central role in current medical practice, microscopy plays a rather modest role in paleopathology. This is at least partially due to the differences between fresh and decomposed (i.e., skeletonized or "dry bone") tissue samples. This review discusses these differences and describes how they affect the histological analysis of paleopathological specimens. First, we provide a summary of some general challenges related to the histological analysis of palaeopathological specimens. Second, the reader is introduced in bone tissue histology and bone tissue dynamics. The remainder of the paper is dedicated to the diagnostic value of dry bone histology. Its value and limitations are illustrated by comparing several well-studied paleopathological cases with similar contemporary, clinical cases. This review illustrates that due to post-mortem loss of soft tissue, a limited number of disorders display pathognomonic features during histological analysis of skeletonized human remains. In the remainder of cases, histology may help to narrow down the differential diagnosis or is diagnostically unspecific. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary diagnostic approach therefore remains essential. Clin. Anat. 29:831-843, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  16. Genetic Risk Scores Implicated in Adult Bone Fragility Associate With Pediatric Bone Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Chesi, Alessandra; Elci, Okan; McCormack, Shana E; Roy, Sani M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2016-04-01

    Using adult identified bone mineral density (BMD) loci, we calculated genetic risk scores (GRS) to determine if they were associated with changes in BMD during childhood. Longitudinal data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study were analyzed (N = 798, 54% female, all European ancestry). Participants had up to 6 annual dual energy X-ray scans, from which areal BMD (aBMD) Z-scores for the spine, total hip, and femoral neck were estimated, as well as total body less head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC) Z-scores. Sixty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, and the percentage of BMD-lowering alleles carried was calculated (overall adult GRS). Subtype GRS that include SNPs associated with fracture risk, pediatric BMD, WNT signaling, RANK-RANKL-OPG, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation were also calculated. Linear mixed effects models were used to test associations between each GRS and bone Z-scores, and if any association differed by sex and/or chronological age. The overall adult, fracture, and WNT signaling GRS were associated with lower Z-scores (eg, spine aBMD Z-score: βadult  = -0.04, p = 3.4 × 10(-7) ; βfracture = -0.02, p = 8.9 × 10(-6) ; βWNT  = -0.01, p = 3.9 × 10(-4) ). The overall adult GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores in females (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The fracture GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores with increasing age (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The WNT GRS associations remained consistent for both sexes and all ages (p-interaction > 0.05 for all sites). The RANK-RANKL-OPG GRS was more strongly associated in females with increasing age (p-interaction < 0.05 for all sites). The mesenchymal stem cell GRS was associated with lower total hip and femoral neck Z-scores, in both boys and girls, across all ages. No associations were observed between the pediatric GRS and bone Z-scores. In conclusion, adult identified BMD loci associated with BMD and

  17. Mechanistic fracture criteria for the failure of human cortical bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, Ravi K.; Kinney, John H.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2002-12-13

    A mechanistic understanding of fracture in human bone is critical to predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease. Despite extensive work, a mechanistic framework for describing how the underlying microstructure affects the failure mode in bone is lacking.

  18. Quercetin-induced changes in femoral bone microstructure of adult male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Babosová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites with antioxidant effects. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet is quercetin. It is found widely in fruits, vegetables and has a lot of beneficial effects on human health. Quercetin has a positive pharmacological effect on bone metabolism and it prevents the organism against bone loss. However, its impact on the size of basic structural units of the compact bone is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the impact of the quercetin on femoral bone microstructure in 5-month-old male rabbits. Five rabbits of Californian broiler line were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (E group; n=3, animals were intramuscularly injected with quercetin at dose 1000 μg.kg-1 body weight (bw for 90 days, 3 times per week. Two rabbits without quercetin administration served as a control group (C group. According to our results, intramuscular application of quercetin had an insignificant effect on cortical bone thickness in male rabbits. In these rabbits, changes in qualitative histological characteristics were present in the middle part of the compacta, where primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was present and expanded there from the periosteum. Also, a lower number of secondary osteons was found in these animals. From the histomorphometrical point of view, significantly decreased sizes of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons (p <0.05 were found in rabbits administered by quercetin. Our findings indicate that subchronic administration of quercetin at the dose used in our study had considerable impact on both qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone in adult male rabbits.

  19. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.

  20. Stemness Evaluation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Placentas According to Developmental Stage: Comparison to Those from Adult Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Hwa Jung; Hong, Soon Cheol; Yoo, Ji Hyun; Oh, Jee Hyun; Shin, Hye Jin; Choi, In Young; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Kim, Sun Haeng; Park, Yong; Kim, Byung Soo

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from placenta according to the development stage and to compare the results to those from adult bone marrow (BM). Based on the source of hMSCs, three groups were defined: group I included term placentas, group II included first-trimester placentas, and group III included adult BM samples. The stemness was evaluated by the proliferation capacity, immunophenotypic expression, mesoderm differentiation, e...

  1. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction

  2. Microtomography of the human tooth-alveolar bone complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, Michel; Cattaneo, Paolo M.; Beckmann, Felix; Sakima, Maurício T.; Lemor, Carsten; Laursen, Morten G.; Melsen, Birte

    2006-08-01

    In this study the structure of the adult human dentoalveolar process is examined using conventional and synchrotron radiation-based microtomography (SRμCT). Mandibular and maxillary segments containing two to five adjacent teeth were harvested at autopsy from 49 adult donors. These segments were embedded in blocks of methylmetacrylate and scanned using a conventional table-top μCT-scanner at a pixel size and slice thickness of 35 μm. A few segments were also scanned at a synchrotron facility at an initial pixel size of 16.4 μm, which was binned by a factor 2 to result in an effective voxel size of almost 32.8 μm. The three-dimensional reconstructions revealed how intricately the teeth are supported by the alveolar bone. Furthermore, this support is highly inhomogeneous with respect to the buccal, mesial, lingual and distal quadrants. Reflecting their various degrees of mineralization, tissues like bone, dentine, enamel and cementum, could well be identified, especially in the scans made with SRμCT. Despite comparable voxel sizes, the reconstructed data-sets obtained with conventional μCT were less detailed and somewhat fuzzy in appearance compared to the data-sets of SRμCT. However, for quantification of macroscopical features like the thickness of the alveolar wall or the presence of dehiscences/fenestrations this seemed sufficient.

  3. A murine model of human myeloma bone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, I.R.; Dallas, S.; Radl, J.; Mundy, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Myeloma causes a devastating and unique form of osteolytic bone disease. Although osteoclast activation is responsible for bone destruction, the precise mechanisms by which myeloma cells increase osteoclast activity have not been defined. An animal model of human myeloma bone disease mould help in c

  4. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xing, Helin; Zhang, Guilan; Wu, Xia; Zou, Xuan; Feng, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Meng; Zhao, Jing; Du, Jianwei; Lv, Yan; E, Lingling; Liu, Hongchen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs' identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects.

  5. Distribution and property of nerve fibers in human long bone tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; PEI Guo-xian; JIN Dan; WEI Kuan-hai; QIN Yu; LIU Qing-si

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To observe the distribution of the nerve fibers in the bone tissue and the entry points of these fibers into the bone. Methods:The adult tibia was used for the ground sections which were afterwards made into the slice sections by decalcification in ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA).The ground sections were stained in silver and the slice sections were stained in silver and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) respectively.Then,the samples of the transmission electron microscope and the atomic force microscope were made and observed. Results:In the human long bone tissue,many nerve fibers were distributed in the membrane,cortical bone,cancellous bone and marrow.The nerve fibers entered the bone from the nutrient foramen,and passed through the nutrient canal,Haversian's canal and Volkmann's canal,and finally into the bone marrow.In the nutrient canal,the nerve fibers,mainly the medullary nerve fibers,followed the blood vessel into the bone.In the cortical bone,the nerve fibers also followed the blood vessels and were mainly distributed along Haversian's canal and Volkmann's canal.In the bone trabecular and bone marrow,there were many nerve fiber endings arranged around the blood vessels,mainly around the tunica media of medium-size arteries in the marrow and around capillary blood vessels,and a few scattered in the bone marrow. There were sporadic nerve endings in epiphyseal plate and no nerve fibers permeated epiphysis to diaphysis.No distribution of nerve fibers could be found in cartilaginous part.Conclusions:There are many nerve fibers in bone and the nerve passageway is nutrient foramen,Volkman's canal,Haversian's canal and bone marrow.

  6. Hemopoietic precursor-cells in radiation chimeras restored by bone marrow of adult thymectomized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotective capacity of bone marrow CFUs of adult thymectomized mice was studied. Lethaly irradiated mice were inoculated with bone marrow of mice thymectomized 8-11 months before. The colony forming capacity and proliferative rate of CFUs were studied 1-7.5 months after obtaining the radiation chimeras. It has been shown that proliferative capacity of bone marrow of adult thymectomized mice was reduced in comparison with that of normal animals. We also found that the content of CFUs in bone of those chimeras was reduced later - after 7.5 months. In this period (1-7.5 months) the cellularity of bone marrow did not change

  7. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Grenzgänger: adult bone marrow cells populate the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priller, Josef

    2003-08-01

    While the brain has traditionally been considered a rather secluded site, recent studies suggest that adult bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells can generate glia and neurons in rodents and humans. Macrophages and microglia are the first to appear in the murine brain after transplantation of genetically marked BM cells. Within weeks after transplantation, some authors have found astrocytes and cells expressing neuronal antigens. We detected cerebellar Purkinje neurons and interneurons, such as basket cells, expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) 10-15 months after transplantation of GFP-labeled BM cells. The results push the boundaries of our classic view of lineage restriction. PMID:12898276

  8. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Grenzgänger: adult bone marrow cells populate the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priller, Josef

    2003-08-01

    While the brain has traditionally been considered a rather secluded site, recent studies suggest that adult bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells can generate glia and neurons in rodents and humans. Macrophages and microglia are the first to appear in the murine brain after transplantation of genetically marked BM cells. Within weeks after transplantation, some authors have found astrocytes and cells expressing neuronal antigens. We detected cerebellar Purkinje neurons and interneurons, such as basket cells, expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) 10-15 months after transplantation of GFP-labeled BM cells. The results push the boundaries of our classic view of lineage restriction.

  9. Adult Bone Marrow: Which Stem Cells for Cellular Therapy Protocols in Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Wislet-Gendebien; Emerence Laudet; Virginie Neirinckx; Bernard Rogister

    2012-01-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In th...

  10. Influence of moderate energy restriction and seafood consumption on bone turnover in overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lucey, A.J. (Alice J.); Paschos, G.K. (George K.); Cashman, K. D.; J. A. Martinez; Thorsdottir, I; Kiely, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing in young adults. However, moderate energy restriction aimed at lowering body weight may promote bone turnover and bone loss. Inclusion of fish or fish oils in a weight-loss diet may attenuate these adverse skeletal effects. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of incorporating fish or fish oil into an energy-restricted diet on bone turnover markers in young overweight adults. DESIGN: While following a strict hypoenergetic (-30%...

  11. Management of adult diaphyseal both-bone forearm fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leah M; Meals, Clifton G; Neviaser, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Simultaneous diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna, often referred to as both-bone forearm fractures, are frequently encountered by orthopaedic surgeons. Adults with this injury are typically treated with open reduction and internal fixation because of the propensity for malunion of the radius and ulna and the resulting loss of forearm rotation. Large case series support the use of plate and screw fixation for simple fractures. More complex fractures are managed according to strain theory, with the intention of controlling rather than eliminating motion at the fracture site. This can be achieved with flexible plate and screw constructs or intramedullary nails. In general, results of surgical fixation have been good, with only modest losses of forearm strength and rotation. Notable complications include nonunion, malunion, and refracture after device removal. PMID:24966250

  12. Fibrillin-1 microfibrils influence adult bone marrow hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Silvia; Bigarella, Carolina L; Del Solar, Maria; Ghaffari, Saghi; Ramirez, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that fibrillin-1 assemblies regulate the fate of skeletal stem cells (aka, mesenchymal stem cells [MSCs]) by modulating TGFβ activity within the microenvironment of adult bone marrow niches. Since MSCs can also influence hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activities, here we investigated adult hematopoiesis in mice with Cre-mediated inactivation of the fibrillin-1 (Fbn1) gene in the mesenchyme of the forming limbs (Fbn1(Prx1-/-) mice). Analyses of 3-month-old Fbn1(Prx1-/-) mice revealed a statistically significant increase of circulating red blood cells, which a differentiation assay correlated with augmented erythropoiesis. This finding, together with evidence of fibrillin-1 deposition in erythroblastic niches, supported the notion that this extracellular matrix protein normally restricts differentiation of erythroid progenitors. Whereas flow cytometry measurements identified a decreased HSC frequency in mutant relative to wild type mice, no appreciable differences were noted with regard to the relative abundance and differentiation potential of myeloid progenitor cells. Together these findings implied that fibrillin-1 normally promotes HSC expansion but does not influence cell lineage commitment. Since local TGFβ hyperactivity has been associated with abnormal osteogenesis in Fbn1(Prx1-/-) mice, 1-month-old mutant and wild type animals were systemically treated for 8weeks with either a pan-TGF-β-neutralizing antibody or an antibody of the same IgG1 isotype. The distinct outcomes of these pharmacological interventions strongly suggest that fibrillin-1 differentially modulates TGFβ activity in HSC vs. erythroid niches.

  13. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.

  14. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R(2) values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics.

  15. Transcriptomic portrait of human Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem cells isolated from bone marrow and placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Roson-Burgo, Beatriz; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin; del Cañizo, Consuelo; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent cells that behave in a highly plastic manner, inhabiting the stroma of several tissues. The potential utility of MSCs is nowadays strongly investigated in the field of regenerative medicine and cell therapy, although many questions about their molecular identity remain uncertain. Results MSC primary cultures from human bone marrow (BM) and placenta (PL) were derived and verified by their immunophenotype standard patt...

  16. Human foot bones from Klasies River main site, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, G Philip; Deacon, H J; Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The caves at Klasies River contain abundant archaeological evidence relating to human evolution in the late Pleistocene of southern Africa. Along with Middle Stone Age artifacts, animal bones, and other food waste, there are hominin cranial fragments, mandibles with teeth, and a few postcranial remains. Three foot bones can now be added to this inventory. An adult first metatarsal is similar in size and discrete anatomical features to those from Holocene burials in the Cape Province. A complete and well-preserved second metatarsal is especially long and heavy at midshaft in comparison to all Holocene and more recent South African homologues. A large fifth metatarsal is highly distinctive in its morphology. In overall size, these pedal elements resemble specimens from late Pleistocene sites in western Asia, but there are some differences in proportions. The fossils support earlier suggestions concerning a relatively high level of sexual dimorphism in the African Middle Stone Age population. Squatting facets on the two lateral metatarsals appear to indicate a high frequency of kneeling among members of this group. The new postcranial material also underlines the fact that the morphology of particular skeletal elements of some of the 100,000-year-old Klasies River individuals falls outside the range of modern variation.

  17. Adult Bone Marrow: Which Stem Cells for Cellular Therapy Protocols in Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Wislet-Gendebien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy.

  18. Adult bone marrow: which stem cells for cellular therapy protocols in neurodegenerative disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy. PMID:22319243

  19. A tissue-engineered humanized xenograft model of human breast cancer metastasis to bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Thibaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The skeleton is a preferred homing site for breast cancer metastasis. To date, treatment options for patients with bone metastases are mostly palliative and the disease is still incurable. Indeed, key mechanisms involved in breast cancer osteotropism are still only partially understood due to the lack of suitable animal models to mimic metastasis of human tumor cells to a human bone microenvironment. In the presented study, we investigate the use of a human tissue-engineered bone construct to develop a humanized xenograft model of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis in a murine host. Primary human osteoblastic cell-seeded melt electrospun scaffolds in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 were implanted subcutaneously in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. The tissue-engineered constructs led to the formation of a morphologically intact ‘organ’ bone incorporating a high amount of mineralized tissue, live osteocytes and bone marrow spaces. The newly formed bone was largely humanized, as indicated by the incorporation of human bone cells and human-derived matrix proteins. After intracardiac injection, the dissemination of luciferase-expressing human breast cancer cell lines to the humanized bone ossicles was detected by bioluminescent imaging. Histological analysis revealed the presence of metastases with clear osteolysis in the newly formed bone. Thus, human tissue-engineered bone constructs can be applied efficiently as a target tissue for human breast cancer cells injected into the blood circulation and replicate the osteolytic phenotype associated with breast cancer-induced bone lesions. In conclusion, we have developed an appropriate model for investigation of species-specific mechanisms of human breast cancer-related bone metastasis in vivo.

  20. Comparison between human fetal and adult skin

    OpenAIRE

    Coolen, N.A.; Schouten, K.C.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2009-01-01

    Healing of early-gestation fetal wounds results in scarless healing. Since the capacity for regeneration is probably inherent to the fetal skin itself, knowledge of the fetal skin composition may contribute to the understanding of fetal wound healing. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profiles of different epidermal and dermal components in the human fetal and adult skin. In the human fetal skin (ranging from 13 to 22 weeks’ gestation) and adult skin biopsies, the expression...

  1. The p38α MAPK function in osteoprecursors is required for bone formation and bone homeostasis in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Rodríguez-Carballo

    Full Text Available p38 MAPK activity plays an important role in several steps of the osteoblast lineage progression through activation of osteoblast-specific transcription factors and it is also essential for the acquisition of the osteoblast phenotype in early development. Although reports indicate p38 signalling plays a role in early skeletal development, its specific contributions to adult bone remodelling are still to be clarified.We evaluated osteoblast-specific deletion of p38α to determine its significance in early skeletogenesis, as well as for bone homeostasis in adult skeleton. Early p38α deletion resulted in defective intramembranous and endochondral ossification in both calvaria and long bones. Mutant mice showed reduction of trabecular bone volume in distal femurs, associated with low trabecular thickness. In addition, knockout mice also displayed decreased femoral cortical bone volume and thickness. Deletion of p38α did not affect osteoclast function. Yet it impaired osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast maturation and activity through decreased expression of osteoblast-specific transcription factors and their targets. Furthermore, the inducible Cre system allowed us to control the onset of p38α disruption after birth by removal of doxycycline. Deletion of p38α at three or eight weeks postnatally led to significantly lower trabecular and cortical bone volume after 6 or 12 months.Our data demonstrates that, in addition to early skeletogenesis, p38α is essential for osteoblasts to maintain their function in mineralized adult bone, as bone anabolism should be sustained throughout life. Moreover, our data also emphasizes that clinical development of p38 inhibitors should take into account their potential bone effects.

  2. Identification of molecular markers related to human alveolar bone cells and pathway analysis in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Ren, Q H; Bai, L; Feng, Q

    2015-10-28

    Alveolar bone osteoblasts are widely used in dental and related research. They are easily affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes. However, the mechanism of diabetes-induced alveolar bone absorption remains unclear. This study systematically explored the changes in human alveolar bone cell-related gene expression and biological pathways, which may facilitate the investigation of its mechanism. Alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from 5 male diabetics and 5 male healthy adults were cultured. Total RNA was extracted from these cells and subjected to gene microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were screened, and a gene interaction network was constructed. An enrichment pathway analysis was simultaneously performed on differentially expressed genes to identify the biological pathways associated with changes in the alveolar bone cells of diabetic humans. In total, we identified 147 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in diabetic alveolar bone cells (than in the normal cells; 91 upregulated and 36 downregulated mRNAs). The constructed co-expression network showed 3 pairs of significantly-expressed genes. High-enrichment pathway analysis identified 8 pathways that were affected by changes in gene expression; three of the significant pathways were related to metabolism (inositol phosphate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism). Here, we identified a few potential genes and biological pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of alveolar bone cells in diabetic patients.

  3. A simplified procedure for preparation of undecalcified human bone sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, J A; Tkocz, I; Levinsen, J

    1985-01-01

    A new type of apparatus for sectioning samples of hard, undecalcified bone is described. Slices of fresh or archeological human bone 4-5 mm thick are dehydrated and then embedded in epoxy resin. The apparatus used to prepare sections from the resulting blocks consists of a low-speed rim-type diam...

  4. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  5. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  6. Comparison of the relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and volumetric bone mineral density in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, pBMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts.

  7. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  8. Controlled trial of the effects of milk basic protein (MBP) supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoe, S; Toba, Y; Yamamura, J; Kawakami, H; Yahiro, M; Kumegawa, M; Itabashi, A; Takada, Y

    2001-04-01

    Milk has more beneficial effects on bone health compared to other food sources. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies showed that milk whey protein, especially its basic protein fraction, contains several components capable of both promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. However, the effects of milk basic protein (MBP) on bone metabolism of humans are not known. The object of this study was to examine the effects of MBP on bone metabolism of healthy adult women. Thirty-three normal healthy women were randomly assigned to treatment with either placebo or MBP (40 mg per day) for six months. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the left calcaneus of each subject was measured at the beginning of the study and after six months of treatment, by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum and urine indices of bone metabolism were measured at the base line, three-month intervals, and the end of the study. Daily intake of nutrients was monitored by a three-day food record made at three and six months. The mean (+/- SD) rate of left calcaneus BMD gain of women in the MBP group (3.42 +/- 2.05%) was significantly higher than that of women in the placebo group (2.01 +/- 1.75%, P = 0.042). As compared with the placebo group, urinary cross-linked N-teleopeptides of type-I collagen/creatinine and deoxypyridinoline/creatinine were significantly decreased in the MBP group (p supplementation of 40 mg in healthy adult women can significantly increase their BMD independent of dietary intake of minerals and vitamins. This increase in BMD might be primarily mediated through inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption by the MBP supplementation. PMID:11388472

  9. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M.; Norton, Andrew L.; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J.; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R. S.; Ronald A. Dixon; Nader, Helena B.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archae...

  10. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group...

  11. A novel view of the adult bone marrow stem cell hierarchy and stem cell trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Ratajczak, M Z

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a novel view and working hypothesis about the hierarchy within the adult bone marrow stem cell compartment and the still-intriguing question of whether adult bone marrow contains primitive stem cells from early embryonic development, such as cells derived from the epiblast, migrating primordial germ cells or yolk sac-derived hemangioblasts. It also presents a novel view of the mechanisms that govern stem cell mobilization and homing, with special emphasis on the role of t...

  12. Osteogenic potential of bone-lining cells in the adult skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced osteogenic sarcomas are believed to arise from proliferating osteogenic precursor cells. The identity and location of these cells in the adult skeleton is not well understood. In order to determine reliable cell dose estimates, it is important to determine the osteogenic pathway in the adult skeleton. Bone-lining cells (BLCs) cover inactive endosteal surfaces in the adult skeleton of long-lived animals. BLCs are flat elongated cells which are directly apposed to the bone surface. They have cell processes extending into canaliculi and have gap junctions at some contacts with other bone-lining cells. The morphology of the bone-lining cell and its proximity to the bone surface can only be resolved at the ultrastructural level. These cells are a distinct morphologic phenotype but have been referred to by a variety of names including resting osteoblasts, surface osteocytes, and flattened mesenchymal cells. The BLC, as a distinct phenotype, should not be confused with the more descriptive term cells lining the bone surface of bone lining cells, sometimes used to include any cell near the bone. The purpose of the study was to determine what role, if any, the bone-lining cells have in the osteogenic process. Do these cells proliferate and contribute to the population of osteoblasts?

  13. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach S. Templeton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014 and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006 and IL-1β (P = .001 in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche.

  14. Osteogenic Potential of Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells for Calvaria Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Joon; Park, Yonsil; Hu, Wei-Shou; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenic cells derived from rat multipotent adult progenitor cells (rMAPCs) were investigated for their potential use in bone regeneration. rMAPCs are adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that have a high proliferation capacity and the differentiation potential to multiple lineages. They may also offer immunomodulatory properties favorable for applications for regenerative medicine. rMAPCs were cultivated as single cells or as 3D aggregates in osteogenic media for up to 38 days, and their differentiation to bone lineage was then assessed by immunostaining of osteocalcin and collagen type I and by mineralization assays. The capability of rMAPCs in facilitating bone regeneration was evaluated in vivo by the direct implantation of multipotent adult progenitor cell (MAPC) aggregates in rat calvarial defects. Bone regeneration was examined radiographically, histologically, and histomorphometrically. Results showed that rMAPCs successfully differentiated into osteogenic lineage by demonstrating mineralized extracellular matrix formation in vitro and induced new bone formation by the effect of rMAPC aggregates in vivo. These outcomes confirm that rMAPCs have a good osteogenic potential and provide insights into rMAPCs as a novel adult stem cell source for bone regeneration. PMID:27239552

  15. Human temporal bone findings in acquired hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, J; Milroy, C M; Jensen, K D; Parving, A

    1991-11-01

    Histological studies of the auditory organ in patients with acquired hypothyroidism are scarce. Thus the aim of the present study was to examine the temporal bones and the brain in subjects with hypothyroidism. Four temporal bones and two brains from clinically and biochemically hypothyroid subjects were removed and evaluated by light microscopy determine to the morphological changes and deposition of neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans. An audiogram from one of the patients showed a sensorineural hearing loss, which could be ascribed to occupational noise exposure. The study revealed histological changes compatible with age and infectious disease. No accumulation of neutral or acid glycosaminoglycans could be demonstrated in the temporal bones, or in the brains. PMID:1761939

  16. Unicameral bone cyst of the lunate in an adult: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alici Tugrul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a symptomatic unicameral (simple bone cyst of the lunate in a 42-year- old woman. The lesion was treated with curettage and cancellous autogenous iliac bone grafting. At five years of follow-up the wrist was pain free, there were no limitations of motion, and the radiographs showed complete obliteration of the cavity. To the best of our knowledge, no other unicameral bone cyst of the lunate has been reported in an adult. Cysts with significant cavities at the carpal bones in an adult should be approached cautiously, as they may require early curettage and bone grafting for healing, before collapse and degenerative changes occur.

  17. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  18. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  19. The impact of microgravity on bone in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Daniela; Grosse, Jirka; Wehland, Markus; Mann, Vivek; Reseland, Janne Elin; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2016-06-01

    Experiencing real weightlessness in space is a dream for many of us who are interested in space research. Although space traveling fascinates us, it can cause both short-term and long-term health problems. Microgravity is the most important influence on the human organism in space. The human body undergoes dramatic changes during a long-term spaceflight. In this review, we will mainly focus on changes in calcium, sodium and bone metabolism of space travelers. Moreover, we report on the current knowledge on the mechanisms of bone loss in space, available models to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone on Earth as well as the combined effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on bone. The available countermeasures applied in space will also be evaluated. PMID:27032715

  20. Determinants of microdamage in elderly human vertebral trabecular bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Follet

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that microdamage accumulates in bone as a result of physiological loading and occurs naturally in human trabecular bone. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with pre-existing microdamage in human vertebral trabecular bone, namely age, architecture, hardness, mineral and organic matrix. Trabecular bone cores were collected from human L2 vertebrae (n = 53 from donors 54-95 years of age (22 men and 30 women, 1 unknown and previous cited parameters were evaluated. Collagen cross-link content (PYD, DPD, PEN and % of collagen was measured on surrounding trabecular bone. We found that determinants of microdamage were mostly the age of donors, architecture, mineral characteristics and mature enzymatic cross-links. Moreover, linear microcracks were mostly associated with the bone matrix characteristics whereas diffuse damage was associated with architecture. We conclude that linear and diffuse types of microdamage seemed to have different determinants, with age being critical for both types.

  1. Non-invasive photo acoustic approach for human bone diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Helmy, Ahdy; Suryadevara, Vinay Kumar; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher

    2016-12-01

    The existing modalities of bone diagnosis including X-ray and ultrasound may cite drawback in some cases related to health issues and penetration depth, while the ultrasound modality may lack image quality. Photo acoustic approach however, provides light energy to the acoustic wave, enabling it to activate and respond according to the propagating media (which is type of bones in this case). At the same time, a differential temperature change may result in the bio heat response, resulting from the heat absorbed across the multiple materials under study. In this work, we have demonstrated the features of using photo acoustic modality in order to non-invasively diagnose the type of human bones based on their electrical, thermal, and acoustic properties that differentiate the output response of each type. COMSOL software was utilized to combine both acoustic equations and bio heat equations, in order to study both the thermal and acoustic responses through which the differential diagnosis can be obtained. In this study, we solved both the acoustic equation and bio heat equations for four types of bones, bone (cancellous), bone (cortical), bone marrow (red), and bone marrow (yellow). 1 MHz acoustic source frequency was chosen and 10(5) W/m(2) power source was used in the simulation. The simulation tested the dynamic response of the wave over a distance of 5 cm from each side for the source. Near 2.4 cm was detected from simulation from each side of the source with a temperature change of within 0.5 K for various types of bones, citing a promising technique for a practical model to detect the type of bones via the differential temperature as well as the acoustic was response via the multiple materials associated with the human bones (skin and blood). The simulation results suggest that the PA technique may be applied to non-invasive diagnosis for the different types of bones, including cancerous bones. A practical model for detecting both the temperature change via

  2. Non-invasive photo acoustic approach for human bone diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Helmy, Ahdy; Suryadevara, Vinay Kumar; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher

    2016-12-01

    The existing modalities of bone diagnosis including X-ray and ultrasound may cite drawback in some cases related to health issues and penetration depth, while the ultrasound modality may lack image quality. Photo acoustic approach however, provides light energy to the acoustic wave, enabling it to activate and respond according to the propagating media (which is type of bones in this case). At the same time, a differential temperature change may result in the bio heat response, resulting from the heat absorbed across the multiple materials under study. In this work, we have demonstrated the features of using photo acoustic modality in order to non-invasively diagnose the type of human bones based on their electrical, thermal, and acoustic properties that differentiate the output response of each type. COMSOL software was utilized to combine both acoustic equations and bio heat equations, in order to study both the thermal and acoustic responses through which the differential diagnosis can be obtained. In this study, we solved both the acoustic equation and bio heat equations for four types of bones, bone (cancellous), bone (cortical), bone marrow (red), and bone marrow (yellow). 1 MHz acoustic source frequency was chosen and 10(5) W/m(2) power source was used in the simulation. The simulation tested the dynamic response of the wave over a distance of 5 cm from each side for the source. Near 2.4 cm was detected from simulation from each side of the source with a temperature change of within 0.5 K for various types of bones, citing a promising technique for a practical model to detect the type of bones via the differential temperature as well as the acoustic was response via the multiple materials associated with the human bones (skin and blood). The simulation results suggest that the PA technique may be applied to non-invasive diagnosis for the different types of bones, including cancerous bones. A practical model for detecting both the temperature change via

  3. Expression of human bone-related proteins in the hematopoietic microenvironment.

    OpenAIRE

    Long, M W; Williams, J.L.; Mann, K G

    1990-01-01

    Given the intimate relationship between bone and bone marrow, we hypothesized that the human bone marrow may function as a source (or reservoir) of bone-forming progenitor cells. We observed a population of cells within the bone marrow which produce bone-specific or bone-related proteins. The production of these proteins was developmentally regulated in human long-term bone marrow cell cultures; the bone protein-producing cells (BPPC) are observed under serum-free, short-term culture conditio...

  4. CXC receptor knockout mice: characterization of skeletal features and membranous bone healing in the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, David S; Sakamoto, Taylor; Ishida, Kenji; Makhijani, Nalini S; Gruber, Helen E; Yamaguchi, Dean T

    2011-02-01

    The potential role of CXC chemokines bearing the glu-leu-arg (ELR) motif in bone repair was studied using a cranial defect (CD) model in mice lacking the CXC receptor (mCXCR(-/-) knockout mice), which is homologous to knockout of the human CXC receptor 2 (CXCR2) gene. During the inflammatory stage of bone repair, ELR CXC chemokines are released by inflammatory cells and serve as chemotactic and angiogenic factors. mCXCR(-/-) mice were smaller in weight and length from base of tail to nose tip, compared to WT littermates. DEXA analysis indicated that bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), total area (TA), bone area (BA), and total tissue mass (TTM) were decreased in the mCXCR(-/-) mice at 6, 12, and 18 weeks of age. Trabecular bone characteristics in mCXCR(-/-) (% bone, connectivity, number, and thickness) were reduced, and trabecular spacing was increased as evidenced by μCT. There was no difference in bone formation or resorption indices measured by bone histomorphometry. Trabecular BMD was not altered. Cortical bone volume, BMD, and thickness were reduced; whereas, bone marrow volume was increased in mCXCR(-/-). Decreased polar moment of inertia (J) in the tibias/femurs suggested that the mCXCR(-/-) long bones are weaker. This was confirmed by three-point bending testing of the femurs. CDs created in 6-week-old male mCXCR(-/-) and WT littermates were not completely healed at 12 weeks; WT animals, however, had significantly more bone in-growth than mCXCR(-/-). New bone sites were identified using polarized light and assessed for numbers of osteocyte (OCy) lacunae and blood vessels (BlV) around the original CD. In new bone, the number of BlV in WT was >2× that seen in mCXCR(-/-). Bone histomorphometry parameters in the cranial defect did not show any difference in bone formation or resorption markers. In summary, studies showed that mCXCR(-/-) mice have (1) reduced weight and size; (2) decreased BMD and BMC; (3) decreased amounts of trabecular

  5. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin;

    2013-01-01

    recruited from the Danish Twin Registry. Serum vitamin D (25OHD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) P1NP, 1CTP, and CTX were quantified. Femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, and whole body bone mineral density (FN-BMD, TH-BMD, LS-BMD, and WB-BMD) were measured using DXA. Twins were studied as single...... individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intra-pair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's T-test and fixed-regression models. RESULTS: BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-, TH-, FN- or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB...

  6. Aged human bone marrow stromal cells maintaining bone forming capacity in vivo evaluated using an improved method of visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenderup, Karin; Rosada, Cecilia; Justesen, J;

    2004-01-01

    an in vivo assay for quantifying the bone forming capacity (BFC) and we compared the BFC of osteoblastic cells obtained from young and old donors. Osteoblasts were obtained from human bone marrow stromal cell cultures and implanted subcutaneously in immuno-deficient mice (NOD/LtSz- Prkdc(scid)). After 8...... able to form bone in vivo. The donor origin of bone was verified using several human-specific antibodies. Dose-response experiments demonstrated that 5 x 10(5) hMSC per implant gave the maximal bone formation after 8 weeks. No difference in BFC was observed between cells obtained from young (24...

  7. Validation of K-XRF bone lead measurement in young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppin, J.A.; Aro, A C; Williams, P L; Hu, H; Ryan, P B

    1995-01-01

    K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) is a useful tool for assessing environmental exposure to lead in occupationally exposed individuals and older adults. This study explores the possibility of using this technique on young adults with low environmental lead exposure. Twenty-three college students, aged 18-21 years, were recruited for 2 hr of bone lead measurement. Bone lead measurements were taken from the mid-shaft tibia for periods of 30 or 60 min. In the analysis, 30-min measurements were combine...

  8. Bone invading NSCLC cells produce IL-7: mice model and human histologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone metastases are a common and dismal consequence of lung cancer that is a leading cause of death. The role of IL-7 in promoting bone metastases has been previously investigated in NSCLC, but many aspects remain to be disclosed. To further study IL-7 function in bone metastasis, we developed a human-in-mice model of bone aggression by NSCLC and analyzed human bone metastasis biopsies. We used NOD/SCID mice implanted with human bone. After bone engraftment, two groups of mice were injected subcutaneously with A549, a human NSCLC cell line, either close or at the contralateral flank to the human bone implant, while a third control group did not receive cancer cells. Tumor and bone vitality and IL-7 expression were assessed in implanted bone, affected or not by A549. Serum IL-7 levels were evaluated by ELISA. IL-7 immunohistochemistry was performed on 10 human bone NSCLC metastasis biopsies for comparison. At 12 weeks after bone implant, we observed osteogenic activity and neovascularization, confirming bone vitality. Tumor aggressive cells implanted close to human bone invaded the bone tissue. The bone-aggressive cancer cells were positive for IL-7 staining both in the mice model and in human biopsies. Higher IL-7 serum levels were found in mice injected with A549 cells close to the bone implant compared to mice injected with A549 cells in the flank opposite to the bone implant. We demonstrated that bone-invading cells express and produce IL-7, which is known to promote osteoclast activation and osteolytic lesions. Tumor-bone interaction increases IL-7 production, with an increase in IL-7 serum levels. The presented mice model of bone invasion by contiguous tumor is suitable to study bone-tumor cell interaction. IL-7 plays a role in the first steps of metastatic process

  9. Bone invading NSCLC cells produce IL-7: mice model and human histologic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarto Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone metastases are a common and dismal consequence of lung cancer that is a leading cause of death. The role of IL-7 in promoting bone metastases has been previously investigated in NSCLC, but many aspects remain to be disclosed. To further study IL-7 function in bone metastasis, we developed a human-in-mice model of bone aggression by NSCLC and analyzed human bone metastasis biopsies. Methods We used NOD/SCID mice implanted with human bone. After bone engraftment, two groups of mice were injected subcutaneously with A549, a human NSCLC cell line, either close or at the contralateral flank to the human bone implant, while a third control group did not receive cancer cells. Tumor and bone vitality and IL-7 expression were assessed in implanted bone, affected or not by A549. Serum IL-7 levels were evaluated by ELISA. IL-7 immunohistochemistry was performed on 10 human bone NSCLC metastasis biopsies for comparison. Results At 12 weeks after bone implant, we observed osteogenic activity and neovascularization, confirming bone vitality. Tumor aggressive cells implanted close to human bone invaded the bone tissue. The bone-aggressive cancer cells were positive for IL-7 staining both in the mice model and in human biopsies. Higher IL-7 serum levels were found in mice injected with A549 cells close to the bone implant compared to mice injected with A549 cells in the flank opposite to the bone implant. Conclusions We demonstrated that bone-invading cells express and produce IL-7, which is known to promote osteoclast activation and osteolytic lesions. Tumor-bone interaction increases IL-7 production, with an increase in IL-7 serum levels. The presented mice model of bone invasion by contiguous tumor is suitable to study bone-tumor cell interaction. IL-7 plays a role in the first steps of metastatic process.

  10. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers studies of the microdistribution of radium and plutonium in human bone, conducted at Argonne with emphasis on the alpha-spectrometric method of measurement. Alpha spectrometry offers high spatial resolution and is well suited to the measurement of radionuclide concentrations near bone surfaces. With these techniques surface deposit thicknesses have been measured to be about 1 μm thick for isotopes of lead, radium and the actinides, and volume deposits of 226Ra have been found to be quite nonuniform near bone surfaces, leading to endosteal tissue dose rates that are higher than expected under the assumption of uniform volume concentration normally used in radiation protection calculations. With autoradiography, the bony septa of the mastoid air cell system have been found to be depleted in radium relative to the bone tissue surrounding them; this is expected to have a significant influence on the dosimetry of the mastoid epithelia. A combination of autoradiographic and morphometric measurements indicates that specific activities in the axial skeleton are higher than in the appendicular skeleton, primarily because the former has higher bone surface-to-volume ratios and higher bone surface concentrations of plutonium. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  11. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T;

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  12. Stable isotopic analysis on ancient human bones in Jiahu site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YaoWu; S.H.AMBROSE; WANG ChangSui

    2007-01-01

    Palaeodietary analysis is one of important topics in bioarchaeology field and has been paid great attention to by Chinese archaeometrists recently. Ancient human bones in Jiahu Site were analyzed by means of stable isotopes of C, N and 0.13 human bones were excluded from 28 bones for dietary reconstruction due to their unusual collagen contents, C and N contents, and C/N atomic ratios especially.δ13C(-20.37±0.53‰)in collagen of remaining samples showed that C3 food were consumed mainly, which is consistent of the archaeological findings that rice was the staple in Jiahu. According to the difference of δ15N and δ13C values in bone collagen, the samples can be classified into four clusters. The changes of δ15N values in bone collagen and δ13C values in hydroxylapatite through whole cultural phases indicated the transition from hunting to gathering and fishing to rice agriculture and animal domestication ultimately. Meanwhile, the δ18O change in hydroxylapatite showed that palaeoclimate was relatively constant during Jiahu culture.

  13. Stable isotopic analysis on ancient human bones in Jiahu site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.H.AMBROSE

    2007-01-01

    Palaeodietary analysis is one of important topics in bioarchaeology field and has been paid great at- tention to by Chinese archaeometrists recently. Ancient human bones in Jiahu Site were analyzed by means of stable isotopes of C, N and O. 13 human bones were excluded from 28 bones for dietary re- construction due to their unusual collagen contents, C and N contents, and C/N atomic ratios espe- cially. δ 13C (-20.37±0.53‰) in collagen of remaining samples showed that C3 food were consumed mainly, which is consistent of the archaeological findings that rice was the staple in Jiahu. According to the difference of δ 15N and δ 13C values in bone collagen, the samples can be classified into four clusters. The changes of δ 15N values in bone collagen and δ 13C values in hydroxylapatite through whole cultural phases indicated the transition from hunting to gathering and fishing to rice agriculture and animal domestication ultimately. Meanwhile, the δ 18O change in hydroxylapatite showed that pa- laeoclimate was relatively constant during Jiahu culture.

  14. Ex Vivo Behaviour of Human Bone Tumor Endothelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, Teresa [SDN-Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, IRCCS, 80143 Naples (Italy); Cesario, Elena [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Fazioli, Flavio [Division of Skeletal Muscles Oncology Surgery, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); De Chiara, Annarosaria [Anatomic Pathology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tutucci, Cristina; Apice, Gaetano [Medical Oncology of Bone and Soft Sarcoma tissues Unit, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); Nigris, Filomena de, E-mail: filomena.denigris@unina2.it [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2013-04-11

    Cooperation between endothelial cells and bone in bone remodelling is well established. In contrast, bone microvasculature supporting the growth of primary tumors and metastasis is poorly understood. Several antiangiogenic agents have recently been undergoing trials, although an extensive body of clinical data and experimental research have proved that angiogenic pathways differ in each tumor type and stage. Here, for the first time, we characterize at the molecular and functional level tumor endothelial cells from human bone sarcomas at different stages of disease and with different histotypes. We selected a CD31{sup +} subpopulation from biopsies that displayed the capability to grow as adherent cell lines without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our findings show the existence in human primary bone sarcomas of highly proliferative endothelial cells expressing CD31, CD44, CD105, CD146 and CD90 markers. These cells are committed to develop capillary-like structures and colony formation units, and to produce nitric oxide. We believe that a better understanding of tumor vasculature could be a valid tool for the design of an efficacious antiangiogenic therapy as adjuvant treatment of sarcomas.

  15. Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, et al. Updated data on proximal femur bone mineral levels of U.S. adults. Osteoporos Int 8:468–89. 1998. Kelly TJ. Bone mineral density reference databases for American men and women. J Bone Miner Res 5 (Suppl1):S249. 1990. Centers for Disease ...

  16. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Danielsen, CC;

    1997-01-01

    We tested in compression specimens of human proximal tibial trabecular bone from 31 normal donors aged from 16 to 83 years and determined the mechanical properties, density and mineral and collagen content. Young's modulus and ultimate stress were highest between 40 and 50 years, whereas ultimate...... amount of collagen) varied with failure energy. Collagen concentration was maximal at younger ages but varied little with age. Our results suggest that the decrease in mechanical properties of trabecular bone such as Young's modulus and ultimate stress is mainly a consequence of the loss of trabecular...

  17. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H. W.; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radia...

  18. A method for estimating age of medieval sub-adults from infancy to adulthood based on long bone length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila Saidane; Sejrsen, Birgitte;

    2016-01-01

    on a modern population (Maresh: Human growth and development () pp 155-200), and, lastly, based on archeological data with known ages (Rissech et al.: Forensic Sci Int 180 () 1-9). As growth of long bones is known to be non-linear it was tested if the regression model could be improved by applying a quadratic...... model. RESULTS: Comparison between estimated ages revealed that the modern data result in lower estimated ages when compared to the Danish regression equations. The estimated ages using the Danish regression equations and the regression equations developed by Rissech et al. (Forensic Sci Int 180 () 1......OBJECTIVES: To develop a series of regression equations for estimating age from length of long bones for archaeological sub-adults when aging from dental development cannot be performed. Further, to compare derived ages when using these regression equations, and two other methods. MATERIAL...

  19. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval sample (N = 450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteonal parameters were recorded in posterior midshaft femoral sections from adult males (N = 233) and females (N = 217). Using univariate and multivariate statistics, intact, fragmentary, and osteon population densities, Haversian canal area and diameter, and osteon area were compared between the two groups, accounting for sex, age, and estimated femoral robusticity. The size of osteons and their Haversian canals, as well as osteon density, varied significantly between the socio-economic groups, although minor inconsistencies were observed in females. Variation in microstructure was consistent with historical textual evidence that describes differences in mechanical loading and nutrition between the two groups. Results demonstrate that aspects of ancient human lifestyle can be inferred from bone microstructure. PMID:26480030

  20. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations.

  1. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  2. Adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: initial experience in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, A; Bosco, J J; Leong, K W; Saw, M H; Menaka, N; Devashanti, P

    1997-03-01

    Prior to 1993, bone marrow transplantation for adult patients was not available in Malaysia. Adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation commenced in Malaysia when the first transplant was conducted at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur on 2 November 1993. Up till July 1995, 10 adult bone marrow transplants had been conducted at the University Hospital. Five patients had acute myeloid leukaemia in first remission, 4 had chronic myeloid leukaemia and 1 had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first partial remission. The age range of patients at the time of transplant is 16-40 years (mean 25.5 years). All patients engrafted successfully and the survival for the first 100 days post-transplant is 90%. One patient demonstrated haematological relapse post-transplant but achieved remission with donor buffy-coat infusion. The mean drug cost incurred was RM28,269 for the first 100 days. Locally available adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is safe, affordable and has comparable results with reputable overseas transplant centres.

  3. A novel view of the adult bone marrow stem cell hierarchy and stem cell trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, M Z

    2015-04-01

    This review presents a novel view and working hypothesis about the hierarchy within the adult bone marrow stem cell compartment and the still-intriguing question of whether adult bone marrow contains primitive stem cells from early embryonic development, such as cells derived from the epiblast, migrating primordial germ cells or yolk sac-derived hemangioblasts. It also presents a novel view of the mechanisms that govern stem cell mobilization and homing, with special emphasis on the role of the complement cascade as a trigger for egress of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow into blood as well as the emerging role of novel homing factors and priming mechanisms that support stromal-derived factor 1-mediated homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells after transplantation. PMID:25486871

  4. Interrelationships between electrical properties and microstructure of human trabecular bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpowska, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Töyräs, J.; Day, J. S.; Weinans, H.; Kiviranta, I.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2006-10-01

    Microstructural changes, such as reduction of trabecular thickness and number, are characteristic signs of osteoporosis leading to diminished bone strength. Electrical and dielectric parameters might provide diagnostically valuable information on trabecular bone microstructure not extractable from bone mineral density measurements. In this study, structural properties of human trabecular bone samples (n = 26) harvested from the distal femur and proximal tibia were investigated using the computed microtomography (microCT) technique. Quantitative parameters, e.g. structural model index (SMI) or trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), were calculated. In addition, the samples were examined electrically over a wide frequency range (50 Hz-5 MHz) using a two-electrode impedance spectroscopy set-up. Relative permittivity, loss factor, conductivity, phase angle, specific impedance and dissipation factor were determined. Significant linear correlations were obtained between the dissipation factor and BV/TV or SMI (|r| >= 0.70, p < 0.01, n = 26). Principal component analyses, conducted on electrical and structural parameters, revealed that the high frequency principal component of the dissipation factor was significantly related to SMI (r = 0.72, p < 0.01, n = 26). The linear combination of high and low frequency relative permittivity predicted 73% of the variation in BV/TV. To conclude, electrical and dielectric parameters of trabecular bone, especially relative permittivity and dissipation factor, were significantly and specifically related to a trabecular microstructure as characterized with microCT. The data gathered in this study constitute a useful basis for theoretical and experimental work towards the development of impedance spectroscopy techniques for detection of bone quality in vitro or in special cases of open surgery.

  5. Interrelationships between electrical properties and microstructure of human trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierpowska, J [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Hakulinen, M A [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Toeyraes, J [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, PO Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Day, J S [Erasmus Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Erasmus MC EE1614, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Weinans, H [Erasmus Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Erasmus MC EE1614, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kiviranta, I [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Jyvaeskylae Central Hospital, Keskussairaalantie 19, FI-40620 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Jurvelin, J S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lappalainen, R [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2006-10-21

    Microstructural changes, such as reduction of trabecular thickness and number, are characteristic signs of osteoporosis leading to diminished bone strength. Electrical and dielectric parameters might provide diagnostically valuable information on trabecular bone microstructure not extractable from bone mineral density measurements. In this study, structural properties of human trabecular bone samples (n = 26) harvested from the distal femur and proximal tibia were investigated using the computed microtomography (microCT) technique. Quantitative parameters, e.g. structural model index (SMI) or trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), were calculated. In addition, the samples were examined electrically over a wide frequency range (50 Hz-5 MHz) using a two-electrode impedance spectroscopy set-up. Relative permittivity, loss factor, conductivity, phase angle, specific impedance and dissipation factor were determined. Significant linear correlations were obtained between the dissipation factor and BV/TV or SMI (vertical bar r vertical bar {>=} 0.70, p < 0.01, n = 26). Principal component analyses, conducted on electrical and structural parameters, revealed that the high frequency principal component of the dissipation factor was significantly related to SMI (r = 0.72, p < 0.01, n = 26). The linear combination of high and low frequency relative permittivity predicted 73% of the variation in BV/TV. To conclude, electrical and dielectric parameters of trabecular bone, especially relative permittivity and dissipation factor, were significantly and specifically related to a trabecular microstructure as characterized with microCT. The data gathered in this study constitute a useful basis for theoretical and experimental work towards the development of impedance spectroscopy techniques for detection of bone quality in vitro or in special cases of open surgery.

  6. Intrusion of incisors in adult patients with marginal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, B; Agerbaek, N; Markenstam, G

    1989-09-01

    Elongated and spaced incisors are common problems in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease. Thirty patients characterized by marginal bone loss and deep overbite were treated by intrusion of incisors. Three different methods for intrusion were applied: (1) J hooks and extraoral high-pull headgear, (2) utility arches, (3) intrusion bent into a loop in a 0.17 x 0.25-inch wire, and (4) base arch as described by Burstone. The intrusion was evaluated from the displacement of the apex, incision, and the center of resistance of the most prominent or elongated central incisor. Change in the marginal bone level and the amount of root resorption were evaluated on standardized intraoral radiographs. The pockets were assessed by standardized probing and the clinical crown length was measured on study casts. The results showed that the true intrusion of the center of resistance varied from 0 to 3.5 mm and was most pronounced when intrusion was performed with a base arch. The clinical crown length was generally reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 mm. The marginal bone level approached the cementoenamel junction in all but six cases. All cases demonstrated root resorption varying from 1 to 3 mm. The total amount of alveolar support--that is, the calculated area of the alveolar wall--was unaltered or increased in 19 of the 30 cases. The dependency of the results on the oral hygiene, the force distribution, and the perioral function was evaluated in relation to the individual cases. It was obvious that intrusion was best performed when (1) forces were low (5 to 15 gm per tooth) with the line of action of the force passing through or close to the center of resistance, (2) the gingiva status was healthy, and (3) no interference with perioral function was present.

  7. Botulinum toxin in masticatory muscles of the adult rat induces bone loss at the condyle and alveolar regions of the mandible associated with a bone proliferation at a muscle enthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kün-Darbois, Jean-Daniel; Libouban, Hélène; Chappard, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    In man, botulinum toxin type A (BTX) is injected in masticatory muscles for several indications such as trismus, bruxism, or masseter hypertrophy. Bone changes in the mandible following BTX injections in adult animal have therefore became a subject of interest. The aim of this study was to analyze condylar and alveolar bone changes following BTX unilateral injections in masseter and temporal muscles in adult rats. Mature male rats (n = 15) were randomized into 2 groups: control (CTRL; n = 6) and BTX group (n= 9). Rats of the BTX group received a single injection of BTX into right masseter and temporal muscles. Rats of the CTRL group were similarly injected with saline solution. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after injections. Masticatory muscles examination and microcomputed tomography (microCT) were performed. A significant difference of weight was found between the 2 groups at weeks 2, 3 and 4 (p muscles was observed in all BTX rats. MicroCT analysis showed significant bone loss in the right alveolar and condylar areas in BTX rats. Decrease in bone volume reached -20% for right alveolar bone and -35% for right condylar bone. A hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the digastric muscle enthesis was found on every right hemimandible in the BTX group and none in the CTRL group. BTX injection in masticatory muscles leads to a significant and major mandible bone loss. These alterations can represent a risk factor for fractures in human. The occurrence of a hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the Mus Digastricus enthesis may constitute an etiological factor for tori.

  8. Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitskaya, Ekaterina, E-mail: eevdokim@ucsd.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Zin, Carolyn [Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter [Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); D’Lima, Darryl [Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education, Scripps Health, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sah, Robert L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McKittrick, Joanna [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2 h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. - Highlights: • Compressive creep tests of human trabecular bone across the tibia were performed. • The creep rate was found to be inversely proportional to the density of the samples. • μ-computed tomography before and after testing identified regions of deformation. • Bending of the trabeculae was found to be the main deformation mode.

  9. Effect of perinatal synthetic steroid hormone (allylestrenol, diethylstilbestrol) treatment (hormonal imprinting) on the bone mineralization of the adult male and female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabélyos, C; Horváth, C; Holló, I; Csaba, G

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal treatment with allylestrenol or diethylstilbestrol (DES) reduced the bone mineral content (BMC/bw) of the adult (four months old) female rats, without influencing bone mineral density (BMD/bw). In males these neonatal treatments elevated BMC and BMD alike. Ovariectomy alone decreased BMC and BMD alike; however the neonatal hormone treatments did not influence this reduced value. Ovariectomy of two months old animals increased body weight without the influence of neonatal hormone treatments. In adult males, the body weight was reduced significantly by neonatal DES and non-significantly by neonatal allylestrenol treatment. The experiments call attention to the possible human bone-effects of allylestrenol, which was used in the last decades as medication protecting endangered pregnancies. PMID:10075115

  10. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  11. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  12. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Mediates Human Embryonic Germ Cell Derivation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiller, Marc; Liu, Cyndi; Blumenthal, Paul D; John D Gearhart; Kerr, Candace L.

    2010-01-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) have proven to be a source of pluripotent stem cells called embryonic germ cells (EGCs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, virtually little is known regarding the factors that regulate EGC survival and maintenance. In mice, the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been shown to be required for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells, and disruptions in this gene lead to defects in mouse PGC specification. Here, we sought to determine whether recom...

  13. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide inhibits bone resorption in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K;

    2014-01-01

    on pancreatic hormone secretion have been published. RESULTS: During euglycemia, the decremental area under the curve in CTX was significantly (P hyperglycemia, GIP infusion significantly (P ...) augmented the decremental area under the curve to 2785 ± 446 % × minutes, compared to 1308 ± 448 % × minutes during saline infusion, with CTX values corresponding to 49% of basal values. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that GIP reduces bone resorption in humans, interacting with a possible effect of hyperglycemia....

  14. Evaluation of the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effects of erythropoietin and the efficacy of deproteinized bovine bone/recombinant human erythropoietin scaffold on bone defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghai; Deng, Liqing; Xie, Xiaowei; Yang, Zhouyuan; Kang, Pengde

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) could promote the angiogenesis and may also play a role in bone regeneration. This study was conducted to evaluate the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effects of EPO and the efficacy of deproteinized bovine bone/recombinant human EPO scaffold on bone defect repair. Twenty-four healthy adult goats were chosen to build goat defects model and randomly divided into four groups. The goats were treated with DBB/rhEPO scaffolds (group A), porous DBB scaffolds (group B), autogenous cancellous bone graft (group C), and nothing (group D). Animals were evaluated with radiological and histological methods at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The grey value of radiographs was used to evaluate the healing of the defects and the outcome revealed that the group A had a better outcome of defect healing compared with group B (P  0.05). The newly formed bone area was calculated from histological sections and the results demonstrated that the amount of new bone in group A increased significantly compared with that in group B (P  0.05) at 4, 8, 12 weeks respectively. In addition, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunohistochemical testing and real-time polymerase chain reaction at 12 weeks in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P  0.05). Therefore, EPO has significant effects on bone formation and angiogenesis, and has capacity to promote the repair of bone defects. It is worthy of being recommended to further studies. PMID:27091043

  15. Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, Joel; Koester, Kurt J.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-05-07

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force, e.g., the stress intensity, as a function of crack extension ("R-curve approach"). Here this methodology is used to study of the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  16. Plastic Fibula Bone Deformity with Ipsilateral Fracture of Tibiain Adults: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdoli Tafti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bowing is a constant deformation of long bones occurring after a long standing force to bone. This type of fracture is seen in children and is uncommon in the adults. In this paper we report a case of fibular plastic deformity with ipsilateral tibia fracture in a 20 years old man that occurred after a direct hit. At the initial examination vital signs were stable and radiography of tibia and fibula fracture with plastic deformation were clear. In order to treat him we performed fibular close reduction and tibia internal fixation with intramedullary nailing.

  17. Using the gradient of human cortical bone properties to determine age-related bone changes via ultrasonic guided waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Cécile

    2012-06-01

    Bone fragility depends not only on bone mass but also on bone quality (structure and material). To accurately evaluate fracture risk or propose therapeutic treatment, clinicians need a criterion, which reflects the determinants of bone strength: geometry, structure and material. In human long bone, the changes due to aging, accentuated by osteoporosis are often revealed through the trabecularization of cortical bone, i.e., increased porosity of endosteal bone inducing a thinning of the cortex. Consequently, the intracortical porosity gradient corresponding to the spatial variation in porosity across the cortical thickness is representative of loss of mass, changes in geometry (thinning) and variations in structure (porosity). This article examines the gradient of material properties and its age-related evolution as a relevant parameter to assess bone geometry, structure and material. By applying a homogenization process, cortical bone can be considered as an anisotropic functionally graded material with variations in material properties. A semi-analytical method based on the sextic Stroh formalism is proposed to solve the wave equation in an anisotropic functionally graded waveguide for two geometries, a plate and a tube, without using a multilayered model to represent the structure. This method provides an analytical solution called the matricant and explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. Our findings indicate that ultrasonic guided waves are sensitive to the age-related evolution of realistic gradients in human bone properties across the cortical thickness and have their place in a multimodal clinical protocol. PMID:22502890

  18. Rehabilitation of masticatory function improves the alveolar bone architecture of the mandible in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavropoulos, Anestis; Odman, Anna; Ammann, Patrick; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2010-09-01

    Masticatory functional changes have been shown to influence the quantity and quality of the alveolar bone during growth. This study was designed to investigate the effect of masticatory function rehabilitation on the morphology and the trabecular architecture of the mandibular alveolar bone after cessation of growth. Forty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats received soft diet in order to develop masticatory muscle hypofunction. After 21 weeks, after cessation of growth, the animals were divided into two groups: the first group continued receiving soft diet for six more weeks (hypofunction group), while the second group changed to ordinary (hard) diet with the aim to restore a normal masticatory function (rehabilitation group). A third group of 16 male rats (normal group) received ordinary (hard) diet during the whole experimental period and served as control. Micro-tomographic histomorphometry was used to evaluate the architecture of the mandibular alveolar bone (e.g. bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, etc.) at the end of the experiment (27 weeks). The height and width of the alveolar process were measured as well. The alveolar process trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) was lower for the animals of the hypofunctional group as compared to those of the normal (pTV was lower in comparison to the normal group (pled to a significant improvement of alveolar bone architecture in adult rats, although the negative effects of hypofunction were not totally reversed during the period under study. PMID:20601301

  19. Building bones in babies: can and should we exceed the human milk-fed infant's rate of bone calcium accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing calcium absorption and bone calcium accretion to levels above those achieved by human milk-fed, full-term infants is possible with infant formulas. However, no data support such a goal or suggest that it is beneficial to short- or long-term bone health. Small differences in the bioavailab...

  20. Neovascular niche for human myeloma cells in immunodeficient mouse bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirono Iriuchishima

    Full Text Available The interaction with bone marrow (BM plays a crucial role in pathophysiological features of multiple myeloma (MM, including cell proliferation, chemoresistance, and bone lesion progression. To characterize the MM-BM interactions, we utilized an in vivo experimental model for human MM in which a GFP-expressing human MM cell line is transplanted into NOG mice (the NOG-hMM model. Transplanted MM cells preferentially engrafted at the metaphyseal region of the BM endosteum and formed a complex with osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A subpopulation of MM cells expressed VE-cadherin after transplantation and formed endothelial-like structures in the BM. CD138(+ myeloma cells in the BM were reduced by p53-dependent apoptosis following administration of the nitrogen mustard derivative bendamustine to mice in the NOG-hMM model. Bendamustine maintained the osteoblast lining on the bone surface and protected extracellular matrix structures. Furthermore, bendamustine suppressed the growth of osteoclasts and mesenchymal cells in the NOG-hMM model. Since VE-cadherin(+ MM cells were chemoresistant, hypoxic, and HIF-2α-positive compared to the VE-cadherin(- population, VE-cadherin induction might depend on the oxygenation status. The NOG-hMM model described here is a useful system to analyze the dynamics of MM pathophysiology, interactions of MM cells with other cellular compartments, and the utility of novel anti-MM therapies.

  1. Blood and bone marrow findings in tuberculosis in adults -A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Dafale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in India. Hematolgical changes have been studied with variable results. Aims and objectives: The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of blood and bone marrow changes in tuberculosis. Methods: The peripheral blood and bone marrow changes were evaluated in hundred adult patients with tuberculosis, admitted at District Hospital, Belgaum and KLES Hospital and MRC were. Results: The peripheral blood findings seen were anemia, raised ESR, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, leucopenia, thrombocytosis and thrombocytope-nia. The bone marrow changes seen were hypercellularity , myeloid hyperplasia , erythroid hyperplasia with megaloblastic changes and reactive plasmacytosis. Another interesting finding in bonemarrow was presence of granulomas which were seen in 5% of cases of which 1 case showed positivity for acid fast bacilli on Zeihl –Neelsen stain. Conclusion: The varied hematological findings observed in tuberculosis should prompt us to consider tuberculosis as one of the differential diagnosis in patients with hematological findings.

  2. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  3. Cell pattern in adult human corneal endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Wörner

    Full Text Available A review of the current data on the cell density of normal adult human endothelial cells was carried out in order to establish some common parameters appearing in the different considered populations. From the analysis of cell growth patterns, it is inferred that the cell aging rate is similar for each of the different considered populations. Also, the morphology, the cell distribution and the tendency to hexagonallity are studied. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that this phenomenon is analogous with cell behavior in other structures such as dry foams and grains in polycrystalline materials. Therefore, its driving force may be controlled by the surface tension and the mobility of the boundaries.

  4. Bone sarcoma in humans induced by radium: A threshold response?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    The radium 226 and radium 228 have induced malignancies in the skeleton (primarily bone sarcomas) of humans. They have also induced carcinomas in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. There is no evidence that any leukemias or any other solid cancers have been induced by internally deposited radium. This paper discuses a study conducted on the dial painter population. This study made a concerted effort to verify, for each of the measured radium cases, the published values of the skeletal dose and the initial intake of radium. These were derived from body content measurements made some 40 years after the radium intake. Corrections to the assumed radium retention function resulted in a considerable number of dose changes. These changes have changed the shape of the dose response function. It now appears that the induction of bone sarcomas is a threshold process.

  5. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jinya Niu; Shivani Sahni; Susu Liao; Tucker, Katherine L.; Bess Dawson-Hughes; Xiang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d) and insomnia symptoms (difficulty ini...

  6. First histological observations on the incorporation of a novel nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste OSTIM® in human cancellous bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Colette

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A commercially available nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste Ostim® has been reported in few recent studies to surpass other synthetic bone substitutes with respect to the observed clinical results. However, the integration of this implantable material has been histologically evaluated only in animal experimental models up to now. This study aimed to evaluate the tissue incorporation of Ostim® in human cancellous bone after reconstructive bone surgery for trauma. Methods: Biopsy specimens from 6 adult patients with a total of 7 tibial, calcaneal or distal radial fractures were obtained at the time of osteosynthesis removal. The median interval from initial operation to tissue sampling was 13 (range 3–15 months. Samples were stained with Masson-Goldner, von Kossa, and toluidine blue. Osteoid volume, trabecular width and bone volume, and cortical porosity were analyzed. Samples were immunolabeled with antibodies against CD68, CD56 and human prolyl 4-hydroxylase to detect macrophages, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts, respectively. TRAP stainings were used to identify osteoclasts. Results: Histomorphometric data indicated good regeneration with normal bone turnover: mean osteoid volume was 1.93% of the trabecular bone mass, trabecular bone volume – 28.4%, trabecular width – 225.12 μm, and porosity index – 2.6%. Cortical and spongious bone tissue were well structured. Neither inflammatory reaction, nor osteofibrosis or osteonecrosis were observed. The implanted material was widely absorbed. Conclusion: The studied nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste showed good tissue incorporation. It is highly biocompatible and appears to be a suitable bone substitute for juxtaarticular comminuted fractures in combination with a stable screw-plate osteosynthesis.

  7. Comparative study on seeding methods of human bone marrow stromal cells in bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐欣; 刘建国; 常颖; 徐莘香

    2004-01-01

    Background In general the traditional static seeding method has its limitation while the dynamic seeding method reveals its advantages over traditional static method. We compared static and dynamic seeding method for human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in bone tissue engineering.Methods DNA assay was used for detecting the maximal initial seeding concentration for static seeding. Dynamic and static seeding methods were compared, when scaffolds were loaded with hBMSCs at this maximal initial cell seeding concentration. Histology and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were examined to evaluate the distribution of cells inside the constructs. Markers encoding osteogenic genes were measured by fluorescent RT-PCR. The protocol for dynamic seeding of hBMSCs was also investigated.Results DNA assay showed that the static maximal initial seeding concentration was lower than that in dynamic seeding. Histology and SEM showed even distribution and spread of cells in the dynamically seeded constructs, while their statically seeded counterparts showed cell aggregation.Fluorescent RT-PCR again showed stronger osteogenic potential of dynamically seeded constructs.Conclusion dynamic seeding of hBMSCs is a promising technique in bone tissue engineering.

  8. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Routy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8 vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented.

  9. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routy, B.; Hoang, J.; Gruber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8) vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented. PMID:25789184

  10. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routy, B; Hoang, J; Gruber, J

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8) vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented. PMID:25789184

  11. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  12. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    enhance bone formation or inhibit bone resorption in young adult women, as assessed by biochemical markers of bone metabolism. (2 Subsequent maintenance of a high protein intake for 10 days in these regularly-training, calcium-replete women also showed no effects on bone metabolism.

  13. Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Wolf Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Giesenhagen, Bernd; Schau, Ingmar; Varga, Gabor; Vukovic, Mark Alexander; Sirak, Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-05-01

    The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bones in adult rats by repeated intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel (taxol) using radioisotope EDXRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Y. E-mail: yozdemir25@yahoo.com; Iyiguen, Ibrahim; Durak, Ridvan

    2003-05-15

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of right back leg bone samples taken from adult female rats administered paclitaxel (taxol) was carried out using standard addition method. Because qualitative and quantitative data analysis of rat bone samples is not found in the literature, comparison was not made with other experimental results. Our experimental results are presented and discussed in this study.

  15. Bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult still's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanegae, Futoshi; Tada, Yoshifumi; Ohta, Akihide; Ushiyama, Osamu; Suzuki; Noriaki; Koarada, Syuichi; Haruta, Yoshio; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Nagasawa, Kohei [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the features and the usefulness of gallium scintigraphy in the diagnosis and the assessment of Adult Still's disease (ASD) by retrospective case review. Gallium scintigraphy have been done for 11 cases of ASD (3 males and 8 females) and 4 females were positive. Among these, 67 Ga-citrate was accumulated to the bone marrow in all 4 cases and to the major joints in 2 cases. Positive cases were rather serious and administered more immunosuppressants than negative cases. In order to characterize gallium scintigraphy findings of ASD, i.e. bone marrow accumulation, we analyzed 130 cases of collagen vascular disease. Although 101 cases (77.7%) were positive, only 7 cases (5.4%) showed the accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-citrate to the bone marrow. These include 3 cases with ASD, and 1 case with systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis and Sjogren's syndrome. We also accumulated 18 patients who exhibited bone marrow accumulation of {sup 69}Ga-citrate, and found that 7 patients had collagen vascular and their related diseases. In conclusion, bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy is a specific feature of collagen vascular diseases, especially ASD, and it is suggested that cases with positive gallium scintigraphy in ASD can be serious and resistant to treatment. (author)

  16. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  17. Nanoscale Bonding between Human Bone and Titanium Surfaces: Osseohybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sik Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the chemical bonding between titanium and bone has been examined only through a few mechanical detachment tests. Therefore, in this study, a sandblasted and acid-etched titanium mini-implant was removed from a human patient after 2 months of placement in order to identify the chemical integration mechanism for nanoscale osseointegration of titanium implants. To prepare a transmission electron microscopy (TEM specimen, the natural state was preserved as much as possible by cryofixation and scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam (SEM-FIB milling without any chemical treatment. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and scanning TEM (STEM/electron energy loss spectroscopic analysis (EELS were used to investigate the chemical composition and structure at the interface between the titanium and bone tissue. HRTEM and EDS data showed evidence of crystalline hydroxyapatite and intermixing of bone with the oxide layer of the implant. The STEM/EELS experiment provided particularly interesting results: carbon existed in polysaccharides, calcium and phosphorus existed as tricalcium phosphate (TCP, and titanium existed as oxidized titanium. In addition, the oxygen energy loss near edge structures (ELNESs showed a possibility of the presence of CaTiO3. These STEM/EELS results can be explained by structures either with or without a chemical reaction layer. The possible existence of the osseohybridization area and the form of the carbon suggest that reconsideration of the standard definition of osseointegration is necessary.

  18. Constrained tibial vibration does not produce an anabolic bone response in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Blaine A; Kotiya, Akhilesh A; Silva, Matthew J

    2009-10-01

    and exposure to anesthesia was associated with significant loss of trabecular and cortical bone. We conclude that direct vibrational loading of bone in anesthetized, adult mice is not anabolic. PMID:19576309

  19. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  20. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRF MICROPROBE STUDY OF HUMAN BONE TUMOR SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described Using the bovine liver as the standard reference.the minimum detection limit(MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe.The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed.

  1. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  2. Previous exposure to simulated microgravity does not exacerbate bone loss during subsequent exposure in the proximal tibia of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Anthony, Rachel A; Kwaczala, Andrea T; Judex, Stefan; Bloomfield, Susan A; Hogan, Harry A

    2013-10-01

    Extended periods of inactivity cause severe bone loss and concomitant deterioration of the musculoskeletal system. Considerable research has been aimed at better understanding the mechanisms and consequences of bone loss due to unloading and the associated effects on strength and fracture risk. One factor that has not been studied extensively but is of great interest, particularly for human spaceflight, is how multiple or repeated exposures to unloading and reloading affect the skeleton. Space agencies worldwide anticipate increased usage of repeat-flier crewmembers, and major thrust of research has focused on better understanding of microgravity effects on loss of bone density at weightbearing skeletal sites; however there is limited data available on repeat microgravity exposure. The adult hindlimb unloaded (HU) rat model was used to determine how an initial unloading cycle will affect a subsequent exposure to disuse and recovery thereafter. Animals underwent 28 days of HU starting at 6 months of age followed by 56 days of recovery, and then another 28 days of HU with 56 days of recovery. In vivo longitudinal pQCT was used to quantify bone morphological changes, and ex vivo μCT was used to quantify trabecular microarchitecture and cortical shell geometry at the proximal tibia metaphysis (PTM). The mechanical properties of trabecular bone were examined by the reduced platen compression mechanical test. The hypothesis that the initial HU exposure will mitigate decrements in bone mass and density for the second HU exposure was supported as pre- to post-HU declines in total BMC, total vBMD, and cortical area by in vivo pQCT at the proximal tibia metaphysis were milder for the second HU (and not significant) compared to an age-matched single HU (3% vs. 6%, 2% vs. 6%, and 2% vs. 6%, respectively). In contrast, the hypothesis was not supported at the microarchitectural level as losses in BV/TV and Tb.Th. were similar during 2nd HU exposure and age-matched single HU

  3. Optimized Cryopreservation and Banking of Human Bone-Marrow Fragments and Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Gianluca; Pisciotta, Alessandra; Riccio, Massimo; De Biasi, Sara; Gibellini, Lara; Ferrari, Adriano; La Sala, Giovanni B; Bruzzesi, Giacomo; Cossarizza, Andrea; de Pol, Anto

    2016-04-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells are a promising source for cell therapies and tissue engineering applications. Current procedures for banking of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) require cell isolation and expansion, and thus the use of large amounts of animal sera. However, animal-derived culture supplements have the potential to trigger infections and severe immune reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate an optimized method for cryopreservation of human bone-marrow fragments for application in cell banking procedures where stem-cell expansion and use are not immediately needed. Whole trabecular fragments enclosing the bone marrow were stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 year in a cryoprotective solution containing a low concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide and a high concentration of human serum (HuS). After thawing, the isolation, colony-forming-unit ability, proliferation, morphology, stemness-related marker expression, cell senescence, apoptosis, and multi-lineage differentiation potential of hBM-MSCs were tested in media containing HuS compared with hBM-MSCs isolated from fresh fragments. Human BM-MSCs isolated from cryopreserved fragments expressed MSC markers until later passages, had a good proliferation rate, and exhibited the capacity to differentiate toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages similar to hBM-MSCs isolated from fresh fragments. Moreover, the cryopreservation method did not induce cell senescence or cell death. These results imply that minimal processing may be adequate for the banking of tissue samples with no requirement for the immediate isolation and use of hBM-MSCs, thus limiting cost and the risk of contamination, and facilitating banking for clinical use. Furthermore, the use of HuS for cryopreservation and expansion/differentiation has the potential for clinical application in compliance with good manufacturing practice standards.

  4. Methods and theory in bone modeling drift: comparing spatial analyses of primary bone distributions in the human humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiano, Corey M; Maggiano, Isabel S; Tiesler, Vera G; Chi-Keb, Julio R; Stout, Sam D

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two novel methods quantifying bone shaft tissue distributions, and relates observations on human humeral growth patterns for applications in anthropological and anatomical research. Microstructural variation in compact bone occurs due to developmental and mechanically adaptive circumstances that are 'recorded' by forming bone and are important for interpretations of growth, health, physical activity, adaptation, and identity in the past and present. Those interpretations hinge on a detailed understanding of the modeling process by which bones achieve their diametric shape, diaphyseal curvature, and general position relative to other elements. Bone modeling is a complex aspect of growth, potentially causing the shaft to drift transversely through formation and resorption on opposing cortices. Unfortunately, the specifics of modeling drift are largely unknown for most skeletal elements. Moreover, bone modeling has seen little quantitative methodological development compared with secondary bone processes, such as intracortical remodeling. The techniques proposed here, starburst point-count and 45° cross-polarization hand-drawn histomorphometry, permit the statistical and populational analysis of human primary tissue distributions and provide similar results despite being suitable for different applications. This analysis of a pooled archaeological and modern skeletal sample confirms the importance of extreme asymmetry in bone modeling as a major determinant of microstructural variation in diaphyses. Specifically, humeral drift is posteromedial in the human humerus, accompanied by a significant rotational trend. In general, results encourage the usage of endocortical primary bone distributions as an indicator and summary of bone modeling drift, enabling quantitative analysis by direction and proportion in other elements and populations.

  5. Lysophosphatidic acid mediates myeloid differentiation within the human bone marrow microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Evseenko

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a pleiotropic phospholipid present in the blood and certain tissues at high concentrations; its diverse effects are mediated through differential, tissue specific expression of LPA receptors. Our goal was to determine if LPA exerts lineage-specific effects during normal human hematopoiesis. In vitro stimulation of CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitors by LPA induced myeloid differentiation but had no effect on lymphoid differentiation. LPA receptors were expressed at significantly higher levels on Common Myeloid Progenitors (CMP than either multipotent Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells (HSPC or Common Lymphoid Progenitors (CLP suggesting that LPA acts on committed myeloid progenitors. Functional studies demonstrated that LPA enhanced migration, induced cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis of isolated CMP, but had no effect on either HSPC or CLP. Analysis of adult and fetal human bone marrow sections showed that PPAP2A, (the enzyme which degrades LPA was highly expressed in the osteoblastic niche but not in the perivascular regions, whereas Autotaxin (the enzyme that synthesizes LPA was expressed in perivascular regions of the marrow. We propose that a gradient of LPA with the highest levels in peri-sinusoidal regions and lowest near the endosteal zone, regulates the localization, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitors within the bone marrow marrow.

  6. Human fetal bone cells associated with ceramic reinforced PLA scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montjovent, Marc-Olivier; Mark, Silke; Mathieu, Laurence; Scaletta, Corinne; Scherberich, Arnaud; Delabarde, Claire; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves; Bourban, Pierre-Etienne; Applegate, Lee Ann; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2008-03-01

    Fetal bone cells were shown to have an interesting potential for therapeutic use in bone tissue engineering due to their rapid growth rate and their ability to differentiate into mature osteoblasts in vitro. We describe hereafter their capability to promote bone repair in vivo when combined with porous scaffolds based on poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) obtained by supercritical gas foaming and reinforced with 5 wt.% beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Bone regeneration was assessed by radiography and histology after implantation of PLA/TCP scaffolds alone, seeded with primary fetal bone cells, or coated with demineralized bone matrix. Craniotomy critical size defects and drill defects in the femoral condyle in rats were employed. In the cranial defects, polymer degradation and cortical bone regeneration were studied up to 12 months postoperatively. Complete bone ingrowth was observed after implantation of PLA/TCP constructs seeded with human fetal bone cells. Further tests were conducted in the trabecular neighborhood of femoral condyles, where scaffolds seeded with fetal bone cells also promoted bone repair. We present here a promising approach for bone tissue engineering using human primary fetal bone cells in combination with porous PLA/TCP structures. Fetal bone cells could be selected regarding osteogenic and immune-related properties, along with their rapid growth, ease of cell banking and associated safety. PMID:18178142

  7. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian; Gehrchen, P Martin; Kiaer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws....

  8. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation

  9. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone and cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2000-01-01

    focused on the central vertebral trabecular bone, while little is known about age-related changes in the properties of human peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone. Knowledge of the properties of peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone is of major importance for the understanding of degenerative diseases...... such as osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis, and for the design, fixation and durability of total joint prosthesis. The specific aims of the present studies were: 1) to investigate normal age-related variations in the mechanical, physical/compositional, and structural properties of human tibial trabecular bone; and 2...... in the properties of trabecular bone and the cartilage-bone complex, and osteoarthrotic specimens were used for the investigation of changes in the mechanical properties of the cartilage-bone complex induced by this disease process. The mechanical properties and physical/compositional properties of trabecular bone...

  10. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  11. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D. [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Filderklinik, Filderstadt (Germany); Schittenhelm, Jan [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  12. In vitro induction of alkaline phosphatase levels predicts in vivo bone forming capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk-Jan Prins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs that are produced by ex vivo expansion is for use in in vivo bone tissue engineering. Cultured stromal cells are a mixture of cells at different stages of commitment and expansion capability, leading to a heterogeneous cell population that each time can differ in the potential to form in vivo bone. A parameter that predicts for in vivo bone forming capacity is thus far lacking. We employed single colony-derived BMSC cultures to identify such predictive parameters. Using limiting dilution, we have produced sixteen single CFU-F derived BMSC cultures from human bone marrow and found that only five of these formed bone in vivo. The single colony-derived BMSC strains were tested for proliferation, osteogenic-, adipogenic- and chondrogenic differentiation capacity and the expression of a variety of associated markers. The only robust predictors of in vivo bone forming capacity were the induction of alkaline phosphatase, (ALP mRNA levels and ALP activity during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The predictive value of in vitro ALP induction was confirmed by analyzing “bulk-cultured” BMSCs from various bone marrow biopsies. Our findings show that in BMSCs, the additional increase in ALP levels over basal levels during in vitro osteogenic differentiation is predictive of in vivo performance.

  13. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  14. Adult Human Neurogenesis: from Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eSierra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of gene-rating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases.

  15. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  16. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediates human embryonic germ cell derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Marc; Liu, Cyndi; Blumenthal, Paul D; Gearhart, John D; Kerr, Candace L

    2011-02-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) have proven to be a source of pluripotent stem cells called embryonic germ cells (EGCs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, virtually little is known regarding the factors that regulate EGC survival and maintenance. In mice, the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been shown to be required for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells, and disruptions in this gene lead to defects in mouse PGC specification. Here, we sought to determine whether recombinant human BMP4 could influence EGC derivation and/or human PGC survival. We found that the addition of recombinant BMP4 increased the number of human PGCs after 1 week of culture in a dose-responsive manner. The efficiency of EGC derivation and maintenance in culture was also enhanced by the presence of recombinant BMP4 based on alkaline phosphatase and OCT4 staining. In addition, an antagonist of the BMP4 pathway, Noggin, decreased PGC proliferation and led to an increase in cystic embryoid body formation. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-polymerase chain reaction analyses and immunostaining confirmed that the constituents of the BMP4 pathway were upregulated in EGCs versus PGCs. Downstream activators of the BMP4 pathway such as ID1 and phosphorylated SMADs 1 and 5 were also expressed, suggesting a role of this growth factor in EGC pluripotency. PMID:20486775

  18. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels and bone mineral density (BMD in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64 with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml, confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively. Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041. Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH D at serum 25(OH D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  19. Inner ear contribution to bone conduction hearing in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Bone conduction (BC) hearing relies on sound vibration transmission in the skull bone. Several clinical findings indicate that in the human, the skull vibration of the inner ear dominates the response for BC sound. Two phenomena transform the vibrations of the skull surrounding the inner ear to an excitation of the basilar membrane, (1) inertia of the inner ear fluid and (2) compression and expansion of the inner ear space. The relative importance of these two contributors were investigated using an impedance lumped element model. By dividing the motion of the inner ear boundary in common and differential motion it was found that the common motion dominated at frequencies below 7 kHz but above this frequency differential motion was greatest. When these motions were used to excite the model it was found that for the normal ear, the fluid inertia response was up to 20 dB greater than the compression response. This changed in the pathological ear where, for example, otosclerosis of the stapes depressed the fluid inertia response and improved the compression response so that inner ear compression dominated BC hearing at frequencies above 400 Hz. The model was also able to predict experimental and clinical findings of BC sensitivity in the literature, for example the so called Carhart notch in otosclerosis, increased BC sensitivity in superior semicircular canal dehiscence, and altered BC sensitivity following a vestibular fenestration and RW atresia.

  20. Hospitalization for fractures and bone loss in adults. Why do we regard these phenomena as dull?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, C M

    1977-01-01

    The epidemiology of serious fractures in adults relates less to the frequency of forceful accidents and more directly to the loss of bone in middle-aged and older people. To support this statement, hospital discharge rates for fractures in recent years are examined from different geographic areas. Rates for the United States rise with age, so that serious fractures form 10 percent of all hospital discharges at 85 years and older. Saskatchewan data suggest that rates for men remain low until 60 years; for women the figures began to rise at 45 years, before many had reached the menopause. Rates are lower among women than men in Saskatchewan until around 50 years, surpassing those of men at age 55 and older. Among Medicare enrollees in 1967 in the United States, women had higher discharge rates for fractures than men of the same age and race. Whites also had higher rates than blacks, so much so that white males had higher rates than black women of the same age. Such data confirm the past impression that blacks who survive into the older ages are a biological elite, more able to maintain bone strength than whites of either sex, although by no means being exempt from bone loss with age. A fractured femur was the most frequent diagnosis, forming a higher percentage of all fractures in women than men, and rising steeply with age in both sexes. The pattern of fractures by sex differs from the epidemiology of forceful accidents, which more often involve men than women. Bone loss with age, or osteoporosis, is perhaps the most powerful host factor to dominate the picture of fractures in the elderly. The existing possibilities for preventing or slowing this change are thus assessed; women may no longer accept as natural the widespread bone loss and accompanying fractures that lower the quality of life in later years. PMID:319479

  1. Gustofacial and olfactofacial responses in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Romy; Ellgring, Heiner; Macht, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Adults' facial reactions in response to tastes and odors were investigated in order to determine whether differential facial displays observed in newborns remain stable in adults who exhibit a greater voluntary facial control. Twenty-eight healthy nonsmokers (14 females) tasted solutions of PROP (bitter), NaCl (salty), citric acid (sour), sucrose (sweet), and glutamate (umami) differing in concentration (low, medium, and high) and smelled different odors (banana, cinnamon, clove, coffee, fish, and garlic). Their facial reactions were video recorded and analyzed using the Facial Action Coding System. Adults' facial reactions discriminated between stimuli with opponent valences. Unpleasant tastes and odors elicited negative displays (brow lower, upper lip raise, and lip corner depress). The pleasant sweet taste elicited positive displays (lip suck), whereas the pleasant odors did not. Unlike newborns, adults smiled with higher concentrations of some unpleasant tastes that can be regarded as serving communicative functions. Moreover, adults expressed negative displays with higher sweetness. Except for the "social" smile in response to unpleasant tastes, adults' facial reactions elicited by tastes and odors mostly correspond to those found in newborns. In conclusion, adults' facial reactions to tastes and odors appear to remain stable in their basic displays; however, some additional reactions might reflect socialization influences.

  2. Frequency of Teriparatide Administration Affects the Histological Pattern of Bone Formation in Young Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Sasaki, Muneteru; Hongo, Hiromi; Tsuboi, Kanako; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Ota, Masahiro; Haraguchi, Mai; Takahata, Masahiko; Oda, Kimimitsu; Luiz de Freitas, Paulo Henrique; Takakura, Aya; Takao-Kawabata, Ryoko; Isogai, Yukihiro; Amizuka, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Evidence supports that daily and once-weekly administration of teriparatide, human (h)PTH(1-34), enhance bone mass in osteoporotic patients. However, it is uncertain whether different frequencies of hPTH(1-34) administration would induce bone formation similarly in terms of quantity and quality. To investigate that issue, mice were subjected to different frequencies of PTH administration, and their bones were histologically examined. Frequencies of administration were 1 time/2 days, 1 time a day, and 2 and 4 times a day. Mice were allocated to either to control or to 3 different dosing regimens: 80 μg/kg of hPTH(1-34) per injection (80 μg/kg per dose), 80 μg/kg of hPTH(1-34) per day (80 μg/kg · d), or 20 μg/kg of hPTH(1-34) per day (20 μg/kg · d). With the regimens of 80 μg/kg per dose and 80 μg/kg · d, high-frequency hPTH(1-34) administration increased metaphyseal trabecular number. However, 4 doses per day induced the formation of thin trabeculae, whereas the daily PTH regimen resulted in thicker trabeculae. A similar pattern was observed with the lower daily hPTH(1-34) dose (20 μg/kg · d): more frequent PTH administration led to the formation of thin trabeculae, showing a thick preosteoblastic cell layer, several osteoclasts, and scalloped cement lines that indicated accelerated bone remodeling. On the other hand, low-frequency PTH administration induced new bone with mature osteoblasts lying on mildly convex surfaces representative of arrest lines, which suggests minimodeling-based bone formation. Thus, high-frequency PTH administration seems to increase bone mass rapidly by forming thin trabeculae through accelerated bone remodeling. Alternatively, low-frequency PTH administration leads to the formation of thicker trabeculae through bone remodeling and minimodeling. PMID:27227535

  3. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saparin, Peter I.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Prohaska, Steffen;

    2005-01-01

    Changes in trabecular bone composition during development of osteoporosis are used as a model for bone loss in microgravity conditions during a space flight. Symbolic dynamics and measures of complexity are proposed and applied to assess quantitatively the structural composition of bone tissue from...... 3D data sets of human tibia bone biopsies acquired by a micro-CT scanner. In order to justify the newly proposed approach, the measures of complexity of the bone architecture were compared with the results of traditional 2D bone histomorphometry. The proposed technique is able to quantify...... the structural loss of the bone tissue and may help to diagnose and to monitor changes in bone structure of patients on Earth as well as of the space-flying personnel....

  4. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, C.; Gehrchen, P.M.; Kiaer, T.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws. OBJECTIVE......, in the human spine, the bone remodeling algorithms have neither been evaluated experimentally nor been examined by comparing to unsystematic experimental data. METHODS: The site-specific and nonsite-specific iterative bone remodeling algorithms were applied to a finite element model of the lumbar spine...... operated on with pedicle screws between L4 and L5. The stress shielding effect was also examined. The bone remodeling results were compared with prospective bone mineral content measurements of 4 patients. They were measured after surgery, 3-, 6- and 12-months postoperatively. RESULTS: After 1 year...

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of human cortical bone failure surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidotti, P; Branca, F P; Stagni, L

    1997-02-01

    Undecalcified samples extracted from human femoral shafts are fractured by bending and the fracture surfaces are examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The investigation is performed on both dry and wet (hydrated with a saline solution) specimens. SEM micrographs show patterns in many respects similar to those observed in fractography studies of laminated fiber-reinforced synthetic composites. In particular, dry and wet samples behave like brittle and ductile matrix laminates, respectively. An analysis carried out on the basis of the mechanisms that dominate the fracture process of laminates shows that a reasonable cortical bone model is that of a laminated composite material whose matrix is composed of extracellular noncollagenous calcified proteins, and the reinforcement is constituted by the calcified collagen fiber system. PMID:9001936

  6. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  7. Adiponectin Promotes Human Jaw Bone Marrow Stem Cell Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Y; Wu, H; Lu, S; Hu, H; Li, D; Wu, Y; Tang, Z

    2016-07-01

    Human jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (h-JBMMSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with osteogenic differentiation potential. The relationship between adiponectin (APN) and the metabolism of h-JBMMSCs has not been fully elucidated, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of APN on h-JBMMSC metabolism. h-JBMMSCs were obtained from the primary culture of human jaw bones and treated with or without APN (1 µg/mL). Osteogenesis-related gene expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To further investigate the signaling pathway, mechanistic studies were performed using Western blotting, immunofluorescence, lentiviral transduction, and SB202190 (a specific p38 inhibitor). Alizarin Red staining showed that APN promoted h-JBMMSC osteogenesis. Real-time PCR, ALP assay, and ELISA showed that ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin, and integrin-binding sialoprotein were up-regulated in APN-treated cells compared to untreated controls. Immunofluorescence revealed that adaptor protein containing a pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL1) translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm with APN treatment. Additionally, the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) increased over time with APN treatment. Moreover, knockdown of APPL1 or p38 MAPK inhibition blocked the expression of APN-induced calcification-related genes including ALP, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and OCN. Furthermore, Alizarin Red staining of calcium nodes was not increased by the knockdown of APPL1 or p38 inhibition. Our data suggest that this regulation is mediated through the APPL1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings collectively provide evidence that APN induces the osteogenesis of h-JBMMSCs through APPL1-mediated p38 MAPK activation

  8. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  9. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.

  10. Dopaminerge Differenzierung adulter humaner hippocampaler Stammzellen

    OpenAIRE

    Türk, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele: Nachdem seit der ersten Hälfte des letzten Jahrhunderts durch mehrere Experimente adulte Neurogenese schließlich nachgewiesen und somit Cajals Dogma widerlegt werden konnte, erlebten die Neurowissenschaften durch die Möglichkeit zur Isolation adulter neuraler Stammzellen ein exponentielles Wachstum. Gleichzeitig mit der basiswissenschaftlichen Aufarbeitung der adulten Neurogenese sowohl im Tier, als auch im Menschen, kam die Idee der therapeutischen Verwendung dieser, v...

  11. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  12. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of adolescent cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Hvid, Ivan;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated microarchitectural, mechanical, collagen and mineral properties of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult and aging cancellous bone, to obtain more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations during development and growth. Twenty-three human...... proximal tibiae were harvested and divided into 3 groups according to their ages: adolescence (9 to 17years, n=6), young adult (18 to 24years, n=9), and adult (25 to 30years, n=8). Twelve cubic cancellous bone samples with dimensions of 8×8×8mm(3) were produced from each tibia, 6 from each medial......, the adolescent cancellous bone had similar bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structure type (plate, rod or mixtures), and connectivity (3-D trabecular networks) as the adult cancellous bone. The adolescent cancellous bone had significantly lower bone surface density (bone surface per total volume of specimen...

  13. Bacteriology of moderate (chronic) periodontitis in mature adult humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1983-01-01

    A total of 171 taxa was represented among 1,900 bacterial isolates from 60 samples of sites affected with moderate periodontitis in 22 mature adult humans. The composition of the subgingival sulcus flora was statistically significantly different from that of the adjacent supragingival flora and the subgingival flora of 14 people with healthy gingiva, but was not significantly different from that of sulci affected with severe periodontitis in 21 young human adults. The sulcus floras of moderat...

  14. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  15. Ectopic bone formation of human bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene transfected goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤亭亭; 徐小良; 戴尅戎; 郁朝锋; 岳冰; 楼觉人

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the osteogenic potential of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene transfected goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods: Goat bone marrow- derived MSCs were transfected by Adv-human bone morphogenetic protein (hBMP)-2 gene(Group 1), Adv-beta gal transfected MSCs (Group 2)and uninfected MSCs(Group 3). Western blot analysis, alkaline phosphatase staining, Von Kossa staining and transmission electron microscopy were adopted to determine the phenotype of MSCs. Then the cells were injected into thigh muscles of the nude mice. Radiographical and histological evaluations were performed at different intervals. Results: Only Adv-hBMP-2 transfected MSCs produced hBMP-2. These cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase staining at the 12th day and were positive for Von Kossa staining at the 16th day after gene transfer. Electron microscopic observation showed that there were more rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and lysosomes in Adv-hBMP-2 transfected MSCs compared to MSCs of other two groups. At the 3rd and 6th weeks after cell injection, ectopic bones were observed in muscles of nude mice of Group 1. Only fibrous tissue or a little bone was found in other two groups. Conclusions: BMP-2 gene transfected MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and induce bone formation in vivo.

  16. In vivo tumorigenesis was observed after injection of in vitro expanded neural crest stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Wislet-Gendebien; Christophe Poulet; Virginie Neirinckx; Benoit Hennuy; Swingland, James T.; Emerence Laudet; Lukas Sommer; Olga Shakova; Vincent Bours; Bernard Rogister

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells are adult multipotent cells that represent an attractive tool in cellular therapy strategies. Several studies have reported that in vitro passaging of mesenchymal stem cells alters the functional and biological properties of those cells, leading to the accumulation of genetic aberrations. Recent studies described bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) as mixed populations of cells including mesenchymal (MSC) and neural crest stem cells (NCSC). Here, we report the ...

  17. Engineering new bone via a minimally invasive route using human bone marrow-derived stromal cell aggregates, microceramic particles, and human platelet-rich plasma gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjea, Anindita; Yuan, Huipin; Fennema, Eelco; Burer, Ruben; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Garritsen, Henk; Renard, Auke; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

    2013-02-01

    There is a rise in the popularity of arthroscopic procedures in orthopedics. However, the majority of cell-based bone tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) rely on solid preformed scaffolding materials, which require large incisions and extensive dissections for placement at the defect site. Thus, they are not suitable for minimally invasive techniques. The aim of this study was to develop a clinically relevant, easily moldable, bone TEC, amenable to minimally invasive techniques, using human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and calcium phosphate microparticles in combination with an in situ forming platelet-rich plasma gel obtained from human platelets. Most conventional TECs rely on seeding and culturing single-cell suspensions of hMSCs on scaffolds. However, for generating TECs amenable to the minimally invasive approach, it was essential to aggregate the hMSCs in vitro before seeding them on the scaffolds as unaggregated MSCs did not generate any bone. Twenty four hours of in vitro aggregation was determined to be optimal for maintaining cell viability in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was observed in the amount of bone formed when the TECs were implanted via an open approach or a minimally invasive route. TECs generated using MSCs from three different human donors generated new bone through the minimally invasive route in a reproducible manner, suggesting that these TECs could be a viable alternative to preformed scaffolds employed through an open surgery for treating bone defects.

  18. HISTOLOGICAL SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN ADULT HUMAN PARATHYROID GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fating Anita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND: Increasing problems of calcium deficiency with physiological conditions like pregnancy, lactation etc. it becomes the need of time to focus attention towards these glands as one of the essential entity. Hence we have undertaken this study to have an idea about normal variation in the gland as per sex. AIMS: To reveal sexual differences in adult human parathyroid glands. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Parathyroid glands from 25 autopsied cases of 20 to 59 years were studied after staining with Hematoxylin & Eosin, Masson’s Trichrome & Reticulin stains. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data is analyzed on statistical software intercooled STATA version 8.0. Data was presented in mean± standard deviation & categorical variables were expressed in percentages. Comparison of oxyphil scores in male & female was done by unpaired‘t’ test. P < 0.05 was taken as statistical significance. RESULTS: Stroma composed of short often branching reticular fibres along with blood vessels and fat cells. By statistical examination the amount of fat was more in case of females than in males of same age groups. Oxyphil cells being less numerous than chief cells were distinguished by their dark eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and were arranged mostly in closely packed groups without interstitial fat in between the cells. Oxyphil cells also found as placed singly among chief cells. It was also observed as continuous masses or anastomosing columns. As compared with males oxyphil cells are more in females. CONCLUSIONS: By statistical analysis 1 Percentage of stromal fat in case of females was slightly greater than in males of same age group. 2 The score of oxyphil cells in females was double to more than triple as compared to male score of same age group. 3 This study is clinically important as hormonal changes occurs early in females than in males and it is in favor of providing supplementary calcium with D3 along with minimal dose of estrogen as age advances in

  19. Antigen-free bovine cancellous bone loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for the repair of tibial bone defects in goat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghai; Deng, Liqing; Yang, Zhouyuan; Xie, Xiaowei; Kang, Pengde; Tan, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Antigen-free bovine cancellous bone has good performances of porous network structures and mechanics with antigen extracted. To develop a bioactive scaffold for enhancing bone repair and evaluate its biological property, rhBMP-2 loaded with antigen-free bovine cancellous bone was used to treat tibial bone defect. Twenty-four healthy adult goats were chosen to establish goat defects model and randomly divided into four groups. The goats were treated with rhBMP-2/antigen-free bovine cancellous bone scaffolds (group A), autogenous cancellous bone graft (group B), porous tricalciumphosphate scaffolds (group C) and nothing (group D). Animals were evaluated with radiological and histological methods at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The gray value of radiographs was used to evaluate the healing of the defects, which revealed that the group A had a better outcome of defect healing compared with group C at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively (p difference between groups A and B was without significance at each time (p > 0.05). The newly formed bone area was calculated from histological sections, and the results indicated that the amount of new bone in group A increased significantly compared with that in group C (p  0.05) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. In addition, the expression of collagen I and vascular endothelial growth factor by real-time polymerase chain reaction at 12 weeks in group A was significantly higher than that in group C (p = 0.034, p = 0.032, respectively), but no significant differences were found when compared with that in group B (p = 0.36, p = 0.54, respectively). At the same time, group C presented better results than group D on bone defects healing. Therefore, the composites of antigen-free bovine cancellous bone loaded with rhBMP-2 have a good osteoinductive activity and capacity to promote the repair of bone defects. PMID:26801475

  20. Pressures in the human cochlea during bone conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Christof; Farahmand, Rosemary B.; Page, Brent F.; Roushan, Kourosh; Merchant, Julie P.; Abur, Defne; Rosowski, John J.; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms of bone conduction (BC) hearing, which is important in diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss, are poorly understood, thus limiting use of BC. Recently, information gained by intracochlear pressure measurements has revealed that the mechanisms of sound transmission that drive pressure differences across the cochlear partition are different for air conduction (AC) than for round-window stimulation. Presently we are utilizing these pressure measurement techniques in fresh human cadaveric preparations to improve our understanding of sound transmission during BC. We have modified our technique of intracochlear pressure measurements for the special requirements of studying BC, as bone vibration poses challenges for making these measurements. Fiberoptic pressure sensors were inserted through cochleostomies in both scalae at the base of the cochlea. The cochleostomies were then tightly sealed with the sensors in place to prevent air and fluid leaks, and the sensors were firmly secured to ensure uniform vibrations of the sensors and surrounding bone of the cochlea. The velocity of the stapes, round window and cochlear promontory were each measured with laser Doppler vibrometry simultaneous to the intracochlear pressure measurements. To understand the contribution of middle-ear inertia, the incudo-stapedial joint was severed. Subsequently, the stapes footplate was fixed (similar to the consequence of otosclerosis) to determine the effect of removing the mobility of the oval window. BC stimulation resulted in pressure in scala vestibuli that was significantly higher than in scala tympani, such that the differential pressure across the partition - the cochlear drive input - was similar to scala vestibuli pressure (and overall, similar to the relationship found during AC but different than during round-window stimulation). After removing the inertial mass of the middle ear, with only the stapes attached to the flexible oval window, all pressures dropped

  1. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  2. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  3. Age-related variations in the microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Linde, F;

    2002-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the microstructure of cancellous bone is crucial for diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of age-related skeletal diseases. Until now, little has been known about age-related variations in the microstructure of peripheral cancellous bone. This study quantified age......-related changes in the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone. One hundred and sixty cylindrical cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal proximal tibiae from 40 donors, aged 16-85 years. These specimens were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned......, and microstructural properties were determined. The specimens were then tested in compression to obtain Young's modulus. The degree of anisotropy, mean marrow space volume, and bone surface-to-volume ratio increased significantly with age. Bone volume fraction, mean trabecular volume, and bone surface density...

  4. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in debridement and impacted bone graft for the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of impacted bone graft with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH. We examined the effect of bone-grafting through a window at the femoral head-neck junction, known as the "light bulb" approach, for the treatment of ONFH with a combination of artificial bone (Novobone mixed with or without rhBMP-2. A total of 42 patients (72 hips were followed-up from 5 to 7.67 years (average of 6.1 years. The patients with and without BMP were the first group (IBG+rhBMP-2 and the second group (IBG, respectively. The clinical effectiveness was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS. The radiographic follow-up was evaluated by pre-and postoperative X-ray and CT scan. Excellent, good, and fair functions were obtained in 36, 12, and 7 hips, respectively. The survival rate was 81.8% and 71.8% in the first and second group, respectively. However, the survival rate was 90.3% in ARCO stage IIb, c, and only 34.6% in ARCO stage IIIa (P<0.05. It was concluded that good and excellent mid-term follow-up could be achieved in selected patients with ONFH treated with impacted bone graft operation. The rhBMP-2 might improve the clinical efficacy and quality of bone repair.

  5. Low Connexin Channel-Dependent Intercellular Communication in Human Adult Hematopoietic Progenitor/Stem Cells: Probing Mechanisms of Autologous Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian; Darley, Richard L.; Hallett, Maurice; Evans, W. Howard

    2010-01-01

    Human bone marrow is a clinical source of autologous progenitor stem cells showing promise for cardiac repair following ischemic insult. Functional improvements following delivery of adult bone marrow CD34+ cells into heart tissue may require metabolic/electrical communication between participating cells. Since connexin43 (Cx43) channels are implicated in cardiogenesis and provide intercellular connectivity in the heart, the authors analyzed the expression of 20 connexins (Cx) in CD34+ cells ...

  6. HNF-4α determines hepatic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mong-Liang; Chen; Kuan-Der; Lee; Huei-Chun; Huang; Yue-Lin; Tsai; Yi-Chieh; Wu; Tzer-Min; Kuo; Cheng-Po; Hu; Chungming; Chang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation status and key factors to facilitate hepatic differentiation of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). METHODS: Human MSCs derived from bone marrow were induced into hepatocyte-like cells following a previously published protocol. The differentiation status of the hepatocyte-like cells was compared with various human hepatoma cell lines. Overexpression of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α was mediated by adenovirus infection of these hepatocyte-like...

  7. Human Fallopian Tube Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Enhance Bone Regeneration in a Xenotransplanted Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Bueno, Daniela F; Almada, Bruno V. P.; Caetano, Heloisa; Czeresnia, Carlos E.; Perin, Paulo M.; Halpern, Silvio; Maluf, Mariangela; Evangelista, Lucila P.; Nisenbaum, Marcelo G.; Martins, Marília T.; Passos-Bueno, Maria R.; Zatz, Mayana

    2011-01-01

    We have recently reported that human fallopian tubes, which are discarded during surgical procedures of women submitted to sterilization or hysterectomies, are a rich source of human fallopian tube mesenchymal stromal cells (htMSCs). It has been previously shown that human mesenchymal stromal cells may be useful in enhancing the speed of bone regeneration. This prompted us to investigate whether htMSCs might be useful for the treatment of osteoporosis or other bone diseases, since they presen...

  8. Application of XRF to measure strontium in human bone in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a basis for better understanding the role that Sr fulfills in human body, it is desirable to measure directly the main Sr store in human body. Although strontium is omnipresent in human tissues, 99% is stored inthe mineral portion of the bone. In the present study x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was applied to measure the strontium content of the tibial shaft in vivo. The feasibility studies showed that normal levels of stable strontium in the bone can be measured successfully

  9. Microhardness of human cancellous bone tissue in progressive hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanik, Magdalena; Nikodem, Anna; Filipiak, Jarosław

    2016-12-01

    Bone tissue is a biological system in which the dynamic processes of, among others, bone formation or internal reconstruction will determine the spatial structure of the tissue and its mechanical properties. The appearance of a factor disturbing the balance between biological processes, e.g. a disease, will cause changes in the spatial structure of bones, thus affecting its mechanical properties. One of the bone diseases most common in an increasingly ageing population is osteoarthritis, also referred to as degenerative joint disease. It is estimated that in 2050 about 1300 million people will show symptoms of OA. The appearance of a pathological stimulus disturbs the balance of the processes of degradation and synthesis of articular cartilage, chondrocytes and the extracellular matrix, and the subchondral bone layer. As osteoarthritis progresses, study of the epiphysis reveals increasingly widespread changes of the articular surface and the internal structure of bone tissue. In this paper, the authors point out the differences in the mechanical properties of cancellous bone tissue forming the proximal epiphysis of the femoral bone during the progressive stages of OA. In order to determine microproperties of bone trabeculae, specimens from different stages of the disease (N=9) were subjected to microindentation testing, which made it possible to determine the material properties of bone tissue, such as microhardness HV and Young׳s modulus E. In addition, mechanical tests were supplemented with Raman spectroscopy, which determine the degree of bone mineralization, and measurements of structural properties based on analysis using microCT. The conducted tests were used to establish both quantitative and quantitative description of changes in the structural and mechanical properties connected with reorganization of trabeculae making up the bone in the various stages of osteoarthritis. The proposed description will supplement existing knowledge in the literature about

  10. Functional assay, expression of growth factors and proteins modulating bone-arrangement in human osteoblasts seeded on an anorganic bovine bone biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    O Trubiani; Fulle, S.; T Traini; M Paludi; La Rovere, R.; M Orciani; S. Caputi; Piattelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    The basic aspects of bone tissue engineering include chemical composition and geometry of the scaffold design, because it is very important to improve not only cell attachment and growth but especially osteodifferentiation, bone tissue formation, and vascularization. Geistlich Bio-Oss® (GBO) is a xenograft consisting of deproteinized, sterilized bovine bone, chemically and physically identical to the mineral phase of human bone.In this study, we investigated the growth behaviour and the abili...

  11. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work…

  12. The effects of different maceration techniques on nuclear DNA amplification using human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J; Luedtke, Jennifer G; Allison, Jamie L; Arber, Carolyn E; Merriwether, D Andrew; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2010-07-01

    Forensic anthropologists routinely macerate human bone for the purposes of identity and trauma analysis, but the heat and chemical treatments used can destroy genetic evidence. As a follow-up to a previous study on nuclear DNA recovery that used pig ribs, this study utilizes human skeletal remains treated with various bone maceration techniques for nuclear DNA amplification using the standard Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) markers. DNA was extracted from 18 samples of human lower leg bones subjected to nine chemical and heat maceration techniques. Genotyping was carried out using the AmpFlSTR COfiler and AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus ID kits. Results showed that heat treatments via microwave or Biz/Na(2)CO(3) in sub-boiling water efficiently macerate bone and produce amplifiable nuclear DNA for genetic analysis. Long-term use of chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide is discouraged as it results in poor bone quality and has deleterious effects on DNA amplification.

  13. The Response of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Osteogenic Signals and its Impact on Bone Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddappa, Ramakrishnaiah; Fernandes, Hugo; Liu, Jun; Blitterswijk, van Clemens; Boer, de Jan

    2007-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is a multidisciplinary field that aims to treat patients with trauma, spinal fusion and large bone defects. Cell-based bone tissue engineering encompasses the isolation of multipotent hMSCs from the bone marrow of the patient, in vit

  14. Immuno-localisation of anti-thyroid antibodies in adult human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kogie; Botha, Julia; Raidoo, Deshandra Munsamy; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2011-03-15

    Expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) has been demonstrated in adipocytes, lymphocytes, bone, kidney, heart, intestine and rat brain. Immuno-reactive TSH-R has been localised in rat brain and human embryonic cerebral cortex but not in adult human brain. We designed a pilot study to determine whether anti-thyroid auto-antibodies immuno-localise in normal adult human cerebral cortex. Forensic samples from the frontal, motor, sensory, occipital, cingulate and parieto-occipito-temporal association cortices were obtained from five individuals who had died of trauma. Although there were no head injuries, the prior psychiatric history of patients was unknown. The tissues were probed with commercial antibodies against both human TSH-R and human thyroglobulin (TG). Anti-TSH-R IgG immuno-localised to cell bodies and axons of large neurones in all 6 regions of all 5 brains. The intensity and percentage of neurones labelled were similar in all tissue sections. TSH-R immuno-label was also observed in vascular endothelial cells in the cingulate gyrus. Although also found in all 5 brains and all six cortical regions, TG localised exclusively in vascular smooth muscle cells and not on neurones. Although limited by the small sample size and number of brain areas examined, this is the first study describing the presence of antigenic targets for anti-TSH-R IgG on human cortical neurons, and anti-TG IgG in cerebral vasculature. PMID:21196016

  15. GATA1 mutation negative acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with acquired trisomy 21 presenting with extensive bone marrow necrosis in an adult: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd P. Williams

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an adult with AMKL with acquired trisomy 21 in which the GATA1 mutation was investigated and the second reported case of AMKL presenting with extensive bone marrow necrosis. We will present a diagnostic approach to AMKL in which extensive bone marrow necrosis renders examination of the bone marrow difficult. Furthermore, we will examine the absence of the GATA1 mutation in a case of AMKL with trisomy 21 in an adult.

  16. Expression of the cystic fibrosis gene in adult human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, J F; Zepeda, M; Cohn, J.A.; Yankaskas, J R; Wilson, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Critical to an understanding of the pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the development of effective gene therapies is a definition of the distribution and regulation of CF gene expression in adult human lung. Previous studies have detected the product of the CF gene, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), in submucosal glands of human bronchi. In this report, we have characterized the distribution of CFTR RNA and protein in the distal airway and alveoli of human lungs. ...

  17. Relation between in vitro and in vivo osteogenic potential of cultured human bone marrow stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, SC; Tibbe, JM; Veenhof, M; Both, S; Oner, FC; van Blitterswijk, CA; de Bruijn, Joost D.

    2004-01-01

    The use of cell therapies in bone reconstruction has been the subject of extensive research. It is known that human bone marrow stromal cell (HBMSC) cultures contain a population of progenitor cells capable of differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage. In the present study, the correlation betw

  18. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. James (Sally); J. Fox (James); F. Afsari (Farinaz); J. Lee (Jennifer); S. Clough (Sally); C. Knight (Charlotte); J. Ashmore (James); P. Ashton (Peter); O. Preham (Olivier); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin); R.D.A.R. Ponzoni (Raquel De Almeida Rocha); Y. Hancock; M. Coles (Mark); P.G. Genever (Paul)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis

  19. Cranial irradiation induces bone marrow-derived microglia in adult mouse brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Suto, Nana; Suzue, Kazutomo; Kaminuma, Takuya; Nakano, Takashi; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2014-07-01

    Postnatal hematopoietic progenitor cells do not contribute to microglial homeostasis in adult mice under normal conditions. However, previous studies using whole-body irradiation and bone marrow (BM) transplantation models have shown that adult BM cells migrate into the brain tissue and differentiate into microglia (BM-derived microglia; BMDM). Here, we investigated whether cranial irradiation alone was sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse brain. Transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter (MSCV-GFP mice) were used. MSCV-GFP mice express GFP in BM cells but not in the resident microglia in the brain. Therefore, these mice allowed us to detect BM-derived cells in the brain without BM reconstitution. MSCV-GFP mice, aged 8-12 weeks, received 13.0 Gy irradiation only to the cranium, and BM-derived cells in the brain were quantified at 3 and 8 weeks after irradiation. No BM-derived cells were detected in control non-irradiated MSCV-GFP mouse brains, but numerous GFP-labeled BM-derived cells were present in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex of the irradiated MSCV-GFP mice. These BM-derived cells were positive for Iba1, a marker for microglia, indicating that GFP-positive BM-derived cells were microglial in nature. The population of BMDM was significantly greater at 8 weeks post-irradiation than at 3 weeks post-irradiation in all brain regions examined. Our results clearly show that cranial irradiation alone is sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse.

  20. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lum

  1. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 suspended in fibrin glue enhances bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Rui; Hu, Jing; Song, Donghui; Jiang, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has high potential for bone formation, but its in vivo effects are unpredictable due to the short life time. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of recombinant human (rh) BMP-2 suspended in fibrin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO) in rabbits. Material and methods The in vitro release kinetics of rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Unilateral tibial lengthening for 10 mm was achieved in 48 rabbits. At the completion of osteodistraction, vehicle, fibrin, rhBMP-2 or rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin (rhBMP-2 + fibrin) was injected into the center of the lengthened gap, with 12 animals in each group. Eight weeks later, the distracted callus was examined by histology, micro-CT and biomechanical testing. Radiographs of the distracted tibiae were taken at both 4 and 8 weeks after drug treatment. Results It was found that fibrin prolonged the life span of rhBMP-2 in vitro with sustained release during 17 days. The rhBMP-2 + fibrin treated animals showed the best results in bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, cortical bone thickness by micro-CT evaluation and mechanical properties by the three-point bending test when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). In histological images, rhBMP-2 + fibrin treatment showed increased callus formation and better gap bridging compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that fibrin holds promise to be a good carrier of rhBMP-2, and rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin showed a stronger promoting effect on bone formation during DO in rabbits. PMID:27279839

  2. Effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult human osteoblasts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 陶天遵; 王新婷; 杜宁; 陈伟珍; 陶树清; 王志成; 吴丽萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult human osteoblasts in vitro. Methods Iliac trabecular bone specimens were obtained from adult patients undergoing necessary surgery. After the bone pieces were digested with collagenase-trypsin, osteoblasts were released and incubated at 37℃ in a relative humidity of 95% and 5% CO2. Then, the cells were purified, and their passages were given DMEM-F12 and fetal bovine serum medium. Subsequently, 10-8 mol/L dexamethasone was added into the culture medium to incubate the osteoblasts for three days, and the cells from control groups were incubated without any drugs. All cells were observed continually with phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope. Finally, apoptosis was detected by the use of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and biochemical indices, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) were used to determine the effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult osteoblasts in vitro. Results In the adult osteoblasts obtained by collagenase-trypsin digestion, it achieved high survial, stable biochemical indices and excellent purification. Under the condition of dexamethasone 10-8 mol/L and osteoblasts 10 000/ml, there was significant promotion of ALP and OCN secretion without cell apoptosis.Conclusions Dexamethasone has a significant effect on the proliferation and differentiation of adult osteoblasts in vitro without apoptosis, and dexamethasone at the suggested concentration can be used as positive control in drug studies for osteoporosis treatment.

  3. AGE-RELATED CHANGES OF BONE MARROW OF NORMAL ADULT MAN ON DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-yan Zhang; Rong Rong; Xiao-ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of bone marrow of normal adult man on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI).Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers and thirty-eight patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or normal prostate were enrolled in this study, with age range 28-82 years old (mean 55.26 ± 18.05 years). All people were examined with large field DWI on a 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner, which ranges from the top of head to the lower limb. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the DWI and ADC of lumber vertebra at renal hilum level, left ilium and superior segment of left femur were measured. The measured SNR and ADC value of the above sites were compared by one way analysis of variance and their correlations with age were investigated by Pearson's correlation analysis. Results The SNR of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no significant difference (F = 0.271, P = 0.763). The SNR of lumber vertebra (r = 0.309, P = 0.024) and left ilium (r = 0.359, P = 0.008) showed positive correlation with age, while the SNR of left femur showed no correlation with age (r = -0.163, P = 0.283). The ADC of lumber vertebra [(0.617 ± 0.177) ×10-3 mm2/s] was significantly higher than that of left ilium [(0.404 ± 0.112)×10-3 mm2/ P < 0.001] and left femur [(0.362 ± 0.092)×10-3mm2/s, P < 0.001], while the ADC of left ilium and left femur had no significant difference. The ADC of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no correlation with age. Conclusion Understanding of age-related changes of normal adult bone marrow on DWI is very important to differentiate the normal bone marrow and abnormal lesions.

  4. Human embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages in contrast to their adult counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkisoensing, Arti A; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Askar, Saïd F A; Passier, Robert; Swildens, Jim; Goumans, Marie José; Schutte, Cindy I; de Vries, Antoine A F; Scherjon, Sicco; Mummery, Christine L; Schalij, Martin J; Atsma, Douwe E

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show unexplained differences in differentiation potential. In this study, differentiation of human (h) MSCs derived from embryonic, fetal and adult sources toward cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells was investigated. Labeled hMSCs derived from embryonic stem cells (hESC-MSCs), fetal umbilical cord, bone marrow, amniotic membrane and adult bone marrow and adipose tissue were co-cultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (nrCMCs) or cardiac fibroblasts (nrCFBs) for 10 days, and also cultured under angiogenic conditions. Cardiomyogenesis was assessed by human-specific immunocytological analysis, whole-cell current-clamp recordings, human-specific qRT-PCR and optical mapping. After co-culture with nrCMCs, significantly more hESC-MSCs than fetal hMSCs stained positive for α-actinin, whereas adult hMSCs stained negative. Furthermore, functional cardiomyogenic differentiation, based on action potential recordings, was shown to occur, but not in adult hMSCs. Of all sources, hESC-MSCs expressed most cardiac-specific genes. hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs contained significantly higher basal levels of connexin43 than adult hMSCs and co-culture with nrCMCs increased expression. After co-culture with nrCFBs, hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs did not express α-actinin and connexin43 expression was decreased. Conduction velocity (CV) in co-cultures of nrCMCs and hESC-MSCs was significantly higher than in co-cultures with fetal or adult hMSCs. In angiogenesis bioassays, only hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs were able to form capillary-like structures, which stained for smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers.Human embryonic and fetal MSCs differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages, in contrast to adult MSCs. Cardiomyogenesis is determined by stimuli from the cellular microenvironment, where connexin43 may play an important role.

  5. Study on the Microstructure of Human Articular Cartilage/Bone Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaxiong Liu; Qin Lian; Jiankang He; Jinna Zhao; Zhongmin Jin; Dichen Li

    2011-01-01

    For improving the theory of gradient microstructure of cartilage/bone interface, human distal femurs were studied. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), histological sections and MicroCT were used to observe, measure and model the microstructure of cartilage/bone interface. The results showed that the cartilage/bone interface is in a hierarchical structure which is composed of four different tissue layers. The interlocking of hyaline cartilage and calcified cartilage and that of calcified cartilage and subchondral bone are in the manner of"protrusion-pore" with average diameter of 17.0 μm and 34.1 μm respectively. In addition, the cancellous bone under the cartilage is also formed by four layer hierarchical structure, and the adjacent layers are connected by bone trabecula in the shape of H, I and Y, forming a complex interwoven network structure. Finally, the simplified structure model of the cartilage/bone interface was proposed according to the natural articular cartilage/bone interface. The simplified model is a 4-layer gradient biomimetic structure, which corresponds to four different tissues of natural cartilage/bone interface. The results of this work would be beneficial to the design of bionic scaffold for the tissue engineering of articular cartilage/bone.

  6. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  7. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  8. The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walpole Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. Regarding human populations, although considerable attention is given to estimating the number of people, much less is given to estimating average mass, despite evidence that average body mass is increasing. We estimate global human biomass, its distribution by region and the proportion of biomass due to overweight and obesity. Methods For each country we used data on body mass index (BMI and height distribution to estimate average adult body mass. We calculated total biomass as the product of population size and average body mass. We estimated the percentage of the population that is overweight (BMI > 25 and obese (BMI > 30 and the biomass due to overweight and obesity. Results In 2005, global adult human biomass was approximately 287 million tonnes, of which 15 million tonnes were due to overweight (BMI > 25, a mass equivalent to that of 242 million people of average body mass (5% of global human biomass. Biomass due to obesity was 3.5 million tonnes, the mass equivalent of 56 million people of average body mass (1.2% of human biomass. North America has 6% of the world population but 34% of biomass due to obesity. Asia has 61% of the world population but 13% of biomass due to obesity. One tonne of human biomass corresponds to approximately 12 adults in North America and 17 adults in Asia. If all countries had the BMI distribution of the USA, the increase in human biomass of 58 million tonnes would be equivalent in mass to an extra 935 million people of average body mass, and have energy requirements equivalent to that of 473 million adults. Conclusions Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food energy demands as an extra half a billion people living on the earth.

  9. Effects of intermittent negative pressure on osteogenesis in human bone marrow-derived stroma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi YANG; Miao LIU; Yin-gang ZHANG; Xiong GUO; Peng XU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of intermittent negative pressure on osteogenesis in human bone marrow-derived stroma cells (BMSCs) in vitro. Methods: BMSCs were isolated from adult marrow donated by a hip osteoarthritis patient with prosthetic replacement and cultured in vitro. The third passage cells were divided into negative pressure treatment group and control group. The treatment group was induced by negative pressure intermittently (pressure: 50 kPa, 30 rain/times, and twice daily). The control was cultured in conventional condition. The osteogenesis of BMSCs was examined by phase-contrast mi-croscopy, the determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and the immunohistochemistry of collagen type I. The mRNA expressions of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) in BMSCs were analyzed by real-time poly-merase chain reaction (PCR). Results: BMSCs showed a typical appearance of osteoblast after 2 weeks of induction by intermit-tent negative pressure, the activity of ALP increased significantly, and the expression of collagen type 1 was positive. In the treatment group, the mRNA expression of OPG increased significantly (P<0.05) and the mRNA expression of OPGL decreased significantly (P<0.05) after 2 weeks, compared with the control. Conclusion: Intermittent negative pressure could promote os-teogenesis in human BMSCs in vitro.

  10. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  11. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH1–34 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and

  12. [Ectopic bone induction by human fetal enamel proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W

    1993-11-01

    Mixture of amelogenin, enamelin and soluble dentin proteins with plaster of Paris and distilled water were implanted in the left thigh-muscle pouch of C57BL/6 T mice, and PLP or BSA/PLP were implanted in the contralateral limbs for controls. The hind limbs were examined by means of microradiographic and histological methods three weeks after the implantation. Implants of PLP, BSA/PLP or E/PLP did not evoke formation of new cartilage or bone. Roentgenography showed highly mineralized tissues in the implantation areas of A/PLP or D/PLP, histological examination confirmed this as induced new bone or cartilage formation. Thus it indicates that amelogenins and soluble dentin proteins have bone induction activity as bone morphogenetic protein, they could induce the differentiation of mesenchymal cell in the muscles into chondrocyte and osteocyte. PMID:8033649

  13. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R A; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Caldas-Junior, A F; Souza, E H A; Coelho-Junior, L G T M; Campello, R I C; Almeida, A C; Farias, R C A P; Vasconcellos, A

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) (on two skeletons), and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies. PMID:27463832

  14. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R A; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Caldas-Junior, A F; Souza, E H A; Coelho-Junior, L G T M; Campello, R I C; Almeida, A C; Farias, R C A P; Vasconcellos, A

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) (on two skeletons), and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  15. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinya Niu

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD among older Boston Puerto Rican adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47-79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates.Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women.Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached.

  16. Effect of AGM and fetal liver-derived stromal cell lines on globin expression in adult baboon (P. anubis bone marrow-derived erythroid progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Lavelle

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that the erythroid micro-environment plays a role in regulation of globin gene expression during adult erythroid differentiation. Adult baboon bone marrow and human cord blood CD34+ progenitors were grown in methylcellulose, liquid media, and in co-culture with stromal cell lines derived from different developmental stages in identical media supporting erythroid differentiation to examine the effect of the micro-environment on globin gene expression. Adult progenitors express high levels of γ-globin in liquid and methylcellulose media but low, physiological levels in stromal cell co-cultures. In contrast, γ-globin expression remained high in cord blood progenitors in stromal cell line co-cultures. Differences in γ-globin gene expression between adult progenitors in stromal cell line co-cultures and liquid media required cell-cell contact and were associated with differences in rate of differentiation and γ-globin promoter DNA methylation. We conclude that γ-globin expression in adult-derived erythroid cells can be influenced by the micro-environment, suggesting new potential targets for HbF induction.

  17. Persistent DNA damage-induced premature senescence alters the functional features of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minieri, Valentina; Saviozzi, Silvia; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Lo Iacono, Marco; Accomasso, Lisa; Cibrario Rocchietti, Elisa; Gallina, Clara; Turinetto, Valentina; Giachino, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells located in various tissues, including the bone marrow. In contrast to terminally differentiated somatic cells, adult stem cells must persist and function throughout life to ensure tissue homeostasis and repair. For this reason, they must be equipped with DNA damage responses able to maintain genomic integrity while ensuring their lifelong persistence. Evaluation of hMSC response to genotoxic insults is of great interest considering both their therapeutic potential and their physiological functions. This study aimed to investigate the response of human bone marrow MSCs to the genotoxic agent Actinomycin D (ActD), a well-known anti-tumour drug. We report that hMSCs react by undergoing premature senescence driven by a persistent DNA damage response activation, as hallmarked by inhibition of DNA synthesis, p21 and p16 protein expression, marked Senescent Associated β-galactosidase activity and enlarged γH2AX foci co-localizing with 53BP1 protein. Senescent hMSCs overexpress several senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) genes and promote motility of lung tumour and osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro. Our findings disclose a multifaceted consequence of ActD treatment on hMSCs that on the one hand helps to preserve this stem cell pool and prevents damaged cells from undergoing neoplastic transformation, and on the other hand alters their functional effects on the surrounding tissue microenvironment in a way that might worsen their tumour-promoting behaviour.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural crest stem cells from adult bone marrow: characterization of their surprising similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Alix, Philippe; Leprince, Pierre; Glejzer, Aneta; Poulet, Christophe; Hennuy, Benoit; Sommer, Lukas; Shakhova, Olga; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-08-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crest stem cells (NCSC) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), including their similarities and differences. In this paper, using transcriptomic as well as proteomic technologies, we compared NCSC to MSC and stromal nestin-positive cells, all of them isolated from adult bone marrow. We demonstrated that the nestin-positive cell population, which was the first to be described as able to differentiate into functional neurons, was a mixed population of NCSC and MSC. More interestingly, we demonstrated that MSC shared with NCSC the same ability to truly differentiate into Tuj1-positive cells when co-cultivated with paraformaldehyde-fixed cerebellar granule neurons. Altogether, those results suggest that both NCSC and MSC can be considered as important tools for cellular therapies in order to replace neurons in various neurological diseases. PMID:22349262

  19. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawrylycz, M.J.; Beckmann, C.F.; et al., et al.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising

  20. Study of bone formation in the mandibular alveolar process of the young adult beagle by tetracycline label analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mandibular alveolar processes of young, adult beagles were observed to determine several aspects of tissue-level bone turnover. The animals had been previously labeled with a double tetracycline (TC) regimen, and analysis carried out on the resulting label distributions and patterns. Analysis of the fraction of bone surface incorporating TC showed that about 1.5 percent of surfaces are double labeled, 16 percent are single labeled, and 75 percent of surfaces are bare of label. The apposition rate for formation sites was found to be approximately 1.54 μm/day

  1. Effect of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test on Bone Turnover Markers in Adults with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shou-Kui; Wan, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Hua; Ma, Jin-Hong; Hua, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well known that enteral nutrients result in acute suppression of bone turnover markers (BTMs), and incretin hormones are believed to play a significant role in this physiological skeletal response. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of parenteral nutrients on BTMs. Our aim was to assess the influence of intravenous glucose on BTMs in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Material/Methods We conducted 1-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in 24 subjects with NGT. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min after administration of glucose, then serum levels of bone formation marker procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and resorption marker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) were measured. Results During IVGTT, the fasting CTX level fell gradually and reached a nadir of 80.4% of the basal value at 60 min. Conversely, the fasting P1NP level decreased mildly and reached a nadir of 90.6% of the basal value at 15 min, then gradually increased and reached 96.6% at 60 min. The CTX-to-P1NP ratio increased slightly and reached a peak of 104.3% of the basal value at 10 min, then fell gradually and reached a nadir of 83% at 60 min. Conclusions Our study indicates that intravenous glucose results in an acute suppression of BTMs in the absence of incretin hormones. The mechanism responsible for this needs further investigation. PMID:27447783

  2. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into three groups by T-score: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assessment of adherence level was based on 5 components of osteoporosis guidelines, considering intake of sodium, calcium and protein, smoking and regular exercise. Results The sex, body mass index, income and educational level did not significantly differ between three groups. Deficient intake of calcium was significantly associated with a threefold greater odds in osteoporosis group (OR 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.22). Excessive protein intake was significantly increased the risk only in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.62). Smoking increased the risk in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.75-4.76), osteoporosis group compared to the osteopenia group (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61-4.55). Conclusions Nutritional factor (intake of calcium and protein) and lifestyle-related factor (smoking and exercise) must be accompanied the management for bone health. An adherence of guidelines is considered very important for the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:27622178

  3. Microdamage evaluation in human trabecular bone based on nonlinear ultrasound vibro-modulation (NUVM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, K; Balabanidou, E; Hatzokos, I; Rekanos, I T; Trochidis, A

    2009-03-26

    The primary aim of this work is to investigate the potential of nonlinear ultrasound for microdamage detection in human bone. Microdamage evaluation in human bone is of great importance, because it is considered a significant parameter for characterizing fracture risk. Experiments employing nonlinear acoustic vibro-modulation were carried out in human femoral trabecular specimens removed during surgery. A frequency mixing (inter-modulation) was observed between an ultrasound wave, propagating in the bone, and a low-frequency vibration applied directly to the bone specimens. The appearance of side frequencies, which are related to the vibrational excitation, around the fundamental ultrasound frequency manifests the modulation nonlinear phenomenon. Instead of inducing microdamage by mechanical fatigue loading, specimens with different degree of osteoporosis were used. The experiments demonstrated that osteoporotic bone exhibits stronger nonlinearity compared to healthy bone presenting significant increase of the modulation amplitude with increasing degree of osteoporosis. The obtained results indicate that, in contrast to conventional hysteretic nonlinearity, dissipative acoustic nonlinearity can be of significance in the generation of nonlinear modulation effects. In the proposed technique the size and the shape of samples are not crucial compared to nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS). Furthermore, the method is sensitive to the presence of microdamage, non-invasive, easy to implement and most important, it can be proved valuable tool for in vivo bone damage characterization. PMID:19243780

  4. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas; Metafratzi, Zafiria; Efremidis, Stavros C. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Chalissos, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    Thirty-seven patients with {beta}-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 {+-} 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 {+-} 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 {+-} 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 {+-} 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 {+-} 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 {+-} 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  5. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  6. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P GH group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the processes regulating new collagen accretion, bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  7. Adult-Onset Deletion of β-Catenin in (10kb)Dmp1-Expressing Cells Prevents Intermittent PTH-Induced Bone Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedlaya, Rajendra; Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Bettagere, Vidya; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Horan, Daniel; Divieti-Pajevic, Paola; Robling, Alexander G

    2016-08-01

    β-Catenin (βcat) is a major downstream signaling node in canonical Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) signaling pathway, and its activity is crucial for canonical Wnt signal transduction. Wnt signaling has recently been implicated in the osteo-anabolic response to PTH, a potent calcium-regulating factor. We investigated whether βcat is essential for the anabolic action of intermittent PTH by generating male mice with adult-onset deletion of βcat in a subpopulation of bone cells (osteocytes and late-stage osteoblasts), treating them with an anabolic regimen of PTH, and measuring the skeletal responses. Male (10kb)Dmp1-CreERt2 transgenic mice that also harbored floxed loss-of-function βcat alleles (βcat(f/f)) were induced for Cre activity using tamoxifen, then injected daily with human PTH 1-34 (30 μg/kg) or vehicle for 5 weeks. Mice in which βcat was deleted showed either total lack of bone mineral density (BMD) gain, or BMD loss, and did not respond to PTH treatment. However, bone mass measurements in the trabecular compartment of the femur and spine revealed PTH-induced bone gain whether βcat was deleted or not. PTH-stimulated increases in periosteal and cancellous bone formation rates were not impaired by βcat deletion, but resorption markers and cortical porosity were significantly increased in induced mice, particularly induced mice treated with PTH. These results suggest that βcat is required for net-positive BMD effects of PTH therapy but that the anabolic effects per se of PTH treatment might not require osteocytic/osteoblastic βcat. PMID:27253995

  8. Indoxyl sulfate exacerbates low bone turnover induced by parathyroidectomy in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Junya; Hirai, Kazuya; Asai, Hirobumi; Matsumoto, Chiho; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato; Yamato, Hideyuki; Watanabe-Akanuma, Mie

    2015-10-01

    Low-turnover bone disease is one of the bone abnormalities observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is recognized to be associated with low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and skeletal resistance to PTH. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a representative uremic toxin that accumulates in the blood as renal dysfunction progresses in CKD patients. A recent in vitro study using an osteoblastic cell culture system suggests that IS has an important role in the pathogenesis of low bone turnover through induction of skeletal resistance to PTH. However, the effects of IS on the progression of low bone turnover have not been elucidated. In the present study, we produced rats with low bone turnover by performing parathyroidectomy (PTX) and fed these rats a diet containing indole, a precursor of IS, to elevate blood IS level from indole metabolism. Bone metabolism was evaluated by measuring histomorphometric parameters of secondary spongiosa of the femur. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant decreases in both bone formation-related parameters and bone resorption-related parameters in PTX rats. In indole-treated PTX rats, further decreases in bone formation-related parameters were observed. In addition, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation marker, and bone mineral density of the tibia tended to decrease in indole-treated PTX rats. These findings strongly suggest that IS exacerbates low bone turnover through inhibition of bone formation by mechanisms unrelated to skeletal resistance to PTH. PMID:26112820

  9. Impact of Growth Hormone on Adult Bone Quality in Turner Syndrome: A HR-pQCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Munier A; Burt, Lauren A; Perry, Rebecca J; Stephure, David K; Hanley, David A; Boyd, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Women with Turner syndrome (TS) are known to be at risk of osteoporosis. While childhood growth hormone (GH) treatment is common in TS, the impact of this therapy on bone health has been poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of childhood GH treatment on adult bone quality in women with TS. 28 women aged 17-45 with confirmed TS (12 GH-treated) agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of lumbar spine, hip, and radius and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans of the radius and tibia were used to determine standard morphological and micro-architectural parameters of bone health. Finite element (FE) analysis and polar moment of inertia (pMOI) were used to estimate bone strength. GH-treated subjects were +7.4 cm taller (95% CI 2.5-12.3 cm, p = 0.005). DXA-determined areal BMD of hip, spine, and radius was similar between treatment groups. Both tibial and radial total bone areas were greater among GH-treated subjects (+20.4 and +21.2% respectively, p < 0.05), while other micro-architectural results were not different between groups. pMOI was significantly greater among GH-treated subjects (radius +35.0%, tibia +34.0%, p < 0.05). Childhood GH treatment compared to no treatment in TS was associated with an increased height, larger bones, and greater pMOI, while no significant difference in DXA-derived BMD, HR-pQCT micro-architectural parameters, or FE-estimated bone strength was detected. The higher pMOI and greater bone size may confer benefit for fracture reduction in these GH-treated patients.

  10. Impact of Growth Hormone on Adult Bone Quality in Turner Syndrome: A HR-pQCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Munier A; Burt, Lauren A; Perry, Rebecca J; Stephure, David K; Hanley, David A; Boyd, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Women with Turner syndrome (TS) are known to be at risk of osteoporosis. While childhood growth hormone (GH) treatment is common in TS, the impact of this therapy on bone health has been poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of childhood GH treatment on adult bone quality in women with TS. 28 women aged 17-45 with confirmed TS (12 GH-treated) agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of lumbar spine, hip, and radius and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans of the radius and tibia were used to determine standard morphological and micro-architectural parameters of bone health. Finite element (FE) analysis and polar moment of inertia (pMOI) were used to estimate bone strength. GH-treated subjects were +7.4 cm taller (95% CI 2.5-12.3 cm, p = 0.005). DXA-determined areal BMD of hip, spine, and radius was similar between treatment groups. Both tibial and radial total bone areas were greater among GH-treated subjects (+20.4 and +21.2% respectively, p < 0.05), while other micro-architectural results were not different between groups. pMOI was significantly greater among GH-treated subjects (radius +35.0%, tibia +34.0%, p < 0.05). Childhood GH treatment compared to no treatment in TS was associated with an increased height, larger bones, and greater pMOI, while no significant difference in DXA-derived BMD, HR-pQCT micro-architectural parameters, or FE-estimated bone strength was detected. The higher pMOI and greater bone size may confer benefit for fracture reduction in these GH-treated patients. PMID:26439721

  11. Undifferentiated Human Adipose-derived Stromal/Stem Cells loaded onto Wet-Spun Starch-polycaprolactone Scaffolds Enhance Bone Regeneration: Nude Mice Calvarial Defect in vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro P.; Leonor, Isabel B.; Smith, Brenda J.; Dias, Isabel R.; Reis, Rui L.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Gomes, Manuela E.

    2014-01-01

    The repair of large bony defects remains challenging in the clinical setting. Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) have been reported to differentiate along different cell lineages, including the osteogenic. The objective of the present study was to assess the bone regeneration potential of undifferentiated hASCs loaded in starch-polycaprolactone (SPCL) scaffolds, in a critical-sized nude mice calvarial defect. Human ASCs were isolated from lipoaspirate of five female donors, cryopreserved and pooled together. Critical-sized (4 mm) calvarial defects were created in the parietal bone of adult male nude mice. Defects were either left empty, treated with an SPCL scaffold alone, or SPCL scaffold with human ASCs. Histological analysis and Micro-CT imaging of the retrieved implants were performed. Improved new bone deposition and osseointegration was observed in SPCL loaded with hASC engrafted calvarial defects as compared to control groups that showed little healing. Non differentiated human ASCs enhance ossification of non-healing nude mice calvarial defects, and wet-spun SPCL confirmed its suitability for bone tissue engineering. This study supports the potential translation for ASC use in the treatment of human skeletal defects. PMID:24123913

  12. Human parvovirus PARV4 DNA in tissues from adult individuals: a comparison with human parvovirus B19 (B19V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotellini Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PARV4 is a new member of the Parvoviridae family not closely related to any of the known human parvoviruses. Viremia seems to be a hallmark of PARV4 infection and viral DNA persistence has been demonstrated in a few tissues. Till now, PARV4 has not been associated with any disease and its prevalence in human population has not been clearly established. This study was aimed to assess the tissue distribution and the ability to persist of PARV4 in comparison to parvovirus B19 (B19V. Results PARV4 and B19V DNA detection was carried out in various tissues of individuals without suspect of acute viral infection, by a real time PCR and a nested PCR, targeting the ORF2 and the ORF1 respectively. Low amount of PARV4 DNA was found frequently (>40% in heart and liver of adults individuals, less frequently in lungs and kidneys (23,5 and 18% respectively and was rare in bone marrow, skin and synovium samples (5,5%, 4% and 5%, respectively. By comparison, B19V DNA sequences were present in the same tissues with a higher frequency (significantly higher in myocardium, skin and bone marrow except than in liver where the frequency was the same of PARV4 DNA and in plasma samples where B19V frequency was significantly lower than that of PARV4 Conclusions The particular tropism of PARV4 for liver and heart, here emerged, suggests to focus further studies on these tissues as possible target for viral replication and on the possible role of PARV4 infection in liver and heart diseases. Neither bone marrow nor kidney seem to be a common target of viral replication.

  13. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Verônica Fernandes Vianna; Danielle Cabral Bonfim; Amanda dos Santos Cavalcanti; Marco Cury Fernandes; Suzana Assad Kahn; Priscila Ladeira Casado; Inayá Correa Lima; Murray, Samuel S.; Elsa J. Brochmann Murray; Maria Eugenia Leite Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we...

  14. Simulation analysis for effects of bone loss on acceleration tolerance of human lumbar vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Honglei; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Yanhua; Wazir, Abrar

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze and predict the changes in acceleration tolerance of human vertebra as a result of bone loss caused by long-term space flight. A human L3-L4 vertebra FEM model was constructed, in which the cancellous bone was separated, and surrounding ligaments were also taken into account. The simulation results demonstrated that bone loss has more of an effect on the acceleration tolerance in x-direction. The results serve to aid in the creation of new acceleration tolerance standards, ensuring astronauts return home safely after long-term space flight. This study shows that more attention should be focused on the bone degradation of crew members and to create new protective designs for space capsules in the future.

  15. Optimizing bone health in older adults: the importance of dietary protein

    OpenAIRE

    Surdykowski, Anna K; Kenny, Anne M.; Insogna, Karl L.; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    Age-related bone loss is progressive and can lead to osteoporosis. While it is accepted that both dietary calcium and vitamin D are important and beneficial for skeletal health, the impact of dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone balance remains controversial. Contrary to the hypothesis that increasing dietary protein contributes to bone loss, research supports the notion that protein may play a pivotal role in maintenance of bone health by several mechanisms; for example, increasing...

  16. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Fernandes Vianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells. Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics.

  17. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Verônica Fernandes; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos Santos; Fernandes, Marco Cury; Kahn, Suzana Assad; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Lima, Inayá Correa; Murray, Samuel S.; Murray, Elsa J. Brochmann; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells) and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells). Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics. PMID:23710460

  18. [Femoral bone morphogenesis in human fetuses in the area of environmental fluoride pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalina, T I; Vasil'eva, L S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the peculiarities of femoral bone osteogenesis in human fetuses in the areas with different levels of environmental pollution with fluoride compounds (the city of Irkutsk and the town of Shelekhov). The histological structure of femoral bones was studied in 70 fetuses aged 15-16, 19-20, 22-25 and 27-29 gestational weeks. Morphometric methods were used to evaluate the number of blood vessels per total area of epiphysis, the length of endochondral trabeculae, the thickness of hypertrophic and columnar cartilage zones, diaphysis wall and its trabeculae thickness, the thickness of endochondral trabeculae merging with the diaphysis wall, and of the bone growing on the epiphysis. It was found that in the city of Irkutzk, relatively remote from the pollution source, the processes of osteogenesis and osteoresorption are balanced and are characterized by the prevalence of osteoblastic activity over osteoclastic activity, ensuring the active bone growth. During weeks 15-22, the bones are actively growing in length, while during weeks 22-29 they grow mainly in width. In the town of Shelekhov, located closely to the pollution source, the growth of bones in both length and width, is delayed. The bone growth was active till week 16, however, during weeks 18-29, osteoresorption prevailed over the osteosynthesis, the bone thickness decreased, while the activity of their growth in length remained reduced. PMID:20593589

  19. Ex vivo expansion and pluripotential differentiation of cryopreserved human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ying; ZHENG Qiang; JIA Bing-bing; HUANG Guo-ping; Xu Yu-lin; WANG Jin-fu; PAN Zhi-jun

    2007-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the potentials of ex vivo expansion and pluri-differentiation of cryopreservation of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into chondrocytes, adipocytes and neurocytes. Cryopreserved hMSCs were resuscitated and cultured for 15 passages, and then induced into chondrocytes, adipocytes and neurocytes with corresponding induction medium. The induced cells were observed for morphological properties and detected for expressions of type II collagen, triglyceride or neuron-specific enolase and nestin. The result showed that the resuscitated cells could differentiate into chondrocytes after exposure to transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and vitamin C (Vc), and uniformly changed morphologically from a spindle-like fibroblastic appearance to a polygonal shape in three weeks. The induced cells were heterochromatic to safranin O and expressed cartilage matrix-procollagenal (II) mRNA. The resuscitated cells cultured in induction medium consisting of dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, indomethacin and IGF-I showed adipogenesis, and lipid vacuoles accumulation was detectable after 21 d. The resuscitated hMSCs were also induced into neurocytes and expressed nestin and neuron specific endolase (NSE) that were special surface markers associated with neural cells at different stage. This study suggested that the resuscitated hMSCs should be still a population of pluripotential cells and that it could be used for establishing an abundant hMSC reservoir for further experiment and treatment of various clinical diseases.

  20. Gene Expression Changes in Femoral Head Necrosis of Human Bone Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Balla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is the result of an interruption of the local circulation and the injury of vascular supply of bone. Multiple factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. However the mechanism of ischemia and necrosis in non-traumatic ONFH is not clear. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in ONFH vs. non-ONFH human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Six bone tissue samples from ONFH male patients and 8 bone tissue samples from non-ONFH men were examined. The expression differences of selected 117 genes were analyzed by TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR system. The significance test indicated marked differences in the expression of nine genes between ONFH and non-ONFH individuals. These altered genes code for collagen molecules, an extracellular matrix digesting metalloproteinase, a transcription factor, an adhesion molecule, and a growth factor. Canonical variates analysis demonstrated that ONFH and non-ONFH bone tissues can be distinguished by the multiple expression profile analysis of numerous genes controlled via canonical TGFB pathway as well as genes coding for extracellular matrix composing collagen type molecules. The markedly altered gene expression profile observed in the ONFH of human bone tissue may provide further insight into the pathogenetic process of osteonecrotic degeneration of bone.

  1. Local origins impart conserved bone type-related differences in human osteoblast behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Gburcik, V; Reilly, P; Sankey, R A; Emery, R J; Clarkin, C E; Pitsillides, A A

    2015-03-04

    Osteogenic behaviour of osteoblasts from trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone were examined to determine any bone type-selective differences in samples from both osteoarthritic (OA) and osteoporotic (OP) patients. Cell growth, differentiation; alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) mRNA and activity, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), SP7-transcription factor (SP7), bone sialoprotein-II (BSP-II), osteocalcin/bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (BGLAP), osteoprotegerin (OPG, TNFRSF11B), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL, TNFSF11) mRNA levels and proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) mRNA and protein release were assessed in osteoblasts from paired humeral head samples from age-matched, human OA/OP (n = 5/4) patients. Initial outgrowth and increase in cell number were significantly faster (p origins in OA and trabecular origins in OP. We found virtually identical bone type-related differences, however, in TNFRSF11B:TNFSF11 in OA and OP, consistent with greater potential for paracrine effects on osteoclasts in trabecular osteoblasts. Subchondral osteoblasts (OA) exhibited highest VEGF-A mRNA levels and release. Our data indicate that human osteoblasts in trabecular, subchondral and cortical bone have inherent, programmed diversity, with specific bone type-related differences in growth, differentiation and pro-angiogenic potential in vitro.

  2. Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jinqin; Xie, Tianwu; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-01

    Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (≤3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning.

  3. Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (≤3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning. (paper)

  4. MicroRNA profiling in human neutrophils during bone marrow granulopoiesis and in vivo exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria T; Hother, Christoffer; Häger, Mattias;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow......, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) from peripheral blood, and extravasated PMNs from skin windows using the Affymetrix 2.0 platform. Our data reveal 135 miRNAs differentially regulated during bone marrow granulopoiesis. The majority is differentially regulated between the myeloblast/promyelocyte (MB/PM) and...

  5. Absent or rare human immunodeficiency virus infection of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, B. R.; Schwartz, D H; Marx, J C; Johnson, C.E.; Berry, J. M.; Lyding, J; Merigan, T C; Zander, A

    1991-01-01

    An important question in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis is whether HIV-infected bone marrow CD34+ stem/progenitor cells serve as a significant reservoir of virus in HIV-infected individuals. Our data indicate that infection of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells with HIV occurs rarely, if ever, in vivo. In the present study, CD34+ cells were immunomagnetically purified from the bone marrow of HIV-seropositive individuals, and purified cells or colony-forming cells of the granul...

  6. RT-PCR standardization and bone mineralization after low-level laser therapy on adult osteoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Bomfim, Fernando R. C.; Sella, Valéria R. G.; Zanaga, Jéssica Q.; Pereira, Nayara S.; Nouailhetas, Viviane L. A.; Plapler, Hélio

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Osteoblasts are capable to produce different compounds directly connected to bone mineralization process. This study aims to standardize the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for adult osteoblasts to observe the effect of low level laser therapy on bone mineralization. Methods: Five-millimeter long fragments obtained from the mead femoral region of male Wistar rats were assigned into group A (n=10, laser) and group B (n=10, no laser), submitted to mechanic and enzymatic digestion. After 7 days, cultures of group A were irradiated daily on a single spot with a GaInAs laser, λ=808nm, 200mW/cm2, 2J/cm2, bean diameter of 0,02mm, 5 seconds for 6 days. Group B was manipulated but received no laser irradiation. After 13 days the cells were trypsinized for 15 minute and stabilized with RNA later® for RNA extraction with Trizol®. cDNA synthesis used 10μg of RNA and M-MLV® enzyme. PCR was accomplished using the β-actin gene as a control. Another aliquot was fixed for Hematoxylin-Eosin and Von Kossa staining to visualize bone mineralization areas. Results: Under UV light we observed clearly the amplification of β-actin gene around 400bp. HE and Von Kossa staining showed osteoblast clusters, a higher number of bone cells and well defined mineralization areas in group A. Conclusion: The cell culture, RNA extraction and RT-PCR method for adult osteoblasts was effective, allowing to use these methods for bone mineralization studies. Laser improved bone mineralization and further studies are needed involving osteogenesis, calcium release mechanisms and calcium related channels.

  7. Research Sees Potential to Make Bone, Muscle from Human Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sees Potential to Make Bone, Muscle From Human Stem Cells Could be a major advance for regenerative medicine, scientists say To use the ... the ability to quickly coax human embryonic (pluripotent) stem cells to ... a major advance in regenerative medicine. Pluripotent means the cells can ...

  8. In vivo tumorigenesis was observed after injection of in vitro expanded neural crest stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Wislet-Gendebien

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells are adult multipotent cells that represent an attractive tool in cellular therapy strategies. Several studies have reported that in vitro passaging of mesenchymal stem cells alters the functional and biological properties of those cells, leading to the accumulation of genetic aberrations. Recent studies described bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC as mixed populations of cells including mesenchymal (MSC and neural crest stem cells (NCSC. Here, we report the transformation of NCSC into tumorigenic cells, after in vitro long-term passaging. Indeed, the characterization of 6 neural crest-derived clones revealed the presence of one tumorigenic clone. Transcriptomic analyses of this clone highlighted, among others, numerous cell cycle checkpoint modifications and chromosome 11q down-regulation (suggesting a deletion of chromosome 11q compared with the other clones. Moreover, unsupervised analysis such as a dendrogram generated after agglomerative hierarchical clustering comparing several transcriptomic data showed important similarities between the tumorigenic neural crest-derived clone and mammary tumor cell lines. Altogether, it appeared that NCSC isolated from adult bone marrow represents a potential danger for cellular therapy, and consequently, we recommend that phenotypic, functional and genetic assays should be performed on bone marrow mesenchymal and neural crest stem cells before in vivo use, to demonstrate whether their biological properties, after ex vivo expansion, remain suitable for clinical application.

  9. In vivo tumorigenesis was observed after injection of in vitro expanded neural crest stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Poulet, Christophe; Neirinckx, Virginie; Hennuy, Benoit; Swingland, James T; Laudet, Emerence; Sommer, Lukas; Shakova, Olga; Bours, Vincent; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells are adult multipotent cells that represent an attractive tool in cellular therapy strategies. Several studies have reported that in vitro passaging of mesenchymal stem cells alters the functional and biological properties of those cells, leading to the accumulation of genetic aberrations. Recent studies described bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) as mixed populations of cells including mesenchymal (MSC) and neural crest stem cells (NCSC). Here, we report the transformation of NCSC into tumorigenic cells, after in vitro long-term passaging. Indeed, the characterization of 6 neural crest-derived clones revealed the presence of one tumorigenic clone. Transcriptomic analyses of this clone highlighted, among others, numerous cell cycle checkpoint modifications and chromosome 11q down-regulation (suggesting a deletion of chromosome 11q) compared with the other clones. Moreover, unsupervised analysis such as a dendrogram generated after agglomerative hierarchical clustering comparing several transcriptomic data showed important similarities between the tumorigenic neural crest-derived clone and mammary tumor cell lines. Altogether, it appeared that NCSC isolated from adult bone marrow represents a potential danger for cellular therapy, and consequently, we recommend that phenotypic, functional and genetic assays should be performed on bone marrow mesenchymal and neural crest stem cells before in vivo use, to demonstrate whether their biological properties, after ex vivo expansion, remain suitable for clinical application. PMID:23071568

  10. A comparison of osteoclast-rich and osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis in adult mice sheds light on the role of the osteoclast in coupling bone resorption and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudium, Christian S; Moscatelli, Ilana; Flores, Carmen; Thomsen, Jesper S; Brüel, Annemarie; Gudmann, Natasja Stæhr; Hauge, Ellen-Margrethe; Karsdal, Morten A; Richter, Johan; Henriksen, Kim

    2014-07-01

    Osteopetrosis due to lack of acid secretion by osteoclasts is characterized by abolished bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, but normal or even increased bone formation. In contrast, osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis appears to have less osteoblasts and reduced bone formation, indicating that osteoclasts are important for regulating osteoblast activity. To illuminate the role of the osteoclast in controlling bone remodeling, we transplanted irradiated skeletally mature 3-month old wild-type mice with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate either an osteoclast-rich or osteoclast-poor adult osteopetrosis model. We used fetal liver HSCs from (1) oc/oc mice, (2) RANK KO mice, and (3) compared these to wt control cells. TRAP5b activity, a marker of osteoclast number and size, was increased in the oc/oc recipients, while a significant reduction was seen in the RANK KO recipients. In contrast, the bone resorption marker CTX-I was similarly decreased in both groups. Both oc/oc and Rank KO recipients developed a mild osteopetrotic phenotype. However, the osteoclast-rich oc/oc recipients showed higher trabecular bone volume (40 %), increased bone strength (66 %), and increased bone formation rate (54 %) in trabecular bone, while RANK KO recipients showed only minor trends compared to control recipients. We here show that maintaining non-resorbing osteoclasts, as opposed to reducing the osteoclasts, leads to increased bone formation, bone volume, and ultimately higher bone strength in vivo, which indicates that osteoclasts are sources of anabolic molecules for the osteoblasts.

  11. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes.

  12. IFITM1 increases osteogenesis through Runx2 in human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jin Seong; You, Yong-Ouk; Zadeh, Homa; Shin, Hong-In; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Takata, Takashi; Pi, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jun; You, Hyung-Keun

    2012-09-01

    The exact molecular mechanisms governing the differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem/progenitor cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts remain largely unknown. In this study, a highly expressed protein that had a high degree of homology with interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) was identified using differentially expressed gene (DEG) screening. We sought to determine whether IFITM1 influenced osteoblast differentiation. During differentiation, IFITM1 expression gradually increased from 5 to 10days and subsequently decreased at 15 days in culture. Analysis of IFITM1 protein expression in several cell lines as well as in situ studies on human tissues revealed its selective expression in bone cells and human bone. Proliferation of human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells (hAD-BMSCs) was significantly inhibited by IFITM1 knockdown by using short hairpin RNA, as were bone specific markers such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I α 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osterix were decreased. Calcium accumulation also decreased following IFITM1 knockdown. Moreover, IFITM1 knockdown in hAD-BMSCs was associated with inhibition of Runx2 mRNA and protein expression. Collectively, the present data provide evidence for the role of IFITM1 in osteoblast differentiation. The exact mechanisms of IFITM1's involvement in osteoblast differentiation are still under investigation.

  13. Differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells into cells with a neural phenotype: diverse effects of two specific treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Maria

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been demonstrated that the fate of adult cells is not restricted to their tissues of origin. In particular, it has been shown that bone marrow stem cells can give rise to cells of different tissues, including neural cells, hepatocytes and myocytes, expanding their differentiation potential. Results In order to identify factors able to lead differentiation of stem cells towards cells of neural lineage, we isolated stromal cells from human adult bone marrow (BMSC. Cells were treated with: (1 TPA, forskolin, IBMX, FGF-1 or (2 retinoic acid and 2-mercaptoethanol (BME. Treatment (1 induced differentiation into neuron-like cells within 24 hours, while a longer treatment was required when using retinoic acid and BME. Morphological modifications were more dramatic after treatment (1 compared with treatment (2. In BMSC both treatments induced the expression of neural markers such as NF, GFAP, TUJ-1 and neuron-specific enolase. Moreover, the transcription factor Hes1 increased after both treatments. Conclusion Our study may contribute towards the identification of mechanisms involved in the differentiation of stem cells towards cells of neural lineage.

  14. Human maxillary sinus floor elevation as a model for bone regeneration enabling the application of one-step surgical procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Farre-Guasch; H.J. Prins; J.R. Overman; C.M. ten Bruggenkate; E.A.J.M. Schulten; M.N. Helder; J. Klein-Nulend

    2013-01-01

    Bone loss in the oral and maxillofacial region caused by trauma, tumors, congenital disorders, or degenerative diseases is a health care problem worldwide. To restore (reconstruct) these bone defects, human or animal bone grafts or alloplastic (synthetic) materials have been used. However, several d

  15. Editorial: Technology for higher education, adult learning and human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhong Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to technology-enabled approaches for improving higher education, adult learning, and human performance. Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals, institutions, and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages. It becomes crucial to help adult learners and knowledge workers to improve their self-directed and life-long learning capabilities. Meanwhile, advances in technology have been increasingly enabling and facilitating learning and knowledge-related initiatives.. They have largely extended learning opportunities through the provision of resource-rich and learner-centered environment, computer-based learning support, and expanded social interactions and networks. Papers in this special issue are representative of ongoing research on integration of technology with learning for innovation and sustainable development in higher education institutions and organizational and community environments.

  16. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem

  17. Targeted regeneration of bone in the osteoporotic human femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E S Poole

    Full Text Available We have recently developed image processing techniques for measuring the cortical thicknesses of skeletal structures in vivo, with resolution surpassing that of the underlying computed tomography system. The resulting thickness maps can be analysed across cohorts by statistical parametric mapping. Applying these methods to the proximal femurs of osteoporotic women, we discover targeted and apparently synergistic effects of pharmaceutical osteoporosis therapy and habitual mechanical load in enhancing bone thickness.

  18. Neural differentiation potential of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells: misleading marker gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montzka Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to pluripotent embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells have been considered to be multipotent, being somewhat more restricted in their differentiation capacity and only giving rise to cell types related to their tissue of origin. Several studies, however, have reported that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are capable of transdifferentiating to neural cell types, effectively crossing normal lineage restriction boundaries. Such reports have been based on the detection of neural-related proteins by the differentiated MSCs. In order to assess the potential of human adult MSCs to undergo true differentiation to a neural lineage and to determine the degree of homogeneity between donor samples, we have used RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry to investigate the basal expression of a range of neural related mRNAs and proteins in populations of non-differentiated MSCs obtained from 4 donors. Results The expression analysis revealed that several of the commonly used marker genes from other studies like nestin, Enolase2 and microtubule associated protein 1b (MAP1b are already expressed by undifferentiated human MSCs. Furthermore, mRNA for some of the neural-related transcription factors, e.g. Engrailed-1 and Nurr1 were also strongly expressed. However, several other neural-related mRNAs (e.g. DRD2, enolase2, NFL and MBP could be identified, but not in all donor samples. Similarly, synaptic vesicle-related mRNA, STX1A could only be detected in 2 of the 4 undifferentiated donor hMSC samples. More significantly, each donor sample revealed a unique expression pattern, demonstrating a significant variation of marker expression. Conclusion The present study highlights the existence of an inter-donor variability of expression of neural-related markers in human MSC samples that has not previously been described. This donor-related heterogeneity might influence the reproducibility of transdifferentiation protocols as

  19. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Møller; Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito; Corin Badiu

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passag...

  20. Mechanisms inducing low bone density in Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo, Anna; Del Fattore, Andrea; Capulli, Mattia; Carvello, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Ferrari, Serge; Pierroz, Dominique; Morandi, Lucia; De Simone, Michele; Rucci, Nadia; Bertini, Enrico; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Teti, Anna

    2011-08-01

    Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic MDX mice were investigated in this study for their bone phenotype and systemic regulators of bone turnover. Micro-computed tomographic (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed reduced bone mass and higher osteoclast and bone resorption parameters in MDX mice compared with wild-type mice, whereas osteoblast parameters and mineral apposition rate were lower. In a panel of circulating pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines evaluated in the MDX sera, interleukin 6 (IL-6) was increased compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, DMD patients showed low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores and high bone-resorption marker and serum IL-6. Human primary osteoblasts from healthy donors incubated with 10% sera from DMD patients showed decreased nodule mineralization. Many osteogenic genes were downregulated in these cultures, including osterix and osteocalcin, by a mechanism blunted by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, the mRNAs of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL6, IL11, inhibin-βA, and TGFβ2 were increased, although only IL-6 was found to be high in the circulation. Consistently, enhancement of osteoclastogenesis was noted in cultures of circulating mononuclear precursors from DMD patients or from healthy donors cultured in the presence of DMD sera or IL-6. Circulating IL-6 also played a dominant role in osteoclast formation because ex vivo wild-type calvarial bones cultured with 10% sera of MDX mice showed increase osteoclast and bone-resorption parameters that were dampen by treatment with an IL-6 antibody. These results point to IL-6 as an important mediator of bone loss in DMD and suggest that targeted anti-IL-6 therapy may have a positive impact on the bone phenotype in these patients. PMID:21509823

  1. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...... months of GH treatment (p alkaline phosphatase increased significantly from 38.6 to 92.9 U/l during GH therapy in male patients (p ...-derived alkaline phosphatase was unaltered by GH. In the females, the increase in bone alkaline phosphatase did not reach statistical significance (19.1 vs 40.0 U/l, p = 0.06). The GH-induced increase in bone alkaline phosphatase correlated significantly with the increase in serum IGFBP-3 (r = 0.46, p = 0...

  2. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R prevents experimental human breast cancer bone metastasis in nude mice

    OpenAIRE

    Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Zhang, Yong; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Bouvet, Michael; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M.; Ming ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a lethal and morbid late stage of breast cancer that is currently treatment resistant. More effective mouse models and treatment are necessary. High bone-metastatic variants of human breast cancer cells were selected in nude mice by cardiac injection. After cardiac injection of a high bone-metastatic variant of breast cancer, all untreated mice had bone metastases compared to only 20% with parental cells. Treatment with tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R completely...

  3. Optical detection of carotenoid antioxidants in human bone and surrounding tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V; Ermakova, Maia R; Rosenberg, Thomas D; Gellermann, Werner

    2013-11-01

    Carotenoids are known to play an important role in health and disease state of living human tissue based on their antioxidant and optical filtering functions. In this study, we show that carotenoids exist in human bone and surrounding fatty tissue both in significant and individually variable concentrations. Measurements of biopsied tissue samples with molecule-specific Raman spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography reveal that all carotenoids that are known to exist in human skin are also present in human bone. This includes all carotenes, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. We propose quantitative reflection imaging as a noncontact optical method suitable for the measurement of composite carotenoid levels in bone and surrounding tissue exposed during open surgeries such as total knee arthroplasty, and as a proof of concept, demonstrate carotenoid measurements in biopsied bone samples. This will allow one to establish potential correlations between internal tissue carotenoid levels and levels in skin and to potentially use already existing optical skin carotenoid tests as surrogate marker for bone carotenoid status.

  4. Enrichment for CFU-C from murine and human bone marrow using soybean agglutinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouse bone marrow and spleen cells agglutinated by soybean agglutinin (SBA) or peanut agglutinin (PNA) were previously shown to be enriched for spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) and sufficiently depleted of graft-versus-host reaction producing cells to allow hematologic reconstitution of lethally irradiated allogeneic recipient mice. A similar enrichment for cells capable of forming colonies in soft agar culture (CFU-C) has now been found in the SBA-agglutinated fraction of mouse bone marrow cells, in contrast to the finding that in human bone marrow the majority of the CFU-C are in the fraction not agglutinated by SBA. Cytofluorometric studies with fluorescein-labeled SBA (FITC-SBA) revealed that the majority of both mouse and human bone marrow cells bind the lectin. Experiments mixing the human marrow fractions separated by SBA reveal that true enrichment for CFU-C is achieved in the unagglutinated fraction, as opposed to a possible depletion of a suppressor cell population. Granulocytic, monocytic, and mixed cell colonies were all enriched in the SBA-unagglutinated cell fraction from human bone marrow

  5. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael P H; Seebach, Jörg D; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H; Muller, Yannick D

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  6. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael P H Meier

    Full Text Available Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow and 10 days (kidney capsule. Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  7. Histomorphometric quantification of human pathological bones from synchrotron radiation 3D computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional bone histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed microtomography is a noninvasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices in trabecular bones (BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp). In this technique, the output 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. In this work, histomorphometric quantification using synchrotron 3D X-ray computed microtomography was performed to quantify pathological samples of human bone. Samples of human bones were cut into small blocks (8 mm x 8 mm x 10 mm) with a precision saw and then imaged. The computed microtomographies were obtained at SYRMEP (Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline, at ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Italy). The obtained 3D images yielded excellent resolution and details of intra-trabecular bone structures, including marrow present inside trabeculae. Histomorphometric quantification was compared to literature as well. (author)

  8. Noninvasive optical measurement of bone marrow lesions: a Monte Carlo study on visible human dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Bone marrow is both the main hematopoietic and important immune organ. Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a series of severe complications and even myeloma. The traditional diagnosis of BMLs rely on mostly bone marrow biopsy/ puncture, and sometimes MRI, X-ray, and etc., which are either invasive and dangerous, or ionizing and costly. A diagnosis technology with advantages in noninvasive, safe, real-time continuous detection, and low cost is requested. Here we reported our preliminary exploration of feasibility verification of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical diagnosis of BMLs by Monte Carlo simulation study. We simulated and visualized the light propagation in the bone marrow quantitatively with a Monte Carlo simulation software for 3D voxelized media and Visible Chinese Human data set, which faithfully represents human anatomy. The results indicate that bone marrow actually has significant effects on light propagation. According to a sequence of simulation and data analysis, the optimal source-detector separation was suggested to be narrowed down to 2.8-3.2cm, at which separation the spatial sensitivity distribution of NIRS cover the most region of bone marrow with high signal-to-noise ratio. The display of the sources and detectors were optimized as well. This study investigated the light transport in spine addressing to the BMLs detection issue and reported the feasibility of NIRS detection of BMLs noninvasively in theory. The optimized probe design of the coming NIRS-based BMLs detector is also provided.

  9. Peripheral bone mass is not affected by winter vitamin D deficiency in children and young adults from Ushuaia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, M B; Wittich, A; Mautalen, C; Chaperon, A; Kizlansky, A

    2000-09-01

    Low vitamin D levels in elderly people are associated with reduced bone mass, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and increased fracture risk. Its effect on the growing skeleton is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of chronic winter vitamin D deficiency and higher winter parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels on bone mass in prepubertal children and young adults. The study was carried out in male and female Caucasian subjects. A total of 163 prepubertal children (X age +/- 1 SD: 8.9 +/- 0.7 years) and 234 young adults (22.9 +/- 3.6 years) who had never received vitamin D supplementation were recruited from two areas in Argentina: (1)Ushuaia (55 degrees South latitude), where the population is known to have low winter 25OHD levels and higher levels of PTH in winter than in summer, and (2)Buenos Aires (34 degrees S), where ultraviolet (UV) radiation and vitamin D nutritional status in the population are adequate all year round. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the ultradistal and distal radius were measured in the young adults. Only distal radius measurements were taken in the children. Similar results were obtained in age-sex matched groups from both areas. The only results showing significant difference corresponded to comparison among the Ushuaian women: those whose calcium (Ca) intake was below 800 mg/day presented lower BMD and BMC values than those whose Ca intake was above that level (0.469 +/- 0.046 versus 0.498 +/- 0.041 g/cm(2), P Ushuaia and Buenos Aires in spite of the previously documented difference between both areas regarding UV radiation and winter vitamin D status. BMD of axial skeletal areas as well the concomitant effect of a low Ca diet and vitamin D deficiency on the growing skeleton should be studied further. PMID:10954776

  10. Effects of Age and Gender on WNT Gene Expression in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Longxiang; Zhou, Shuanhu; Glowacki, Julie

    2009-01-01

    WNT signaling pathways play important roles in the behavior of human bone marrow stromal cells. Although WNT expression has been examined in human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) with limited numbers of subjects or from commercial sources, there are conflicting results on WNT gene expression in hMSCs. Furthermore, the effects of age and gender on WNT expression in hMSCs are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated RNA expression of all the WNT genes in hMSCs from 19 subjects, 12 women a...

  11. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P growth.

  12. On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2012-03-09

    Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

  13. Doses to the red bone marrow of young people and adults from radiation of natural origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, G M [Childhood Cancer Research Group, University of Oxford, Richards Building, Old Road Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LG (United Kingdom); Fell, T P, E-mail: Gerald.Kendall@ccrg.ox.ac.uk [Health Protection Agency, CRCE, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-01

    Natural radiation sources comprise cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhaled isotopes of radon with their decay products. These deliver doses to all organs and tissues including red bone marrow (RBM), the tissue in which leukaemia is thought to originate. In this paper we calculate the age-dependent annual RBM doses from natural radiation sources to young people and to adults at average levels of exposure in the UK. The contributions to dose are generally less complex than in the case of doses to foetuses and young children where it is necessary to take into account transfer of radionuclides across the placenta, intakes in mother's milk and changes in gut uptake in young infants. However, there is high uptake of alkaline earths and of similar elements in the developing skeleton and this significantly affects the doses from radioisotopes of these elements, not just in the teens and twenties but through into the fifth decade of life. The total equivalent dose to the RBM from all natural sources of radiation at age 15 years is calculated to be about 1200 {mu}Sv a year at average UK levels, falling to rather less than 1100 {mu}Sv per year in later life; the gentle fall from the late teens onwards reflects the diminishing effect of the high uptakes of radioisotopes of the alkaline earths and of lead in this period. About 60% of the equivalent dose is contributed by the low linear energy transfer (LET) component. Radionuclides in food make the largest contribution to equivalent doses to RBM and much the largest contribution to the absorbed dose from high LET radiation (mainly alpha particles).

  14. Doses to the red bone marrow of young people and adults from radiation of natural origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radiation sources comprise cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhaled isotopes of radon with their decay products. These deliver doses to all organs and tissues including red bone marrow (RBM), the tissue in which leukaemia is thought to originate. In this paper we calculate the age-dependent annual RBM doses from natural radiation sources to young people and to adults at average levels of exposure in the UK. The contributions to dose are generally less complex than in the case of doses to foetuses and young children where it is necessary to take into account transfer of radionuclides across the placenta, intakes in mother's milk and changes in gut uptake in young infants. However, there is high uptake of alkaline earths and of similar elements in the developing skeleton and this significantly affects the doses from radioisotopes of these elements, not just in the teens and twenties but through into the fifth decade of life. The total equivalent dose to the RBM from all natural sources of radiation at age 15 years is calculated to be about 1200 μSv a year at average UK levels, falling to rather less than 1100 μSv per year in later life; the gentle fall from the late teens onwards reflects the diminishing effect of the high uptakes of radioisotopes of the alkaline earths and of lead in this period. About 60% of the equivalent dose is contributed by the low linear energy transfer (LET) component. Radionuclides in food make the largest contribution to equivalent doses to RBM and much the largest contribution to the absorbed dose from high LET radiation (mainly alpha particles).

  15. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8±6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8±7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1±6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0±9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1±2.7 kg/m2. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged ≥50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged ≥40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  16. Transplantation of an Acutely Isolated Bone Marrow Fraction Repairs Demyelinated Adult Rat Spinal Cord Axons

    OpenAIRE

    SASAKI, MASANORI; HONMOU, OSAMU; Akiyama, Yukinori; Uede,Teiji; Hashi,Kazuo; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2001-01-01

    The potential of bone marrow cells to differentiate into myelin-forming cells and to repair the demyelinated rat spinal cord in vivo was studied using cell transplantation techniques. The dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord was demyelinated by x-irradiation treatment, followed by microinjection of ethidium bromide. Suspensions of a bone marrow cell fraction acutely isolated from femoral bones in LacZ transgenic mice were prepared by centrifugation on a density gradient (Ficoll-Paque) to remov...

  17. Osteogenic potential of the human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene activated nanobone putty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-bin; SUN Li; YANG Shu-hua; ZHANG Yu-kun; HU Ru-yin; FU De-hao

    2008-01-01

    Background Nanobone putty is an injectable and bioresorbable bone substitute. The neutral-pH putty resembles hard bone tissue, does not contain polymers or plasticizers, and is self-setting and nearly isothermic, properties which are helpful for the adhesion, proliferation, and function of bone cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic potential of human bone morphogenetic protein 2(hBMP2)gene activated nanobone putty in inducing ectopic bone formation, and the effects of the hBMP2 gene activated nanobone putry on repairing bone defects. Methods Twenty four Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups. The nanobone putty+hBMP2 plasmid was injected into the right thigh muscle pouches of the mice(experiment side). The nanobone putty+blank plasmid or nanobone putty was injected into the left thigh muscle pouches of the group 1(control side 1)or group 2(control side 2), respectively. The effects of ectopic bone formation were evaluated by radiography, histology, and molecular biology analysis at 2 and 4 weeks after operation. Bilateral 15 mm radial defects were made in forty-eight rabbits. These rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, nanobone putty+hBMP2 plasmid;Group B, putty+blank plasmid; Group C, nanobone putty only. Six rabbits with left radial defects served as blank controls. The effect of bone repairing was evaluated by radiography, histology, molecular biology, and biomechanical analysis at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation. Results The tissue from the experimental side of the mice expressed hBMP2. Obvious cartilage and island-distributed immature bone formation in implants of the experiment side were observed at 2 weeks after operation, and massive mature bone observed at 4 weeks. No bone formation was observed in the control side of the mice. The ALP activity in the experiment side of the mice was higher than that in the control side. The tissue of Group A rabbits expressed hBMP2 protein and higher ALP level

  18. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...... of a variety of clinical conditions. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the biology of MSC, their identification and culture, and mechanisms controlling their proliferation and differentiation. We also review the current status of their clinical use. Areas in which research is needed...

  19. Bone-Like Hydroxyapatite Formation in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Anatoly T.; Larionov, Peter M.; Ivanova, Alexandra S.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Chernyavskiy, Mikhail A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the mechanism of mineralization, when hydroxyapatite (HAP) is formed in blood plasma. These observations were substantiated by in vitro simulation of HAP crystallization in the plasma of healthy adults in a controllable quasi-physiological environment (T = 37°C, pH = 7.4) and at concentrations of dissolved Ca…

  20. Human dental pulp stem cell is a promising autologous seed cell for bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-hui; LIU Da-yong; ZHANG Fang-ming; WANG Fan; ZHANG Wen-kui; ZHANG Zhen-ting

    2011-01-01

    Background The seed cell is a core problem in bone tissue engineering research.Recent research indicates that human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro,which suggests that they may become a new kind of seed cells for bone tissue engineering.The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs in vitro and bone-like tissue formation when transplanted with three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds in vivo,and hDPSCs may become appropriate seed cells for bone tissue engineering.Methods We have utilized enzymatic digestion to obtain hDPSCs from dental pulp tissue extracted during orthodontic treatment.After culturing and expansion to three passages,the cells were seeded in 6-well plates or on three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds and cultured in osteogenic medium.After 14 days in culture,the three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 4 weeks.In 6-well plate culture,osteogenesis was assessed by alkaline phosphatase staining,Von Kossa staining,and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the osteogenesis-specific genes type I collagen (COL l),bone sialoprotein (BSP),osteocalcin (OCN),RUNX2,and osterix (OSX).In three-dimensional gelatin scaffold culture,X-rays,hematoxylin/eosin staining,and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine bone formation.Results In vitro studies revealed that hDPSCs do possess osteogenic differentiation potential.In vivo studies revealed that hDPSCs seeded on gelatin scaffolds can form bone structures in heterotopic sites of nude mice.Conclusions These findings suggested that hDPSCs may be valuable as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.As a special stem cell source,hDPSCs may blaze a new path for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Human fallopian tube mesenchymal stromal cells enhance bone regeneration in a xenotransplanted model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Bueno, Daniela F; Almada, Bruno V P; Caetano, Heloisa; Czeresnia, Carlos E; Perin, Paulo M; Halpern, Silvio; Maluf, Mariangela; Evangelista, Lucila P; Nisenbaum, Marcelo G; Martins, Marília T; Passos-Bueno, Maria R; Zatz, Mayana

    2012-06-01

    We have recently reported that human fallopian tubes, which are discarded during surgical procedures of women submitted to sterilization or hysterectomies, are a rich source of human fallopian tube mesenchymal stromal cells (htMSCs). It has been previously shown that human mesenchymal stromal cells may be useful in enhancing the speed of bone regeneration. This prompted us to investigate whether htMSCs might be useful for the treatment of osteoporosis or other bone diseases, since they present a pronounced capacity for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Based on this prior knowledge, our aim was to evaluate, in vivo, the osteogenic capacity of htMSCs to regenerate bone through an already described xenotransplantation model: nonimmunosuppressed (NIS) rats with cranial defects. htMSCs were obtained from five 30-50 years old healthy women and characterized by flow cytometry and for their multipotenciality in vitro capacity (osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiations). Two symmetric full-thickness cranial defects on each parietal region of seven NIS rats were performed. The left side (LS) of six animals was covered with CellCeram (Scaffdex)-a bioabsorbable ceramic composite scaffold that contains 60% hydroxyapatite and 40% β-tricalciumphosphate-only, and the right side (RS) with the CellCeram and htMSCs (10(6) cells/scaffold). The animals were euthanized at 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively and cranial tissue samples were taken for histological analysis. After 90 days we observed neobone formation in both sides. However, in animals euthanized 30 and 60 days after the procedure, a mature bone was observed only on the side with htMSCs. PCR and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the presence of human DNA and thus that human cells were not rejected, which further supports the imunomodulatory property of htMSCs. In conclusion, htMSCs can be used successfully to enhance bone regeneration in vivo, opening a new field for future treatments of osteoporosis

  2. Histological, Biomechanical and Radiological Evaluation of Bone Repair with Human Platelet Rich Plasma in Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shafiei-Sarvestani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to evaluation the effect of human platelet rich plasma (hPRP on the bone repair process in rabbit model which could be used in many procedures of orthopedic or maxillofacial bone and implant reconstructive surgery. Materials and Methods: This study is a prospective experimental study on animal model. A critical size defect (10 mm was created in the radial diaphysis of 24 rabbit and then supplied with human PRP (treatment group or the defect left empty (control group. Radiographs of each forelimb was taken postoperatively on 1st day and at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks post injury to evaluate bone formation, union and remodeling of the defect. The operated radii were removed on 56th postoperative day and were evaluated for biomechanical properties and histopathological criteria. Results: The results indicate that human PRP (as a xenogenic PRP in treatment group significantly promote bone regeneration in critical size defects compared with control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that hPRP has a high regenerative capacity in critical size bone defects in rabbit model after 8 weeks.

  3. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shunfang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: yzyg@sh163.net; Dong Qianggang [Laboratory of Mol-diagnosis, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yao Ming [Laboratory of Pathology, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Meiping [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ye Jianding [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhao Langxiang [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong [Shanghai Thoracic Tumor Institute, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xie Wenhui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Li Yao [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: huangyan@fudan.edu.cn

    2009-04-15

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as

  4. Potential bone-inducing activity in vitro of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 from a CHO expression system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-yan; SHI Wei-wei; WANG Hao; LI Bo-hua; YANG Yang; TAN Min; XUE Jing-ya; GUO Ya-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To express the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) in Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cells, and to establish the in vitro biological activity assay of rhBMP-7.Methods: Human BMP-7 cDNA was subcloned into p114 mammalian expression vector and transfected to CHO cells by using the Lipofectamine2000 transfection method. CHO cell supernatants were harvested and analyzed to identify the molecule mass of secreted rhBMP-7 and examine its biological activity in vitro to stimulate the synthesis of alkaline phophatase(ALP), a characteristic of osteoblast phenotypes. Results:rhBMP-7 was produced stably in CHO cells, as a processed mature disulfide-linked homodimer, with an apparent molecular mass of 36 000. Examination of the rhBMP-7 biological activity showed that rhBMP-7 specifically stimulated the production of ALP(4-fold increase at 100 ng of rhBMP-7/ml). Conclusion: The rhBMP-7 from CHO expression system has significant biological activity in induction of osteoblast phenotype, which demonstrates rhBMP-7 has the potential bone regeneration activity.

  5. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 expressed from CHO cells possessing the activity of bone-induced in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoyan; WANG Hao; YANG Yang; TAN Min; XUE Jingya; NI Haidong; GUO Yajun

    2006-01-01

    Objective To express the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and to establish the in vitro biological activity assay of rhBMP-7. Methods Human BMP-7 cDNA was subcloned into pcDNA3.1 mammalian expression vector and transfected to CHO cells by using the lipofectin transfection method. BMP-7 expression cell culture supernatants were harvested and purified for target protein. To analyze the bioactivity of the secreted rhBMP-7, a novel in vitro assay was established by measuring its alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stimulating of osteoblast cell line, W-20-17. Results BMP-7 stably expressing cell clone was selected, which secreted mature disulfide-linked homodimer form of hBMP-7 and had an apparent molecular weight of 36kDa. rhBMP-7 with >95% purity was obtained using 3 step chromatography method. Bioactivity assay showed that the purified protein specifically stimulated W-20-17 cell producing ALP, with a 4-fold increase of ALP activity at 100ng/ml or more, and the EC50 of 15.6ng/ml. Conclusion Purified rhBMP-7 from this CHO expression system has significant biological activity in induction of osteoblast phenotype, which demonstrates potential bone regeneration activity.

  6. Current data with inulin-type fructans and calcium, targeting bone health in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxam, Véronique

    2007-11-01

    In humans, there is increasing evidence that the colon can absorb nutritionally significant amounts of calcium, and this process may be susceptible to dietary manipulation by fermentable substrates, especially inulin-type fructans. Inulin-type fructans can modulate calcium absorption because they are resistant to hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes and are fermented in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids, which in turn reduce luminal pH and modify calcium speciation, and hence solubility, or exert a direct effect on the mucosal transport pathway. Quite a few intervention studies showed an improvement of calcium absorption in adolescents or young adults by inulin-type fructans. In the same way, a positive effect has been reported in older women.

  7. Characteristics of porous zirconia coated with hydroxyapatite as human bones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Narulkar; S Prakash; K Chandra

    2007-08-01

    Since hydroxyapatite has excellent biocompatibility and bone bonding ability, porous hydroxyapatite ceramics have been intensively studied. However, porous hydroxyapatite bodies are mechanically weak and brittle, which makes shaping and implantation difficult. One way to solve this problem is to introduce a strong porous network onto which hydroxyapatite coating is applied. In this study, porous zirconia and alumina-added zirconia ceramics were prepared by ceramic slurry infiltration of expanded polystyrene bead compacts, followed by firing at 1500°C. Then slurry of hydroxyapatite–borosilicate glass mixed powder was used to coat the porous ceramics, followed by firing at 1200°C. The porous structures without the coating had high porosities of 51–69%, high pore interconnectivity, and sufficiently large pore window sizes (300–500 m). The porous ceramics had compressive strengths of 5.3∼36.8 MPa, favourably comparable to the mechanical properties of cancellous bones. In addition, porous hydroxyapatite surface was formed on the top of the composite coating, whereas a borosilicate glass layer was found on the interface. Thus, porous zirconia-based ceramics were modified with a bioactive composite coating for biomedical applications.

  8. Organotypic culture of human bone marrow adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Shigematsu, Masamori; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Sonoda, Emiko; Soejima, Hidenobu; Fukudome, Kenji; Sugihara, Hajime; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Toda, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    The precise role of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in the marrow remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was therefore to describe a novel method for studying BMAT using 3-D collagen gel culture of BMAT fragments, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mature adipocytes and CD45+ leukocytes were retained for >3 weeks. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) including a small number of lipid-laden preadipocytes and CD44+/CD105+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells, developed from BMAT. Dexamethasone (10 micromol/L), but not insulin (20 mU/mL), significantly increased the number of preadipocytes. Dexamethasone and insulin also promoted leptin production and gene expression in BMAT. Adiponectin production by BMAT was BMAT, in which adiponectin protein secretion is normally very low, and that BMAT may exhibit a different phenotype from that of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. BMAT-osteoblast interactions were also examined, and it was found that osteoblasts inhibited the development of BMSC and reduced leptin production, while BMAT inhibited the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. The present novel method proved to be useful for the study of BMAT biology.

  9. In vitro proliferation of adult human beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    Full Text Available A decrease in functional beta-cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 analogues induce proliferation of rodent beta-cells. However, the proliferative capacity of human beta-cells and its modulation by GLP-1 analogues remain to be fully investigated. We therefore sought to quantify adult human beta-cell proliferation in vitro and whether this is affected by the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide.Human islets from 7 adult cadaveric organ donors were dispersed into single cells. Beta-cells were purified by FACS. Non-sorted cells and the beta-cell enriched ("beta-cells" population were plated on extracellular matrix from rat (804G and human bladder carcinoma cells (HTB9 or bovine corneal endothelial ECM (BCEC. Cells were maintained in culture+/-liraglutide for 4 days in the presence of BrdU.Rare human beta-cell proliferation could be observed either in the purified beta-cell population (0.051±0.020%; 22 beta-cells proliferating out of 84'283 beta-cells counted or in the non-sorted cell population (0.055±0.011%; 104 proliferating beta-cells out of 232'826 beta-cells counted, independently of the matrix or the culture conditions. Liraglutide increased human beta-cell proliferation on BCEC in the non-sorted cell population (0.082±0.034% proliferating beta-cells vs. 0.017±0.008% in control, p<0.05.These results indicate that adult human beta-cell proliferation can occur in vitro but remains an extremely rare event with these donors and particular culture conditions. Liraglutide increases beta-cell proliferation only in the non-sorted cell population and only on BCEC. However, it cannot be excluded that human beta-cells may proliferate to a greater extent in situ in response to natural stimuli.

  10. Comparison of mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta and bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 李长东; 江小霞; 李荷莲; 唐佩弦; 毛宁

    2004-01-01

    Background Nowadays bone marrow represents the main source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We identified a new population of MSCs derived from human placenta and compared its biological characterization with bone marrow derived MSCs.Methods Mononucleated cells (MNC) were isolated from the human placenta tissue perfusate by density gradient fractionation. Individual colonies were selected and cultured in tissue dishes. At the same time, human bone marrow derived MSCs were identified. Culture-expanded cells were characterized by immune phenotyping and cultured under conditions promoting differetiation to osteoblasts or adipocytes. The hematopoietic cytokines were assayed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Human placental MSCs exhibited fibroblastoid morphology. Flow cytometric analyses showed that the placental MSC were CD29, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD166, HLA-ABC positive; but were negative for CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. Functionally, they could be induced into adipocytes or osteocytes. Moreover, several hematopoietic cytokine mRNA was found in placenta-derived MSCs by RT-PCR analysis, including IL-6, M-CSF, Flt3-ligand and SCF. These results were consistent with the properties of bone marrow derived MSCs.Conclusion These observations implicate the postpartum human placenta as an important and novel source of multipotent stem cells that could potentially be used for investigating mesenchymal differentiation and regulation of hematopoiesis.

  11. Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Werner-Klein

    Full Text Available Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null (NSG and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses.

  12. Migration of bone marrow progenitor cells in the adult brain of rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennie, Donnahue; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David S

    2016-04-26

    Neurogenesis takes place in the adult mammalian brain in three areas: Subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG); subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle; olfactory bulb. Different molecular markers can be used to characterize the cells involved in adult neurogenesis. It has been recently suggested that a population of bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells may migrate to the brain and differentiate into neuronal lineage. To explore this hypothesis, we injected recombinant SV40-derived vectors into the BM and followed the potential migration of the transduced cells. Long-term BM-directed gene transfer using recombinant SV40-derived vectors leads to expression of the genes delivered to the BM firstly in circulating cells, then after several months in mature neurons and microglial cells, and thus without central nervous system (CNS) lesion. Most of transgene-expressing cells expressed NeuN, a marker of mature neurons. Thus, BM-derived cells may function as progenitors of CNS cells in adult animals. The mechanism by which the cells from the BM come to be neurons remains to be determined. Although the observed gradual increase in transgene-expressing neurons over 16 mo suggests that the pathway involved differentiation of BM-resident cells into neurons, cell fusion as the principal route cannot be totally ruled out. Additional studies using similar viral vectors showed that BM-derived progenitor cells migrating in the CNS express markers of neuronal precursors or immature neurons. Transgene-positive cells were found in the subgranular zone of the DG of the hippocampus 16 mo after intramarrow injection of the vector. In addition to cells expressing markers of mature neurons, transgene-positive cells were also positive for nestin and doublecortin, molecules expressed by developing neuronal cells. These cells were actively proliferating, as shown by short term BrdU incorporation studies. Inducing seizures by using kainic acid increased the number of BM progenitor cells

  13. Biological Characteristics of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultured in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FA Xian'en; WANG Lixia; HOU Jianfeng; ZHANG Ruicheng; WANG Haiyong; YANG Chenyuan

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Some biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in vitro were observed. hMSCs were isolated from bone marrow and purified by density gradient centrifugation method, and then cultured in vitro. The proliferation and growth characteristics of hMSCs were observed in primary and passage culture. MSCs of passage 3 were examined for the purify by positive rate of CD29 and CD44 through flow cytometry. Human bone marrow MSCs showed active proliferation capacity in vitro. The purify of MSCs separated by our method was higher than 90 %. It was concluded that hMSCs have been successfully cultured and expanded effectively. It provided a foundation for further investigation and application of MSCs.

  14. Structural and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Bone-Tendon Junction of the Calcaneal Tendon of Adult and Elderly Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are transition tissues that transfer the contractile forces generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement. The region where the tendon attaches to the bone is called bone-tendon junction or enthesis and may be classified as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. This study aims to analyze the collagen fibers and the cells present in the bone-tendon junction using light microscopy and ultrastructural techniques as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Wistar rats were used in the experiment, being 20 adult rats at 4 months-old and 20 elderly rats at 20 months-old. The hind limbs of the rats were removed, dissected and prepared to light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aging process showed changes in the collagen fibrils, with a predominance of type III fibers in the elderly group, in addition to a decrease in the amount of the fibrocartilage cells, fewer and shorter cytoplasmic processes and a decreased synthetic capacity due to degradation of the organelles involved in synthesis. PMID:27078690

  15. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Demonstrates Similar Nanostructure in Cortical Bone from Young Adult Animals of Different Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Turunen, Mikael Juhani; Mathavan, Neashan; Lages, Sebastian; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Olsson, Ulf; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Despite the vast amount of studies focusing on bone nanostructure that have been performed for several decades, doubts regarding the detailed structure of the constituting hydroxyapatite crystal still exist. Different experimental techniques report somewhat different sizes and locations, possibly due to different requirements for the sample preparation. In this study, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the nanostructure of femur samples from young adult ovine, bovine, porcine, and murine cortical bone, including three different orthogonal directions relative to the long axis of the bone. The radially averaged scattering from all samples reveals a remarkable similarity in the entire q range, which indicates that the nanostructure is essentially the same in all species. Small differences in the data from different directions confirm that the crystals are elongated in the [001] direction and that this direction is parallel to the long axis of the bone. A model consisting of thin plates is successfully employed to describe the scattering and extract the plate thicknesses, which are found to be in the range of 20-40 Å for most samples but 40-60 Å for the cow samples. It is demonstrated that the mineral plates have a large degree of polydispersity in plate thickness. Additionally, and equally importantly, the scattering data and the model are critically evaluated in terms of model uncertainties and overall information content. PMID:26914607

  16. Biochemical and physical correlates of DNA contamination in archaeological human bones and teeth excavated at Matera, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Rudbeck, L.; Willerslev, E.;

    2005-01-01

    The majority of ancient DNA studies on human specimens have utilised teeth and bone as a source of genetic material. In this study the levels of endogenous contamination (i.e. present within the sample prior to sampling for the DNA analysis) are assessed within human bone and teeth specimens samp...

  17. The use of total human bone marrow fraction in a direct three-dimensional expansion approach for bone tissue engineering applications: focus on angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Julien; Oliveira, Hugo; Catros, Sylvain; Siadous, Robin; Derkaoui, Sidi-Mohammed; Bareille, Reine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle

    2015-03-01

    Current approaches in bone tissue engineering have shown limited success, mostly owing to insufficient vascularization of the construct. A common approach consists of co-culture of endothelial cells and osteoblastic cells. This strategy uses cells from different sources and differentiation states, thus increasing the complexity upstream of a clinical application. The source of reparative cells is paramount for the success of bone tissue engineering applications. In this context, stem cells obtained from human bone marrow hold much promise. Here, we analyzed the potential of human whole bone marrow cells directly expanded in a three-dimensional (3D) polymer matrix and focused on the further characterization of this heterogeneous population and on their ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, in a subcutaneous model. Cellular aggregates were formed within 24 h and over the 12-day culture period expressed endothelial and bone-specific markers and a specific junctional protein. Ectopic implantation of the tissue-engineered constructs revealed osteoid tissue and vessel formation both at the periphery and within the implant. This work sheds light on the potential clinical use of human whole bone marrow for bone regeneration strategies, focusing on a simplified approach to develop a direct 3D culture without two-dimensional isolation or expansion.

  18. Determinants of bone mass and bone size in a large cohort of physically active young adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The determinants of bone mineral density (BMD at multiple sites were examined in a fit college population. Subjects were 755 males (mean age = 18.7 years entering the United States Military Academy. A questionnaire assessed exercise frequency and milk, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Academy staff measured height, weight, and fitness. Calcaneal BMD was measured by peripheral dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (pDXA. Peripheral-quantitative computed tomography (pQCT was used to measure tibial mineral content, circumference and cortical thickness. Spine and hip BMD were measured by DXA in a subset (n = 159. Mean BMD at all sites was approximately one standard deviation above young normal (p

  19. Forskolin enhances in vivo bone formation by human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Joyce; Siddappa, Ramakrishnaiah; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) was recently shown to enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in vitro and bone formation in vivo. The major drawback of this compound is its inhibitory effect on proliferation of hMSCs. Therefore, we investigated whether fine-tuning of the dose and timing of PKA activation could enhance bone formation even further, with minimum effects on proliferation. To test this, we selected two different PKA activators (8-bromo-cAMP (8-br-cAMP) and forskolin) and compared their effects on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation with those of db-cAMP. We found that all three compounds induced alkaline phosphatase levels, bone-specific target genes, and secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1, although 8-br-cAMP induced adipogenic differentiation in long-term cultures and was thus considered unsuitable for further in vivo testing. All three compounds inhibited proliferation of hMSCs in a dose-dependent manner, with forskolin inhibiting proliferation most. The effect of forskolin on in vivo bone formation was tested by pretreating hMSCs before implantation, and we observed greater amounts of bone using forskolin than db-cAMP. Our data show forskolin to be a novel agent that can be used to increase bone formation and also suggests a role for PKA in the delicate balance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. PMID:21942968

  20. How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, Robert O; Koester, K. J.; Ager III, J. W.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2008-05-10

    Bone is more difficult to break than to split. Although this is well known, and many studies exist on the behavior of long cracks in bone, there is a need for data on the orientation-dependent crack-growth resistance behavior of human cortical bone which accurately assesses its toughness at appropriate size-scales. Here we use in-situ mechanical testing in the scanning electron microscope and x-ray computed tomography to examine how physiologically-pertinent short (<600 mu m) cracks propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations in cortical bone, using both crack-deflection/twist mechanics and nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics to determine crack-resistance curves. We find that after only 500 mu m of cracking, the driving force for crack propagation was more than five times higher in the transverse (breaking) direction than in the longitudinal (splitting) direction due to major crack deflections/twists principally at cement sheathes. Indeed, our results show that the true transverse toughness of cortical bone is far higher than previously reported. However, the toughness in the longitudinal orientation, where cracks tend to follow the cement lines, is quite low at these small crack sizes; it is only when cracks become several millimeters in length that bridging mechanisms can develop leading to the (larger-crack) toughnesses generally quoted for bone.

  1. In Vitro Fracture of Human Cortical Bone: Local Fracture Criteria and Toughening Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, R; Stolken, J; Kinney, J; Ritchie, R

    2004-08-18

    A micro-mechanistic understanding of bone fracture that encompasses how cracks interact with the underlying microstructure and defines their local failure mode is lacking, despite extensive research on the response of bone to a variety of factors like aging, loading, and/or disease. Micro-mechanical models for fracture incorporating such local failure criteria have been widely developed for metallic and ceramic materials systems; however, few such deliberations have been undertaken for the fracture of bone. In fact, although the fracture event in mineralized tissues such as bone is commonly believed to be locally strain controlled, until recently there has been little experimental evidence to support this widely held belief. In the present study, a series of in vitro experiments involving a double-notch bend test geometry are performed in order to shed further light on the nature of the local cracking events that precede catastrophic fracture in bone and to define their relationship to the microstructure. Specifically, crack-microstructure interactions are examined to determine the salient toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone and to characterize how these may affect the anisotropy in fracture properties. Based on preliminary micro-mechanical models of these processes, in particular crack deflection and uncracked ligament bridging, the relative importance of these toughening mechanisms is established.

  2. Ultrasound arthroscopy of human knee cartilage and subchondral bone in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liukkonen, Jukka; Lehenkari, Petri; Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Joukainen, Antti; Virén, Tuomas; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Miika T; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-09-01

    Arthroscopic ultrasound imaging enables quantitative evaluation of articular cartilage. However, the potential of this technique for evaluation of subchondral bone has not been investigated in vivo. In this study, we address this issue in clinical arthroscopy of the human knee (n = 11) by determining quantitative ultrasound (9 MHz) reflection and backscattering parameters for cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, in each knee, seven anatomical sites were graded using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) system based on (i) conventional arthroscopy and (ii) ultrasound images acquired in arthroscopy with a miniature transducer. Ultrasound enabled visualization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. ICRS grades based on ultrasound images were higher (p < 0.05) than those based on conventional arthroscopy. The higher ultrasound-based ICRS grades were expected as ultrasound reveals additional information on, for example, the relative depth of the lesion. In line with previous literature, ultrasound reflection and scattering in cartilage varied significantly (p < 0.05) along the ICRS scale. However, no significant correlation between ultrasound parameters and structure or density of subchondral bone could be demonstrated. To conclude, arthroscopic ultrasound imaging had a significant effect on clinical grading of cartilage, and it was found to provide quantitative information on cartilage. The lack of correlation between the ultrasound parameters and bone properties may be related to lesser bone change or excessive attenuation in overlying cartilage and insufficient power of the applied miniature transducer. PMID:25023111

  3. Influence of Environmental Factors and Relationships between Vanadium, Chromium, and Calcium in Human Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Sokolowski, Sebastian; Kolodziej, Lukasz; Budis, Halina; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kot, Karolina; Ciosek, Zaneta; Tomska, Natalia; Galant, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the concentrations of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), and calcium (Ca) and to examine the synergistic or antagonistic relationships between these metals, in cartilage (C), cortical bone (CB), and spongy bone (SB) samples obtained following hip joint surgery on patients with osteoarthritis in NW Poland. We found significantly higher concentrations of V and Cr in spongy bone in patients who consumed game meat and also those with prosthetic implants. Chromium levels were significantly lower in patients with kidney diseases. The greatest positive correlations were found between spongy bone V and (i) the amount of consumed beer and (ii) seafood diet. Correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Cr levels and seafood diet. To a certain extent these results indicate that the concentrations of V, Cr, and Ca in the human hip joint tissues are connected with occupational exposure, kidney diseases, diet containing game meat, sea food, beer, and the presence of implants. Furthermore, we noted new types of interactions in specific parts of the femoral head. Vanadium may contribute to the lower bone Ca levels, especially in the external parts (cartilage and cortical bone). PMID:27294138

  4. Influence of Environmental Factors and Relationships between Vanadium, Chromium, and Calcium in Human Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lanocha-Arendarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the concentrations of vanadium (V, chromium (Cr, and calcium (Ca and to examine the synergistic or antagonistic relationships between these metals, in cartilage (C, cortical bone (CB, and spongy bone (SB samples obtained following hip joint surgery on patients with osteoarthritis in NW Poland. We found significantly higher concentrations of V and Cr in spongy bone in patients who consumed game meat and also those with prosthetic implants. Chromium levels were significantly lower in patients with kidney diseases. The greatest positive correlations were found between spongy bone V and (i the amount of consumed beer and (ii seafood diet. Correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Cr levels and seafood diet. To a certain extent these results indicate that the concentrations of V, Cr, and Ca in the human hip joint tissues are connected with occupational exposure, kidney diseases, diet containing game meat, sea food, beer, and the presence of implants. Furthermore, we noted new types of interactions in specific parts of the femoral head. Vanadium may contribute to the lower bone Ca levels, especially in the external parts (cartilage and cortical bone.

  5. Influence of Environmental Factors and Relationships between Vanadium, Chromium, and Calcium in Human Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Sokolowski, Sebastian; Kolodziej, Lukasz; Budis, Halina; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kot, Karolina; Ciosek, Zaneta; Tomska, Natalia; Galant, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the concentrations of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), and calcium (Ca) and to examine the synergistic or antagonistic relationships between these metals, in cartilage (C), cortical bone (CB), and spongy bone (SB) samples obtained following hip joint surgery on patients with osteoarthritis in NW Poland. We found significantly higher concentrations of V and Cr in spongy bone in patients who consumed game meat and also those with prosthetic implants. Chromium levels were significantly lower in patients with kidney diseases. The greatest positive correlations were found between spongy bone V and (i) the amount of consumed beer and (ii) seafood diet. Correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Cr levels and seafood diet. To a certain extent these results indicate that the concentrations of V, Cr, and Ca in the human hip joint tissues are connected with occupational exposure, kidney diseases, diet containing game meat, sea food, beer, and the presence of implants. Furthermore, we noted new types of interactions in specific parts of the femoral head. Vanadium may contribute to the lower bone Ca levels, especially in the external parts (cartilage and cortical bone).

  6. Forskolin enhances in vivo bone formation by human mesenchymal stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Siddappa, R.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Boer, de J.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) was recently shown to enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in vitro and bone formation in vivo. The major drawback of this compound is its inhibitory effe

  7. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates axonal injur y in stroke rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Xu; Shiwei Du; Xinguang Yu; Xiao Han; Jincai Hou; Hao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural functional recovery after stroke, but the neurorestorative mechanisms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that functional recovery of myelinated axons may be one of underlying mechanisms. In this study, an ischemia/reperfusion rat model was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion method. Rats were used to test the hypothesis that in-travenous transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the femoral vein could exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia via a mechanism associated with the ability to attenuate axonal injury. The results of behavioral tests, infarction volume analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that cerebral ischemia caused severe damage to the myelin sheath and axons. After rats were intravenously transplanted with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the levels of axon and myelin sheath-related proteins, including mi-crotubule-associated protein 2, myelin basic protein, and growth-associated protein 43, were elevated, infarct volume was decreased and neural function was improved in cerebral ischemic rats. These ifndings suggest that intravenously transplanted human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote neural function. Possible mechanisms underlying these beneifcial effects in-clude resistance to demyelination after cerebral ischemia, prevention of axonal degeneration, and promotion of axonal regeneration.

  8. The Human Figure Drawing with Donor and Nondonor Siblings of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy L.; Beck, Vanessa L.; VanZutphen, Kelly H.; Long, Janet K.; Spengler, Gisele

    2003-01-01

    There is little research on the psychological impact of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on family members. This study uses the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) to measure siblings' emotional distress toward BMT. Among the siblings, feelings of isolation, anger, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem emerged as major themes. Findings indicate the…

  9. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: uri@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Rodrigo P., E-mail: clinicaguimaraes@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCM/SCSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2015-07-01

    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  10. Nanostructured Tendon-Derived Scaffolds for Enhanced Bone Regeneration by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunkyung; Alberti, Kyle; Lee, Jong Seung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Shin, Jisoo; Yang, Hee Seok; Xu, Qiaobing; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Decellularized matrix-based scaffolds can induce enhanced tissue regeneration due to their biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical similarity to native tissues. In this study, we report a nanostructured decellularized tendon scaffold with aligned, nanofibrous structures to enhance osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Using a bioskiving method, we prepared decellularized tendon scaffolds from tissue slices of bovine Achilles and neck tendons with or without fixation, and investigated the effects on physical and mechanical properties of decellularized tendon scaffolds, based on the types and concentrations of cross-linking agents. In general, we found that decellularized tendon scaffolds without fixative treatments were more effective in inducing osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hADSCs in vitro. When non-cross-linked decellularized tendon scaffolds were applied together with hydroxyapatite for hADSC transplantation in critical-sized bone defects, they promoted bone-specific collagen deposition and mineralized bone formation 4 and 8 weeks after hADSC transplantation, compared to conventional collagen type I scaffolds. Interestingly, stacking of decellularized tendon scaffolds cultured with osteogenically committed hADSCs and those containing human cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) induced vascularized bone regeneration in the defects 8 weeks after transplantation. Our study suggests that biomimetic nanostructured scaffolds made of decellularized tissue matrices can serve as functional tissue-engineering scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis of stem cells. PMID:27502160

  11. The feasibility of in vivo quantification of bone-fluorine in humans by delayed neutron activation analysis: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine (F) plays an important role in dental health and bone formation. Many studies have shown that excess fluoride (F−) can result in dental or skeletal fluorosis, while other studies have indicated that a proper dosage of fluoride may have a protective effect on bone fracture incidence. Fluorine is stored almost completely in the skeleton making bone an ideal site for measurement to assess long-term exposure. This paper outlines a feasibility study of a technique to measure bone-fluorine non-invasively in the human hand using in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) via the 19F(n,γ)20F reaction. Irradiations were performed using the Tandetron accelerator at McMaster University. Eight NaI(Tl) detectors arranged in a 4π geometry were employed for delayed counting of the emitted 1.63 MeV gamma ray. The short 11 s half-life of 20F presents a difficult and unique practical challenge in terms of patient irradiation and subsequent detection. We have employed two simultaneous timing methods to determine the fluorine sensitivity by eliminating the interference of the 1.64 MeV gamma ray from the 37Cl(n,γ)38Cl reaction. The timing method consisted of three counting periods: an initial 30 s (sum of three 10 s periods) count period for F, followed by a 120 s decay period, and a subsequent 300 s count period to obtain information pertaining to Ca and Cl. The phantom minimum detectable limit (MDL) determined by this method was 0.96 mg F/g Ca. The MDL was improved by dividing the initial timing period into three equal segments (10 s each) and combining the results using inverse variance weighting. This resulted in a phantom MDL of 0.66 mg F/g Ca. These detection limits are comparable to ex vivo results for various bones in the adult skeleton reported in the literature. Dosimetry was performed for these irradiation conditions. The equivalent dose for each phantom measurement was determined to be 30 mSv. The effective dose was however low, 35 µSv, which is comparable

  12. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A.; Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-08-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering.

  13. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A.; Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-08-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p < 0.01). This human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering.

  14. Engineering of a functional bone organ through endochondral ossification

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Celeste; Piccinini, Elia; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Todorov, Atanas; Bourgine, Paul; Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Barbero, Andrea; Manz, Markus G.; Martin, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic development, lengthening, and repair of most bones proceed by endochondral ossification, namely through formation of a cartilage intermediate. It was previously demonstrated that adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) can execute an endochondral program and ectopically generate mature bone. Here we hypothesized that hMSCs pushed through endochondral ossification can engineer a scaled-up ossicle with features of a “bone organ,” including physiologicall...

  15. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    from human tissue were included (IsoTis OrthoBiologics, Inc. USA). Both materials are commercially available. Titanium alloy implants (Biomet Inc.) of 10 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep. Thus four implants...

  16. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates axonal injury in stroke rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei; Yu, Xinguang; HAN, XIAO; Hou, Jincai; Guo, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural functional recovery after stroke, but the neurorestorative mechanisms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that functional recovery of myelinated axons may be one of underlying mechanisms. In this study, an ischemia/reperfusion rat model was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion method. Rats were used to test the hypothesis that intravenous transplantation of human ...

  17. Methodologies for Development of Patient Specific Bone Models from Human Body CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Vikas Narayan; Mulay, Arati Vinayak; Ahuja, Bharatkumar Bhagatraj

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with development of algorithm for physical replication of patient specific human bone and construction of corresponding implants/inserts RP models by using Reverse Engineering approach from non-invasive medical images for surgical purpose. In medical field, the volumetric data i.e. voxel and triangular facet based models are primarily used for bio-modelling and visualization, which requires huge memory space. On the other side, recent advances in Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology provides additional facilities/functions for design, prototyping and manufacturing of any object having freeform surfaces based on boundary representation techniques. This work presents a process to physical replication of 3D rapid prototyping (RP) physical models of human bone from various CAD modeling techniques developed by using 3D point cloud data which is obtained from non-invasive CT/MRI scans in DICOM 3.0 format. This point cloud data is used for construction of 3D CAD model by fitting B-spline curves through these points and then fitting surface between these curve networks by using swept blend techniques. This process also can be achieved by generating the triangular mesh directly from 3D point cloud data without developing any surface model using any commercial CAD software. The generated STL file from 3D point cloud data is used as a basic input for RP process. The Delaunay tetrahedralization approach is used to process the 3D point cloud data to obtain STL file. CT scan data of Metacarpus (human bone) is used as the case study for the generation of the 3D RP model. A 3D physical model of the human bone is generated on rapid prototyping machine and its virtual reality model is presented for visualization. The generated CAD model by different techniques is compared for the accuracy and reliability. The results of this research work are assessed for clinical reliability in replication of human bone in medical field.

  18. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  19. Pore network microarchitecture influences human cortical bone elasticity during growth and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Yohann; Lefèvre, Emmanuelle; Roux, Jean-Paul; Baron, Cécile; Lasaygues, Philippe; Pithioux, Martine; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Follet, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    Cortical porosity is a major determinant of bone strength. Haversian and Volkmann׳s canals are׳seen' as pores in 2D cross-section but fashion a dynamic network of interconnected channels in 3D, a quantifiable footprint of intracortical remodeling. Given the changes in bone remodeling across life, we hypothesized that the 3D microarchitecture of the cortical pore network influences its stiffness during growth and ageing. Cubes of cortical bone of 2 mm side-length were harvested in the distal 1/3 of the fibula in 13 growing children (mean age±SD: 13±4 yrs) and 16 adults (age: 75±13 yrs). The cubes were imaged using desktop micro-CT (8.14µm isotropic voxel size). Pores were segmented as a solid to assess pore volume fraction, number, diameter, separation, connectivity and structure model index. Elastic coefficients were derived from measurements of ultrasonic bulk compression and shear wave velocities and apparent mass density. The pore volume fraction did not significantly differ between children and adults but originates from different microarchitectural patterns. Compared to children, adults had 42% (p=0.033) higher pore number that were more connected (Connective Density: +205%, p=0.001) with a 18% (p=0.007) lower pore separation. After accounting for the contribution of pore volume fraction, axial elasticity in traction-compression mode was significantly correlated with better connectivity in growing children and with pore separation among adults. The changes in intracortical remodeling across life alter the distribution, size and connectedness of the channels from which cortical void fraction originates. These alterations in pore network microarchitecture participate in changes in compressive and shear mechanical behavior, partly in a porosity-independent manner. The assessment of pore volume fraction (i.e., porosity) provides only a limited understanding of the role of cortical void volume fraction in its mechanical properties. PMID:27389322

  20. Healing patterns of critical size bony defects in rats after grafting with bone substitutes soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: histological and histometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, N; Naaman, N; Nohra, J; Badawi, N

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different bone substitutes soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on the healing of critical size defects in calvarial bone. Defects were created in 24 Sprague Dawley rats. The rhBMP-2 was diluted to obtain a final concentration of 0.2mg/ml. Rats were divided into four groups and treated as follows: in the first group the defect was filled with anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) and rhBMP-2, the second group was treated with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) and rhBMP-2, and the third group was treated with autogenous bone (AUTO). In the control group the defects were left untreated. Animals were killed after 8weeks and calcified histological sections prepared. Histometric measurements showed that mean (SD) bone formation was 4.00 (1.69)mm(2) in the ABBM group, 2.56 (1.06)mm(2) in the FDBA group, and 2.30 (0.34)mm(2) in the AUTO group. The difference between the ABBM group and the other 3 groups was significant (p<0.0001) with a mean bone formation of 0.82 (0.25)mm(2) in the control group. There was no significant difference between the FDBA and the AUTO groups (p=0.96). Within the limits of this study we concluded that the addition of rhBMP-2 to bone substitutes was efficacious in regenerating bone in critical size bone defects in calveria in rats. PMID:22939894

  1. Evaluation of joints in the lower limbs in adults and children using bone SPECT: Technical aspects and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization procedures for and results of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) bone scintigraphy scans of the lower limbs are discussed. A group of patients was selected comprising 12 adults with chronic knee pain and 11 children with disorders which might affect growth cartilage. For the latter, it was proposed to evaluate the global and localized activity of the physics using SPECT with post-processing in three dimensions. These results are important in that they may directly influence the decision whether or not to proceed with orthopedic treatment or surgery, the aim being to prevent or predict dysmetrias and secondary deformities caused by various pathologies. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Isolation and Assessment of Single Long-Term Reconstituting Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Adult Mouse Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David G; Dykstra, Brad J; Eaves, Connie J

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells with long-term repopulating activity can now be routinely obtained at purities of 40% to 50% from suspensions of adult mouse bone marrow. Here we describe robust protocols for both their isolation as CD45(+) EPCR(+) CD150(+) CD48(-) (ESLAM) cells using multiparameter cell sorting and for tracking their clonal growth and differentiation activity in irradiated mice transplanted with single ESLAM cells. The simplicity of these procedures makes them attractive for characterizing the molecular and biological properties of individual hematopoietic stem cells with unprecedented power and precision. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27532815

  3. Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D

    2014-10-14

    Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; P0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (Pvitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency.

  4. HLA alleles association with changes in bone mineral density in HIV-1-infected adults changing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Haskelberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding the influence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA polymorphisms on reduced bone mineral density (BMD. We investigated the relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD in HIV-infected adults changing their existing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC or abacavir-lamivudine (ABC-3TC in the STEAL study. METHODS: Lumbar spine and right hip BMD were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. HLA genotypes at the 2-digit level were classified into class I and II supertypes. Student's t-tests were used to test the association between HLA supertypes and changes in hip and spine BMD over 96 weeks for the whole cohort and stratified by randomised groups. The relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD was also assessed in the subgroup of participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at study entry. RESULTS: Class II supertypes were mainly associated with hip BMD change. Overall, compared to participants not carrying HLA-DQ3, participants expressing DQ3 had less bone loss over 96 weeks at both the hip and spine (hip: 0.003 vs. -0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.002 to 0.017, p = 0.016; spine: 0.006 vs. -0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.001 to 0.023, p = 0.041. In participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at baseline and randomised to TDF-FTC, DQ3 was significantly associated with less bone loss compared with those not carrying DQ3 (hip: 0.001 vs. -0.032 g/cm2; diff 0.033; 95%CI 0.017 to 0.049; p<0.001; spine: 0.007 vs. -0.023 g/cm2; diff 0.035; 95%CI 0.014 to 0.056; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of HIV-infected adults, there was an association between bone status and HLA supertypes, particularly HLA-DQ3. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192634.

  5. Demineralized dentin matrix combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rabbit calvarial defects

    OpenAIRE

    Um, In-Woong; Hwang, Suk-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Moon-Young; Jun, Sang-Ho; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Jang, Hyon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic effects of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in rabbit calvarial defects with DDM and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) combined with rhBMP-2. Materials and Methods Four round defects with 8-mm diameters were created in each rabbit calvaria. Each defect was treated with one of the following: 1) DDM, 2) ABB/rhBMP-2, or 3) DDM/rhBMP-2. The rhBMP-2 was combined with DDM...

  6. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A.; Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Oreffo, Richard OC

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering. PMID:27577960

  7. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A; Janeczek, Agnieszka A; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M; Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering. PMID:27577960

  8. From Adult Bone Marrow Cells to Other Cell Lineages:Transdifferentiation or Cells Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation or local injection of bone marrow cells can induce unexpected changes of their fate. The results of these experiments showed that after transplantation or injecton, some of tissue specific somatic cells such as hepatocytes, skeleton, cardiac muscle cells and brain cells expressed the donor cell-specific genes, such as Y chromosome. There are two hypotheses that can explain this phenomenon. One is bone marrow stem cell transdifferentiation and the other is spontaneous cell fusion.

  9. Relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water on human chromosomes of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major toxic effluent from nuclear power industries is tritiated water (HTO), which is released into the environment in large quantities. Low dose radiation effects and dose rate effects of HTO on human lymphocytes and bone marrow cells are not well studied. The present study was performed to investigate dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies in the human lymphocytes and bone marrow cells, by HTO in-vitro exposure at low dose ranges of 0.1 to 1 Gy. Go lymphocytes and bone marrow cells were incubated for 10 - 150 minutes with HTO at 2 cGy/min. Also 60Co γ and 137Cs γ rays were used as controls. Dicentric chromosomes were scored in 1,000 to 2,000 cells of each experimental series. The RBE values of HTO at low dose range for the induction of dicentric chromosomes and chromatid type aberrations were 2.7 in lymphocytes and approximately 3.8 in bone marrow cells with respect to 60Co γ ray, respectively. Also lymphocytes were chronically exposed to HTO for 24 to 72 hrs at lower dose rates (0.2 and 0.05 cGy/min). The yields of dicentrics and rings decreased with the reduction in the dose rate of HTO, presenting a clear dose rate effects of HTO. These results provide an useful information for the assessment for health risk in humans exposed to low concentration level to HTO. (author)

  10. A comparison of osteoclast-rich and osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis in adult mice sheds light on the role of the osteoclast in coupling bone resorption and bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thudium, Christian S; Moscatelli, Ilana; Flores, Carmen;

    2014-01-01

    that osteoclasts are important for regulating osteoblast activity. To illuminate the role of the osteoclast in controlling bone remodeling, we transplanted irradiated skeletally mature 3-month old wild-type mice with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate either an osteoclast-rich or osteoclast-poor adult...... osteopetrosis model. We used fetal liver HSCs from (1) oc/oc mice, (2) RANK KO mice, and (3) compared these to wt control cells. TRAP5b activity, a marker of osteoclast number and size, was increased in the oc/oc recipients, while a significant reduction was seen in the RANK KO recipients. In contrast, the bone......Osteopetrosis due to lack of acid secretion by osteoclasts is characterized by abolished bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, but normal or even increased bone formation. In contrast, osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis appears to have less osteoblasts and reduced bone formation, indicating...

  11. Human talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gracia, Ana; Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2013-07-01

    Here we present and describe comparatively 25 talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These tali belong to 14 individuals (11 adult and three immature). Although variation among Middle and Late Pleistocene tali tends to be subtle, this study has identified unique morphological characteristics of the SH tali. They are vertically shorter than those of Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens, and show a shorter head and a broader lateral malleolar facet than all of the samples. Moreover, a few shared characters with Neanderthals are consistent with the hypothesis that the SH population and Neanderthals are sister groups. These shared characters are a broad lateral malleolar facet, a trochlear height intermediate between modern humans and Late Pleistocene H. sapiens, and a short middle calcaneal facet. It has been possible to propose sex assignment for the SH tali based on their size. Stature estimates based on these fossils give a mean stature of 174.4 cm for males and 161.9 cm for females, similar to that obtained based on the long bones from this same site. PMID:23706407

  12. Characterization of pancreatic stem cells derived from adult human pancreas ducts by fluorescence activated cell sorting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Tso Lin; Shih-Hwa Chiou; Chung-Lan Kao; Yi-Ming Shyr; Chien-Jen Hsu; Yih-Wen Tarng; Larry L-T Ho; Ching-Fai Kwok; Hung-Hai Ku

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To isolate putative pancreatic stem cells (PSCs)from human adult tissues of pancreas duct using serumfree, conditioned medium. The characterization of surface phenotype of these PSCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. The potential for pancreatic lineage and the capability of β-cell differentiation in these PSCs were evaluated as well.METHODS: By using serum-free medium supplemented with essential growth factors, we attempted to isolate the putative PSCs which has been reported to express nestin and pdx-1. The MatrigelTM was employed to evaluate the differential capacity of isolated cells. Dithizone staining, insulin content/secretion measurement, and immunohistochemistry staining were used to monitor the differentiation. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)was used to detect the phenotypic markers of putative PSCs.RESULTS: A monolayer of spindle-like cells was cultivated. The putative PSCs expressed pdx-1 and nestin.They were also able to differentiate into insulin-, glucagon-, and somatostatin-positive cells. The spectrum of phenotypic markers in PSCs was investigated; a similarity was revealed when using human bone marrow-derived stem cells as the comparative experiment, such as CD29,CD44, CD49, CD50, CD51, CD62E, PDGFR-α, CD73 (SH2),CD81, CD105(SH3).CONCLUSION: In this study, we successfully isolated PSCs from adult human pancreatic duct by using serumfree medium. These PSCs not only expressed nestin and pdx-1 but also exhibited markers attributable to mesenchymal stem cells. Although work is needed to elucidate the role of these cells, the application of these PSCs might be therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus.

  13. In situ microtomography study of human bones under strain with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuet, Pierre; Roux, Jean-Paul; Dabin, Yves; Boivin, Georges

    2004-10-01

    At the ESRF Micro-Fluorescence, Imaging and Diffraction beamline ID22, X-Ray micro-tomography is a routine technique proposed to users for 3D microanalysis of various samples. The purpose of this work is to extend 3D micro-tomography in order to obtain in-situ 3D information about samples at increasing pure axial loads. We developed a new device that allows one to combine mechanical testing and micro-tomography. The device is optimised for low Gpa Young moduli like plastics or bone but can easily be adapted to higher values. In this paper we present first results obtained with animal and human bone samples to gain insight into the bone microcrack problem.

  14. Identification of Rorβ targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roforth, Matthew M., E-mail: roforth.matthew@mayo.edu; Khosla, Sundeep, E-mail: khosla.sundeep@mayo.edu; Monroe, David G., E-mail: monroe.david@mayo.edu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We examine the gene expression patterns controlled by Rorβ in osteoblasts. •Genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation and proliferation are affected. •Rorβ mRNA levels increase in aged, human bone biopsies. •Rorβ may affect osteoblast activity by modulation of these pathways. -- Abstract: Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor β (Rorβ) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Rorβ is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Rorβ are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Rorβ in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Rorβ-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP model system, suggesting that Rorβ may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both RORβ and a subset of RORβ-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for RORβ in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Rorβ regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss.

  15. Cardiomyocyte-like differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to 5-azacytidine in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng CAO; Lili NIU; Ling MENG; Lianxu ZHAO; Dongmei Wang; Ming ZHENG; Cixian BAI; Guoliang JIA; Xuetao PEI

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrow to undergo cardiomyogenic differentiation after exposure to 5-azacytidine (5-aza) in vitro. Methods A small bone marrow aspirate was taken from the iliac crest of human volunteers, and hMSCs were isolated by 1.073g/mL Percoll and propagated in the right cell culturing medium as previously described. The phenotypes of hMSCs were characterized with the use of flow cytometry. The hMSCs were cultured in cell culture medium (as control) and medium mixed with 5-aza for cellular differentiation. We examined by immunohistochemistry at 21 days the inducement of desmin, cardiac-specific cardiac troponin I (cTnI), GATA 4 and connexin-43 respectively. Results The hMSCs are fibroblast-like morphology and express CD44+ CD29+ CD90+ / CD34- CD45- CD31- CD11a. After 5-aza treatment, 20-30% hMSCs connected with adjoining cells and coalesced into myotube structures after 14days. Twenty-one days after 5-aza treatment, immunofluorescence showed that some cells expressed desmin,GATA4, cTnI and connexin-43 in 5,10 μmol/L 5-aza groups, but no cardiac specific protein was found in neither 3μmol/L 5-aza group nor in the control group. The ratio of cTnI positively stained cells in 10 μmol/L group was higher than that in 5 μmol/L group (65.3 ± 4.7% vs 48.2 ± 5.4%, P < 0.05). Electron microscopy revealed that myofilaments were formed. The induced cells expressed cardiac-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusions Theses findings suggest that hMSCs from adult bone marrow can be differentiated into cardiac-like muscle cells with 5-aza inducement in vitro and the differentiation is in line with the 5-aza concentration. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2) :101-107. )

  16. Periostin deficiency increases bone damage and impairs injury response to fatigue loading in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Gineyts, Evelyne; Ammann, Patrick; Conway, Simon J; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Bone damage removal and callus formation in response to fatigue loading are essential to prevent fractures. Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein that mediates adaptive response of cortical bone to loading. Whether and how periostin influences damage and the injury response to fatigue remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of Postn(-/-) and Postn(+/+) mice after fatigue stimulus by axial compression of their tibia. In Postn(+/+) mice, cracks number and surface (CsNb, CsS) increased 1h after fatigue, with a decrease in strength compared to non-fatigued tibia. At 15 days, CsNb had started to decline, while CtTV and CtBV increased in fatigued vs non-fatigued tibia, reflecting a woven bone response that was present in 75% of the fatigued bones. Cortical porosity and remodelling also prominently increased in the fatigued tibia of Postn(+/+) mice. At 30 days, paralleling a continuous removal of cortical damage, strength of the fatigued tibia was similar to the non-fatigue tibia. In Postn(-/-) mice, cracks were detectable even in the absence of fatigue, while the amount of collagen crosslinks and tissue hardness was decreased compared to Postn(+/+). Fatigue significantly increased CsNb and CsS in Postn(-/-), but was not associated with changes in CtTV and CtBV, as only 16% of the fatigued bones formed some woven bone. Cortical porosity and remodelling did not increase either after fatigue in Postn(-/-), and the level of damage remained high even after 30 days. As a result, strength remained compromised in Postn(-/-) mice. Contrary to Postn(+/+), which osteocytic lacunae showed a change in the degree of anisotropy (DA) after fatigue, Postn(-/-) showed no DA change. Hence periostin appears to influence bone materials properties, damage accumulation and repair, including local modeling/remodeling processes in response to fatigue. These observations suggest that the level of periostin expression could influence the propensity to fatigue fractures. PMID

  17. Periostin deficiency increases bone damage and impairs injury response to fatigue loading in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bonnet

    Full Text Available Bone damage removal and callus formation in response to fatigue loading are essential to prevent fractures. Periostin (Postn is a matricellular protein that mediates adaptive response of cortical bone to loading. Whether and how periostin influences damage and the injury response to fatigue remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of Postn(-/- and Postn(+/+ mice after fatigue stimulus by axial compression of their tibia. In Postn(+/+ mice, cracks number and surface (CsNb, CsS increased 1h after fatigue, with a decrease in strength compared to non-fatigued tibia. At 15 days, CsNb had started to decline, while CtTV and CtBV increased in fatigued vs non-fatigued tibia, reflecting a woven bone response that was present in 75% of the fatigued bones. Cortical porosity and remodelling also prominently increased in the fatigued tibia of Postn(+/+ mice. At 30 days, paralleling a continuous removal of cortical damage, strength of the fatigued tibia was similar to the non-fatigue tibia. In Postn(-/- mice, cracks were detectable even in the absence of fatigue, while the amount of collagen crosslinks and tissue hardness was decreased compared to Postn(+/+. Fatigue significantly increased CsNb and CsS in Postn(-/-, but was not associated with changes in CtTV and CtBV, as only 16% of the fatigued bones formed some woven bone. Cortical porosity and remodelling did not increase either after fatigue in Postn(-/-, and the level of damage remained high even after 30 days. As a result, strength remained compromised in Postn(-/- mice. Contrary to Postn(+/+, which osteocytic lacunae showed a change in the degree of anisotropy (DA after fatigue, Postn(-/- showed no DA change. Hence periostin appears to influence bone materials properties, damage accumulation and repair, including local modeling/remodeling processes in response to fatigue. These observations suggest that the level of periostin expression could influence the propensity to fatigue fractures.

  18. Site-specific, adult bone benefits attributed to loading during youth: A preliminary longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerpella, Tamara A; Bernardoni, Brittney; Wang, Sijian; Rathouz, Paul J; Li, Quefeng; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2016-04-01

    We examined site-specific bone development in relation to childhood and adolescent artistic gymnastics exposure, comparing up to 10years of prospectively acquired longitudinal data in 44 subjects, including 31 non-gymnasts (NON) and 13 gymnasts (GYM) who participated in gymnastics from pre-menarche to ≥1.9years post-menarche. Subjects underwent annual regional and whole-body DXA scans; indices of bone geometry and strength were calculated. Anthropometrics, physical activity, and maturity were assessed annually, coincident with DXA scans. Non-linear mixed effect models centered growth in bone outcomes at menarche and adjusted for menarcheal age, height, and non-bone fat-free mass to evaluate GYM-NON differences. A POST-QUIT variable assessed the withdrawal effect of quitting gymnastics. Curves for bone area, mass (BMC), and strength indices were higher in GYM than NON at both distal radius metaphysis and diaphysis (pGYM BMC (pGYM endosteal diameter (pGYM advantages in narrow neck cortical thickness and buckling ratio (both pGYM than NON (pGYM slopes increased for distal radius diaphysis parameters (p≤0.01) and for narrow neck BR (p=0.02). At the distal radius metaphysis, GYM BMC and compressive strength slopes decreased, as did slopes for lumbar spine BMC, femoral neck BMC, and narrow neck cortical thickness (p<0.02). In conclusion, advantages in bone mass, geometry, and strength at multiple skeletal sites were noted across growth and into young adulthood in girls who participated in gymnastics loading to at least 1.9years post-menarche. Following gymnastics cessation, advantages at cortical bone sites improved or stabilized, while advantages at corticocancellous sites stabilized or diminished. Additional longitudinal observation is necessary to determine whether residual loading benefits enhance lifelong skeletal strength.

  19. Correlation of petrous bone convergence angle and slope of its walls with dimensional skull characteristics of human craniotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossoshanskiy D.N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim. The purpose of this paper is to study the correlation between the angles of convergence and slope of the pyramids of the temporal bone and linear and angular parameters of the cranial depending on the basilar angle. Materials and Methods. Material study is based on 100 skulls of adult humans, divided into three craniotypes. The method of measurement were made craniotopometric these parameters with further calculation of average values of the calculated and the drafting of the correlation model. The results. Study of features of the correlation angle of convergence and the slope of the pyramids of the temporal bone and linear and angular parameters of the cranial showed varying in strength and direction of the relationship of each craniotypes. Conclusion. During the study, flexibasilar craniotypes installed close inverse relationship between: tilt the front surface of the pyramids and the long base of the skull; convergence angle of the pyramids and the length of posterior skull base, the long base of the skull to the posterior edge of the large aperture. In mediobasilar craniotypes study parameters showed mostly moderate and weak degree of multidirectional nature. For platibasilar craniotypes characterized by a close direct correlation between the convergence angle of the pyramids and the length of posterior skull base. Other dimensions of the pyramid of the temporal bone are subject to greater variability can be explained by complex, multi-directional factors shaping the internal structures of the skull base.

  20. Mechanics of bone/PMMA composite structures: an in vitro study of human vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Amos; Mann, Kenneth A; Edidin, Avram A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide material property data for the cement/bone composite resulting from the introduction of PMMA bone cement into human vertebral bodies. A series of quasistatic tensile and compressive mechanical tests were conducted using cement/bone composite structures machined from cement-infiltrated vertebral bodies. Experiments were performed both at room temperature and at body temperature. We found that the modulus of the composite structures was lower than bulk cement (p<0.0001). For compression at 37( composite function)C: composite =2.3+/-0.5GPa, cement =3.1+/-0.2GPa; at 23( composite function)C: composite =3.0+/-0.3GPa, cement =3.4+/-0.2GPa. Specimens tested at room temperature were stiffer than those tested at body temperature (p=0.0004). Yield and ultimate strength factors for the composite were all diminished (55-87%) when compared to cement properties. In general, computational models have assumed that cement/bone composite had the same modulus as cement. The results of this study suggest that computational models of cement infiltrated vertebrae and cemented arthroplasties could be improved by specifying different material properties for cement and cement/bone composite. PMID:16797554

  1. Effect of Aging on the Toughness of Human Cortical Bone: Evaluation by R-Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, J

    2004-10-08

    Age-related deterioration of the fracture properties of bone, coupled with increased life expectancy, are responsible for increasing incidence of bone fracture in the elderly, and hence, an understanding of how its fracture properties degrade with age is essential. The present study describes ex vivo fracture experiments to quantitatively assess the effect of aging on the fracture toughness properties of human cortical bone in the longitudinal direction. Because cortical bone exhibits rising crack-growth resistance with crack extension, unlike most previous studies the toughness is evaluated in terms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior, measured for bone taken from wide range of age groups (34-99 years). Using this approach, both the ex vivo crack-initiation and crack-growth toughness are determined and are found to deteriorate with age; the initiation toughness decreases some 40% over six decades from 40 to 100 years, while the growth toughness is effectively eliminated over the same age range. The reduction in crack-growth toughness is considered to be associated primarily with a degradation in the degree of extrinsic toughening, in particular involving crack bridging in the wake of the crack.

  2. Engineering a human bone marrow model: a case study on ex vivo erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantalaris, A; Keng, P; Bourne, P; Chang, A Y; Wu, J H

    1998-01-01

    Bone marrow, with its intricate, three-dimensional tissue structure facilitating cell-cell interactions, provides a microenvironment supporting the production of hundreds of billions of multilineal blood cells everyday. We have developed a three-dimensional bone marrow culture system in which marrow cells are cultured in a reactor packed with porous microspheres. The culture supports a three-dimensional growth configuration and multilineal hemopoiesis mimicking the bone marrow in vivo. We studied ex vivo human erythropoiesis using the three-dimensional culture system. The system sustained extensive erythropoiesis at low erythropoietin concentrations (0.2 U/mL), plus stem cell factor, interleukin-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and insulin-like growth factor-I. Erythroid cell production lasted for more than 5 weeks, and the percentage of erythroid cells in the nonadherent cell population was approximately 60%. Flow cytometric analysis using cell surface markers specific for erythroid cells (CD71 and glycophorin-A) indicated that the culture produced early, intermediate, and late erythroid cells. As the culture progressed, the erythroid cell population shifted gradually toward mature cell types. When compared to the three-dimensional culture, the traditional flask cultures failed to support extensive erythropoiesis under the same conditions. This indicates that the three-dimensional bone marrow culture system provides a microenvironment conducive to erythropoiesis under more physiological conditions and is a better bone marrow model.

  3. Wave propagation at the human muscle-compact bone interface

    OpenAIRE

    Hsia Shao-Yi; Chiu Shih-Ming; Cheng Jyin-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Due to the improvement of the signal processing and image technology, the clinical ultrasound system becomes an important tool to assist doctors in detecting diseases. Hence, it is necessary to know the biological effects of ultrasound in human tissue. In ultrasonic waves, the discrepancy between classic elasticity and experimental elasticity becomes a particularly important problem, especially when there are higher frequencies and smaller wavelengths, i.e., in the case of wave propagation in...

  4. Human Allogeneic Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induce CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cell Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Reinders, Marlies E.; Franquesa, Marcella; Engela, Anja U; Korevaar, Sander S; Roelofs, Helene; Genever, Paul G; IJzermans, Jan NM; Betjes, Michiel GH; Baan, Carla C; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction For clinical applications, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) can be isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue of autologous or allogeneic origin. Allogeneic cell usage has advantages but may harbor the risk of sensitization against foreign HLA. Therefore, we evaluated whether bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSC are capable of inducing HLA-specific alloreactivity. Methods MSC were isolated from healthy human Bone Marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (ASC) donors. Peripheral ...

  5. Wnt1 and BMP2: two factors recruiting multipotent neural crest progenitors isolated from adult bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glejzer, A; Laudet, E; Leprince, P; Hennuy, B; Poulet, C; Shakhova, O; Sommer, L; Rogister, B; Wislet-Gendebien, S

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that neural crest-derived progenitor cells can be found in diverse mammalian tissues including tissues that were not previously shown to contain neural crest derivatives, such as bone marrow. The identification of those "new" neural crest-derived progenitor cells opens new strategies for developing autologous cell replacement therapies in regenerative medicine. However, their potential use is still a challenge as only few neural crest-derived progenitor cells were found in those new accessible locations. In this study, we developed a protocol, based on wnt1 and BMP2 effects, to enrich neural crest-derived cells from adult bone marrow. Those two factors are known to maintain and stimulate the proliferation of embryonic neural crest stem cells, however, their effects have never been characterized on neural crest cells isolated from adult tissues. Using multiple strategies from microarray to 2D-DIGE proteomic analyses, we characterized those recruited neural crest-derived cells, defining their identity and their differentiating abilities. PMID:20976520

  6. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    architecture to the prevailing mechanical load and should be able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodeling. In vitro investigation of the responsiveness of different cell types to mechanical loading is so far a relative new research field. The aim of this study was to establish...... and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation......Recent studies have shown that dental pulp cells possess stem cell like potential and thus may be potential candidates for tissue engineering purposes particularly in the oro-facial region. Successful tissue engineering ideally requires that newly formed bone adapts its mass, shape, and trabecular...

  7. Study of human bone tumor slice by SRXRF microprobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Y.Huang; J.X.Lu; R.G.He; L.M.Zhao; Z.G.Wang; W.He; Y.X.Zhang

    2001-01-01

    The SRXRF microprobe at the BSRF is described.The minimum detection limits (MDLs) of trace elements were measured to deermine the capability for biological sample analysis.the changes of the trace elements and their ratios in the normal and tumor parts of a human osteosarcoma tissue were investigated.It was found that our results were in agreement with those of other analytical methods,such as spectrophotometric analysis,NAA and PIXE as well as an early clinic study of serum.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  8. Occupational factors and risk of adult bone sarcomas: a multicentric case-control study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bertoni, Franco; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Buemi, Antoine; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Kaerlev, Linda; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Merler, Enzo; Miranda, Ana; Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsson, Håkan; Fletcher, Tony; Olsen, Jorn

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the association between occupational factors and risk of bone sarcoma, a rare tumor with a largely unknown aetiology. A multicentric case-control study was conducted in 7 European countries in 1995-97. Ninety-six cases aged 35-69 years with a centrally reviewed diagnosis of bone sarcoma (68 chondrosarcomas and 28 osteosarcomas) were compared to 2,632 population (68%) or colon cancer (32%) controls. Subjects were interviewed to obtain information on occupational, medical and reproductive history, smoking and alcohol consumption and selected exposures including use of pesticides. Response proportions were 90% among cases and 66% among controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for selected categories of job titles and branches of industry and for use of pesticides. We found an increased OR for bone sarcoma among blacksmiths, toolmakers, machine-tool operators (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.08-4.26), woodworkers (OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.36-5.29) and construction workers (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 0.92-2.87). Ever users of pesticide had an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.31-4.13), with similar risks for exposure to insecticides and exposure to herbicides. Neither duration of employment in any of the analyzed occupational categories nor duration of use of pesticides showed an increasing trend in the risk of bone sarcoma. ORs of bone sarcoma were 1.03 (95% CI 0.23-4.57), 3.13 (95% CI 1.26-7.76) and 1.44 (95% CI 0.43-4.85) for the first, second and third tertile of days of use of pesticides. Our study suggests that novel and previously reported (woodworking) occupational factors play a role in the aetiology of bone sarcomas.

  9. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Møller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  10. Ex vivo expansion of Primate CD34+ Cells isolated from Bone Marrow and Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells using a Novel Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaprasad D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow derived CD34+ cells have been in clinical application in patients with haematological malignancies. One of the major problems with this treatment is the non-availability of matched donors or the necessity of multiple transfusions depending upon the pathology. Recently evidences have been accumulating to prove the safety and efficacy of autologous CD34+ cells in diseases such as myocardial dysfunction, peripheral vascular diseases and neurological certain conditions. However there are only a few reports in the literature on ex vivo expansion of the bone marrow derived CD34+ cells. We have in two different studies proven that isolated CD34+ cells from baboon bone marrow and non-isolated BMMNCs from human bone marrow could be expanded with increase in percentage of CD34+ cells using a novel scaffold.

  11. Tensile material properties of human rib cortical bone under quasi-static and dynamic failure loading and influence of the bone microstucture on failure characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Subit, Damien; Valazquez-Ameijide, Juan; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Crandall, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Finite element models of the thorax are under development to assist vehicle safety researchers with the design of countermeasures such as advanced restrain systems. Computational models have become more refined with increasing geometrical complexity as element size decreases. These finite element models can now capture small geometrical features with an attempt to predict fracture. However, the bone material properties currently available, and in particular the rate sensitivity, have been mainly determined from compression tests or tests on long bones. There is a need for a new set of material properties for the human rib cortical bone. With this objective, a new clamping technique was developed to test small bone coupons under tensile loading. Ten coupons were harvested from the cortical shell of the sixth and seventh left ribs from three cadavers. The coupons were tested to fracture under quasi-static (target strain rate of 0.07 %/s) and dynamic loading (target strain rate of 170 %/s). Prior to testing, eac...

  12. Effect of nitrous oxide on folate coenzyme distribution and de novo synthesis of thymidylate in human bone marrow cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.M. Ermens (Anton); M. Schoester (Martijn); J. Lindemans (Jan); J. Abels

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The effect of nitrous oxide on intracellular folate metabolism of the human bone marrow was studied in vitro. Bone marrow cells, obtained from healthy volunteers, were incubated with 5 × 10−8m-[3H]5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-formylTHF) for 18 hr to label intracellular fola

  13. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we...... show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma...... inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland...

  14. Dietary intake of vitamin K in relation to bone mineral density in Korea adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-11-01

    Low vitamin K nutritional status has been associated with increased risk of fracture, however inconsistent results exist to support the role of vitamin K on bone mineral density depending on ethnic difference and gender. Our objective was to determine vitamin K intake in Korean adults, examine correlation between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density. This study analyzed raw data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults (2,785 men, 4,307 women) aged over 19 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed only positive association between vitamin K intake and femur bone mineral density in men after adjusting bone-related factors. However, women in high tertiles of vitamin K intake had a significantly higher bone mineral density both in femur and lumber as compared to women in lowest tertiles (pvitamin K intake increased in women, but this effect was not persisted after adjusting factors. The findings of this study indicate that low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low bone mineral density in subjects. From these results we may suggest an increase in dietary vitamin K intakes for maintaining bone mineral density. (2010-02CON-21-C, 2011-02CON-06-C).

  15. CD146/MCAM defines functionality of human bone marrow stromal stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Zaher, Walid; Ditzel, Nicholas;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of surface markers for prospective isolation of functionally homogenous populations of human skeletal (stromal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) is highly relevant for cell therapy protocols. Thus, we examined the possible use of CD146 to subtype a heterogeneous h......MSC population. METHODS: Using flow cytometry and cell sorting, we isolated two distinct hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cell populations from the telomerized human bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (hMSC-TERT). Cells were examined for differences in their size, shape and texture by using high......-content analysis and additionally for their ability to differentiate toward osteogenesis in vitro and form bone in vivo, and their migrational ability in vivo and in vitro was investigated. RESULTS: In vitro, the two cell populations exhibited similar growth rate and differentiation capacity to osteoblasts...

  16. Gene expression profiles of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆柳; 朴英杰; 邹飞

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the gene expression profiles of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells.Methods Total RNA extracted from human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells underwent reverse transcription, and the products were labeled with α-32P dCTP. The cDNA probes of total RNA were hybridized to cDNA microarray with 1176 genes, and then the signals were analyzed by AtlasImage analysis software Version 1.01a.Results Fifteen genes associated with cell proliferation and signal transduction were up-regulated, and one gene that takes part in cell-to-cell adhesion was down-regulated in tendon cells.Conclusion The 15 up-regulated and one down-regulated genes may be beneficial to the orientational differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into tendon cells.

  17. Nanocrystalline diamond: In vitro biocompatibility assessment by MG63 and human bone marrow cells cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, M; Dias, A G; Gomes, P S; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Santos, J D; Fernandes, M H

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) has a great potential for prosthetic implants coating. Nevertheless, its biocompatibility still has to be better understood. To do so, we employed several materials characterization techniques (SEM, AFM, micro-Raman spectroscopy) and cell culture assays using MG63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. Biochemical routines (MTT assays, Lowry's method, ALP activity) supported by SEM and confocal microscopy characterization were carried out. We used silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates for NCD coatings based on a previous demonstration of the superior adhesion and tribological performance of these NCD coated ceramics. Results demonstrate an improved human osteoblast proliferation and the stimulation of differentiated markers, like ALP activity and matrix mineralization, compared with standard polystyrene tissue culture plates. The nanometric featuring of NCD, associated to its chemical affinity are key points for bone regeneration purposes. PMID:18085649

  18. Functional assay, expression of growth factors and proteins modulating bone-arrangement in human osteoblasts seeded on an anorganic bovine bone biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Trubiani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of bone tissue engineering include chemical composition and geometry of the scaffold design, because it is very important to improve not only cell attachment and growth but especially osteodifferentiation, bone tissue formation, and vascularization. Geistlich Bio-Oss® (GBO is a xenograft consisting of deproteinized, sterilized bovine bone, chemically and physically identical to the mineral phase of human bone.In this study, we investigated the growth behaviour and the ability to form focal adhesions on the substrate, using vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein, as a marker. Moreover, the expression of bone specific proteins and growth factors such as type I collagen, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2, BMP-7 and de novo synthesis of osteocalcin in normal human osteoblasts (NHOst seeded on xenogenic GBO were evaluated. Our observations suggest that after four weeks of culture in differentiation medium, the NHOst showed a high affinity for the three dimensional biomaterial; in fact, cellular proliferation, migration and colonization were clearly evident. The osteogenic differentiation process, as demonstrated by morphological, histochemical, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and biochemical analysis was mostly obvious in the NHOst grown on three-dimensional inorganic bovine bone biomaterial. Functional studies displayed a clear and significant response to calcitonin when the cells were differentiated. In addition, the presence of the biomaterial improved the response, suggesting that it could drive the differentiation of these cells towards a more differentiated osteogenic phenotype. These results encourage us to consider GBO an adequate biocompatible three-dimensional biomaterial, indicating its potential use for the development of tissue-engineering techniques.

  19. Microindentation for in vivo measurement of bone tissue mechanical properties in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Güerri, Roberto; Nogues, Xavier; Cáceres, Enric; Peña, Maria Jesus; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Weaver, James C; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Koester, Kurt J; Ritchie, Robert O; Hansma, Paul K

    2010-08-01

    Bone tissue mechanical properties are deemed a key component of bone strength, but their assessment requires invasive procedures. Here we validate a new instrument, a reference point indentation (RPI) instrument, for measuring these tissue properties in vivo. The RPI instrument performs bone microindentation testing (BMT) by inserting a probe assembly through the skin covering the tibia and, after displacing periosteum, applying 20 indentation cycles at 2 Hz each with a maximum force of 11 N. We assessed 27 women with osteoporosis-related fractures and 8 controls of comparable ages. Measured total indentation distance (46.0 +/- 14 versus 31.7 +/- 3.3 microm, p = .008) and indentation distance increase (18.1 +/- 5.6 versus 12.3 +/- 2.9 microm, p = .008) were significantly greater in fracture patients than in controls. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the two measurements were 93.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.1-100) and 90.3% (95% CI 73.2-100), respectively. Interobserver coefficient of variation ranged from 8.7% to 15.5%, and the procedure was well tolerated. In a separate study of cadaveric human bone samples (n = 5), crack growth toughness and indentation distance increase correlated (r = -0.9036, p = .018), and scanning electron microscope images of cracks induced by indentation and by experimental fractures were similar. We conclude that BMT, by inducing microscopic fractures, directly measures bone mechanical properties at the tissue level. The technique is feasible for use in clinics with good reproducibility. It discriminates precisely between patients with and without fragility fracture and may provide clinicians and researchers with a direct in vivo measurement of bone tissue resistance to fracture. PMID:20200991

  20. Human Herpesvirus 6 Latently Infects Early Bone Marrow Progenitors In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Luppi, Mario; Barozzi, Patrizia; Morris, Christine; Maiorana, Antonio; Garber, Richard; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Donelli, Amedea; Marasca, Roberto; Tabilio, Antonio; Torelli, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the in vivo tropism of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) for hemopoietic cells in patients with latent HHV-6 infection. Having used a variety of cell purification, molecular, cytogenetic, and immunocytochemical procedures, we report the first evidence that HHV-6 latently infects early bone marrow progenitor cells and that HHV-6 may be transmitted longitudinally to cells which differentiate along the committed pathways.

  1. Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell: A Source for Cell-Based Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ayatollahi, M.; Geramizadeh, B; Zakerinia, M; M Ramzi; Yaghobi, R.; Hadadi, P.; Rezvani, A. R.; Aghdai, M.; N Azarpira; Karimi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into many cell types, and modulate immune responses, makes them an attractive therapeutic tool for cell transplantation and tissue engineering. Objective: This project was designed for isolation, culture, and characterization of human marrow-derived MSCs based on the immunophenotypic markers and the differentiation potential. Methods: Bone marrow of healthy donors was aspirated from the iliac crest. Mononuclear cells we...

  2. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPIAM and female RPIAF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  3. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  4. Bone mineral density in obese young adults%肥胖青年骨密度状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕明丽; 余飞; 陆思琦; 李丹; 王舰; 吕中伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析肥胖青年骨密度(bone mineral density,BMD)的变化.方法 60例诊断为单纯性肥胖的患者,其中男性26例,女性34例.对照组青年与肥胖青年年龄相仿(出生日期相差<6个月).所有入选对象均排除继发性肥胖与骨代谢性疾病患者.全身诸骨扇束扫描行全身及上肢、肋骨,胸椎、腰椎、骨盆、下肢和头部7个部位骨量、骨密度测定.结果 肥胖组全身的骨量、骨密度均高于志愿者组(P<0.05).肋骨、胸椎及头部这些非承重骨肥胖组的BMC要高于志愿者组,而BMD在两组之间差异没有统计学意义;上下肢、腰椎、骨盆这些承重骨的骨量及骨密度肥胖组均明显高于志愿者组(P<0.05).结论 肥胖青年承重骨骨量及骨密度与其体质量相关,在平衡体脂因素后肥胖者与对照组骨密度无显著差别.提示肥胖患者在进行体重控制的同时应加强运动来减少体质量减轻所造成的骨量流失.%Objective To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in obese young adults. Methods Sixty obese adolescents (26 males and 34 females) who visited outpatient clinic for obesity were enrolled in study (obese group) and 60 age- and sex-matched normal medical students served as control group. Subjects with secondary obesity and metabolic bone disease were excluded from the study. The BMD and bone mineral contents ( BMC) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for whole body, at arms, ribs, thoracic spines, lumbar spines, pelvis, legs and head. Results The overall BMC and BMD of obese group was higher than those of control group (P 0.05). Both BMC and BMD in load-bearing bones (arms, lumbar spine, pelvis, legs) of obese group was higher than those of control group (P <0.05). Conclusion The BMC and BMD of load-bearing bones in obese adolescent are related to their body weight; after adjustment for lean mass, there are no differences in BMC and BMD between obese and normal young adults. The

  5. Ultrastructural Evidence of Exosome Secretion by Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Myocardium and Adult Human Cardiospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Barile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34+ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an “off-the-shelf” product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  6. Human herpesvirus 7 is a constitutive inhabitant of adult human saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, L S; Frenkel, N

    1992-01-01

    We report the frequent isolation of human herpesvirus 7 from the saliva of healthy adults. Virus isolates recovered from different individuals exhibited minimal restriction enzyme polymorphism, which was mostly confined to heterogeneous (het) sequences in the genome. DNAs of isolates recovered from the same individual over a period of several months showed the same characteristic het fragments, indicating the stability of the het sequences upon virus replication and shedding in vivo. In contr...

  7. Structural mechanical properties of radiation-sterilized human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur

    2016-06-01

    To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not

  8. Structural mechanical properties of radiation-sterilized human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur

    2016-06-01

    To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not

  9. Dropouts and Compliance in Exercise Interventions Targeting Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dropouts and compliance to exercise interventions targeting bone mineral density (BMD in adults are not well established. The purpose of this study was to address that gap. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials in adults ≥18 years of age. The primary outcomes were dropouts in the exercise and control groups as well as compliance to the exercise interventions. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Moderator analyses were conducted using mixed-effects ANOVA-like models and metaregression. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Thirty-six studies representing 3,297 participants (1,855 exercise, 1,442 control were included. Dropout rates in the exercise and control groups averaged 20.9% (95% CI 16.7%–25.9% and 15.9% (11.8%–21.1% while compliance to exercise was 76.3% (71.7%–80.3%. For both exercise and control groups, greater dropout rates were associated with studies conducted in the USA versus other countries, females versus males, premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, younger versus older participants, longer studies (controls only, and high- versus moderate-intensity training (exercisers only. Greater compliance to exercise was associated with being female, home- or facility-based exercise versus both, and shorter studies. Conclusion. These findings provide important information for researchers and practitioners with respect to exercise programs targeting BMD in adults.

  10. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood

  11. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mandibular Jaw Bone Regeneration Using Human Dental Cell-Seeded Tyrosine-Derived Polycarbonate Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibo; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Shuang; Macri, Lauren; Kohn, Joachim; Yelick, Pamela C

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a new model for alveolar jaw bone regeneration, which uses human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) combined with tyrosine-derived polycarbonate polymer scaffolds [E1001(1k)] containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) [E1001(1k)/β-TCP]. E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds (5 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness) were fabricated to fit a 5 mm rat mandibular ramus critical bone defect. Five experimental groups were examined in this study: (1) E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with a high density of hDPCs, 5.0 × 10(5) hDPCs/scaffold (CH); (2) E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with a lower density of hDPCs, 2.5 × 10(5) hDPCs/scaffold (CL); (3) acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds (SA); (4) acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds supplemented with 4 μg recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP); and (5) empty defects (EDs). Replicate hDPC-seeded and acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds were cultured in vitro in osteogenic media for 1 week before implantation for 3 and 6 weeks. Live microcomputed tomography (μCT) imaging at 3 and 6 weeks postimplantation revealed robust bone regeneration in the BMP implant group. CH and CL groups exhibited similar uniformly distributed mineralized tissue coverage throughout the defects, but less than the BMP implants. In contrast, SA-treated defects exhibited sparse areas of mineralized tissue regeneration. The ED group exhibited slightly reduced defect size. Histological analyses revealed no indication of an immune response. In addition, robust expression of dentin and bone differentiation marker expression was observed in hDPC-seeded scaffolds, whereas, in contrast, BMP and SA implants exhibited only bone and not dentin differentiation marker expression. hDPCs were detected in 3-week but not in 6-week hDPC-seeded scaffold groups, indicating their survival for at least 3 weeks. Together, these results show that hDPC-seeded E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds support the rapid regeneration of osteo

  13. Changes of the proliferation kinetics of human bone marrow in vivo through hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-hour oral continuous infusion with hydroxyurea (HU) at a non-toxic concentration was performed in 20 malignoma patients with undisturbed bone marrow. Bone marrow taken before, during and after HU-administration was examined for 3H-TdR incorporation by means of autoradiography and liquid scintimetry, for cell phase distribution by means of flow cytophotometry, morphologically and by means of CFUc. 3H-TdR incorporation into bone marrow cells dropped to 16% of the initial value under HU and rose to 156% 10 h after HU-effect terminated. Cytophotometry did not furnish any proof of a decrease of S-phase cells or increase of cells in G1-to-S-transition during HU. S-cells rise to 129% of the initial value 10 h after having fallen below minimum inhibition concentration. Under HU, there is an equal number of cells in S which incorporate much less 3H-thymidine; after HU more S-cells incorporate more 3H-thymidine than before HU. During HU action, DNA synthesis activity is reduced to 17% and reaches the initial value with 105% afterwards. In human bone marrow, hydroxyurea in non-toxic concentration causes a temporary DNA synthesis inhibition in terms of activity reduction and partial arrest in S. A stop-and-go of the cell cycle effected by HU does not occur; the effect is rather a slow-down of DNA synthesis. (orig./MG)

  14. Finite element simulation of bone remodelling in human mandible around osseointegrated dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern dental implant is a biocompatible titanium device surgically placed into a jawbone to support a prosthetic tooth crown in order to replace missing teeth. Implants are superior to conventional prostheses, in both function and long-term predictability. However, placement of an implant changes the normal mechanical environment of jawbone, which causes the bone density to redistribute and adapt to the new environment through a process of remodelling. This study aims to predict the density distribution in human jawbone around osseointegrated dental implant. Based on two popular, yet distinctive theories for bone remodelling, a new remodelling algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm is verified by a two-dimensional (2D) plate model. Then, a 2D finite element model of implant and jawbone is studied. The effects of two parameters, viz the reference value of strain energy density (SED) and 'lazy zone' region, on density distribution, are also examined. This study has demonstrated that consideration of the lazy zone, is less important than consideration of the stress and strain (quantified as SED) induced within the bone. Taking into account both 'lazy zone' effect and self-organisational control process, the proposed bone remodelling algorithm has overcome the shortcomings of the two existing theories.

  15. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in “El Cóporo”, an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: 14C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The 14C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone’s black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment

  16. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E., E-mail: andrade@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Solís, C.; Canto, C.E.; Lucio, O.G. de [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Chavez, E. [ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ALM Zacatenco, 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Rocha, M.F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C.A. [Centro INAH Zacatecas, Miguel Auza No. 205, Col. Centro, Zacatecas/Zacatecas CP 98000 (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in “El Cóporo”, an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: {sup 14}C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The {sup 14}C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone’s black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment.

  17. Zone-dependent changes in human vertebral trabecular bone: clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that there are pronounced age-related changes in human vertebral cancellous bone density and microarchitecture. However, the magnitude of these changes seemed to be dependent on zone location in the vertebral body-the central third vs. the areas adjacent to the endplates...... shows that the human vertebral body can be described as two distinct zones with very specific age-related changes in density and microstructure. This zone-specificity is important for the correct interpretation of clinical data....

  18. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  19. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles label human bone marrow and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yan; Zhang De-qing; Chen Le; Wang Jian; Zhang Xue; Hou Yan; Bi Xiao-juan; Yang Rong; Hu An-hua

    2012-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Nowadays, it is becoming more and more important to optimize safety of human derived cel s, label cel s efficiently and track cel s after cel s transplantation both in basic research and clinic application. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cel viability, labeling efficiency and imaging effect of the T2* weight image (WI) magnetic resonance (MR) between the human bone marrow and umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s labeled with the superparamaganetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as wel as to optimize their treatment efficiency. METHODS: The third generation of human bone marrow and umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s were cultured, and labeled with 5-30 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ and protamine sulfate. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The viability of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cel s was similar with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s (P >0.05). There was no significant difference of labeling rate between the bone marrow msenchymal stem cel s labeled with 5-30 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ(P >0.05); while there was significant difference of labeling rate between the umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s labeled with 5 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ and 20 and 30 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ(P <0.05); the positive labeling rate of umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s was lower than that of bone marrow msenchymal stem cel s after labeled with 10 mg/L FeridexⅣ(P <0.05). When two sources of cel s were labeled with Feridex Ⅳ more than 2 mg/L, the iron oxide particles were found in the cel suspension and could not be removed by elution and filtration. The signal intensity from 3.0T MR GRE T2*WI scan was decreased with the increasing of Feridex Ⅳ concentration in both cel types. It is safe and effective to label the two tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cel s with 10 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ-protamine sulfate complex, and can be observed with T2*WI MR.

  20. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in adults after fractionated body irradiation and high dose cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present short and long-term results of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after hyper-fractionated total body irradiation and high dose cyclophosphamide in ten patients treated for leukaemia during th period 1985-89. Three patients died from complications connected to the transplantation, while seven are living free from leukaemia 18 to 59 months after transplantation. Two patients need treatment for chronic graft versus host disease. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is expensive and risky. Close cooperation between clinicians and laboratory specialists is essential. The treatment increases long term survival and probably cures certain patients with leukaemia. Some of the patients will need treatment for chronic graft versus host disease and other late sequelae. 19 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness in adult dogs by irradiation and bone marrow transplantation: Implication of Ia-positive bone marrow stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of investigators have suggested in recent years that placement of hemopoietic cells into an irradiated host milieu may trigger such cells to undergo a transient cycle of replication and differentiation which recapitulates the events of immunological ontogeny-including fetal erythropoiesis, production of newborn Υ-chains in adults, and generation of fetal and newborn-type lymphoid cells. In an extension of this hypothesis to transplantation, supralethally irradiated dogs were reconstituted with their own stored marrow, followed within 12 to 18 hr by the transplanation of a kidney allograft obtained from a DLA identical donor. This sequence resulted in long-term unresponsiveness to the transplanted kidneys in the recipients without further treatment. The 60% incidence of success obtained with this procedure could be improved further if the host's own stored marrow was treated in vitro with methylprednisolone (MPd) prior to replacement of the marrow following irradiation. In an attempt to analyze the possible changes in the cellular composition of marrow that might have been associated with this result, a serial cytofluorographic analysis of marrow before and after treatment with MPd was performed. For this purpose, cell samples obtained before and after exposure of bone marrow to MPd were studied in an Ortho 50H Cell Sorter after staining with acridine orange by using green fluorescence for DNA and red fluroescence for RNA, or, alternatively, using 900 scatter for the X axis and a narrow forward scatter for the Y axis, without addition of any stain

  2. Epihyoid bone fracture associated with tongue deviation in an adult dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Marcelo; Kani, Yukitaka; Mieres, Marcelo; Mansilla, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    An 8-month-old male Rhodesian ridgeback dog was evaluated for right lingual deviation, mild dysphagia, and inability to retract the tongue. Transverse and three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images revealed a transverse fracture of the left epihyoid bone. After 4 months of conservative management, that included assisted feeding of a semi-liquid diet or small volumes of food and analgesics, the dog recovered. PMID:27587884

  3. Facial asymmetry in young adults with condylar hyperplasia-unusual changes in the facial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gn, Suma; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Jk, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  4. Identification of a distinct small cell population from human bone marrow reveals its multipotency in vivo and in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wang

    Full Text Available Small stem cells, such as spore-like cells, blastomere-like stem cells (BLSCs, and very-small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs have been described in recent studies, although their multipotency in human tissues has not yet been confirmed. Here, we report the discovery of adult multipotent stem cells derived from human bone marrow, which we call StemBios (SB cells. These isolated SB cells are smaller than 6 ìm and are DAPI+ and Lgr5+ (Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing G Protein-Coupled Receptor 5. Because Lgr5 has been characterized as a stem cell marker in the intestine, we hypothesized that SB cells may have a similar function. In vivo cell tracking assays confirmed that SB cells give rise to three types of cells, and in vitro studies demonstrated that SB cells cultured in proprietary media are able to grow to 6-25 ìm in size. Once the SB cells have attached to the wells, they differentiate into different cell lineages upon exposure to specific differentiation media. We are the first to demonstrate that stem cells smaller than 6 ìm can differentiate both in vivo and in vitro. In the future, we hope that SB cells will be used therapeutically to cure degenerative diseases.

  5. Human ESC-Derived MSCs Outperform Bone Marrow MSCs in the Treatment of an EAE Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS are largely palliative, not curative. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs harbor regenerative and immunosuppressive functions, indicating a potential therapy for MS, yet the variability and low potency of MSCs from adult sources hinder their therapeutic potential. MSCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hES-MSCs may be better suited for clinical treatment of MS because of their unlimited and stable supply. Here, we show that hES-MSCs significantly reduce clinical symptoms and prevent neuronal demyelination in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE model of MS, and that the EAE disease-modifying effect of hES-MSCs is significantly greater than that of human bone-marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs. Our evidence also suggests that increased IL-6 expression by BM-MSCs contributes to the reduced anti-EAE therapeutic activity of these cells. A distinct ability to extravasate and migrate into inflamed CNS tissues may also be associated with the robust therapeutic effects of hES-MSCs on EAE.

  6. Professional Fulfillment and Satisfaction of US and Canadian Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shari L.; Wiesenberg, Faye

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study explored the professional fulfillment and job satisfaction of US and Canadian college and university faculty in the fields of Adult Education and Human Resource Development. In Autumn 2001, we disseminated electronically "The Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty Survey" to a selected sample of Canadian and…

  7. Association between in vivo bone formation and ex vivo migratory capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Zaher, Walid; Larsen, Kenneth H;

    2015-01-01

    by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In order to identify the molecular phenotype associated with enhanced migration, we carried out comparative DNA microarray analysis of gene expression of hBMSC-derived high bone forming (HBF) clones versus low bone forming (LBF) clones. RESULTS: HBF clones were exhibited higher ex...

  8. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  9. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  10. A Novel Human TGF-β1 Fusion Protein in Combination with rhBMP-2 Increases Chondro-Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, Silvia; Rico-Llanos, Gustavo A.; Becerra, José; Andrades, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is involved in processes related to the differentiation and maturation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Rat bone marrow (BM) cells were cultured in a collagen-gel containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 10 days in the presence of rhTGF (recombinant human TGF)-β1-F2, a fusion protein engineered to include a high-affinity collagen-binding decapeptide derived from von Willebrand factor. Subsequently, cells were moderately expanded in medium with 10% FBS for 4 days and treated with a short pulse of rhBMP (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein)-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were added to potentiate osteoinduction. Concomitant with an up-regulation of cell proliferation, DNA synthesis levels were determined. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to reveal the possible stemness of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation as well as by mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes. Moreover, cells were placed inside diffusion chambers and implanted subcutaneously into the backs of adult rats for 4 weeks. Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of selecting cell populations from BM that, in the presence of rhTGF-β1-F2 and rhBMP-2, achieve skeletogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24968268

  11. A Novel Human TGF-β1 Fusion Protein in Combination with rhBMP-2 Increases Chondro-Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Claros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is involved in processes related to the differentiation and maturation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Rat bone marrow (BM cells were cultured in a collagen-gel containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS for 10 days in the presence of rhTGF (recombinant human TGF-β1-F2, a fusion protein engineered to include a high-affinity collagen-binding decapeptide derived from von Willebrand factor. Subsequently, cells were moderately expanded in medium with 10% FBS for 4 days and treated with a short pulse of rhBMP (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were added to potentiate osteoinduction. Concomitant with an up-regulation of cell proliferation, DNA synthesis levels were determined. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to reveal the possible stemness of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation as well as by mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes. Moreover, cells were placed inside diffusion chambers and implanted subcutaneously into the backs of adult rats for 4 weeks. Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of selecting cell populations from BM that, in the presence of rhTGF-β1-F2 and rhBMP-2, achieve skeletogenic potential in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functions on cathodic arc plasma-treated titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Teel, George; O'Brien, Christopher M; Zhuang, Taisen; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of titanium for use in orthopedics has been explored for years; however, an ideal method of integrating titanium with native bone is still required to this day. Since human bone cells directly interact with nanostructured extracellular matrices, one of the most promising methods of improving titanium's osseointegration involves inducing bio-mimetic nanotopography to enhance cell-implant interaction. In this regard, we explored an approach to functionalize the surface of titanium by depositing a thin film of textured titanium nanoparticles via a cathodic arc discharge plasma. The aim is to improve human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment and differentiation and to reduce deleterious effects of more complex surface modification methods. Surface functionalization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle testing, and specific protein adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination demonstrate the deposition of titanium nanoparticles and the surface roughness change after coating. The specific fibronectin adsorption was enhanced on the modified titanium surface that associates with the improved hydrophilicity. MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted on the nanocoated surface. More importantly, compared to bare titanium, greater production of total protein, deposition of calcium mineral, and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase were observed from MSCs on nanocoated titanium after 21 days. The method described herein presents a promising alternative method for inducing more cell favorable nanosurface for improved orthopedic applications. PMID:26677327

  13. Bone marrow stromal cells elicit tissue sparing after acute but not delayed transplantation into the contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tewarie, R.D.; Hurtado, A.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Rahiem, S.T.; Wendell, D.F.; Barroso, M.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Oudega, M.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplanted into the contused spinal cord may support repair by improving tissue sparing. We injected allogeneic BMSC into the moderately contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord at 15 min (acute) and at 3, 7, and 21 days (delayed) post-injury and quantified tissue s

  14. Bioactive Ti metal analogous to human cancellous bone: Fabrication by selective laser melting and chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Deepak K; Fukuda, A; Matsushita, T; Takemoto, M; Fujibayashi, S; Sasaki, K; Nishida, N; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T

    2011-03-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a useful technique for preparing three-dimensional porous bodies with complicated internal structures directly from titanium (Ti) powders without any intermediate processing steps, with the products being expected to be useful as a bone substitute. In this study the necessary SLM processing conditions to obtain a dense product, such as the laser power, scanning speed, and hatching pattern, were investigated using a Ti powder of less than 45 μm particle size. The results show that a fully dense plate thinner than 1.8 mm was obtained when the laser power to scanning speed ratio was greater than 0.5 and the hatch spacing was less than the laser diameter, with a 30 μm thick powder layer. Porous Ti metals with structures analogous to human cancellous bone were fabricated and the compressive strength measured. The compressive strength was in the range 35-120 MPa when the porosity was in the range 75-55%. Porous Ti metals fabricated by SLM were heat-treated at 1300 °C for 1h in an argon gas atmosphere to smooth the surface. Such prepared specimens were subjected to NaOH, HCl, and heat treatment to provide bioactivity. Field emission scanning electron micrographs showed that fine networks of titanium oxide were formed over the whole surface of the porous body. These treated porous bodies formed bone-like apatite on their surfaces in a simulated body fluid within 3 days. In vivo studies showed that new bone penetrated into the pores and directly bonded to the walls within 12 weeks after implantation into the femur of Japanese white rabbits. The percentage bone affinity indices of the chemical- and heat-treated porous bodies were significantly higher than that of untreated implants.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in lyophilized or frozen demineralized human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; da Silva, André Ferreira; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to study the effects of application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electrons) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, on lyophilized or frozen demineralized bone tissue for use in transplants. Methods Five human femoral diaphyses from different donors of musculoskeletal tissue were demineralized and preserved as lyophilized or frozen at −80 °C. The samples were divided into two groups: non-irradiated (control) and irradiated by means of gamma rays or an electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein and BMP 2 and 7. Results Decreases in total protein and BMP 2 and 7 concentrations were observed. The decreases in total protein concentrations, in comparison with the respective control groups, were significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples that were irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy of gamma radiation and electron beam, with reductions of more than 30%. Significant decreases in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed at higher doses and especially through use of the electron beam. Conclusion The reductions in the concentrations of total proteins and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7) were related to the radiation dose, i.e. they increased with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of bone preservation. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in the bones irradiated by means of an electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. However, this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practices for sterilization of bone tissue. PMID:27069893

  16. Effective combination of aligned nanocomposite nanofibers and human unrestricted somatic stem cells for bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behnaz BAKHSHANDEH; Masoud SOLEIMANI; Nasser GHAEMI; Iman SHABANI

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Bioartificial bone tissue engineering is an increasingly popular technique to solve bone defect challenges. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between matrix composition and appropriate cell type, focusing on hydroxyapatite (HA), to achieve a more effective combination for bone regeneration.Methods: Human unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) were isolated from placental cord blood. The cellular and molecular events during the osteo-induction of USSCs were evaluated for 21 d under the following conditions: (1) in basal culture, (2) supplemented with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA) suspension, and (3) seeded on electrospun aligned nanoflbrous poly-ε-caprolactone/poly-L-lactic acid/nHA (PCL/PLLA/nHA) scaffolds. The scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tensile test.Results: Maintenance of USSCs for 21 d in basal or osteogenic culture resulted in significant increase in osteoblast differentiation. With nHA suspension, even soluble osteo-inductive additives were ineffective, probably due to induced apoptosis of the cells. In con-trast to the hindrance of proliferation by nHA suspension, the scaffolds improved cell growth. The scaffolds mimic the nanostructure of natural bone matrix with the combination of PLLA/PCL (organic phase) and HA (inorganic phase) offering a favorable surface topogra-phy, which was demonstrated to possess suitable properties for supporting USSCs. Quantitative measurement of osteogenic markers, enzymatic activity and mineralization indicated that the scaffolds did not disturb, but enhanced the osteogenic potential of USSCs.Moreover, the alignment of the fibers led to cell orientation during cell growth.Conclusion: The results demonstrated the synergism of PCL/PLLA/nHA nanoflbrous scaffolds and USSCs in the augmentation of osteo-genic differentiation. Thus, nHA grafted into PCI./PLLA scaffolds can be a suitable choice for bone tissue

  17. Lead in ancient human bones and its relevance to historical developments of social problems with lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C C; Shirahata, H; Ericson, J E

    1987-03-01

    Concentrations of metabolic lead in buried ancient bones are obscured by replacement of calcium in apatite by excessive amounts of soil moisture Pb. Concentrations of metabolic barium in bones are affected in a similar way. Added soil Pb and Ba, expressed as log(Pb/Ca) versus log(Ba/Ca) among various bones at a given burial site, are positively covariant, with about 5-fold more soil Pb added for each unit of added soil Ba. The typical natural metabolic Ba/Ca ratio in contemporary people can be measured unambiguously because it as unaffected by industrial pollution. It applies to ancient people because it has not changed historically. The intercept of the covariance curve for buried bones of a given ancient population at the known metabolic Ba/Ca ratio indexes the corresponding metabolic Pb/Ca ratio in bones of that population. Lead levels which prevailed in Romans appear to have been similar to those in contemporary people, which are approximately 1000-fold above natural levels in humans determined by this method in ancient Peruvians. This indicates that studies of natural biochemical reactions in cells free of industrial Pb should be made, because most present biochemical knowledge is founded on data obtained from systems polluted with Pb 1000 to 100000-fold above natural levels. The 5000 year history of smelting Pb by humans indicates that a system of education fostered by genetically common lower brain center functions operated on hundreds of successive generations in a context of cultural changes invoked by feedback from developments in engineering technologies to give rise to the difference between present typical and prehistoric natural levels of Pb in humans. Archaeological and anthropological studies of early developments in writing, music and metallurgy by ancient Peruvians and Persian peoples should be combined with PET-scan studies of their descendants to discover if, as preliminary archaeological data suggest, the two ancient populations differed on a

  18. A method for estimating age of Danish medieval sub-adults based on long bone length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, C.; Lynnerup, Niels; Friis, Laila Saidane;

    2012-01-01

    aging archaeological Danish sub-adults from the medieval period based on diaphyseal lengths. The problem with using data on Danish samples, which have been derived from a different population, is the possibility of skewing age estimates. In this study 58 Danish archaeological sub-adults were examined...... archaeological data. After the cross point there was a maximum difference of three years and four months higher for the archaeological data. This study has shown the importance of using data for age estimation for archaeological material which has been developed specifically for that population. In addition it......The preferred method for aging archaeological sub-adult skeletons is by dental examination. In cases where no dental records are available, age estimation may be performed according to epiphyseal union, skeletal elements or diaphyseal lengths. Currently no data have been produced specifically for...

  19. Morphometry Of Jugular Foramen Of Dry Adult Human Skulls Of South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Krishnamurthy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Jugular foramen (JF lies between the occipital and the petrosal part of the temporal bone, and allows the passage of important nerves and vascular elements i.e. the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves and the internal jugular vein. It is a potential site for development of schwannomas, metastatic lesions, and infiltrative inflammatory processes from the surrounding structures such as middle ear. JF is difficult to approach surgically, but recent advanced techniques especially image intensifier to guide the suboccipital lateral approach have made the treatment possible despite the difficulties. Hence a detailed morphological and anatomical knowledge of this region is required. The morphologic dimensions, presence or absence of septation etc varies in various races and ethnic groups as reported in previous literature. But such detailed study has been lacking in south Indian population .Thus the present descriptive study was conducted in department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore on 50 dried adult human skulls i.e. 100 JF of Dravidian (south Indian origin. The maximum antero-posterior and transverse diameter and depth of the jugular fossa of both sides were measured and septation was 6% on the right side and 8% on the left side using vernier calipers. The presence of spicules / septation of the jugular foramen were also observed on both sides. The obtained results presented variations regarding some parameters when compared to previous studies, thus making it evident the significance of race in the morphometric measurements and characteristics of the JF.

  20. Human Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation: Growth Factors, Hormones and Regulatory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eijken, Marco

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporosis is the most common bone disease and is characterized by low bone mass, micro architectural deterioration and decreased bone quality resulting in increased risk of fractures. Osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, play a crucial role in the regulation of bone mass and bone quality. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and undergo a complex differentiation process regulated by many endocrine and autocrine factors. In order to develop novel bone anabolic drugs, more knowl...

  1. Islet neogenesis potential of human adult stem cells and its applications in cell replacement therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhonde RR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years regenerative biology has reached to greater heights due to its therapeutic potential in treating degenerative diseases; as they are not curable by modern medicine. With the advent of research in stem cells and developmental biology the regenerative potential of adult resident stem cells is becoming clearer. The long term objective of regenerative medicine or cell therapy is to treat patients with their own stem cells. These stem cells could be derived from the diseased organs such as skin, liver, pancreas etc. or from reservoirs of multipotent stem cells such as bone marrow or cord blood.Manipulating the ability of tissue resident stem cells as well as from multipotent reservoirs such as bone marrow, umbilical cord and cord blood to give rise to endocrine cells may open new avenues in the treatment of diabetes. A better understanding of stem cell biology would almost certainly allow for the establishment of efficient and reliable cell transplantation experimental programs in the clinic. We show here that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from various sources such as the bone marrow, placenta, umbilical cord. Upon stimulation with specific growth factors they differentiate into islet like clusters (ILCs. When ILCs obtained from the above mentioned sources were transplanted in experimental diabetic mice, restoration of normoglycemia was observed within three weeks of transplantation with concomitant increase in the body weight. These euglycemic mice exhibited normal glucose tolerance test indicating normal utilization of glucose. Allthough the MSCs isolated from all the sources had the same characteristics; they showed significant differences in their islet differentiation potential. ILCs isolated for the human bone marrow did not show any pancreatic hormones in vitro, but upon transplantation they matured into insulin and somatostatin producing hormones. Placental MSCs as well as ILCs showed insulin trascripts

  2. Detection of embryonic stem cell markers in adult human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarasa Bharati Arumugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone marrow transplantation is already an established therapy, which is now widely used in medicine to treat leukemia, lymphoma, and several inherited blood disorders. The culture of multilineage cells from easily available adipose tissue is another source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, and is referred to as adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs. While ADSCs are being used to treat various conditions, some lacuna exists regarding the specific proteins in these. It was therefore decided to analyze the specific proteins of embryonic cells in ADSCs. Aims: To analyze the specific protein of embryonic stem cells (ESCs in ADSCs. Materials and Methods: Adult human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs were harvested from 13 patients after obtaining patients′ consent. The specific markers of ESCs included surface proteins CD10, CD13, CD44, CD59, CD105, and CD166, and further nucleostemin,(NS NANOG, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gγ, collagen type 1 (Coll1, alkaline phosphate, (ALP osteocalcin (OC, and core binding factor 1 (Cbfa1 were analyzed using by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, (RT-PCR immunofluorescence (IF, and western blot. Results: All the proteins were expressed distinctly, except CD13 and OC. CD13 was found individually with different expressions, and OC expression was discernable. Conclusions: Although the ESC with its proven self-renewal capacity and pluripotency seems appropriate for clinical use, the recent work on ADSCs suggests that these adult stem cells would be a valuable source for future biotechnology, especially since there is a relative ease of procurement.

  3. Stature estimation from complete long bones in the Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sima de los Huesos, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero, José Miguel; Rodríguez García, Laura; García González, Rebeca; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Gómez Olivencia, Asier; Lorenzo Merino, Carlos; Bonmatí, Alejandro .; Gracia Téllez, Ana; Martínez Mendizábal, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Systematic excavations at the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) have allowed us to reconstruct 27 complete long bones of the human species Homo heidelbergensis. The SH sample is used here, together with a sample of 39 complete Homo neanderthalensis long bones and 17 complete early Homo sapiens (Skhul/Qafzeh) long bones, to compare the stature of these three different human species. Stature is estimated for each bone using race- and sex-...

  4. The SK-N-AS human neuroblastoma cell line develops osteolytic bone metastases with increased angiogenesis and COX-2 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tsutsumimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB, which arises from embryonic neural crest cells, is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood. Approximately half of NB patients manifest bone metastasis accompanied with bone pain, fractures and bone marrow failure, leading to disturbed quality of life and poor survival. To study the mechanism of bone metastasis of NB, we established an animal model in which intracardiac inoculation of the SK-N-AS human NB cells in nude mice developed osteolytic bone metastases with increased osteoclastogenesis. SK-N-AS cells induced the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cells in the co-culture. SK-N-AS cells expressed COX-2 mRNA and produced substantial amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. In contrast, the SK-N-DZ and SK-N-FI human NB cells failed to develop bone metastases, induce osteoclastogenesis, express COX-2 mRNA and produce PGE2. Immunohistochemical examination of SK-N-AS bone metastasis and subcutaneous tumor showed strong expression of COX-2. The selective COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 inhibited PGE2 production and suppressed bone metastases with reduced osteoclastogenesis. NS-398 also inhibited subcutaneous SK-N-AS tumor development with decreased angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression. Of interest, metastasis to the adrenal gland, a preferential site for NB development, was also diminished by NS-398. Our results suggest that COX2/PGE2 axis plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of osteolytic bone metastases and tumor development of the SK-NS-AS human NB. Inhibition of angiogenesis by suppressing COX-2/PGE2 may be an effective therapeutic approach for children with NB.

  5. Bone turnover and mineral density in adult thalassemic patients: relationships with growth hormone secretory status and circulating somatomedins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Massimo; Danesi, Leila; Cattaneo, Agnese; Sciortino, Giovanna; Radin, Raffaella; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Vitale, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Mirra, Nadia; Zanaboni, Laura; Arvigo, Marica; Boschetti, Mara; Ferone, Diego; Marzullo, Paolo; Baldini, Marina; Cassinerio, Elena; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Persani, Luca; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Previous evidence supports a role for growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I deficiency in the pathophysiology of osteopenia/osteoporosis in adult thalassemia. Moreover, serum IGF-II has never been studied in this clinical condition. Thus, we elected to study the GH secretory status and the levels of circulating somatomedins, correlating these parameters with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. A hundred and thirty-nine normal weight adult thalassemic patients (72 men and 67 women) were studied. Lumbar and femoral neck BMD were measured in 106/139 patients. Sixty-eight patients underwent growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine testing. Measurement of baseline IGF-I and IGF-II was performed in all patients, while osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) were assayed in 95 of them. Femoral and lumbar osteoporosis/Z score below the expected range for age were documented in 61.3 and in 56.6 % of patients, respectively. Severe GH deficiency (GHD) was demonstrated in 27.9 % of cases, whereas IGF-I SDS was low in 86.3 %. No thalassemic patients displayed circulating levels of IGF-II below the reference range. GH peaks were positively correlated with femoral, but not lumbar, Z score. No correlations were found between GH peaks and osteocalcin, CTx and NTx. GH peaks were positively correlated with IGF-I values, which in their turn displayed a positive correlation with osteocalcin, CTx, and NTx. No correlations emerged between IGF-I values and either femoral or lumbar Z scores. No correlations were found between IGF-II and any of the following parameters: GH peaks, osteocalcin, CTx, NTx, femoral Z score, and lumbar Z score. Our study, besides providing for the first time evidence of a normal IGF-II production in thalassemia, contributes to a better understanding of the involvement of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in the

  6. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  7. Bone mineral density in adult patients treated with various antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Viken, Janina; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    adult consecutive outpatients treated with AEDs for more than 2 years, and who underwent measurement of the BMD. We compared the incidence of decreased BMD among the patients treated with 6 different AEDs: carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC), valproic acid (VPA), lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM...

  8. Effects of mometasone, fluticasone, and montelukast on bone mineral density in adults with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maspero, Jorge; Backer, Vibeke; Yao, Ruji;

    2014-01-01

    asthma. METHODS: Adults with mild-moderate persistent asthma who did not receive ICS for ≥3 months were randomized to MF 400 μg once daily (QD) in the evening (pm), MF 200 μg QD pm, montelukast sodium (ML) 10 mg QD pm, or fluticasone propionate (FP) 250 μg twice daily. Included patients had 25-hydroxy...

  9. Inhibition of cathepsin K increases modeling-based bone formation, and improves cortical dimension and strength in adult ovariectomized monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennypacker, Brenda L; Chen, Charles M; Zheng, Helen; Shih, Mei-Shu; Belfast, Mary; Samadfam, Rana; Duong, Le T

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) protects against bone loss and maintains normal biomechanical properties in the spine and hip of ovariectomized (OVX) preclinical models. Here, we characterized the effects of ODN on the dynamics of cortical modeling and remodeling, and dimension and strength of the central femur in adult OVX-rhesus monkeys. Animals were treated with vehicle or ODN (6 or 30 mg/kg, once per day [q.d., p.o.]) in prevention mode for 21 months. Calcein and tetracycline double-labeling were given at 12 and 21 months, and the femoral cross-sections were subjected to dynamic histomorphometric and cement line analyses. ODN treatment significantly increased periosteal and endocortical bone formation (BFR/BS), accompanied with an increase in endocortical mineralizing surface (102%, p < 0.01) with the 6 mg/kg dose. ODN at both doses reduced remodeling hemiosteon numbers by 51% and 66% (p < 0.05), respectively, and ODN 30 mg/kg numerically reduced activation frequency without affecting wall thickness. On the same endocortical surface, ODN increased all modeling-based parameters, while reducing intracortical remodeling, consistent with the observed no treatment effects on cortical porosity. ODN 30 mg/kg markedly increased cortical thickness (CtTh, p < 0.001) and reduced marrow area (p < 0.01). Lastly, ODN treatment increased femoral structural strength (p < 0.001). Peak load was positively correlated with the increases in bone mineral content (BMC) (r(2)  = 0.9057, p < 0.0001) and CtTh (r2  = 0.6866, p < 0.0001). Taken together, by reducing cortical remodeling-based and stimulating modeling-based bone formation, ODN significantly improved cortical dimension and strength in OVX monkeys. This novel mechanism of CatK inhibition in stimulating cortical formation suggests that ODN represents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24591096

  10. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study included 36 male adults with a broad range of age and body-mass indices (BMIs, among which 18 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes type 2. The fecal bacterial composition was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR and in a subgroup of subjects (N = 20 by tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The proportions of phylum Firmicutes and class Clostridia were significantly reduced in the diabetic group compared to the control group (P = 0.03. Furthermore, the ratios of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes as well as the ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella group to C. coccoides-E. rectale group correlated positively and significantly with plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.04 but not with BMIs. Similarly, class Betaproteobacteria was highly enriched in diabetic compared to non-diabetic persons (P = 0.02 and positively correlated with plasma glucose (P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota.

  11. Dose to red bone marrow of infants, children and adults from radiation of natural origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, G M [Childhood Cancer Research Group, University of Oxford, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6HJ (United Kingdom); Fell, T P; Harrison, J D [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, CRCE, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxon (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gerald.Kendall@ccrg.ox.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Natural radiation sources contribute much the largest part of the radiation exposure of the average person. This paper examines doses from natural radiation to the red bone marrow, the tissue in which leukaemia is considered to originate, with particular emphasis on doses to children. The most significant contributions are from x-rays and gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhalation of isotopes of radon and their decay products. External radiation sources and radionuclides other than radon dominate marrow doses at all ages. The variation with age of the various components of marrow dose is considered, including doses received in utero and in each year up to the age of 15. Doses in utero include contributions resulting from the ingestion of radionuclides by the mother and placental transfer to the foetus. Postnatal doses include those from radionuclides in breast-milk and from radionuclides ingested in other foods. Doses are somewhat higher in the first year of life and there is a general slow decline from the second year of life onwards. The low linear energy transfer (LET) component of absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is much larger than the high LET component. However, because of the higher radiation weighting factor for the latter it contributes about 40% of the equivalent dose incurred up to the age of 15.

  12. Expression and characterization of erythropoietin receptors on normal human bone marrow cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, S.; Teramura, M.; Takahashi, M.; Motoji, T.; Oshimi, K.; Ueda, M.; Mizoguchi, H.

    1989-05-01

    We studied the specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled bioactive recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) to human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNC) obtained from normal subjects. The /sup 125/I-labeled Epo bound specifically to the BMNC. Scatchard analysis of the data showed two classes of binding sites; one high affinity (Kd 0.07 nM) and the other low affinity (Kd 0.38 nM). The number of Epo binding sites per BMNC was 46 +/- 16 high-affinity receptors and 91 +/- 51 low-affinity receptors. The specific binding was displaced by unlabeled Epo, but not by other growth factors. Receptor internalization was observed significantly at 37 degrees C, but was prevented by the presence of 0.2% sodium azide. These findings indicate that human BMNC possess two classes of specific Epo receptors with characteristics of a hormone-receptor association.

  13. Study on Bone Mineral Density and its Influencing Factors among 1 214 Older Adults in Xuhui District, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ping CHEN; Mao-hua MIAO; Li-feng ZHOU; Jie YANG; Guang-hua LU; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Hui-qin YU; Er-sheng GAO

    2006-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of the forearm bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults, and to identify the potentialfactors influencing BMD.Methods A total of 1 214 older adults were examined, in Tianlin, Fenglin and Xietu sub-districts, of Xuhui district, Shanghai. BMD was tested at the left forearm,including distal radius and ulna 1/3 total, distalradius where the distance of radius and ulna is 8 mm, ultra-distal radius, by single energy X-ray densitometer.Results The BMD at all of the four sites decreased with the age increased. The average BMD was higher in male than in female for the same age and measured site.Distal radius 1/3 total had the highest BMD among the four sites. The incidence of low BMD and osteoporosis in distal forearm 1/3 radius total ascended with the age increased.Multiplied logistic regression showed that males had a lower risk to be low BMD (OR=0.19) compared with female. Compared with the group aged from 50 to 54, the odds ratio in the group aged from 55 to 59, 60 to 64, and 65 to 70 were respectively 3.17,5.13, 15.03. Compared with those whose monthly salary was less than 1 000, the odds ratio was 0.70 in those whose salary was more than 1 000.Conclusion The incidence of low BMD was high in older adults, and it is related with sex, age, monthly salary.

  14. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE BOTH BONES FOREARM IN ADULTS USING LC-DCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Naik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forearm represent a critical anatomic unit of the upper limb, permitting the effector organ of the upper limb, the hand, to perform multi axial daily activities of living conservative reduction of fracture BBFA results in a poor functional outcome, non-union, mal-union rotational deformity. Hence perfect reduction is essential in maintaining the rotation (supination and pronation. This is achieved by ORIF using LC-DCP. The term LC-DCP stands for a new approach to plate fixation, reduced trauma to bone, preservation of blood supply, avoidance of stress raisers produced at implant removal and improved healing. This study is undertaken to assess the results of diaphyseal fractures of BBFA using LCDCP to study the advantages and its complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who are admitted tin Victoria and Bowring & Lady Curzon Hospitals (Bangalore Medical College taken for study after obtaining their consent. This is prospective study from January 2004 to February 2006. RESULTS: This study consists of 20 cases of fracture BBFA. All cases were openly reduced and internally fixed with 3.5 mm LCDCP. Age distribution ranged from 18-65 years with fracture being most common in 2nd and 3rd decade (Average 34.6. Sex distribution out of 20 patients, 17 patients (85% was male and 3 (15% female. Side affected 13 (65% left side and 7 patients (35% right side. Mode of injury RTA 10 (50%, 8 (40% with fall 2 (10% assault. 18 (90% patient s had sound union in less than 6 months, 2 (10% patients had delayed union. Results were evaluated by Andersons scoring system. Using this scoring system we had 17 (85% patients with excellent results. 2 (10% patients with satisfactory results and 1 (5% with unsatisfactory result (radioulnar synostosis. Superficial infection 2 (10% posterior interosseous nerve injury 1 (5% Radioulnar synostosis 1(5%. CONCLUSION: LC-DCP facilitates biological, rigid fixation and early bone union with excellent radiological and

  15. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Development and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Khaled Waleed; Chantiri, Mansour; Bassit, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate many cellular activities including cell migration, differentiation, adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein?2 (rhBMP?2) in oral and maxillofacial surgery has seen a tremendous increase. Due to its role in many cellular pathways, the influence of this protein on carcinogenesis in different organs has been intensively studied over the past decade. BMPs also have been detected to have a role in the development and progression of many tumors, particularly disease-specific bone metastasis. In oral squamous cell carcinoma - the tumor type accounting for more than 90% of head and neck malignancies- aberrations of both BMP expression and associated signaling pathways have a certain relation with the development and progression of the disease by regulating a range of biological functions in the altered cells. In the current review, we discuss the influence of BMPs -especially rhBMP-2- in the development and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27039814

  16. Three Point Bending Test of Human Femoral Tissue: An Essay in Ancient and Modern Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bárcenas, L. A.; Trejo-Camacho, H.; Suárez-Estrella, I.; Heredia, A.; Magaña, C.; Bucio, L.; Orozco, E.

    2003-09-01

    Some procedures for characterising the mechanical properties of femur diaphysis are reviewed here. We have used the three point bending test to measure the relative rupture modulus of ancient healthy human tissues (1250, 800, 614, and 185 years BP) as well as recent bones. The maximum resistance to fracture was measured applying a force (by a wedge) over the femoral inner surface. The maximum rupture strength was about 150 MPa for recent bone and decreased as the antiquity increased. The typical anisotropy that is observed in this kind of tissues is due to the anisotropical orientation of fibres as well as the textured orientation of the apatite crystals over the collagen fibres. Therefore we found that ancient bones show less fracture strength probably due to an abiotic crystal growth phenomenon during the diagenesis process. By LVSEM analysis we have found that in recent samples the fracture surface is irregular due to the crosslinking interactions between the collagen molecules, in comparison with the ancient samples, where a smooth surface is clearly appreciated as the antiquity of the sample increases. The results reported here strongly suggest that these composites should contain a fibrillar phase as a matrix constituted mainly by a natural polymer (i.e. collagen, cellulose, etc.). Moreover, this composite must have a minimum rupture strength of about 150 MPa.

  17. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Routy, B.; J. Hoang; Gruber, J

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette ...

  18. Glycation of human cortical and cancellous bone captures differences in the formation of Maillard reaction products between glucose and ribose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna E Sroga

    Full Text Available To better understand some aspects of bone matrix glycation, we used an in vitro glycation approach. Within two weeks, our glycation procedures led to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs at the levels that corresponded to approx. 25-30 years of the natural in vivo glycation. Cortical and cancellous bones from human tibias were glycated in vitro using either glucose (glucosylation or ribose (ribosylation. Both glucosylation and ribosylation led to the formation of higher levels of AGEs and pentosidine (PEN in cancellous than cortical bone dissected from all tested donors (young, middle-age and elderly men and women. More efficient glycation of bone matrix proteins in cancellous bone most likely depended on the higher porosity of this tissue, which facilitated better accessibility of the sugars to the matrix proteins. Notably, glycation of cortical bone from older donors led to much higher AGEs levels as compared to young donors. Such efficient in vitro glycation of older cortical bone could result from aging-related increase in porosity caused by the loss of mineral content. In addition, more pronounced glycation in vivo would be driven by elevated oxidation processes. Interestingly, the levels of PEN formation differed pronouncedly between glucosylation and ribosylation. Ribosylation generated very high levels of PEN (approx. 6- vs. 2.5-fold higher PEN level than in glucosylated samples. Kinetic studies of AGEs and PEN formation in human cortical and cancellous bone matrix confirmed higher accumulation of fluorescent crosslinks for ribosylation. Our results suggest that in vitro glycation of bone using glucose leads to the formation of lower levels of AGEs including PEN, whereas ribosylation appears to support a pathway toward PEN formation. Our studies may help to understand differences in the progression of bone pathologies related to protein glycation by different sugars, and raise awareness for excessive sugar

  19. Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus-6 genome in blood and bone marrow samples from Tunisian patients with acute leukemia: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Nefzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious etiology in lymphoproliferative diseases has always been suspected. The pathogenic roles of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 in acute leukemia have been of great interest. Discordant results to establish a link between HHV-6 activation and the genesis of acute leukemia have been observed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible association between HHV-6 infection and acute leukemia in children and adults, with a longitudinal follow-up at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse. Methods HHV-6 load was quantified by a quantitative real-time PCR in the blood and bone marrow samples from 37 children and 36 adults with acute leukemia: 33 B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, 6 T acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL, 34 acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Results HHV-6 was detected in 15%, 8%, 30% and 28% of the blood samples at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. The median viral loads were 138, 244, 112 and 78 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. In the bone marrow samples, HHV-6 was detected in 5%, 20% and 23% of the samples at diagnosis, remission and relapse, respectively. The median viral loads were 34, 109 and 32 copies/million cells at diagnosis, remission and relapse, respectively. According to the type of leukemia at diagnosis, HHV-6 was detected in 19% of the blood samples and in 7% of the bone marrow samples (with median viral loads at 206 and 79 copies/million cells, respectively from patients with B-ALL. For patients with AML, HHV-6 was present in 8% of the blood samples and in 4% of the bone marrow samples (with median viral loads at 68 and 12 copies/million cells, respectively. HHV-6 was more prevalent in the blood samples from children than from adults (25% and 9%, respectively and for the bone marrow (11% and 0%, respectively. All typable HHV-6 were HHV-6B species. No link was shown between neither the clinical symptoms nor the

  20. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Folkestad, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is characterized by a generalized mineralization defect. Although densitometric studies have found the patients to have an elevated bone mineral density (BMD), data on bone geometry and microstructure are scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to a......Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is characterized by a generalized mineralization defect. Although densitometric studies have found the patients to have an elevated bone mineral density (BMD), data on bone geometry and microstructure are scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study...

  1. Multiple quantitative trait loci for cortical and trabecular bone regulation map to mid-distal mouse chromosome 4 that shares linkage homology to human chromosome 1p36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Wesley G; Shultz, Kathryn L; Coombs, Harold F; Horton, Lindsay G; Donahue, Leah Rae; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-01-01

    The mid-distal region of mouse chromosome 4 (Chr 4) is homologous with human Chr 1p36. Previously, we reported that mouse Chr 4 carries a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with strong regulatory effect on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). The intent of this study is to utilize nested congenic strains to decompose the genetic complexity of this gene-rich region. Adult females and males from 18 nested congenic strains carrying discrete C3H sequences were phenotyped for femoral mineral and volume by pQCT and for trabecular bone volume (BV), tissue volume (TV), trabecular number (Trab.no), and trabecular thickness (Trab.thk) by MicroCT 40. Our data show that the mouse Chr 4 region consists of at least 10 regulatory QTL regions that affected either or both pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes. The pQCT phenotypes were typically similar between sexes, whereas the MicroCT 40 phenotypes were divergent. Individual congenic strains contained one to seven QTL regions. These regions conferred large positive or negative effects in some congenic strains, depending on the particular bone phenotype. The QTL regions II to X are syntenic with human 1p36, containing from 1 to 102 known genes. We identified 13 candidate genes that can be linked to bone within these regions. Six of these genes were linked to osteoblasts, three linked to osteoclasts, and two linked to skeletal development. Three of these genes have been identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) linked to 1p36. In region III, there is only one gene, Lck, which conferred negative pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes in both sexes. This gene is important to development and functioning of T cells, has been associated with osteoclast activity, and represents a novel bone regulatory gene that merits further experimental evaluation. In summary, congenic strains are powerful tools for identifying regulatory regions that influence bone biology and offer models for testing hypotheses about gene-gene and gene

  2. Neutron activation analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio in rib bone of healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ca/P ratio was estimated in intact rib bone samples from healthy humans, 37 women and 45 men, aged from 15 to 55 years using instrumental neutron activation analysis. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) age- or sex-related differences in the Ca/P ratio were observed. The mean value (M±SD) for the investigated parameter for the whole group studied, 2.33±0.34, was within a very wide range of published data and close to the median value

  3. Human calcium metabolism including bone resorption measured with {sup 41}Ca tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.P.H.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); King, J.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Vieira, N.E. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States); Woodhouse, L.R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Yergey, A.L. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is so sensitive to small quantities of {sup 41}Ca that it might be used as a tracer in the study of human calcium kinetics to generate unique kinds of data. In contrast with the use of other Ca isotopic tracers, {sup 41}Ca tracer can be so administered that the tracer movements between the various body pools achieve a quasi steady state. Resorbing bone may thus be directly measured. We have tested such a protocol against a conventional stable isotope experiment with good agreement.

  4. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Mindaye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5,6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results.

  5. Development of a strain rate dependent material model of human cortical bone for computer-aided reconstruction of injury mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharpour, Zahra; Zioupos, Peter; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided methods such as finite-element simulation offer a great potential in the forensic reconstruction of injury mechanisms. Numerous studies have been performed on understanding and analysing the mechanical properties of bone and the mechanism of its fracture. Determination of the mechanical properties of bones is made on the same basis used for other structural materials. The mechanical behaviour of bones is affected by the mechanical properties of the bone material, the geometry, the loading direction and mode and of course the loading rate. Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of cortical bone has been well demonstrated in literature studies, but as many of these were performed on animal bones and at non-physiological strain rates it is questionable how these will apply in the human situations. High strain-rates dominate in a lot of forensic applications in automotive crashes and assault scenarios. There is an overwhelming need to a model which can describe the complex behaviour of bone at lower strain rates as well as higher ones. Some attempts have been made to model the viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties of the bone at high strain rates using constitutive mathematical models with little demonstrated success. The main objective of the present study is to model the rate dependent behaviour of the bones based on experimental data. An isotropic material model of human cortical bone with strain rate dependency effects is implemented using the LS-DYNA material library. We employed a human finite element model called THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety), developed by Toyota R&D Labs and the Wayne State University, USA. The finite element model of the human femur is extracted from the THUMS model. Different methods have been employed to develop a strain rate dependent material model for the femur bone. Results of one the recent experimental studies on human femur have been employed to obtain the numerical model for cortical femur. A

  6. A novel mouse model of human breast cancer stem-like cells with high CD44+CD24-/lower phenotype metastasis to human bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Li-jun; WANG Feng; WANG Shui; LIU Xiao-an; SHEN En-chao; DING Qiang; LU Chao; XU Jian; CAO Qin-hong; ZHU Hai-qing

    2008-01-01

    Background A satisfactory animal model of breast cancer metastasizing to bone is unavailable. In this study, we used human breast cancer stem-like cells and human bone to build a novel "human-source" model of human breast cancer skeletal metastasis.Methods Human breast cancer stem-like cells, the CD44+/CD24-/lower subpopulation, was separated and cultured. Before injection with the stem-like cells, mice were implanted with human bone in the right or left dorsal flanks. Animals in Groups A, B, and C were injected with 1x105, 1x106 human breast cancer stem-like cells, and 1x106 parental MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. A positive control group (D) without implantation of human bone was also injected with 1x106 MDA-MB-231 cells. Immunohistochemistry was performed for determination of CD34, CD105, smooth muscle antibody, CD44, CD24, cytokine, CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), and osteopontin (OPN). mRNA levels of CD44, CD24, CXCR4, and OPN in bone metastasis tissues were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Our results demonstrated that cells in implanted human bones of group B, which received 1x106 cancer stem-like cells, stained strongly positive for CD44, CXCR4, and OPN, whereas those of other groups showed no or minimum staining. Moreover, group B had the highest incidence of human bone metastasis (77.8%, P=0.0230) and no accompaniment of other tissue metastasis. The real-time PCR showed an increase of CD44, CXCR4, and OPN mRNA in metastatic bone tissues in group B compared with those of groups C and D, however the expression of CD24 mRNA in group B were the lowest. Conclusions In the novel "human source" model of breast cancer, breast cancer stem-like cells demonstrated a higher human bone-seeking ability. Its mechanism might be related to the higher expressions of CD44, CXCR4, and OPN, and the lower expression of CD24 in breast cancer stem-like cells.

  7. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ingvor A; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...

  8. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative RTPCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions. - Highlights: • FABP3 expression pattern was studied in 12 human hypoxic-MSCs. • FABP3 mRNA and proteins are upregulated in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions.

  9. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Suna, E-mail: wangs3@mail.nih.gov; Zhou, Yifu; Andreyev, Oleg; Hoyt, Robert F.; Singh, Avneesh; Hunt, Timothy; Horvath, Keith A.

    2014-04-15

    Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative {sup RT}PCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions. - Highlights: • FABP3 expression pattern was studied in 12 human hypoxic-MSCs. • FABP3 mRNA and proteins are upregulated in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions.

  10. External fixation of femoral defects in athymic rats: Applications for human stem cell implantation and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasa Foo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate animal model is critical for the research of stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering for bone regeneration in vivo. This study reports the design of an external fixator and its application to critical-sized femoral defects in athymic rats. The external fixator consists of clamps and screws that are readily available from hardware stores as well as Kirschner wires. A total of 35 rats underwent application of the external fixator with creation of a 6-mm bone defect in one femur of each animal. This model had been used in several separate studies, including implantation of collagen gel, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or bone morphogenetic protein-2. One rat developed fracture at the proximal pin site and two rats developed deep tissue infection. Pin loosening was found in nine rats, but it only led to the failure of external fixation in two animals. In 8 to 10 weeks, various degrees of bone growth in the femoral defects were observed in different study groups, from full repair of the bone defect with bone morphogenetic protein-2 implantation to fibrous nonunion with collagen gel implantation. The external fixator used in these studies provided sufficient mechanical stability to the bone defects and had a comparable complication rate in athymic rats as in immunocompetent rats. The external fixator does not interfere with the natural environment of a bone defect. This model is particularly valuable for investigation of osteogenesis of human stem/progenitor cells in vivo.

  11. EFFECTS OF XW630 ON BONE FORMATION IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS AND IN HUMAN OSTEOBLAST-LIKE CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the effects of XW630 on bone formation in overiectomized(OVX) rats and in human osteoblast-like cell line TE85.Method. Bone histomorphometric analysis was performed with undecalcified bone sections and tetracycline intraperitoneally labeling.Results. Compared with that of OVX rats, the static data of trabecular bone volume(TBV)/ total tissue volume(TTV), TBV/sponge bone volume(SBV) and mean trabecular plate density (MTPD) were enhanced while mean trabecular plate spacing(MTPS) decreased after treated with XW630 for 13w. The dynamic data of single-labeled surface [Sfract(s)], double-labeled surface[Sfract(d)],Sfract(d+1/2s),trabecular osteoid surface(TOS), and bone formation rate in tissue level (Svf) were increased and osteoid maturation period (OMP) shortened in XW630 group. In osteoblast-like cells, both 3H-thymidine incorporation and cell count increased after treated with XW630 for 48. Treated with XW630 for 12~18h,inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) activity and cGMP content increased in time-dependent manners.Conclusions. XW630 enhanced bone activation frequency and increased trabecular connectivity, stability, and strength. The cellular mechanism related to effects of XW630 on bone formation in ovariectomized rats.

  12. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

  13. Structural studies of human alkaline phosphatase in complex with strontium: Implication for its secondary effect in bones

    OpenAIRE

    Llinas, Paola; Masella, Michel; Stigbrand, Torgny; Ménez, André; Stura, Enrico A.; Le Du, Marie Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Strontium is used in the treatment of osteoporosis as a ranelate compound, and in the treatment of painful scattered bone metastases as isotope. At very high doses and in certain conditions, it can lead to osteomalacia characterized by impairment of bone mineralization. The osteomalacia symptoms resemble those of hypophosphatasia, a rare inherited disorder associated with mutations in the gene encoding for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Human alkaline phosphatases have four m...

  14. A histomorphometric and scanning electron microscopy study of human condylar cartilage and bone tissue changes in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Hans Ulrik; Thomsen, J.S.; Hougen, Hans Petter;

    1999-01-01

    To determine the possibility for adaptive growth in human condyles, quantifying the thickness of fibrocartilage and the constitution of cells with potential activity, the trabecular bone volume, and the structural parameter: marrow space star volume in a larger sample of human autopsy condyles...

  15. Influence of object location in different FOVs on trabecular bone microstructure measurements of human mandible: a cone beam CT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ibrahim; A. Parsa; B. Hassan; P. van der Stelt; I.H.A. Aartman; P. Nambiar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different object locations in different fields of view (FOVs) of two cone beam CT (CBCT) systems on trabecular bone microstructure measurements of a human mandible. A block of dry human mandible was scanned at five different locations (centre, lef

  16. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  17. Increased adipogenesis in cultured embryonic chondrocytes and in adult bone marrow of dominant negative Erg transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Flajollet

    Full Text Available In monolayer culture, primary articular chondrocytes have an intrinsic tendency to lose their phenotype during expansion. The molecular events underlying this chondrocyte dedifferentiation are still largely unknown. Several transcription factors are important for chondrocyte differentiation. The Ets transcription factor family may be involved in skeletal development. One family member, the Erg gene, is mainly expressed during cartilage formation. To further investigate the potential role of Erg in the maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype, we isolated and cultured chondrocytes from the rib cartilage of embryos of transgenic mice that express a dominant negative form of Erg (DN-Erg during cartilage formation. DN-Erg expression in chondrocytes cultured for up to 20 days did not affect the early dedifferentiation usually observed in cultured chondrocytes. However, lipid droplets accumulated in DN-Erg chondrocytes, suggesting adipocyte emergence. Transcriptomic analysis using a DNA microarray, validated by quantitative RT-PCR, revealed strong differential gene expression, with a decrease in chondrogenesis-related markers and an increase in adipogenesis-related gene expression in cultured DN-Erg chondrocytes. These results indicate that Erg is involved in either maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype in vitro or in cell fate orientation. Along with the in vitro studies, we compared adipocyte presence in wild-type and transgenic mice skeletons. Histological investigations revealed an increase in the number of adipocytes in the bone marrow of adult DN-Erg mice even though no adipocytes were detected in embryonic cartilage or bone. These findings suggest that the Ets transcription factor family may contribute to the homeostatic balance in skeleton cell plasticity.

  18. Experimental observation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into rabbit intervertebral discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hao; Lin, Yazhou; Zhang, Guoqing; Gu, Rui; Chen, Bohua

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation has been investigated worldwide. However, few reports have addressed the survival status of human BMSCs in the intervertebral discs (IVDs) in vivo following transplantation. The current study aimed to observe the survival status of human BMSCs in rabbit IVDs. The IVDs of 15 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups: Punctured blank control group (L1-2); punctured physiological saline control group (L2-3); and punctured human BMSCs transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) group (L3-4, L4-5 and L5-6). One, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after transplantation the IVDs were removed and a fluorescence microscope was used to observe the density of GFP-positive human BMSCs. The results indicated that in the sections of specimens removed at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-transplantation, no GFP-positive cells were observed in the control groups, whereas GFP-positive cells were apparent in the nucleus pulposus at all periods in the GFP-labeled human BMSCs group, and the cell density at 6 and 8 weeks was significantly less than that at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-transplantation (P<0.001). Thus, it was identified that human BMSCs were able to survive in the rabbit IVDs for 8 weeks.

  19. Icariine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts by increasing production of bone morphogenetic protein 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xiao-xue; CHEN Zhong-qiang; LIU Zhong-jun; MA Qing-jun; DANG Geng-ting

    2007-01-01

    Background lcariine is a flavonoid isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Epimedium pubescens and is the main active compound of it. Recently, Epimedium pubescens was found to have a therapeutic effect on osteoporosis. But the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the study was to research the effect of lcariine on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts.Methods Human osteoblasts were obtained byinducing human marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) directionally and were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of lcariine. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was used to observe the effect of lcariine on cell proliferation. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the amount of calcified nodules were assayed to observe the effect on cell differentiation.The expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Icariine (20 μg/ml) increased significantly the proliferation of human osteoblasts. And, lcariine (10 μg/ml and 20μg/ml) increased the activity of ALP and the amount of calcified nodules of human osteoblasts significantly (P<0.05).BMP-2 mRNA synthesis was elevated significantly in response to lcariine (20 μg/ml).Conclusions lcariine has a direct stimulatory effect on the proliferation and differentiation of cultured human osteoblastcells in vitro, which may be mediated by increasing production of BMP-2 in osteoblasts.

  20. Graft versus host disease in the bone marrow, liver and thymus humanized mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Greenblatt

    Full Text Available Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice. The skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and parotid glands are affected with progressive inflammation and sclerosis. Although all mice showed involvement of at least one organ site, the incidence of overt clinical disease was approximately 35% by 22 weeks after reconstitution. The use of hosts lacking the IL2 common gamma chain (NOD/SCID/γc(-/- delayed the onset of disease, but ultimately did not affect incidence. Genetic analysis revealed that particular donor HLA class I alleles influenced the risk for the development of GVHD. At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. GVHD also induced a mixed M1/M2 polarization phenotype in a dermal murine CD11b+, MHC class II+ macrophage population. The presence of xenogenic GVHD in BLT mice both presents a major obstacle in the use of humanized mice and an opportunity to conduct preclinical studies on GVHD in a humanized model.

  1. Enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functions on cathodic arc plasma-treated titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu W

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhu,1 George Teel,1 Christopher M O’Brien,1 Taisen Zhuang,1 Michael Keidar,1 Lijie Grace Zhang1–3 1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Surface modification of titanium for use in orthopedics has been explored for years; however, an ideal method of integrating titanium with native bone is still required to this day. Since human bone cells directly interact with nanostructured extracellular matrices, one of the most promising methods of improving titanium’s osseointegration involves inducing biomimetic nanotopography to enhance cell–implant interaction. In this regard, we explored an approach to functionalize the surface of titanium by depositing a thin film of textured titanium nanoparticles via a cathodic arc discharge plasma. The aim is to improve human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC attachment and differentiation and to reduce deleterious effects of more complex surface modification methods. Surface functionalization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle testing, and specific protein adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination demonstrate the deposition of titanium nanoparticles and the surface roughness change after coating. The specific fibronectin adsorption was enhanced on the modified titanium surface that associates with the improved hydrophilicity. MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted on the nanocoated surface. More importantly, compared to bare titanium, greater production of total protein, deposition of calcium mineral, and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase were observed from MSCs on nanocoated titanium after 21 days. The method described herein presents a promising alternative method for inducing more cell favorable nanosurface for improved orthopedic applications

  2. Expression of Odontogenic Genes in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Sara Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tooth loss is a common problem and since current tooth replacement methods cannot counter balance with biological tooth structures, regenerating natural tooth structures has become an ideal goal. A challenging problem in tooth regeneration is to find a proper clinically feasible cell to seed.This study was designed to investigate the odontogenic potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs for seeding in tooth regeneration.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD rats were used at the eleventh embryonic day and rat fetuses were removed surgically using semilunar flap under general anesthesia. The primary mandible was cut using a stereomicroscope. The epithelial and mesenchymal components were separated and the dissected oral epithelium was cultured for 3 days. We used flow cytometry analysis to confirm presence of mesenchymal stem cells and not hematopoietic cells and to demonstrate the presence of oral epithelium. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and cultured oral epithelium were then co-cultured for 14 days. BMSCs cultured alone were used as controls. Expression of two odontogenic genes Pax9 and DMP1 was assessed using quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.Results: Expression of two odontogenic genes, Pax9 and DMP1, were detected in BMSCs co-cultured with oral epithelium but not in the control group.Conclusion: Expression of Pax9 and DMP1 by human BMSCs in the proximity of odontogenic epithelium indicates odontogenic potential of these cells.

  3. Naming the body (or the bones): Human remains, anthropological/medical collections, religious beliefs, and restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Human bones and biological remains conserved in anthropological, medical, and archaeological collections are foci of ethical debate, as recently illustrated by the affair of Charles Byrne's bones. In the near future, curators will have to choose between global conservation of all (or almost all) anthropological collections and systematic restitution to their original communities or families. Various proposals and examples of restitution and nonrestitution are given (with justifications) in order to support the concept that the body (especially the dead body) is not property. We propose that the only element supporting arguments in favor of restitution could be the name of the individual, highlighting the importance of all identification processes for such "artifacts." This is undoubtedly a universal value: naming the dead, identifying and then burying the person, i.e., reversing the progression along the timeline from individual to scientific specimen. Such elements could be of great interest to all universities and medical institutions that keep human remains in their collections for educational or historical purposes when they are confronted with ethical problems and/or repatriation requests.

  4. Multimodal imaging of the human temporal bone: A comparison of CT and optical scanning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voie, Arne H.; Whiting, Bruce; Skinner, Margaret; Neely, J. Gail; Lee, Kenneth; Holden, Tim; Brunsden, Barry

    2003-10-01

    A collaborative effort between Washington University in St. Louis and Spencer Technologies in Seattle, WA has been undertaken to create a multimodal 3D reconstruction of the human cochlea and vestibular system. The goal of this project is to improve the accuracy of in vivo CT reconstructions of implanted cochleae, and to expand the knowledge of high-resolution anatomical detail provided by orthogonal-plane optical sectioning (OPFOS). At WUSL, computed tomography (CT) images of the cochlea are used to determine the position of cochlear implant electrodes relative to target auditory neurons. The cochlear implant position is determined using pre- and post-operative CT scans. The CT volumes are cross-registered to align the semicircular canals and internal auditory canal, which have a unique configuration in 3-D space. The head of a human body donor was scanned with a clinical CT device, after which the temporal bones were removed, fixed in formalin and trimmed prior to scanning with a laboratory Micro CT scanner. Following CT, the temporal bones were sent to the OPFOS Imaging Lab at Spencer Technologies for a further analysis. 3-D reconstructions of CT and OPFOS imaging modalities were compared, and results are presented. [Work supported by NIDCD Grants R44-03623-5 and R01-00581-13.

  5. Compromised trabecular microarchitecture and lower finite element estimates of radius and tibia bone strength in adults with turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Brixen, Kim; Gravholt, Claus H

    2012-01-01

    Although bone mass appear ample for bone size in Turner syndrome (TS), epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of fracture in TS. We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to measure standard morphological parameters of bone geometry and microar......Although bone mass appear ample for bone size in Turner syndrome (TS), epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of fracture in TS. We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to measure standard morphological parameters of bone geometry...

  6. Establishment and identification of fibroblast clones expressing human bone morphogenetic protein 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Wang; Weibin Sun; Chun Lu; Guixia Tang

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To establish fibroblasts stably expressing human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2). Methods:Eukaryonic expression vector(pcDNA3.1-B2) was transduced into NIH3T3 cells using SofastTM, a new generation cationic polymer gene transfection reagent. The positive cell clones were selected with G418. The stable transfection and expression of BMP2 in the NIH3T3 cells were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical stain. Results: BMP2 mRNA was transcripted and expressed in the transfected NIH3T3 cells. Conclusion: With positive compound transfection, outside human BMP2 gene can be successfully transducted into NIH3T3 cells, which is the key step to induce periodontal cells to osseous phenotypes.

  7. Bones and humanity. On Forensic Anthropology and its constitutive power facing forced disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huffschmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forensic anthropologists seek to decipher traces of anonymous dead, to restitute identities of human remains and to provide their families with the possibility to conclude mourning and even of justice. The article explores the contributions and meanings of forensic anthropology as state-independent practice beyond a mereley criminalistic approach, as it was conceptualized by the Argentine pioneers after the last dictatorship in this nation. I conceive this practice as a sort of arqueology of contemporary terror that seeks to confront a specific violence as the forced disappearance of persons and the deshumanization of their dead bodies. The article proposes reading forensic anthropology as a 'situated cience', with its complexities and ambigueties, that operates between nameless bones (the human remains and names without bodies (the so-called disappeared in settings of violent pasts such as Argentina or Guatemala, and especially in Mexico, where mass graves became the new symbol of a horrified present.

  8. Effectiveness of community intervention in improving bone health behaviors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plawecki, Karen; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2013-01-01

    An 8-week, bone-health community program addressed risks/lifestyle changes within the Health Belief Model and Theory of Reasoned Action frameworks in a randomized format (treatment group n = 35; control group n = 34). Median week 1 values for calcium (control, 963 mg; treatment, 1023 mg) and vitamin D (81 IU both groups) were below recommendations, increasing throughout the program for both control (1023 mg calcium, 128 IU vitamin D) and treatment (1005 mg calcium, 122 IU vitamin D) groups. There was limited response to the exercise outcome variables, with many not participating in that section of the program. Psychosocial variables were positive for both control and treatment groups at week 1, with no significant difference at postintervention. Regression analysis indicated that those with a positive attitude about calcium intake and belief that they could choose calcium-fortified foods were more likely to have higher calcium intake. Intention to exercise was modified by peer and family support. Community-based programs can translate and use clinical trial key topics and outcomes, but participation bias makes impact results difficult to interpret the effectiveness of the program.

  9. Propagation of Adult SSCs: From Mouse to Human

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laura A.; Marco Seandel

    2013-01-01

    Adult spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) represent a distinctive source of stem cells in mammals for several reasons. First, by giving rise to spermatogenesis, SSCs are responsible for the propagation of a father’s genetic material. As such, autologous SSCs have been considered for treatment of infertility and other purposes, including correction of inherited disorders. Second, adult spermatogonia can spontaneously produce embryonic-like stem cells in vitro, which could be used a...

  10. Human hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L; Quam, R; Carretero, J M; Gracia, A; Rodríguez, L

    2008-01-01

    This study describes and compares two hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain). The Atapuerca SH hyoids are humanlike in both their morphology and dimensions, and they clearly differ from the hyoid bones of chimpanzees and Australopithecus afarensis. Their comparison with the Neandertal specimens Kebara 2 and SDR-034 makes it possible to begin to approach the question of temporal variation and sexual dimorphism in this bone in fossil humans. The results presented here show that the degree of metric and anatomical variation in the fossil sample was similar in magnitude and kind to living humans. Modern hyoid morphology was present by at least 530 kya and appears to represent a shared derived feature of the modern human and Neandertal evolutionary lineages inherited from their last common ancestor. PMID:17804038

  11. Paleogenetic and taphonomic analysis of human bones from Moa, Beirada, and Zé Espinho Sambaquis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Nonato do Rosario Marinho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses mtDNA and taphonomy of human remains from Moa, Beirada, and Zé Espinho sambaquis of Saquarema, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. New human bone dating by 14C-AMS for Moa archeological site (3810+50 BP - GX-31826-AMS is included. Preservation of microscopic lamellae and DNA is not related to the macroscopic integrity of the bones. Results here suggest that the preservation of amplifiable DNA fragments may have relation to the preservation of the lamellar arrangement as indicated by optical microscopic examination (polarized light. In 13 human bone fragments from Moa, Beirada, and Zé Espinho it was possible to sequence mtDNA from the 3 individuals of Moa, and from 1 of 4 individuals of Beirada, whose bones also show extensive areas with preserved lamellar structures. The 6 human bone fragments of Zé Espinho and 3 of the 4 fragments of Beirada showed extensive destruction of cortical microstructure represented by cavities, intrusive minerals, and agglomerated microscopic bodies of fungi and bacteria; it was not possible to extract mtDNA from these samples. The results support the hypothesis that the preservation of the microscopic osteon organization is a good predictor for DNA preservation. It was also confirmed the C haplogroup antiquity in Brazil.

  12. Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) can be obtained from human amniotic membrane, a highly abundant and readily available tissue. HAMSC sources present fewer ethical issues, have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties, considerable advantageous characteristics, and are considered an attractive potential treatment material in the field of regenerative medicine. We used a co-culture system to determine whether HAMSCs could promote osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). We isolated HAMSCs from discarded amnion samples and collected them using pancreatin/collagenase digestion. We cultured HAMSCs and HBMSCSs in basal medium. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early osteogenesis marker, was increased in the co-culture system compared to the control single cultures, which we also confirmed by ALP staining. We used immunofluorescence testing to investigate the effects of co-culturing with HAMSCs on HBMSC proliferation, which revealed that the co-culturing enhanced EdU expression in HBMSCs. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that co-culturing promoted osteogenesis in HBMSCs. Furthermore, Alizarin red S staining revealed that extracellular matrix calcium levels in mineralized nodule formation produced by the co-cultures were higher than that in the controls. Using the same co-culture system, we further observed the effects of HAMSCs on osteogenic differentiation in primary osteoblasts by Western blotting, which better addressed the mechanism for HAMSCs in bone regeneration. The results showed HAMSCs are osteogenic and not only play a role in promoting HBMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but also in osteoblasts, laying the foundation for new regenerative medicine methods.

  13. Isolation of alveolar epithelial type II progenitor cells from adult human lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Naoya; Kubo, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takaya; Ota, Chiharu; Hegab, Ahmed E.; He, Mei; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Takashi; Kato, Hidemasa; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2010-01-01

    Resident stem/progenitor cells in the lung are important for tissue homeostasis and repair. However, a progenitor population for alveolar type II (ATII) cells in adult human lungs has not been identified. The aim of this study is to isolate progenitor cells from adult human lungs with the ability to differentiate into ATII cells. We isolated colony-forming cells that had the capability for self-renewal and the potential to generate ATII cells in vitro. These undifferentiated progenitor cells ...

  14. Development of an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture derived by human bone marrow stromal cells and human monocytes for biomaterials testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Worch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts is a fundamental requirement for balanced bone remodelling. For biomaterial research, development of in vitro models is necessary to investigate this communication. In the present study human bone marrow stromal cells and human monocytes were cultivated in order to differentiate into osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Finally, a cultivation regime was identified which firstly induces the differentiation of the human bone marrow stromal cells followed by the induction of osteoclastogenesis through the osteoblasts formed – without the external addition of the factors RANKL and M-CSF. As a feedback on osteoblasts enhanced gene expression of BSP II was detected for modifications which facilitated the formation of large multinuclear osteoclasts. Phenotype characterization was performed by biochemical methods (DNA, LDH, ALP, TRAP 5b, gene expression analysis (ALP, BSP II, RANKL, IL-6, VTNR, CTSK, TRAP, OSCAR, CALCR as well as light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. After establishing this model on polystyrene, similar positive results were obtained for cultivation on a relevant bone substitution material – a composite xerogel of silica, collagen, and calcium phosphate.

  15. Three-Dimensional Upper Lip and Nostril Sill Changes After Cleft Alveolus Reconstruction Using Autologous Bone Grafting Versus Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Denadai, Rafael; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2016-06-01

    Cleft alveolus in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate has been alternatively reconstructed with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2. However, its effects on upper lip and nostril sill anatomy are not known. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to assess and compare upper lip and nostril sill changes after cleft alveolus reconstruction with autologous bone from the iliac crest region and rhBMP-2. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. In group 1, autologous bone from the iliac crest region was used to fill the cleft alveolus (n = 4), and in group 2, rhBMP-2 was used to fill the cleft alveolus (n = 8). Preoperatively and at one after the surgery, computerized tomography (CT) was performed. Reformatted CT imaging was used to perform cephalometric linear measurements of the upper lip and nostril sill regions. Inter- and intragroup data of the pre and postoperative reformatted CT measurements of the upper lip and nostril sill regions did not show differences (P >0.05) in cutaneous upper lip height and projection, nostril sill elevation, and subnasale projection. There were no significant upper lip and nostril sill anatomical changes after cleft alveolus reconstruction using autologous bone grafting and rhBMP-2. PMID:27244210

  16. Incorporation of Trace Elements in Ancient and Modern Human Bone: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Price, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) affords the opportunity to probe the atomic environment of trace elements in human bone. We are using XAS to investigate the mode(s) of incorporation of Sr, Zn, Pb, and Ba in both modern and ancient (and thus possibly altered) human and animal bone. Because burial and diagenesis may add trace elements to bone, we performed XAS analysis on samples of pristine contemporary and ancient, buried human and animal bone. We assume that deposition of these elements during burial occurs by processes distinct from those in vivo, and this will be reflected in their atomic environments. Archaeologists measure strontium in human and animal bone as a guide to diet. Carnivores show lower Sr/Ca ratios than their herbivore prey due to discrimination against Sr relative to Ca up the food chain. In an initial sample suite no difference was observed between modern and buried bone. Analysis of additional buried samples, using a more sensitive detector, revealed significant differences in the distance to the second and third neighbors of the Sr in some of the buried samples. Distances to the first neighbor, oxygen, were similar in all samples. Zinc is also used in paleo-diet studies. Initial x-ray absorption spectroscopy of a limited suite of bones did not reveal any differences between modern and buried samples. This may reflect the limited number of samples examined or the low levels of Zn in typical aqueous solutions in soils. Signals from barium and lead were too low to record useful XAS spectra. Additional samples will be studied for Zn, Ba, and Pb. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam lines 4-1 and 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a Lytle detector and appropriate filter, and a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector.

  17. Osteogenic induction of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells in novel synthetic polymer-hydrogel matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Endres, M; Hutmacher, D.W.; Salgado, A. J.; Kaps, C; RINGE, J; Reis, R. L.; Sittinger, M; Brandwood, A.; Schantz, J. T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the in vitro osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal progenitor cells in novel matrix architectures built by means of a three-dimensional bioresorbable synthetic framework in combination with a hydrogel. Human mesenchymal progenitor cells (hMPCs) were isolated from a human bone marrow aspirate by gradient centrifugation. Before in vitro engineering of scaffold-hMPC constructs, the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential was demonstrated...

  18. Decision-making in adult thalassemia patients undergoing unrelated bone marrow transplantation: quality of life, communication and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caocci, G; Pisu, S; Argiolu, F; Giardini, C; Locatelli, F; Vacca, A; Orofino, M G; Piras, E; De Stefano, P; Addari, M C; Ledda, A; La Nasa, G

    2006-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) represents a potentially curative treatment of thalassemia. For patients without an HLA-identical sibling donor, recourse to an unrelated donor is a practicable option but the candidates and their families are faced with a difficult decision. They can either choose to continue the supportive therapy, with no chance of definitive cure, or they accept the mortality risk of BMT in the hope of obtaining a definitive resolution of the disease. We investigated the communication strategies and the post transplantation quality of life (QoL) in 19 adult thalassemia patients surviving after an unrelated donor BMT. The patients were given two questionnaires: a questionnaire to evaluate pre-transplantation communication factors and the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire to assess global QoL. All patients were satisfied with the communication modalities employed by the physicians. The global post transplantation QoL in our patient cohort was found to be good. The approach used in this study may offer a contribution to understanding the decision-making process leading to the choice of a treatment with a high mortality risk for a chronic, non-malignant disease. Finally, some ethical issues of this therapeutic approach are briefly addressed. PMID:16299541

  19. Adult human case of toxocariasis with pulmonary migratory infiltrate and eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Považan Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Toxocariasis is a zoonosis which is in Serbia characterized with a very high infection rate of dogs and excessive contamination of the soil with the eggs of Toxocara canis, the agent of the disease. Toxocara-induced infections have in recent years been established in a few hundreds of children, but toxocariasis has rather rarely been diagnosed in adults. Case report. We reported toxocariasis (visceral larva migrans in an adult, manifested by migratory pulmonary infiltrates and positive serological test finding to Toxocara. Conclusion. Human toxocariasis is a rare disease in adults, therefore it should be considered in adult patients presented with eosinophilia and migratory pulmonary infiltrates.

  20. Assessment of the effect of reduced compositional heterogeneity on fracture resistance of human cortical bone using finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Ahmet; Curran, Erin; Ural, Ani

    2016-10-01

    The recent reports of atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and its possible association with prolonged bisphosphonate (BP) use highlighted the importance of a thorough understanding of mechanical modifications in bone due to bisphosphonate treatment. The reduced compositional heterogeneity is one of the modifications in bone due to extensive suppression of bone turnover. Although experimental evaluations suggested that compositional changes lead to a reduction in the heterogeneity of elastic properties, there is limited information on the extent of influence of reduced heterogeneity on fracture resistance of cortical bone. As a result, the goal of the current study is to evaluate the influence of varying the number of unique elastic and fracture properties for osteons, interstitial bone, and cement lines on fracture resistance across seven different human cortical bone specimens using finite element modeling. Fracture resistance of seven human cortical bone samples under homogeneous and three different heterogeneous material levels was evaluated using a compact tension test setup. The simulation results predicted that the crack volume was the highest for the models with homogeneous material properties. Increasing heterogeneity resulted in a lower amount of crack volume indicating an increase in fracture resistance of cortical bone. This reduction was observed up to a certain level of heterogeneity after which further beneficial effects of heterogeneity diminished suggesting a possible optimum level of heterogeneity for the bone tissue. The homogeneous models demonstrated limited areas of damage with extensive crack formation. On the other hand, the heterogeneity in the material properties led to increased damage volume and a more variable distribution of damage compared to the homogeneous models. This resulted in uncracked regions which tended to have less damage accumulation preventing extensive crack propagation. The results also showed that the percent osteonal area

  1. Assessment of the effect of reduced compositional heterogeneity on fracture resistance of human cortical bone using finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Ahmet; Curran, Erin; Ural, Ani

    2016-10-01

    The recent reports of atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and its possible association with prolonged bisphosphonate (BP) use highlighted the importance of a thorough understanding of mechanical modifications in bone due to bisphosphonate treatment. The reduced compositional heterogeneity is one of the modifications in bone due to extensive suppression of bone turnover. Although experimental evaluations suggested that compositional changes lead to a reduction in the heterogeneity of elastic properties, there is limited information on the extent of influence of reduced heterogeneity on fracture resistance of cortical bone. As a result, the goal of the current study is to evaluate the influence of varying the number of unique elastic and fracture properties for osteons, interstitial bone, and cement lines on fracture resistance across seven different human cortical bone specimens using finite element modeling. Fracture resistance of seven human cortical bone samples under homogeneous and three different heterogeneous material levels was evaluated using a compact tension test setup. The simulation results predicted that the crack volume was the highest for the models with homogeneous material properties. Increasing heterogeneity resulted in a lower amount of crack volume indicating an increase in fracture resistance of cortical bone. This reduction was observed up to a certain level of heterogeneity after which further beneficial effects of heterogeneity diminished suggesting a possible optimum level of heterogeneity for the bone tissue. The homogeneous models demonstrated limited areas of damage with extensive crack formation. On the other hand, the heterogeneity in the material properties led to increased damage volume and a more variable distribution of damage compared to the homogeneous models. This resulted in uncracked regions which tended to have less damage accumulation preventing extensive crack propagation. The results also showed that the percent osteonal area

  2. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal and neural crest stem cells are chemoattractive and accelerate motor recovery in a mouse model of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Neirinckx, Virginie; Agirman, Gulistan; Coste, Cécile; Marquet, Alice; Dion, Valérie; Rogister, Bernard; Franzen, Rachelle; Wislet, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stem cells from adult tissues were considered for a long time as promising tools for regenerative therapy of neurological diseases, including spinal cord injuries (SCI). Indeed, mesenchymal (MSCs) and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) together constitute the bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) that were used as therapeutic options in various models of experimental SCI. However, as clinical approaches remained disappointing, we thought that reducing BMSC heterogeneity should be a...

  3. The Cotransplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exerts Antiapoptotic Effects in Adult Rats after Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Shifeng Wu; Guanqun Cui; Hua Shao; Zhongjun Du; Ng, Jack C.; Cheng Peng

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the repairing effects of the cotransplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have not been fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the cotransplantation of OECs with BMSCs on antiapoptotic effects in adult rats for which the models of SCI are induced. We examined the changes in body weight, histopathological changes, apoptosis, and the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins after 14 days an...

  4. Osteomyelitis of a long bone due to Fusobacterium nucleatum and Actinomyces meyeri in an immunocompetent adult: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Min; Ha Young; Park Hye; Lee Jun; Lee Yoon; Sung Ki; Kang Cheol-In; Chung Doo; Song Jae-Hoon; Peck Kyong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Fusobacterium species are uncommon causes of osteomyelitis. These organisms are normal flora of the oral cavity. Therefore, they mostly cause osteomyelitis of the head and neck. Hematogenous osteomyelitis at distant sites other than the head and neck has rarely been reported in pediatric or immunocompromised patients. Here, we report the first case of osteomyelitis of a long bone combined with a muscle abscess due to Fusobacterium nucleatum in an otherwise healthy adult. C...

  5. Effect of fatty acids on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell energy metabolism and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Natasha; Huqi, Alda; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Mori, Jun; Paulin, Roxane; Haromy, Alois; Onay-Besikci, Arzu; Ionescu, Lavinia; Thébaud, Bernard; Michelakis, Evangelos; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    Successful stem cell therapy requires the optimal proliferation, engraftment, and differentiation of stem cells into the desired cell lineage of tissues. However, stem cell therapy clinical trials to date have had limited success, sug