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Sample records for adult female mice

  1. Bone status of adult female butyrylcholinesterase gene-deficient mice.

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    Haupt, Malte; Kauschke, Vivien; Sender, Jonas; Kampschulte, Marian; Kovtun, Anna; Dürselen, Lutz; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) degrades acetylcholine in addition to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is involved in embryonic development of limbs. Since BChE is expressed by osteoblast-like cells we asked whether it is functional in adult bone remodeling. We addressed this issue by analyzing BChE gene-deficient mice (BChE-KO). Bones were extracted from 16-week old female BChE-KO and corresponding wild type mice (WT). Femoral bones were used for biomechanical testing and μCT evaluation of cancellous and cortical bone. Also vertebrae Th12 and L1 were investigated with μCT while L3 was used for tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) histomorphometry and Th10 for gene expression analysis by means of real-time RT-PCR. BChE-KO did not reveal significant differences in biomechanical bone strength and bone mineral density determined by μCT. Microarchitecture of cancellous and cortical bone showed an increase in μCT parameters like trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and relative cortical bone area of femoral BChE-KO bone compared to WT. In vertebrae no changes of microstructure and mRNA expression were detected. However, osteoclast histomorphometry with TRAP stained sections demonstrated a significant increase in relative osteoclast number. In conclusion, in adult murine bone the role of BChE is limited to bone specific changes in microarchitecture and to an increase in relative number of bone resorbing osteoclasts whereas the main collagen resorbing enzyme Cathepsin-K (CtsK) was stably expressed. Besides, AChE might be able to compensate the lack of BChE. Thus, further analyses using bone tissue specific AChE BChE cre-lox double knockout mice would be helpful. PMID:26138460

  2. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

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    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  3. Urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction in female mice following early life and adult stress.

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    Pierce, Angela N; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R; Eller, Olivia C; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M; Christianson, Julie A

    2016-05-15

    Early adverse events have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. Despite high clinical relevance and reports of stress-related symptom exacerbation, animal models investigating the contribution of early life stress to female urological pain are lacking. We examined the impact of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on bladder sensitivity and visceral neuroimmune status both prior-to, and following, water avoidance stress (WAS) in adult female mice. The visceromotor response to urinary bladder distension was increased at baseline and 8d post-WAS in NMS mice, while colorectal sensitivity was transiently increased 1d post-WAS only in naïve mice. Bladder micturition rate and output, but not fecal output, were also significantly increased following WAS in NMS mice. Changes in gene expression involved in regulating the stress response system were observed at baseline and following WAS in NMS mice, and WAS reduced serum corticosterone levels. Cytokine and growth factor mRNA levels in the bladder, and to a lesser extent in the colon, were significantly impacted by NMS and WAS. Peripheral mRNA levels of stress-responsive receptors were differentially influenced by early life and adult stress in bladder, but not colon, of naïve and NMS mice. Histological evidence of mast cell degranulation was increased in NMS bladder, while protein levels of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were increased by WAS. Together, this study provides new insight into mechanisms contributing to stress associated symptom onset or exacerbation in patients exposed to early life stress. PMID:26940840

  4. Round and Round and Round We Go: Behavior of Adult Female Mice on the ISS

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    Ronca, April E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011) emphasized the importance of long duration rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at Ames Research Center. Here we present a video-based behavioral analysis of ten C57BL6 female adult mice exposed to a total of 37 days in space compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight and Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including feeding, drinking, exploratory behavior, grooming, and social interactions. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice. Spontaneous, organized circling or race-tracking behavior emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. I will summarize qualitative observations and quantitative comparisons of mice in microgravity and 1g conditions. Behavioral phenotyping revealed important insights into the overall health and adaptation of mice to the space environment, and identified unique behaviors that can guide future habitat development and research on rodents in space.

  5. Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB/c mice

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    Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude

    In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.

  6. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

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    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice. PMID:26524146

  7. Ah receptor expression in cardiomyocytes protects adult female mice from heart dysfunction induced by TCDD exposure.

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    Kurita, Hisaka; Carreira, Vinicius S; Fan, Yunxia; Jiang, Min; Naticchioni, Mindi; Koch, Sheryl; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2016-04-29

    Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental work in rodents suggest that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent environmental toxicant, is associated with incidence of heart disease. Although TCDD toxicity depends by and large on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), the role of the cardiac AHR in TCDD induced cardiovascular disease is not well defined. To determine whether the Ahr gene mediates disruption of heart function by TCDD, we generated a cardiomyocyte-specific Ahr knockout mouse by crossing Ahr(fx/fx) mice with βMhc:cre/+ mice, in which expression of Cre recombinase is driven by the promoter of the βMhc (myosin heavy chain-beta) gene. Starting at three months of age, mice with cardiomyocyte-specific Ahr ablation were exposed to 1μg/kg/week of TCDD or control vehicle by oral gavage for an additional three months. Relative to unexposed controls, TCDD-exposure induced cardiomyocyte Ahr-independent changes in males but not females, including a significant increase in body weight, blood pressure, and cardiac hypertrophy and a decrease in cardiac ejection fraction. TCDD exposure also induced cardiomyocyte Ahr-dependent changes in fibrosis and calcium signaling gene expression in both males and females. TCDD exposure appears to cause sexually dimorphic effects on heart function and induce fibrosis and changes in calcium signaling in both males and females through activation of the cardiomyocyte-specific Ahr. PMID:27163630

  8. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

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    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  9. The Nuclear Progesterone Receptor Reduces Post-Sigh Apneas during Sleep and Increases the Ventilatory Response to Hypercapnia in Adult Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Marcouiller, François; Boukari, Ryma; Laouafa, Sofien; Lavoie, Raphaël; Joseph, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) is involved in respiratory control and mediates the respiratory stimulant effect of progesterone. Adult female mice carrying a mutation in the nPR gene (PRKO mice) and wild-type controls (WT) were implanted with an osmotic pump delivering vehicle or progesterone (4 mg/kg/day). The mice were instrumented with EEG and neck EMG electrodes connected to a telemetry transmitter. The animals were placed in a whole body plethysmogr...

  10. The nuclear progesterone receptor reduces post-sigh apneas during sleep and increases the ventilatory response to hypercapnia in adult female mice.

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    Marcouiller, François; Boukari, Ryma; Laouafa, Sofien; Lavoie, Raphaël; Joseph, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) is involved in respiratory control and mediates the respiratory stimulant effect of progesterone. Adult female mice carrying a mutation in the nPR gene (PRKO mice) and wild-type controls (WT) were implanted with an osmotic pump delivering vehicle or progesterone (4 mg/kg/day). The mice were instrumented with EEG and neck EMG electrodes connected to a telemetry transmitter. The animals were placed in a whole body plethysmograph 7 days after surgery to record ventilation, metabolic rate, EEG and neck EMGs for 4 consecutive hours. The animals were exposed to hypercapnia (5% CO2), hypoxia (12% O2) and hypoxic-hypercapnia (5% CO2+12% O2-5 min each) to assess chemoreflex responses. EEG and EMG signals were used to characterize vigilance states (e.g., wake, non-REM, and REM sleep). PRKO mice exhibited similar levels of minute ventilation during non-REM and REM sleep, and higher frequencies of sighs and post-sigh apneas during non-REM sleep compared to WT. Progesterone treatment increased minute ventilation and metabolic rate in WT and PRKO mice during non-REM sleep. In WT mice, but not in PRKO mice, the ventilation under hypercapnia and hypoxic hypercapnia was enhanced after progesterone treatment. We conclude that the nPR reduces apnea frequency during non-REM sleep and enhances chemoreflex responses to hypercapnia after progesterone treatment. These results also suggest that mechanisms other than nPR activation increase metabolic rate in response to progesterone treatment in adult female mice. PMID:24945655

  11. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

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    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  12. Pubertal immune challenge blocks the ability of estradiol to enhance performance on cognitive tasks in adult female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Nafissa; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. Previously, we have shown that a single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.5mg/kg IP), during the pubertal period (around 6 weeks old) in mice decreases sexual receptivity in response to estradiol and progesterone in adulthood. These findings suggest that pubertal immune challenge has an enduring effect of decreasin...

  13. Loss of CABLES1, a cyclin-dependent kinase-interacting protein that inhibits cell cycle progression, results in germline expansion at the expense of oocyte quality in adult female mice.

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    Lee, Ho-Joon; Sakamoto, Hideo; Luo, Hongwei; Skaznik-Wikiel, Malgorzata E; Friel, Anne M; Niikura, Teruko; Tilly, Jacqueline C; Niikura, Yuichi; Klein, Rachael; Styer, Aaron K; Zukerberg, Lawrence R; Tilly, Jonathan L; Rueda, Bo R

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that cell cycle inhibitors encoded by the Ink4a gene locus constrain the self-renewing activity of adult stem cells of the hematopoietic and nervous systems. Here we report that knockout (KO) of the Cables1 [cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-5 and ABL enzyme substrate 1] cell cycle-regulatory gene in mice has minimal to no effect on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) dynamics. However, female Cables1-null mice exhibit a significant expansion of germ cell (oocyte) numbers throughout adulthood. This is accompanied by a dramatic elevation in the number of atretic immature oocytes within the ovaries and an increase in the incidence of degenerating oocytes retrieved following superovulation of CABLES1-deficient females. These outcomes are not observed in mice lacking p16INK4a alone or both p16INK4a and p19ARF. These data support recent reports that adult female mice can generate new oocytes and follicles but the enhancement of postnatal oogenesis by Cables1 KO appears offset by a reduction in oocyte quality, as reflected by increased elimination of these additional germ cells via apoptosis. This work also reveals cell lineage specificity with respect to the role that specific CDK-interacting proteins play in restraining the activity of adult germline versus somatic stem cells. PMID:17912041

  14. Female mice ultrasonically interact with males during courtship displays.

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    Neunuebel, Joshua P; Taylor, Adam L; Arthur, Ben J; Egnor, S E Roian

    2015-01-01

    During courtship males attract females with elaborate behaviors. In mice, these displays include ultrasonic vocalizations. Ultrasonic courtship vocalizations were previously attributed to the courting male, despite evidence that both sexes produce virtually indistinguishable vocalizations. Because of this similarity, and the difficulty of assigning vocalizations to individuals, the vocal contribution of each individual during courtship is unknown. To address this question, we developed a microphone array system to localize vocalizations from socially interacting, individual adult mice. With this system, we show that female mice vocally interact with males during courtship. Males and females jointly increased their vocalization rates during chases. Furthermore, a female's participation in these vocal interactions may function as a signal that indicates a state of increased receptivity. Our results reveal a novel form of vocal communication during mouse courtship, and lay the groundwork for a mechanistic dissection of communication during social behavior. PMID:26020291

  15. Experimental and finite element analysis of strains induced by axial tibial compression in young-adult and old female C57Bl/6 mice

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    Patel, Tarpit K.; Brodt, Michael D.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Axial compression of the mouse tibia is used to study strain-adaptive bone (re)modeling. In some studies, comparisons between mice of different ages are of interest. We characterized the tibial deformation and force–strain relationships in female C57Bl/6 mice at 5-, 12- and 22-months age. A three-gauge experimental method was used to determine the strain distribution at the mid-diaphysis, while specimen-specific finite element analysis was used to examine strain distribution along the tibial ...

  16. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

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    Tanghetti, Emil A.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesi...

  17. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

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    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  18. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone differentially improve cognition in aged female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to 24-mo-old gonadally intact female mice treated for 6 wk with silastic capsules containing either testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or empty c...

  19. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

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    Jasmina eKercmar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty, followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female ’attractiveness’ was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for one month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  20. Diet-induced obesity resistance of adult female mice selectively bred for increased wheel-running behavior is reversed by single perinatal exposure to a high-energy diet.

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    Guidotti, Stefano; Meyer, Neele; Przybyt, Ewa; Scheurink, Anton J W; Harmsen, Martin C; Garland, Theodore; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Female mice from independently bred lines previously selected over 50 generations for increased voluntary wheel-running behavior (S1, S2) resist high energy (HE) diet-induced obesity (DIO) at adulthood, even without actual access to running wheels, as opposed to randomly bred controls (CON). We investigated whether adult S mice without wheels remain DIO-resistant when exposed - via the mother - to the HE diet during their perinatal stage (from 2 weeks prior to conception until weaning on post-natal day 21). While S1 and S2 females subjected to HE diet either perinatally or from weaning onwards (post-weaning) resisted increased adiposity at adulthood (as opposed to CON females), they lost this resistance when challenged with HE diet during these periods combined over one single cycle of breeding. When allowed one-week access to wheels (at week 6-8 and at 10 months), however, tendency for increased wheel-running behavior of S mice was unaltered. Thus, the trait for increased wheel-running behavior remained intact following combined perinatal and post-weaning HE exposure, but apparently this did not block HE-induced weight gain. At weaning, perinatal HE diet increased adiposity in all lines, but this was only associated with hyperleptinemia in S lines irrespective of gender. Because leptin has multiple developmental effects at adolescence, we argue that a trait for increased physical activity may advance maturation in times of plenty. This would be adaptive in nature where episodes of increased nutrient availability should be exploited maximally. Associated disturbances in glucose homeostasis and related co-morbidities at adulthood are probably pleiotropic side effects. PMID:26850290

  1. Giardia lamblia infections in adult mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, L G; Conrad, J T; Nash, T E

    1994-01-01

    An adult mouse-Giardia lamblia model was developed and used to study host-parasite interactions, including antigenic variation. The H7/1 clone of isolate GS infected mice consistently and produced infections in 14 mouse strains tested. Infection patterns were mouse strain and Giardia isolate dependent. Antigenic variation occurred in immunocompetent mice but not in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency.

  2. Zearalenone low doses effects on the body weight and development of reproductive organs in pre-pubertal and sexually adult females of CD1 mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošková, K.; Makovický, P.; Děd, Lukáš; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pěknicová, Jana; Rajmon, R.

    Praha: Biotechnologický ústav v.v AVČR, 2011 - (Pěknicová, J.). s. 57-58 [XVII. symposium českých reprodukčních imunologů s mezinárodní účastí. 26.05.2011-29.05.2011, Žďár nad Sázavou] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : zearalenone * reproductive organs * body weight * CD1 mice Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  3. Hyperprolactinemia induced by hCG leads to metabolic disturbances in female mice.

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    Ratner, Laura D; Stevens, Guillermina; Bonaventura, Maria Marta; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Rulli, Susana B

    2016-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a growing epidemic; it increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, and several cancers. Several reports have indicated a link between hormonal imbalances and insulin resistance or obesity. Transgenic (TG) female mice overexpressing the human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice) exhibit constitutively elevated levels of hCG, increased production of testosterone, progesterone and prolactin, and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hCG hypersecretion on possible alterations in the glucose and lipid metabolism of adult TG females. We evaluated fasting serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride levels in adult hCGβ+ females and conducted intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests at different ages. TG female mice showed hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia, as well as glucose intolerance and insulin resistance at 6 months of age. A 1-week treatment with the dopamine agonist cabergoline applied on 5-week-old hCGβ+ mice, which corrected hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism, and hyperprogesteronemia, effectively prevented the metabolic alterations. These data indicate a key role of the hyperprolactinemia-induced gonadal dysfunction in the metabolic disturbances of hCGβ+ female mice. The findings prompt further studies on the involvement of gonadotropins and prolactin on metabolic disorders and might pave the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27154336

  4. Diet-induced obesity resistance of adult female mice selectively bred for increased wheel-running behavior is reversed by single perinatal exposure to a high-energy diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Meyer, Neele; Przybyt, Ewa; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Garland Jr., Theodore; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    Female mice from independently bred lines previously selected over 50 generations for increased voluntary wheel-running behavior (S1, S2) resist high energy (HE) diet-induced obesity (DIO) at adulthood, even without actual access to running wheels, as opposed to randomly bred controls (CON). We inve

  5. Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Crybb2 deletion impaired female fertility. • Crybb2 deletion dramatically affected the production of reproduction-related hormones and hormone response. • Crybb2 deletion impaired follicular development and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. • Crybb2 deletion promoted follicular atresia and apoptosis in granulosa cells. - Abstract: Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2−/−) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2−/− mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2−/− mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2−/− female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2−/− mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2−/− mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells

  6. Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qian [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Li-Li [Aviation Medical Evaluation and Training Center of Airforce in Dalian, Dalian, Liaoning Province 116013 (China); Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Fen-Fen [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200062 (China); Gao, Li [Department of Pathology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jia, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Tao, Hai-Bo [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Jun-Jie, E-mail: zhangjj910@163.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Wen-Jie, E-mail: wenjieli@pku.org.cn [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Crybb2 deletion impaired female fertility. • Crybb2 deletion dramatically affected the production of reproduction-related hormones and hormone response. • Crybb2 deletion impaired follicular development and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. • Crybb2 deletion promoted follicular atresia and apoptosis in granulosa cells. - Abstract: Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2{sup −/−}) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2{sup −/−} female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells.

  7. Probiotic use decreases intestinal inflammation and increases bone density in healthy male but not female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Laura R; Irwin, Regina; Schaefer, Laura; Britton, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    Osteoporosis can result from intestinal inflammation, as is seen with inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics, microorganisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, can have anti-inflammatory properties and are currently being examined to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we examined if treating healthy male mice with Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (a candidate probiotic with anti-TNFα activity) could affect intestinal TNFα levels and enhance bone density. Adult male mice were given L. reuteri 6475 orally by gavage for 3×/week for 4 weeks. Examination of jejunal and ileal RNA profiles indicates that L. reuteri suppressed basal TNFα mRNA levels in the jejunum and ileum in male mice, but surprisingly not in female mice. Next, we examined bone responses. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated that L. reuteri 6475 treatment increased male trabecular bone parameters (mineral density, bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness) in the distal femur metaphyseal region as well as in the lumbar vertebrae. Cortical bone parameters were unaffected. Dynamic and static histomorphometry and serum remodeling parameters indicate that L. reuteri ingestion increases osteoblast serum markers and dynamic measures of bone formation in male mice. In contrast to male mice, L. reuteri had no effect on bone parameters in female mice. Taken together our studies indicate that femoral and vertebral bone formation increases in response to oral probiotic use, leading to increased trabecular bone volume in male mice. PMID:23389860

  8. Sex-specific positive and negative consequences of avoidance training during childhood on adult active avoidance learning in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almuth Spröwitz

    2013-10-01

    The experiments revealed a clear sex difference in the group of late-adolescent mice: female mice showed better avoidance learning during late adolescence compared to males, and the beneficial impact of late-adolescent pretraining on adult learning was more pronounced in females compared to males.

  9. Physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females

    OpenAIRE

    Gavneet K Pruthi; Nandita Babu

    2012-01-01

    Background : Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim : To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females. Settings and Design : This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods : Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, havi...

  10. Male mice emit distinct ultrasonic vocalizations when the female leaves the social interaction arena

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    Mu eYang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mice emit large number of complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs when interacting with adult females. Call numbers and call categories differ greatly among inbred mouse strains. Little is known about USV emissions when the social partner departs. To investigate whether call repertoires and call rates are different when the male is interacting with a female and after the removal of the female, we designed a novel male-female social interaction test in which vocalizations were recorded across three phases. During phase 1, the male subject freely interacts with an unfamiliar estrus female mouse in a clean cage for 5 minutes. During phase 2, the female is removed while the male remains in the cage for 3 minutes. During phase 3, the same female is returned to the cage to rejoin the male subject mouse for 3 minutes. C57BL/6J (B6, FVB.129P2-Pde6b(+ Tyr(c-ch/Ant (FVB, and BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR male subject mice were tested in this paradigm. All three strains emitted USVs during the absence of the estrous female, although at lower rates. When the female was reintroduced in phase 3, numbers of USVs were similar to the initial introductory phase 1. Strain comparisons indicated fewer calls in pairs of BTBR males and stimulus females than in pairs of B6 males and stimulus females and pairs of FVB males and stimulus females. In the absence of the female, all FVB males vocalized, while only one third of B6 males and one third of BTBR males vocalized. In all three strains, changes in call repertoires were detected after the female was removed. Call categories reverted to the phase 1 pattern when the female was returned in phase 3. Present findings indicate that males of commonly used inbred strains emit USVs when a partner female leaves the testing arena, suggesting that removing a salient social stimulus may be a unique approach to elicit USVs from mice. Our three-phase paradigm may also be useful for studying attention to social cues, and qualitative

  11. Urethral dysfunction in female mice with estrogen receptor β deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hsiang Chen

    Full Text Available Estrogen has various regulatory functions in the growth, development, and differentiation of the female urogenital system. This study investigated the roles of ERβ in stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Wild-type (ERβ(+/+ and knockout (ERβ(-/- female mice were generated (aged 6-8 weeks, n = 6 and urethral function and protein expression were measured. Leak point pressures (LPP and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP were assessed in mice under urethane anesthesia. After the measurements, the urethras were removed for proteomic analysis using label-free quantitative proteomics by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. The interaction between these proteins was further analysed using MetaCore. Lastly, Western blot was used to confirm the candidate proteins. Compared with the ERβ(+/+ group, the LPP and MUCP values of the ERβ(-/- group were significantly decreased. Additionally, we identified 85 differentially expressed proteins in the urethra of ERβ(-/- female mice; 57 proteins were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated. The majority of the ERβ knockout-modified proteins were involved in cell-matrix adhesion, metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, nuclear receptor translational regelation, and muscle contraction and development. Western blot confirmed the up-regulation of myosin and collagen in urethra. By contrast, elastin was down-regulated in the ERβ(-/- mice. This study is the first study to estimate protein expression changes in urethras from ERβ(-/- female mice. These changes could be related to the molecular mechanism of ERβ in SUI.

  12. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhra Sarkar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 Holy & Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for.

  13. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Majumdar, Neena; List, Edward O; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Frank, Stuart J; Manzano, Anna; Bartrons, Ramon; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kopchick, John J; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2015-09-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients. PMID:26015548

  14. Female sex and obesity increase photophobic behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Heather L; Lara, Orlando; Recober, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Migraine affects predominantly women. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest that obesity is a risk factor for migraine and this association is influenced by sex. However, the biological basis for this bias is unclear. To address this issue, we assessed light avoidant behavior, a surrogate of photophobia, in female C57BL/6J mice fed regular diet (RD) or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat). We first assessed sex differences in basal photophobia in 20-25-week-old mice and found that both obese and lean females spent significantly less time in light than their male counterparts. Next, we assessed photophobia evoked by trigeminal stimulation with intradermal capsaicin. Females at 20-25weeks of age did not display capsaicin-evoked photophobic behavior unless they had diet-induced obesity. When we tested 8-11-week-old females to determine if the diet alone could be responsible for this effect, we found that both HFD and RD 8-11-week-old females exhibit capsaicin-evoked photophobic behavior. This is in contrast to what we have previously shown in males and indicates a sex difference in the photophobic behavior of mice. Comparison of 20-25-week-old RD mice with 8-11-week-old RD mice suggests that age or age-related weight gain may contribute to capsaicin-evoked photophobic behavior in males, but not in females. These findings suggest that obesity exacerbates photophobia in both sexes, but additional work is needed to understand the sex- and age-specific mechanisms that may contribute to photophobia and trigeminal pain. PMID:27328418

  15. Short-term pharmacological suppression of the hyperprolactinemia of infertile hCG-overproducing female mice persistently restores their fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Laura D; Gonzalez, Betina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Di Giorgio, Noelia P; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Rulli, Susana B

    2012-12-01

    Female infertility is often associated with deregulation of hormonal networks, and hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis affecting the reproductive functions. We have shown previously that transgenic female mice overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice), and producing elevated levels of bioactive LH/hCG, exhibit increased production of testosterone and progesterone, are overweight and infertile, and develop hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary lactotrope adenomas in adult age. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of the hyperprolactinemia of hCGβ+ females on their reproductive phenotype by treating them with the dopamine agonists, bromocriptine and cabergoline. Long-term bromocriptine treatment of adult mice was effective in the control of obesity, pituitary growth, and disturbances in the hormone profile, demonstrating that hyperprolactinemia was the main cause of the hCGβ+ female phenotype. Interestingly, short-term treatment (1 wk) with cabergoline applied on 5-wk-old mice corrected hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism, and hyperprogesteronemia, prevented pituitary overgrowth, normalized gonadal function, and recovered fertility of adult hCGβ+ females after hormone-induced and natural ovulation. The same cabergoline treatment in the short term applied on 3-month-old hCGβ+ females failed to recover their reproductive function. Hence, we demonstrated that the short-term cabergoline treatment applied at a critical early stage of the phenotype progression effectively prevented the hyperprolactinemia-associated reproductive dysfunction of hCG-overproducing females. PMID:23117930

  16. Peripubertal exposure to male chemosignals accelerates vaginal opening and induces male-directed odor preference in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie eJouhanneau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive physiology in female mouse is profoundly affected by male odor. A well-known effect of male odor is the acceleration of puberty onset in prepubertal female mice exposed to male urine. Whether peripubertal exposure to male odor also influences female sexual behavior in adulthood is poorly known. Recently, we reported that female mice exposed to male-soiled bedding showed advanced vaginal opening associated with early expression of male-directed odor preference in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to determine whether peripubertal exposure to male urinary chemosignals affects both occurrence of vaginal opening and attraction to male odor at older age in female mice. Therefore, we exposed female mice to (1R, 5S, 7R-3,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin (DHB, 6-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-heptanone (HMH and (S-2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT, individually or in mixture, from postnatal day (PD 21 to PD38 and monitored the occurrence of vaginal opening. We measured then the time that the female mice spent sniffing male and female mouse urinary volatiles at PD45. As expected, peripubertal exposure to DHB, HMH or SBT accelerated vaginal opening in female mice. In addition, we showed that exposure to a mixture of these three compounds induced expression of male-directed odor preference at PD45, contrary to the single exposure to each of these molecules. In conclusion, the volatile compounds DHB, HMH and SBT in urine of male mice influence both occurrence of vaginal opening and adult expression of male-directed odor preference in female mice.

  17. NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF OBESE ADULT FEMALES RESIDING IN URBAN SLUM

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama; Shams Khan; Amit; Sanjay Kumar; Nilam

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex and incompletely understood dis ease.It is a population problem and should be tackled as such. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of preobesity and obesity and nutritional profile of obe se urban adult females. METHOD: A community based cross sectional study was carried o ut from Nov 2011 to May 2012 Total 553 adult females were enrolled. The data was analyzed by epi-info version. RESULTS: Prevalence of...

  18. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Marin E.; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R.; Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Byrne, Frances L.; Breen, David S.; Kenwood, Brandon M.; Taddeo, Evan P.; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2016-01-01

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity. PMID:26924712

  19. Production of transgenic mice by random recombination of targeted genes in female germline stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhang; Ji Xiong; Jie Xiang; Ji Wu; Zhaojuan Yang; Yunze Yang; Shuzeng Wang; Lingjun Shi; Wenhai Xie; Kejing Sun; Kang Zou; Lei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Oocyte production in most mammalian species is believed to cease before birth. However, this idea has been challenged with the finding that postnatal mouse ovaries possess mitotically active germ cells. A recent study showed that female germline stem cells (FGSCs) from adult mice were isolated, cultured long term and produced oocytes and progeny after transplantation into infertile mice. Here, we demonstrate the successful generation of transgenic or gene knock-down mice using FGSCs. The FGSCs from ovaries of 5-day-old and adult mice were isolated and either infected with recombinant viruses carrying green fluorescent protein, Oocyte-G1 or the mouse dynein axonemal intermediate chain 2 gene, or transfected with the Oocyte-G1 specific shRNA expression vector (pRS shOocyte-G1 vector), and then transplanted into infertile mice. Transplanted cells in the ovaries underwent oogenesis and produced heterozygous offspring after mating with wild-type male mice. The offspring were genetically characterized and the biological functions of the transferred or knock-down genes were investigated. Efficiency of genetransfer or gene knock-down was 29%-37% and it took 2 months to produce transgenic offspring. Gene manipulation of FGSCs is a rapid and efficient method of animal transgenesis and may serve as a powerful tool for biomedical science and biotechnology.

  20. Impaired fertility in T-stock female mice after superovulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A J; Bishop, J B; Marchetti, F; Zudova, D

    2003-12-05

    Superovulation of female mice with exogenous gonadotrophins is routinely used for increasing the number of eggs ovulated by each female in reproductive and developmental studies. We report an unusual effect of superovulation on fertilization in mice. In vivo matings of superovulated T-stock females with B6C3F1 males resulted in a 2-fold reduction (P<0.001) in the frequencies of fertilized eggs compared to control B6C3F1 matings. In addition, {approx}22 hr after mating only 15% of fertilized eggs recovered in T-stock females had reached the metaphase stage of the first cleavage division versus 87% in B6C3F1 females (P < 0.0001). Matings with T-stock males did not improve the reproductive performance of T-stock females. To investigate the possible cause(s) for the impaired fertilization and zygotic development, the experiments were repeated using in vitro fertilization. Under these conditions, the frequencies of fertilized eggs were not different in superovulated T-stock and B6C3F1 females (51.7% {+-} 6.0 and 64.5% {+-}3.8, P=0.10). There was a 7-fold increase in the frequencies of fertilized T-stock eggs that completed the first cell cycle of development after in vitro versus in vivo fertilization. These results rule out an intrinsic deficiency of the T-stock oocyte as the main reason for the impaired fertility after in vivo matings and suggest that superovulation of T-stock females induces a hostile oviductal and uterine environment with dramatic effects on fertilization and zygotic development.

  1. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  2. Papain-induced experimental pulmonary emphysema in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Figueirôa, Silviane Fernandes da Silva; Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Valença, Samuel dos Santos; Zin, Walter Araújo

    2014-08-15

    In papain-induced models of emphysema, despite the existing extensive description of the cellular and molecular aspects therein involved, sexual hormones may play a complex and still not fully understood role. Hence, we aimed at exploring the putative gender-related differences in lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress in papain-exposed mice. Thirty adult BALB/c mice received intratracheally either saline (50 μL) or papain (10 U/50 μL saline) once a week for 2 weeks. In males papain increased lung resistive and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous pressures, static elastance, and viscoelastic component of elastance, while females showed higher static elastance and resistive pressure only. Both genders presented similar higher parenchymal cellularity and mean alveolar diameter, and less collagen-elastic fiber content and body weight gain than their respective controls. Increased functional residual capacity was more prominent in males. Female papain-treated mice were more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, male and female papain-exposed mice respond differently, which should be carefully considered to avoid confounding results. PMID:24931736

  3. Sex-specific attentional deficits in adult vitamin D deficient BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Natalie J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment. However, there is a paucity of preclinical data showing that vitamin D deficiency is a causal factor for impaired cognitive processing. The aim of this study was to assess two cognitive tasks, the 5 choice-serial reaction task and the 5 choice-continuous performance task in adult vitamin D (AVD) deficient BALB/c mice. Ten-week old male and female BALB/c mice were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 10 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We found sex-dependent impairments in attentional processing and showed that male AVD-deficient mice were less accurate, took longer to respond when making a correct choice and were more likely to make an omission, without a change in the motivation to collect reward. By contrast, female AVD-deficient mice had a reduced latency to collect reward, but no changes on any other measures compared to controls. Therefore, we have shown that in otherwise healthy adult mice, vitamin D deficiency led to mild cognitive impairment in male but not female mice and therefore this model will be useful for future investigations into unravelling the mechanism by which vitamin D affects the adult brain and cognitive function. PMID:26836278

  4. Evidence of Uncultivated Bacteria in the Adult Female Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Alan J.; Toh, Evelyn; Shibata, Noriko; Rong, Ruichen; Kenton, Kimberly; FitzGerald, MaryPat; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Schreckenberger, Paul; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E; Brubaker, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Clinical urine specimens are usually considered to be sterile when they do not yield uropathogens using standard clinical cultivation procedures. Our aim was to test if the adult female bladder might contain bacteria that are not identified by these routine procedures. An additional aim was to identify and recommend the appropriate urine collection method for the study of bacterial communities in the female bladder. Consenting participants who were free of known urinary tract infection provid...

  5. Unilateral Ectopic Breast Tissue on Vulva in an Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Santoshkumar Nagnath; Maske, Audumbar N.; Deshpande, Akshay P.; Shende, Shweta P.

    2012-01-01

    Among the ectopic breasts, an ectopic breast tissue on vulva is an extremely rare case, especially in adult period. To our knowledge only 38 cases of ectopic breast tissue on vulva are documented in the world literature, out of which only 10 cases of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva has been reported. Because of its rarity here we report a case of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva in an adult female.

  6. Modification of female and male social behaviors in estrogen receptor beta knockout mice by neonatal maternal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumeko C Tsuda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal separation (MS is an animal model mimicking the effects of early life stress on the development of emotional and social behaviors. Recent studies revealed that MS stress increased social anxiety levels in female mice and reduced peri-pubertal aggression in male mice. Estrogen receptor (ER β plays a pivotal role in the regulation of stress responses and anxiety-related and social behaviors. Behavioral studies using ERβ knockout (βERKO mice reported increased social investigation and decreased social anxiety in βERKO females, and elevated aggression levels in βERKO males compared to wild-type (WT mice. In the present study, using βERKO and WT mice, we examined whether ERβ contributes to MS effects on anxiety and social behaviors. βERKO and WT mice were separated from their dam daily (4 h from postnatal day 1 to 14 and control groups were left undisturbed. First, MS and ERβ gene deletion individually increased anxiety-related behaviors in the open field test, but only in female mice. Anxiety levels were not further modified in βERKO female mice subjected to MS stress. Second, βERKO female mice showed higher levels of social investigation compared with WT in the social investigation test and long-term social preference test. However, MS greatly reduced social investigation duration and elevated number of stretched approaches in WT and βERKO females in the social investigation test, suggesting elevated levels of social anxiety in both genotypes. Third, peri-pubertal and adult βERKO male mice were more aggressive than WT mice as indicated by heightened aggression duration. On the other hand, MS significantly decreased aggression duration in both genotypes, but only in peri-pubertal male mice. Altogether, these results suggest that βERKO mice are sensitive to the adverse effects of MS stress on subsequent female and male social behaviors, which could then have overrode the ERβ effects on female social anxiety and male aggression.

  7. Exploring female mice interstrain differences relevant for models of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Sá Calçada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an extremely heterogeneous disorder. Diverse molecular mechanisms have been suggested to underlie its etiology. To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for this complex disorder, researchers have been using animal models extensively, namely mice from various genetic backgrounds and harboring distinct genetic modifications. The use of numerous mouse models has contributed to enrich our knowledge on depression. However, accumulating data also revealed that the intrinsic characteristics of each mouse strain might influence the experimental outcomes, which may justify some conflicting evidence reported in the literature. To further understand the impact of the genetic background we performed a multimodal comparative study encompassing the most relevant parameters commonly addressed in depression in three of the most widely used mouse strains: Balb/c, C57BL/6 and CD-1. Moreover, female mice were selected for this study taken into account the higher prevalence of depression in woman and the fewer animal studies using this gender. Our results show that Balb/c mice have a more pronounced anxious-like behavior than CD-1 and C57BL/6 mice, whereas C57BL/6 animals present the strongest depressive-like trait. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice display the highest rate of proliferating cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression levels in the hippocampus, while hippocampal dentate granular neurons of Balb/c mice show smaller dendritic lengths and fewer ramifications. Of notice, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos predict 39,5% of the depressive-like behavior index, which suggests a key role of hippocampal iNOS in depression.Overall, this study reveals important interstrain differences in several behavioral dimensions and molecular and cellular parameters that should be considered when preparing and analyzing experiments addressing depression using mouse models. It further contributes to the literature by

  8. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall...

  9. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  10. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  11. NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF OBESE ADULT FEMALES RESIDING IN URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex and incompletely understood dis ease.It is a population problem and should be tackled as such. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of preobesity and obesity and nutritional profile of obe se urban adult females. METHOD: A community based cross sectional study was carried o ut from Nov 2011 to May 2012 Total 553 adult females were enrolled. The data was analyzed by epi-info version. RESULTS: Prevalence of preobesity and obesity was found to be 17.18% and 6.5% respectively. CONCLUSION: As family is the first and most important of inculcatin g healthy habit and behavior, so particularly female should be made aware about causes and conseq uences of obesity from childhood level. KEYWORDS: Preobesity, obesity nutritional profile.

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  8. Influence of hyperprolactinemia on collagen fibers in the lacrimal gland of female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Stavare Leal Araujo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the collagen fibers in the lacrimal gland of female mice with hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: Forty adult female mice were randomly divided into two groups with 20 animals each: nonpregnant control (CTR1, control group, 0.2 mL of saline solution and nonpregnant experimental (HPRL1, experimental group, 200 µg/day metoclopramide. Treatments lasted for 50 consecutive days. On day 50, 10 females from each group (control and experimental were euthanized in the proestrus phase; then, the blood was collected and the lacrimal glands were removed. Thereafter, the remaining females were placed with the mates and continued to receive treatment with saline solution or metoclopramide. On the 6th post-coital day, 10 pregnant females from the control group (CTR2 and 10 pregnant females from the experimental group (HPRL2 were euthanized, after which blood was collected and the lacrimal glands removed. The lacrimal glands were processed for morphological analyses and collagen quantification, and prolactin and sex steroid levels were measured in the blood samples. Data were statistically analyzed using an unpaired Student t test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Morphological analysis revealed greater structural tissue disorganization of the lacrimal glands in the metoclopramide-treated groups. The total collagen content was significantly higher in the HPRL1 group than in the CTR1 group (p<0.05, whereas the difference between the CTR2 and HPRL2 groups was not significant. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest an impairment in the functioning of the lacrimal gland as a consequence of increased prolactin levels and decreased serum levels of estrogen and progesterone.

  9. The effects of serotonin1A receptor on female mice body weight and food intake are associated with the differential expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and the GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Isma; Hong, Andrew; Di, Jing; Aracena, Sonia; Banerjee, Probal; Shen, Chang-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Both common eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are characteristically diseases of women. To characterize the role of the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) in these eating disorders in females, we investigated the effect of saline or 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) treatment on feeding behavior and body weight in adult WT female mice and in adult 5-HT1A-R knockout (KO) female mice. Our results showed that KO female mice have lower food intake and body weight than WT female mice. Administration of 8-OH-DPAT decreased food intake but not body weight in WT female mice. Furthermore, qRT-PCR was employed to analyze the expression levels of neuropeptides, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor subunit β (GABAA β subunits) and glutamic acid decarboxylase in the hypothalamic area. The results showed the difference in food intake between WT and KO mice was accompanied by differential expression of POMC, CART and GABAA β2, and the difference in body weight between WT and KO mice was associated with significantly different expression levels of CART and GABAA β2. As such, our data provide new insight into the role of 5-HT1A-R in both feeding behavior and the associated expression of neuropeptides and the GABAA receptor. PMID:25130282

  10. Increased Adipocyte Area in Injured Muscle With Aging and Impaired Remodeling in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearing, Caitlin M; Melton, David W; Lei, Xiufen; Hancock, Heather; Wang, Hanzhou; Sarwar, Zaheer U; Porter, Laurel; McHale, Matthew; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrated that young male and female mice similarly regenerated injured skeletal muscle; however, female mice transiently increased adipocyte area within regenerated muscle in a sex hormone-dependent manner. We extended these observations to investigate the effect of aging and sex on sarcopenia and muscle regeneration. Cardiotoxin injury to the tibialis anterior muscle of young, middle, and old-aged C57Bl/6J male and female mice was used to measure regenerated myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), adipocyte area, residual necrosis, and inflammatory cell recruitment. Baseline (uninjured) myofiber CSA was decreased in old mice of both sexes compared to young and middle-aged mice. Regenerated CSA was similar in male mice in all age groups until baseline CSA was attained but decreased in middle and old age female mice compared to young females. Furthermore, adipocyte area within regenerated muscle was transiently increased in young females compared to young males and these sex-dependent increases persisted in middle and old age female mice and were associated with increased Pparg Young female mice had more pro-inflammatory monocytes/macrophages in regenerating muscle than young male mice and increased Sca-1(+)CD45(-)cells. In conclusion, sex and age influence pro-inflammatory cell recruitment, muscle regeneration, and adipocyte area following skeletal muscle injury. PMID:26273023

  11. Reduced Anxiety-Like Behavior and Altered Hippocampal Morphology in Female p75NTRexon IV−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschban, Zoe; Sah, Anupam; Grutsch, Isabella; Singewald, Nicolas; Dechant, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in adult basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, precursor cells in the subventricular cell layer and the subgranular cell layer of the hippocampus has been linked to alterations in learning as well as anxiety- and depression- related behaviors. In contrast to previous studies performed in a p75NTRexon III−/− model still expressing the short isoform of the p75NTR, we focused on locomotor and anxiety–associated behavior in p75NTRexon IV−/− mice lacking both p75NTR isoforms. Comparing p75NTRexon IV−/− and wildtype mice for both male and female animals showed an anxiolytic-like behavior as evidenced by increased central activities in the open field paradigm and flex field activity system as well as higher numbers of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze test in female p75NTR knockout mice. Morphometrical analyses of dorsal and ventral hippocampus revealed a reduction of width of the dentate gyrus and the granular cell layer in the dorsal but not ventral hippocampus in male and female p75NTRexon IV−/− mice. We conclude that germ-line deletion of p75NTR seems to differentially affect morphometry of dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus and that p75NTR may play a role in anxiety-like behavior, specifically in female mice. PMID:27313517

  12. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  13. Social isolation increases cell proliferation in male and cell survival in female California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Michael G; Bradley King, S; Haun, Harold L

    2015-11-01

    Social environment has direct effects on an animal's behavior, physiology and neurobiology. In particular, adult neurogenesis is notably affected by a variety of social manipulations, including social isolation. We hypothesized that social isolation should have particularly acute effects on neurogenesis in a highly social (monogamous and bi-parental) species such as Peromyscus californicus, the California mouse. Adult male and female P. californicus mice were housed in isolation or in same-sex pairs for 4 or 24 days. At the end of each period, either cell proliferation or cell survival was quantified with BrdU label and neuronal markers (either TuJ1 or NeuN). After 4 days, isolated males had greater cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) than pair housed males. After 24 days, isolate females demonstrated greater cell survival in the DG than paired females. Males demonstrated a similar, but non-significant pattern. No differences in cellular proliferation or cell survival were found in the subventricular zone (SVZ), or medial amygdala (MeA). These results add to the evidence which demonstrates that neurogenic responses to environmental conditions are not identical across species. These data may be critical in understanding the functional significance of neurogenesis as it relates to the interactions between social systems, social environment and the display of social behaviors. PMID:26342752

  14. Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bava Amadeo Javier Bava; Domnguez Cecilia; Troncoso Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods: The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1 500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results: It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions: The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient.

  15. Tcf4 transgenic female mice display delayed adaptation in an auditory latent inhibition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Rossner, M J; de Hoz, L

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1 % of the human population. Patients show severe deficits in cognitive processing often characterized by an improper filtering of environmental stimuli. Independent genome-wide association studies confirmed a number of risk variants for SZ including several associated with the gene encoding the transcription factor 4 (TCF4). TCF4 is widely expressed in the central nervous system of mice and humans and seems to be important for brain development. Transgenic mice overexpressing murine Tcf4 (Tcf4tg) in the adult brain display cognitive impairments and sensorimotor gating disturbances. To address the question of whether increased Tcf4 gene dosage may affect cognitive flexibility in an auditory associative task, we tested latent inhibition (LI) in female Tcf4tg mice. LI is a widely accepted translational endophenotype of SZ and results from a maladaptive delay in switching a response to a previously unconditioned stimulus when this becomes conditioned. Using an Audiobox, we pre-exposed Tcf4tg mice and their wild-type littermates to either a 3- or a 12-kHz tone before conditioning them to a 12-kHz tone. Tcf4tg animals pre-exposed to a 12-kHz tone showed significantly delayed conditioning when the previously unconditioned tone became associated with an air puff. These results support findings that associate TCF4 dysfunction with cognitive inflexibility and improper filtering of sensory stimuli observed in SZ patients. PMID:26404636

  16. Temporary amygdala inhibition reduces stress effects in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalooei, Jila Rezaeian; Sahraei, Hedayat; Meftahi, Gholam Hossein; Khosravi, Maryam; Bahari, Zahra; Hatef, Boshra; Mohammadi, Alireza; Nicaeili, Fateme; Eftekhari, Fateme; Ghamari, Fateme; Hadipour, Mohamadmehdi; Kaka, Gholamreza

    2016-09-01

    The current study investigated the effect of temporary inhibition of amygdala in response to metabolic changes caused by stress in female mice. Unilateral and bilateral amygdala cannulation was carried out, and after a week of recovery, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride was injected into the mice amygdalae five minutes before the induction of stress. A communication box was employed to induce stress for four consecutive days and plasma corticosterone, food and water intake, weight changes, and anorexia were measured as stress-induced metabolic changes. Results demonstrated that stress, increases stress, increased plasma corticosterone concentrations, weight, food, and water intake. Temporary inhibition of the amygdala slightly decreased plasma corticosterone concentrations, but did not fully reduce the effect of stress. The bilateral injection of lidocaine hydrochloride to the amygdala reduced the effect of stress and reduced water intake and weight. Unilateral injection of lidocaine hydrochloride into the left and right amygdala reduced food intake. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the left side and right side of amygdala nuclei play a different role in metabolic responses in stress. PMID:27489731

  17. Physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavneet K Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim : To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females. Settings and Design : This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods : Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, having (mild-to-moderate, acne, for two consecutive years, were interviewed using a semi-structured clinical interview of the Skindex, a quality-of-life measure for patients with skin disease, developed by Chren et al., along with some open-ended questions. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was done to analyze the data. Results : The results indicated a higher level of emotional and social impairment, in terms of the feelings of physical discomfort, anger, and the intermingling impact of these, among the participants. Conclusions : Acne is a common problem among adults and appears to have a considerable impact on the mental health, therefore, for the treatment to be successful, a sympathetic approach by doctors and significant others, with the basic psychosomatic treatment, are necessary.

  18. Cytomegalovirus infection of adipose tissues induces steatitis in adult mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, P; Eddy, K. S.; Papadimitriou, J M; Robertson, T. A.; Shellam, G R

    1990-01-01

    Young adult mice infected with MCMV were shown to develop inflammatory lesions in the peripancreatic and salivary gland adipose tissues. MCMV replication was detected by immunoperoxidase staining and electron microscopy in adipocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and pericytes in brown and white adipose tissues. More infected cells were detected in C3H mice than in BALB/c, BALB.B, BALB.K or C57BL/6 mice. Peripancreatic steatitis consisted of a monocytic infiltrate surrounding focal necrosis...

  19. Effects of Carthamus tinctorius L. on the ovarian histomorphology and the female reproductive hormones in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Louei Monfared

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower is a member of the asteraceae family which had been classified as a fertility regulator in the traditional medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate its possible effects on the ovarian histomorphology and the levels of female reproductive hormones in the mice. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult female Balb/C mice were selected and randomly divided into one control and three experimental groups (n= 15. The control group received only distilled water, while experimental groups were administered intraperitoneally C. tinctorius extract at doses of  0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 mg/kg/day for 49 consecutive days. In the end of experiments, blood samples were collected and the sera were analyzed for the levels of FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone. Ovarian tissue samples were also taken and histomorphological changes of the ovaries were examined using optical microscope. The quantitative results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: The present findings showed that treatment with different concentrations of C. tinctorius extract reduced the number of ovarian follicles but number of atretic follicles showed an increase. The number and size of the corpora lutea were not affected by extract administration. In addition, in the treated mice with C. tinctorius extract, the thickness of the tunica albuginea was increased but the relative and absolute weights of the ovaries decreased significantly. Furthermore, the blood levels of the FSH and estrogen were decreased in the three experimental groups compared with those of the control animals. Conclusion: The present findings indicated that treatment with C. tinctorius extract has detrimental effects on the ovarian histomorphology and female reproductive hormones therefore popular consumption of this plant should be reconsidered.

  20. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

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    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  1. Adult neurogenesis in the four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    OpenAIRE

    Olaleye, Olatunbosun O.; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated non-captive four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) for evidence that adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain of animal models in natural environment. Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (a marker for immature neurons) immunostaining confirmed that adult neurogenesis occurs in the active sites of subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle with the migratory stream to the olfactory bulb, and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of t...

  2. Morphometric study of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from undernourished infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla A Oliveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Some unfavourable effects of malnutrition of the host on Schistosoma mansoni worm biology and structure have been reported based upon brigthfield microscopy. This paper aims to study by morphometric techniques, some morphological parameters in male and female adult worms recovered from undernourished albino mice in comparison with parasites recovered from well-fed infected mice. Undernourished animals were fed a multideficient and essentially low protein diet (RBD diet and compared to well-fed control mice fed with the commercial diet NUVILAB. Seventy-five days post-infection with 80 cercarie (BL strain animals were sacrificed. All adult worms were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine chloride. One hundred male and 60 female specimens from each group (undernourished and control were examined using an image system analysis Leica Quantimet 500C and the Sigma Scan Measurement System. The following morphometrical parameters were studied: body length and width, oral and ventral suckers, number and area of testicular lobes, length and width of ovary and uterine egg. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test for unpaired samples was applied. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were detected in body length and width, in parameters of suckers, uterine egg width, ovary length and area of testicular lobes, with lower values for specimens from undernourished mice. The nutritional status of the host has negative influence on S. mansoni adult worms, probably through unavailability of essential nutrients to the parasites.

  3. Estrogen sulfotransferase regulates body fat and glucose homeostasis in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Victor K Khor; Dhir, Ravindra; Yin, Xiaoyan; Ahima, Rexford S.; Song, Wen-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen regulates fat mass and distribution and glucose metabolism. We have previously found that estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), which inactivates estrogen through sulfoconjugation, was highly expressed in adipose tissue of male mice and induced by testosterone in female mice. To determine whether inhibition of estrogen in female adipose tissue affects adipose mass and metabolism, we generated transgenic mice expressing EST via the aP2 promoter. As expected, EST expression was increased in...

  4. Oestrogen-independent, experience-induced maternal behaviour in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2011-01-01

    Nulliparous female mice that have not experienced mating, pregnancy, or parturition show near immediate spontaneous maternal behaviour when presented with foster pups. The fact that virgin mice display spontaneous maternal behaviour indicates that the hormonal events of pregnancy and parturition are not necessary to produce a rapid onset of maternal behaviour in mice. However, it is not known how similar maternal behaviour is between virgin and lactating mice. Here we show that naturally post...

  5. Could adult female acne be associated with modern life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, R G R; Rocha, M A D; Bagatin, E; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of adult female acne has increased, but the reason for this increase remains unclear. Acne is one of the most common skin disorders. It can be triggered or worsened by endogenous and exogenous factors, including genetic predisposition, hormone concentrations, diet, smoke and stress; although the interaction with this last factor is not well understood. Modern life presents many stresses including urban noises, socioeconomic pressures and light stimuli. Women are especially affected by stress during daily routine. The recent insertion in the labor market is added to the duties of the mother and wife. Women also have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Sleep restriction is added to these factors, with several negative consequences on health, including on hormonal secretion and the immune system. This is further complicated by the natural variation in sleep architecture across the menstrual cycle. Recent studies have brought new data about the mechanisms and possible factors involved. This review aims to establish a connection between stress, sleep deprivation and adult female acne. PMID:24952024

  6. Newborn Interneurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb Promote Mate Recognition in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio eOboti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb of adult rodents, local interneurons are constantly replaced by immature precursors derived from the subventricular zone. Whether any olfactory sensory process specifically relies on this cell renewal remains largely unclear. By using the well-known model of mating-induced imprinting, we demonstrate that this olfactory memory formation critically depends on the presence of newborn granule neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Accordingly, we show that, in adult female mice, exposure to male pheromones increases the number of new granule cells surviving in the accessory olfactory bulb. This neuronal addition depends on the detection of sensory cues by the vomeronasal organ and requires centrifugal feedback activity from the amygdala. The stimuli affecting neuronal survival are contained in the low molecular weight fraction of urine and are implied in pheromonal recognition during mating. By chemical depletion of newly generated bulbar interneurons, we show a direct role of renewed granule cells in the accessory olfactory bulb in preventing pregnancy block by mating male odours. Taken together, our results indicate that adult neurogenesis is essential for specific brain functions such as persistent odour learning and mate recognition.

  7. Prenatal SSRI alters the hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in female mice: Possible role for glucocorticoid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitsur, Ronit; Grinshpahet, Rachel; Goren, Naama; Weinstein, Ido; Kirshenboim, Or; Chlebowski, Noa

    2016-08-01

    Life time prevalence of major depression disorder (MDD) is higher in women compared to men especially during the period surrounding childbirth. Women suffering from MDD during pregnancy use antidepressant medications, particularly Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI). These drugs readily cross the placental barrier and impact the developing fetal brain. The present study assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), an SSRI antidepressant drug, on corticosterone and behavioral responses to stress in female mice. In young females, prenatal FLX significantly elevated corticosterone response to continuous stress. In adults, prenatal FLX augmented corticosterone response to acute stress and suppressed the response to continuous stress. Additionally, prenatal FLX significantly augmented stress-induced increase in locomotion and reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in adult, but not young mice. The dexamethasone suppression test revealed that prenatal FLX induced a state of glucocorticoid resistance in adult females, indicating that the negative feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress was disrupted. These findings provide the first indication of altered hormonal and behavioral responses to continuous stress and suggest a role for the development of glucocorticoid resistance in these effects. According to these findings, prenatal environment may have implications for stress sensitivity and responsiveness to life challenges. Furthermore, this study may assist in understanding the limitations and precautions that should be taken in the use of SSRIs during pregnancy. PMID:27283378

  8. Female mice lacking cholecystokinin 1 receptors have compromised neurogenesis, and fewer dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eSui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain is largely restricted to the subependymal zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG. We examined whether cholecystokinin (CCK through actions mediated by CCK1 receptors (CCK1R is involved in regulating neurogenesis. Proliferating cells in the SVZ, measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU injected 2 hours prior to death or by immunoreactivity against Ki67, were reduced by 37% and 42%, respectively, in female (but not male mice lacking CCK1Rs (CCK1R-/- compared to wild-type (WT. Generation of neuroblasts in the SVZ and rostral migratory stream was also affected, since the number of doublecortin (DCX-immunoreactive (ir neuroblasts in these regions decreased by 29%. In the SGZ of female CCK1R-/- mice, BrdU-positive (+ and Ki67-ir cells were reduced by 38% and 56%, respectively, while DCX-ir neuroblasts were down 80%. Subsequently, the effect of reduced SVZ/SGZ proliferation on the generation and survival of mature adult-born cells in female CCK1R-/- mice was examined. In the OB granule cell layer (GCL, the number of neuronal nuclei (NeuN-ir and calretinin-ir cells was stable compared to WT, and 42 days after BrdU injections, the number of BrdU+ cells co-expressing GABA- or NeuN-like immunoreactivity (LI was similar. Compared to WT, the granule cell layer of the DG in female CCK1R-/- mice had a similar number of calbindin-ir cells and BrdU+ cells co-expressing calbindin-LI 42 days after BrdU injections. However, the OB glomerular layer (GL of CCK1R-/- female mice had 11% fewer NeuN-ir cells, 23% less TH-ir cells, and a 38% and 29% reduction in BrdU+ cells that co-expressed TH-LI or GABA-LI, respectively. We conclude that CCK, via CCK1Rs, is involved in regulating the generation of proliferating cells and neuroblasts in the adult female mouse brain, and mechanisms are in place to maintain steady neuronal populations in the OB and DG when the rate of proliferation is

  9. Female Mice Deficient in Alpha-Fetoprotein Show Female-Typical Neural Responses to Conspecific-Derived Pheromones

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Brock; Matthieu Keller; Quentin Douhard; Julie Bakker

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO) and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with e...

  10. Increased diet-induced fatty streak formation in female mice with deficiency of liver-derived insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan; Sjögren, Klara; Levin, Malin; Borén, Jan; Tivesten, Åsa; Ohlsson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    The role of endocrine IGF-I for atherosclerosis is unclear. We determined the importance of circulating, liver-derived IGF-I for fatty streak formation in mice. Mice with adult, liver-specific IGF-I inactivation (LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice, serum IGF-I reduced by approximately 80 %) and control mice received an atherogenic (modified Paigen) diet between 6 and 12 months of age. At study end, Oil Red O staining of aortic root cryosections showed increased fatty streak area and lipid deposition in female but not in male LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice compared to controls. Mac-2 staining of aortic root and measurements of CD68 mRNA level in femoral artery revealed increased macrophage accumulation in proportion to the increased fatty streak area in female LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice. Moreover, female LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice displayed increased serum cholesterol and interleukin-6 as well as increased vascular cell-adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) mRNA levels in the femoral artery and elevated VCAM1 protein expression in the aortic root. Thus, increased diet-induced fatty streak formation in female LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice was associated with increased serum cholesterol and signs of systemic inflammation, endothelial activation, lipid deposition, and macrophage infiltration in the vascular wall. PMID:26627099

  11. 17β-Estradiol regulates histone alterations associated with memory consolidation and increases Bdnf promoter acetylation in middle-aged female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Rachel L Poole; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance object recognition memory consolidation requires histone H3 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampus. However, the extent to which histone ace...

  12. The effect of fat removal on glucose tolerance is depot specific in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifei; Strader, April D; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2007-10-01

    Energy is stored predominately as lipid in white adipose tissue (WAT) in distinct anatomical locations, with each site exerting different effects on key biological processes, including glucose homeostasis. To determine the relative contributions of subcutaneous and visceral WAT on glucose homeostasis, comparable amounts of adipose tissue from abdominal subcutaneous inguinal WAT (IWAT), intra-abdominal retroperitoneal WAT (RWAT), male gonadal epididymal WAT (EWAT), or female gonadal parametrial WAT (PWAT) were removed. Gonadal fat removal in both male and female chow-fed lean mice resulted in lowered glucose levels across glucose tolerance tests. Female lean C57BL/6J mice as well as male and female lean FVBN mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, indicated by decreased areas under glucose clearance curves. For the C57BL/6J mice maintained on a high-fat butter-based diet, glucose homeostasis was improved only in female mice with PWAT removal. Removal of IWAT or RWAT did not affect glucose tolerance in either dietary condition. We conclude that WAT contribution to glucose homeostasis is depot specific, with male gonadal EWAT contributing to glucose homeostasis in the lean state, whereas female gonadal PWAT contributes to glucose homeostasis in both lean and obese mice. These data illustrate both critical differences among various WAT depots and how they influence glucose homeostasis and highlight important differences between males and females in glucose regulation. PMID:17652151

  13. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

  14. Heart regeneration in adult MRL mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leferovich, John M.; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Samulewicz, Stefan; Zhang, Xiang-Ming; Zwas, Donna; Lankford, Edward B.; Heber-Katz, Ellen

    2001-08-01

    The reaction of cardiac tissue to acute injury involves interacting cascades of cellular and molecular responses that encompass inflammation, hormonal signaling, extracellular matrix remodeling, and compensatory adaptation of myocytes. Myocardial regeneration is observed in amphibians, whereas scar formation characterizes cardiac ventricular wound healing in a variety of mammalian injury models. We have previously shown that the MRL mouse strain has an extraordinary capacity to heal surgical wounds, a complex trait that maps to at least seven genetic loci. Here, we extend these studies to cardiac wounds and demonstrate that a severe transmural, cryogenically induced infarction of the right ventricle heals extensively within 60 days, with the restoration of normal myocardium and function. Scarring is markedly reduced in MRL mice compared with C57BL/6 mice, consistent with both the reduced hydroxyproline levels seen after injury and an elevated cardiomyocyte mitotic index of 10-20% for the MRL compared with 1-3% for the C57BL/6. The myocardial response to injury observed in these mice resembles the regenerative process seen in amphibians.

  15. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration

  16. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  17. Communication at the Garden Fence – Context Dependent Vocalization in Female House Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoier, Svenja; Pfeifle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    House mice (Mus musculus) live in social groups where they frequently interact with conspecifics, thus communication (e.g. chemical and/or auditory) is essential. It is commonly known that male and female mice produce complex vocalizations in the ultrasonic range (USV) that remind of high-pitched birdsong (so called mouse song) which is mainly used in social interactions. Earlier studies suggest that mice use their USVs for mate attraction and mate choice, but they could also be used as signal during hierarchy establishment and familiarization, or other communication purposes. In this study we elucidated the vocalization behaviour of interacting female mice over an extended period of time under semi-natural conditions. We asked, if the rate or structure of female vocalization differs between different social and non-social contexts. We found that female USV is mainly used in social contexts, driven by direct communication to an unknown individual, the rate of which is decreased over time by a familiarization process. In addition we could show that female mice use two distinct types of USVs, differing in their frequency, which they use differently depending on whether they directly or indirectly communicate with another female. This supports the notion that vocalization in mice is context dependent, driven by a reasonable and yet underestimated amount of complexity that also involves the interplay between different sensory signals, like chemical and auditory cues. PMID:27022749

  18. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20, a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for seven days to male urine containing at least 0.5µg/µl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over seven days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While seven days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially

  19. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Pickavance, Lucy; Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2015-01-01

    The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20), a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for 7 days to male urine containing at least 0.5 μg/μl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over 7 days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While 7 days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially-relevant context. PMID

  20. Gonadal Steroids Negatively Modulate Oxidative Stress in CBA/Ca Female Mice Infected with P. berghei ANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Aarón Mosqueda-Romo; Ana Laura Rodríguez-Morales; Fidel Orlando Buendía-González; Margarita Aguilar-Sánchez; Jorge Morales-Montor; Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower ...

  1. Estradiol to aged female or male mice improves learning in inhibitory avoidance and water maze tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Rhodes, Madeline E; Dudek, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Although 17β-Estradiol (E2) improves cognitive performance of aged female mice, its mnemonic effects when administered post-training to aged male mice have not been examined. E2 (10 µg, SC) or oil vehicle was administered to intact, 24-month-old female or male congenic (primarily C57BL/6 background) mice immediately after training in the inhibitory avoidance or water maze tasks. Following behavioral testing, effects of 1 or 24 h of E2 exposure on hippocampal levels of E2 and brain-derived neu...

  2. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation. PMID:27262980

  3. Determining the Stage of the Estrous Cycle in Female Mice by Vaginal Smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Female mice undergo a 3- to 5-d, hormonally controlled estrous cycle. The estrous cycle is divided into different stages, including diestrus, proestrus, estrus, and metestrus. These stages can easily be determined by examining washes or cell smears of the vagina. Determining the stage of the estrous cycle may be important for setting up matings, identifying receptive females for artificial insemination, and analyzing phenotypes of the female reproductive tract. PMID:27480723

  4. Perinatal exposure to methoxychlor enhances adult cognitive responses and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela eMartini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During perinatal life, sex steroids, such as estradiol, have marked effects on the development and function of the nervous system. Environmental estrogens or xenoestrogens are man-made chemicals, which animal and human population encounter in the environment and which are able to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. Scientific interest in the effects of exposure to xenoestrogens has focused more on fertility and reproductive behaviors, while the effects on cognitive behaviors have received less attention. Therefore, the present study explored whether the organochlorine insecticide Methoxychlor (MXC, with known xenoestrogens properties, administered during the perinatal period (from gestational day 11 to postnatal day 8 to pregnant-lactating females, at an environmentally relevant dose (20µg/kg (body weight/day, would also affect learning and memory functions depending on the hippocampus of male and female offspring mice in adulthood. When tested in adulthood, MXC perinatal exposure led to an increase in anxiety-like behavior and in short-term spatial working memory in both sexes. Emotional learning was also assessed using a contextual fear paradigm and MXC treated male and female mice showed an enhanced freezing behavior compared to controls. These results were correlated with an increased survival of adult generated cells in the adult hippocampus. In conclusion, our results show that perinatal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of MXC has an organizational effect on hippocampus-dependent memory and emotional behaviors.

  5. Selecting Female Mice in Estrus and Checking Plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Richard; Gertsenstein, Marina; Nagy, Kristina Vintersten; Nagy, Andras

    2016-01-01

    The female mouse estrous cycle is divided into four phases: proestrus (development of ovarian follicles), estrus (ovulation), metestrus (formation of corpora lutea), and diestrus (beginning of follicle development for next ovulation and elimination of previous oocytes). The appearance of the epithelium of the external genitalia is used to identify the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse. This is usually easier to see in strains with either no or only light skin pigmentation. By examining the color, moistness, and degree of swelling of the vagina, females in estrus can readily be identified. To set up the matings, females are examined in the afternoon, and those in estrus are placed into the cages with males (one or two females in each cage with one male). Usually, 50% or more of the selected females will mate. The presence of a vaginal copulation plug next morning indicates that mating has occurred, but it does not mean that a pregnancy will result even if proven breeder fertile males were used. It is important to check vaginal plugs early in the morning because they fall out or are no longer detectable ~12 h after mating or sometimes earlier. PMID:27480722

  6. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted

  7. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yani [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Leu, David [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Palo Alto Institute of Research and Education, Palo Alto, California (United States); Chui, Jennifer [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Fike, John R. [Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Huang, Ting-Ting, E-mail: tthuang@stanford.edu [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted.

  8. Effect on fertility of aging female mice exposed to different doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproductive performance of aging female mice of CFW/pzh strain was observed after irradiation with doses from 8 to 256 cGy. The reproductive capacity decreased statistically after irradiation of 26 weeks old mice with doses higher than 8 cGy. For mice irradiated at 40 weeks of age the same effect was observed only after irradiation with doses from 32 to 128 cGy. Comparison of these results with the effects of neonatal irradiation indicates that in the case of reproduction the sensitivity of the ovaries of 26 and 40 weeks old mice is higher than in that of newborns. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs. (author)

  9. Augmented Senile Plaque Load in Aged Female β-Amyloid Precursor Protein-Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Michael J.; Lipinski, William J.; Bian, Feng; Durham, Robert A.; Pack, Amy; Walker, Lary C.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic mice (Tg2576) overexpressing human β-amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation (APP695SWE) develop Alzheimer’s disease-like amyloid β protein (Aβ) deposits by 8 to 10 months of age. These mice show elevated levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42, as well as an age-related increase in diffuse and compact senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaque load was quantitated in the hippocampus and neocortex of 8- to 19-month-old male and female Tg2576 mice. In all mice, plaque burden increased m...

  10. Correlation between lipid accumulation index and hyperuricemia in adult females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-sheng GUI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the relationship between lipid accumulation index (LAI and hyperuricemia in females. Methods  One hundred and seventy-four adult females were included in the cross-sectional study from Mar. to Sep. 2006 through a simple random sampling from a group of population subjected to routine physical examination in the Luohuang Community of Chongqing municipality. The anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP, uric acid (UA, lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels were measured. Lipid accumulation product (LAP, body mass index (BMI and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were calculated. Subjects were divided into normal group and hyperuricemia group based on their UA levels, and an independent-samples t test was performed for comparison between the two groups; one-factor analysis of variance was performed for multiple comparisons. The Student-Newman-Keuls test was performed for homogeneity of variance. The relationship between UA and other variables was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio of hyperuricemia in the highest quartile of LAP level. The analysis of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves was performed to identify the predictive ability of relevant variables to hyperuricemia. Results  Compared with normal group, the age, waist circumference (WC, triglyceride (TG, fasting insulin (FINS, HOMA-IR and LAP were higher in hyperuricemia group (P<0.05. The age, and levels of WC, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, fasting glucose (FPG, 2-hour postprandial glucose (2h-PPG, FINS, HOMA-IR and UA were higher as LAP increased (P<0.05, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C lowered as LAP increased (P<0.05. Pearson correlation

  11. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women. PMID:25051319

  12. Varying levels of female promiscuity in four Apodemus mice species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Albrecht, Tomáš; Mošanský, L.; Stanko, M.; Stopka, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2008), s. 251-260. ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB090802; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mating systems * multiple paternity * wood mice * testis size Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.917, year: 2008

  13. Toluene Induces Depression-Like Behaviors in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong

    2010-01-01

    It has been clinically reported that toluene causes mental depression in humans. However, the detrimental effects of toluene exposure on brain function and the relation between features of mental depression and toluene exposure are poorly understood. This study evaluated depression-like behaviors in adult C57BL/6 mice after administration of toluene, and elucidated the effects of classical antidepressants on the depression-like behaviors. For the estimation of depression-like behaviors, tail ...

  14. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  15. Acute behavioral effects of nicotine in male and female HINT1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K J; Wang, J B; Barbier, E; Chen, X; Damaj, M I

    2012-11-01

    Human genetic association and brain expression studies, and mouse behavioral and molecular studies implicate a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety. The high comorbidity between smoking and psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia in particular, is well established. Associations with schizophrenia and HINT1 are also sex specific, with effects more predominant in males; however, it is unknown if sex differences associated with the gene extend to other phenotypes. Thus, in this study, using a battery of behavioral tests, we elucidated the role of HINT1 in acute nicotine-mediated behaviors using male and female HINT1 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice. The results show that male HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to acute nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick, but not hot-plate test. At low nicotine doses, male and female HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to nicotine-induced hypomotility, although the effect was more pronounced in females. Baseline differences in locomotor activity observed in male HINT1 +/+ and -/- mice were absent in females. Nicotine did not produce an anxiolytic effect in male HINT1 -/- mice, but rather an anxiogenic response. Diazepam also failed to induce an anxiolytic response in these mice, suggesting a general anxiety phenotype not specific to nicotine. Differences in anxiety-like behavior were not observed in female mice. These results further support a role for HINT1 in nicotine-mediated behaviors and suggest that alterations in the gene may have differential effects on phenotype in males and females. PMID:22827509

  16. Leptin Induces Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction via Aldosterone-Dependent Mechanisms in Obese Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby, Anne-Cécile; Otvos, Laszlo; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in males and females. Whether obesity triggers cardiovascular disease via similar mechanisms in both the sexes is, however, unknown. In males, the adipokine leptin highly contributes to obesity-related cardiovascular disease by increasing sympathetic activity. Females secrete 3× to 4× more leptin than males, but do not exhibit high sympathetic tone with obesity. Nevertheless, females show inappropriately high aldosterone levels that positively correlate with adiposity and blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that leptin induces hypertension and endothelial dysfunction via aldosterone-dependent mechanisms in females. Leptin control of the cardiovascular function was analyzed in female mice sensitized to leptin via the deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b (knockout) and in agouti yellow obese hyperleptinemic mice (Ay). Hypersensitivity to leptin (wild-type, 115±2; protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b knockout, 124±2 mm Hg;Pantagonism restored BP and endothelial function in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b knockout and Ay mice. Hypersensitivity to leptin and obesity reduced BP response to ganglionic blockade in both strains and plasma catecholamine levels in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b knockout mice. Hypersensitivity to leptin and obesity significantly increased plasma aldosterone levels and adrenal CYP11B2 expression. Chronic leptin receptor antagonism reduced aldosterone levels. Furthermore, chronic leptin and mineralocorticoid receptor blockade reduced BP and improved endothelial function in both leptin-sensitized and obese hyperleptinemic female mice. Together, these data demonstrate that leptin induces hypertension and endothelial dysfunction via aldosterone-dependent mechanisms in female mice and suggest that obesity leads to cardiovascular disease via sex-specific mechanisms. PMID:26953321

  17. Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Widén, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and female...

  18. Cross-Fostering of Male Mice Subtly Affects Female Olfactory Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Li, Lai-Fu; Du, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2016-01-01

    The maternal environment has been shown to influence female olfactory preferences through early chemosensory experience. However, little is known about the influence of the maternal environment on chemosignals. In this study, we used two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 (C57) and BALB/c (BALB), and explored whether adoption could alter male chemosignals and thus influence female olfactory preferences. In Experiment 1, C57 pups were placed with BALB dams. Adult BALB females then served as the sub...

  19. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, J Marit; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-09-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day 2 to 9 - affects conditioned fear in adult mice and (ii) whether these effects can be prevented by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at adolescent age. In adult male and female mice, ELS did not affect freezing behavior to the first tone 24h after training in an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm. Exposure to repeated tones 24h after training also resulted in comparable freezing behavior in ELS and control mice, both in males and females. However, male (but not female) ELS compared to control mice showed significantly more freezing behavior between the tone-exposures, i.e. during the cue-off periods. Intraperitoneal administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 during adolescence (on postnatal days 28-30) fully prevented enhanced freezing behavior during the cue-off period in adult ELS males. Western blot analysis revealed no effects of ELS on hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors, neither at postnatal day 28 nor at adult age, when mice were behaviorally tested. We conclude that ELS enhances freezing behavior in adult mice in a potentially safe context after cue-exposure, which can be normalized by brief blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during the critical developmental window of adolescence. PMID:27246249

  20. Adaptation of enterovirus 71 to adult interferon deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Caine

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71, have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (α/β interferon (IFN receptor deficient and AG129 (α/β, γ IFN receptor deficient mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p. into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m. in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05. The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection

  1. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  2. Early social enrichment affects responsiveness to different social cues in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracceva, Giulia; Venerosi, Aldina; Santucci, Daniela; Calamandrei, Gemma; Ricceri, Laura

    2009-01-23

    Communal nesting (CN), an early social enrichment procedure in which multiple females rear the offspring in a single nest, increases maternal care levels received by offspring and interaction with peers. It has been shown that male mice reared under CN conditions show increased social competence and propensity to social interactions at adulthood. In the present study we investigated long-term behavioural effects of CN on female offspring. Mouse pups were reared under two different experimental conditions: standard nesting (SN, where single mother rears her pups) and CN (three females rearing their pups in a single nest). At adulthood CN and SN virgin females underwent three different behavioural tests: (i) maternal induction following presentation of foster pups; (ii) social recognition test in which ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) and social investigation behaviour emitted by a resident female in the presence of a female partner were recorded; (iii) zero-maze to analyze anxiety profiles. CN females showed (i) decreased licking response in the maternal induction test accompanied by an increased sniffing response; (ii) decreased of social interest towards a novel partner (during the Retest Different phase), and decreased USV emission rate in the social recognition test; CN and SN females did not differ in the emotional responses measured in the zero-maze apparatus. As a whole these data suggest that CN rearing render female mice less reactive to social novelty. PMID:18940203

  3. Adult neurogenesis in the four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olatunbosun O Olaleye; Amadi O Ihunwo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated non-captive four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) for evidence that adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain of animal models in natural environment. Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (a marker for immature neurons) immunos-taining conifrmed that adult neurogenesis occurs in the active sites of subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle with the migratory stream to the olfactory bulb, and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. No Ki-67 proliferating cells were observed in the striatum substantia nigra, amygdala, cerebral cortex or dorsal vagal complex. Doublecortin-immunore-active cells were observed in the striatum, third ventricle, cerebral cortex, amygdala, olfactory bulb and along the rostral migratory stream but absent in the substantia nigra and dorsal vagal complex. The potential neurogenic sites in the four-striped mouse species could invariably lead to increased neural plasticity.

  4. Adult neurogenesis in the four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, Olatunbosun O; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we investigated non-captive four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) for evidence that adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain of animal models in natural environment. Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (a marker for immature neurons) immunostaining confirmed that adult neurogenesis occurs in the active sites of subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle with the migratory stream to the olfactory bulb, and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. No Ki-67 proliferating cells were observed in the striatum substantia nigra, amygdala, cerebral cortex or dorsal vagal complex. Doublecortin-immunoreactive cells were observed in the striatum, third ventricle, cerebral cortex, amygdala, olfactory bulb and along the rostral migratory stream but absent in the substantia nigra and dorsal vagal complex. The potential neurogenic sites in the four-striped mouse species could invariably lead to increased neural plasticity. PMID:25558241

  5. Heterozygous ambra1 deficiency in mice: a genetic trait with autism-like behavior restricted to the female gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Ekrem; Dahm, Liane; Lu, Derek; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Ju, Anes; Tantra, Martesa; Kästner, Anne; Chowdhury, Kamal; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    Autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental conditions affecting around 0.5% of the population across cultures, with a male/female ratio of approximately 4:1. Phenotypically, ASD are characterized by social interaction and communication deficits, restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and reduced cognitive flexibility. Identified causes converge at the level of the synapse, ranging from mutation of synaptic genes to quantitative alterations in synaptic protein expression, e.g., through compromised transcriptional or translational control. We wondered whether reduced turnover and degradation of synapses, due to deregulated autophagy, would lead to similar phenotypical consequences. Ambra1, strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, is a positive regulator of Beclin1, a principal player in autophagosome formation. While homozygosity of the Ambra1 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, heterozygous mice with reduced Ambra1 expression are viable, reproduce normally, and lack any immediately obvious phenotype. Surprisingly, comprehensive behavioral characterization of these mice revealed an autism-like phenotype in Ambra1 (+/-) females only, including compromised communication and social interactions, a tendency of enhanced stereotypies/repetitive behaviors, and impaired cognitive flexibility. Reduced ultrasound communication was found in adults as well as pups, which achieved otherwise normal neurodevelopmental milestones. These features were all absent in male Ambra1 (+/-) mice. As a first hint explaining this gender difference, we found a much stronger reduction of Ambra1 protein in the cortex of Ambra1 (+/-) females compared to males. To conclude, Ambra1 deficiency can induce an autism-like phenotype. The restriction to the female gender of autism-generation by a defined genetic trait is unique thus far and warrants further investigation. PMID:24904333

  6. Heterozygous Ambra1 deficiency in mice: A genetic trait with autism-like behavior restricted to the female gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem eDere

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental conditions affecting around 0.5% of the population across cultures, with a male/female ratio of ~4:1. Phenotypically, ASD are characterized by social interaction and communication deficits, restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and reduced cognitive flexibility. Identified causes converge at the level of the synapse, ranging from mutation of synaptic genes to quantitative alterations in synaptic protein expression, e.g. through compromised transcriptional or translational control. We wondered whether reduced turnover and degradation of synapses, due to deregulated autophagy, would lead to similar phenotypical consequences. Ambra1, strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, is a positive regulator of Beclin1, a principal player in autophagosome formation. While homozygosity of the Ambra1 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, heterozygous mice with reduced Ambra1 expression are viable, reproduce normally, and lack any immediately obvious phenotype. Surprisingly, comprehensive behavioral characterization of these mice revealed an autism-like phenotype in Ambra1+/- females only, including compromised communication and social interactions, a tendency of enhanced stereotypies/repetitive behaviors, and impaired cognitive flexibility. Reduced ultrasound communication was found in adults as well as pups which achieved otherwise normal neurodevelopmental milestones. These features were all absent in male Ambra1+/- mice. As a first hint explaining this gender difference, we found a much stronger reduction of Ambra1 protein in the cortex of Ambra1+/- females compared to males. To conclude, Ambra1 deficiency can induce an autism-like phenotype. The restriction to the female gender of autism-generation by a defined genetic trait is unique thus far and warrants further investigation.

  7. Sex and laterality differences in medial amygdala neurons and astrocytes of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Daniel R; Hobbs, Nicholas J; Breedlove, S Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L

    2016-08-15

    The posterodorsal aspect of the medial amygdala (MePD) in rats is sexually dimorphic, being larger and containing more and larger neurons in males than in females. It is also highly lateralized, with the right MePD larger than the left in both sexes, but with the smaller left MePD actually containing more and larger neurons than the larger right. Astrocytes are also strikingly sexually differentiated, with male-biased numbers and lateralized favoring the right in the rat MePD. However, comparable information is scant for mice where genetic tools offer greater experimental power. Hence, we examined the MePD from adult male and female C57Bl/6(J) mice. We now report that the MePD is larger in males than in females, with the MePD in males containing more astrocytes and neurons than in females. However, we did not find sex differences in astrocyte complexity or overall glial number nor effects of laterality in either measure. While the mouse MePD is generally less lateralized than in rats, we did find that the sex difference in astrocyte number is only on the right because of a significant lateralization in females, with significantly fewer astrocytes on the right than the left but only in females. A sex difference in neuronal soma size favoring males was also evident, but only on the left. Sex differences in the number of neurons and astrocytes common to both rodent species may represent core morphological features that critically underlie the expression of sex-specific behaviors that depend on the MePD. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2492-2502, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780286

  8. Liver-derived IGF-I regulates cortical bone mass but is dispensable for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan; Windahl, Sara H; Saxon, Leanne; Sjögren, Klara; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes

    2016-07-01

    Low circulating IGF-I is associated with increased fracture risk. Conditional depletion of IGF-I produced in osteoblasts or osteocytes inhibits the bone anabolic effect of mechanical loading. Here, we determined the role of endocrine IGF-I for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in young adult and old female mice with adult, liver-specific IGF-I inactivation (LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice, serum IGF-I reduced by ≈70%) and control mice. The right tibia was subjected to short periods of axial cyclic compressive loading three times/wk for 2 wk, and measurements were performed using microcomputed tomography and mechanical testing by three-point bending. In the nonloaded left tibia, the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice had lower cortical bone area and increased cortical porosity, resulting in reduced bone mechanical strength compared with the controls. Mechanical loading induced a similar response in LI-IGF-I(-/-) and control mice in terms of cortical bone area and trabecular bone volume fraction. In fact, mechanical loading produced a more marked increase in cortical bone mechanical strength, which was associated with a less marked increase in cortical porosity, in the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice compared with the control mice. In conclusion, liver-derived IGF-I regulates cortical bone mass, cortical porosity, and mechanical strength under normal (nonloaded) conditions. However, despite an ∼70% reduction in circulating IGF-I, the osteogenic response to mechanical loading was not attenuated in the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice. PMID:27221117

  9. Chronic exposure to trichloroethene causes early onset of SLE-like disease in female MRL +/+ mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ping; König, Rolf; Boor, Paul J; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze; Ansari, G.A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) exacerbates the development of autoimmune responses in autoimmune-prone MRL +/+ mice. Although TCE-mediated autoimmune responses are associated with an increase in serum immunoglobulins and autoantibodies, the underlying mechanism of autoimmunity is not known. To determine the progression of TCE-mediated immunotoxicity, female MRL +/+ mice were chronically exposed to TCE through the drinking water (0.5 mg/ml of TCE) for various periods of time. Serum concentrations of an...

  10. Transketolase Haploinsufficiency Reduces Adipose Tissue and Female Fertility in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zheng-Ping; Wawrousek, Eric F.; Piatigorsky, Joram

    2002-01-01

    Transketolase (TKT) is a ubiquitous enzyme used in multiple metabolic pathways. We show here by gene targeting that TKT-null mouse embryos are not viable and that disruption of one TKT allele can cause growth retardation (≈35%) and preferential reduction of adipose tissue (≈77%). Other TKT+/− tissues had moderate (≈33%; liver, gonads) or relatively little (≈7 to 18%; eye, kidney, heart, brain) reductions in mass. These mice expressed a normal level of growth hormone and reduced leptin levels....

  11. [Redistribution of immune defence in male mice exposed by female scent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, E A; Garms, A I; Zaĭdman, A M; Korel', A V; Gerlinskaia, L A; Moshkin, M P

    2009-01-01

    Since scent marks of mice are harbored by parasites, their sniffing during olfactory search of the mating partner leads to increase of the infection risk. A hypothesis that sexual signals can induce, along with the reproductive behavior, non-specific immune defense against respiratory infections is tested in the present paper. It was found in the experiments on outbred ICR mice that the scent of soiled bedding from cages with mature females stimulated leukocyte intervention to the upper air-ways. Migration of the white blood cells to lung tissue was accompanied with a more prominent immune and endocrine responeses to intranasal application of the bacterial lipopolysacharide (LPS). In particular, LPS administration to male mice treated by female scent was resulted in much greater amount of leukocyte aggregations in the peribronchial areas than that was found in the males kept isolated from the female signals. The female scent also enhanced adrenocortical response to LPS administration, which was coincided with statistically significant increase of IL-1beta concentration in hypothalamus. So, chemical signals of the mature female induce travel of white blood cells to the upper air-waya in the scent treated male mice. It can increase resistance to respiratory infections, on the one hand, and aggravates stress response to inhalation of the bacterial compounds, on the other hand. PMID:19326854

  12. Spirulina maxima prevents fatty liver formation in CD-1 male and female mice with experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Blé-Castillo, J L; Juárez-Oropeza, M A; Díaz-Zagoya, J C

    2001-07-20

    The dietary administration of 5% Spirulina maxima (SM) during four weeks to diabetic mice, starting one week after a single dose of alloxan, 250 mg/Kg body weight, prevented fatty liver production in male and female animals. The main action of SM was on triacylglycerol levels in serum and liver. There was also a moderate hypoglycemia in male mice. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances also decreased in serum and liver after SM administration. There was also a decrease in the percentage of HDL in diabetic mice that was reverted by the SM administration. The sum of LDL + VLDL percentages was also partially normalized in diabetic animals by the SM administration. An additional observation was the lower incidence of adherences between the liver and the intestine loops in the diabetic mice treated with SM compared with diabetic mice without SM. Male and female mice showed differences to diabetes susceptibility and response to SM, the female being more resistant to diabetes induction by alloxan and more responsive to the beneficial effects of SM. It is worth future work of SM on humans looking for better quality of life and longer survival of diabetic patients. PMID:11508645

  13. Abnormal lipoprotein metabolism and reversible female infertility in HDL receptor (SR-BI)–deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Helena E.; Rayburn, Helen; Krieger, Monty

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian female fertility depends on complex interactions between the ovary and the extraovarian environment (e.g., the hypothalamic-hypophyseal ovarian axis). The role of plasma lipoproteins in fertility was examined using HDL-receptor SR-BI knockout (KO) mice. SR-BI KO females have abnormal HDLs, ovulate dysfunctional oocytes, and are infertile. Fertility was restored when the structure and/or quantity of abnormal HDL was altered by inactivating the apoAI gene or administering the choleste...

  14. Long-term exercise modulates hippocampal gene expression in sencescent females mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-López, María Jesús; Castro-Freire, Marco; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Sanchez Roige, Sandra; Ferrer Lalanza, Jaume; Valle i Macià, Jaume del; Párrizas, Marcelina; Camins Espuny, Antoni; Pallàs i Llibería, Mercè, 1964-; Escorihuela, Rosa Maria; Kaliman, Perla

    2013-01-01

    Altres ajuts: FI-DGR 2011 de la Generalitat de Catalunya The senescence-accelerated SAMP8 mouse is considered a useful non-transgenic model for studying aspects of progressive cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using SAMR1 mice as controls, here we explored the effects of 6 months of voluntary wheel running in 10-month-old female SAMP8 mice. Exercise in SAMP8 mice improved phenotypic features associated with premature aging (i.e., skin color and body tremor) and enhanced vascu...

  15. Female mice with loss-of-function ITCH display an altered reproductive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stermer, Angela R; Myers, Jessica L; Murphy, Caitlin J; Di Bona, Kristin R; Matesic, Lydia; Richburg, John H

    2016-02-01

    Major progress in deciphering the role of the E3 ligase, ITCH, in animal physiology has come from the generation and identification of Itch loss-of-function mutant mice (itchy). Mutant mice display an autoimmune-like phenotype characterized by chronic dermatitis, which has been attributed to increased levels of ITCH target proteins (e.g. transcription factors JUNB and CJUN) in T cells. Autoimmune disorders also exist in humans with Itch frameshift mutations resulting in loss of functional ITCH protein. Recent phenotypic analysis of male itchy mice revealed reduced sperm production, although cross breeding experiments showed no difference in litter size when male itchy mice were bred to wild type females. However, a reduction in litter sizes did occur when itchy females were bred to wild type males. Based on these results, characterization of female reproductive function in itchy mice was performed. Developmental analysis of fetuses at gestational day 18.5, cytological evaluation of estrous cyclicity, histopathological analysis of ovaries, and protein analysis were used to investigate the itchy reproductive phenotype. Gross skeletal and soft tissue analysis of gestational day 18.5 itchy fetuses indicated no gross developmental deformities. Itchy females had reduced implantation sites, decreased corpora lutea, and increased estrous cycle length due to increased number of days in estrus compared to controls. Alterations in the expression of prototypical ITCH targets in the ovaries were not indicated, suggesting that an alteration in an as yet defined ovary-specific ITCH substrate or interaction with the altered immune system likely accounts for the disruption of female reproduction. This report indicates the importance of the E3 ligase, ITCH, in female reproduction. PMID:26515141

  16. Bioinformatics and Microarray Analysis of miRNAs in Aged Female Mice Model Implied New Molecular Mechanisms for Impaired Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Zhang, Zong-Kang; Liu, Jin; He, Yi-Xin; Tang, Tao; Li, Jie; Guo, Bao-Sheng; Lu, Ai-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing in aged females is still a challenge in clinics. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in fracture healing. This study aims to identify the miRNAs that potentially contribute to the impaired fracture healing in aged females. Transverse femoral shaft fractures were created in adult and aged female mice. At post-fracture 0-, 2- and 4-week, the fracture sites were scanned by micro computed tomography to confirm that the fracture healing was impaired in aged female mice and the fracture calluses were collected for miRNA microarray analysis. A total of 53 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and 5438 miRNA-target gene interactions involved in bone fracture healing were identified. A novel scoring system was designed to analyze the miRNA contribution to impaired fracture healing (RCIFH). Using this method, 11 novel miRNAs were identified to impair fracture healing at 2- or 4-week post-fracture. Thereafter, function analysis of target genes was performed for miRNAs with high RCIFH values. The results showed that high RCIFH miRNAs in aged female mice might impair fracture healing not only by down-regulating angiogenesis-, chondrogenesis-, and osteogenesis-related pathways, but also by up-regulating osteoclastogenesis-related pathway, which implied the essential roles of these high RCIFH miRNAs in impaired fracture healing in aged females, and might promote the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27527150

  17. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  18. Adverse effects of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2-subunit deletion and high-fat diet on heart function and ischemic tolerance in aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slámová, K; Papoušek, F; Janovská, P; Kopecký, J; Kolář, F

    2016-03-14

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a role in metabolic regulation under stress conditions, and inadequate AMPK signaling may be also involved in aging process. The aim was to find out whether AMPK alpha2-subunit deletion affects heart function and ischemic tolerance of adult and aged mice. AMPK alpha2(-/-) (KO) and wild type (WT) female mice were compared at the age of 6 and 18 months. KO mice exhibited subtle myocardial AMPK alpha2-subunit protein level, but no difference in AMPK alpha1-subunit was detected between the strains. Both alpha1- and alpha2-subunits of AMPK and their phosphorylation decreased with advanced age. Left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in KO than in WT mice of both age groups and this difference was maintained after high-fat feeding. Infarct size induced by global ischemia/reperfusion of isolated hearts was similar in both strains at 6 months of age. Aged WT but not KO mice exhibited improved ischemic tolerance compared with the younger group. High-fat feeding for 6 months during aging abolished the infarct size-reduction in WT without affecting KO animals; nevertheless, the extent of injury remained larger in KO mice. The results demonstrate that adverse effects of AMPK alpha2-subunit deletion and high-fat feeding on heart function and myocardial ischemic tolerance in aged female mice are not additive. PMID:26596312

  19. Citrus-derived flavonoid naringenin exerts uterotrophic effects in female mice at human relevant doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke Miller; Svendsen, Gitte Winkel; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Hossaini, Alireza

    2004-01-01

    Gavage administration of the citrus flavonoid naringenin, 3',4,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanon for 4 consecutive days, to immature female mice (postnatal day 17-20) at 4 or 100 mg/kg b.wt. significantly increased uterine weights 3 and 4 times, respectively. Analysis of uterine oestrogen receptor a...

  20. Pharmacokinetic aspects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female prepubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Silvina L; Hermida, María P; Joannas, Leonel D; Olivera, Mónica; Ridolfi, Adriana; Villaamil, Edda C; Balerio, Graciela N

    2007-09-01

    It has been shown that the expression of the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome precipitated by naloxone (NAL) is more intense in male mice than in females, but the reasons for this phenomenon remain uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether this sexual dimorphism might be due to differences in MOR and/or NAL plasma levels after a chronic treatment with MOR. Prepubertal Swiss male and female mice were rendered dependent by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of MOR (2 mg/kg), twice daily for 9 days. On day 10 dependent mice received NAL (6 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min after MOR injection. Blood samples were taken at different times in order to determine MOR and NAL plasma levels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no differences between male and female mice either for MOR or for NAL. In conclusion, although males and females respond differentially to NAL-precipitated withdrawal, this dimorphic behavior would not be influenced by a pharmacokinetic factor. PMID:17570125

  1. Effects of lung exposure to carbon nanotubes on female fertility and pregnancy. A study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Jackson, Petra; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.;

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of preconceptional exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs): mature, female C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with 67μg NM-400 MWCNT, and the following day co-housed with mature males, in breeding pairs. Time to delivery of the first litter, litter param...

  2. Acne-Related Quality of Life Among Female Adults of Different Races/Ethnicities

    OpenAIRE

    Gorelick, Joe; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Degboe, Arnold; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Douse-Dean, Tracee

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Acne impairs quality of life, but its effect on different races/ethnicities is unclear. This study evaluated racial/ethnic differences in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms among female adults. Methods A Web-based survey was conducted with U.S. female adults (25–45 years old) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, acne-related quality of life (Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire),...

  3. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Quamrun; Arifeen, Shams El; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Method Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15–49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths t...

  4. Hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid axis alterations in female mice with deletion of the neuromedin B receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karen J; Paula, Gabriela S M; Império, Guinever E; Bressane, Nina O; Magalhães, Carolina M A; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C

    2014-11-01

    Neuromedin B, a peptide highly expressed at the pituitary, has been shown to act as autocrine/paracrine inhibitor of thyrotropin (TSH) release. Here we studied the thyroid axis of adult female mice lacking neuromedin B receptor (NBR-KO), compared to wild type (WT) littermates. They exhibited slight increase in serum TSH (18%), with normal pituitary expression of mRNA coding for α-glycoprotein subunit (Cga), but reduced TSH β-subunit mRNA (Tshb, 41%), lower intra-pituitary TSH content (24%) and increased thyroid hormone transporter MCT-8 (Slc16a2, 44%) and thyroid hormone receptor β mRNA expression (Thrb, 39%). NBR-KO mice exhibited normal thyroxine (T4) and reduced triiodothyronine (T3) (30%), with no alterations in the intra-thyroidal content of T4 and T3 or thyroid morphological changes. Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) mRNA (Trh) was increased (68%), concomitant with a reduction in type 2 deiodinase mRNA (Dio2, 30%) and no changes in MCT-8 and thyroid hormone receptor mRNA expression. NBR-KO mice exhibited a 56% higher increase in serum TSH in response to an acute single intraperitoneal injection of TRH concomitant with a non-significant increase in pituitary TRH receptor (Trhr) mRNA at basal state. The phenotype of female NBR-KO mice at the hypothalamus-pituitary axis revealed alterations in pituitary and hypothalamic gene expression, associated with reduced serum T3, and higher TSH response to TRH, with apparently normal thyroid morphology and hormonal production. Thus, results confirm that neuromedin B pathways are importantly involved in secretory pathways of TSH and revealed its participation in the in vivo regulation of gene expression of TSH β-subunit and pituitary MCT8 and Thrb and hypothalamic TRH and type 2 deiodinase. PMID:25454367

  5. "Mixed germ cell testicular tumor" in an adult female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasimath Shivakumarswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization syndrome was described by Morris in phenotypic females with 46XY karyotype, presenting with primary amenorrhea, adequate breast development, and absent or scanty pubic or axillary hair. Gonads consist usually of seminiferous tubules without spermatogenesis. These patients have a 5-10% risk of developing germ cell tumors, usually after the complete development of secondary female sexual characteristics. We hereby report a case considered as a female with married life of 15 years, who was operated for severe abdominal pain. Phenotype characters were that of female. Microscopic examination of the tumor from the abdomen revealed germinoma and yolk sac tumor with adjacent seminiferous tubules. Karyotyping showed 46XY. Final diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor in androgen insensitivity syndrome was made. Surveillance may be the most appropriate option when these conditions are initially diagnosed in adulthood to prevent development of germ cell tumors.

  6. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Excites GnRH Neurons in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, Richard; Dunckley, Henry; Lee, Kiho; Herbison, Allan E

    2016-09-01

    A variety of external and internal factors modulate the activity of GnRH neurons to control fertility in mammals. A direct, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-mediated input to GnRH neurons originating from the suprachiasmatic nucleus is thought to relay circadian information within this network. In the present study, we examined the effects of VIP on GnRH neuron activity in male and female mice at different stages of the estrous cycle. We carried out cell-attached recordings in slices from GnRH-green fluorescent protein mice and calcium imaging in slices from a mouse line expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 selectively in GnRH neurons. We show that 50%-80% of GnRH neurons increase their firing rate in response to bath-applied VIP (1nM-1000nM) in both male and female mice and that this is accompanied by a robust increase in intracellular calcium concentrations. This effect is mediated directly at the GnRH neuron likely through activation of high-affinity VIP receptors. Because suprachiasmatic nucleus-derived timing cues trigger the preovulatory surge only on the afternoon of proestrus in female mice, we examined the effects of VIP during the estrous cycle at different times of day. VIP responsiveness in GnRH neurons did not vary significantly in diestrous and proestrous mice before or around the time of the expected preovulatory surge. These results indicate that the majority of GnRH neurons in male and female mice express functional VIP receptors and that the effects of VIP on GnRH neurons do not alter across the estrous cycle. PMID:27501185

  7. Stress and estrous cycle affect strategy but not performance of female C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, ter, N.M.; Kentrop, J.; Kloet, de, J.; Oitzl, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Stress induces a switch in learning strategies of male C57BL/6J mice from predominantly spatial to more stimulus-response learning. To study generalization of these findings over sex, we investigated female C57BL/6J mice at three phases of the estrous cycle under non stress and acute (10 min) restraint stress conditions. On a circular hole board (CHB) task, about half of the naive female mice used spatial and stimulus-response strategies to solve the task. Under stress, female mice favored sp...

  8. Deletion of Arid1a in Reproductive Tract Mesenchymal Cells Reduces Fertility in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiyin; Khatri, Shikha; Broaddus, Russell; Wang, Zhong; Hawkins, Shannon M

    2016-04-01

    Women with endometriosis can suffer from decreased fecundity or complete infertility via abnormal oocyte function or impaired placental-uterine interactions required for normal pregnancy establishment and maintenance. Although AT-rich interactive domain 1A (SWI-like) (ARID1A) is a putative tumor suppressor in human endometrial cancers and endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers, little is known about its role in normal uterine function. To study the potential function of ARID1A in the female reproductive tract, we generated mice with a conditional knockout of Arid1a using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2-Cre Female Arid1a conditional knockout mice exhibited a progressive decrease in number of pups per litter, with a precipitous decline after the second litter. We observed no tumors in virgin mice, although one knockout mouse developed a uterine tumor after pregnancy. Unstimulated virgin female knockout mice showed normal oviductal, ovarian, and uterine histology. Uteri of Arid1a knockout mice showed a normal decidualization response and appropriate responses to estradiol and progesterone stimulation. In vitro studies using primary cultures of human endometrial stromal fibroblasts revealed that small interfering RNA knockdown of ARID1A did not affect decidualization in vitro. Timed pregnancy studies revealed the significant resorption of embryos at Embryonic Day 16.5 in knockout mice in the third pregnancy. In addition to evidence of implantation site hemorrhage, pregnant Arid1a knockout mice showed abnormal placental morphology. These results suggest that Arid1a supports successful pregnancy through its role in placental function. PMID:26962117

  9. Either main or accessory olfactory system signaling can mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female chemosignals in sexually naive male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzan, Wayne J; Freamat, Mihael; Johnson, Adam G; Cherry, James A; Baum, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    A long-held view has been that interest of male mice in female body odors reflects an activation of reward circuits in the male brain following their detection by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and processing via the accessory olfactory system. We found that adult, sexually naive male mice acquired a conditioned place preference (CPP) after repeatedly receiving estrous female urine on the nose and being placed in an initially nonpreferred chamber with soiled estrous bedding on the floor. CPP was not acquired in control mice that received saline on the nose before being placed in a nonpreferred chamber with clean bedding. Robust acquisition of a CPP using estrous female odors as the reward persisted in separate groups of mice in which VNO-accessory olfactory function was disrupted by bilateral lesioning of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) or in which main olfactory function was disrupted by zinc sulfate lesions of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). By contrast, no CPP was acquired for estrous odors in males that received combined AOB and MOE lesions. Either the main or the accessory olfactory system suffices to mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female odors in the male mouse, even in the absence of prior mating experience. The main olfactory system is part of the circuitry that responds to chemosignals involved in motivated behavior, a role that may be particularly important for humans who lack a functional accessory olfactory system. PMID:23978150

  10. SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION IN AN ADULT FEMALE WITH OBSESSIVE SEXUAL THOUGHTS: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Awana, Sunil; Jena, Shivananda

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of an adult married Muslim female from an orthodox background having sexual obsessions about males other than her husband and her 7 year-old son. She developed diminished sexual desire to have sex with her husband as a result of her obsessions. The role of sexual obsessions in sexual dysfunction in females is discussed.

  11. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caceres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106 IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors.

  12. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; Silvan, Gema; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Illera, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6-8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 10(6)IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors. PMID:27195300

  13. Long-Term Provision of Environmental Resources Alters Behavior but not Physiology or Neuroanatomy of Male and Female BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Ingrao, Joelle C; Ruggiero, Laura; Batista, Lucas; Ovari, Jelena; Hammermueller, Jutta; Armstrong, John N; Bienzle, Dorothee; Choleris, Elena; Turner, Patricia V

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of providing environmental resources to mice. This consideration is important given that mice are often maintained in vivaria for months. We evaluated the effects of providing simple cage resources (wood wool, cotton nesting material, a plastic tunnel, and oat cereal) compared with standard housing (solid-bottom cage with hardwood chips) to group-housed adult male and female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (n = 20/sex/strain/group) over 6 mo to determine whether these resources had a lasting effect on animal physiology, anatomy, and behavior. Body weights increased in all groups over time but were proportionately higher in male and female BALB/c mice housed in resource-supplemented environments. Throughout the study, adding environmental resources had no effect on hematology and lymphocyte subsets, fecal corticoid metabolite levels, response to LPS injection, or dendritic spine length or density. Strain- or sex×environmentspecific changes occurred in dark-light activity and thermal nociceptive responses. Dominant agonistic behaviors, abnormal conspecific sexual behaviors, and social nonagonistic behaviors demonstrated sex and strain×environment interactions such that fewer maladaptive social behaviors were noted in mice that were provided with environmental resources. This association was particularly evident in male mice of both strains in resource-supplemented environments. A small but significant increase in brain weight:body weight ratios occurred in mice in resource-supplemented environments. Under the conditions evaluated here, consistent use of simple environmental resources had a positive long-term effect on the behavioral wellbeing of male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice yet minimally affected other aspects of murine physiology and neuroanatomy. PMID:26632781

  14. Effect of Vomeronasal Organ Removal From Male Mice on Their Preference for and Neural Fos Responses to Female Urinary Odors

    OpenAIRE

    Pankevich, Diana E.; Cherry, James A.; Baum, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether vomeronasal organ (VNO) inputs in male mice mediate the rewarding properties of estrous female urinary odors. Sexually naive male mice with either an intact (VNOi) or lesioned (VNOx) VNO preferred to investigate female urine over water in Y-maze tests. Subsequently, VNOi males ran significantly more quickly and remained in nasal contact longer with estrous female urine than with male urine, whereas VNOx males investigated these odors equall...

  15. Nanoscale-alumina induces oxidative stress and accelerates amyloid beta (Aβ) production in ICR female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shahid Ali; Yoon, Gwang Ho; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ullah, Faheem; Amin, Faiz Ul; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2015-09-01

    The adverse effects of nanoscale-alumina (Al2O3-NPs) have been previously demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies, whereas little is known about their mechanism of neurotoxicity. It is the goal of this research to determine the toxic effects of nano-alumina on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and mouse hippocampal HT22 cells in vitro and on ICR female mice in vivo. Nano-alumina displayed toxic effects on SH-SY5Y cell lines in three different concentrations also increased aluminium abundance and induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells. Nano-alumina peripherally administered to ICR female mice for three weeks increased brain aluminium and ROS production, disturbing brain energy homeostasis, and led to the impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory. Most importantly, these nano-particles induced Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology by enhancing the amyloidogenic pathway of Amyloid Beta (Aβ) production, aggregation and implied the progression of neurodegeneration in the cortex and hippocampus of these mice. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that nano-alumina is toxic to both cells and female mice and that prolonged exposure may heighten the chances of developing a neurodegenerative disease, such as AD.

  16. Androgen excess produces systemic oxidative stress and predisposes to beta-cell failure in female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhuan Liu

    Full Text Available In women, excess production of the male hormone, testosterone (T, is accompanied by insulin resistance. However, hyperandrogenemia is also associated with beta-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes raising the possibility that androgen receptor (AR activation predisposes to beta-cell failure. Here, we tested the hypothesis that excess AR activation produces systemic oxidative stress thereby contributing to beta-cell failure. We used normal female mice (CF and mice with androgen resistance by testicular feminization (Tfm. These mice were exposed to androgen excess and a beta-cell stress induced by streptozotocin (STZ. We find that following exposure to T, or the selective AR-agonist dehydrotestosterone (DHT, CF mice challenged with STZ, which are normally protected, are prone to beta-cell failure and insulin-deficient diabetes. Conversely, T-induced predisposition to beta-cell failure is abolished in Tfm mice. We do not observe any proapoptotic effect of DHT alone or in the presence of H(2O(2 in cultured mouse and human islets. However, we observe that exposure of CF mice to T or DHT provokes systemic oxidative stress, which is eliminated in Tfm mice. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women; excess activation of AR by testosterone may provoke systemic oxidative stress. In the presence of a prior beta-cell stress, this may predispose to beta-cell failure.

  17. Female Nur77-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perez-Sieira

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.

  18. Disturbances of fertility in female mice 90Sr-contaminated as foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant CBA-mice were intravenously injected with 90Sr doses of between 46 and 740 kBq per animal. Their female descendants were mated to untreated CBA-males during a period of 7 months and the reproductive capacity was investigated, i.e. the number of litters born as well as the number of young per female. At the end of the mating period the females were killed and their ovaries microscopically analysed regarding the number of remaining oocytes and follicles. A presumptive correlation between the manifested decrease of the reproductive capacity and the microscopically observed injury was analysed. The fertile conditions of the in utero treated females seemed not affected by 90Sr doses below 370 kBq per dam, although the microscopic examination revealed that 90Sr amounts of 46.3 kBq reduced the total number of oocytes and follicles by one third. (Auth.)

  19. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Stanić; Sydney Dubois; Hui Kheng Chua; Bruce Tonge; Nicole Rinehart; Malcolm K Horne; Wah Chin Boon

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, in...

  20. Adipocyte Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome In Both Male And Female Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Angela; Li, Ming; Vanella, Luca; Kim, Dong Hyun; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi; Sodhi, Komal; Canestraro, Martina; Martasek, Pavel; Peterson, Stephen J; Kappas, Attallah; Abraham, Nader G.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in visceral fat are associated with increased inflammation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction. We examined the effect of the potent heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), on regulation of adiposity and glucose levels in both female and male obese mice. Both lean and obese mice were administered CoPP intraperitoneally, (3mg/kg/once a week) for 6 weeks. Serum levels of adiponectin, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, and HO-1, PPARγ...

  1. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27015584

  2. Entire litters developed from transferred eggs in whole body x-irradiated female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of mouse eggs to sublethal x-irradiation was determined in vitro and in vivo with regard to the development of donor litters in foster mothers. One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight unfertilized eggs of agouti dark-eyed donor mice were transferred into 293 unirradiated or x-irradiated, mated female pink-eyed mice. Two hundred thirty-nine recipients became pregnant; of these 35 produced litters containing solely dark-eyed fetuses. Sublethal doses of x-radiation administered to donor eggs in vitro before transferring into unirradiated recipients did not influence significantly the number of litters of exclusively dark-eyed fetuses produced. However, recipients irradiated by 250 roentgens (r) produced more solely dark-eyed litters than did those irradiated with 100 r. In 21 pregnant females irradiated by 100 r, only 3 (14%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses as compared to 22 pregnant females irradiated by 250 r, of which 13 (59%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses, all from unirradiated, transferred eggs. Of another group of 22 pregnant females which received 250 r body irradiation and subsequently received eggs also irradiated by 250 r, only 7 (32%) produced litters of dark-eyed fetuses. No one female of these three groups carried native fetuses. Such radiation-induced infertility resulting from damage of native eggs rather than loss of mother's ability to carry a pregnancy, is frequently remedied by egg transfer

  3. Increased adipose tissue in male and female estrogen receptor-α knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Heine, P. A.; Taylor, J.A.; Iwamoto, G. A.; Lubahn, D.B.; Cooke, P S

    2000-01-01

    Estrogen regulates the amount of white adipose tissue (WAT) in females, but its role in males and whether WAT effects involve estrogen receptor-α (ERα) or ERβ were unclear. We analyzed the role of ERα in WAT and brown adipose tissue by comparing these tissues in wild-type (WT) and ERα-knockout (αERKO) male and female mice. Brown adipose tissue weight was similar in αERKO and WT males at all ages. Progressive increases in WAT were seen in αERKO males with advancing ...

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice whi...

  5. Behavioral analysis of male and female Fmr1 knockout mice on C57BL/6 background

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Qi; Sethna, Ferzin; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene. The Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice show many aspects of FXS-related phenotypes, and have been used as a major pre-clinical model for FXS. Although FXS occurs in both male and female patients, most studies on the mouse model use male animals. Few studies test whether gender affects the face validity of the mouse model. Here, we examined multiple behavioral phenotypes with male hemizygous and female homozygous Fmr1 K...

  6. Unusual Repertoire of Vocalizations in Adult BTBR T+tf/J Mice During Three Types of Social Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Ricceri, Laura; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays social deficits and repetitive behaviors analogous to the first and third diagnostic symptoms of autism. We previously reported an unusual pattern of ultrasonic vocalizations in BTBR pups that may represent a behavioral homologue to the second diagnostic symptom of autism, impaired communication. The present study investigated the social and vocal repertoire in adult BTBR mice, to evaluate the role of ultrasonic vocalizations in multiple social situations at the adult stage of development. Three different social contexts were considered: male-female, male-male (resident-intruder) and female-female interactions. Behavioral responses and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for BTBR and for the highly social control strain C57BL/6J (B6). No episodes of overt fighting or mating were observed during the short durations of the three different experimental encounters. BTBR displayed lower levels of vocalizations and social investigation in all three social contexts as compared to B6. In addition, the correlation analyses between social investigation and USVs emission rate revealed that in B6 mice the two variables were positively correlated in all the three different social settings, whereas in BTBR mice the positive correlation was significant only in the male-female interactions. These findings strongly support the value of simultaneously recording two aspects of the mouse social repertoire, social motivation and bioacoustic communication. Moreover, our findings in adults are consistent with previous results in pups, showing an unusual vocal repertoire in BTBR as compared to B6. PMID:20618443

  7. Delayed expulsion of adult Trichinella spiralis by mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, T. Y.; Reed, N D; Crowle, P K

    1983-01-01

    Mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice and their mast cell-sufficient littermates were given infections of Trichinella spiralis. W/Wv mice were slower than their littermates to expel adult T. spiralis. Repair of the mast cell deficiency of W/Wv mice by bone marrow grafting was accompanied by accelerated expulsion of T. spiralis.

  8. Effects of testosterone on sexual behavior and morphology in adult female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Ross, J; Crews, D

    1999-10-01

    The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and then remains at previtellogenic levels until eggs are laid and the next follicular cycle begins. To determine the function of T in females, we manipulated both the level and the duration of T elevation using Silastic implants in intact, adult female leopard geckos. Females had low ( approximately 1 ng/ml), medium ( approximately 100 ng/ml), or high ( approximately 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1-5 in the short-duration group or on days 29-33 in the long-duration group. For both short- and long-duration groups, T treatment decreased attractivity in females with medium and high T levels compared to females with low T levels. In contrast, females with a medium T level were more receptive than females with a low T level in the short-duration group. Females in the long-duration group were unreceptive regardless of T level. Females treated for a long duration also displayed more aggression toward and evoked more aggression from males than short duration females. Short-duration T treatment had no masculinizing effect on female morphology, whereas medium and high T levels for a long duration induced development of hemipenes. Overall, these results suggest that T can both increase and decrease sexual behaviors in the female leopard gecko. PMID:10506536

  9. Photoperiod interacts with food restriction on performance in the Barnes maze in female California mice

    OpenAIRE

    Steinman, Michael Q.; Crean, Katie K.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Food restriction has been reported to have positive effects on cognition. This study examines how another environmental factor, daylength, can alter the impact of food restriction on the brain and behavior. Female California mice (Peromyscus californicus), housed on either long days (16L:8D) or short days (8L:16D) were restricted to 80% of their normal baseline food intake or provided food ad libitum. Testing in a Barnes maze revealed that the effects of food restriction depend on photoperiod...

  10. Effects of Estrogens on Adipokines and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Aromatase Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Van Sinderen

    Full Text Available The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17β-estradiol (E2 treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses. Female ArKO mice display increased body weight, gonadal (omental adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and liver triglycerides, which were ameliorated upon estrogen treatment. Tolerance tests revealed that estrogen-deficient ArKO mice were pyruvate intolerant hence reflecting dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Analyses of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues supported a hepatic-based glucose dysregulation, with a down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation (a key insulin signaling pathway molecule in the ArKO liver, which was improved with E2 treatment. Concurrently, estrogen treatment lowered ArKO serum leptin and adiponectin levels and increased inflammatory adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin 6 (IL6. Furthermore, estrogen deficiency resulted in the infiltration of CD45 macrophages into gonadal adipose tissues, which cannot be reversed by E2 treatment. This study describes the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis in female ArKO mice and highlights a primary phenotype of hepatic glucose dysregulation and a parallel estrogen modified adipokine profile.

  11. Neurotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate to hippocampal cells in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Long

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a ubiquitous pollutant and found in the environment and in biota. The neurotoxicity of PFOS has received much concern among its various toxic effects when given during developing period of brain. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects and potential mechanisms of PFOS in the mature brain. Our study demonstrated the neurotoxicity and the potential mechanisms of PFOS in the hippocampus of adult mice for the first time. The impairments of spatial learning and memory were observed by water maze studies after exposure to PFOS for three months. Significant apoptosis was found in hippocampal cells after PFOS exposure, accompanied with a increase of glutamate in the hippocampus and decreases of dopamine (DA and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC in Caudate Putamen in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS group. By two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis, seven related proteins in the hippocampus that responded to PFOS exposure were identified, among which, Mib1 protein (an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, Herc5 (hect domain and RLD 5 isoform 2 and Tyro3 (TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3 were found down-regulated, while Sdha (Succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit, Gzma (Isoform HF1 of Granzyme A precursor, Plau (Urokinase-type plasminogen activator precursor and Lig4 (DNA ligase 4 were found up-regulated in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS-treated group compare with control group. Furthermore, we also found that (i increased expression of caspase-3 protein and decreased expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and survivin proteins, (ii the increased glutamate release in the hippocampus. All these might contribute to the dysfunction of hippocampus which finally account for the impairments of spatial learning and memory in adult mice.

  12. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26448649

  13. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Kesby

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old and aged (15 months old mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  14. A comparative study on the susceptibility of male and female albino mice to Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Turay, G.O. Nwobu, G.R.A. Okogun, C.U. Igwe, K. Adeyeye, K.E. Aghatise, H.O. Okpal & Y.M. Tatfeng

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trypanosomiasis has remained a major set-back in the development oflivestock farming in tropical Africa. Thus the need for ascertaining the trypanotolerant levels ofdomestic animal breeds and possible improvement on them cannot be over-emphasised.Methods: Level of trypanotolerance in animals was compared between sexes using albino mice infectedwith a Nigerian strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei at a 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50.Results: The male mice showed unrestrained parasite growth with a prepatent period (PP of two daysand a mean survival period (MSP of six days corresponding to a gradual decrease in packed cellvolume (PCV, body weight, diet response and white blood cells (WBC count to the time of death.Their female counterparts showed a PP of three days and MSP of ten days with a similar PCV gradientbut a refractory WBC count. There was no significant difference in the differential leucocytes countin both sexes. However, the eosinophils count was significantly higher in the infected animals. It wasfound that female albino mice exercised more parasite restraint than their male counterparts.Interpretation & conclusion: The result suggests that the female animals may be more trypanotoleranthence may be more useful in protein production in trypanosomiasis endemic areas. However, furtherresearch using large domestic breeds like goats and sheep may be required to confirm the hypothesis.

  15. β-endorphin regulates alcohol consumption induced by exercise restriction in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Colleen E; Nentwig, Todd B; Wilson, Diane E; Rhinehart, Erin M; Grisel, Judith E

    2016-06-01

    Animal models have long been used to study the mechanisms underlying the complex association between alcohol and stress. Female mice prevented from running on a home-cage activity wheel increase voluntary ethanol consumption. β-endorphin is an endogenous opioid involved in negatively regulating the stress response and has also been implicated in the risk for excessive drinking. The present study investigates the role of β-endorphin in moderating free-choice consumption of ethanol in response to a blocked activity wheel. Female, transgenic mice with varying levels of the opioid peptide were given daily 2-h access to 20% ethanol with rotations on a running wheel blocked on alternate days. Subjects with low β-endorphin exhibited enhanced stress sensitivity by self-administering larger quantities of ethanol on days when wheel running was prevented. β-endorphin levels did not influence voluntary activity on the running wheel. There were genotypic differences in plasma corticosterone levels as well as corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA content in multiple brain regions associated with the stress response in these free drinking and running subjects. Susceptibility to stress is enhanced in female mice with low levels of β-endorphin, and better understanding of the role for this opioid in mitigating the response to stressors may aid in the development of interventions and treatments for excessive use of alcohol in women. PMID:27286936

  16. Resveratrol attenuates peripheral and brain inflammation and reduces ischemic brain injury in aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sae Im; Shin, Jin A; Cho, Sunghee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Ji Yoon; Kang, Jihee Lee; Park, Eun-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol is known to improve metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. Visceral obesity is a sign of aging and is considered a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the brain and its effects on ischemic brain injury in aged female mice. Mice treated with resveratrol (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days showed reduced levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as a reduction in the size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue. Resveratrol also reduced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α protein levels and immunoglobulin G extravasation in the brain. Mice treated with resveratrol demonstrated smaller infarct size, improved neurological function, and blunted peripheral inflammation at 3 days postischemic stroke. These results showed that resveratrol counteracted inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and in the brain and reduced stroke-induced brain injury and peripheral inflammation in aged female mice. Therefore, resveratrol administration can be a valuable strategy for the prevention of age-associated and disease-provoked inflammation in postmenopausal women. PMID:27318135

  17. Deficient Purposeful Use of Forepaws in Female Mice Modelling Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca De Filippis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioural and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2 cause more than 95% of classic cases. Motor abnormalities represent a significant part of the spectrum of RTT symptoms. In the present study we investigated motor coordination and fine motor skill domains in MeCP2-308 female mice, a validated RTT model. This was complemented by the in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS analysis of metabolic profile in behaviourally relevant brain areas. MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice (Het, 10-12 months of age were impaired in tasks validated for the assessment of purposeful and coordinated forepaw use (Morag test and Capellini handling task. A fine-grain analysis of spontaneous behaviour in the home-cage also revealed an abnormal handling pattern when interacting with the nesting material, reduced motivation to explore the environment, and increased time devoted to feeding in Het mice. The brain MRS evaluation highlighted decreased levels of bioenergetic metabolites in the striatal area in Het mice compared to controls. Present results confirm behavioural and brain alterations previously reported in MeCP2-308 males and identify novel endpoints on which the efficacy of innovative therapeutic strategies for RTT may be tested.

  18. β-Actin protein expression differs in the submandibular glands of male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zou, Ye; Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Lingfei; Hu, Qiaoyun; Li, Ting; Yao, Chenjuan; Yu, Shali; Wang, Xiaoke; Wang, Chun

    2016-07-01

    β-actin, a cytoskeletal protein, is the most widely used housekeeping gene. Although housekeeping genes are expressed in all tissues, the β-actin gene is expressed in certain cell types because of differential binding of transcriptional factors to the regulatory elements of the gene. The expression and localization of β-actin protein in the submandibular glands (SMG) of mice were investigated in this study, using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. In ICR and C57BL/6J mice, the levels of β-actin protein in the SMG of females are significantly higher than those in the SMG of males. β-actin protein is majorly distributed in acinar cells of SMG. There is no significant difference in the expression level of β-actin protein between females and castrated males. After castrated male ICR mice are treated with 10 mg/kg/day testosterone propionate (TP) for 3 weeks, the levels of β-actin protein in SMG decrease. The numbers of duct per unit area increase, whereas the numbers of acinus per unit area decrease after TP administration. These data suggest that β-actin protein is mainly distributed in acinar cells of SMG and results in a marked sexual dimorphism in mice. PMID:27079296

  19. Nutritional and antioxidant status by skin types among female adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun Sook; Choi, Sung Im; Ahn, Hong Seok

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze the relationship among sebum · hydration content of the skin and nutritional intake, serum antioxidant minerals and antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxide concentration in 50 female subjects in their 20s. The skin type was divided into Dry Skin, Mixed Skin, and Oily Skin, and the dry skin group was 14%, the mixed skin group was 56%, and the oily skin group was 30% of all subjects. The average age of the subjects was 20.54 ± 1.43 years and BMI was 20.66. Th...

  20. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  1. Heterozygosity for a Bub1 mutation causes female-specific germ cell aneuploidy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, Shawn; Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Polyzos, Aris; Thomas, Sharon; Samaan, George; Donnell, Robert; Marchetti, Francesco; Venkatachalam, Sundaresan

    2009-06-24

    Aneuploidy, the most common chromosomal abnormality at birth and the main ascertained cause of pregnancy loss in humans, originates primarily from chromosome segregation errors during oogenesis. Here we report that heterozygosity for a mutation in the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene, Bub1, induces aneuploidy in female germ cells of mice, and that the effect increases with advancing maternal age. Analysis of Bub1 heterozygous oocytes showed that aneuploidy occurred primarily during the first meiotic division and involved premature sister chromatid separation. Furthermore, aneuploidy was inherited in zygotes and resulted in the loss of embryos after implantation. The incidence of aneuploidy in zygotes was sufficient to explain the reduced litter size in matings with Bub1 heterozygous females. No effects were seen in germ cells from heterozygous males. These findings show that Bub1 dysfunction is linked to inherited aneuploidy in female germ cells and may contribute to the maternal age-related increase in aneuploidy and pregnancy loss.

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of keratin 5 in the submandibular gland in adult and postnatal developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kumchantuek, Tewarat; Sakulsak, Natthiya; Iseki, Shoichi

    2016-03-01

    Keratin 5 (K5) is a marker of basal progenitor cells in the epithelia of a number of organs. During prenatal development of the submandibular gland (SMG) in mice, K5(+) progenitor cells in the developing epithelia play important roles in its organogenesis. Although K5(+) cells are also present in the adult mouse SMG and may function in tissue regeneration, their histological localization has not yet investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of K5 in the SMG in adult and postnatal developing mice. At birth, K5 immunoreactivity was detected in the entire duct system, in which it was localized in the basal cells of a double-layered epithelium, but was not detected in the terminal tubule or myoepithelial cells. At postnatal weeks 1-3, with the development of intercalated ducts (ID), striated ducts (SD), and excretory ducts (ED), K5-immunoreactive basal cells were gradually restricted to the ED and the proximal double-layered portions of the ID connecting to the SD. At the same time, K5 immunoreactivity appeared in myoepithelial cells, in which its positive ratio gradually increased. In adults, K5 immunoreactivity was localized to most myoepithelial cells, most basal cells in the ED, and a small number of ID cells at the boundary between the ID and SD in the female SMG or between the ID and granular convoluted tubules in the male SMG. These results suggest that K5 is a marker of differentiated myoepithelial cells and duct progenitor cells in the mouse SMG. PMID:26671786

  3. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of 14C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  4. Diffuse hair loss in an adult female: Approach to diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Telogen effluvium (TE) is the most common cause of diffuse hair loss in adult females. TE, along with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and chronic telogen effluvium (CTE), accounts for the majority of diffuse alopecia cases. Abrupt, rapid, generalized shedding of normal club hairs, 2-3 months after a triggering event like parturition, high fever, major surgery, etc. indicates TE, while gradual diffuse hair loss with thinning of central scalp/widening of central parting line/frontotemporal rece...

  5. Chronic exposure to trichloroethene causes early onset of SLE-like disease in female MRL +/+ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichloroethene (TCE) exacerbates the development of autoimmune responses in autoimmune-prone MRL +/+ mice. Although TCE-mediated autoimmune responses are associated with an increase in serum immunoglobulins and autoantibodies, the underlying mechanism of autoimmunity is not known. To determine the progression of TCE-mediated immunotoxicity, female MRL +/+ mice were chronically exposed to TCE through the drinking water (0.5 mg/ml of TCE) for various periods of time. Serum concentrations of antinuclear antibodies increased after 36 and 48 weeks of TCE exposure. Histopathological analyses showed lymphocyte infiltration in the livers of MRL +/+ mice exposed to TCE for 36 or 48 weeks. Lymphocyte infiltration was also apparent in the pancreas, lungs, and kidneys of mice exposed to TCE for 48 weeks. Immunoglobulin deposits in kidney glomeruli were found after 48 weeks of exposure to TCE. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to TCE promotes inflammation in the liver, pancreas, lungs, and kidneys, which may lead to SLE-like disease in MRL +/+ mice

  6. Functional regulation of PI3K-associated signaling in the accumbens by binge alcohol drinking in male but not female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzoli, Debra K; Kaufman, Moriah N; Nipper, Michelle A; Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M; Finn, Deborah A

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that binge alcohol consumption produces alterations in Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) and related signaling cascades in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of adult male mice, but female and adolescent mice have not been examined. Thus, the first set of studies determined whether repeated binge alcohol consumption produced similar alterations in protein and mRNA levels of Group 1 mGlu-associated signaling molecules in the NAC of male and female adult and adolescent mice. The adult (9 weeks) and adolescent (4 weeks) C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 7 binge alcohol sessions every 3rd day while controls drank water. Repeated binge alcohol consumption produced sexually divergent changes in protein levels and mRNA expression for Group 1 mGlus and downstream signaling molecules in the NAC, but there was no effect of age. Binge alcohol intake decreased mGlu5 levels in females, whereas it decreased indices of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 4E-binding protein 1, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase in males. Expression of genes encoding mGlu1, mGlu5, the NR2A subunit of the NMDA receptor, and Homer2 were all decreased by binge alcohol consumption in males, while females were relatively resistant (only phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 was decreased). The functional implication of these differences was investigated in a separate study by inhibiting mTOR in the NAC (via infusions of rapamycin) before binge drinking sessions. Rapamycin (50 and 100 ng/side) significantly decreased binge alcohol consumption in males, while consumption in females was unaffected. Altogether these results highlight that mTOR signaling in the NAC was necessary to maintain binge alcohol consumption only in male mice and that binge drinking recruits sexually divergent signaling cascades downstream of PI3K and presumably, Group 1 mGlus. Importantly, these findings emphasize that sex should be considered in the development

  7. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity but is dispensable for skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meadows

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myog(flox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myog(flox/flox mice (mdx, Myog(flox/flox mice (wild-type, and mdx:Myog(floxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted. mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function.

  8. Immune alterations in male and female mice after 2-deoxy-D-glucose administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreau, D.; Morton, D. S.; Foster, M.; Swiggett, J. P.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1997-01-01

    Administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) induces acute cellular glucoprivation. In the current study, we examined differences in immune parameters after 2-DG administration in both sexes. Male and female BDF1 mice were injected three times, 48 h apart, either with a saline solution (control group) or with 2-DG in saline (500 mg/kg). Two hours after the last injection, blood and spleens were collected. Plasma levels of interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. Additionally, the levels of the specific leukocyte antigens CD3, CD4, CD8, T cell receptor (TCR) alpha/beta, I-Ad, and H-2Ld/H-2Db were evaluated by flow cytometry on both blood and spleen cells. The blastogenic response of leukocytes from both tissues to mitogens was assessed. Levels of glucose, corticosterone, testosterone, progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone were also determined. Increases in the percentage of cells bearing TCR alpha/beta and I-Ad in the blood and H-2Ld/H-2Db in the spleen were observed in the 2-DG-treated group for both sexes. In contrast, higher corticosterone and IL-1beta plasma concentrations, as well as higher percentages of splenocytes bearing TCR alpha/beta and I-Ad, and lower mitogen-induced proliferation of mature T splenocytes (79%) were observed in female but not in male mice injected with 2-DG compared with those injected with saline (p female mice are more sensitive than male mice to immune alterations induced by 2-DG administration.

  9. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Shirk, Paul D

    2009-04-01

    Commercial shipments of Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller). To determine whether modified dietary conditions might improve predation, newly eclosed adult female Orius pumilio (Champion) were fed on E. kuehniella eggs plus encapsulated water, encapsulated 5% sucrose solution only, or encapsulated water only for periods of 24, 48, or 72 h. Feeding activity was assessed by measuring the area of a crop in digital images of dissected digestive tracts. Adult females fed continuously on eggs had larger crops than did females fed on encapsulated sucrose solution. When females were prefed encapsulated water or sucrose and then fed 3 h on eggs, their crops became highly engorged and were larger than those in females fed continuously on eggs for the same periods. In behavioral choice tests, adult females prefed on encapsulated water or 5% sucrose solution spent a larger portion of time in contact with eggs, presumably feeding, whereas females prefed on eggs showed no preference between eggs or encapsulated water. After overnight shipping, females prefed on water or sucrose and held for 48 h total consumed 3.6- and 4.3-fold, respectively, more western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in 3 h than those prefed on eggs. Survival rates when prefed on sugar or water were comparable with prefeeding on eggs. Thus, inundative releases of Orius can be enhanced by starvation, because females initially feed much more voraciously after shipment with no apparent reduction in fitness. PMID:19449628

  10. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  11. Sodium Valproate Enhances the Urethane-Induced Lung Adenomas and Suppresses Malignization of Adenomas in Ovariectomized Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Stakisaitis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the possible effect of sodium valproate (NaVP on urethane-induced lung tumors in female mice has been evaluated. BALB/c mice (n=60; 4–6 weeks old, females were used in the following groups: (1 urethane-treated; (2 urethane-NaVP-treated; (3 only NaVP-treated; (4 control. In the same groups, ovariectomized female mice (n=60 were investigated. Urethane was given intraperitoneally, with a total dose of 50 mg/mouse. In NaVP-treated mice groups, 0.4% aqueous solution of NaVP was offered to mice ad libitum. The duration of the experiment was 6 months. The number of tumors per mouse in ovariectomized mice and in those treated with urethane and NaVP was significantly higher than in mice treated with urethane only (8.29±0.58 versus 6.0±0.63, p<0.02. No significant difference in the number of tumors per mouse was revealed while comparing the nonovariectomized urethane- and urethane-NaVP-treated groups (p=0.13. A significant decrease of adenocarcinoma number in ovariectomized mice treated with a urethane-NaVP as compared with ovariectomized mice treated with urethane only was found (p=0.031. NaVP together with low estrogen may have a protective effect on the malignization of adenomas in ovariectomized mice.

  12. Short-Term Pharmacological Suppression of the Hyperprolactinemia of Infertile hCG-Overproducing Female Mice Persistently Restores Their Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Laura D.; Gonzalez, Betina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Di Giorgio, Noelia P.; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S.; Ilpo T Huhtaniemi; Rulli, Susana B.

    2012-01-01

    Female infertility is often associated with deregulation of hormonal networks, and hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis affecting the reproductive functions. We have shown previously that transgenic female mice overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice), and producing elevated levels of bioactive LH/hCG, exhibit increased production of testosterone and progesterone, are overweight and infertile, and develop...

  13. Estrogen stimulates microglia and brain recovery from hypoxia-ischemia in normoglycemic but not diabetic female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liqun; Nair, Aji; Krady, Kyle; Corpe, Christopher; Bonneau, Robert H.; Simpson, Ian A.; Vannucci, Susan J

    2004-01-01

    Diabetic hyperglycemia increases ischemic brain damage in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms are unclear but may involve enhanced apoptosis in penumbral regions. Estrogen is an established neuroprotectant in experimental stroke. Our previous study demonstrated that female diabetic db/db mice suffered less damage following cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) than male db/db mice. Here we investigated the effects of diabetes and estrogen apoptotic gene expression following H/I. Female ...

  14. Comparison between C-FOS Expression in Male and Female Mice During Morphine Withdrawal in the Presence and Absence of Acute Administration of Matricaria Recutita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesmati Mahnaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are some evidences that indicate there are sexual differences in drug abuse and response to synthetic and herbal drugs. It has been shown that the expression of C-FOS increases in many areas of brain during morphine withdrawal. Concerning the sedative effect of Matricaria recutita extract, the aim of this study was to compare expression of C-FOS transcription factor during morphine withdrawal with and without acute administration of Matricaria recutita on male and female adult mice.Materials and Methods: This study was done at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in 2007 on NMRI mice. Male and female mice were assigned into 8 groups (morphine + saline; morphine + naloxone; morphine + Matricaria recutita + naloxone; and morphine + saline + naloxone. To develop morphine dependency, increasing doses of morphine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg injected subcutaneously for 4 days. Mice received a final morphine injection (40 mg/kg 3hours prior to naloxone (5 mg/kg on the day of testing (day 4. Matricaria recutita extract whit a dose of 30 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 5 minutes before naloxone injection. In cellular study, 90minute after naloxone injection, mice were decapitated and their brains were separated, then mRNA was extracted from brain tissue. Using DIG-labeled DNA probe of C-FOS, beta-actin and dot blot technique, expression of C-FOS was analyzed by Zero Dscan software. Statistical evaluation of data was performed using student t-test and ANOVA with one factor followed by Duncan test in SPSS software. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The rate of expression of C-FOS increased in male mice but decreased significantly in female mice after naloxone-precipitated abstinence P<0.01(. Matricaria recutita attenuated the rate of expression of C-FOS in male mice but it showed synergistic effect on it in female mice P<0.05(.Conclusion: It seems that the cellular processes involving morphine dependency and

  15. Intermittent Brugada Syndrome Presenting with Syncope in an Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chavez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brugada syndrome accounts for 4–12% of all sudden deaths worldwide and at least 20% of sudden deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts. Case Report. A 48-year-old female presented to the emergency department after two witnessed syncopal episodes. While awaiting discharge had a third collapse followed by cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm. Initial electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex with left axis deviation, ST-segment elevation of 2 mm followed by a negative T wave with no isoelectric separation, suggestive of spontaneous intermittent Brugada type 1 pattern. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated neither structural heart disease nor abnormal myocardium. After placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator the patient was discharged. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Brugada syndrome is an infrequently encountered clinical entity which may have a fatal outcome. This syndrome primarily presents with syncope. It should be considered as a component of differential diagnosis in patients with family history of syncope and sudden cardiac death.

  16. Stress and estrous cycle affect strategy but not performance of female C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. ter Horst; J. Kentrop; E.R. de Kloet; M.S. Oitzl

    2013-01-01

    Stress induces a switch in learning strategies of male C57BL/6J mice from predominantly spatial to more stimulus-response learning. To study generalization of these findings over sex, we investigated female C57BL/6J mice at three phases of the estrous cycle under non stress and acute (10 min) restra

  17. Hemopoietic precursor-cells in radiation chimeras restored by bone marrow of adult thymectomized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotective capacity of bone marrow CFUs of adult thymectomized mice was studied. Lethaly irradiated mice were inoculated with bone marrow of mice thymectomized 8-11 months before. The colony forming capacity and proliferative rate of CFUs were studied 1-7.5 months after obtaining the radiation chimeras. It has been shown that proliferative capacity of bone marrow of adult thymectomized mice was reduced in comparison with that of normal animals. We also found that the content of CFUs in bone of those chimeras was reduced later - after 7.5 months. In this period (1-7.5 months) the cellularity of bone marrow did not change

  18. The ZEB1 transcription factor is a novel repressor of adiposity in female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N Saykally

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Four genome-wide association studies mapped an "obesity" gene to human chromosome 10p11-12. As the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1 transcription factor is encoded by the TCF8 gene located in that region, and as it influences the differentiation of various mesodermal lineages, we hypothesized that ZEB1 might also modulate adiposity. The goal of these studies was to test that hypothesis in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To ascertain whether fat accumulation affects ZEB1 expression, female C57BL/6 mice were fed a regular chow diet (RCD ad libitum or a 25% calorie-restricted diet from 2.5 to 18.3 months of age. ZEB1 mRNA levels in parametrial fat were six to ten times higher in the obese mice. To determine directly whether ZEB1 affects adiposity, wild type (WT mice and mice heterozygous for TCF8 (TCF8+/- were fed an RCD or a high-fat diet (HFD (60% calories from fat. By two months of age on an HFD and three months on an RCD, TCF8+/- mice were heavier than WT controls, which was attributed by Echo MRI to increased fat mass (at three months on an HFD: 0.517+/-0.081 total fat/lean mass versus 0.313+/-0.036; at three months on an RCD: 0.175+/-0.013 versus 0.124+/-0.012. No differences were observed in food uptake or physical activity, suggesting that the genotypes differ in some aspect of their metabolic activity. ZEB1 expression also increases during adipogenesis in cell culture. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show for the first time that the ZEB1 transcription factor regulates the accumulation of adipose tissue. Furthermore, they corroborate the genome-wide association studies that mapped an "obesity" gene at chromosome 10p11-12.

  19. On the adult female of Oiclus nanus Teruel et Chazal, 2010 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae: Diplocentrinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chazal, Léonard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult female of Oiclus nanus Teruel et Chazal, 2010 is herein described for the first time, on the basis of a topotypic specimen. Taxonomic diagnosis of this species endemic from Guadeloupe is emended, and the comparison to its closest relative is also improved.

  20. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  1. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  2. Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…

  3. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Aleksunes, Lauren M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy and Environmental and Occupational Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Guo, Grace L., E-mail: lguo@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  4. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  5. The ERa-PI3K cascade in proopiomelanocortin progenitor neurons regulates feeding and glucose balance in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogens act upon estrogen receptor (ER)a to inhibit feeding and improve glucose homeostasis in female animals. However, the intracellular signals that mediate these estrogenic actions remain unknown. Here, we report that anorexigenic effects of estrogens are blunted in female mice that lack ERa sp...

  6. NanoTIO2 (UV-Titan) does not induce ESTR mutations in the germline of prenatally exposed female mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Shipley, Thomas; Hougaard, Karin Sørig;

    2012-01-01

    male germ cells resulting from environmental exposures; however, female germ cells have received little attention. Oocytes may be vulnerable during stages of active cell division (e.g., during fetal development). Accordingly, an increase in germline ESTR mutations in female mice prenatally exposed to...

  7. Behavioural disturbances in adult CD-1 mice and absence of effects on their offspring upon SO{sub 2} exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruzzi, S. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Dell`Omo, G. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Fiore, M. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Chiarotti, F. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Bignami, G. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Alleva, E. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    Adult male and female CD-1 mice were exposed to different SO{sub 2} concentrations (0, 5, 12, or 30 ppm) for 24 days, from 9 days before the formation of breeding pairs to pregnancy day 12-14. This exposure was near-continuous, covering about 80% of the total time. The offspring of exposed dams were cross-fostered shortly after birth to dams not previously exposed. Videorecordings of the adult subjects` activities during the first hour after the start of exposure showed marked, acute transient behavioural effects such as increase of rearing and social interactions, which were more pronounced in males than in females. Subsequent activity tests on exposure days 3, 6, and 9 showed subacute effects including a dose-dependent decrease of grooming and an increase of digging as well as changes in chamber crossing and wall-rearing which were not dose-dependent; most of these effects were more pronounced in females than in males. Food and water consumption and body weight declined in a dose-dependent fashion only after the formation of breeding pairs, when consummatory responses were enhanced in the controls. Reproductive performance as well as postnatal somatic and neurobehavioural development of the offspring (the latter assessed by an observational test battery including eight reflexes and responses) were not affected by SO{sub 2}. Passive avoidance acquisition and retention at the young adult stage (60 days) and response changes produced by repeated apparatus exposure in non-reinforced animals (habituation) were similarly unaffected. The data indicate that SO{sub 2} produces transient, acute behavioural disturbances and more subtle subacute response changes in adult mice which may be due, at least partly, to a functional interference with olfactory modulation of mouse behaviour. The absence of effects on reproductive performance and neurobehavioural development of the offspring suggests that the risk to the developing organism from gestational SO{sub 2} exposure is low.

  8. Toxicity of benzyl alcohol in adult and neonatal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzyl alcohol (BA) is an aromatic alcohol, which is used as a bacteriostat in a variety of parenteral preparations. In 1982, it was implicated as the agent responsible for precipitating The Gasping Syndrome in premature neonates. The investigate further this toxicity, BA was administered, intraperiotoneally, to adult and neonatal CD-1 male mice. Gross behavioral changes were monitored. Low doses produced minimal toxic effects within an initial 4 hour observation period. At the end of this time, the LD50 was determined to be 1000 mg/kg for both age groups. Death was due to respiratory arrest in all cases. Rapid absorption and conversion of BA to its primary metabolite, benzaldehyde, was demonstrated by gas chromatographic analysis of plasma from both experimental groups. The conversion of BA to benzaldehyde was confirmed in in vitro by using both horse-liver and mouse liver ADH. The inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) by pyrazole was similarly demonstrated in both enzyme systems. 14C-labelled BA was utilized to determine the distribution of BA and its metabolites in the body, and to possibly pinpoint a target organ of toxicity

  9. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Female Mice Exhibit Increased Age-Dependent Obesity123

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Previous work done in our laboratory suggested a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in obesity that develops in aging female L-FABP gene-ablated (−/−) mice. To examine this possibility in more detail, cohorts of wild-type (+/+) and L-FABP (−/−) female mice were fed a standard low-fat nonpurified rodent diet for up to 18 mo. Various obesity-related parameters were examined including body weight and fat and lean tissue mass. Obesity in (−/−) mice was associated with increased ex...

  10. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  11. Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Moxifloxacin on Female Mice and Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa M. Roshdy

    2004-01-01

    Moxifloxacin (Avelox®) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity and bactericidal action. Moxifloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. The safe use of moxifloxacin in human pregnancy has not been established. In order to evaluate the genotoxic and embryo toxic effects of (Avelox)® during pregnancy, Avelox was administrated orally to female mice with doses (8.7, 17 and 26 mg/kg/day) from 1 to 17 days of pregnancy....

  12. Female puberty acceleration by male odour in mice: neural pathway and behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Szymanski, Laura A; Keller, Matthieu

    2014-08-01

    In female mice, exposure to male chemosignals results in early puberty onset characterized by advanced vaginal opening and higher uterine weight. Evidence suggests that the male chemosignals responsible for acceleration of female puberty are androgen-dependent, but not all of the compounds that contribute to puberty acceleration have been identified. The male chemosignals are primarily detected and processed by the vomeronasal system including the vomeronasal organ, the accessory olfactory bulb and the medial amygdala. By contrast, the mechanism by which this olfactory information is integrated in the hypothalamus is poorly understood. In this context, the recent identification of the neuropeptide kisspeptin as a gatekeeper of puberty onset may provide a good candidate neuropeptide system for the transmission of chemosensory information to the gonadotrope axis. PMID:25109972

  13. Maternal immune activation differentially impacts mature and adult-born hippocampal neurons in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus develops both before and after birth. To study the relative contribution of mature and adult-born DG granule cells to disease etiology, we compared both cell populations in a mouse model of psychiatric illness resulting from maternal immune activation. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyIC, 5mg/kg) or saline was given on gestation day 15 to pregnant female C57Bl/6 mice. Male offspring (n=105), was administered systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 50mg/kg) (n=52) or intracerebral retroviral injection into the DG (n=53), to label dividing cells at one month of age. Two months later behavioral tests were performed to evaluate disease phenotype. Immunohistochemistry and whole-cell patch clamping were used to assess morphological and physiological characteristics of DG cells. Three-month-old PolyIC exposed male offspring exhibited deficient pre-pulse inhibition, spatial maze performance and motor coordination, as well as increased depression-like behavior. Histological analysis showed reduced DG volume and parvalbumin positive interneuron number. Both mature and new hippocampal neurons showed modifications in intrinsic properties such as increased input resistance and lower current threshold, and decreased action potential number. Reduced GABAergic inhibitory transmission was observed only in mature DG neurons. Differential impairments in mature DG cells and adult-born new neurons may have implications for behavioral deficits associated with maternal immune activation. PMID:25449671

  14. Hemopoietic support capacity of adult mouse liver. Studies in 89Sr marrow-ablated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity of normal livers in adult mice to support proliferation of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) was studied. We assayed CFU-S of the blood and livers of mice with intact marrows and of mice whose marrows had been ablated with 89Sr (4 μCi/g) either before or after removal of their spleens, the major hemopoietic organ in marrow-ablated mice. Splenectomy alone resulted in an increase in the numbers of blood and hepatic CFU-S; since the spleen is an efficient trapper of CFU-S released from the marrow, in the splenectomized mice more CFU-S were available for trapping by the liver. Mice splenectomized 3 days prior to 89Sr injection had virtually no blood or liver CFU-S by the tenth day after 89Sr injection. Fourteen days after injection of 89Sr there were supranormal numbers of CFU-S in both blood and liver of intact mice. One week after such mice were splenectomized, however, CFU-S were virtually absent from both blood and liver. This study suggests that normal livers in adult mice cannot support detectable proliferation of normal CFU-S even if the animal is subjected to severe and relatively prolonged hemopoietic stress. In addition, the results of our studies demonstrate that normal livers of adult mice have the capacity to trap large numbers of CFU-S

  15. Female Mice are Resistant to Fabp1 Gene Ablation-Induced Alterations in Brain Endocannabinoid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Chung, Sarah; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K; Dangott, Lawrence J; Peng, Xiaoxue; Kaczocha, Martin; Murphy, Eric J; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2016-09-01

    Although liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) is not detectable in the brain, Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) markedly increases endocannabinoids (EC) in brains of male mice. Since the brain EC system of females differs significantly from that of males, it was important to determine if LKO differently impacted the brain EC system. LKO did not alter brain levels of arachidonic acid (ARA)-containing EC, i.e. arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but decreased non-ARA-containing N-acylethanolamides (OEA, PEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) that potentiate the actions of AEA and 2-AG. These changes in brain potentiating EC levels were not associated with: (1) a net decrease in levels of brain membrane proteins associated with fatty acid uptake and EC synthesis; (2) a net increase in brain protein levels of cytosolic EC chaperones and enzymes in EC degradation; or (3) increased brain protein levels of EC receptors (CB1, TRVP1). Instead, the reduced or opposite responsiveness of female brain EC levels to loss of FABP1 (LKO) correlated with intrinsically lower FABP1 level in livers of WT females than males. These data show that female mouse brain endocannabinoid levels were unchanged (AEA, 2-AG) or decreased (OEA, PEA, 2-OG) by complete loss of FABP1 (LKO). PMID:27450559

  16. Psoralen and Isopsoralen Ameliorate Sex Hormone Deficiency-Induced Osteoporosis in Female and Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaomei; Bi, Yanan; Yan, Zeman; Pu, Weiling; Li, Yuhong; Zhou, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, which is characterized by a systemic destruction of bone mass and microarchitecture. With life standard improved, the treatment of osteoporosis attracted more attention. The aim of this study is to verify the osteoprotective effect of psoralen and isopsoralen in females and males. Female and male mice were divided into 7 groups in this study: control group (sham-operation), model group (by ovariectomy or orchidectomy), positive control group (females given estradiol valerate; males given alendronate sodium), psoralen groups (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg), and isopsoralen groups (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg). After administration of psoralen and isopsoralen for 8 weeks, osteoporosis was ameliorated with increasing bone strength and improving trabecular bone microstructure as indicated by CT scan and pathology. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), osteocalcin (OC), and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-1) were examined. Decreased TRACP and increased ALP/TRACP suggested restoring from bone destruction. These results suggest that psoralen and isopsoralen may be used as good natural compounds for the treatment of osteoporosis in males, as well as females.

  17. Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160505.html Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, ... 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus kills neural stem cells in the brains ...

  18. Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 μg/m3), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 μg/m3), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. -- Highlights: ► The effects of nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. ► We investigated the effect of exposure to nanoparticles on

  19. Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin, E-mail: tin.tin.win.shwe@nies.go.jp [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16‐2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305‐8506 (Japan); Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro [Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16‐2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305‐8506 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 μg/m{sup 3}), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 μg/m{sup 3}), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. -- Highlights: ► The effects of nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. ► We investigated the effect of exposure to

  20. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmody J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John Carmody1, Raghunath P Misra1,2, Marlyn P Langford1, William A Byrd1, Lauren Ditta1, Bryan Vekovius1, Donald E Texada11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a "starry sky" appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients.Keywords: B-cells, Burkitt lymphoma, cancer, diabetes, eye, Epstein–Barr virus, orbit, tumor

  1. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  2. Endogenous CNTF mediates stroke-induced adult CNS neurogenesis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seong Su; Keasey, Matthew P.; Arnold, Sheila A.; Reid, Rollie; Geralds, Justin; Hagg, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Focal brain ischemia in adult rats rapidly and robustly induces neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) but there are few and inconsistent reports in mice, presenting a hurdle to genetically investigate the endogenous neurogenic regulators such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Here, we first provide a platform for further studies by showing that middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult male C57BL/6 mice robustly enhances neurogenesis in the SVZ only under very specific conditions...

  3. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Vanessa E; Melin, Travis E; Dessify, Brian J; Nguyen, Christina T; Shea, Caroline S; Hrubec, Terry C

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) are common ingredients in household bathroom and kitchen cleaning sprays. ADBAC+DDAC cause reproductive toxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate gender-specific reproductive effects from ADBAC+DDAC. Female reproduction was assessed through ovulation, oocyte implantation, and estrus cycling. Male reproductive function was assessed by sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Numbers of corpora lutea were not different after 2 weeks, but decreased after 8 weeks of ADBAC+DDAC exposure. Dams exposed for 5 weeks to ADBAC+DDAC spent significantly less time in estrus. ADBAC+DDAC exposed males exhibited declines in both sperm concentration and motility, but not sperm viability. Subfertility in mice from ADBAC+DDAC exposure is, therefore, mediated through reproductive disturbances in both females and males. While the effect of ADBAC+DDAC exposure on human health is unclear, widespread exposure necessitates further consideration of their potential reproductive toxicity. PMID:26582257

  4. Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Moxifloxacin on Female Mice and Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Roshdy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin (Avelox® is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity and bactericidal action. Moxifloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. The safe use of moxifloxacin in human pregnancy has not been established. In order to evaluate the genotoxic and embryo toxic effects of (Avelox® during pregnancy, Avelox was administrated orally to female mice with doses (8.7, 17 and 26 mg/kg/day from 1 to 17 days of pregnancy. Caesarean sections were completed on gestation day 18 and complete fetal examinations and cytogenetic analysis were conducted. Decreases in the fetal body weights and increases in the external visceral and skeletal anomalies were found in all doses of (8.7, 17 and 26 mg Avelox compared to the controls. Cytogenetic analysis in mothers and embryos revealed that all the tests doses produced chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MN formations in a dose dependent manner compared to the controls. These results indicate that Avelox has a maternal and embryotoxic effects on the female mice and their embryos when administered with a recommended and above the recommended dose during pregnancy.

  5. Liquid fructose in pregnancy exacerbates fructose-induced dyslipidemia in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Lourdes; Panadero, María I; Rodrigo, Silvia; Roglans, Núria; Otero, Paola; Álvarez-Millán, Juan J; Laguna, Juan C; Bocos, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and related events. Nevertheless, consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose is not regulated in gestation. Previously, we found that maternal fructose intake produces in the progeny, when fetuses, impaired leptin signaling and hepatic steatosis and then impaired insulin signaling and hypoadiponectinemia in adult male rats. Interestingly, adult females from fructose-fed mothers did not exhibit any of these disturbances. However, we think that, actually, these animals keep a programmed phenotype hidden. Fed 240-day-old female progeny from control, fructose- and glucose-fed mothers were subjected for 3weeks to a fructose supplementation period (10% wt/vol in drinking water). Fructose intake provoked elevations in insulinemia and adiponectinemia in the female progeny independently of their maternal diet. In accordance, the hepatic mRNA levels of several insulin-responsive genes were similarly affected in the progeny after fructose intake. Interestingly, adult progeny of fructose-fed mothers displayed, in response to the fructose feeding, augmented plasma triglyceride and NEFA levels and hepatic steatosis versus the other two groups. In agreement, the expression and activity for carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a lipogenic transcription factor, were higher after the fructose period in female descendants from fructose-fed mothers than in the other groups. Furthermore, liver fructokinase expression that has been indicated as one of those responsible for the deleterious effects of fructose ingestion was preferentially augmented in that group. Maternal fructose intake does influence the adult female offspring's response to liquid fructose and so exacerbates fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. PMID:27142744

  6. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:27228897

  7. Auto-mobilized adult hematopoietic stem cells advance neovasculature in diabetic retinopathy of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Bei; LI Xiao-xin; SHEN Li; ZHAO Min; YU Wen-zhen

    2010-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be used to deliver functionally active angiostatic molecules to the retinal vasculature by targeting active astrocytes and may be useful in targeting pre-angiogenic retinal lesions. We sought to determine whether HSC mobilization can ameliorate early diabetic retinopathy in mice.Methods Mice were devided into four groups: normal mice control group, normal mice HSC-mobilized group, diabetic mice control group and diabetic mice HSC mobilized group. Murine stem cell growth factor (murine SCF) and recombined human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-csf) were administered to the mice with diabetes and without diabetes for continuous 5 days to induce autologous HSCs mobilization, and subcutaneous injection of physiological saline was used as control. Immunohistochemical double staining was conducted with anti-mouse rat CD31 monoclonal antibody and anti-BrdU rat antibody.Results Marked HSCs clearly increased after SCF plus G-csf-mobilization. Non-mobilized diabetic mice showed more HSCs than normal mice (P=0.032), and peripheral blood significantly increased in both diabetic and normal mice (P=0.000).Diabetic mice showed more CD31 positive capillary vessels (P=0.000) and accelerated endothelial cell regeneration. Only diabetic HSC-mobilized mice expressed both BrdU and CD31 antigens in the endothelial cells of new capillaries.Conclusion Auto-mobilized adult hematopoietic stem cells advance neovasculature in diabetic retinopathy of mice.

  8. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. ...

  9. Loss of estrogen-related receptor alpha disrupts ventral-striatal synaptic function in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Cortés, Héctor; Lu, Yuan; Anderson, Rachel M; Khan, Michael Z; Nath, Varun; McDaniel, Latisha; Lutter, Michael; Radley, Jason J; Pieper, Andrew A; Cui, Huxing

    2016-08-01

    Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-ED, are mental illnesses characterized by high morbidity and mortality. While several studies have identified neural deficits in patients with EDs, the cellular and molecular basis of the underlying dysfunction has remained poorly understood. We previously identified a rare missense mutation in the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor alpha (ESRRA) associated with development of EDs. Because ventral-striatal signaling is related to the reward and motivation circuitry thought to underlie EDs, we performed functional and structural analysis of ventral-striatal synapses in Esrra-null mice. Esrra-null female, but not male, mice exhibit altered miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the ventral striatum, including increased frequency, increased amplitude, and decreased paired pulse ratio. These electrophysiological measures are associated with structural and molecular changes in synapses of MSNs in the ventral striatum, including fewer pre-synaptic glutamatergic vesicles and enhanced GluR1 function. Neuronal Esrra is thus required for maintaining normal synaptic function in the ventral striatum, which may offer mechanistic insights into the behavioral deficits observed in Esrra-null mice. PMID:27155145

  10. Chronic UVB-irradiation actuates perpetuated dermal matrix remodeling in female mice: Protective role of estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Katharina; Joosse, Simon Andreas; Müller, Julia; Heinisch, Nina; Fuchs, Nicola; Meusch, Michael; Zipper, Petra; Reifenberger, Julia; Pantel, Klaus; Fischer, Jens Walter

    2016-01-01

    Chronic UVB-exposure and declined estradiol production after menopause represent important factors leading to extrinsic and intrinsic aging, respectively. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in both responses. Whether the dermal ECM is able to recover after cessation of UVB-irradiation in dependence of estradiol is not known, however of relevance when regarding possible treatment options. Therefore, the endogenous sex hormone production was depleted by ovariectomy in female mice. Half of the mice received estradiol substitution. Mice were UVB-irradiated for 20 weeks and afterwards kept for 10 weeks without irradiation. The collagen-, hyaluronan- and proteoglycan- (versican, biglycan, lumican) matrix, collagen cleavage products and functional skin parameters were analyzed. The intrinsic aging process was characterized by increased collagen fragmentation and accumulation of biglycan. Chronic UVB-irradiation additionally augmented the lumican, versican and hyaluronan content of the dermis. In the absence of further UVB-irradiation the degradation of collagen and accumulation of biglycan in the extrinsically aged group was perpetuated in an excessive matter. Whereas estradiol increased the proteoglycan content, it reversed the effects of the perpetuated extrinsic response on collagen degradation. Suspension of the intrinsic pathway might therefore be sufficient to antagonize UVB-evoked long-term damage to the dermal ECM. PMID:27460287

  11. 9-cis -carotene Inhibits Atherosclerosis Development in Female LDLR-/- Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Zolberg Relevy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown that diets rich in carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, administration of synthetic all-trans -carotene was reported to have no effect on cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that the 9-cis -carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella bardawil inhibits atherogenesis and reduces plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels in mice. Context and purpose of this study: We sought to study whether isolated 9-cis -carotene inhibits atherogenesis in a murine model of atherosclerosis. Results: Twelve-week-old female LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLR-/- were pretreated for 2 weeks with regular chow diet fortified with the alga Dunaliella powder, 9-cis β-carotene isomer, all-trans β-carotene isomer, or 9-cis retinoic acid, followed by 10 weeks of a high-fat diet with the same fortifications. In contrast to Dunaliella, 9-cis β-carotene did not inhibit the high fat dietinduced elevation of plasma cholesterol. In addition, diet fortification with Dunaliella powder, β-carotene isomers, or 9-cis retinoic acid did not change the plasma retinol or retinoic acid levels.Nevertheless, 9-cis β-carotene significantly inhibited atherogenesis compared to the control mice (39% reduction. Conclusions: The results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene should be considered as an antiatherogenic agent in the human diet

  12. Cdc20 is critical for meiosis I and fertility of female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome missegregation in germ cells is an important cause of unexplained infertility, miscarriages, and congenital birth defects in humans. However, the molecular defects that lead to production of aneuploid gametes are largely unknown. Cdc20, the activating subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, initiates sister-chromatid separation by ordering the destruction of two key anaphase inhibitors, cyclin B1 and securin, at the transition from metaphase to anaphase. The physiological significance and full repertoire of functions of mammalian Cdc20 are unclear at present, mainly because of the essential nature of this protein in cell cycle progression. To bypass this problem we generated hypomorphic mice that express low amounts of Cdc20. These mice are healthy and have a normal lifespan, but females produce either no or very few offspring, despite normal folliculogenesis and fertilization rates. When mated with wild-type males, hypomorphic females yield nearly normal numbers of fertilized eggs, but as these embryos develop, they become malformed and rarely reach the blastocyst stage. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we uncover that the vast majority of these embryos have abnormal chromosome numbers, primarily due to chromosome lagging and chromosome misalignment during meiosis I in the oocyte. Furthermore, cyclin B1, cyclin A2, and securin are inefficiently degraded in metaphase I; and anaphase I onset is markedly delayed. These results demonstrate that the physiologically effective threshold level of Cdc20 is high for female meiosis I and identify Cdc20 hypomorphism as a mechanism for chromosome missegregation and formation of aneuploid gametes.

  13. The effects of paraquat on regional brain neurotransmitter activity, hippocampal BDNF and behavioural function in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litteljohn, Darcy; Nelson, Eric; Bethune, Cheri; Hayley, Shawn

    2011-09-20

    Accumulating evidence implicates pesticides such as paraquat in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, paraquat exposure is associated with an increased risk of PD and when administered to rodents the pesticide recapitulates many of the neuropathological and behavioural features of the disease. However, it is unclear whether any sexual dimorphism exists in the in vivo murine response to paraquat intoxication, since most studies have used exclusively males. Accordingly, we sought to determine the impact of repeated paraquat exposure on a range of neural and behavioural outcomes in female C57BL/6J mice. The present investigation revealed that the female mice were largely resistant to the paraquat-induced nigrostriatal dopamine changes and locomotor deficits that were reported previously in males. Similarly, in contrast to the reductions of hippocamapal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) previously reported in paraquat treated male mice, the herbicide actually increased levels of the trophic factor in females. Yet, similar to our previous findings in males, paraquat increased norepinephrine utilization within the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the female mice. However, these changes did not translate into anxiety- or- depression-like behaviours in the open field test, as the females actually seemed to show enhanced exploration. Consistent with reports of a greater incidence of PD in males, these data suggest that female mice may be less susceptible than males to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic and motor effects of environmental toxins. The augmented hippocampal BDNF and noradrenergic changes observed could conceivably act to buffer female mice against some of the deleterious behavioural effects of parquat. PMID:21835224

  14. Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Trunk in a Mildly Symptomatic Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fan-Ying Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, also known as Garland-Bland-White syndrome, is an extremely rare but potentially fatal congenital cardiovascular anomaly, and it often exists as an isolated condition. We hereby report an adult female who was admitted for mild chest discomfort and was accidentally diagnosed to have anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. This anomaly was simply repaired by using a bovine pericardial patch to obliterate the anomalous opening in the pulmonary trunk and a single coronary artery bypass graft. This report highlights the characteristic events of the anomaly in an adult with only mild symptoms.

  15. Long-term exercise modulates hippocampal gene expression in senescent female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-López, María Jesús; Castro-Freire, Marco; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Lalanza, Jaume F; Del Valle, Jaume; Párrizas, Marcelina; Camins, Antonio; Pallás, Merce; Escorihuela, Rosa María; Kaliman, Perla

    2013-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated SAMP8 mouse is considered a useful non-transgenic model for studying aspects of progressive cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using SAMR1 mice as controls, here we explored the effects of 6 months of voluntary wheel running in 10-month-old female SAMP8 mice. Exercise in SAMP8 mice improved phenotypic features associated with premature aging (i.e., skin color and body tremor) and enhanced vascularization and BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus compared with controls. With the aim of identifying genes involved in brain aging responsive to long-term exercise, we performed whole genome microarray studies in hippocampus from sedentary SAMP8 (P8sed), SAMR1 (R1sed), and exercised SAMP8 (P8run) mice. The genes differentially expressed in P8sed versus R1sed were considered as putative aging markers (i) and those differentially expressed in P8run versus P8sed were considered as genes modulated by exercise (ii). Genes differentially expressed in both comparisons (i and ii) were considered as putative aging genes responsive to physical exercise. We identified 34 genes which met both criteria. Gene ontology analysis revealed that they are mainly involved in functions related to extracellular matrix maintenance. Selected genes were validated by real-time quantitative PCR assays, i.e., collagen type 1 alpha 1 (col1a1), collagen type 1 alpha 2 (col1a2), fibromodulin (fmod), prostaglandin D(2) synthase (ptgds), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh1a2). As a whole, our study suggests that exercise training during adulthood may prevent or delay gene expression alterations and processes associated with hippocampal aging in at-risk subjects. PMID:23168450

  16. A selective TSH receptor antagonist inhibits stimulation of thyroid function in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Susanne; Nir, Eshel A; Eliseeva, Elena; Huang, Wenwei; Marugan, Juan; Xiao, Jingbo; Dulcey, Andrés E; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2014-01-01

    Because the TSH receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, a TSHR antagonist could be a novel treatment. We attempted to develop a small molecule, drug-like antagonist of TSHR signaling that is selective and active in vivo. We synthesized NCGC00242364 (ANTAG3) by chemical modification of a previously reported TSHR antagonist. We tested its potency, efficacy, and selectivity in a model cell system in vitro by measuring its activity to inhibit stimulation of cAMP production stimulated by TSH, LH, or FSH. We tested the in vivo activity of ANTAG3 by measuring its effects to lower serum free T4 and thyroid gene expression in female BALB/c mice continuously treated with ANTAG3 for 3 days and given low doses of TRH continuously or stimulated by a single administration of a monoclonal thyroid-stimulating antibody M22. ANTAG3 was selective for TSHR inhibition; half-maximal inhibitory doses were 2.1 μM for TSHR and greater than 30 μM for LH and FSH receptors. In mice treated with TRH, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 44% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 75% and 83%, respectively. In mice given M22, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 38% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 73% and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, we developed a selective TSHR antagonist that is effective in vivo in mice. This is the first report of a small-molecule TSHR antagonist active in vivo and may lead to a drug to treat Graves' disease. PMID:24169564

  17. Development and application of the Chinese adult female computational phantom Rad-HUMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad-HUMAN is a whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult woman which contains 46 organs and tissues and was created by MCAM6 software using the color photographs of the Chinese Visible Human dataset. This dataset was obtained from a 22-year old Chinese female cadaver judged to represent normal human anatomy as much as possible. The density and elemental composition recommended in the ICRP Publication 89 and in the ICRU report 44 were assigned to the organ and tissue in Rad-HUMAN for radiation protection purpose. The last step was to implement the anatomical data into a Monte Carlo code. Rad-HUMAN contains more than 28.8 billion tiny volume units, which produces an accurately whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult female

  18. A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Chuan Lai; Lombardo, Michael V.; Greg Pasco; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A; Bhismadev Chakrabarti; Simon Baron-Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (h...

  19. Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection Leading to Severe Aplastic Anemia in a Previously Healthy Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    Rajput, Rajesh; Sehgal, Ashish; Jain, Deepak; Sen, Rajeev; Gupta, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 has been linked to a variety of diseases. One of the most common complications is transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia. Very few case reports have implicated this virus as a putative etiology behind hepatitis and severe aplastic anemia in immuno competent individuals. We report a case of severe aplastic anemia in a previously healthy adult female due to acute parvovirus B19 infection. Laboratory examination showed pancytopenia in peripheral ...

  20. NO EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ESTROGEN RECEPTOR LIGANDS ON COGNITION IN ADULT FEMALE MONKEYS

    OpenAIRE

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Wilson, Mark E.; Herndon, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies in women and animal models suggest that estrogens affect cognitive function. Yet, the mechanisms by which estrogens may impact cognition remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of different estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on cognitive function in adult ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were tested for 6 weeks on a battery of memory and attentional tasks administered on a touchscreen: the object, face, and spatial versions of the Dela...

  1. UNILOCULAR OMENTAL CYST IN ADULT FEMALE PRESENTING AS HUGE ABDOMINAL LUMP: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himansu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omental cysts are rare entity with a prevalence of 1: 1,000,000 in adults and in 1: 20, 000 in children. We are reporting a case of a 30 year female patient with abdominal lump over epigastrium and left hypochondrium for 6 months; diagnosed on laparotomy as uniloculated omental cyst originating from lesser omentum. Omental cyst is a challenging diagnostic entity with varied presentations and a wide range of differential diagnosis has to be kept in mind.

  2. Patterns of coping preferences for male and female caregivers of frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, H M; Hamilton, D W; Lovett, S; Gallagher-Thompson, D

    1997-06-01

    The similarities and differences in male and female caregivers' preferred strategies for coping and the perceived helpfulness of these strategies in managing caregiving stressors were examined in this study. Respondents were 170 caregivers (139 women and 31 men) who were primary caregivers for an elderly adult relative who was either cognitively impaired or physically frail. Results provide preliminary evidence that gender is related to frequency of use but not to the perceived helpfulness of specific coping strategies. PMID:9189986

  3. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Feiou

    2015-01-01

    Linjie Yao,1 Xingqiao Xu,2 Zhenyu Ni,3 Minling Zheng,3 Feiou Lin3 1Department of Pedodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female p...

  4. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Linjie Yao,1 Xingqiao Xu,2 Zhenyu Ni,3 Minling Zheng,3 Feiou Lin3 1Department of Pedodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patients with respect to such treatment.Patients and methods: We conducted an explorative study using Q methodology among 40 adult female patients with different educational and social backgrounds in Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China. We asked participants to rank a set of 41 statements about seeking orthodontic treatment on an 11-point scale from “agree most” to “disagree most”. The collected data were analyzed using the PQ Method 2.35 program. We extracted significant viewpoints using centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation.Results: We identified major factors based on how the patients ranked statements. Patients in group 1 worried about lack of information about orthodontic treatment, and may have suffered from dental phobia; patients in group 2 were all single women, and they were worried that the braces might lower their chances of finding a partner; patients in group 3 worried about appearance and speech with braces; and patients in group 4 worried about cost, pain, and dental hygiene. The remaining participants who had other viewpoints did not load to any of these four groups.Conclusion: The concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. A significant feature of this study was using Q methodology to analyze the psychological characteristics of the patients. This study identified four typical characterizations that are associated with each group, and our findings may aid orthodontists in improving doctor

  5. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yao L; Xu X; Ni Z; Zheng M; Lin F

    2015-01-01

    Linjie Yao,1 Xingqiao Xu,2 Zhenyu Ni,3 Minling Zheng,3 Feiou Lin3 1Department of Pedodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patie...

  6. α-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice inhibits development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Soveg, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol blocks responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether α-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether α-tocopherol blocked development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with α-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to the allergen challenge, and α-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in eosinophils in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also a reduction in pup lung CD11b+ dendritic cell subsets that are critical to development of allergic responses, but there was no change in several CD11b− dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced the number of fetal liver CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero. In the pups, there was reduced allergen-induced lung mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-33, TSLP, CCL11, and CCL24. Cross-fostering pups at the time of birth demonstrated that α-tocopherol had a regulatory function in utero. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and reduced development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with α-tocopherol. PMID:25015974

  7. γ-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice augments development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Soveg, Frank; Cook-Mills, Joan M

    2016-04-15

    γ-Tocopherol increases responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether γ-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether γ-tocopherol augments development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with γ-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to allergen challenge. The γ-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice increased the numbers of eosinophils twofold in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also about a twofold increase in pup lung CD11b(+) subsets of CD11c(+) dendritic cells and in numbers of these dendritic cells expressing the transcription factor IRF4. There was no change in several CD11b(-) dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased the number of fetal liver CD11b(+)CD11c(+) dendritic cells twofold in utero. In the pups, γ-tocopherol increased lung expression of the inflammatory mediators CCL11, amphiregulin, activin A, and IL-5. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and increased development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with γ-tocopherol in prenatal vitamins. PMID:26801566

  8. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  9. Effect of Infection Duration on Habitat Selection and Morphology of Adult Echinostoma caproni (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in ICR Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Thomas R; Zelmer, Derek A

    2016-02-01

    The course of infection of Echinostoma caproni was followed in female ICR mice, a permissive laboratory host, from infection to natural termination. Twenty-one mice were infected with 20 metacercariae via oral intubation and housed 3 per cage. Three mice from a randomly selected cage were necropsied at 1 mo intervals. A second group of 15 mice was infected approximately 1 yr later to replace mice negative at necropsy in the first group. Mice in the second group were examined weekly for the presence of eggs in the feces. Mice negative for eggs on consecutive days were killed and necropsied. The location of individual worms and worm clusters were located in 20 segments of the small intestine. Adult worms were killed and fixed in hot formalin, stained, and prepared as whole mounts. Standard measurements were taken using a compound microscope fitted with an ocular micrometer. The infection spontaneously resolved in 10 mice from 7 to 32 wk PI, indicating the host response is highly variable and extending the maximum recorded length of E. caproni infections in ICR mice to 31 wk. A moribund worm was found in the feces of an animal that continued to pass eggs for an additional 2 mo indicating individual variation in worm responses. Worms located preferentially in the ileum (segments 11-13) during the first 3 mo of the infection but shifted to the jejunum (segments 8-9) during weeks 4-6. Morphologically, worms of different ages clustered together in multivariate space, with substantial overlap between the 3- and 4-mo-old infrapopulations and between the 5- and 6-mo-old infrapopulations. Muscular structures increased in size throughout the experiment, while the gonads increased in size for the first 3 mo and then declined during the last 3 mo. The relationship between E. caproni and ICR mice is more nuanced than previously reported. The reduction in gonad size and the shift from the ileum to the jejunum in the last 3 mo likely are related. These changes might be attributable

  10. Vocal patterns of adult females and juveniles Caiman yacare (Crocodilia: Alligatoridae in Brazilian Pantanal wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. Sicuro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paraguayan caiman (Caiman yacare is the main Caimaninae species occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland. Despite the relative availability of works focused on biology and conservation of the Paraguayan caiman, almost nothing is known about its vocal structure and behavior. We recorded aggressive calls of adult caiman females guarding nests and, afterwards, the distress calls of the new born juvenile caimans in seasonally flooded areas of the Nhecolândia (Southern Pantanal. The results of both observations and sonographic analyses diverged from studies with other crocodilian species. Aggressive vocalization of adult females of the Paraguayan caiman was longer and more complex than the same vocalization of larger Alligatoridae species. Vocalizations of the young caimans presented interspecific differences with other crocodilian offsprings. Moreover, we found statistically significant intraspecific variation in the distress call structure among different pods, even separated by few kilometers. Differences in distress call structure were tested by Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA. We obtained the squared Mahalanobis distances between the acoustic multivariate spaces of each pod provided by the CDA and compared with the geographic distance between the bays of origin of each pod through Mantel Test. The geographic distance by itself did not explain the differences found in the structure of the vocalization of young caimans from different pods. The adult females of Paraguayan caiman positively responded to playbacks of calls from juvenile caimans from pods of other regions, as well as to rough imitations of distress call. Since the adult caimans showed protective responses to quite heterogeneous vocalizations of distress by juveniles, we hypothesized that the variation in the distress call pattern may be associated to a low specificity in sound recognition by adult caimans.

  11. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was ≤ 1, ≤ 10, ∼ 25 and ∼ 40 μg/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were ≤ 1 μg/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: ► Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: ≤ 1, ≤ 10, 25 and 40 μg/dL ► Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased the number of TH

  12. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Hamilton, W. Ryan [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Jerry E. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Weimin [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Miller, Diane B.; O' Callaghan, James P. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-NIOSH, Morgantown, WV USA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  13. Abdominal obesity, independently from caloric intake, accounts for the development of intestinal tumors in Apc1638N/+ female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Derek M.; Augenlicht, Leonard H.; Zhang, Xueying; Lofrese, John J.; Atzmon, Gil; Chamberland, John P.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether visceral fat (VF), independent of other confounders, is causally linked to intestinal tumorigenesis, we surgically removed VF in Apc1638/N+ mice. At 15 wks of age, male and female Apc1638/N+ mice were randomized to one of three groups: sham operated (AL), VF removal (VF-), or sham operated and caloric restricted (CR), and were studied for effects on tumorigenesis and survival. As compared to AL, VF removal and CR reduced macroadenomas to a similar extent (P

  14. A Comparison of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Adipose Tissue from Weight-Matched Obese Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Nickelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of intra-abdominal adipose tissue and the accompanying inflammatory response has been put forward as a unifying link between obesity and the development of chronic diseases. However, an apparent sexual dimorphism exists between obesity and chronic disease risk due to differences in the distribution and abundance of adipose tissue. A range of experimental protocols have been employed to demonstrate the role of estrogen in regulating health benefits; however, most studies are confounded by significant differences in body weight and adiposity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare weight-matched obese male and female mice to determine if the sex-dependent health benefits remain when body weight is similar. The development of obesity in female mice receiving a high-fat diet was delayed; however, subsequent comparisons of weight-matched obese mice revealed greater adiposity in obese female mice. Despite excess adiposity and enlarged adipocyte size, obese females remained more glucose tolerant than weight-matched male mice, and this benefit was associated with increased expression of adiponectin and reductions in immune cell infiltration and oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Therefore, the protective benefits of estrogen persist in the obese state and appear to improve the metabolic phenotype of adipose tissue and the individual.

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Mianbu Mix-fang Is Effective in Treating Immunological Infertility: a Female Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王望九; 汤明礼; 李笑梅; 陈永华; 产美英; 胡德宝; 戴宁; 黄震; 孔梅

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the therapeutic effectivess of Traditional Chinese Medicinecompound mixture Mianbu Fang (Immunological infertility therapy) on immunologi-cal infertility caused by antisperm antibody (AsAb) in female mice.Materials & Methods Forty-two female Kunming mice were evenly divided into 7groups by weight. Group A was control group; Group B was model of infertility.Group C, D and E were fed with normal, half and double dosage of Mianbu Ⅰ respec-tively. Group F and G were fed with Mianbu Ⅱ and prednisone Acetates respectively.Animal model of immunological infertility were set up by injecting mice sperm to theother 36 Kunming female mice except Group A. The AsAb levels in serum, cervicalmucus were measured, the histological and immunohistochemistry changes in ovary andendometrium were observed, and the pregnancy indexes were compared in differentgroups.Results Compared with the infertility model group, the AsAb level in serum andcervical mucus in treatment group was lower. Less immune compounds in ovary andendometrium and atretic follicle of ovary was found in treatment group than in modeland control group. The immune compounds in ovary and endometrium were less in thetreatment group than that in the model and control group.Conclusion By regulating immunological system, Traditional Chinese Medicinecompound mixfang Mianbu Fang lowers AsAb in the circulation system and specialorgans, eliminates immunological compound, repairs tissue impairment and increases pregnancy of female mice.

  16. Sub-acute toxicity study in female ICR mice following repetitive intramuscular injection of cervical cancer vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Seol-Hee; Kim, Du-Yeol; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Hye-Yeong; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jaesung; Jung, Jiwon; Kim, Min-Ju; Choi, Kyoung-Baek; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Bong; Kim, Sujeong; Oh, Seung Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The sub-acute toxic effects following repetitive intramuscular injection of two cervical cancer vaccines newly developed against human papillomaviruse (HPV)16/58/18 and HPV16 were investigated in female ICR (CrljOri: CD1) mice, and the no-observedadverse- effect-level (NOAEL) of the cervical cancer vaccines was estimated. Methods Female ICR mice (n=15 in each group) were exposed to a 1:1 mixture of two cervical cancer vaccines by repetitive intramuscular injection (once a week, 5 t...

  17. High Dietary Fat Exacerbates Weight Gain and Obesity in Female Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Storey, Stephen M.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    Since liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates uptake/oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured transfected cells and primary hepatocytes, loss of L-FABP was expected to exacerbate weight gain and/or obesity in response to high dietary fat. Male and female wild-type (WT) and L-FABP gene-ablated mice, pair-fed a defined isocaloric control or high fat diet for 12 weeks, consumed equal amounts of food by weight and kcal. Male WT mice gained weight faster than their female WT c...

  18. Female mice target deleted for the neuromedin B receptor have partial resistance to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Gabriela Silva Monteiro; Souza, Luana Lopes; Cabanelas, Adriana; Bloise, Flavia Fonseca; Mello-Coelho, Valéria; Wada, Etsuko; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania Maria; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have proposed a role for neuromedin B (NB), a bombesin-like peptide, in the control of body weight homeostasis. However, the nature of this role is unclear. The actions of NB are mediated preferentially by NB-preferring receptors (NBRs). Here we examined the consequences of targeted deletion of NBRs in female mice on body weight homeostasis in mice fed a normolipid diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 13 weeks. Body weight and food ingestion of neuromedin B receptor knockout (NBR-KO) mice fed a normolipid diet showed no difference in relation to wild-type (WT). However, the high-fat diet induced an 8.9- and 4.8-fold increase in body weight of WT and NBR-KO, respectively, compared to their controls maintained with a normolipid diet, even though the mice ingested the same amount of calories, regardless of genotype. Comparing mice fed the high-fat diet, NBR-KO mice accumulated approximately 45% less fat depot mass than WT, exhibited a lower percentage of fat in their carcasses (19.2 vs. 31.3%), and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied. Serum leptin and leptin mRNA in inguinal and perigonadal fat were lower in HFD NBR-KO than HFD WT, and serum adiponectin was similar among HFD groups and unaltered in comparison to ND-fed mice. HFD-fed WT mice developed glucose intolerance but not the HFD-fed NBR-KO mice, although they had similar glycaemia and insulinaemia. NBR-KO and WT mice on the normolipid diet showed no differences in any parameters, except for a trend to lower insulin levels. Therefore, disruption of the neuromedin B receptor pathway did not change body weight homeostasis in female mice fed a normolipid diet; however, it did result in partial resistance to diet-induced obesity. PMID:20211980

  19. Cannabidiol Prevents the Development of Cold and Mechanical Allodynia in Paclitaxel-Treated Female C57Bl6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Sara Jane; Ramirez, Michael David; Neelakantan, Harshini; Walker, Ellen Ann

    2011-01-01

    The taxane chemotherapeutic paclitaxel frequently produces peripheral neuropathy in humans. Rodent models to investigate mechanisms and treatments are largely restricted to male rats, whereas female mouse studies are lacking. We characterized a range of paclitaxel doses on cold and mechanical allodynia in male and female C57Bl/6 mice. Because the nonpsycho-active phytocannabinoid cannabidiol attenuates other forms of neuropathic pain, we assessed its effect on paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Pa...

  20. CpG Improves Influenza Vaccine Efficacy in Young Adult but Not Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Co, Mary; Mathew, Anuja

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced efficacy of influenza vaccines in the elderly compared to young adults. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a commercially available inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) in young adult and aged mice. C57/BL6 mice were administered a single or double immunization of Fluzone® with or without CpG and challenged intranasally with H1N1 A/California/09 virus. A double immunization of Fluzone® adjuvanted with CpG elicited the highest level of protection in young adult mice which was associated with increases in influenza specific IgG, elevated HAI titres, reduced viral titres and lung inflammation. In contrast, the vaccine schedule which provided fully protective immunity in young adult mice conferred limited protection in aged mice. Antigen presenting cells from aged mice were found to be less responsive to in vitro stimulation by Fluzone and CpG which may partially explain this result. Our data are supportive of studies that have shown limited effectiveness of influenza vaccines in the elderly and provide important information relevant to the design of more immunogenic vaccines in this age group. PMID:26934728

  1. Adult hematopoietic progenitors are pluripotent in chimeric mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pessac, Bernard; K. Nimmagadda, Vamshi; Makar, Tapas; S. Fishman, Paul; T. Bever Jr., Christopher; Trisler, David

    2012-01-01

    18 pages, 7 figures. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult somatic cells, induced to pluripotency (iPSCs) by genetic manipulation, display high self-­‐renewal potential and the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. We asked whether there are in adult mammals natural stem cells that are pluripotent. We previously reported that normal adult mammalian bone marrow contains a sub-­‐population of CD34+ cells, that naturally expresses genes characteristic of ESCs and those requir...

  2. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and the pesticide chlorpyrifos modulate attention, motivation and impulsivity in female mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Reverte, Ingrid; Basaure, Pia; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate pesticides - and chlorpyrifos (CPF) in particular - contribute to a wide range of neurobehavioural disorders. Most experimental research focuses on learning and memory processes, while other behaviours remain understudied. The isoforms of the human apolipoprotein E (apoE) confer different cognitive skills on their carriers, but data on this topic are still limited. The current study was performed to assess whether the APOE genotypic variability differently modulates the effects of CPF on attentional performance, inhibitory control and motivation. Human apoE targeted replacement adult female mice (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) were trained to stably perform the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Animals were then subjected to daily dietary CPF (3.75 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. After CPF exposure, we established a 4-week CPF-free period to assess recovery. All individuals acquired the task, apoE2 mice showed enhanced learning, while apoE4 mice displayed increased premature and perseverative responding. This genotype-dependent lack of inhibitory control was reversed by CPF. Overall, the pesticide induced protracted impairments in sustained attention and motivation, and it reduced anticipatory responding. ApoE3 mice exhibited delayed attentional disruptions throughout the wash-out period. Taken together, these findings provide notable evidence on the emergence of CPF-related attentional and motivational deficits. PMID:27106138

  3. A light- and electron microscopic analysis of meiotic prophase in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, A J; Mulder, R J

    1983-01-01

    In the paper we describe meiotic prophase of female mice on successive days of embryonic and early postnatal development. For this purpose we used three different techniques on ovarian material, i.e., Giemsa staining for the light microscopic study of chromatin, silver staining for the light microscopic study of the synaptonemal complex (SC), and agar filtration followed by uranyl acetate staining for the electron microscopic study of the SC. In all types of preparation it was impossible to distinguish leptotene stages, and we conclude that if leptotene really exists, it is of very short duration.--Two types of zygotene stages were found: the "normal" one, resembling zygotene stages in male mice, and a second type that has never been described in males and is characterized by, probably stable, unpaired regions together with totally unpaired axial elements of the SC.--The duration of pachytene was found to be 3-4 days, which is considerably shorter than in males. During early diplotene despiralization of the chromatin and disintegration of the axes of the SC were usually found together with desynapsis.--A considerable variation in distribution of meiotic stages was found between different litters in the same day of gestation. Fetuses in the same litter showed no significant variation. However, the oocytes in an ovary did not pass through meiosis synchronously, with differences up several days. The appearance of chromosomes in a highly contracted state could not be interpreted as a preleptotene condensation stage but probably is a mitotic phenomenon. PMID:6197255

  4. Comparison of Anxiolytic Effect of Matricaria Recutita in Male and Female Mice in the Presence and Absence of Gonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmehdi Rad Goli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies indicated that the chamomile induces sedative and anxiolytic effects. It has been shown that this herbal drug contains some phytoestrogenic components. Concerning the different effects of sexual hormones on various physiological phenomena such as anxiety, it seems this herb has different effects on anxiety in males and females. So in this study we examined anxiolytic property of Iranian spicious of chamomile, Matricaria recutita (MR hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of sexual glands in male and female animal models. Materials and Methods: This animal study was done in Shahid Chamran University in 2006. NMRI male and female mice were divided in 16 groups of seven mices including: intact, sham, gonadectomized, receiving hydroalcholic extract of MR (10, 30, 50 mg/kg, ip. Elevated plus maze was used to evaluate anxiety and locomotive activity in all groups. Statistical evaluation of data was performed using Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA with one factor followed by Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: MR induced anxiolytic effect (10, 30 mg/kg in intact (P<0.05 and gonadectomized male mice (P<0.05 while did not significant any effect on intact and gonadectomized females. Testectomized mice were more anxious than sham group (P<0.05. Ovariectomized mice had no difference in level of anxiety with sham group. MR had no effect on locomotive activity in male mice but decreased it in females only in dose of 50 mg/kg (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that the anxiolytic effect of MR is sex dependent and probably this different effect in two sexes is related to its phytoestrogenic components

  5. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  6. Exposure to repeated maternal aggression induces depressive-like behavior and increases startle in adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2011-01-01

    The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adult female rats. Adult (pos...

  7. Knowledge about mammography and associated factors: population surveys with female adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge about mammography and to identify associated factors in female adults and elderly. Data were obtained from two population surveys, one with female adults and another with elderly women from Florianópolis (SC in 2009 - 2010. A descriptive analysis of the variables was carried out, the appropriate mean of responses about mammography was estimated and crude and adjusted Poisson regression was conducted to identify associated factors. Among adults, 23.1% answered all of the questions appropriately and the appropriate average responses was 7.2 (95%CI 7.1 - 7.3 in a total of 9. In the adjusted model, older age, higher education and income were associated with knowledge about mammography. For the elderly, 15.3% answered all questions appropriately and the average of appropriate responses was 6.4 (95%CI 5.2 - 6.5 and the factors associated with knowledge about mammography in the adjusted model were younger age groups, increased education and income, and identification of mammography as the main diagnostic method for breast cancer. Information about mammography can neither be transmitted in a clear way nor be easily understood; there are also demographic and socioeconomic differences concerning the knowledge about the exam.

  8. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  9. GONADAL EFFECTS OF FETAL EXPOSURE TO THE AZO DYE CONGO RED IN MICE: INFERTILITY IN FEMALE BUT NOT MALE OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the relationship between gonadal genesis and fertility in male and female mice exposed in utero to the diazo dye Congo red (CR). aternal CR treatment inhibited testicular and ovarian function in the offspring after oral administration of I or 0.5 g/kg/...

  10. EAAC1 Gene Deletion Increases Neuronal Death and Blood Brain Barrier Disruption after Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Female Mice

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    Bo Young Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EAAC1 is important in modulating brain ischemic tolerance. Mice lacking EAAC1 exhibit increased susceptibility to neuronal oxidative stress in mice after transient cerebral ischemia. EAAC1 was first described as a glutamate transporter but later recognized to also function as a cysteine transporter in neurons. EAAC1-mediated transport of cysteine into neurons contributes to neuronal antioxidant function by providing cysteine substrates for glutathione synthesis. Here we evaluated the effects of EAAC1 gene deletion on hippocampal blood vessel disorganization after transient cerebral ischemia. EAAC1−/− female mice subjected to transient cerebral ischemia by common carotid artery occlusion for 30 min exhibited twice as much hippocampal neuronal death compared to wild-type female mice as well as increased reduction of neuronal glutathione, blood–brain barrier (BBB disruption and vessel disorganization. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl cysteine, a membrane-permeant cysteine prodrug, increased basal glutathione levels in the EAAC1−/− female mice and reduced ischemic neuronal death, BBB disruption and vessel disorganization. These findings suggest that cysteine uptake by EAAC1 is important for neuronal antioxidant function under ischemic conditions.

  11. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  12. A mineral-rich extract from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum preserves bone structure and function in female mice on a Western-style diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT. PMID:20180099

  13. A Mineral-Rich Extract from the Red Marine Algae Lithothamnion calcareum Preserves Bone Structure and Function in Female Mice on a Western-Style Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT. PMID:20180099

  14. Mechanism of infectivity of a murine leukemia virus in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection of adult BALB/c mice with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) induces typical thymic lymphomas. Expression of virus was measured by using a radioimmunoassay for murine P-30, a virion core protein. Nineteen days after injection of MuLV-S into adult mice, there were 0.3μg P-30/ml of serum. X-irradiation permitted the early expression of high levels of viremia, when given before or after MuLV-S administration, and it also hastened the development of lymphomas. Seventeen to 21 days after injection of MuLV-S into x-irradiated (600 rads) adult mice, there were 2.7 μg of P-30/ml of serum. The virus produced by infected adult mice was infectious and oncogenic when given to newborn mice. Several lines of evidence are presented that suggest the mechanism by which x-irradiation permits early expession of virion proteins and lymphomas is not immunosuppression

  15. Effect of pregnancy on the disposition of 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) atropisomers and their hydroxylated metabolites in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Barnhart, Christopher D; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-09-21

    Chiral PCBs, such as PCB 95, are developmental neurotoxicants that undergo atropisomeric enrichment in nonpregnant adult mice. Because pregnancy is associated with changes in hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme activity as well as lipid disposition and metabolism, this study investigates the effect of pregnancy on the maternal disposition of chiral PCBs. Female C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks old) were dosed daily beginning 2 weeks prior to conception and continuing throughout gestation and lactation (56 days total) with racemic PCB 95 (0, 0.1, 1.0, or 6.0 mg/kg body wt/day) in peanut butter. Levels and chiral signatures of PCB 95 and its hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) were determined in adipose, blood, brain, and liver. Tissue levels of PCB 95 increased 4- to 12-fold with increasing dose, with considerable enrichment of the second eluting atropisomer in all tissues (EF range 0.11 to 0.26). OH-PCBs displayed atropisomeric enrichment in blood and liver but were not detected in adipose and brain. Levels of PCB 95 and its metabolites were 2- to 11-fold lower in pregnant dams relative to those previously reported in nonpregnant age-matched female mice; however, PCB 95 and OH-PCB profiles and chiral signatures were similar between both studies. In contrast, human brain samples contained racemic PCB 95 residues (EF = 0.50). These results demonstrate that changes in cytochrome P450 enzyme activity and lipid disposition during pregnancy reduce the PCB body burden in dams but do not affect metabolite profiles or chiral signatures. The differences in chiral signatures between mice and humans suggest species-specific differences in atropisomeric disposition, the toxicological significance of which remains to be determined. PMID:26271003

  16. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  17. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  18. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  19. Spatial learning of female mice: a role of the mineralocorticoid receptor during stress and the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P Ter Horst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corticosterone facilitates behavioral adaptation to a novel experience in a coordinate manner via mineralocorticoid (MR and glucocorticoid receptors (GR. Initially, MR mediates corticosterone action on appraisal processes, risk assessment and behavioral flexibility and then, GR activation promotes consolidation of the new information into memory. Here, we studied on the circular holeboard (CHB the spatial performance of female mice with genetic deletion of MR from the forebrain (MRCaMKCre and their wild type littermates (MRflox/flox mice over the estrous cycle and in response to an acute stressor. The estrous cycle had no effect on the spatial performance of MRflox/flox mice and neither did the acute stressor. However, the MRCaMKCre mutants needed significantly more time to find the exit and made more hole visit errors than the MRflox/flox mice, especially when in proestrus and estrus. In addition, stressed MRCaMKCre mice in estrus had a shorter exit latency than the control estrus MRCaMKCre mice. About 70% of the female MRCaMKCre and MRflox/flox mice used a hippocampal (spatial, extra maze cues rather than the caudate nucleus (stimulate-response, S-R, intra-maze cue strategy and this preference did neither change over the estrous cycle nor after stress. However, stressed MRCaMKCre mice using the S-R strategy needed significantly more time to find the exit hole as compared to the spatial strategy using mice suggesting that the MR could be needed for the stress-induced strategy switch towards a spatial strategy. In conclusion, the results suggest that loss of MR interferes with performance of a spatial task especially when estrogen levels are high suggesting a strong interaction between stress and sex hormones.

  20. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  1. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  2. Equine Assisted Therapy and Changes in Gait for a Young Adult Female with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Coffey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of equine assisted therapy on selected gait parameters in a person with Down syndrome. One female participant with Down syndrome completed two therapeutic horseback riding programs, each consisting of six riding sessions. Specific gait characteristics were analyzed with a trend analysis of the data by examining the means of the different variables. The trend analysis revealed a difference in stride length as well as hip and knee angle. These results indicate that over the course of the two therapeutic horseback riding programs, changes in gait occurred. Therefore, therapeutic horseback riding may have the potential to benefit gait characteristics and stability in young adult females with Down syndrome; however, further research is warranted.

  3. COMPONENTS OF THE HEALTHY EATING INDEX IN NUTRITION OF ADULT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess and monitor the nutriton and dietary status, the U.S. Department of Agriculture developed the Healthy Eating Index - HEI. The index consists of 10 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutrition in adult females and to analyze the actual nutrition according to selected four components (no. 6-9 of the Healthy Eating Index. Components 6 and 7 measure total fat and saturated fat consumption, respectively, as a percentage of total food intake (maximal 30 % and 10 % of total energy daily content respectively; in case of 31,3 % and 58,62 % females respectively. Components 8 and 9 measure total cholesterol (daily maximal 300 mg in case of 69,54 % participants and sodium intake (maximal 2400 mg a day in case of 22,99 % probands. doi:10.5219/106

  4. Genotoxicity of malachite green and leucomalachite green in female Big Blue B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Roberta A; Mei, Nan; Webb, Peggy J; Shaddock, Joseph G; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; McGarrity, Lynda J; Morris, Suzanne M; Chen, Tao; Beland, Frederick A; Greenlees, Kevin J; Heflich, Robert H

    2004-07-11

    Malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye used in aquaculture as an antifungal agent, is rapidly reduced in vivo to leucomalachite green. Previous studies in which female B6C3F1 mice were fed malachite green produced relatively high levels of liver DNA adducts after 28 days, but no significant induction of liver tumors was detected in a 2-year feeding study. Comparable experiments conducted with leucomalachite green resulted in relatively low levels of liver DNA adducts but a dose-responsive induction of liver tumors. In the present study, we fed transgenic female Big Blue B6C3F1 mice with 450 ppm malachite green and 204 and 408 ppm leucomalachite green (the high doses used in the tumor bioassays) and evaluated genotoxicity after 4 and 16 weeks of treatment. Neither malachite green nor leucomalachite green increased the peripheral blood micronucleus frequency or Hprt lymphocyte mutant frequency at either time point; however, the 16-week treatment with 408 ppm leucomalachite green did increase the liver cII mutant frequency. Similar increases in liver cII mutant frequency were not seen in the mice treated for 16 weeks with malachite green or in female Big Blue rats treated with a comparable dose of leucomalachite green for 16 weeks in a previous study [Mutat. Res. 547 (2004) 5]. These results indicate that leucomalachite green is an in vivo mutagen in transgenic female mouse liver and that the mutagenicities of malachite green and leucomalachite green correlate with their tumorigenicities in mice and rats. The lack of increased micronucleus frequencies and lymphocyte Hprt mutants in female mice treated with leucomalachite green suggests that its genotoxicity is targeted to the tissue at risk for tumor induction. PMID:15238237

  5. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  6. Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Vera, Elsa; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Tejera, Agueda M.; Ayuso, Eduard; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year old mice with an adeno associated virus (AAV) of wide tropism expressing mouse TERT had remarkable beneficial effects on health and fitness,...

  7. The Experience of Resilience for Adult Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Phenomenological Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C

    2016-06-01

    While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention. PMID:26567293

  8. Effect of chronic social defeat stress on behaviors and dopamine receptor in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Xu, Yu-Ming; Li, Hao; Lv, Lu-Xian

    2016-04-01

    Victims of bullying often undergo depression, low self-esteem, high anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The social defeat model has become widely accepted for studying experimental animal behavior changes associated with bullying; however, differences in the effects in susceptible and unsusceptible individuals have not been well studied. The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on behavior and the expression of dopamine receptors D1 and D2 in the brains of adult mice. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10days of social defeat stress. Behavioral tests were conducted, and protein levels in the brains were assessed by Western blotting. The results indicate that all mice undergo decreased locomotion and increased anxiety behavior. However, decreased social interaction and impaired memory performance were only observed in susceptible mice. A significantly decreased expression of D1 was observed in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of susceptible mice only. No significant differences in D2 expression were shown between control and defeated mice in any area studied. These data indicate that depression-like behavior and cognition impairment caused by social defeat stress in susceptible mice may be related to changes in the dopamine receptor D1. PMID:26655446

  9. Early postnatal motor experience shapes the motor properties of C57BL/6J adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Nadjet; Picquet, Florence; Jamon, Marc

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term consequences of early motor training on the muscle phenotype and motor output of middle-aged C57BL/6J mice. Neonatal mice were subjected to a variety of motor training procedures, for 3 weeks during the period of acquisition of locomotion. These procedures are widely used for motor training in adults; they include enriched environment, forced treadmill, chronic centrifugation, and hindlimb suspension. At 9 months, the mice reared in the enriched environment showed a slower type of fibre in slow muscles and a faster type in fast muscles, improved performance in motor tests, and a modified gait and body posture while walking. The proportion of fibres in the postural muscles of centrifuged mice did not change, but these mice showed improved resistance to fatigue. The suspended mice showed increased persistence of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis, with a slower shift in the load-bearing soleus, without any behavioural changes. The forced treadmill was very stressful for the mice, but had limited effects on motor output, although a slower profile was observed in the tibialis. These results support the hypothesis that motor experience during a critical period of motor development shapes muscle phenotype and motor output. The different impacts of the various training procedures suggest that motor performance in adults can be optimized by appropriate training during a defined period of motor development. PMID:23869740

  10. The sensitivity of female NMRI mice of different ages for osteosarcoma induction with 227thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of age on osteosarcoma induction after incorporation of the short-lived alpha-emitter 227Th was studied in 12 month old and young (1 month and 3 month old) female NMRI mice. Injection of 1 μCi/kg 227Th in 1 month or 12 month old mice induced osteosarcomas with a similar incidence in both groups (21% and 16%, maximum corrected cumulative incidence 32% and 43%). The osteosarcoma appearance time in the older animals was shorter and there was no significant difference in the age at appearance of osteosarcomas in the two groups. After injection of 5 μCi/kg 227Th the maximum corrected cumulative osteosarcoma incidence was considerably lower in the older group (10%) than in the younger group (61%) despite the fact that there were 32 survivors in the older group at the time of appearance of the last osteosarcoma. Incorporation of 2x1 μCi/kg 227Th at the age of 12 months and 14 months or 3 months and 5 months induced osteosarcoma with a similar maximum corrected cumulative osteosarcoma incidence (62% and 68% respectively). The mean osteosarcoma appearance time after the first incorporation was shorter in the older age group than in the younger age group but osteosarcomas still appeared overall at a younger age in the younger age group. The mean osteosarcoma appearance time after the first incorporation following fractionation of the internal irradiation period, by injection of 1 μCi/kg at the age of 3 months and 12 months, was significantly longer than in either the 3-months/5-months group or the 12-months /14-months group. (orig.)

  11. Estrogenic Effect of Orthopedic DDT on the Female Genital Organs of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raifa F. El Garieb

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide DDT (an organochlorine compound has been used excessively and widely all over the world. It was shown that orthopedic DDT (o-p'-DDT a major constituent of technical grade preparation of the pesticide- DDT exhibited estrogenic activity in several animals species (Welch et al., 1969 and Bitman et al., 1968. The aim of this work is to study the estrogenic effects of o-p'-DDT on the female reproductive organs (ovary, uterus and vagina of mice in its neonatal period. In this study fifty of newly-born female mice were used and divided into five groups; three groups of them were received ten intraperitoneal injections of o-p'- DDT in doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/injection. The study included two control groups, the first one was injected with 10 ugm estrogen for 10 injections and considered as positive control, while the second group injected with sesame oil only. The animals were scarified 2 days after the last injection. Paraffin and frozen sections were prepared for both histological and histochemical studies. Different staining techniques were used including Hx., E., modified gomori stain for alkaline phosphatase enzyme, methyl green pyronin for RNA and PAS stain for glycogen content. The results showed a distinct increase in number and size of ovarian growing follicles in those animals treated with o-p'-DDT, also, increased activity of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme, as well as increased content of RNA and glycogen was noticed. The effect of o-p'-DDT on the uterine structure were in the form of hypertrophy of the endometrial epithelium, also increase in number of uterine glands. Marked increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase enzyme and also in RNA content as well as glycogen deposition. It was noticed also that high dose of o-p'-DDT leads to accelerated development of the vaginal epithelium with evidence of keratinization. The histochemical changes in the vagina were similar to those obtained in the uterus. It can be finally

  12. A selfish genetic element influencing longevity correlates with reactive behavioural traits in female house mice (Mus domesticus.

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    Yannick Auclair

    Full Text Available According to theory in life-history and animal personality, individuals with high fitness expectations should be risk-averse, while individuals with low fitness expectations should be more bold. In female house mice, a selfish genetic element, the t haplotype, is associated with increased longevity under natural conditions, representing an appropriate case study to investigate this recent theory empirically. Following theory, females heterozygous for the t haplotype (+/t are hypothesised to express more reactive personality traits and be more shy, less explorative and less active compared to the shorter-lived homozygous wildtype females (+/+. As males of different haplotype do not differ in survival, no similar pattern is expected. We tested these predictions by quantifying boldness, exploration, activity, and energetic intake in both +/t and +/+ mice. +/t females, unlike +/+ ones, expressed some reactive-like personality traits: +/t females were less active, less prone to form an exploratory routine and tended to ingest less food. Taken together these results suggest that differences in animal personality may contribute to the survival advantage observed in +/t females but fail to provide full empirical support for recent theory.

  13. Drebrin A regulates hippocampal LTP and hippocampus-dependent fear learning in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, N; Yasuda, H; Hanamura, K; Ishizuka, Y; Sekino, Y; Shirao, T

    2016-06-01

    Structural plasticity of dendritic spines, which underlies higher brain functions including learning and memory, is dynamically regulated by the actin cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Drebrin A is an F-actin-binding protein preferentially expressed in the brain and localized in the dendritic spines of mature neurons. Isoform conversion from drebrin E to drebrin A and accumulation of the latter in dendritic spines occurs during synapse maturation. We have previously demonstrated that drebrin A plays a pivotal role in spine morphogenesis and plasticity. However, it is unclear whether drebrin A plays a specific role in processes required for structural plasticity, and whether drebrin E can substitute in this role. To answer these questions, we analyzed mutant mice (named DAKO mice), in which isoform conversion from drebrin E to drebrin A is disrupted. In DAKO mouse brain, drebrin E continues to be expressed throughout life instead of drebrin A. Electrophysiological studies using hippocampal slices revealed that long-term potentiation of CA1 synapses was impaired in adult DAKO mice, but not in adolescents. In parallel with this age-dependent impairment, DAKO mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent fear learning in an age-dependent manner; the impairment was evident in adult mice, but not in adolescents. In addition, histological investigation revealed that the spine length of the apical dendrite of CA1 pyramidal cells was significantly longer in adult DAKO mice than in wild-type mice. Our data indicate that the roles of drebrin E and drebrin A in brain function are different from each other, that the isoform conversion of drebrin is critical, and that drebrin A is indispensable for normal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent fear memory in the adult brain. PMID:26970584

  14. Allogenic inhibition of the stem hemopoietic cells in the bone marrow and embryonic liver in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maternal effect was shown to influence the degree of allogenic inhibition of stem hemopoietic cells of the embryonic liver and adult bone marrow in CBA and C57Bl/6 mice. The display of allogenic inhibition of stem cells of the embryonic liver and adult bone marrow proved to be similar in C57Bl/6 mice and dissimilar in CBA

  15. Adolescent and adult responsiveness to the incentive value of cocaine reward in mice: role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balda, Mara A; Anderson, Karen L; Itzhak, Yossef

    2006-08-01

    A major concern in adolescent psychostimulant abuse is the long-term consequence of this practice, because early drug exposure may cause long-term adaptations, which render the organism more susceptible to drug abuse later in life. The incentive value of drug and natural reward in rodents is commonly assessed by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, which involves Pavlovian learning. The aims of the present study were to investigate: a) the acquisition, expression, maintenance and reinstatement of cocaine CPP from periadolescence (PD24-45) through adulthood (PD70); b) potential sexual dimorphism in adolescence and adulthood in response to cocaine-induced CPP; and c) the role of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene in long-term neural plasticity underlying responsiveness to cocaine and cocaine-associated cues. Adolescent wild type (WT) mice acquired significant cocaine (20 mg/kg) CPP that was maintained from PD24 through PD43. Upon extinction, CPP was reinstated in adulthood (PD70) following a priming injection of cocaine (5 mg/kg). In contrast, cocaine CPP acquired between PD26 and PD31 in adolescent nNOS knockout (KO) mice, was neither maintained nor reinstated by cocaine. There was no sexual dimorphism in adolescent WT and KO mice. Genotype differences and sexual dimorphism were observed in adult mice. Cocaine CPP in adult WT males (PD89-94) was maintained for 4 weeks post training, and subsequently reinstated by cocaine priming; the magnitude of CPP in adult WT males was lower than in female counterparts. CPP in adult KO males (PD88-93) was neither maintained nor reinstated by cocaine priming; in contrast, CPP in adult KO females was not significantly different from adult WT females. Results suggest that the nNOS gene is essential during adolescence of both sexes for the development of long-term neural plasticity underlying responsiveness to the incentive value of cocaine reward. Sexual dimorphism in response to cocaine CPP emerges in

  16. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression. PMID:26789010

  17. Maternal preconceptional nutrition leads to variable fat deposition and gut dimensions of adult offspring mice (C57BL/6JBom)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Elna Louise Krogh; Wang, Tobias; Malte, H.; Raubenheimer, D; Mayntz, David

    2010-01-01

    Background:   Maternal nutrition during pregnancy or lactation may affect the chance of offspring becoming obese as adults, but little is known regarding the possible role of maternal nutrition before conception. In this study, we investigate how variable protein and carbohydrate content of the...... taken. Results:   Fat deposition of the offspring was significantly affected by preconceptional maternal nutrition and the effects differed between sexes. Male offspring deposited most fat when mothers were fed the LP diet, whereas female offspring deposited most fat when mothers were fed the ST diet....... The mass and length of the digestive organs were affected by preconceptional maternal nutrition. Total gut from pyloric sphincter to anus was significantly shorter and dry mass was heavier in mice whose mothers were fed LP diets compared with offspring of mothers fed ST diets or HP diets. There was no...

  18. Chronic Sleep Fragmentation Promotes Obesity in Young Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Carreras, Alba; Lee, Seunghoon; Hakim, Fahed; Zhang, Shelley X.; Nair, Deepti; Ye, Honggang; Gozal, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Short sleep confers a higher risk of obesity in humans. Restricted sleep increases appetite, promotes higher calorie intake from fat and carbohydrate sources, and induces insulin resistance. However, the effects of fragmented sleep (SF), such as occurs in sleep apnea, on body weight, metabolic rates, and adipose tissue distribution are unknown. Design and Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SF for 8 weeks. Their body weight, food consumption, and metabolic expenditure were monitor...

  19. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on spermatogenesis in adult albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spermatogenesis in male albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy University of Health Sciences, Lahore from Apr, 2012 to Dec, 2012. Material and Methods: Thirty nine male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 - 5 gm, were used; these were randomly divided into three groups having thirteen mice in each using random numbers table. Group A served as a control and was given distilled water orally via oral gavage 10 ml per kg for 30 days. Group B was given acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/kg dissolved in 10 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Group C was given acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg/kg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose and the testes were removed, fixed in Bouin's fixative for 48 hours. Five microns thick sections of processed tissue were stained with H and E and PAS for calculation of Johnsen score and diameter of seminiferous tubules. Serum testosterone level was measured by testosterone enzyme immunoassay test kits. Results: Microscopic examination demonstrated that ASA treatment lead to statistically significant increase in the mean Johnsen score and mean diameter of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: It was concluded from the current study that ASA treatment enhances spermatogenesis. (author)

  20. No effect of different estrogen receptor ligands on cognition in adult female monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2009-03-01

    Many studies in women and animal models suggest that estrogens affect cognitive function. Yet, the mechanisms by which estrogens may impact cognition remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of different estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on cognitive function in adult ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were tested for 6 weeks on a battery of memory and attentional tasks administered on a touchscreen: the object, face, and spatial versions of the Delayed Recognition Span Test (DRST) and a Visual Search task. Following a 2-week baseline period with oil vehicle treatment, monkeys were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups: estradiol benzoate (EB), selective ERbeta agonist (diarylpropionitrile DPN) or selective ER modulator tamoxifen (TAM). In each treatment group, monkeys received oil vehicle for 2 weeks and the drug for 2 weeks, in a cross-over design. After a 4-week washout, a subset of monkeys was re-tested on the battery when treated with a selective ERalpha agonist (propyl-pyrazole-triol, PPT) or oil vehicle. Overall, drug treatments had no or negligible effects on cognitive performance. These results support the contention that exogenous estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) do not significantly affect cognition in young adult female macaques. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the cognitive effects of estrogens in monkeys of more advanced age are mediated by ERbeta, ERalpha or complex interactions between the two receptors. PMID:19101578

  1. Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system. The margin of stability (MoS) at foot touchdown was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support (BoS) and extrapolated center of mass. Older participants showed lower MoS adaptation magnitude in the early adaptation phase (steps 1-3) compared to the young and middle-aged groups. However, in the late adaptation phase (steps 16-18) there were no significant differences in adaptation magnitude between the three age groups. After removing the resistance, all three age groups showed similar aftereffects (i.e. increased BoS). The current results suggest that in old age, the ability to recalibrate locomotion to control stability is preserved, but the rate of adaptive improvement in locomotor stability is diminished. PMID:26970886

  2. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L. Pawluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1 cookie and (2 osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.

  3. Acute Multiple Organ Failure in Adult Mice Deleted for the Developmental Regulator Wt1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, You-Ying; Brownstein, David; Mjoseng, Heidi; Lee, Wen-Chin; Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Nerlov, Claus; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik; Perry, Paul; Berry, Rachel; Thornburn, Anna; Sexton, David; Morton, Nik; Hohenstein, Peter; Freyer, Elisabeth; Samuel, Kay; van't Hof, Rob; Hastie, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the mechanisms that regulate adult tissue homeostasis and their relationship to processes governing foetal development. Mice deleted for the Wilms' tumour gene, Wt1, lack kidneys, gonads, and spleen and die at mid-gestation due to defective coronary vasculature. Wt1 is vital for maintaining the mesenchymal–epithelial balance in these tissues and is required for the epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) that generates coronary vascular progenitors. Although Wt1 is only expressed in rare cell populations in adults including glomerular podocytes, 1% of bone marrow cells, and mesothelium, we hypothesised that this might be important for homeostasis of adult tissues; hence, we deleted the gene ubiquitously in young and adult mice. Within just a few days, the mice suffered glomerulosclerosis, atrophy of the exocrine pancreas and spleen, severe reduction in bone and fat, and failure of erythropoiesis. FACS and culture experiments showed that Wt1 has an intrinsic role in both haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell lineages and suggest that defects within these contribute to the phenotypes we observe. We propose that glomerulosclerosis arises in part through down regulation of nephrin, a known Wt1 target gene. Protein profiling in mutant serum showed that there was no systemic inflammatory or nutritional response in the mutant mice. However, there was a dramatic reduction in circulating IGF-1 levels, which is likely to contribute to the bone and fat phenotypes. The reduction of IGF-1 did not result from a decrease in circulating GH, and there is no apparent pathology of the pituitary and adrenal glands. These findings 1) suggest that Wt1 is a major regulator of the homeostasis of some adult tissues, through both local and systemic actions; 2) highlight the differences between foetal and adult tissue regulation; 3) point to the importance of adult mesenchyme in tissue turnover. PMID:22216009

  4. Nonhematopoietic Nrf2 dominantly impedes adult progression of sickle cell anemia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samit; Ihunnah, Chibueze A.; Hazra, Rimi; Walker, Aisha L.; Hansen, Jason M.; Archer, David R.; Owusu-Ansah, Amma T.; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F.

    2016-01-01

    The prevention of organ damage and early death in young adults is a major clinical concern in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, mechanisms that control adult progression of SCD during the transition from adolescence are poorly defined with no cognate prophylaxis. Here, we demonstrate in a longitudinal cohort of homozygous SCD (SS) mice a link between intravascular hemolysis, vascular inflammation, lung injury, and early death. Prophylactic Nrf2 activation in young SS mice stabilized intravascular hemolysis, reversed vascular inflammation, and attenuated lung edema in adulthood. Enhanced Nrf2 activation in endothelial cells in vitro concurred with the dramatic effect on vascular inflammation in the mice. BM chimeric SS mice lacking Nrf2 expression in nonhematopoietic tissues were created to dissect the role of nonerythroid Nrf2 in SCD progression. The SS chimeras developed severe intravascular hemolysis despite having erythroid Nrf2. In addition, they developed premature vascular inflammation and pulmonary edema and died younger than donor littermates with intact nonhematopoietic Nrf2. Our results reveal a dominant protective role for nonhematopoietic Nrf2 against tissue damage in both erythroid and nonerythroid tissues in SCD. Furthermore, we show that prophylactic augmentation of Nrf2-coordinated cytoprotection effectively impedes onset of the severe adult phenotype of SCD in mice. PMID:27158670

  5. Reduced white fat mass in adult mice bearing a truncated Patched 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Li, Heng Zhang, Leslie A. Denhard, Lan-Hsin Liu, Huaxin Zhou, Zi-Jian Lan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling emerges as a potential pathway contributing to fat formation during postnatal development. In this report, we found that Patched 1 (Ptc1, a negative regulator of Hh signaling, was expressed in the epididymal fat pad of adult mice. Reduced total white fat mass and epididymal adipocyte cell size were observed in naturally occurring spontaneous mesenchymal dysplasia (mes adult mice (Ptc1mes/mes, which carry a deletion of Ptc1 at the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic region. Increased expression of truncated Ptc1, Ptc2 and Gli1, the indicators of ectopic activation of Hh signaling, was observed in epididymal fat pads of adult Ptc1mes/mes mice. In contrast, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, adipocyte P2 and adipsin were reduced in epididymal fat pads of adult Ptc1mes/mes mice. Taken together, our results indicate that deletion of carboxyl-terminal tail of Ptc1 can lead to the reduction of white fat mass during postnatal development.

  6. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  7. A roentgenocephalometric study for the evaluation of the facial esthetics in the Korean adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentofacial relationship of the Korean adult females who had excellent profile using roentgenocephalometry. The subjects were 35 females from 18 to 24 years of age selected among the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars. And, as the control group, 37 females from 18 to 23 years of age with normal occlusion and acceptable profile were selected. In both groups, each variable was measured and evaluated statistically introducing 24 reference points, 22 reference lines and 17 reference angles respectively. Conclusion from this study were as follows: 1. There was no significant difference between the two groups. But SNA and convexity angle which had indicated the maxillary protrusion were lesser in the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars than in the control group. 2. In the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars, the maxillary and mandibular incisors were more upright than in the control group. 3. The protrusion of the upper and lower lip was lesser in the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars than in the control group. 4. Professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars revealed more straight profile than the control group and were similar to that of the Caucasian. 5. Generally, it was the tendency that the straight profile was accepted as esthetics.

  8. Spontaneous inflammatory pelvic disease in adult non-castrated female rats treated with estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristóteles M G Ramos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune response of the genital tract is under the control of sexual steroids; however, the influence of sex hormones on innate immune mechanisms of the genital mucosa are only beginning to be understood. We found that long-term estrogen treatment increases the risk for inflammatory pelvic diseases in adult non-castrated female rats. Female rats (110 g to 130 g received estrogen (10 rats; 17-beta estradiol, 50 mg pellet; 10 rats: subcutaneous weekly injection of estradiol valerate 0.166 mg/kg. Ten rats received a pellet of 17-beta estradiol and were treated with amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg after the 90th day of exposure to estrogen. Three control groups of ten rats were also used. The estrogen-treated rats developed an inflammatory pelvic disease, with abscess formation after the third month of hormonal treatment. All the surviving animals were killed after six months of hormonal exposure. Among 15 survivors of the two groups that received estrogen 13 animals presented tuboovarian abscesses. Among eight survivors of the group treated with amoxicillin, six had tuboovarian abscesses. None of the 30 control rats presented macro or microscopic signs of inflammatory disease in the uterus, tubes or ovaries. We conclude that estrogen impairs the defense mechanisms of the genital tract of non-castrated female rats, enhancing bacterial growth in the vagina and ascending infection to the uterus, tubes and ovaries.

  9. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 −/−) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our main observation was that the genes were regulated in an opposite direction in male and female Bcmo1 −/− mice by BC. The steroid biosynthetic pathway was overrepresented in BC-supplemented male Bcmo1...

  10. Female Mice Avoid Male Odor from the Same Strain via the Vomeronasal System in an Estrogen-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Saori; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Habara, Yoshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Inbreeding avoidance is essential to providing offspring with genetic diversity. Females' mate choice is more crucial than males' for successful reproduction because of the high cost of producing gametes and limited chances to mate. However, the mechanism of female inbreeding avoidance is still unclear. To elucidate the mechanism underlying inbreeding avoidance by females, we conducted Y-maze behavioral assays using BALB/c and C57BL/6 female mice. In both strains, the avoidance of male urine from the same strain was lower in the low estrogen phase than in the high estrogen phase. The estrous cycle-dependent avoidance was completely prevented by vomeronasal organ (VNO) removal. To assess the regulation of the vomeronasal system by estrogen, the neural excitability was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of the immediate early gene products. Although estrogen did not affect neural excitability in the VNO, estrogen enhanced the neural excitability of the mitral cell layer in the AOB induced by urine from the cognate males. These results suggest that female mice avoid odor from genetically similar males in an estrogen-dependent manner via the vomeronasal system and the excitability of the mitral cells in the AOB is presumed to be regulated by estrogen. PMID:26377346

  11. Nutritional intervention restores muscle but not kidney phenotypes in adult calcineurin aα null mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Reddy, Ramesh N; Price, S Russ;

    2013-01-01

    Mice lacking the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα) were first reported in 1996 and have been an important model to understand the role of calcineurin in the brain, immune system, bones, muscle, and kidney. Research using the mice has been limited, however, by failure to...... deprivation is known to significantly alter development, it is imperative that previous conclusions based on CnAα-/- mice are revisited to determine which aspects of the phenotype were attributable to caloric restriction versus a direct role for CnAα. In this study, we find that defects in renal development......, loss of CnAα likely alters insulin response due to a reduction in insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) expression and signaling in muscle. This study illustrates the importance of re-examining the phenotypes of CnAα-/- mice and the advances that are now possible with the use of adult, rescued knockout...

  12. Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide lead to long-lasting impairment of spatial memory in female, but not male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Rex M; Ficken, Melissa; Wecker, Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Self-reports of chemotherapy-related cognitive deficits (CRCDs) are more prevalent among women than men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to the cognitive-impairing effects of chemotherapy. However, there have been no direct comparisons of females and males using objective measures of cognitive function either during or following exposure to the same chemotherapeutic regimen. The present study used an animal model, and a prospective longitudinal design, to assess sex differences in the manifestation and persistence of spatial memory deficits resulting from exposure to doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CYP), commonly used anticancer drugs. The spatial memory of female and male BALB/C mice was assessed using the Morris water maze prior to, during and following 4 weekly intravenous injections of DOX (2.5mg/kg) and CYP (25mg/kg) or vehicle. Females receiving DOX+CYP experienced significant deficits in spatial memory during and following injections when compared to baseline or females receiving vehicle. These deficits persisted for at least 34 days following the final injection. In contrast, males receiving DOX+CYP injections did not exhibit alterations in spatial memory relative to baseline or males receiving vehicle. These findings indicate that females may be more vulnerable than males to the cognitive-impairing effects of DOX+CYP and demonstrate that deficits in females persist for at least several weeks following drug exposure. Preclinical studies of CRCDs should parallel clinical work by including females and examine sex specific factors as potential mechanisms. PMID:27083301

  13. Different effects of L-arginine on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized female mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza KARAMI; Mahmoud HOSSEINI; Fatimeh KHODABANDEHLOO; Leila KHATAMI; Zahra TAIARANI

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The roles of gonadal hormones and nitric oxide (NO) on the analgesic effects of morphine,tolerance to morphine,and their interactions have been widely investigated.In the present study,the effect of L-arginine (an NO precursor) on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice was investigated.Methods: Forty mice were divided into sham and OVX groups.On the first day,a hot plate test ((55±0.2) ℃; cut-off 30 s)was carried out as a base record 15 min before injection of morphine (10 mg/kg,subcutaneously (s.c.)) and was repeated every 15 min after injection.The sham group was then divided into two subgroups: sham-toleranceL-arginine (Sham-ToI-LA) and sham-tolerance-saline (Sham-ToI-Sal) which received either L-arginine 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or saline 10 mi/kg (i.p.),respectively,three times in a day for three consecutive days.Morphine tolerance was induced in animals by injecting 30 mg/kg morphine (s.c.) three times/day for three days.This treatment was also used for OVX subgroups.On the fifth day,the hot plate test was repeated.The analgesic effect of morphine was calculated as the maximal percent effect (MPE).The results were compared using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA).Results: There was no significant difference in MPE between the OVX and sham groups.The MPEs in both the Sham-ToI-Sal and OVX-ToI-Sal groups were lower than those in both the sham and OVX groups (P<0.01).The MPE in the OVX-ToI-Sal group was greater than that in the Sham-ToI-Sal group (P<0.01).The MPE in the Sham-ToI-LA group was higher than that in the Sham-ToI-Sal group (P<0.01).However,there was no significant difference between the Sham-ToI-LA and sham groups or between the OVX-ToI-LA and OVX-ToI-Sal groups.Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that repeated administration of morphine causes tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine.L-Arginine could prevent tolerance to morphine but its effect was different in

  14. Performance of Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice on Motor and Cognitive Tasks Commonly Used in Pre-Clinical Traumatic Brain Injury Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Laura B; Fu, Amanda H; McCabe, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    To date, clinical trials have failed to find an effective therapy for victims of traumatic brain injury (TBI) who live with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric complaints. Pre-clinical investigators are now encouraged to include male and female subjects in all translational research, which is of particular interest in the field of neurotrauma given that circulating female hormones (progesterone and estrogen) have been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects. To determine whether behavior of male and female C57BL6/J mice is differentially impaired by TBI, male and cycling female mice were injured by controlled cortical impact and tested for several weeks with functional assessments commonly employed in pre-clinical research. We found that cognitive and motor impairments post-TBI, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM) and rotarod, respectively, were largely equivalent in male and female animals. However, spatial working memory, assessed by the y-maze, was poorer in female mice. Female mice were generally more active, as evidenced by greater distance traveled in the first exposure to the open field, greater distance in the y-maze, and faster swimming speeds in the MWM. Statistical analysis showed that variability in all behavioral data was no greater in cycling female mice than it was in male mice. These data all suggest that with careful selection of tests, procedures, and measurements, both sexes can be included in translational TBI research without concern for effect of hormones on functional impairments or behavioral variability. PMID:25951234

  15. Differential metabolism of acrylonitrile to cyanide is responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice: role of CYP2E1 and epoxide hydrolases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a potent toxicant and a known rodent carcinogen. AN epoxidation to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO) via CYP2E1 and its subsequent metabolism via epoxide hydrolases (EH) to yield cyanide is thought to be responsible for the acute toxicity and mortality of AN. Recent reports showed that male mice are more sensitive than females to the acute toxicity/mortality of AN. The present work was undertaken to assess the metabolic and enzymatic basis for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN toxicity. Male and female wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice received AN at 0, 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg by gavage. Cyanide concentrations were measured at 1 or 3 h after dosing. Current data demonstrated that cyanide levels in blood and tissues of AN-treated wild-type mice of both sexes were significantly greater than in vehicle-treated controls and increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, cyanide levels in AN-treated CYP2E1-null mice were not statistically different from those measured in vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, higher levels of cyanide were detected in male wild-type mice vs females in association with greater sensitivity of males to the acute toxicity/mortality of this chemical. Using Western blot analysis, negligible difference in CYP2E1 expression with higher levels of soluble and microsomal EH (sEH and mEH) was detected in the liver of male vs female mice. In kidneys, male mice exhibited higher expression of both renal CYP2E1 and sEH than did female mice. In conclusion, higher blood and tissue cyanide levels are responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN. Further, higher expression of CYP2E1 and EH in male mice may contribute to greater formation of CEO and its subsequent metabolism to yield cyanide, respectively

  16. Psychological Stress on Female Mice Diminishes the Developmental Potential of Oocytes: A Study Using the Predatory Stress Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Xiang Liu; Ya-Nan Cheng; Yi-Long Miao; De-Li Wei; Li-Hua Zhao; Ming-Jiu Luo; Jing-He Tan

    2012-01-01

    Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators...

  17. Female Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA Mice Exhibit Hyperactivity and a Reduced Sense of Danger in the Open Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Langford-Smith, Kia J.; Jones, Simon A.; Wynn, Robert F.; Wraith, J. E.; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Bigger, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22028789

  18. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A, is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-γ and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 μg/dL), which is below background (2-3 μg/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-γ and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations

  20. Human-derived neural progenitors functionally replace astrocytes in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Qian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Hu, Baoyang; Blackbourn, Lisle W.; Du, Zhongwei; Ma, Lixiang; Liu, Huisheng; Knobel, Karla M.; Ayala, Melvin; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are integral components of the homeostatic neural network as well as active participants in pathogenesis of and recovery from nearly all neurological conditions. Evolutionarily, compared with lower vertebrates and nonhuman primates, humans have an increased astrocyte-to-neuron ratio; however, a lack of effective models has hindered the study of the complex roles of human astrocytes in intact adult animals. Here, we demonstrated that after transplantation into the cervical spinal cords of adult mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), human pluripotent stem cell–derived (PSC-derived) neural progenitors migrate a long distance and differentiate to astrocytes that nearly replace their mouse counterparts over a 9-month period. The human PSC-derived astrocytes formed networks through their processes, encircled endogenous neurons, and extended end feet that wrapped around blood vessels without altering locomotion behaviors, suggesting structural, and potentially functional, integration into the adult mouse spinal cord. Furthermore, in SCID mice transplanted with neural progenitors derived from induced PSCs from patients with ALS, astrocytes were generated and distributed to a similar degree as that seen in mice transplanted with healthy progenitors; however, these mice exhibited motor deficit, highlighting functional integration of the human-derived astrocytes. Together, these results indicate that this chimeric animal model has potential for further investigating the roles of human astrocytes in disease pathogenesis and repair. PMID:25642771

  1. Long-term wheel running changes on sensorimotor activity and skeletal muscle in male and female mice of accelerated senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Lalanza, Jaume F; Alvarez-López, María Jesús; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Griñan-Ferré, Christian; Pallàs, Merce; Kaliman, Perla; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is considered a useful non-transgenic model for studying aspects of aging. Using SAM resistant 1 (SAMR1) as controls, the long-term effects of wheel running on skeletal muscle adaptations and behavioral traits were evaluated in senescent (P8) and resistant (R1) male and female mice. Long-term wheel running (WR) led to increases in locomotor activity, benefits in sensorimotor function, and changes in body weight in a gender-dependent manner. WR increased body weight and baseline levels of locomotor activity in female mice and improved balance and strength in male mice, compared to sedentary-control mice. WR resulted in key metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, associated with an increased activity of the sirtuin 1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-PGC-1 alpha axis and changes in vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4), and Cluster of Differentiation 36 (Cd36) gene expression. Overall, our data indicate that activity, balance, and strength decrease with age and that long-term WR may significantly improve the motor function in a mouse model of senescence in a gender-dependent manner. PMID:25129573

  2. Global gene expression patterns in the post-pneumonectomy lung of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingenito Edward P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult mice have a remarkable capacity to regenerate functional alveoli following either lung resection or injury that exceeds the regenerative capacity observed in larger adult mammals. The molecular basis for this unique capability in mice is largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomic responses to single lung pneumonectomy in adult mice in order to elucidate prospective molecular signaling mechanisms used in this species during lung regeneration. Methods Unilateral left pneumonectomy or sham thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia (n = 8 mice per group for each of the four time points. Total RNA was isolated from the remaining lung tissue at four time points post-surgery (6 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and analyzed using microarray technology. Results The observed transcriptomic patterns revealed mesenchymal cell signaling, including up-regulation of genes previously associated with activated fibroblasts (Tnfrsf12a, Tnc, Eln, Col3A1, as well as modulation of Igf1-mediated signaling. The data set also revealed early down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine transcripts and up-regulation of genes involved in T cell development/function, but few similarities to transcriptomic patterns observed during embryonic or post-natal lung development. Immunohistochemical analysis suggests that early fibroblast but not myofibroblast proliferation is important during lung regeneration and may explain the preponderance of mesenchymal-associated genes that are over-expressed in this model. This again appears to differ from embryonic alveologenesis. Conclusion These data suggest that modulation of mesenchymal cell transcriptome patterns and proliferation of S100A4 positive mesenchymal cells, as well as modulation of pro-inflammatory transcriptome patterns, are important during post-pneumonectomy lung regeneration in adult mice.

  3. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data. PMID:26408077

  4. Ileo-Colic Burkitt Lymphoma in a Young Adult Female- A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangma, Mima Maychet B; Dasiah, Simon D; Ashok, Aju James

    2016-04-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an uncommon and aggressive type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and is one of the fastest growing cancer tumour in humans; growth fraction close to 100%. We report a case of a young adult female presented with acute pain abdomen with ileo-caecal mass. On clinical presentation, initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis with lump formation. Ultrasound reported as diffuse inflammatory changes and later CECT was done which reported as Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST). On laparotomy, a huge hard mass was found on ileo-caecal region and right hemicolectomy was done. Diagnosis was confirmed as Non-Hodgkins Burkitt's Lymphoma by HPE and immunohistochemistry testing. So, careful workup is the key to initiate early treatment. This patient had complete remission after the right hemicolectomy followed by multiagent chemotherapy. PMID:27190885

  5. The experiences and needs of female adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-05-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data fromn = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health, education, employment, social and community activities. Where relevant, comparisons are provided with the male subset of the same study population; however, in the majority of analyses, no discernible gender differences emerged. The findings highlight the diverse and complex challenges faced by women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, including high levels of mental health disorder, unmet support needs in education settings and the workplace, and social exclusion and isolation. PMID:26111537

  6. Delayed Recognition of an Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in a Young Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Schulman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A percentage of ureteropelvic junction obstruction cases are clinically silent in childhood and manifest symptoms in adults. Herein we present a 25-year-old female with several years of intermittent flank pain and abdominal symptoms with prior inconclusive diagnostic workup including abdominal imaging without hydronephrosis. Ultimately, a CT scan performed during an acute pain crisis clearly identified right-sided hydronephrosis. The keys to diagnosis are awareness of this entity, a detailed history, and obtaining imaging studies during a crisis. The patient subsequently underwent a right robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty with preservation of a lower pole crossing vessel. We highlight noteworthy features of the clinical presentation and surgical repair.

  7. Assessment of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors among Young Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dhruv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Over the past two decades there has been a striking increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome in developing countries. The current study was thus undertaken to map the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS and to assess the cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adult females (n = 1303 aged 18-26y from four girls hostel of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Approach: The anthropometric analysis showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (20.8%, abdominal obesity (12.7% among the subjects. The clinical profile revealed that 12.1% were hypertensives. The prevalence of dyslipidemia revealed that no one had hypercholesterolemia and 4.1% had hypertriglyceridemia, 12.1% had elevated LDL-C and 40.3% had low levels of HDL-C. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.4 and 4.1% according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and World Health Organization (WHO criteria respectively. Lipid profile in relation to metabolic syndrome showed that VLDL-C and Triglyceride (TG values were non-significantly higher among the young adult females and HDL-C values were significantly (pResults: The three common and predominant risk factors (>80% identified were lower intake of fruits (81.5%, vegetables (96% and physical inactivity (88.7%. The other risk factors which were present between 30-50% were hypertension, lower HDL-C, Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. Among the non-modifiable factor heredity component was present in 34% of the subjects. Conclusion: The study highlights that lifestyle factors had equivalent risk for overweight and metabolic syndrome. Multiple risk factor scenario calls for lifestyle management to avert later consequences.

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (...

  9. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during...

  10. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  11. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga Odusoga Adewale; Osonuga Ifabunmi Oduyemi; Osonuga Ayokunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats.Methods:moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum.Result:Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively.Conclusion:Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  12. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  13. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  14. Study of risk factors for carcinoma breast in adult female general population in Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate some of the established risk factors for the breast cancer in adult female population. It was a prospective study. This study was conducted in Oncology Department, Services Hospital, Lahore, from August 1999 to August, 2000. One hundred breast cancer patients and 100 control subjects enrolled for interview and the percentage of positives was analyzed. Performa containing demographic characteristics and established risk factors for breast cancer was established. All the female subjects, above 15 years of age, were subjected to the questions in this proforma. To keep uniformity medical officers were briefed for filling this proforma. The data gathered was analyzed statistically. Out of established risk factors, family history of breast cancer and use of oral contraceptive pills were proved significantly positive with a value of p0.05). This study showed that there is a family tendency for breast cancer and estrogenic hormones are playing some role. More possibility of breast cancer was found in infertile and those having early menarche. (author)

  15. Cellulose supplementation early in life ameliorates colitis in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Nagy-Szakal

    Full Text Available Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001], and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]. Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation.

  16. Lower susceptibility of female mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: Role of mitochondrial glutathione, oxidant stress and c-jun N-terminal kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the gender differences in susceptibility to APAP overdose in mice have not been clarified. In our study, APAP (300 mg/kg) caused severe liver injury in male mice but 69–77% lower injury in females. No gender difference in metabolic activation of APAP was found. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) was rapidly depleted in both genders, while GSH recovery in female mice was 2.6 fold higher in the mitochondria at 4 h, and 2.5 and 3.3 fold higher in the total liver at 4 h and 6 h, respectively. This faster recovery of GSH, which correlated with greater induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress in female mice, as suggested by a lower GSSG/GSH ratio at 6 h (3.8% in males vs. 1.4% in females) and minimal centrilobular nitrotyrosine staining. While c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was similar at 2 and 4 h post-APAP, it was 3.1 fold lower at 6 h in female mice. However, female mice were still protected by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. 17β-Estradiol pretreatment moderately decreased liver injury and oxidative stress in male mice without affecting GSH recovery. Conclusion: The lower susceptibility of female mice is achieved by the improved detoxification of reactive oxygen due to accelerated recovery of mitochondrial GSH levels, which attenuates late JNK activation and liver injury. However, even the reduced injury in female mice was still dependent on JNK. While 17β-estradiol partially protects male mice, it does not affect hepatic GSH recovery. - Highlights: • Female mice are less susceptible to acetaminophen overdose than males. • GSH depletion and protein adduct formation are similar in both genders. • Recovery of hepatic GSH levels is faster in females and correlates with Gclc. • Reduced oxidant stress in females leads to reduced JNK activation. • JNK activation and mitochondrial translocation are critical

  17. Lower susceptibility of female mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: Role of mitochondrial glutathione, oxidant stress and c-jun N-terminal kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu

    2014-11-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the gender differences in susceptibility to APAP overdose in mice have not been clarified. In our study, APAP (300 mg/kg) caused severe liver injury in male mice but 69–77% lower injury in females. No gender difference in metabolic activation of APAP was found. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) was rapidly depleted in both genders, while GSH recovery in female mice was 2.6 fold higher in the mitochondria at 4 h, and 2.5 and 3.3 fold higher in the total liver at 4 h and 6 h, respectively. This faster recovery of GSH, which correlated with greater induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress in female mice, as suggested by a lower GSSG/GSH ratio at 6 h (3.8% in males vs. 1.4% in females) and minimal centrilobular nitrotyrosine staining. While c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was similar at 2 and 4 h post-APAP, it was 3.1 fold lower at 6 h in female mice. However, female mice were still protected by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. 17β-Estradiol pretreatment moderately decreased liver injury and oxidative stress in male mice without affecting GSH recovery. Conclusion: The lower susceptibility of female mice is achieved by the improved detoxification of reactive oxygen due to accelerated recovery of mitochondrial GSH levels, which attenuates late JNK activation and liver injury. However, even the reduced injury in female mice was still dependent on JNK. While 17β-estradiol partially protects male mice, it does not affect hepatic GSH recovery. - Highlights: • Female mice are less susceptible to acetaminophen overdose than males. • GSH depletion and protein adduct formation are similar in both genders. • Recovery of hepatic GSH levels is faster in females and correlates with Gclc. • Reduced oxidant stress in females leads to reduced JNK activation. • JNK activation and mitochondrial translocation are critical

  18. Risk Factors And Impacts Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adult Females In Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. El-Moselhy; H. O. Khalifa ; K. M. Abd-Allah; F. A. Hassan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on ninety sexually transmitted disease (STD adult female patients, attending Dermato-Venereology and Gynaecology Clinics, Al-Hussein University Hospital and an equal number of females as controls. The aim of the study was to determine sociodemographic, sexual and health care behaviours risk factors for STDs and to determine their impacts on the studied females. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to perform this research. Vaginal, cervical and urethral swabs and smears were taken. Also, scrapes from any suspicious lesions together with blood samples were taken from STD patients for various laboratory examinations. The most common STD was candidiasis (35.6%. Shared house and unskilled occupations were the most important sociodemographic risk markers, odds ratio (OR =11.62 and 2.92, respectively. While, vaginal douche use and divorce were the most important gynaecological and reproductive risk factors, OR=7.16 and 4.06, respectively. Furthermore, premarital sexual practice and non-vaginal sexual practice were the most important sexual behaviours risk factors, OR=13.40 and 10.97, respectively. Also, previous infection with STDs and no partner referral were the most important health care behaviours risk factors, OR=6.45 and 4.93, respectively. Moreover, no religious obligation and drugs and/or alcohol use were the most important life style risk markers, OR=12.89 and 6.77, respectively. Lastly, history of pelvic inflammatory disease (18.9% and pregnancy wastage (17.8% were the most important impacts of STDs.

  19. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  20. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F0) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F1) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  1. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  2. Does radioadaptive response also apply to the case of heavy-ion irradiations in fetal and adult mice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible induction of adaptive response (AR) by the high linear energy transfer (LET) accelerated heavy ion irradiations (HI) is being attempted both in young adult female mice and in fetal mice of C57BL/6J Jms strain, using growth delay, hematopoietic damage and reduced survival in vivo, prenatal growth delay, malformation and death in utero as endpoints. In this fiscal year, using carbon, silicon, neon, and iron ion irradiations and X-rays, we demonstrated that 1) in the in utero studies, the priming low dose X-irradiations could induce protective effects against the detrimental effects from the high LET heavy-ion challenging irradiations from neon but not from iron beams; 2) in the in vivo studies, the priming low dose X-irradiations could induce protective effects against the detrimental effects from the high LET heavy-ion challenging irradiations from neon beams; 3) also in the in vivo studies, priming low dose of high LET iron ions did not show any protective effects against challenging dose from X-rays while priming low dose of high LET carbon ions could induce protective effects against the detrimental effects from the high LET heavy-ion challenging irradiations from neon beams. (author)

  3. Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- v...

  4. Effects of Chronic Mild Stress in Female Bax Inhibitor-1-Gene Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Zhi-Yan; Chae, Han-Jung; Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Shrestha Muna, Sushma; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Objective The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and BI-1-/- mice exhibit increased sensitivity to tissue damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of BI-1 in the pathogenesis of chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression-like behaviors in BI-1-/- mice. Methods We delivered CMS for 2 or 6 weeks in BI-1-knockout and wild-type mice. Control groups of BI-1-knockout and wild-type mice were le...

  5. Establishment of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for widespread and temporal genetic modification in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, Hirotake; Hori, Akiko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Kondo, Saki; Kanegae, Yumi; Saito, Izumu; Ichise, Taeko; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2016-07-29

    Temporal genetic modification of mice using the ligand-inducible Cre/loxP system is an important technique that allows the bypass of embryonic lethal phenotypes and access to adult phenotypes. In this study, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for the purpose of widespread and temporal Cre recombination. The new line, named CM32, expresses the GFPneo-fusion gene in a wide variety of tissues before FLP recombination and tamoxifen-inducible Cre after FLP recombination. Using FLP-recombined CM32 mice (CM32Δ mice) and Cre reporter mouse lines, we evaluated the efficiency of Cre recombination with and without tamoxifen administration to adult mice, and found tamoxifen-dependent induction of Cre recombination in a variety of adult tissues. In addition, we demonstrated that conditional activation of an oncogene could be achieved in adults using CM32Δ mice. CM32Δ;T26 mice, which harbored a Cre recombination-driven, SV40 large T antigen-expressing transgene, were viable and fertile. No overt phenotype was found in the mice up to 3 months after birth. Although they displayed pineoblastomas (pinealoblastomas) and/or thymic enlargement due to background Cre recombination by 6 months after birth, they developed epidermal hyperplasia when administered tamoxifen. Collectively, our results suggest that the CM32Δ transgenic mouse line can be applied to the assessment of adult phenotypes in mice with loxP-flanked transgenes. PMID:26923756

  6. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendon MI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marta I Rendon,1 David A Rodriguez,2 Ariane K Kawata,3 Arnold N Degboe,4 Teresa K Wilcox,3 Caroline T Burk,5 Selena R Daniels,4 Wendy E Roberts6 1Rendon Center for Dermatology and Aesthetic Medicine, Boca Raton, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Associates and Research, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 3Evidera, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 5Health Outcomes Consultant, Laguna Beach, CA, USA; 6Generational and Cosmetic Dermatology, Rancho Mirage, CA, USA Background: Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective: Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions. Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results: Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years, comprising black (30.8%, Hispanic (17.6%, Asian/other (17.3%, and white (34.3%. More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%. Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC (47.4% versus prescription medications (16.6%. OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05. The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA (34.3% and benzoyl peroxide (BP (32.1%. Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05, Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0

  7. Female Adults with Patellofemoral Pain Are Characterized by Widespread Hyperalgesia, Which Is Not Affected Immediately by Patellofemoral Joint Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Barton, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Compare pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the knee and a site remote to the knee in female adults with patellofemoral pain (PFP) to pain-free controls before and after a patellofemoral joint (PFJ) loading protocol designed to aggravate symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING......: Participants were recruited via advertisements in fitness centers, public places for physical activity and universities. SUBJECTS: Thirty-eight females with patellofemoral pain, and 33 female pain-free controls. METHODS: All participant performed a novel PFJ loading protocol involving stair negotiation with an...

  8. Antitumor Effect of Selenium and Modified Pectin Nano Particles and Gamma Radiation on Ehrilch Solid Tumor in Female Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium nano particle (Nano- Se) is a novel Se species with novel biological activities with low toxicity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antitumor activity of a novel Nano- Se compound with or without gamma irradiation of female mice. Selenium size- controlled Nano-Se was prepared by a simple method by adding modified pectin to the selenious acid and ascorbic acid. The antitumor activity of Selenium and Modified Pectin Nano Particles (Se-Mp- NPs) were evaluated against Ehrilch ascites carcinoma (In vitro) and Ehrilch solid tumor model (In vivo). The antioxidant states of the novel compound were assessed measuring parameters in blood and tumor tissue of female mice. Malonaldehydoyl (MDA) end product of lipid peroxidation was evaluated in plasma and tumor tissue. Glutathione -S- transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 (Cyto P450) were determined in tumor tissue homogenate. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- a) concentration and interleukin 10 (IL- 10) concentrations was evaluated in plasma of female mice. The effect of tumor inoculation and different treatments on liver enzymes (ALT and AST) and kidney Function (urea and creatinine) were detected in the plasma of animals. Apoptosis was shown and estimated in tumor tissue of animals histopathological of tumor in different groups of mice were examined. Ehrilch solid tumor induced a significant increase in MDA content, GSH-Px and GST activities level and in the amount of metabolites of CYP 450. Moreover, a significant decrease was observed in GSH content, SOD activity level in the tumor tissue, INF- a concentration, IL- 10 concentration in the plasma. Also, a significant alteration in kidney and liver functions was occurred as compared to control group. The results showed a significant antitumor activity of selenium and Modified Pectin Nano Particles (Se-Mp- NPs) at the concentration 2.25 μg / ml was 70%

  9. Pannexin 1 regulates bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles, Alvaro O.; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Toro-Ayala, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Muñoz, Pablo; Fuenzalida, Marco; Sáez, Juan C.; Martínez, Agustín D.

    2014-01-01

    The threshold for bidirectional modification of synaptic plasticity is known to be controlled by several factors, including the balance between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, postsynaptic free Ca2+ concentration and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) composition of GluN2 subunits. Pannexin 1 (Panx1), a member of the integral membrane protein family, has been shown to form non-selective channels and to regulate the induction of synaptic plasticity as well as hippocampal-dependent learning. Although Panx1 channels have been suggested to play a role in excitatory long-term potentiation (LTP), it remains unknown whether these channels also modulate long-term depression (LTD) or the balance between both types of synaptic plasticity. To study how Panx1 contributes to excitatory synaptic efficacy, we examined the age-dependent effects of eliminating or blocking Panx1 channels on excitatory synaptic plasticity within the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. By using different protocols to induce bidirectional synaptic plasticity, Panx1 channel blockade or lack of Panx1 were found to enhance LTP, whereas both conditions precluded the induction of LTD in adults, but not in young animals. These findings suggest that Panx1 channels restrain the sliding threshold for the induction of synaptic plasticity and underlying brain mechanisms of learning and memory. PMID:25360084

  10. Testosterone-induced permanent changes of hepatic gene expression in female mice sustained during Plasmodium chabaudi malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delić, Denis; Gailus, Nicole; Vohr, Hans-Werner; Dkhil, Mohamed; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Wunderlich, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Testosterone has been previously shown to induce persistent susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in otherwise resistant female C57BL/6 mice. Here, we investigate as to whether this conversion coincides with permanent changes of hepatic gene expression profiles. Female mice aged 10-12 weeks were treated with testosterone for 3 weeks; then, testosterone treatment was discontinued for 12 weeks before challenging with 10⁶ P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes. Hepatic gene expression was examined after 12 weeks of testosterone withdrawal and after subsequent infection with P. chabaudi at peak parasitemia, using Affymetrix microarrays with 22 ,690 probe sets representing 14, 000 genes. The expression of 54 genes was found to be permanently changed by testosterone, which remained changed during malaria infection. Most genes were involved in liver metabolism: the female-prevalent genes Cyp2b9, Cyp2b13, Cyp3a41, Cyp3a44, Fmo3, Sult2a2, Sult3a1, and BC014805 were repressed, while the male-prevalent genes Cyp2d9, Cyp7b1, Cyp4a10, Ugt2b1, Ugt2b38, Hsd3b5, and Slco1a1 were upregulated. Genes encoding different nuclear receptors were not persistently changed. Moreover, testosterone induced persistent upregulation of genes involved in hepatocellular carcinoma such as Lama3 and Nox4, whereas genes involved in immune response such as Ifnγ and Igk-C were significantly decreased. Our data provide evidence that testosterone is able to induce specific and robust long-term changes of gene expression profiles in the female mouse liver. In particular, those changes, which presumably indicate masculinized liver metabolism and impaired immune response, may be critical for the testosterone-induced persistent susceptibility of mice to P. chabaudi malaria. PMID:20844152

  11. Individual variation in feeding habitat use by adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): are they obligately neritic herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatase, Hideo; Sato, Katsufumi; Yamaguchi, Manami; Takahashi, Kotaro; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2006-08-01

    Satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis were used to confirm that oceanic areas (where water depths are >200 m) are alternative feeding habitats for adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), which have been thought to be obligate herbivores in neritic areas (where depths are 20 m, implying that they not only rested, but also foraged on macroplankton that exhibit diel vertical migration. Comparisons of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios between 89 females and the prey items in a three-source mixing model estimated that 69% of the females nesting on Ogasawara Islands mainly used neritic habitats and 31% mainly used oceanic habitats. Out of four females tracked by satellite, two females were inferred from isotope ratios to be neritic herbivores and the two others oceanic planktivores. Although post-nesting movements for four females were not completely consistent with the inferences from isotope ratios, possibly due to short tracking periods (28-42 days), their diving behaviors were consistent with the inferences. There were no relationships between body size and the two isotope ratios, indicating a lack of size-related differences in feeding habitat use by adult female green turtles, which was in contrast with loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). These results and previous findings suggest that ontogenetic habitat shifts by sea turtles are facultative, and consequently, their life histories are polymorphic. PMID:16683139

  12. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  13. Increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not necessary for wheel running to abolish conditioned place preference for cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustroph, M L; Merritt, J R; Holloway, A L; Pinardo, H; Miller, D S; Kilby, C N; Bucko, P; Wyer, A; Rhodes, J S

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that wheel running can abolish conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine in mice. Running significantly increases the number of new neurons in the hippocampus, and new neurons have been hypothesised to enhance plasticity and behavioral flexibility. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that increased neurogenesis was necessary for exercise to abolish cocaine CPP. Male nestin-thymidine kinase transgenic mice were conditioned with cocaine, and then housed with or without running wheels for 32 days. Half of the mice were fed chow containing valganciclovir to induce apoptosis in newly divided neurons, and the other half were fed standard chow. For the first 10 days, mice received daily injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. On the last 4 days, mice were tested for CPP, and then euthanized for measurement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by counting the number of BrdU-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus. Levels of running were similar in mice fed valganciclovir-containing chow and normal chow. Valganciclovir significantly reduced the numbers of neurons (BrdU-positive/NeuN-positive) in the dentate gyrus of both sedentary mice and runner mice. Valganciclovir-fed runner mice showed similar levels of neurogenesis as sedentary, normal-fed controls. However, valganciclovir-fed runner mice showed the same abolishment of CPP as runner mice with intact neurogenesis. The results demonstrate that elevated adult hippocampal neurogenesis resulting from running is not necessary for running to abolish cocaine CPP in mice. PMID:25393660

  14. How does long-term odor deprivation affect the olfactory capacity of adult mice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppola David M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unilateral naris occlusion (UNO has been the most common method of effecting stimulus deprivation in studies of olfactory plasticity. However, despite the large corpus on the effects of this manipulation, dating back to the 19th century, little is known about its behavioral sequela. Here we report the results of standard olfactory habituation and discrimination studies on adult mice that had undergone perinatal UNO followed by adult contralateral olfactory bulbectomy (bulb-x. Methods The olfactory performance of UNO mice was compared to matched controls that had unilateral bulb-x but open nares. Both habituation and discrimination (operant experiments employed a protocol in which after successful dishabituation or discrimination to dilute individual odors (A = 0.01% isoamyl acetate; B = 0.01% ethyl butyrate; each v/v in mineral oil, mice were challenged with a single odor versus a mixture comparison (A vs. A + B. In a series of tests the volume portion of Odor B in the mixture was systematically decreased until dishabituation or discrimination thresholds were reached. Results For the habituation experiment, UNOs (n = 10 and controls (n = 9 dishabituated to a 10% mixture of Odor B in Odor A after being habituated to A alone, while both groups failed to show differential responding to a 2% mixture of B in A. However, the UNO group's increased investigation durations for the 2% mixture approached significance (p Conclusions Adult mice relying on an olfactory system deprived of odor by naris occlusion from near the time of birth display enhanced olfactory capacity compared to control mice. This counterintuitive result suggests that UNO is neither an absolute method of deprivation nor does it diminish olfactory capabilities. Enhanced olfactory capacity, as observed in the current study, that is a consequence of deprivation, is consistent with recent molecular and physiological evidence that stimulus deprivation triggers

  15. Neonatal colon insult alters growth factor expression and TRPA1 responses in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Julie A; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Malin, Sacha A; Davis, Brian M

    2010-11-01

    Inflammation or pain during neonatal development can result in long-term structural and functional alterations of nociceptive pathways, ultimately altering pain perception in adulthood. We have developed a mouse model of neonatal colon irritation (NCI) to investigate the plasticity of pain processing within the viscerosensory system. Mouse pups received an intracolonic administration of 2% mustard oil (MO) on postnatal days 8 and 10. Distal colons were processed at subsequent timepoints for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and growth factor expression. Adult mice were assessed for visceral hypersensitivity by measuring the visceromotor response during colorectal distension. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from adult mice were retrogradely labeled from the distal colon and calcium imaging was used to measure transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) responses to acute application of capsaicin and MO, respectively. Despite the absence of inflammation (as indicated by MPO activity), neonatal exposure to intracolonic MO transiently maintained a higher expression level of growth factor messenger RNA (mRNA). Adult NCI mice displayed significant visceral hypersensitivity, as well as increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw, compared to control mice. The percentage of TRPA1-expressing colon afferents was significantly increased in NCI mice, however they displayed no increase in the percentage of TRPV1-immunopositive or capsaicin-sensitive colon DRG neurons. These results suggest that early neonatal colon injury results in a long-lasting visceral hypersensitivity, possibly driven by an early increase in growth factor expression and maintained by permanent changes in TRPA1 function. PMID:20850221

  16. Contact sensitizing potential of pyrogallol and 5-amino-o-cresol in female BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair dye components such as pyrogallol and cresol have been shown previously to promote allergic reactions such as rashes, dermal inflammation, irritation and dermatitis. The objective of this study was to determine the contact sensitization potential of pyrogallol (PYR) and 5-amino-o-cresol (AOC) when applied dermally to female BALB/c mice. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response was initially accomplished using the local lymph node assay. For PYR, significant increases in the proliferation of lymph node cells were observed at concentrations of 0.5% (w/v) and higher. For AOC, borderline increases, albeit significant, in auricular lymph node cell proliferation were observed at 5% and 10%. Results from the irritancy assay suggested that PYR, but not AOC, was an irritant. To further delineate whether PYR was primarily an irritant or a contact sensitizer, the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was conducted. A significant increase in mouse ear thickness was observed at 72 h following challenge with 0.5% PYR in mice that had been sensitized with 5% PYR. In contrast, no effects were observed in the MEST in mice sensitized and challenged with the highest achievable concentration of AOC (10%). Additional studies examining lymph node subpopulations and CD86 (B7.2) expression by B cells further support the indication that PYR was a sensitizer in BALB/c mice. The results demonstrate that PYR is both a sensitizer and an irritant in female BALB/c mice. However, the contact sensitization potential of AOC is minimal in this strain of mouse

  17. Effects of early prepubertal exposure to bisphenol A on the onset of puberty, ovarian weights, and estrous cycle in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nah, Won Heum; Park, Mi Jung; Gye, Myung Chan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used extensively to manufacture plastics and epoxy resin liners for food and beverage cans. BPA, with properties similar to estrogen, has endocrine-disrupting effects. In the present study, we examined the effects of early prepubertal BPA exposure on the onset of puberty and reproductive parameters such as estrous cycle and reproductive organ weights in female mice. Methods Female mice were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day (PND) 8 with BPA (0....

  18. Cellular origins of cold-induced brown adipocytes in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Petkova, Anelia P.; Konkar, Anish A.; Granneman, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated how cold stress induces the appearance of brown adipocytes (BAs) in brown and white adipose tissues (WATs) of adult mice. In interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), cold exposure increased proliferation of endothelial cells and interstitial cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor, α polypeptide (PDGFRα) by 3- to 4-fold. Surprisingly, brown adipogenesis and angiogenesis were largely restricted to the dorsal edge of iBAT. Although cold stress did not i...

  19. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting 3H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities

  20. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, C.K.; Ho, I.K.; Hoskins, B.

    1986-03-01

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting /sup 3/H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities.

  1. Neonatal oxygen adversely affects lung function in adult mice without altering surfactant composition or activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Min; Chess, Patricia R.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Wang, Zhengdong; Gelein, Robert; Zhou, Rui; Dean, David A.; Notter, Robert H.; O'Reilly, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its potentially adverse effects on lung development and function, supplemental oxygen is often used to treat premature infants in respiratory distress. To understand how neonatal hyperoxia can permanently disrupt lung development, we previously reported increased lung compliance, greater alveolar simplification, and disrupted epithelial development in adult mice exposed to 100% inspired oxygen fraction between postnatal days 1 and 4. Here, we investigate whether oxygen-induced changes...

  2. Sex matters: Systemic complement activity of female C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice is limited by serum terminal pathway components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotimaa, Juha; Klar-Mohammad, Ngaisah; Gueler, Faikah; Schilders, Geurt; Jansen, Aswin; Rutjes, Helma; Daha, Mohamed R; van Kooten, Cees

    2016-08-01

    Experimental mouse models have been extensively used to elucidate the role of the complement system in different diseases and injuries. Contribution of gender has revealed an intriguing gender specific difference; female mice often show protection against most complement driven injuries such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, graft rejection and sepsis. Interestingly, early studies to the mouse complement system revealed that female mice have very low total complement activity (CH50), which is related to androgen regulation of hepatic complement synthesis. Here, our aim was to understand at which level the female specific differences in mouse complement resides. We have used recently developed complement assays to study the functional activities of female and male mice at the level of C3 and C9 activation, and furthermore assayed key complement factor levels in serum of age-matched female and male C57BL/6 mice. Our results show that the female mice have normal complement cascade functionality at the level of C3 activation, which was supported by determinations of early complement factors. However, all pathways are strongly reduced at the level of C9 activation, suggesting a terminal pathway specific difference. This was in line with C6 and C9 measurements, showing strongly decreased levels in females. Furthermore, similar gender differences were also found in BALB/cJ mice, but not in CD-1 mice. Our results clearly demonstrate that the complement system in females of frequently used mouse strains is restricted by the terminal pathway components and that the perceived female specific protection against experimental disease and injury might be in part explained by the inability promote inflammation through C5b-9. PMID:27337595

  3. Repeated inhalation of crack-cocaine affects spermatogenesis in young and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A; Pieri, P; Hage, M; Santos, A B G; Medeiros, M C R; Garcia, R C T; Yonamine, M; Hallak, J; Saldiva, P H N; Zorzetto, J C; Bueno, H M S

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effects of repeated crack-cocaine inhalation on spermatogenesis of pubertal and mature Balb/c mice, ten young (Y(ex)) and ten adult (A(ex)) Balb/c mice were exposed to the smoke from 5 g of crack with 57.7% of pure cocaine in an inhalation chamber, 5 days/week for 2 months. The young (Y(c)) and adult (A(c)) control animals (n = 10) were kept in a specially built and controlled animal house facility. The morphologic analysis of both testes of all animals included the analysis of quantitative and qualitative histologic parameters to assess the effect of crack-cocaine on spermatogenesis and Leydig cells. Apoptosis was determined by immunolabeling with caspase-3 antibodies. Compared to the Y(c) animals, Y(ex) animals showed a significant reduction in the number of stage VII tubules per testis (p = 0.02), Sertoli cells (p cocaine smoke inhalation induced spermatogenesis disruption in chronically exposed mice, particularly in pubertal mice. PMID:22642293

  4. Theory of hantavirus infection spread incorporating localized adult and itinerant juvenile mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkre, V. M.; Giuggioli, L.; Abramson, G.; Camelo-Neto, G.

    2007-02-01

    A generalized model of the spread of the Hantavirus in mice populations is presented on the basis of recent observational findings concerning the movement characteristics of the mice that carry the infection. The factual information behind the generalization is based on mark-recapture observations reported in Giuggioli et al. [Bull. Math. Biol. 67, 1135 (2005)] that have necessitated the introduction of home ranges in the simple model of Hantavirus spread presented by Abramson and Kenkre [Phys. Rev. E 66, 11912 (2002)]. The essential feature of the model presented here is the existence of adult mice that remain largely confined to locations near their home ranges, and itinerant juvenile mice that are not so confined, and, during their search for their own homes, move and infect both other juveniles and adults that they meet during their movement. The model is presented at three levels of description: mean field, kinetic and configuration. Results of calculations are shown explicitly from the mean field equations and the simulation rules, and are found to agree in some respects and to differ in others. The origin of the differences is shown to lie in spatial correlations. It is indicated how mark-recapture observations in the field may be employed to verify the applicability of the theory.

  5. Flt3 Ligand Regulates the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Fetal and Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerenwaldt, Anne; von Burg, Nicole; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Sitte, Selina; Horvath, Edit; Peter, Annick; Voehringer, David; Rolink, Antonius G; Finke, Daniela

    2016-03-15

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) promotes survival of lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in regulating innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during fetal and adult life is not understood. By using Flt3L knockout and transgenic mice, we demonstrate that Flt3L controls ILC numbers by regulating the pool of α4β7(-) and α4β7(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cell progenitors in the fetal liver and common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Deletion of flt3l severely reduced the number of fetal liver progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the neonatal intestine, resulting in impaired development of Peyer's patches. In the adult intestine, NK cells and group 2 and 3 ILCs were severely reduced. This effect occurred independently of DCs as ILC numbers were normal in mice in which DCs were constitutively deleted. Finally, we could show that administration of Flt3L increased the number of NKp46(-) group 3 ILCs in wild-type and even in Il7(-/-) mice, which generally have reduced numbers of ILCs. Taken together, Flt3L significantly contributes to ILC and Peyer's patches development by targeting lymphoid progenitor cells during fetal and adult life. PMID:26851220

  6. Effects of Kerack used in addict Iranian people on fertility of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is one of the most serious social problems. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility. Kerack which its use is rising up in Iran refers to a high purity street-level heroin (heroin Kerack. Heroin Kerack used in Iran is an opioid and has harmful effects on body organs. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Kerack used in Iran on fertility adult mice.Methods: In this study, 25 male mice were divided into five groups (control, sham and three experimental. Experimental groups of Kerack-dependent mice (received ascend-ing dose of Kerack for seven days were divided into three categories, experimental I, II and III. Experimental I was given Kerack at a dose of 5 mg/kg, experimental II 35 mg/kg and experimental III 70 mg/kg, intraperitoneally twice a day for a period of 35 days. The sham group received normal saline and lemon juice (2.6 µl/ml whilst the control group just received water and food. Mice were then scarified and sperm removed from cauda epididymis were analyzed for sperm count, motility, morphology (normal/abnormal and viability. Testes were also removed, weighed and processed for light microscopic studies.Results: The results showed that fertility were significantly decreased in addicted mice compared with control groups (P≤0.05. Epididymal sperm parameters and thickness of seminiferous epithelium were significantly decreased in experimental groups (dose-dependent compared with sham and control groups (P≤0.05. Gonadosomatic index was significantly reduced with high dose Kerack injected (70 mg/kg in comparison with control testes (P≤0.05.Conclusion: This study has shown the deleterious effects of Kerack used in addicted Iranian people on fertility for the first time. This effect is especially on epididymal sperm parameters in adult mice.

  7. Impaired glucose metabolism in response to high fat diet in female mice conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF or ovarian stimulation alone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaoxin Chen

    Full Text Available Individuals conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF may be at increased risk of cardio-metabolic disorders. We recently reported that IVF conceived male mice displayed impaired glucose metabolism at normal and high body weights. In this study, we examined glucose metabolism in mature female C57BL/6J mice that were conceived by natural conception (NC, by ovarian stimulation (OS or by IVF following chow or high-fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks. By design, litter size was comparable between groups, but interestingly the birth weight of IVF and OS females was lower than NC females (p ≤ 0.001. Mature IVF female mice displayed increased fasting glucose as compared to NC and OS mice, irrespective of diet. Mature IVF and OS mice were also more susceptible to the metabolic consequences of high fat diet as compared with NC females, with impaired glucose tolerance (p ≤ 0.01, whereas peripheral insulin resistance and increased hepatic expression of gluconeogenic genes Ppargc1α, Pck1 and G6pc was observed in IVF mice only (p<0.05. This study suggests that ovarian stimulation alone and IVF program distinct metabolic effects in females, but that high fat diet may be required to unmask these effects. This study adds to the growing body of literature that assisted reproduction procedures may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in an obesity prone environment.

  8. Loss of L-FABP, SCP-2/SCP-x, or both induces hepatic lipid accumulation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Atshaves, Barbara P; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Kier, Ann B

    2015-08-15

    Although roles for both sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) have been proposed in hepatic lipid accumulation, individually ablating these genes has been complicated by concomitant alterations in the other gene product(s). For example, ablating SCP2/SCP-x induces upregulation of L-FABP in female mice. Therefore, the impact of ablating SCP-2/SCP-x (DKO) or L-FABP (LKO) individually or both together (TKO) was examined in female mice. Loss of SCP-2/SCP-x (DKO, TKO) more so than loss of L-FABP alone (LKO) increased hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol content, especially cholesteryl ester. Hepatic accumulation of nonesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and phospholipids occurred only in DKO and TKO mice. Loss of SCP-2/SCP-x (DKO, TKO) increased serum total lipid primarily by increasing triglycerides. Altered hepatic level of proteins involved in cholesterol uptake, efflux, and/or secretion was observed, but did not compensate for the loss of L-FABP, SCP-2/SCP-x or both. However, synergistic responses were not seen with the combinatorial knock out animals-suggesting that inhibiting SCP-2/SCP-x is more correlative with hepatic dysfunction than L-FABP. The DKO- and TKO-induced hepatic accumulation of cholesterol and long chain fatty acids shared significant phenotypic similarities with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:26116377

  9. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both chil-dren and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantiifed using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identiifed as regions with signiifcant group-wise differences. The identiifed regions were correlated with clinical scores relfecting de-pression and anxiety and signiifcant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain cir-cuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  10. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  11. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  12. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dr

  13. Developmental Exposure to Xenoestrogens at Low Doses Alters Femur Length and Tensile Strength in Adult Mice1

    OpenAIRE

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Carleton, Stephanie M.; Phillips, Charlotte L.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to high doses of the synthetic xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been reported to alter femur length and strength in adult mice. However, it is not known if developmental exposure to low, environmentally relevant doses of xenoestrogens alters adult bone geometry and strength. In this study we investigated the effects of developmental exposure to low doses of DES, bisphenol A (BPA), or ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on bone geometry and torsional strength. C57BL/6 mice ...

  14. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  15. Diffuse hair loss in an adult female: Approach to diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Telogen effluvium (TE is the most common cause of diffuse hair loss in adult females. TE, along with female pattern hair loss (FPHL and chronic telogen effluvium (CTE, accounts for the majority of diffuse alopecia cases. Abrupt, rapid, generalized shedding of normal club hairs, 2-3 months after a triggering event like parturition, high fever, major surgery, etc. indicates TE, while gradual diffuse hair loss with thinning of central scalp/widening of central parting line/frontotemporal recession indicates FPHL. Excessive, alarming diffuse shedding coming from a normal looking head with plenty of hairs and without an obvious cause is the hallmark of CTE, which is a distinct entity different from TE and FPHL. Apart from complete blood count and routine urine examination, levels of serum ferritin and T3, T4, and TSH should be checked in all cases of diffuse hair loss without a discernable cause, as iron deficiency and thyroid hormone disorders are the two common conditions often associated with diffuse hair loss, and most of the time, there are no apparent clinical features to suggest them. CTE is often confused with FPHL and can be reliably differentiated from it through biopsy which shows a normal histology in CTE and miniaturization with significant reduction of terminal to vellus hair ratio (T:V < 4:1 in FPHL. Repeated assurance, support, and explanation that the condition represents excessive shedding and not the actual loss of hairs, and it does not lead to baldness, are the guiding principles toward management of TE as well as CTE. TE is self limited and resolves in 3-6 months if the trigger is removed or treated, while the prognosis of CTE is less certain and may take 3-10 years for spontaneous resolution. Topical minoxidil 2% with or without antiandrogens, finestride, hair prosthesis, hair cosmetics, and hair surgery are the therapeutically available options for FPHL management.

  16. Female CREBαδ- deficient mice show earlier age-related cognitive deficits than males

    OpenAIRE

    Hebda-Bauer, Elaine K.; Luo, Jie; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2007-01-01

    Age-related changes in the hippocampus increase vulnerability to impaired learning and memory. Our goal is to understand how a genetic vulnerability to cognitive impairment can be modified by aging and sex. Mice with a mutation in the cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein gene (CREBαδ- deficient mice) have a mild cognitive impairment and show test condition-dependent learning and memory deficits. We tested 3 ages of CREBαδ- deficient and wild-type (WT) mice in 2 Morris water maze (MWM)...

  17. Effects of adult body size on fecundity and the pre-gravid rate of Anopheles gambiae females in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, E O; Takken, W

    1993-10-01

    The influence of adult body size on the pre-gravid state and fecundity was studied in Anopheles gambiae Giles females hand-caught inside houses and virgin females collected as pupae in Tanzania. Blood-fed mosquitoes were kept for 2-3 days before dissection and examination for insemination and ovarian condition. Those females which did not develop eggs were classified as pre-gravid. The number of mature eggs in those mosquitoes which became gravid was counted. Virgin females were fed and kept for egg maturation in the laboratory. Wing-length of females was measured as an index of mosquito size. The overall pre-gravid rate in the resting An.gambiae population was found to be 21% and, of these, 66% had been inseminated. In the virgin females the pre-gravid rate was 92.6%. The mean wing-length of wild females which became gravid was significantly larger than those which remained pre-gravid. There was a positive correlation between fecundity and wing-length. Smaller females tended to require two or three bloodmeals to facilitate completion of the first gonotrophic cycle. The critical size permitting oviposition from the first blood-meal was a wing-length of 3 mm. PMID:8268486

  18. Early life stress differentially modulates distinct forms of brain plasticity in young and adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Herpfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. CONCLUSION: Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood.

  19. Relative contributions of L-FABP, SCP-2/SCP-x, or both to hepatic biliary phenotype of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K; Howles, Philip N; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2015-12-15

    Both sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) have been proposed to function in hepatobiliary bile acid metabolism/accumulation. To begin to address this issue, the impact of ablating L-FABP (LKO) or SCP-2/SCP-x (DKO) individually or both together (TKO) was examined in female mice. Biliary bile acid levels were decreased in LKO, DKO, and TKO mice; however, hepatic bile acid concentration was decreased in LKO mice only. In contrast, biliary phospholipid level was decreased only in TKO mice, while biliary cholesterol levels were unaltered regardless of phenotype. The loss of either or both genes increased hepatic expression of the major bile acid synthetic enzymes (CYP7A1 and/or CYP27A1). Loss of L-FABP and/or SCP-2/SCP-x genes significantly altered the molecular composition of biliary bile acids, but not the proportion of conjugated/unconjugated bile acids or overall bile acid hydrophobicity index. These data suggested that L-FABP was more important in hepatic retention of bile acids, while SCP-2/SCP-x more broadly affected biliary bile acid and phospholipid levels. PMID:26541319

  20. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

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    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  1. Abdominal obesity, independent from caloric intake, accounts for the development of intestinal tumors in Apc(1638N/+) female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Derek M; Augenlicht, Leonard H; Zhang, Xueying; Lofrese, John J; Atzmon, Gil; Chamberland, John P; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether visceral fat (VF), independent of other confounders, is causally linked to intestinal tumorigenesis, we surgically removed visceral fat in Apc(1638/N+) mice. At 15 weeks of age, male and female Apc(1638/N+) mice were randomized to one of three groups: ad libitum, visceral fat removal (VF-) and ad libitum fed, or caloric restriction, and were studied for effects on tumorigenesis and survival. As compared with ad libitum, VF- and caloric restriction reduced macroadenomas to a similar extent (P visceral fat to intestinal cancer risk, and suggest that factors, other than known metabolic mediators, may impact tumor development. Furthermore, these data emphasize that strategies designed to deplete visceral fat stores in humans should be considered in the prevention of intestinal cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 177-87. ©2012 AACR. PMID:23466815

  2. Lack of effect on the chromosomal non-disjunction in aged female mice after low dose x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karyotypes were determined in 1064 embryos of aged C57/BL mothers. The virgin female mice were irradiated with 0, 4, 8 or 16 R of X-rays, respectively, and placed with young untreated males 5 days after irradiation. 10.5-days old embryos were recovered from the uterus. Aneuploid embryos classified as alive (heart beats observed at the dissection) were 1 monosomic in the control group (496 embryos) and 2 trisomics in the irradiated group (568 embryos). The number of aneuploid embryos classified as dead was 4 trisomic cases in the control group and 3 trisomics in the irradiated group. The data indicate that trisomic embryos are not uncommon in the mouse but are eliminated in post-implantation death. In contrast to the results of Yamamoto et al. the present data do not demonstrate an increased frequency of chromosome abnormalities in embryos of aged mice X-irradiated before mating as compared to non-irradiated ones

  3. Exercise prevents high-fat diet-induced impairment of flexible memory expression in the water maze and modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C; Jonas, W; Iggena, D; Empl, L; Rivalan, M; Wiedmer, P; Spranger, J; Hellweg, R; Winter, Y; Steiner, B

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is currently one of the most serious threats to human health in the western civilization. A growing body of evidence suggests that obesity is associated with cognitive dysfunction. Physical exercise not only improves fitness but it has also been shown in human and animal studies to increase hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and physical exercise both modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis has been demonstrated to play a role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, particularly flexible memory expression. Here, we investigated the effects of twelve weeks of HFD vs. control diet (CD) and voluntary physical activity (wheel running; -R) vs. inactivity (sedentary; -S) on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and flexible memory function in female C57Bl/6 mice assessed in the Morris water maze. HFD was initiated either in adolescent mice combined with long-term concurrent exercise (preventive approach) or in young adult mice with 14days of subsequent exercise (therapeutic approach). HFD resulted in impaired flexible memory expression only when initiated in adolescent (HFD-S) but not in young adult mice, which was successfully prevented by concurrent exercise (HFD-R). Histological analysis revealed a reduction of immature neurons in the hippocampus of the memory-impaired HFD-S mice of the preventive approach. Long-term physical exercise also led to accelerated spatial learning during the acquisition period, which was accompanied by increased numbers of newborn mature neurons (HFD-R and CD-R). Short-term exercise of 14days in the therapeutic group was not effective in improving spatial learning or memory. We show that (1) alterations in learning and flexible memory expression are accompanied by changes in the number of neuronal cells at different maturation stages; (2) these neuronal cells are in turn differently affected by HFD; (3) adolescent mice are specifically susceptible to the

  4. AgRP Neuron-Specific Deletion of Glucocorticoid Receptor Leads to Increased Energy Expenditure and Decreased Body Weight in Female Mice on a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Miyuki; Banno, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Mariko; Tominaga, Takashi; Onoue, Takeshi; Tsunekawa, Taku; Azuma, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Lu, Wenjun; Ito, Yoshihiro; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) expressed in the arcuate nucleus is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide, which increases food intake and reduces energy expenditure resulting in increases in body weight (BW). Glucocorticoids, key hormones that regulate energy balance, have been shown in rodents to regulate the expression of AgRP. In this study, we generated AgRP-specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-deficient (knockout [KO]) mice. Female and male KO mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) showed decreases in BW at the age of 6 weeks compared with wild-type mice, and the differences remained significant until 16 weeks old. The degree of resistance to diet-induced obesity was more robust in female than in male mice. On a chow diet, the female KO mice showed slightly but significantly attenuated weight gain compared with wild-type mice after 11 weeks, whereas there were no significant differences in BW in males between genotypes. Visceral fat pad mass was significantly decreased in female KO mice on HFD, whereas there were no significant differences in lean body mass between genotypes. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, oxygen consumption was significantly increased in female KO mice on HFD. In addition, the uncoupling protein-1 expression in the brown adipose tissues was increased in KO mice. These data demonstrate that the absence of GR signaling in AgRP neurons resulted in increases in energy expenditure accompanied by decreases in adiposity in mice fed HFD, indicating that GR signaling in AgRP neurons suppresses energy expenditure under HFD conditions. PMID:26889940

  5. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

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    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  6. Vulnerability of female germ cells in developing mice and monkeys to tritium, gamma rays, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During development female germ cells in both mouse and monkey are extremely sensitive to destruction by low-level chronic tritium exposure (via 3HOH in maternal drinking water). Practical significance of this stems from tritium's importance in nuclear energy production and as an environmental pollutant. In mice exposed from conception to 14 days of age, the LD50 level for oocytes is only 2 μCi per mililiter of body water. The present studies indicate that, for female germ cells in squirrel monkeys exposed in utero, the LD50 is even lower, about 0.5 μCi/ml. This striking sensitivity contrasts with reported radioresistance for primate oocytes, chiefly from acute x-irradiation experiments. The discrepancy is reconciled if germ cells in the fetal primate pass through a highly sensitive period of limited duration. In light of other data showing germ-cell loss following repeated semiweekly x-irradiation during late but not during mid gestation, these results indicate that exceedingly high sensitivity occurs probably about the middle of the last trimester, at which time the LD50 for monkey germ cells is, as for that of the mouse, less than 5 rads. Whereas highest radiosensitivity in primates is before birth, in mice it is after birth. To define the period of sensitivity more sharply, we measured oocyte responses to standard gamma-ray exposures in Swiss-Webster mice at various ages and found them to be maximal between days 5 and 19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), important as pollutants, also can destroy female germ cells effectively

  7. Re-expression of IGF-II is important for beta cell regeneration in adult mice.

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    Luxian Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The key factors which support re-expansion of beta cell numbers after injury are largely unknown. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II plays a critical role in supporting cell division and differentiation during ontogeny but its role in the adult is not known. In this study we investigated the effect of IGF-II on beta cell regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed an in vivo model of 'switchable' c-Myc-induced beta cell ablation, pIns-c-MycER(TAM, in which 90% of beta cells are lost following 11 days of c-Myc (Myc activation in vivo. Importantly, such ablation is normally followed by beta cell regeneration once Myc is deactivated, enabling functional studies of beta cell regeneration in vivo. IGF-II was shown to be re-expressed in the adult pancreas of pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/+ (MIG mice, following beta cell injury. As expected in the presence of IGF-II beta cell mass and numbers recover rapidly after ablation. In contrast, in pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/- (MIGKO mice, which express no IGF-II, recovery of beta cell mass and numbers were delayed and impaired. Despite failure of beta cell number increase, MIGKO mice recovered from hyperglycaemia, although this was delayed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that beta cell regeneration in adult mice depends on re-expression of IGF-II, and supports the utility of using such ablation-recovery models for identifying other potential factors critical for underpinning successful beta cell regeneration in vivo. The potential therapeutic benefits of manipulating the IGF-II signaling systems merit further exploration.

  8. Long-term wheel running changes on sensorimotor activity and skeletal muscle in male and female mice of accelerated senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Jaume F Lalanza; Alvarez-López, María Jesús; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Griñan-Ferré, Christian; Pallàs, Merce; Kaliman, Perla; Rosa M. Escorihuela

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is considered a useful non-transgenic model for studying aspects of aging. Using SAM resistant 1 (SAMR1) as controls, the long-term effects of wheel running on skeletal muscle adaptations and behavioral traits were evaluated in senescent (P8) and resistant (R1) male and female mice. Long-term wheel running (WR) led to increases in locomotor activity, benefits in sensorimotor function, and changes in body weight in a gender-dependent manner. WR ...

  9. Expression Pattern of Mouse Vasa Homologue (MVH) in the Ovaries of C57BL/6 Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kunkun; Ma, Wenwen; Huang, Cong; Ding, Jiahui; Cui, Dandan; Zhang, Mingmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vasa (a DEAD-box helicase, also known as Ddx4) is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase highly conserved among all animals. Research on the presence and function of DDX4 in female mammals is limited. To gain greater insight into its distribution and role in female mice, we detected the expression of DDX4 protein in the ovaries and analyzed its expression pattern. MATERIAL AND METHODS MVH was detected in the cytoplasm of oocytes in all non-apoptotic follicles. RESULTS In the present study, we found that higher expression levels of ~55-60 kDa MVH isoform in the ovaries were followed by the accumulations of preovulatory follicles. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of MVH protein in the ovaries might prepare oocytes for the competence to resume meiosis. PMID:27460133

  10. PI3K in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus mediates estrogenic actions on energy expenditure in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kenji; He, Yanlin; Yang, Yongjie; Zhu, Liangru; Wang, Chunmei; Xu, Pingwen; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Yan, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jean; Fukuda, Makoto; Tong, Qingchun; Clegg, Deborah J; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens act in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) to regulate body weight homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these estrogenic effects are unknown. We show that activation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) stimulates neural firing of VMH neurons expressing ERα, and these effects are blocked with intracellular application of a pharmacological inhibitor of the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Further, we demonstrated that mice with genetic inhibition of PI3K activity in VMH neurons showed a sexual dimorphic obese phenotype, with only female mutants being affected. In addition, inhibition of VMH PI3K activity blocked effects of 17β-estradiol to stimulate energy expenditure, but did not affect estrogen-induced anorexia. Collectively, our results indicate that PI3K activity in VMH neurons plays a physiologically relevant role in mediating estrogenic actions on energy expenditure in females. PMID:26988598

  11. The effect of repeated stress on KCC2 and NKCC1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of female mice

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    Takao Tsukahara

    2016-03-01

    The data were obtained from the hippocampus of female mice using single-plane confocal microscopy images. The mean fluorescence intensity of the perisomatic area of neurons, defined as raw fluorescence intensity (RFI was calculated. Repeated stress (RS resulted in a decrease in perisomatic area of immunoreactive (IR-KCC2 and an increase of the IR-NKCC1. In addition, RS decreased perisomatic IR-pKCC2ser940, corresponding to that of KCC2. The data in this article support the results of a previous study [1] and provide the details of immunohistological methods. Interpretation of the data in this article can be found in “Repeated stress-induced expression pattern alterations of the hippocampal chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 associated with behavioral abnormalities in female mice” by Tsukahara et al. [1].

  12. A Macular Hole in a Female Adult with Bilateral Coats Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzheng Chen; Feng Wen; Libing Jiang; Lezheng Wu

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of a macular hole in a female adult with bilateral Coats disease.Methods:The fundus photograph, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were performed in two eyes, and observed theirs characters.Results:Fundus photograph showed massive yellowish-white exudation in the temporal midperiphery of both eyes, but the degree was slighter in the right eye. There was 1/3 DD macular hole in left eye. FFA revealed general dilatation of capillaries, multiple aneurysms, and tortuous and closure of vessels in superotemporal midperiphery in both eyes, but the degree was slighter in the right eye. There was a one-third DD round transmitted fluorescence according the macula hole. ICGA revealed that hyperfluorescence of aneurysms in superotemporal midperiphery, the images of aneurysms were more clearly than in FFA. There was a 2/3 DD hypoflurescence of macula in the late phase of angiography.Conclusions: FFA and ICGA have respective advantage in revealing vascular abnormalities of Coats disease. Maybe there was some relationship between the abnormalities of retinal vascular and hypoperfusion of choroidial vascular in macula in this case.

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

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    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  14. Concordance between measured and estimated appendicular muscle mass in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekamwasam, S; Nanayakkara, J

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of a selected formula used to estimate the appendicular muscle mass (AMM) which is linked with many clinical outcomes. A group of community-dwelling adult women (n=80) had their AMM measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The same was estimated using a formula already published {Skeletal muscle mass = (0.244 × BW in kg) + (7.80 × Ht in meters) + (6.6 × Sex) - (0.098 × Age) + race - 3.3} (sex=0 for female and 1 for male, race =-1.2 for Asian, 1.4 for African American and 0 for White and Hispanic).The two datasets were compared for accuracy and precision. Mean AMM measured by DXA and estimated by the formula were very close (14.8 and 14.5 kg) and the difference ranged from -1.2 to 3.6 kg. Correlation between the two datasets was high (r=0.92) and the Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable measurement agreement between the two methods. Results were independent of age and BMI. The formula used in this analysis gave an accurate estimation of the absolute AMM in women included in this study. PMID:26520864

  15. Comparative microarray analyses of adult female midgut tissues from feeding Rhipicephalus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Willem A; Stutzer, Christian; Olivier, Nicholas A; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, has a debilitating effect on the livestock industry worldwide, owing to its being a vector of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. In South Africa, co-infestation with R. microplus and R. decoloratus, a common vector species on local livestock, occurs widely in the northern and eastern parts of the country. An alternative to chemical control methods is sought in the form of a tick vaccine to control these tick species. However, sequence information and transcriptional data for R. decoloratus is currently lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying genes that are shared between midgut tissues of feeding adult female R. microplus and R. decoloratus ticks. In this regard, a custom oligonucleotide microarray comprising of 13,477 R. microplus sequences was used for transcriptional profiling and 2476 genes were found to be shared between these Rhipicephalus species. In addition, 136 transcripts were found to be more abundantly expressed in R. decoloratus and 1084 in R. microplus. Chi-square analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are significantly overrepresented in R. microplus and R. decoloratus. This study is the first transcriptional profiling of R. decoloratus and is an additional resource that can be evaluated further in future studies for possible tick control. PMID:25448423

  16. Effect of voluntary running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cholinergic lesioned mice

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    Dawe Gavin S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic neuronal dysfunction of the basal forebrain is observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and has been linked to decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. Running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This study aims to address the effect of running on hippocampal neurogenesis in lesioned mice, where septohippocampal cholinergic neurones have been selectively eliminated in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain by infusion of mu-p75-saporin immunotoxin. Results Running increased the number of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in cholinergic denervated mice compared to non-lesioned mice 24 hours after injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Although similar levels of surviving cells were present in cholinergic depleted animals and their respective controls four weeks after injection of BrdU, the majority of progenitors that proliferate in response to the initial period of running were not able to survive beyond one month without cholinergic input. Despite this, the running-induced increase in the number of surviving neurones was not affected by cholinergic depletion. Conclusion The lesion paradigm used here models aspects of the cholinergic deficits associated with Alzheimer's Disease and aging. We showed that running still increased the number of newborn cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in this model of neurodegenerative disease.

  17. Intrinsic autoimmune capacities of hematopoietic cells from female New Zealand hybrid mice

    OpenAIRE

    David, Alexandria; Trigunaite, Abhishek; MacLeod, Megan K.; Johnson, Angela C.; Marrack, Philippa; Jørgensen, Trine N.

    2014-01-01

    Most systemic autoimmune diseases occur more frequently in females than in males. This is particularly evident in Sjögren’s Syndrome, Systemic Lupus Erythromatosis (SLE) and thyroid autoimmunity, where the ratio of females to males ranges from 20:1 to 8:1. Our understanding of the etiology of SLE implies important roles for genetics, environmental factors and sex hormones, but the relative significance of each remains unknown. Using the New Zealand hybrid mouse model system of SLE we present ...

  18. Effects of fetal exposure to gamma rays on aggressive behavior in adult male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior (AB) in first generation (F1) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated on the 14th day of gestation was studied at 100-135 days of age. Gravid female mice were irradiated with 1.0 or 2.0 Gy of gamma rays to the whole body. The AB of pairs of mice were recorded with a capacitance-induction motility monitor and on videotape. Recordings were continued for 90 min, starting at 2:00 PM. Vigorous wrestling, boxing and biting were regarded as AB. Data recorded at 15-min intervals were stored on micro-computer discs. The body weight for the irradiated group was significantly lower than that for the control group. The number of instances of AB was significantly higher in the irradiated group. The AB of the 2.0 Gy group was significantly more intensive than that of the control group. No difference in the duration of AB was found for the 2 irradiated and the control groups. Results demonstrate that male mice irradiated prenatally show increased aggressiveness. (author)

  19. The effect of fenbuconazole on cell proliferation and enzyme induction in the liver of female CD1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenbuconazole, a triazole fungicide, has been associated with an increase in the incidence of liver adenomas in female mice following long-term dietary exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the mode of action for liver tumor formation by fenbuconazole is similar to that of phenobarbital. Treatment of CD1 mice with 0, 20, 60, 180 or 1300 ppm fenbuconazole for up to 4 weeks caused a dose-dependent increase in liver weight that was associated with centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy, cytoplasmic eosinophilia and panlobular hepatocellular vacuolation, as well as an initial increase in the cell proliferation labeling index. Fenbuconazole also caused a dose-dependent increase in liver microsomal cytochromes b5 and P450 and the levels of immunoreactive CYP2B10 and its associated activity 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD). Treatment of mice with 1000 ppm phenobarbital elicited the same effects as treatment of mice with 1300 ppm fenbuconazole, except that phenobarbital was more effective than fenbuconazole at inducing PROD activity, even though fenbuconazole induced CYP2B10 to the same extent as did phenobarbital. This difference was attributed to the ability of fenbuconazole to bind tightly to CYP2B10 and partially mask its catalytic activity in liver microsomes, which is characteristic of several azole-containing drugs. All hepatocellular changes and induced enzyme activity returned to control levels within 4 weeks of discontinuing treatment with fenbuconazole or phenobarbital, indicating that the observed changes were fully reversible. We conclude that fenbuconazole is a phenobarbital-type inducer of mouse liver cytochrome P450, and the mode of action by which fenbuconazole induces liver adenomas in mice is similar to that of phenobarbital

  20. Studies on the ovary of female YYHL mice%豫医无毛小鼠卵巢观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱奎成; 章金涛; 王纯耀; 杜春燕; 邢金山

    2011-01-01

    To explore the effect of a mutation in the hr gene on ovaries of mouse. The study was designed to analyse the structure,apoptosis and cell cycle in YYHL mice by pathohistology and flow cytometry. The accumulation of cells in the G1 phase and a significant apoptosis were present in ovarian granulose cells of YYHL mice at 6 months compared with Y-YHL'mice at 2 months and from 2 to 6 months of age in wide-type mice. The results showed that the apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells induced by hairless gene may reduce reproductive capability in female YYHL mice.%为了探讨无毛基因的突变对小鼠卵巢的影响,采用病理组织学和流式细胞术研究豫医无毛小鼠卵巢的形态学以及卵巢颗粒细胞周期和凋亡的变化。结果显示6月龄无毛小鼠卵巢颗粒细胞Ap峰和G0/G1期显著高于2月龄无毛小鼠和2、6月龄昆明小鼠。该研究表明,无毛基因的突变诱发了小鼠卵巢颗粒细胞的凋亡,雌性突变小鼠怀孕困难。

  1. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPIAM and female RPIAF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  2. Constrained tibial vibration does not produce an anabolic bone response in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Blaine A; Kotiya, Akhilesh A; Silva, Matthew J

    2009-10-01

    and exposure to anesthesia was associated with significant loss of trabecular and cortical bone. We conclude that direct vibrational loading of bone in anesthetized, adult mice is not anabolic. PMID:19576309

  3. Abnormal motor phenotype at adult stages in mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Bárez-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4 but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2. To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. AIM: This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. RESULTS: Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice. No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction and skeletal muscle (33% reduction, but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1 is expressed. CONCLUSIONS: The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders.

  4. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  5. Enhanced muscle fatigue occurs in male but not female ASIC3-/- mice

    OpenAIRE

    Burnes, Lynn A.; Kolker, Sandra J.; Danielson, Jessica F.; Walder, Roxanne Y.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with a number of clinical diseases, including chronic pain conditions. Decreases in extracellular pH activates acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3), depolarizes muscle, protects against fatigue, and produces pain. We examined whether ASIC3-/- mice were more fatigable than ASIC3+/+ mice in a task-dependent manner. We developed two exercise protocols to measure exercise-induced muscle fatigue: ( fatigue task 1, three 1-h runs; fatigue task 2, three 30-min runs). In fa...

  6. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  7. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings. PMID:26960969

  8. Development of the adult neurogenic niche in the hippocampus of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina eNicola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When does adult hippocampal neurogenesis begin? We describe the development of the neurogenic niche in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We did so from the perspective of the situation in the adult.Ontogeny of the dentate gyrus is complex and results in an ectopic neurogenic niche that lifelong generates new granule cells. Neurogenesis during the fetal and early postnatal periods builds the dentate gyrus and gives way to activity-dependent adult neurogenesis. We used markers most relevant to adult neurogenesis research to describe this transition: Nestin, Sox2, BLBP, GFAP, Tbr2, Doublecortin (DCX, NeuroD1 and Prox1. We found that massive changes and a local condensation of proliferating precursor cells occurs between postnatal day 7 (P7, near the peak in proliferation, and P14. Before and around P7, the spatial distribution of cells and the co-localization of markers were distinct from the situation in the adult. Unlike the adult SGZ, the marker pair Nestin/Sox2 and the radial glial marker BLBP were not overlapping during embryonic development, presumably indicating different types of radial glia-like cells. Before P7 GFAP-positive cells in the hilus lacked the radial orientation that is characteristic of the adult type-1 cells. DCX, which is concentrated in type-2b and type-3 progenitor cells and early postmitotic neurons in the adult, showed diffuse expression before P7. Intermediate progenitor cell marker Tbr2 became restricted to the SGZ but was found in the granule cell layer and hilus before. Lineage markers NeuroD1 and Prox1 confirmed this pattern.We conclude that the neurogenic niche of adult neurogenesis is in place well before true adulthood. This might indicate that consistent with the hypothesized function of adult neurogenesis in activity-dependent plasticity, the early transition from postnatal neurogenesis to adult neurogenesis coincides with the time, when the young mice start to become active themselves.

  9. Comparison of the eight weeks of supplementation Creatine and Glutamine consumption along with resistance exercise on the level of ALP in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A eskandari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: in recent years, in order to improve power, speed, the increase in the volume of the musculature, preventing sports injuries and maintain the muscle performance athletes use from different resistance exercises and food supplements. In this regard, present study has been conducted with the aim of comparison the influence of an 8 week period consumption of creatine (2 gr.kg-1.day-1 in 1st week and 0.48 gr.kg-1.day-1during 2nd to 8th weeks and glutamine (1 gr.kg-1.day-1 from first to eighth weeks along with resistance exercise on level of ALP of female mice. Materials and methods: This experimental study was done on 80 Small adult female mice of Surrey species (28 ± 5 gram. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups of: resistance exercise, resistance exercise + creatine, resistance exercise + glutamine, resistance exercise + glutamine + creatine, creatine, glutamine, creatine + glutamine and control groups (N= 10. Resistance exercise (5 days a week was including: climbing (4 sets, 5 times repetition with two minutes rest between the sets from a ladder (with the height of one meter and including 26 steps and bearing 30 percent of the weight of the Mouse body (hanging from tail in the first week and the increasing it up to 200 percent of body weight till the last week of the experiment. During 48 hours after the last practice session of resistance exercise, the blood sample was taken and the the level of ALP has been measured. Findings:The results showed that the level of ALP enzyme in creatine + glutamine + resistance exercise groug had been increased in comparison with the control group (144.3 ± 15.86 in comparison with 234.7 ± 25.69 U.L-1 P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate Creatine and Glutamine supplementation consumption along with resistance exercise increases in the level of ALP enzyme in the liver of mice.

  10. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shanmugasundaram

    Full Text Available The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT and gastrointestinal (GI tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect.EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues.Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens.

  11. 哺乳期母鼠接触氯氰菊酯对雄性仔鼠睾酮合成的影响%Effects of cypermethrin exposure during lactation of female mice on testicular steroidogenesis in male baby mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素芳; 马兴好; 宁萑; 穆敏; 万艳梅; 徐德祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence on the testicular steroidogenesis synthesation during baby mice cut-milking period and adult period of male mice by the cypermethrin exposure during lactation of the female mice.Methods Fourteen dams of new-born mice were randomly divided into two groups, cypermethrin poisoning group and solution control group.Since the first day after baby delivery, the sternal mice in the cypermethrin poisoning group were given stomach cypermethrin poisoning, using the corn oil as the solution and the poison dose is 25mg/ kg, until the 21st day after the delivery when the baby mice has cut-milking.While the control group is given the gavagy of the corn oil of the same volume.In each group, 15 male baby mice were killed at 21st day and 70th day after delivery, respectively.Taking blood from the eye-balls, and separate the testes.Use radioimmunoassay (RIA) method to measure serum testosterone (T) and estrogen ( E2 ) levels.Use RT-PCR method to measure StAR in the testes and the mRNA expression level of testosterone synthetic enzymes.Use Western blot to meausre StAR in the testes and the protein expression level of testosterone synthetic enzymes.Results Cypermethrin exposure during lactation of the female mice significantly leads to the decrease of serum testosterone of the male baby mice ( P < 0.01 ) and the decrease of the testosterone in the testes ( P < 0.05 ) , having no influence of the famale hormones ( P < 0.05 ).And the cypermethrin exposure during lactation makes the significant decrease of the expression levels of the mRNA and the protein, of P450scc in the male baby mice testes, compared with the control group.And themRNA expression levels of StAR, 17β-HSD, and P450 17α decrease somewhat (P < 0.05), compared with the control group, but the protein expression levels of the above almost suffer no influence.Cypermethrin exposure during lactation of the female mice has almost no influence on the serum testosterone level

  12. A study on domestic violence against adult and adolescent females in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Madhutandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, domestic violence against females is common across culture, religion, class and ethnicity. There are various reasons for domestic violence and it might have serious health outcomes. Objectives: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, characteristics, reasons and the socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence, if any, and to find out the perceptions of the females to cope with the act of violence and to overcome the situation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken by interviewing 141 adult and adolescent females residing in a village of West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance (Chi-square test. Results: Out of 141 respondents, 33 (23.4% adult and adolescent females in this village were exposed to domestic violence in the past year. Among the demographic characteristics, statistically significant maximum prevalence was observed among 30-39 years age group, illiterate and unmarried females. For most of the females who were exposed to domestic violence, their husbands acted as the perpetrators (72.73% and they reported slapping as the specific act of physical assault (72.73%. Majority of the respondents reported that opportunity of education (31.9%, being economically productive (31.9% and better family income (23.4% would help them to overcome the situation. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for justified female empowerment and this calls for multidisciplinary approach to develop public health measures, which would most effectively address the problem of domestic violence.

  13. Effects of social defeat on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area in male and female California mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gian D; Steinman, Michael Q; Doig, Ian E; Hao, Rebecca; Trainor, Brian C

    2015-12-01

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have important functions related to rewards but are also activated in aversive contexts. Electrophysiology studies suggest that the degree to which VTA dopamine neurons respond to noxious stimuli is topographically organized across the dorsal-ventral extent. We used c-fos immunohistochemistry to examine the responses of VTA dopamine neurons in contexts of social defeat and social approach. Studying monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus) allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat on both males and females. Females exposed to three episodes of defeat, but not a single episode, had more tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)/c-fos-positive cells in the ventral (but not dorsal) VTA compared with controls. This observation suggests that repeated exposure to aversive contexts is necessary to trigger activation of VTA dopamine neurons. Defeat did not affect TH/c-fos colocalizations in males. We also examined the long-term effects of defeat on c-fos expression in a social interaction test. As previously reported, defeat reduced social interaction in females but not males. Surprisingly, there were no effects of defeat stress on TH/c-fos colocalizations in any subregion of the VTA. However, females had more TH/c-fos-positive cells than males across the entire VTA, and also had greater c-fos-positive cell counts in posterior subregions of the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results show that dopamine neurons in the VTA are more responsive to social contexts in females and that the ventral VTA in particular is sensitive to aversive contexts. PMID:26469289

  14. Impact of peptide ghrelin antagonists on metabolic syndrome in female obese mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Železná, Blanka; Matyšková, Resha; Maixnerová, Jana; Pýchová, Miroslava; Špolcová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Jurcovicová, J.; Haluzník, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, S1 (2010), s. 116-117. ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /31./. 05.09.2010-09.09.2010, Copenhagen] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DIO * OVX * mice * ghrelin antagonist Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  15. Human-relevant levels of added sugar consumption increase female mortality and lower male fitness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Suchy, Amanda K; Hugentobler, Sara A; Sosa, Mirtha M; Schwartz, Bradley L; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of added sugar has increased over recent decades and is correlated with numerous diseases. Rodent models have elucidated mechanisms of toxicity, but only at concentrations beyond typical human exposure. Here we show that comparatively low levels of added sugar consumption have substantial negative effects on mouse survival, competitive ability, and reproduction. Using Organismal Performance Assays--in which mice fed human-relevant concentrations of added sugar (25% kcal from a mixture of fructose and glucose, modeling high fructose corn syrup) and control mice compete in seminatural enclosures for territories, resources and mates--we demonstrate that fructose/glucose-fed females experience a twofold increase in mortality while fructose/glucose-fed males control 26% fewer territories and produce 25% less offspring. These findings represent the lowest level of sugar consumption shown to adversely affect mammalian health. Clinical defects of fructose/glucose-fed mice were decreased glucose clearance and increased fasting cholesterol. Our data highlight that physiological adversity can exist when clinical disruptions are minor, and suggest that Organismal Performance Assays represent a promising technique for unmasking negative effects of toxicants. PMID:23941916

  16. Long-lasting beneficial effects of central serotonin receptor 7 stimulation in female mice modeling Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Bianca; Chiodi, Valentina; Adriani, Walter; Lacivita, Enza; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Leopoldo, Marcello; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Fuso, Andrea; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R). This member of the serotonin receptor family-crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes-can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days) rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test), spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test) and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation) in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein (rp) S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to 2 months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R. PMID:25926782

  17. Long-lasting beneficial effects of central serotonin receptor 7 stimulation in female mice modeling Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca eDe Filippis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2 cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R. This member of the serotonin receptor family – crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes – can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test, spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to two months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R.

  18. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism, or urinary excretion. This study shows that dietary MRP in commercial diets are absorbed and excreted via the kidneys in cats. PMID:26812325

  19. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant effects of crocin on sperm quality in cyclophosphamide treated adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Zarei, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the anti-neoplastic drugs. Despite its numerous clinical applications, it has devastating effects on the testicles and declines the sperm quality in treated patients. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of crocin in improving the toxicity induced by CP in reproductive system. In this study, 24 male adult mice (6 to 8 weeks) were randomly divided into three groups, control group received normal saline (0.1 mL, IP, daily), the CP group recei...

  1. Distinct Effects of Chronic Dopaminergic Stimulation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Striatal Doublecortin Expression in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Rachele; Steigleder, Tobias; Schlachetzki, Johannes C. M.; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Schwab, Stefan; Winner, Beate; Winkler, Jürgen; Kohl, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    While adult neurogenesis is considered to be restricted to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ), recent studies in humans and rodents provide evidence for newly generated neurons in regions generally considered as non-neurogenic, e.g., the striatum. Stimulating dopaminergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and the DG most likely via D2/D3 dopamine (DA) receptors. Here, we investigated the effect of two distinct preferential D2/D3 DA agonists, Pramipexole (PPX), and Ropinirole (ROP), on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and striatum of adult naïve mice. To determine newly generated cells in the DG incorporating 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) a proliferation paradigm was performed in which two BrdU injections (100 mg/kg) were applied intraperitoneally within 12 h after a 14-days-DA agonist treatment. Interestingly, PPX, but not ROP significantly enhanced the proliferation in the DG by 42% compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-injected control mice. To analyze the proportion of newly generated cells differentiating into mature neurons, we quantified cells co-expressing BrdU and Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN) 32 days after the last of five BrdU injections (50 mg/kg) applied at the beginning of 14-days DA agonist or PBS administration. Again, PPX only enhanced neurogenesis in the DG significantly compared to ROP- and PBS-injected mice. Moreover, we explored the pro-neurogenic effect of both DA agonists in the striatum by quantifying neuroblasts expressing doublecortin (DCX) in the entire striatum, as well as in the dorsal and ventral sub-regions separately. We observed a significantly higher number of DCX+ neuroblasts in the dorsal compared to the ventral sub-region of the striatum in PPX-injected mice. These results suggest that the stimulation of hippocampal and dorsal striatal neurogenesis may be up-regulated by PPX. The increased generation of neural cells, both in constitutively active

  2. Distinct effects of chronic dopaminergic stimulation on hippocampal neurogenesis and striatal doublecortin expression in adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachele eSalvi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While adult neurogenesis is considered to be restricted to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG and the subventricular zone (SVZ, recent studies in humans and rodents provide evidence for newly generated neurons in regions generally considered as non-neurogenic, e.g. the striatum. Stimulating dopaminergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and the DG most likely via D2/D3 dopamine (DA receptors. Here, we investigated the effect of two distinct preferential D2/D3 DA agonists, Pramipexole (PPX and Ropinirole (ROP, on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and striatum of adult naïve mice. To determine newly generated cells in the DG incorporating 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU a proliferation paradigm was performed in which two BrdU injections (100 mg/kg were applied intraperitoneally within 12 hours after a 14-day-DA agonist treatment. Interestingly, PPX, but not ROP significantly enhanced the proliferation in the DG by 42% compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS-injected control mice. To analyze the proportion of newly generated cells differentiating into mature neurons, we quantified cells co-expressing BrdU and NeuN 32 days after the last of five BrdU injections (50 mg/kg applied at the beginning of 14-day DA agonist or PBS administration. Again, PPX only enhanced neurogenesis in the DG significantly compared to ROP- and PBS-injected mice. Moreover, we explored the pro-neurogenic effect of both DA agonists in the striatum by quantifying neuroblasts expressing doublecortin (DCX in the entire striatum, as well as in the dorsal and ventral sub-regions separately. We observed a significantly higher number of DCX+ neuroblasts in the dorsal compared to the ventral sub-region of the striatum in PPX-injected mice. These results suggest that the stimulation of hippocampal and dorsal striatal neurogenesis may be up-regulated by PPX. The increased generation of neural cells, both in constitutively active and

  3. Distinct Effects of Chronic Dopaminergic Stimulation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Striatal Doublecortin Expression in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Rachele; Steigleder, Tobias; Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Schwab, Stefan; Winner, Beate; Winkler, Jürgen; Kohl, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    While adult neurogenesis is considered to be restricted to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ), recent studies in humans and rodents provide evidence for newly generated neurons in regions generally considered as non-neurogenic, e.g., the striatum. Stimulating dopaminergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and the DG most likely via D2/D3 dopamine (DA) receptors. Here, we investigated the effect of two distinct preferential D2/D3 DA agonists, Pramipexole (PPX), and Ropinirole (ROP), on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and striatum of adult naïve mice. To determine newly generated cells in the DG incorporating 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) a proliferation paradigm was performed in which two BrdU injections (100 mg/kg) were applied intraperitoneally within 12 h after a 14-days-DA agonist treatment. Interestingly, PPX, but not ROP significantly enhanced the proliferation in the DG by 42% compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-injected control mice. To analyze the proportion of newly generated cells differentiating into mature neurons, we quantified cells co-expressing BrdU and Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN) 32 days after the last of five BrdU injections (50 mg/kg) applied at the beginning of 14-days DA agonist or PBS administration. Again, PPX only enhanced neurogenesis in the DG significantly compared to ROP- and PBS-injected mice. Moreover, we explored the pro-neurogenic effect of both DA agonists in the striatum by quantifying neuroblasts expressing doublecortin (DCX) in the entire striatum, as well as in the dorsal and ventral sub-regions separately. We observed a significantly higher number of DCX(+) neuroblasts in the dorsal compared to the ventral sub-region of the striatum in PPX-injected mice. These results suggest that the stimulation of hippocampal and dorsal striatal neurogenesis may be up-regulated by PPX. The increased generation of neural cells, both in constitutively active

  4. Short-term treatment with bisphenol-A leads to metabolic abnormalities in adult male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Thiago M.; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Maria Esmeria C.; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Nef, Serge; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adu...

  5. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders. PMID:25555360

  6. Regulation of plasma lipid homeostasis by hepatic lipoprotein lipase in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gan; Xu, Jun-Nan; Liu, Dong; Ding, Qingli; Liu, Meng-Na; Chen, Rong; Fan, Mengdi; Zhang, Ye; Zheng, Chao; Zou, Da-Jin; Lyu, Jianxin; Zhang, Weiping J

    2016-07-01

    LPL is a pivotal rate-limiting enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of TG in circulation, and plays a critical role in regulating lipid metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to LPL in the adult liver due to its relatively low expression. Here we show that endogenous hepatic LPL plays an important physiological role in plasma lipid homeostasis in adult mice. We generated a mouse model with the Lpl gene specifically ablated in hepatocytes with the Cre/LoxP approach, and found that specific deletion of hepatic Lpl resulted in a significant decrease in plasma LPL contents and activity. As a result, the postprandial TG clearance was markedly impaired, and plasma TG and cholesterol levels were significantly elevated. However, deficiency of hepatic Lpl did not change the liver TG and cholesterol contents or glucose homeostasis. Taken together, our study reveals that hepatic LPL is involved in the regulation of plasma LPL activity and lipid homeostasis. PMID:27234787

  7. Does radioadaptive response also apply to the case of heavy-ion irradiations in fetal and adult mice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible induction of adaptive response (AR) by the high LET accelerated heavy ion irradiations (HI) is being attempted both in young adult female mice and in fetal mice of C57BL/6J Jms strain, using growth delay, hematopoietic damage and reduced survival in utero, prenatal growth delay, malformation and death in utero as endpoints. Investigations are to verify if priming dose from low LET X-irradiation could induce an AR against the detrimental effects from the high challenging dose of HI, if priming dose from HI could induce an AR against the high challenging dose from low LET X-irradiations, and if an AR could be induced when both priming and challenging doses are from HI. Three kinds of HI are being examined: carbon, silicon and iron, with the LET values of about 15, 55, and 200 keV/micrometer, respectively. Results show, at whole body level for the first time, that priming dose of low LET X-irradiations could induce AR both in vivo and in utero against the challenging dose from high LET HI, and priming dose from high LET HI could induce AR against the challenging dose from low LET X-irradiations in vivo. The remaining questions that if priming dose from HI could induce an AR against the challenging dose from low LET X-irradiations in ulero, if an AR could be induced both in vivo and in utero when both priming and challenging doses are from HI, and if there is any LET dependency in AR induction at whole body level, are still to be answered by further intensive investigations. (author)

  8. Does radioadaptive response also apply to the case of heavy-ion irradiations in fetal and adult mice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible induction of adaptive response (AR) by the high linear energy transfer (LET) accelerated heavy ion irradiations (HI) is being attempted both in young adult female mice and in fetal mice of C57BL/6J Jms strain, using growth delay, hematopoietic damage and reduced survival in vivo, prenatal growth delay, malformation and death in utero as endpoints. Investigations are to verify if priming dose from low LET X-irradiation could induce an AR against the detrimental effects from the high challenging dose of HI, if priming dose from HI could induce an AR against the high challenging dose from low LET X-irradiations, and if an AR could be induced when both priming and challenging doses are from HI. Four kinds of HI are being examined: carbon, neon, silicon and iron, with the LET values of about 15, 30, 55, and 200 keV/micrometer, respectively. Results show that the priming low dose X-irradiations could induce AR against high LET heavy-ion challenging irradiations from carbon and silicon beams in vivo and in utero, but not iron ions in vivo; the priming low dose carbon-ion irradiations could induce AR against the high challenging irradiations in vivo from X-rays or carbon ions, but not silicon and iron ions; priming dose from carbon, silicon or iron ions could not induce any AR against challenging dose from X-rays in utero. It seems that AR induction at whole body level is radiation quality-related event. Further investigations are needed to answer if this event is of LET- or/and nuclide-dependency. (author)

  9. Neuropeptidergic regulation of digestion and food-dependent reproduction in the adult female flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis

    OpenAIRE

    Bil, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Many flesh fly species are anautogenous. Due to their life style, these flies have a negative impact on livestock since they can cause myiasis. Anautogeny is a kind of reproductive strategy, where adult female insects requirea proteinaceous meal in order to initiate vitellogenesis - the large scale synthesis of yolk proteins and their subsequent uptake by the developing oocytes. The expression of yolk protein precursor genes is tightly controlled by the nutritional state of the organism. I...

  10. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  11. Impact of female adult eating disorder inpatients’ attitudes to compulsive exercise on outcome at discharge and follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Marit; Rø, Øyvind; Romild, Ulla; Bjørnelv, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The link between compulsive exercise and eating disorders is well known, but research with clinical samples has been limited. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in attitudes towards compulsive exercise and its impact on outcome at follow-up in female adult hospitalised patients with eating disorders. Methods The sample consisted of 78 patients: Diagnostic distribution: anorexia nervosa 59 % (n = 46), approximately 22 % (n = 16) in bulimia nervosa, and Eating Disord...

  12. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle ad...

  13. Phthalate concentrations in personal care products and the cumulative exposure to female adults and infants in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiaqin; Wang, Min; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yaobin; He, Yuping; Yang, Jielin; Gao, Xi; Li, Shuguang; Ding, Zhuoping; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PE) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry, and have been detected in personal care products (PCP). Recent findings of human reports demonstrated endocrine-disrupting action associated with phthalate exposures. The aims of this study were to (1) measure levels of 11 PE in 198 PCP collected from retail markets in Shanghai and (2) assess daily dermal exposure in adult females and infants. The health risk of cumulative exposure to eight PE on reproductive system function derived from dermal PCP use was further assessed by utilizing the hazard index (HI) approach. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was the most frequently detected compound (29.8%), followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) (6.6%). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of daily exposure to DEP, bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), DiBP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female adults were 0.018, 0.012, 0.002, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, respectively. The GM daily exposure levels to PE in infants and adult females were similar except for DEHP, which was higher in infants. DEP exposure was highest in both subpopulations at either GM or maximal level. All HI of 8 PE were far less than 1, ranging from 0.0002 to 0.005, indicating no cumulative reproductive risks to these populations. DBP, DMEP, and DEHP were three major contributors to the cumulative HI. In summary, the level of phthalate in PCP from Shanghai retail markets posed no apparent cumulative risk to adult females and infants in China. PMID:25734628

  14. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt Robert G; Bradshaw Corey JA; Wheatley Kathryn E; Davis Lloyd S; Hindell Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demandi...

  15. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8(-/-) mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. PMID:27328324

  16. Activation of BDNF Signaling Prevents the Return of Fear in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R.; Li, Xiang; Bredy, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    There are significant sex differences in vulnerability to develop fear-related anxiety disorders. Females exhibit twice the rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as males and sex differences have been observed in fear extinction learning in both humans and rodents, with a failure to inhibit fear emerging as a precipitating factor in the…

  17. Effect of sulphur-35 on female gonadal cell kinetics in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hazards of internally administered 35S which is used as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent in human medicine are assessed. It is observed in the study that the treatment of females during pregnancy results in 35S incorporation into ovaries of the embryos and may result in infertility and abortions or miscarriages. (author)

  18. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  19. Dissimilar genome response to acute and chronic low-dose radiation in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term genetic consequences of chronic exposure to low-dose irradiation constitutes a major concern to the general public and research community, especially as chronic radiation has recently been proven to be much more mutagenic and carcinogenic than previously thought. Here we report the results of the first ever comparison of the effects of acute and chronic whole body low-dose radiation exposure on global gene expression. We found a substantial difference between males and females in the expression of genes involved in signaling, growth control, transcription and other pathways upon acute and chronic radiation exposure. Specifically, we found sex differences in the expression of genes coding for G protein-coupled receptors and nuclear receptors. We also found different induction of PKCδ, PKCβ and PKCμ, members of PKC signaling pathway as well as in TGF and WNT signaling in males and females. Very pronounced difference, that was confirmed on the level of protein, was observed in the expression of WNT5A that plays an important role in carcinogenesis and muscle regeneration. WNT5A expression was significantly elevated only in chronically exposed females. We also provide the first evidence of the effect of ionizing radiation on the estrogen receptor in females. Repetitive irradiation of muscle tissue has been linked to development of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), which, enigmatically, occurs more frequently in males. Our data may be used to study possible mechanisms of RMS development upon chronic radiation exposure. They may provide some clues about the molecular background of the sex differences of RMS occurrence and may in the future lead to the discovery of new biomarkers for RMS predisposition in the irradiated tissue. Overall, differences in male and female responses to acute and chronic low-dose radiation obtained by this study were more drastic than we could have predicted. If confirmed in other experimental systems, these findings could potentially lead

  20. Probiotic Use Decreases Intestinal Inflammation and Increases Bone Density in Healthy Male but not Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Laura R.; Irwin, Regina; Schaefer, Laura; Britton, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis can result from intestinal inflammation, as is seen with inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics, microorganisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, can have anti-inflammatory properties and are currently being examined to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we examined if treating healthy male mice with Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (a candidate probiotic with anti-TNFα activity) could affect intestinal TNFα levels and enhance bo...

  1. Estrogen receptor β-deficient female mice develop a bladder phenotype resembling human interstitial cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Imamov, Otabek; Yakimchuk, Konstantin; Morani, Andrea; Schwend, Thomas; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Razumov, Sergei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is a disease seen mostly in women, and symptoms tend to be worse premenopausally or during ovulation. The four cardinal symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome are bladder pain, urgency, frequency, and nocturia. Estrogen has been implicated in the etiology of this disease, but the role of the two estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, has not been investigated. We found that, in the bladders of WT mice, ERβ is expressed in the b...

  2. GDF9 Modulates the Reproductive and Tumor Phenotype of Female Inha-Null Mice1

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Michelle; Mansouri-Attia, Nadera; James, Rebecca; Peng, Jia; Pangas, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Intraovarian factors play important roles in coordinating germ cell and somatic cell growth in the ovary. Prior to the onset of gonadotropin stimulation and reproductive cyclicity, follicle development is dependent upon locally produced growth factors, such as the transforming growth factor beta family members inhibin, activin, and GDF9. In the absence of inhibin in prepubertal mice (Inha−/−), there are marked alterations in preantral follicle growth, but no evidence of ovarian tumors charact...

  3. Nature of fatty acids in high fat diets differentially delineates obesity-linked metabolic syndrome components in male and female C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Akoum Souhad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse effects of high-fat diets (HFD on metabolic homeostasis are linked to adipose tissue dysfunction. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the HFD nature on adipose tissue activity, metabolic disturbances and glucose homeostasis alterations in male mice compared with female mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed either a chow diet or HFD including vegetal (VD or animal (AD fat. Body weight, plasmatic parameters and adipose tissue mRNA expression levels of key genes were evaluated after 20 weeks of HFD feeding. Results HFD-fed mice were significantly heavier than control at the end of the protocol. Greater abdominal visceral fat accumulation was observed in mice fed with AD compared to those fed a chow diet or VD. Correlated with weight gain, leptin levels in systemic circulation were increased in HFD-fed mice in both sexes with a significant higher level in AD group compared to VD group. Circulating adiponectin levels as well as adipose tissue mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased in HFD-fed male mice. Although its plasma levels remained unchanged in females, adiponectin mRNA levels were significantly reduced in adipose tissue of both HFD-fed groups with a more marked decrease in AD group compared to VD group. Only HFD-fed male mice were diabetic with increased fasting glycaemia. On the other hand, insulin levels were only increased in AD-fed group in both sexes associated with increased resistin levels. VD did not induce any apparent metabolic alteration in females despite the increased weight gain. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors gamma-2 (PPARγ2 and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα mRNA expression levels in adipose tissue were decreased up to 70% in HFD-fed mice but were more markedly reduced in male mice as compared with female mice. Conclusions The nature of dietary fat determines the extent of metabolic alterations reflected in adipocytes through modifications in the pattern of

  4. How women play mobile games: Studying the consumer culture of mobile games among young adult females

    OpenAIRE

    Liimatainen, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Female players have interested researchers and industry professionals ever since the video games market started notably growing again after the mid-80s. Numerous studies motivated by the desire to grow the female demographic of games have studied female preferences and obstacles of adoption i.a. Since then, the video games market has developed significantly and continues growing with an increasing speed. A significant part of this growth is due to the advancements in mobile games that have ex...

  5. Elevation of dopamine level reduces host-seeking activity in the adult female mosquito Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumitsu Yuki; Irie Keiichi; Satho Tomomitsu; Aonuma Hitoshi; Dieng Hamady; Ahmad Abu; Nakashima Yukihiko; Mishima Kenichi; Kashige Nobuhiro; Miake Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquito-borne viruses are transmitted to human hosts via blood-feeding behavior of female mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes seek a host to take blood meals (host-seeking behavior). In order to prevent virus infections, it is important to understand how they modulate host-seeking behavior. Dopamine (DA) in the central nervous system acts as a neuromediator that regulates a variety of behaviors in insects. In female mosquitoes, host-seeking behavior increases when DA levels in ...

  6. Redox proteomic analysis of the gastrocnemius muscle from adult and old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Brian; Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Smith, Neil T; Brownridge, Philip; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2015-09-01

    The data provides information in support of the research article, "Differential Cysteine Labeling and Global Label-Free Proteomics Reveals an Altered Metabolic State in Skeletal Muscle Aging", Journal of Proteome Research, 2014, 13 (11), 2008-21 [1]. Raw data is available from ProteomeXchange [2] with identifier PDX001054. The proteome of gastrocnemius muscle from adult and old mice was analyzed by global label-free proteomics and the relative quantification of specific reduced and reversibly oxidized Cysteine (Cys) residues was performed using Skyline [3]. Briefly, reduced Cysteine (Cys) containing peptides was alkylated using N-ethylmalemide (d0-NEM). Samples were desalted and reversibly oxidized Cys residues were reduced using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and the newly formed reduced Cys residues were labeled with heavy NEM( d5-NEM). Label-free analysis of the global proteome of adult (n=5) and old (n=4) gastrocnemius muscles was performed using Peaks7™ mass spectrometry data analysis software [4]. Relative quantification of Cys containing peptides that were identified as reduced (d(0) NEM labeled) and reversibly oxidized d(5)-NEM labeled was performed using the intensity of their precursor ions in Skyline. Results indicate that muscles from old mice show reduced redox flexibility particularly in proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response. PMID:26217813

  7. Ginkgo biloba Extract Prevents Female Mice from Ischemic Brain Damage and the Mechanism Is Independent of the HO1/Wnt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsulkar, Jatin; Glueck, Bryan; Hinds, Terry D; Shah, Zahoor A

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that gender differences exist in experimental or clinical stroke with respect to brain damage and loss of functional outcome. We have previously reported neuroprotective properties of Ginkgo biloba/EGb 761® (EGb 761) in transient and permanent mouse models of brain ischemia using male mice, and the mechanism of action was attributed to the upregulation of the heme oxygenase 1 (HO1)/Wnt pathway. Here, we sought to investigate whether EGb 761's protective effect in ovariectomized female mice following stroke is also mediated by the HO1/Wnt pathway. Female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to remove the protective effect of estrogen and were treated with EGb 761 for 7 days prior to inducing permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and allowed to survive for an additional 7 days. At day 8, animals were sacrificed, and the brains were harvested for infarct volume analysis, western blots, and immunohistochemistry. The OVX female mice treated with EGb 761 showed significantly lower infarct size as compared to Veh/OVX animals. EGb 761 treatment in female mice inhibited apoptosis by preventing caspase-3 cleavage and blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. EGb 761 pretreatment significantly enhanced neurogenesis in OVX mice as compared to the Veh/OVX group and significantly upregulated androgen receptor expression with no changes in HO1/Wnt signaling. These results suggest that EGb 761 prevented brain damage in OVX female mice by improving grip strength and neurological deficits, and the mechanism of action is not through HO1/Wnt but via blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:26573919

  8. The impact of Ly6Clow monocytes after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jean-Philippe; Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro Moreno; Tremblay, Yannick; Rivest, Serge

    2014-01-01

    After an ischemic stroke, mononuclear phagocytic cells such as microglia, macrophages, and monocytes migrate to the lesion site and coordinate an immune response. Monocytes, which are recruited from the bloodstream after ischemic brain injury, can be categorized into two subsets in mice: inflammatory and patrolling monocytes. Although inflammatory monocytes (Ly6Chi) seem to have a protective role in stroke progression, the impact of patrolling monocytes (Ly6Clow) is unknown. To address the role of Ly6Clow monocytes in stroke, we generated bone marrow chimeric mice in which their hematopoietic system was replaced by Nr4a1−/− cells, allowing the complete and permanent ablation of Ly6Clow monocytes without affecting the Ly6Chi subset. We then subjected adult mice to cerebral hypoxia-ischemia using the Levine/Vannucci model. Functional outcomes after stroke such as body weight change, neurologic score, motor functions and spatial learning were not affected. Moreover, depletion in Ly6Clow monocytes did not change significantly the total infarct size, cell loss, atrophy, the number, or the activation state of microglia/macrophages at the lesion site. These data suggest that Ly6Clow patrolling monocytes are redundant in the progression and recovery of ischemic stroke. PMID:24780898

  9. Triclosan exacerbates the presence of 14C-bisphenol A in tissues of female and male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current human generations are commonly exposed to both triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent, and bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxies. Both are readily absorbed into circulation and found distributed among diverse tissues. Potential interactions between TCS and BPA are largely unstudied. We investigated whether TCS exposure affects the distribution of ingested 14C-BPA in select tissues. CF-1 mice were each subcutaneously injected with TCS then orally administered 50 μg/kg 14C-BPA. Females received 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1, 2, or 18 mg TCS (equivalent respectively to 0, 6.3, 16.9, 30.1, 60.5, and 558.9 mg/kg). Males received 0, 0.2, 2, or 18 mg TCS (equivalent respectively to 0, 5.3, 53.4, and 415.0 mg/kg). Levels of radioactivity were measured through liquid scintillation counting in blood serum and brain, reproductive, and other tissues. Significantly elevated levels of radioactivity were observed following combined TCS and 14C-BPA administration, with minimally effective TCS doses being tissue-dependent (Females: lungs, 0.6 mg; uterus, 1 mg; heart, muscle, ovaries, and serum, 18 mg. Males: serum, 0.2 mg; epididymides, 2 mg). Subsequently, we found that 2 or 6 mg TCS increased radioactivity in the ovaries and serum of females orally given only 5 μg/kg 14C-BPA. These data indicate that TCS can interact with BPA in vivo, magnifying its presence in certain tissues and serum. The data are consistent with evidence that TCS utilizes enzymes that are critical for metabolism and excretion of BPA. Further research should investigate the mechanisms through which these two chemicals interact at environmentally-relevant doses. - Highlights: • We examined whether triclosan exposure affects the distribution of oral 14C-BPA. • Radioactivity was elevated in select tissues of mice injected sc with triclosan. • In females, this effect was most pronounced in the uterus, ovaries, and lungs. • In males, this effect was most prominent in the blood

  10. Triclosan exacerbates the presence of {sup 14}C-bisphenol A in tissues of female and male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Tyler; Tang, Brandon; Catanzaro, Denys de, E-mail: decatanz@mcmaster.ca

    2014-07-15

    Current human generations are commonly exposed to both triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent, and bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxies. Both are readily absorbed into circulation and found distributed among diverse tissues. Potential interactions between TCS and BPA are largely unstudied. We investigated whether TCS exposure affects the distribution of ingested {sup 14}C-BPA in select tissues. CF-1 mice were each subcutaneously injected with TCS then orally administered 50 μg/kg {sup 14}C-BPA. Females received 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1, 2, or 18 mg TCS (equivalent respectively to 0, 6.3, 16.9, 30.1, 60.5, and 558.9 mg/kg). Males received 0, 0.2, 2, or 18 mg TCS (equivalent respectively to 0, 5.3, 53.4, and 415.0 mg/kg). Levels of radioactivity were measured through liquid scintillation counting in blood serum and brain, reproductive, and other tissues. Significantly elevated levels of radioactivity were observed following combined TCS and {sup 14}C-BPA administration, with minimally effective TCS doses being tissue-dependent (Females: lungs, 0.6 mg; uterus, 1 mg; heart, muscle, ovaries, and serum, 18 mg. Males: serum, 0.2 mg; epididymides, 2 mg). Subsequently, we found that 2 or 6 mg TCS increased radioactivity in the ovaries and serum of females orally given only 5 μg/kg {sup 14}C-BPA. These data indicate that TCS can interact with BPA in vivo, magnifying its presence in certain tissues and serum. The data are consistent with evidence that TCS utilizes enzymes that are critical for metabolism and excretion of BPA. Further research should investigate the mechanisms through which these two chemicals interact at environmentally-relevant doses. - Highlights: • We examined whether triclosan exposure affects the distribution of oral {sup 14}C-BPA. • Radioactivity was elevated in select tissues of mice injected sc with triclosan. • In females, this effect was most pronounced in the uterus, ovaries, and lungs. • In males, this effect was

  11. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    OpenAIRE

    McLachlan, Sandra M.; Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for in...

  12. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs Accumulation by Pyridoxamine Modulates Glomerular and Mesangial Cell Estrogen Receptor α Expression in Aged Female Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pereira-Simon

    Full Text Available Age-related increases in oxidant stress (OS play a role in regulation of estrogen receptor (ER expression in the kidneys. In this study, we establish that in vivo 17β-estradiol (E2 replacement can no longer upregulate glomerular ER expression by 21 months of age in female mice (anestrous. We hypothesized that advanced glycation end product (AGE accumulation, an important source of oxidant stress, contributes to these glomerular ER expression alterations. We treated 19-month old ovariectomized female mice with pyridoxamine (Pyr, a potent AGE inhibitor, in the presence or absence of E2 replacement. Glomerular ERα mRNA expression was upregulated in mice treated with both Pyr and E2 replacement and TGFβ mRNA expression decreased compared to controls. Histological sections of kidneys demonstrated decreased type IV collagen deposition in mice receiving Pyr and E2 compared to placebo control mice. In addition, anti-AGE defenses Sirtuin1 (SIRT1 and advanced glycation receptor 1 (AGER1 were also upregulated in glomeruli following treatment with Pyr and E2. Mesangial cells isolated from all groups of mice demonstrated similar ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression changes to those of whole glomeruli. To demonstrate that AGE accumulation contributes to the observed age-related changes in the glomeruli of aged female mice, we treated mesangial cells from young female mice with AGE-BSA and found similar downregulation of ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression. These results suggest that inhibition of intracellular AGE accumulation with pyridoxamine may protect glomeruli against age-related oxidant stress by preventing an increase of TGFβ production and by regulation of the estrogen receptor.

  13. Sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine oxidation and the methionine and folate cycles in female cystathionine gamma-lyase null mice: a serendipitous model of the methylfolate trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap.

  14. Knockout of p11 attenuates the acquisition and reinstatement of cocaine conditioned place preference in male but not in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Malave, Lauren; Delis, Foteini; Mangine, Paul; Kane, Katie; Grunseich, Adam; Vitale, Melissa; Greengard, Paul; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-07-01

    Cocaine's enhancement of dopamine signaling is crucial for its rewarding effects but its serotonergic effects are also relevant. Here we examined the role of the protein p11, which recruits serotonin 5HT1B and 5HT4 receptors to the cell surface, in cocaine reward. For this purpose we tested wild-type (WT) and p11 knockout (KO) male and female mice for cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) and its cocaine-induced reinstatement at different abstinence times, after 8 days of extinction and 28 days of being home-caged. All mice showed significant cocaine CPP. Among males, p11KO showed lower CPP than WT; this difference was also evident after 28 days of home-cage abstinence. In contrast, in females there were no CPP differences between p11KO and WT mice at any time point tested. Cocaine priming after the 28-day home-cage abstinence period also resulted in lower cocaine conditioned motor activity in both male and female p11KO mice. These results suggest that cocaine CPP and its persistence during extinction and reinstatement are modulated in a sex-differentiated manner by p11. The lack of protein p11 confers protection from CPP on male, but not female mice, immediately after cocaine conditioning as well as after prolonged abstinence, but not after short-term withdrawal. Synapse 70:293-301, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990537

  15. CDKL5 knockout leads to altered inhibitory transmission in the cerebellum of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivilia, S; Mangano, C; Beggiato, S; Giuliani, A; Torricella, R; Baldassarro, V A; Fernandez, M; Lorenzini, L; Giardino, L; Borelli, A C; Ferraro, L; Calzà, L

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) are associated to severe neurodevelopmental alterations including motor symptoms. In order to elucidate the neurobiological substrate of motor symptoms in CDKL5 syndrome, we investigated the motor function, GABA and glutamate pathways in the cerebellum of CDKL5 knockout female mice. Behavioural data indicate that CDKL5-KO mice displayed impaired motor coordination on the Rotarod test, and altered steps, as measured by the gait analysis using the CatWalk test. A higher reduction in spontaneous GABA efflux, than that in glutamate, was observed in CDKL5-KO mouse cerebellar synaptosomes, leading to a significant increase of spontaneous glutamate/GABA efflux ratio in these animals. On the contrary, there were no differences between groups in K(+) -evoked GABA and glutamate efflux. The anatomical analysis of cerebellar excitatory and inhibitory pathways showed a selective defect of the GABA-related marker GAD67 in the molecular layer in CDKL5-KO mice, while the glutamatergic marker VGLUT1 was unchanged in the same area. Fine cerebellar structural abnormalities such as a reduction of the inhibitory basket 'net' estimated volume and an increase of the pinceau estimated volume were also observed in CDKL5-KO mice. Finally, the BDNF mRNA expression level in the cerebellum, but not in the hippocampus, was reduced compared with WT animals. These data suggest that CDKL5 deletion during development more markedly impairs the establishment of a correct GABAergic cerebellar network than that of glutamatergic one, leading to the behavioural symptoms associated with CDKL5 mutation. PMID:27108663

  16. Genotoxic effects of bisphenol A on somatic cells of female mice, alone and in combination with X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajowik, Aneta; Radzikowska, Joanna; Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate, and polystyrene resins, is a xenoestrogen present in many consumer products. We investigated the effects of 2-week exposure to BPA, either alone or in combination with X-rays, on the induction of DNA damage in somatic cells of female mice in vivo. The micronucleus and alkaline comet assays were used to evaluate genotoxicity. BPA induced DNA strand breaks in lung cells but not in bone marrow lymphocytes, liver, kidney, or spleen cells. Induction of micronuclei was observed only in polychromatic reticulocytes of peripheral blood. Levels of damage following combination exposure to ionizing radiation plus BPA depended on tissue, assay, and time. PMID:23954285

  17. Thalidomide enhances both primary and secondary host resistances to Listeria monocytogenes infection by a neutrophil-related mechanism in female B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, we have reported that thalidomide can modulate the immune responses in female B6C3F1 mice. Furthermore, thalidomide immunomodulation increased primary host resistance to intravenously infected Listeria monocytogenes. The present study was intended to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the enhanced host resistance to L. monocytogenes by focusing on the neutrophils. Female B6C3F1 mice were treated intraperitoneally with thalidomide (100 mg/kg) for 15 days. Exposure to thalidomide increased the numbers of neutrophils in the spleens and livers of L. monocytogenes-infected mice when compared to the L. monocytogenes-infected control mice. Additionally, the percentage of neutrophils was also significantly increased after Thd treatment in L. monocytogenes-infected mice. Further studies using antibodies to deplete corresponding cells indicated that thalidomide-mediated increase in primary host resistance (both the moribundity and colony counts in the liver and spleen) to L. monocytogenes infection was due to its effect on neutrophils but not CD8+ T cells or NK cells. Finally, Thd exposure also increased host resistance to secondary host resistance to L. monocytogenes infection, and depletion of neutrophils abolished the protective effect. In conclusion, thalidomide enhanced host resistance to both primary and secondary L. monocytogenes infections by a neutrophil-related mechanism in female B6C3F1 mice

  18. Thalidomide enhances both primary and secondary host resistances to Listeria monocytogenes infection by a neutrophil-related mechanism in female B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tai L; Chi, Rui P; Karrow, Niel A; Zhang, Ling X; Pruett, Stephen B; Germolec, Dori R; White, Kimber L

    2005-12-15

    Previously, we have reported that thalidomide can modulate the immune responses in female B6C3F1 mice. Furthermore, thalidomide immunomodulation increased primary host resistance to intravenously infected Listeria monocytogenes. The present study was intended to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the enhanced host resistance to L. monocytogenes by focusing on the neutrophils. Female B6C3F1 mice were treated intraperitoneally with thalidomide (100 mg/kg) for 15 days. Exposure to thalidomide increased the numbers of neutrophils in the spleens and livers of L. monocytogenes-infected mice when compared to the L. monocytogenes-infected control mice. Additionally, the percentage of neutrophils was also significantly increased after Thd treatment in L. monocytogenes-infected mice. Further studies using antibodies to deplete corresponding cells indicated that thalidomide-mediated increase in primary host resistance (both the moribundity and colony counts in the liver and spleen) to L. monocytogenes infection was due to its effect on neutrophils but not CD8+ T cells or NK cells. Finally, Thd exposure also increased host resistance to secondary host resistance to L. monocytogenes infection, and depletion of neutrophils abolished the protective effect. In conclusion, thalidomide enhanced host resistance to both primary and secondary L. monocytogenes infections by a neutrophil-related mechanism in female B6C3F1 mice. PMID:15921716

  19. Characteristics of Multi-Organ Lymphangiectasia Resulting from Temporal Deletion of Calcitonin Receptor-Like Receptor in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopes, Samantha L.; Willcockson, Helen H.; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) and its receptor complexes, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (Calcrl) and receptor activity modifying protein 2/3, are highly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and are required for embryonic lymphatic development. To determine the role of Calcrl in adulthood, we used an inducible Cre-loxP system to temporally and ubiquitously delete Calcrl in adult mice. Following tamoxifen injection, Calcrlfl/fl/CAGGCre-ER™ mice rapidly developed corneal edema and inflammation tha...

  20. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  1. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  2. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harcourt Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol® to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds. In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid, stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures. We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other

  3. Delayed and transient increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise in DBA/2 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert W Overall

    Full Text Available This study builds on the findings that physical activity, such as wheel running in mice, enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of the common mouse strain C57BL/6, and that the baseline level of neurogenesis varies by strain, being considerably lower in DBA/2. Because C57BL/6 and DBA/2 are important as the parental strains of the BXD recombinant inbred cross which allows the detection of genetic loci regulating phenotypes such as adult neurogenesis, we performed the current study to investigate the gene x environment interactions regulating neurogenesis. At equal distances and times run DBA/2J mice lacked the acute increase in precursor cell proliferation known from C57BL/6. In DBA/2J proliferation even negatively correlated with the distance run. This was neither due to a stress response (to running itself or single housing nor differences in estrous cycle. DBA/2 animals exhibited a delayed and weaker pro-neurogenic response with a significant increase in numbers of proliferating cells first detectable after more than a week of wheel running. The proliferative response to running was transient in both strains, the effect being undetectable by 6 weeks. There was also a small transient increase in the production of new neurons in DBA/2J, although these extra cells did not survive. These findings indicate that the comparison between C57BL/6 and DBA/2, and by extension the BXD genetic reference population derived from these strains, should provide a powerful tool for uncovering the complex network of modifier genes affecting the activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. More generally, our findings also describe how the external physical environment interacts with the internal genetic environment to produce different responses to the same behavioral stimuli.

  4. In Utero exposure to genistein enhanced intranasal house dust mite allergen-induced respiratory sensitization in young adult B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tai L; Meng, Andrew H

    2016-06-24

    Despite many hypothesized benefits of dietary isoflavone genistein (GEN) deriving from soy-based products, questions surrounding GEN's developmental immunotoxic effects are increasing. To understand how in utero GEN exposure may modulate postnatal respiratory sensitization, we conducted a time course study using a common household allergen (house dust mites: HDM; 10μg/mouse) following intranasal instillation, a physiological route of allergen exposure. GEN was administered to dams by gavage from gestational day 14 to parturition at a physiologically relevant dose (20mg/kg bw). Female and male offspring were sensitized with HDM allergens beginning about one month prior to sacrifice followed by challenges with three weekly doses of HDM extracts, and they were euthanized at day 3 following the final HDM exposure at four different time points (postnatal day (PND) 80, 120, 160, and 200). In utero GEN combined with postnatal HDM exposures (GEN+HDM) increased total IgE production in both young female and male B6C3F1 offspring (e.g., PND 80 in females and PND 120 in males). Increased antigen-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b levels were also observed at various time points in both female and male offspring. In addition, increases in macrophage number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of both female and male GEN+HDM offspring at PND 80 and PND 120, respectively, were observed when compared to the vehicle group. For T cells, an increase over the vehicle in female GEN+HDM offspring was observed at PND 80. Due to similar patterns of increases, it seems likely that GEN+HDM-induced increases in total IgE and macrophages are related. Overall, in utero GEN plus later-life HDM exposures exert increases in total IgE and HDM-specific IgG production as well as macrophage recruitments to the lung in young adult mice. PMID:27113705

  5. Adolescent mice are less sensitive to the effects of acute nicotine on context pre-exposure than adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Braak, David C; Tumolo, Jessica M; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with both increased vulnerability to substance abuse and maturation of certain brain regions important for learning and memory such as the hippocampus. In this study, we employed a hippocampus-dependent learning context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm in order to test the effects of acute nicotine on contextual processing during adolescence (post-natal day (PND) 38) and adulthood (PND 53). In Experiment 1, adolescent or adult C57BL6/J mice received either saline or one of three nicotine doses (0.09, 0.18, and 0.36mg/kg) prior to contextual pre-exposure and testing. Our results demonstrated that both adolescent and adult mice showed CPFE in the saline groups. However, adolescent mice only showed acute nicotine enhancement of CPFE with the highest nicotine dose whereas adult mice showed the enhancing effects of acute nicotine with all three doses. In Experiment 2, to determine if the lack of nicotine's effects on CPFE shown by adolescent mice is specific to the age when they are tested, mice were either given contextual pre-exposure during adolescence or adulthood and received immediate shock and testing during adulthood after a 15day delay. We found that both adolescent and adult mice showed CPFE in the saline groups when tested during adulthood. However, like Experiment 1, mice that received contextual pre-exposure during adolescence did not show acute nicotine enhancement except at the highest dose (0.36mg/kg) whereas both low (0.09mg/kg) and high (0.36mg/kg) doses enhanced CPFE in adult mice. Finally, we showed that the enhanced freezing response found with 0.36mg/kg nicotine in the 15-day experiment may be a result of decreased locomotor activity as mice that received this dose of nicotine traveled shorter distances in an open field paradigm. Overall, our results indicate that while adolescent mice showed normal contextual processing when tested both during adolescence and adulthood, they

  6. Removal of high-fat diet after chronic exposure drives binge behavior and dopaminergic dysregulation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jesse L; McKee, Sarah E; Hill-Smith, Tiffany; Grissom, Nicola M; George, Robert; Lucki, Irwin; Reyes, Teresa M

    2016-06-21

    A significant contributor to the obesity epidemic is the overconsumption of highly palatable, energy dense foods. Chronic intake of palatable foods is associated with neuroadaptations within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system adaptations which may lead to behavioral changes, such as overconsumption or bingeing. We examined behavioral and molecular outcomes in mice that were given chronic exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD; 12weeks), with the onset of the diet either in adolescence or adulthood. To examine whether observed effects could be reversed upon removal of the HFD, animals were also studied 4weeks after a return to chow feeding. Most notably, female mice, particularly those exposed to HFD starting in adolescence, demonstrated the emergence of binge-like behavior when given restricted access to a palatable food. Further, changes in dopamine-related gene expression and dopamine content in the prefrontal cortex were observed. Some of these HFD-driven phenotypes reversed upon removal of the diet, whereas others were initiated by removal of the diet. These findings have implications for obesity management and interventions, as both pharmacological and behavioral therapies are often combined with dietary interventions (e.g., reduction in calorie dense foods). PMID:27063418

  7. Connective tissue growth factor is critical for proper β-cell function and pregnancy-induced β-cell hyperplasia in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Raymond C; Dunn, Jennifer C; Elsakr, Joseph M; Aramandla, Mounika; Matta, Anveetha R; Gannon, Maureen

    2016-09-01

    During pregnancy, maternal β-cells undergo compensatory changes, including increased β-cell mass and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Failure of these adaptations to occur results in gestational diabetes mellitus. The secreted protein connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is critical for normal β-cell development and promotes regeneration after partial β-cell ablation. During embryogenesis, CTGF is expressed in pancreatic ducts, vasculature, and β-cells. In adult pancreas, CTGF is expressed only in the vasculature. Here we show that pregnant mice with global Ctgf haploinsufficiency (Ctgf(LacZ/+)) have an impairment in maternal β-cell proliferation; no difference was observed in virgin Ctgf(LacZ/+) females. Using a conditional CTGF allele, we found that mice with a specific inactivation of CTGF in endocrine cells (Ctgf(ΔEndo)) develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy, but this is due to a reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rather than impaired maternal β-cell proliferation. Moreover, virgin Ctgf(ΔEndo) females also display impaired GSIS with glucose intolerance, indicating that underlying β-cell dysfunction precedes the development of gestational diabetes in this animal model. This is the first time a role for CTGF in β-cell function has been reported. PMID:27460898

  8. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  9. Reversal of glial and neurovascular markers of unhealthy brain aging by exercise in middle-aged female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin S Latimer

    Full Text Available Healthy brain aging and cognitive function are promoted by exercise. The benefits of exercise are attributed to several mechanisms, many which highlight its neuroprotective role via actions that enhance neurogenesis, neuronal morphology and/or neurotrophin release. However, the brain is also composed of glial and vascular elements, and comparatively less is known regarding the effects of exercise on these components in the aging brain. Here, we show that aerobic exercise at mid-age decreased markers of unhealthy brain aging including astrocyte hypertrophy, a hallmark of brain aging. Middle-aged female mice were assigned to a sedentary group or provided a running wheel for six weeks. Exercise decreased hippocampal astrocyte and myelin markers of aging but increased VEGF, a marker of angiogenesis. Brain vascular casts revealed exercise-induced structural modifications associated with improved endothelial function in the periphery. Our results suggest that age-related astrocyte hypertrophy/reactivity and myelin dysregulation are aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle and accompanying reductions in vascular function. However, these effects appear reversible with exercise initiated at mid-age. As this period of the lifespan coincides with the appearance of multiple markers of brain aging, including initial signs of cognitive decline, it may represent a window of opportunity for intervention as the brain appears to still possess significant vascular plasticity. These results may also have particular implications for aging females who are more susceptible than males to certain risk factors which contribute to vascular aging.

  10. Effects of Orally Administered Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt on Dry Skin Conditions in Mice and Healthy Female Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kamimura, Ayako; Watanabe, Fumiko; Kamiya, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Etsushi; Fukagawa, Mitsuhiko; Hasumi, Keiji; Suzuki, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a coenzyme involved in the redox-cycling system. The supplemental use of PQQ has been examined based on its properties as an antioxidant and redox modulator. Although an animal study on deficiency of PQQ suggested that PQQ contributes to skin conditions, its efficacy in humans has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of orally administered PQQ on skin moisture, viscoelasticity, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) both in dry skin mouse models and in healthy female subjects with a subjective symptom of dry skin. In our dry skin mouse model study, oral intake of PQQ (0.0089%, w/w, in the diet for 6 wk) significantly decreased the number of mast cells in the dermis and the number of CD3⁺ T-cells in the epidermis. In our human study, oral intake of PQQ (20 mg/d for 8 wk) significantly inhibited the increase in TEWL on the forearm. Finally, subject questionnaires showed positive impressions for the improvement of skin conditions. These results suggest that oral intake of PQQ improves skin conditions both in female subjects with dry skin and in mice with a compromised skin barrier function. PMID:26226961

  11. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  12. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  13. Cytogenetic and Developmental Effects of Antidepression Drug (Cipralex on Female Mice and Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Roshdy & Thanaa M.T Shoman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Escitalopram (cipralex® a new highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, it is effective in the treatment of patients with major depression. To evaluate the cytogenetics and developmental effects of cipralex throughout major organgenesis, mice were administrated orally with a doses of 0.06, 0.12 and 0.24 mg/kg/day cipralex on gestation days 1-18 and examined on the 19th day of gestation for evidence of maternal and fetal toxicity. Cipralex at different doses tested produce significant toxic effects in reproductive parameters. Significant embryo fetotoxic effects were observed at tested dose levels as evidenced by total number of implantations, post. Implantation loss and embryo malformations. There were increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in both maternal and embryonic cells treated with cipalex, these increases were dose dependent. These results indicate that cipralex is considered to be cytogenetic and embryo toxic drug when administered during pregnancy.

  14. Two new species of Kermes (Homoptera: Coccinea: Kermesidae), with a dey to the young adult females of known species of Kermes from China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yongjie; Shi, Yuliang

    2010-01-01

    Two new species of Kermesidae, Kermes orientalis Liu and Shi and K. flavus Liu, are designated. Morphological characters of post-reproductive and teneral young adult females, as well as the first instars (crawlers) are described and illustrated. A key to the young adult females of the genus from China is given. Type materials are deposited in the Insect Collection, Section of Entomology, Department of Entomology, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong; Insect Collection, Institute of zool...

  15. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 maintain dopaminergic neuronal properties and control feeding behavior in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pristerà, A; Lin, W.; Kaufmann, AK; Brimblecombe, KR; Threlfell, S.; Dodson, PD; Magill, PJ; Fernandes, C; Cragg, SJ; Ang, SL

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are implicated in cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric disorders, and pathological conditions; hence understanding genes regulating their homeostasis has medical relevance. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 (FOXA1/2) are key determinants of mDA neuronal identity during development, but their roles in adult mDA neurons are unknown. We used a conditional knockout strategy to specifically ablate FOXA1/2 in mDA neurons of adult mice. We show that deletion ...

  16. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 maintain dopaminergic neuronal properties and control feeding behavior in adult mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Pristerà, A; Lin, W.; Kaufmann, AK; Brimblecombe, KR; Threlfell, S.; Dodson, PD; Magill, PJ; Fernandes, C; Cragg, SJ; Ang, SL

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are implicated in cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric disorders, and pathological conditions; hence understanding genes regulating their homeostasis has medical relevance. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 (FOXA1/2) are key determinants of mDA neuronal identity during development, but their roles in adult mDA neurons are unknown. We used a conditional knockout strategy to specifically ablate FOXA1/2 in mDA neurons of adult mice. We show that deletion ...

  17. Possible involvement of sulfotransferase 1A1 in estragole-induced DNA modification and carcinogenesis in the livers of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuta; Umemura, Takashi; Ishii, Yuji; Hibi, Daisuke; Inoue, Tomoki; Jin, Meilan; Sakai, Hiroki; Kodama, Yukio; Nohmi, Takehiko; Yanai, Tokuma; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2012-12-12

    Estragole (ES), a natural organic compound, is frequently used as a flavoring in food even though it is a hepatocarcinogen in mice. Although formation of ES-specific DNA adducts following conversion from ES to the nucleophilic metabolite by sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) has been reported, the modes of action underlying ES-induced hepatocarcinogenesis remain uncertain because conventional genotoxicity tests for ES yield negative results. In the present study, taking notice of the fact that there is a sex difference in SULT1A1 activity in the mouse liver, we assessed the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes and the mutant frequency (MF) of reporter genes in female gpt delta mice treated with ES at doses of 0 (corn oil), 37.5, 75, 150 or 300mg/kg body weight (bw) by gavage for 13 weeks. Results were compared with those obtained in males. Since one female was found dead at week one, the highest dose was reduced to 250mg/kg bw in females from week two. As reported previously in C57BL/6 mice, the mRNA levels of Sult1a1 in female gpt delta mice were significantly higher than those in the males. The levels of ES-specific DNA adducts in the females were higher than those in the males at all doses except the highest dose. In addition, MFs of the gpt gene were significantly increased from doses of 75mg/kg bw of females, but the increment was observed only at the highest dose in males. There were no changes in the micronucleus test among the groups. Thus, the overall data suggest that specific DNA modifications by the SULT1A1-mediated carbocation formation and the resultant genotoxicity are key events in the early stage of ES-induced hepatocarcinogenesis of mice. PMID:22885592

  18. Differential Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines and Stress Genes in Male and Female Mice in Response to a Lipopolysaccharide Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhardt Queen, Ashleigh; Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Megan; McKee, Leslie M.; Leamy, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sex plays a key role in an individual’s immune response against pathogenic challenges such that females fare better when infected with certain pathogens. It is thought that sex hormones impact gene expression in immune cells and lead to sexually dimorphic responses to pathogens. We predicted that, in the presence of E. coli gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS), there would be a sexually dimorphic response in proinflammatory cytokine production and acute phase stress gene expression and that these responses might vary among different mouse strains and times in a pattern opposite to that of body temperature associated with LPS-induced shock. Materials and Methods Interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-Iβ (MIP-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as beta-fibrinogen (Fgb) and metallothionein-1 (Mt-1) mRNA expression were measured at four time points (0, 2, 4 and 7 hours) after injection of E. coli LPS in mice from three inbred strains. Results Statistical analysis using analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showed that the levels of the all six traits changed over time, generally peaking at 2 hours after LPS injection. Mt-1, Fgb, and IL-6 showed differences among strains, although these were time-specific. Sexual dimorphism was seen for Fgb and IL6, and was most pronounced at the latest time period (7 hours) where male levels exceeded those for females. Trends for all six cytokine/gene expression traits were negatively correlated with those for body temperatures. Discussion The higher levels of expression of Fgb and IL6 in males compared with females are consistent with the greater vulnerability of males to infection and subsequent inflammation. Temperature appears to be a useful proxy for mortality in endotoxic shock, but sexual dimorphism in cytokine and stress gene expression levels may persist after an LPS challenge even if temperatures in the two sexes are similar and have begun to stabilize. PMID

  19. Executive Functions in Young Adult Females with and without ADHD: Longitudinal Development and Associations with Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a male predominant neurodevelopmental disorder, with the unfortunate consequence that boys and men constitute the focus of the bulk of the extant research (Gaub & Carlson, 1997; Hinshaw & Blachman, 2005). Many studies include entirely male samples; others include too few females to conduct meaningful analyses within all-female subsamples. Thus, very little research has focused specifically on girls with this disorder, particularly with respec...

  20. Decreased duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis in immature and adult female rats prenatally exposed to cimetidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of prenatal cimetidine exposure (PreCM) on the duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis (DPN) was assessed in immature (14- and 28-day old) and adult (50-60-day old) male and female rats. PreCM exposure was accomplished by treating mothers with cimetidine (CM) (20 mg/kg, ip) daily for the last two days of gestation and then (0.01% in drinking water) throughout lactation. Pregnant mothers of untreated offspring (Con) received saline. PreCM decreased DPN to 505 +/- 33 min (from 611 +/- 23 min in Con) and 393 +/- 190 min (from 686 +/- 44 min in Con) in 14-day old male and female rats, respectively. Similarly, PreCM decreased DPN to 88 +/- 15 min (from 134 +/- 3 min in Con) and 102 +/- 19 min (from 171 +/- 44 min in Con) in 28-day old male and female rats, respectively. At 21 days, PreCM did not alter DPN in either sex. At 50-60 days, however, it decreased DPN to 144 +/- 41 min (from 238 +/- 7 min in Con) in females but had no effect in males; PreCM also increased the plasma clearance of administered 14C-pentobarbital more in females than in males. The effects of PreCM, particularly the long-term effects, were most prominent in female rats and were the opposite of those of postnatal treatment with CM. The results together with those of studies with hepatic microsomes suggest that PreCM may have resulted in the induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes during the perinatal period

  1. Skeletal myofiber VEGF regulates contraction-induced perfusion and exercise capacity but not muscle capillarity in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Amy E; Goldberg, Daniel; Delavar, Hamid; Trisko, Breanna M; Tang, Kechun; Hogan, Michael C; Wagner, Peter D; Breen, Ellen C

    2016-07-01

    A single bout of exhaustive exercise signals expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the exercising muscle. Previous studies have reported that mice with life-long deletion of skeletal myofiber VEGF have fewer capillaries and a severe reduction in endurance exercise. However, in adult mice, VEGF gene deletion conditionally targeted to skeletal myofibers limits exercise capacity without evidence of capillary regression. To explain this, we hypothesized that adult skeletal myofiber VEGF acutely regulates skeletal muscle perfusion during muscle contraction. A tamoxifen-inducible skeletal myofiber-specific VEGF gene deletion mouse (skmVEGF-/-) was used to reduce skeletal muscle VEGF protein by 90% in adult mice. Three weeks after inducing deletion of the skeletal myofiber VEGF gene, skmVEGF-/- mice exhibited diminished maximum running speed (-10%, P < 0.05) and endurance capacity (-47%; P < 0.05), which did not persist after 8 wk. In skmVEGF-/- mice, gastrocnemius complex time to fatigue measured in situ was 71% lower than control mice. Contraction-induced perfusion measured by optical imaging during a period of electrically stimulated muscle contraction was 85% lower in skmVEGF-/- than control mice. No evidence of capillary rarefication was detected in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) up to 8 wk after tamoxifen-induced VEGF ablation, and contractility and fatigue resistance of the soleus measured ex vivo were also unchanged. The force-frequency of the EDL showed a small right shift, but fatigue resistance did not differ between EDL from control and skmVEGF-/- mice. These data suggest myofiber VEGF is required for regulating perfusion during periods of contraction and may in this manner affect endurance capacity. PMID:27225953

  2. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  3. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  4. Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the Fran(c)ois langur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hai ZHOU; Bang LUO; Cheng-Ming HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Infanticide by males is a common phenomenon in mammals,especially primates,as lactation lasts much longer than gestation in many species.Usually,infanticidal episodes occur soon after group takeovers,and are traditionally considered a male reproductive strategy (i.e.,support the sexual selection hypothesis,Hrdy,1974).To verify the validity of this conception,we observed one group of Fran(c)ois' langurs in the Nonggang Nature Reserve,China,between August 2003 and July 2004.During the study period,a Fran(c)ois' langur female with the youngest infant in the group was attacked three times by immigrating males,and later disappeared by the third day after the final attack.We suggest that these attacks on the female-infant dyad represent infanticide attempts by males,and may be the cause of the adult female and her infant's disappearance.Presumably,that female dispersed with her infant to avoid infanticide and was not killed.Though these observations do not completely verify the sexual selection hypothesis,they are not inconsistent with it.

  5. Investigating Potential Effects of the Contraceptive Implanon on the Behavior of Free-Ranging Adult Female Barbary Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijer, Amanda M; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of hormonal contraception in captive, free-ranging, and wild mammal populations has increased, but the effects on these nonhuman animals' behavior and the associated welfare impacts remain poorly understood. This study of free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Trentham Monkey Forest compared females implanted with the progestin-only contraceptive Implanon to those not receiving contraception. Females with contraceptive implants had higher rates of self-scratching and spent more time self-grooming (2 behavioral indexes of anxiety) than those without implants. They also directed more aggression at others, spent more time receiving grooming and traveling, and spent less time giving grooming and resting. No significant differences between the 2 groups of females were seen for time spent foraging. These results suggest that Implanon had a number of effects on Barbary macaques, although these need to be considered in light of the significant benefits afforded by the use of this contraceptive. The findings of this study provide important information to those evaluating the relative welfare costs and benefits of alternative methods of population control in this and other species. PMID:26466916

  6. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  7. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. PMID:24482055

  8. Effects of early prepubertal exposure to bisphenol A on the onset of puberty, ovarian weights, and estrous cycle in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Won Heum

    2011-01-01

    Objective Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used extensively to manufacture plastics and epoxy resin liners for food and beverage cans. BPA, with properties similar to estrogen, has endocrine-disrupting effects. In the present study, we examined the effects of early prepubertal BPA exposure on the onset of puberty and reproductive parameters such as estrous cycle and reproductive organ weights in female mice. Methods Female mice were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day (PND) 8 with BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/kg) in sesame oil or with sesame oil alone. Body weight was measured from PND 10 to 70. Vaginal opening and estrous cycle were monitored from PND 20 to 29. Animals were sacrificed at PND 25, 30, and 70, and the ovary and uterus weights were measured. Results Early prepubertal exposure to BPA (10 and 100 mg/kg) significantly decreased body weight from PND 18 to 30. BPA treated mice at testing dose levels showed early opening of the vagina compared to the control group. The number of estrous cycle and days of estrus were significantly decreased in high dose (100 mg/kg) BPA treated mice. The ovary weight at PND 25 and 30 was significantly decreased in all BPA treatment groups. Conclusion Early prepubertal exposure to BPA accelerated the onset of puberty but decreased reproductive parameters in female mice. PMID:22384422

  9. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup