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Sample records for adult eastern bluebird

  1. Colonization of the eastern bluebird along the Rio Grande in New Mexico

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    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Michael D. Means; David L. Hawksworth; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    During the 20th century the Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) expanded its range westward, mainly as a result of anthropogenic alteration of habitats. Along the Rio Grande in New Mexico the species' numbers in winter have recently increased spectacularly, and from 1999 through 2004 four records of breeding were published. Here we report 30...

  2. Improving Eastern Bluebird nest box performance using computer analysis of satellite images

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    Sarah Svatora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird conservationists have been introducing man-made boxes in an effort to increase the bluebird population. In this study we use computer analysis of satellite images to show that the performance of the boxes used by Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis in Michigan can be improved by about 48%. The analysis is based on a strongcorrelation found between the edge directionality measured in the satellite image of the area around the box, and the preferences of the birds when selecting their nesting site. The method is based on satellite images taken from Google Earth, and can be used by conservationists to select a box placement strategy that will optimize the efficacy of the boxes deployed in a given area.

  3. Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA

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    Kevin A. Caillouët

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV. Monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local WNV amplification. To test this hypothesis we monitored WNV infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily Eastern bluebirds; Sialia sialis, Turdidae across Henrico County, Virginia, USA, from May to August 2012. Observed host-seeking rates were temporally variable and associated with absolute vector and host abundances. Despite substantial effort to monitor WNV among nestlings and mosquitoes, we did not detect the presence of WNV in these populations. Generally low vector-nestling host contact rates combined with the negative WNV infection data suggest that monitoring transmission parameters among nestling Eastern bluebirds in Henrico County, Virginia, USA may not be a sensitive indicator of WNV activity.

  4. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows

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    Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Robertson, Raleigh J.

    1998-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males’ confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment.

  5. Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds.

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    Ligon, Russell A; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2010-03-01

    Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest.

  6. An experimental test of the role of structural blue and melanin-based chestnut coloration in aggressive contests in male eastern bluebirds

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    Austin eMercadante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis have feathers with either structurally based blue coloration or melanin-based chestnut coloration, and they hold territories during the breeding season that they defend vigorously. We tested whether the melanin pigmentation or structural coloration of feathers serve as signals during intrasexual aggressive encounters by placing color-modified stuffed bluebirds in male territories. We recorded the time to attack and the intensity of attacks on each model, and we then compared the response to color-enhanced versus color-reduced models. Male bluebirds attacked models with brighter and more chromatic blue coloration significantly more often than they attacked models with darker and less chromatic blue coloration. In contrast, the darkness of the chestnut breast coloration did not have a significant effect on the rate at which models were attacked. We conclude that territorial male bluebirds perceive intruding males with brighter blue coloration as a greater threat than males with drabber blue coloration, presumably because blue coloration is a signal of fighting ability. In contrast, the chestnut coloration of breast feathers appears to be a signal of gender and sexual maturity and not a graded signal of social status.

  7. Early reproductive success of western bluebirds and ash-throated flycatchers: a landscape-contaminant perspective.

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    Fair, Jeanne M; Myers, Orrin B

    2002-01-01

    Eggshell quality, clutch size, sex ratio, and hatching success of western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) and ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens) were studied on a landscape-soil contaminant gradient at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico from 1997 to 1999. A variety of contaminants (heavy metals, chemicals, insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorines, and radioactive isotopes) range across different spatial scales and concentrations on LANL land. This study is an example of a monitoring program over a large area with varying degree of contamination that is used to highlight locations of concern for future research. There were two locations where the flycatcher had a lower hatching success. The bluebirds at Sandia wetland, a location of concern for PCBs. had a thinner eggshell thickness index (RATCLIFFE) and the eggs were smaller than at other locations. The flycatcher had thinner eggshells than bluebirds, which could add to sensitivity to exposure to contaminants. There was no variation in clutch size or sex ratio between locations or areas closer to contaminant release sites for both species. Percent females in the clutch ranged from 0 to 100% in the WEBL and from 33 to 67% for ATFL.

  8. Is there a relationship between fledge age and nest temperature in Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Emily Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, Brent E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Extensive research has been done on temperature during bird incubation periods, but little has been done during nestling development, and to our knowledge, no studies have been done on Western Bluebird (Sialia mexicana) nestling development. In this study, dataloggers were used to monitor nest temperatures during the nestling development phase of Western Bluebirds to determine if there was a relationship between fledge age and temperature. The study was conducted in an existing nestbox network at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the surrounding area in north-central New Mexico. Based on the age of the nestlings at fledging, the nestboxes (n=65) were split into three groups: early (16 and 17 days old, n=13), average (fledged at or between 18 and 20 days old, n=32), and late (21 days or older, n=20). The temperatures of the early and average (n=45) groups were not significantly different (p=0.32, W=3831000). There was a significant difference in the temperatures between the early and late groups (p=0.000, W=2965600). The early and average groups were then combined, tested against the late group, and were found to be significantly different (p=0.000, W=11315000). Analysis showed a difference within the first seven days post-hatch of 1.42°C between the early/average and late groupings. The results suggest that warmer nest temperatures during the nestling stage may influence the fledge date and may lead to faster fledging. There may be numerous explanations for this, such as a correlation with nestling development, and higher temperatures may allow for faster development. Brood size was non-significant and was not factored into the analysis. Future work should be directed in this area.

  9. RELATIONSHIP OF AMEBOCYTES AND TERRESTRIAL ELEMENTS TO ADULT SHELL DEPOSITION IN EASTERN OYSTERS

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    Fisher, William S. Submitted. Relationship of Amebocytes and Terrestrial Elements to Adult Shell Deposition in Eastern Oysters. J. Shellfish Res. 30 p. (ERL,GB 1197). Freshwater runoff contains terrestrial elements from geological deposits that may be vital to eastern oys...

  10. Migraine pain location in adult patients from eastern India

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    Chakravarty Ambar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sparse literature documenting the location of pain at the onset of migraine attacks and during established headaches is available. Objectives: A prospective study (2003-05 on 800 adult migraine patients (International Classifications of Headache Disorders (ICHD, 2:1.1, 1.2.1 and 1.6.1 was conducted to document (a sites of onset of pain and (b location of pain during established attacks (in> 50% occasions through semistructured interviews. Results: Demography: N = 800; M:F = 144:656 (1:4.56; age, 16-42 years (mean, 26 years; duration of migraine, 1-18 years (mean, 6.8 years. 87% of the subjects were ethnic Bengalis from the eastern Indian state of West Bengal, Calcutta being the capital city. Migraine types (on the basis of> 50% headache spells: N = 800; 1.1:668 (83.5%; 1.2.1:18 (2.25%; 1.6.1:114 (14.25%. Location of pain at onset: Unilateral onset was present in 41.38% of the patients; of these, 53.17% had eye pain; 8.16%, frontal pain and 38.67%, temporal pain. In 32.25% of the patients, bilateral/central location of pain, mostly bitemporal or at vertex was noted. Cervico-occipital pain onset was noted in 26.43% patients (predominantly occipital, 14.68%; predominantly cervical, 11.75%. Location of established headaches: In 47.4% of the patients, with unilateral ocular or temporal onset, pain remained at the same site. Pain became hemicranial in 32.9%. In most patients, unilateral frontal onset pain (55.5% became bilateral or holocranial. Most bilateral ocular (69.4% and temporal onset (69.7% pains remained at the same location. However, most bifrontal (55.6% and vertex onset (56.9% pains subsequently became holocranial. Most occipital pains at onset became holocranial (45.3%, but cervical pains subsequently became either hemicranial (38.3% or holocranial (36.2%. Conclusions: This study documents location of pain at the onset and during established headaches in migraine patients largely from a specific ethnic group. Migraine with

  11. Environmental noise and cardiovascular disease in adults: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

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    L′ubica Argalášová-Sobotová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of noise on health have been intensely explored in the past 50 years. However, the scope of research conducted in the Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and Newly Independent States is not well-known. The aim of this review was to present studies on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults published since 1965 and to point out the most important issues that need to be addressed in the future. More than 100 papers on noise and health and about 20 papers on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults were identified by literature search. The authors reviewed scientific international and local journals, conference proceedings, and local reports published in national languages. The major endpoints were high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction. The target populations were adults. Experimental and exposure-assessment studies, field, empirical studies, social surveys, and epidemiological studies are presented. The major sources of environmental noise were road and air traffic. The results were presented in tables and the most relevant articles were briefly discussed. The importance of this review is that it refers to some countries that no longer exist in the same political and governmental systems. The strength of this paper is that it includes publications that were not evaluated in earlier systematic reviews. Strategies for future noise-related research on national and global level are proposed.

  12. Determinant of Adult Education Program: A Critical Analysis of Adult Education in Some Selected Training Centers of Eastern Regions

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    Yilfashewa Seyoum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors affecting adult education in the eastern part of Ethiopia. The study employed a survey design that involved qualitative and quantitative approaches. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 515 male and 285 female respondents. A questionnaire and an interview for collecting information from the primary sources were designed and implemented. Data were analyzed with linear correlation and Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression. The findings indicated that the relationship of overall adult learning achievement to assessment of learning (r = 0,29, P < 0,01, and the methods used by facilitators (r = 0,23, P < 0,01 is positive and significant. The regression model demonstrated that overall adult learning condition is significantly affected by variables such as relevance of the content, methods of teaching, assessment of learning outcome, and locality of the adult education learners. 

  13. Depression and Associated Factors among Adult Inpatients at Public Hospitals of Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Haile Tilahun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Globally, depression is one of the three leading causes of disease and it will be the second leading cause of world disability by 2030. The prevalence of depression in Sub-Saharan Africa ranges from 15 to 30%. In Ethiopia, depression was found to be the seventh leading cause of disease burden and its prevalence has been increased in hospital compared to community setting because hospital environment itself is stressful. Yet, no study was done in Eastern Ethiopia, where substance use like Khat is very rampant. Objective. To assess depression and associated factors among adult inpatients at public hospitals of Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, from February 01 to 28, 2017. Methodology. Hospital based cross-sectional study design was employed on 492 admitted adult patients in Harari region hospitals. Consecutive sampling method was used to include study population. The data were collected by interviewee and analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. p value of 0.05 or less was considered to be statistically significant. Result. A total of 489 patients were interviewed with response rate of 99.4%. Having duration of 1-2 weeks in the hospital [AOR = 2.02, 95% CI: (1.28, 3.19], being diagnosed with chronic morbidity [AOR = 4.06, 95% CI: (2.23, 7.40], being users of psychoactive drugs [AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: (1.18, 4.24], and having been admitted to surgical ward [AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: (0.31, 0.81] were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. Prevalence of depression among admitted inpatients was high. Therefore, increasing the awareness of benefits of early diagnosis of patients to prevent major form of depression and strengthening the clinical set-up and establishing good referral linkage with mental health institutions was considered to be cost-effective method to reduce its prevalence.

  14. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

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    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  15. Position of the Patella among Emirati Adult Knees. Is Insall-Salvati Ratio Applicable to Middle-Easterners?

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    Saeed Althani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal patellar height is associated with anterior knee pain and several conditions that affect the patellofemoral joint. The aim of this study was to 1 report the incidence of patella alta and patella baja and 2 investigate whether the normal limits of the Insall-Salvati ratio is applicable in adult Middle-Easterners. Methods: A radiographic review of the lateral radiographs of 736 Middle-Eastern knees were performed. Patellar tendon length (TL and the patellar length (TP was digitally measured and the ratios of these measures was used to calculate the Insall-Salvati ratio. Results: The overall mean TL/PL ratio was 1.20±0.17. The Insall-Salvati ratio was higher (p=0.0013 in males (1.22± 0.12 than in females (1.18±0.17. According to our measurement, the recommended levels for defining abnormal patellar position should be 0.86 for patella baja and 1.54 for patella alta. Conclusion: The use of TL/PL ratio demonstrated a higher incidence of patella alta and a higher mean TL/PL ratio compared to other techniques. The normal ranges for the TL/PL differs from western populations and may be attributed to lifestyle differences.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of attempted suicide in adult war-affected population of eastern Uganda.

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    Kinyanda, Eugene; Weiss, Helen A; Mungherera, Margaret; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Ngabirano, Emmanuel; Kajungu, Rehema; Kagugube, Johnson; Muhwezi, Winston; Muron, Julius; Patel, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the relationship between war trauma and suicidal behavior. Some studies point to an increased risk of suicidal behavior while others do not, with a paucity of such data from sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of attempted suicide in war-affected Eastern Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two districts of Eastern Uganda where 1,560 respondents (15 years and older) were interviewed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors of attempted suicide in this population. Lifetime attempted suicide was 9.2% (n = 142; 95% CI, 7.8%-10.8%), and 12-month attempted suicide was 2.6% (n = 41; 95% CI, 1.9-3.5%). Lifetime attempted suicide was significantly higher among females 101 (11.1%) than among males 43 (6.5%; OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.21-2.65). Factors independently associated with lifetime rate of attempted suicide among females were subcounty, being a victim of intimate partner violence, having reproductive health complaints, and having major depressive disorder. Among males these were belonging to a war-vulnerable group, having a surgical complaint, and having a major depressive disorder. In both sexes, the lifetime rate of attempted suicide was not independently directly related to experiences of war trauma. It was, however, indirectly related to war trauma through its association with psychological, somatic, and psychosocial sequelae of war.

  17. Development and Validation of a Data-Based Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adults in Eastern Rural Area of Rwanda

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    Ayumi Yanagisawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and evaluate the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for rural Rwandans. Since our FFQ was developed to assess malnutrition, it measured energy, protein, vitamin A, and iron intakes only. We collected 260 weighed food records (WFRs from a total of 162 Rwandans. Based on the WFR data, we developed a tentative FFQ and examined the food list by percent contribution to energy and nutrient intakes. To assess the validity, nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ were compared with those calculated from three-day WFRs by correlation coefficient and cross-classification for 17 adults. Cumulative contributions of the 18-item FFQ to the total intakes of energy and nutrients reached nearly 100%. Crude and energy-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from -0.09 (vitamin A to 0.58 (protein and from -0.19 (vitamin A to 0.68 (iron, respectively. About 50%-60% of the participants were classified into the same tertile. Our FFQ provided acceptable validity for energy and iron intakes and could rank Rwandan adults in eastern rural area correctly according to their energy and iron intakes.

  18. Transformations Encouraged by Story Telling: Middle Eastern Adult Learners' Experiences Abroad

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    Nguyen, Shelbee R.

    2014-01-01

    Professionals in the field of adult and higher education recognize the path into any learning community is riddled with complexities of life exigencies. This author states that he found "light at the end of the tunnel" in an experiential, transformative study abroad course in Spanish language and culture. Transformative learning abroad…

  19. Visual Impairment among Older Adults in a Rural Community in Eastern China

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    Chen-Wei Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the prevalence, causes, and associations of visual impairment (VI among participants aged 60 years or older in a rural community in China. Methods. A community-based survey was undertaken in a rural town located in Eastern China and 4579 people aged 60 years or older participated in the study. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart with tumbling-E optotypes and anterior segment was examined using a slit-lamp. VI was defined as presenting VA <6/18 and it included moderate VI (<6/18 to 6/60 and blindness (<6/60. Results. The prevalence of VI was 5.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7–6.0. In multivariate analysis, the presence of VI was positively associated with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, 95% CI 1.10–1.16, per year increase, female gender (OR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.53–3.55, the presence of hypertension (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.001–1.85, living alone (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.08–2.62, and increased sleeping hours (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.001–1.22. Drinking 3 or more glasses of green tea per day was inversely associated with VI (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63–0.98. Conclusion. VI was less prevalent in this community compared with previous report in other areas in China.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of common mental illness among adult residents of Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Hunduma, Gari; Girma, Mulugeta; Digaffe, Tesfaye; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Tola, Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Common mental disorders include depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders are a public health problem in developed as well as developing countries. It represents a psychiatric morbidity with significant prevalence, affecting all stages of life and cause suffering to the individuals, their family and communities. Despite this fact, little information about the prevalence of common mental illness is available from low and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of common mental disorders and its associated factors among adult residents of Harari Region. Methods Comparative cross-sectional, quantitative community-based survey was conducted From February 1, 2016 to March 30, 2016 in Harari Regional State using multi-stage sampling technique. A total of 968 residents was selected using two stage sampling technique. Of this 901 were participated in the study. Validated and Pretested Self reported questionnaire (SQR_20) was used to determine the maginitude of common mental disorders. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS-17 for windows statistical packages. Univirate, Bi-variate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% CI was employed in order to infer associations. Results The prevalence of common mental illnesses among adults in our study area was 14.9%. The most common neurotic symptoms in this study were often head ache (23.2%), sleep badly (16%) and poor appetite (13.8%). Substance use like Khat chewing (48.2%), tobacco use (38.2%) and alcohol use (10.5%) was highly prevalent health problem among study participant. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, respondents age between 25-34 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years and above 55years were 6.4 times (AOR 6.377; 95% CI: 2.280-17.835), 5.9 times (AOR 5.900; 95% CI: 2.243-14.859), 5.6 times (AOR 5.648; 95% CI: 2.200-14.50) and 4.1 times (AOR 4.110; 95% CI: 1.363-12.393) more likely having common

  1. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among self-reported adult diabetics in districts of Eastern Nepal in a community based study.

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    Agarwal, Lalit T; Agarwal, Nisha

    2017-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among working age adults around the world. Each year more and more people live with this condition, which can result in life-changing complications. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a large community based screening programme, in order to estimate the future burden of the disease. A cross sectional community based study was conducted between 1st January and 31st December 2014 in a purposive sample of adults with selfreported diabetes mellitus (DM) from Morang and Sunsari district of Nepal. A structured questionnaire was used to collect patient data. Ophthalmological evaluation was done and fundus was examined for grading DR using direct and indirect ophthalmoscope. Among the 698 diabetic patients, mean age was 55.02±11.8 years (ranging from 24 to 91 years). 12.3% of diabetic were not under any treatment. Only 69.3% of patients had visited eye specialist for diabetic retinopathy screening. Prevalence of DR was found to be 15.3%; 13.9% had non-proliferative DR and 1.4% had proliferative DR. Prevalence of diabetic macular edema was 2.1%. In Morang district prevalence of DR was 14.2% and in Sunsari district it was 16.2%. In the binary-logistic regression analysis, duration of diabetes was associated with significantly increased risk of DR (OR: 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09 to 1.17; p<0.001). History of absence of arterial hypertension decreased the risk of DR (OR: 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87; p=0.01). One sixth of the patients with diabetes in the Eastern region of Nepal have retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy risk increased with duration of diabetes and decreased with history of no co-existing arterial hypertension. © NEPjOPH.

  2. Likelihood Estimation of the Systemic Poison-Induced Morbidity in an Adult North Eastern Romanian Population

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    Cătălina Lionte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute exposure to a systemic poison represents an important segment of medical emergencies. We aimed to estimate the likelihood of systemic poison-induced morbidity in a population admitted in a tertiary referral center from North East Romania, based on the determinant factors. Methodology: This was a prospective observational cohort study on adult poisoned patients. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded in all patients. We analyzed three groups of patients, based on the associated morbidity during hospitalization. We identified significant differences between groups and predictors with significant effects on morbidity using multiple multinomial logistic regressions. ROC analysis proved that a combination of tests could improve diagnostic accuracy of poison-related morbidity. Main findings: Of the 180 patients included, aged 44.7 ± 17.2 years, 51.1% males, 49.4% had no poison-related morbidity, 28.9% developed a mild morbidity, and 21.7% had a severe morbidity, followed by death in 16 patients (8.9%. Multiple complications and deaths were recorded in patients aged 53.4 ± 17.6 years (p .001, with a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score upon admission and a significantly higher heart rate (101 ± 32 beats/min, p .011. Routine laboratory tests were significantly higher in patients with a recorded morbidity. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a GCS < 8, a high white blood cells count (WBC, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, myoglobin, glycemia and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP are strongly predictive for in-hospital severe morbidity. Originality: This is the first Romanian prospective study on adult poisoned patients, which identifies the factors responsible for in-hospital morbidity using logistic regression analyses, with resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Conclusion: In acute intoxication with systemic poisons, we identified several clinical and laboratory variables

  3. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria

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    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-b...

  4. Association between dietary patterns and anaemia in adults from Jiangsu Province in Eastern China.

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    Shi, Zumin; Hu, Xiaoshu; Yuan, Baojun; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between food patterns and anaemia among Chinese adults. It was a cross-sectional household survey undertaken in 2002. The sample contained 2849 men and women aged 20 years and above, and had a response rate of 89.0 %. Factor analysis was used to identify food patterns based on a food-frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to relate food patterns to anaemia. A four-factor solution explained 30.5 % of the total variance. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors and four distinct food patterns, the 'traditional' (rice, vegetable, wheat flour), 'sweet tooth' (drinks, cake) and 'healthy' (whole grains, fruits, vegetables) patterns were independently associated with anaemia. 'Traditional' and 'sweet tooth' patterns were positively associated with anaemia, whereas the association with 'healthy' food pattern was negative. No association was observed between the 'macho' pattern (meat and alcohol) and anaemia. Compared with the lowest quartile (Q1) of the 'traditional' pattern, the highest quartile (Q4) had a higher risk of anaemia (men: odds ratio (OR) 2.60, 95 % CI 1.38, 4.88; women: OR 3.40, 95 % CI 2.14, 5.39). For the 'sweet tooth' pattern, compared with the lowest quartile (Q1), the OR of the highest quartile was 2.34 (95 % CI 1.47, 3.73) for men and 2.02 (95 %CI 1.31, 3.13) for women. The fourth quartile of healthy food was associated with a lower risk of anaemia (men: OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.31, 0.79; women: OR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.34, 0.75). Women in the north had a higher risk of anaemia (OR 2.49, 95 %CI 1.80, 3.43). Food patterns were associated with anaemia in this area with a high prevalence of anaemia.

  5. The hippocampus of the eastern rock sengi: cytoarchitecture, markers of neuronal function, principal cell numbers and adult neurogenesis

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    Lutz eSlomianka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus, of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sengi hippocampal cytoarchitecture is an amalgamation of characters that are found in CA1 of, e.g., guinea pig and rabbits and in CA3 and dentate gyrus of primates. Correspondence analysis of total cell numbers and quantitative relations between principal cell populations relate this sengi to macaque monkeys and domestic pigs, and distinguish the sengi from distinct patterns of relations found in humans, dogs and murine rodents. Calretinin and calbindin are present in some cell populations that also express these proteins in other species, e.g., interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border or temporal hilar mossy cells, but neurons expressing these markers are often scarce or absent in other layers. The distributions of parvalbumin and somatostatin resemble those in other species. Normalized numbers of PCNA+ proliferating cells and doublecortin+ differentiating cells of neuronal lineage fall within the overall ranges of murid rodents, but differed from three murid species captured in the same habitat in that fewer doublecortin+ cells relative to PCNA+ were observed . The large and well-differentiated sengi hippocampus is not accompanied by correspondingly sized cortical and subcortical limbic areas that are the main hippocampal sources of afferents and targets of efferents. This points to intrinsic hippocampal information processing as the selective advantage of the large sengi

  6. Prevalence of asthma among the adult general population of five Middle Eastern countries: results of the SNAPSHOT program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarraf, Hesham; Aydin, Omur; Mungan, Dilsad; Albader, Mohammad; Mahboub, Bassam; Doble, Adam; Lahlou, Aaicha; Tariq, Luqman; Aziz, Fayaz; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2018-05-11

    Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease leading to morbidity, mortality and impaired quality of life worldwide. Information on asthma prevalence in the Middle East is fragmented and relatively out-dated. The SNAPSHOT program was conducted to obtain updated information. SNAPSHOT is a cross-sectional epidemiological program carried out in five Middle Eastern countries (Egypt, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, the latter three grouped into a Gulf cluster) to collect data on asthma, allergic rhinitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia and bipolar disorder. The survey was carried out by telephone in a random sample of the adult general population with quotas defined according to country demographics. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on asthma. Subjects were screened for asthma based on criteria from the global Asthma Insights and Reality studies. Current prevalence (last 12 months) was estimated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate risk factors related to asthma and the association with allergic rhinitis and other co-morbidities. Quality of life was assessed using the three-level EQ-5D questionnaire. 2124 out of the 33,486 subjects enrolled in the SNAPSHOT program fulfilled the criteria for asthma. The adjusted prevalence of asthma ranged from 4.4% [95% CI: 4.0-4.8%] in Turkey, to 6.7% [95% CI: 6.2-7.2%] in Egypt and 7.6% [95% CI: 7.1-8.0%] in the Gulf cluster. Prevalence was higher (p Middle East ranges from 4.4% to 7.6%, which is comparatively lower than the reported prevalence in Europe and North America. Asthma has a negative impact on quality of life, and is associated with high levels of co-morbid diseases, indicating a need for physicians to check for co-morbidities and ensure they are managed correctly in all asthma patients.

  7. Magnitude of opportunistic infections and associated factors in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in eastern Ethiopia

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    Mitiku H

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Habtamu Mitiku, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Zelalem Teklemariam Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of opportunistic infections (OIs and associated factors among HIV-infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy (ART in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted in 358 HIV-infected adult patients on ART from April to June 2014. Data were collected through review of clinical records. The data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of each independent variable with occurrence of OIs. A 95% confidence interval (CI and P-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant association. Results: A total of 358 patients were included in the study, in which majority (68.4% were females. The mean age of patients was 34 (standard deviation [SD] ±9.8 years. The overall of prevalence of OIs among HIV/AIDS patients on ART was 48%. The highest prevalent rates of OIs observed were tuberculosis (TB (21.23%, followed by Herpes zoster (11.2% and oral candidiasis (9.5%. Baseline CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.645, 95% CI =2.187, 3.983, baseline World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage III (AOR =2.801, 95% CI =1.958, 7.165 and IV (AOR =3.856; 95% CI =2.691, 10.390, and not using prophylaxis (AOR =1.912, 95% CI =1.444, 3.824 were found to have strong association with acquisition of OIs. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of OIs observed in this study. Baselines CD4 count of <200 cells/mm3, advanced WHO clinical stages, and not using prophylaxis were found to be predictors of OIs. Interventions were aimed at promoting early HIV testing and enrollment of HIV-infected individuals into ART services needed before CD4

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

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    Gebremariam K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC among young adult (10–24 years of age females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results: This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%. The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%, had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7% study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion: Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong

  9. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study carried out on a cross-section of 500 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke in a never-smoked adult patient in the previous 1 year. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 for the calculation of percentages for categorical variables. Bivariate analysis involving Chi-square test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables at P < 0.05. Results: The age of the respondents ranged from 18 to 74 years, with a mean age of 36 ± 12.4 years. There were 180 (36.0%) males with 320 (64%) females, with a sex ratio of 1.8. Awareness of general health effects of secondhand smoke on adults, children, and pregnant women was 95.6%, 92.8%, and 65.2%, respectively. The most common specific health effects the respondents were aware for adults, children, and obstetric population were lung cancer (95.6%), precipitation of asthmatic condition (92.8%), and delivery of small babies (65.2%), respectively. The predominant source of awareness of information was radio (93.6%). Awareness of general health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke on adults (P = 0.041), children (P = 0.031), and obstetrics population (P = 0.02) was significantly associated with exposure status. Conclusion: The most common health effects of secondhand smoke the respondents

  11. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. A hospital-based study carried out on a cross-section of 500 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke in a never-smoked adult patient in the previous 1 year. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 for the calculation of percentages for categorical variables. Bivariate analysis involving Chi-square test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables at P effects of secondhand smoke on adults, children, and pregnant women was 95.6%, 92.8%, and 65.2%, respectively. The most common specific health effects the respondents were aware for adults, children, and obstetric population were lung cancer (95.6%), precipitation of asthmatic condition (92.8%), and delivery of small babies (65.2%), respectively. The predominant source of awareness of information was radio (93.6%). Awareness of general health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke on adults ( P = 0.041), children ( P = 0.031), and obstetrics population ( P = 0.02) was significantly associated with exposure status. The most common health effects of secondhand smoke the respondents had highest awareness were lung cancer, precipitation of asthmatic attacks, and delivery of small babies in adults, children, and obstetric population, respectively. Awareness of general health effects on adults, children, and obstetrics population was

  12. Dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults attending antiretroviral therapy clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Digaffe, Tesfaye; Mesfin, Frehiwot; Mitiku, Habtamu

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional care is considered a crucial component of comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), particularly in resource-limited settings where malnutrition and food insecurity are endemic problems, and low quality monotonous diets are the norm. The findings of this study provide baseline information on dietary diversity and related factors for health care providers so that they will be able to improve nutritional care and support activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults (18-65 years old) attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016 at the ART clinics of Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals. Using a systematic random sampling technique, a total of 303 patients were selected from all adults attending the ART clinics. The data were collected with a 95% CI used to show association between dietary diversity and independent factors. A total of 303 adult HIV positive individuals on ART participated in the study and 62.4% were females. The largest numbers of participants (49.5%) were 30-40 years of age. Eighty-seven (28.7%) participants had low dietary diversity (≤4 food groups). Duration of anti-retroviral treatment was the factor significantly associated with dietary diversity: respondents with a duration of antiretroviral treatment of more than 2 years were almost two times more likely to have high dietary diversity compared with those with less than a year of antiretroviral treatment (adjusted odds ratio =0.490; 95% CI: 0.091, 0.978). Low dietary diversity was found to be a nutritional problem among HIV positive adults. Duration of antiretroviral treatment was the predictor of low dietary diversity. Therefore, appropriate dietary management of side effects of ART is important.

  13. Medication adherence and blood pressure control amongst adults with primary hypertension attending a tertiary hospital primary care clinic in Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoedu, John N.; Njoku, Patrick U.; Amadi, Agwu N.; Godswill-Uko, Ezinne U.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background As the case detection rates of hypertension increase in adult Nigerians, achieving target blood pressure (BP) control has become an important management challenge. Objectives To describe medication adherence and BP control amongst adult Nigerians with primary hypertension attending a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in a resource-poor environment in Eastern Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 140 adult patients with primary hypertension who have been on treatment for at least 6 months at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. A patient was said to have achieved goal BP control if the BP was < 140 per 90 mmHg. Adherence was assessed in the previous 30 days using a pretested researcher-administered questionnaire on 30 days of self-reported therapy. Adherence was graded using an ordinal scoring system of 0–4; an adherent patient was one who scored 4 points in the previous 30 days. Reasons for non-adherence were documented. Results Adherence to medication and BP control rates were 42.9% and 35.0% respectively. BP control was significantly associated with medication adherence (p = 0.03), antihypertensive medication duration ≥3 years (p = 0.042), and taking ≥ one form of antihypertensive medication (p = 0.04). BP at the recruitment visit was significantly higher than at the end of the study (p = 0.036). The most common reason for non-adherence was forgetfulness (p = 0.046). Conclusions The rate of BP control amongst the study population was low, which may be connected with low medication adherence. This study urges consideration of factors relating to adherence alongside other factors driving goal BP control.

  14. Medication adherence and blood pressure control amongst adults with primary hypertension attending a tertiary hospital primary care clinic in Eastern Nigeria

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    Gabriel UP. Iloh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the case detection rates of hypertension increase in adult Nigerians, achieving target blood pressure (BP control has become an important management challenge.Objectives: To describe medication adherence and BP control amongst adult Nigerians with primary hypertension attending a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in a resource-poor environment in Eastern Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 140 adult patients with primary hypertension who have been on treatment for at least 6 months at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. A patient was said to have achieved goal BP control if the BP was < 140 per 90 mmHg. Adherence was assessed in the previous 30 days using a pretested researcher-administered questionnaire on 30 days of self-reported therapy. Adherence was graded using an ordinal scoring system of 0–4; an adherent patient was one who scored 4 points in the previous 30 days. Reasons for non-adherence were documented.Results: Adherence to medication and BP control rates were 42.9% and 35.0% respectively. BP control was significantly associated with medication adherence (p = 0.03, antihypertensive medication duration ≥3 years (p = 0.042, and taking ≥ one form of antihypertensive medication (p = 0.04. BP at the recruitment visit was significantly higher than at the end of the study (p = 0.036. The most common reason for non-adherence was forgetfulness (p = 0.046. Conclusion: The rate of BP control amongst the study population was low, which may be connected with low medication adherence. This study urges consideration of factors relating to adherence alongside other factors driving goal BP control.

  15. Education, material condition and physical functioning trajectories in middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe: a cross-country comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaoyue; Pikhart, Hynek; Pająk, Andrzej; Kubínová, Růžena; Malyutina, Sofia; Besala, Agnieszka; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Two competing hypotheses, cumulative advantage/disadvantage and age-as-leveller, have been proposed to explain the contradictory findings on socioeconomic differences in health over the lifespan. To test these hypotheses, this investigation examined the influence of educational attainment and material condition on individual trajectories of physical functioning (PF) in unexplored ageing populations in Central and Eastern Europe. Methods 28 783 men and women aged 45–69 years selected from populations in seven Czech towns, Krakow (Poland) and Novosibirsk (Russia). PF was measured by the Physical Functioning Subscale (PF-10) of the Short-Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) at baseline and three subsequent occasions. The highest educational attainment was self-reported at baseline, and material condition was captured by the sum score of 12 household amenities and assets. Results In all cohorts, participants with a university degree had the highest PF-10 score at baseline and slowest rate of decline in the score during follow-up, while the lowest baseline scores and fastest decline rate were found in participants with less than secondary education in all cohorts and in Russians with secondary education. Similar disparities in the baseline PF-10 score and decline rate were observed across tertiles of material condition, but differences in decline rates across the three tertiles among Czechs or between the lower two tertiles among Russians were not statistically significant. Conclusions Disparities in PF by educational attainment and material condition among middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe existed at baseline and widened during ∼10 years of follow-up, supporting the cumulative advantage/disadvantage hypothesis. PMID:27194710

  16. Education, material condition and physical functioning trajectories in middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe: a cross-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaoyue; Pikhart, Hynek; Pająk, Andrzej; Kubínová, Růžena; Malyutina, Sofia; Besala, Agnieszka; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Two competing hypotheses, cumulative advantage/disadvantage and age-as-leveller, have been proposed to explain the contradictory findings on socioeconomic differences in health over the lifespan. To test these hypotheses, this investigation examined the influence of educational attainment and material condition on individual trajectories of physical functioning (PF) in unexplored ageing populations in Central and Eastern Europe. 28 783 men and women aged 45-69 years selected from populations in seven Czech towns, Krakow (Poland) and Novosibirsk (Russia). PF was measured by the Physical Functioning Subscale (PF-10) of the Short-Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) at baseline and three subsequent occasions. The highest educational attainment was self-reported at baseline, and material condition was captured by the sum score of 12 household amenities and assets. In all cohorts, participants with a university degree had the highest PF-10 score at baseline and slowest rate of decline in the score during follow-up, while the lowest baseline scores and fastest decline rate were found in participants with less than secondary education in all cohorts and in Russians with secondary education. Similar disparities in the baseline PF-10 score and decline rate were observed across tertiles of material condition, but differences in decline rates across the three tertiles among Czechs or between the lower two tertiles among Russians were not statistically significant. Disparities in PF by educational attainment and material condition among middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe existed at baseline and widened during ∼10 years of follow-up, supporting the cumulative advantage/disadvantage hypothesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults attending antiretroviral therapy clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia

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    Weldegebreal F

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fitsum Weldegebreal,1 Tesfaye Digaffe,1 Frehiwot Mesfin,2 Habtamu Mitiku1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Nutritional care is considered a crucial component of comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, particularly in resource-limited settings where malnutrition and food insecurity are endemic problems, and low quality monotonous diets are the norm. The findings of this study provide baseline information on dietary diversity and related factors for health care providers so that they will be able to improve nutritional care and support activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults (18–65 years old attending antiretroviral therapy (ART clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016 at the ART clinics of Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals. Using a systematic random sampling technique, a total of 303 patients were selected from all adults attending the ART clinics. The data were collected with a 95% CI used to show association between dietary diversity and independent factors. Results: A total of 303 adult HIV positive individuals on ART participated in the study and 62.4% were females. The largest numbers of participants (49.5% were 30–40 years of age. Eighty-seven (28.7% participants had low dietary diversity (≤4 food groups. Duration of antiretroviral treatment was the factor significantly associated with dietary diversity: respondents with a duration of antiretroviral treatment of more than 2 years were almost two times more likely to have high dietary diversity compared with those with less than a year of

  18. Self-rated health disparities among disadvantaged older adults in ethnically diverse urban neighborhoods in a Middle Eastern country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Rizk, Anthony; Chemaitelly, Hiam

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines differentials in self-rated health (SRH) among older adults (aged 60+ years) across three impoverished and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in post-conflict Lebanon and assesses whether variations are explained by social and economic factors. Data were drawn from the Older Adult Component (n = 740) of the Urban Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2003 in a formal community (Nabaa), an informal settlement (Hey El-Sellom), and a refugee camp for Palestinians (Burj El-Barajneh) in Beirut, Lebanon. The role of the social capital and economic security constructs in offsetting poor SRH was assessed using multivariate ordinal logistic regression analyses. Older adults in Nabaa fared better in SRH compared to those in Hey El-Sellom and Burj El-Barajneh, with a prevalence of good, average, and poor SRH being respectively, 41.5%, 37.0%, and 21.5% in Nabaa, 33.3%, 23.9%, and 42.7% in Hey El-Sellom, and 25.2%, 31.3%, and 43.5% in Burj El-Barajneh. The economic security construct attenuated the odds of poorer SRH in Burj El-Barajneh as compared to Nabaa from 2.57 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.89-3.79) to 1.42 (95% CI: 0.96-2.08), but had no impact on this association in Hey El-Sellom (odds ratio, OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.39-3.24). The incorporation of the social capital construct in the fully adjusted model rendered this association insignificant in Hey El-Sellom (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.96-2.32), and led to further reductions in the magnitude of the association in Burj El-Barajneh camp (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.80-1.76). The social context in which older adults live and their financial security are key in explaining disparities in SRH in marginalized communities. Social capital and economic security, often overlooked in policy and public health interventions, need to be integrated in dimensions of well-being of older adults, especially in post-conflict settings.

  19. Factors associated with and prevalence of depressive features amongst older adults in an urban city in eastern China

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    Ping Shao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems have become serious for older Chinese adults who have lived through the process of urbanisation. This current research aimed to determine the prevalence of and associated factors for depressive features in a community-based sample of older adults in China. Methods: A community-based survey of 4077 adults aged 60 or older was conducted in Suzhou, China. Information including demographic characteristics, health behaviours, social support, disease histories and physical function was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire. Depressive features were assessed using the self-rating depression scale. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associated factors for depression. Results: The overall prevalence of depressive features in the surveyed population was 47.4% (45.9% in men and 48.5% in women. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the significant variables of depressive features were no fixed occupation (odds ratio [OR] = 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21–0.37, doing non-technical and service work (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.19–0.28 or being a manager and technical personnel (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.19–0.32, physical activities (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61–0.82, never taking dietary supplements (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58–0.91, not having hobbies (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.15–1.56, never interacting with neighbours (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.28–2.50, cold relationship with a spouse (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.18–9.45 and limited activities of daily living (OR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.91–2.69. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for public policy interventions to address depression in elderly people located in Suzhou in China.

  20. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had community belonging, and resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Pcommunity belonging and social participation varied as a function of resilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Pcommunity belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obesity and its cardio-metabolic co-morbidities among adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern, Nigeria

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    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity once thought the medical problem of affluent countries now exist in Nigeria and has been described as a time bomb for the future explosion in the frequency of cardio-metabolic diseases. The most deleterious health consequences of obesity are on the cardiovascular system and associated disorder of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Aim: This study was designed to determine the magnitude of obesity and its cardio-metabolic co-morbidities among adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital South-Eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out on 2391 adult Nigerians who were assessed for obesity using body mass index (BMI criterion. 206 patients who had BMI ΃30kg/m 2 were screened for cardio-metabolic co-morbidities. The data collected included basic demographic variables, weight, height, blood pressure; fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 8.6%. Grade I obesity (67.5% was the most common pattern; others included grade II obesity (23.3% and grade III obesity (9.2%. Hypertension (42.7% was the most common cardio-metabolic morbidity. Others included low HDL-cholesterol (22.8%, diabetes mellitus (15.1%, high triglyceride (12.6%, high total cholesterol (9.2%, and high LDL-cholesterol (6.8%. Conclusion: Obesity and its cardio-metabolic morbidities exist among the study population. Anthropometric determination of obesity and screening for its associated cardio-metabolic co-morbidities should constitute clinical targets for intervention in primary care clinics.

  2. Management of adult pancreatic injuries: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vanessa Phillis; Patel, Nimitt J; Bokhari, Faran; Madbak, Firas G; Hambley, Jana E; Yon, James R; Robinson, Bryce R H; Nagy, Kimberly; Armen, Scott B; Kingsley, Samuel; Gupta, Sameer; Starr, Frederic L; Moore, Henry R; Oliphant, Uretz J; Haut, Elliott R; Como, John J

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including fistula, sepsis, and death. There are currently no practice management guidelines for the medical and surgical management of traumatic pancreatic injuries. The overall objective of this article is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the physician who is presented with traumatic injury to the pancreas. The MEDLINE database using PubMed was searched to identify English language articles published from January 1965 to December 2014 regarding adult patients with pancreatic injuries. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework was used to formulate evidence-based recommendations. Three hundred nineteen articles were identified. Of these, 52 articles underwent full text review, and 37 were selected for guideline construction. Patients with grade I/II injuries tend to have fewer complications; for these, we conditionally recommend nonoperative or nonresectional management. For grade III/IV injuries identified on computed tomography or at operation, we conditionally recommend pancreatic resection. We conditionally recommend against the routine use of octreotide for postoperative pancreatic fistula prophylaxis. No recommendations could be made regarding the following two topics: optimal surgical management of grade V injuries, and the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy. Systematic review, level III.

  3. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Takele, Abulie; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere

    2016-01-01

    Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can't control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia. Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM) curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure. The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79-11.30) per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61-7.73)].Similarly, lower CD4 count (ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46-5.84).Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98-12.73)] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08-4.07)] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72-5.44)]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99-9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also associated with higher odds of experiencing treatment failure [AHR = 7.0, 95

  4. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demewoz Haile

    Full Text Available Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can't control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia.Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure.The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79-11.30 per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61-7.73].Similarly, lower CD4 count (<100 m3/dl at initiation of ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46-5.84.Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98-12.73] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08-4.07] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72-5.44]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99-9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also associated with higher odds of

  5. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  6. Prevalence and social drivers of HIV among married and cohabitating heterosexual adults in south-eastern Tanzania: analysis of adult health community cohort data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally M. Mtenga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of HIV among married and cohabiting couples is substantial. Information about the underlying social drivers of HIV transmission in couples is critical for the development of structural approaches to HIV prevention, but not readily available. We explored the association between social drivers, practices, and HIV status among stable couples in Ifakara, Tanzania. Design: Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed data from a sample of 3,988 married or cohabiting individuals, aged 15 years and older from the MZIMA adult health community cohort study of 2013. Sociodemographic factors (sex, income, age, and education, gender norms (perceived acceptability for a wife to ask her partner to use a condom when she knows he is HIV positive, marriage characteristics (being in a monogamous or a polygamous marriage, being remarried, sexual behavior practices (lifetime number of sexual partners and concurrent sexual partners, health system factors (ever used voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and lifestyle patterns (alcohol use were used to explore the odds of being HIV positive, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of HIV/AIDS was 6.7% (5.9% males and 7.1% females. Gender norms, that is, perception that a woman is not justified to ask her husband to use a condom even when she knows he has a disease (adjusted odds ratio AOR=1.51, 95% CI 1.06–2.17, marital characteristics, that is, being remarried (AOR=1.49, 95% CI 1.08–2.04, and sexual behavior characteristics, that is, lifetime number of sexual partners (2–4: AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02–2.11; 5+: AOR=1.61, 95% CI 1.05–2.47 were the main independent predictors of HIV prevalence. Conclusions: Among married or cohabiting individuals, the key social drivers/practices that appeared to make people more vulnerable for HIV are gender norms, marriage characteristics (being remarried, and sexual behavior practices (lifetime number of sexual partners

  7. Alcohol consumption and physical functioning among middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe: results from the HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaoyue; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Nikitin, Yuri; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    light-to-moderate drinking is apparently associated with a decreased risk of physical limitations in middle-aged and older adults. to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and physical limitations in Eastern European populations. a cross-sectional survey of 28,783 randomly selected residents (45-69 years) in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and seven towns of Czech Republic. physical limitations were defined as <75% of optimal physical functioning using the Physical Functioning (PF-10) Subscale of the Short-Form-36 questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was assessed by a graduated frequency questionnaire, and problem drinking was defined as ≥2 positive responses on the CAGE questionnaire. In the Russian sample, past drinking was also assessed. the odds of physical limitations were highest among non-drinkers, decreased with increasing drinking frequency, annual consumption and average drinking quantity and were not associated with problem drinking. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of physical limitations in non-drinkers versus regular moderate drinkers was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.48-1.75). In the Russian sample with past drinking available, the adjusted OR in those who stopped drinking for health reasons versus continuing drinkers was 3.19 (2.58-3.95); ORs in lifetime abstainers, former drinkers for non-health reasons and reduced drinkers for health reasons were 1.27 (1.02-1.57), 1.48 (1.18-1.85) and 2.40 (2.05-2.81), respectively. this study found an inverse association between alcohol consumption and physical limitations. The high odds of physical limitations in non-drinkers can be largely explained by poor health of former drinkers. The apparently protective effect of heavier drinking was partly due to less healthy former heavy drinkers who moved to lower drinking categories. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  8. Central nervous system tumours among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years) in Southern and Eastern Europe: Registration improvements reveal higher incidence rates compared to the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Tragiannidis, Athanasios; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Sfakianos, Georgios; Nikas, Ioannis; Kosmidis, Sofia; Razis, Evangelia; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-11-01

    To present incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumours among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years) derived from registries of Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), US and explore changes due to etiological parameters or registration improvement via evaluating time trends. Diagnoses of 11,438 incident malignant CNS tumours in AYAs (1990-2014) were retrieved from 14 collaborating SEE cancer registries and 13,573 from the publicly available SEER database (1990-2012). Age-adjusted incidence rates (AIRs) were calculated; Poisson and joinpoint regression analyses were performed for temporal trends. The overall AIR of malignant CNS tumours among AYAs was higher in SEE (28.1/million) compared to SEER (24.7/million). Astrocytomas comprised almost half of the cases in both regions, albeit the higher proportion of unspecified cases in SEE registries (30% versus 2.5% in SEER). Similar were the age and gender distributions across SEE and SEER with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3 and an overall increase of incidence by age. Increasing temporal trends in incidence were documented in four SEE registries (Greater Poland, Portugal North, Turkey-Izmir and Ukraine) versus an annual decrease in Croatia (-2.5%) and a rather stable rate in SEER (-0.3%). This first report on descriptive epidemiology of AYAs malignant CNS tumours in the SEE area shows higher incidence rates as compared to the United States of America and variable temporal trends that may be linked to registration improvements. Hence, it emphasises the need for optimisation of cancer registration processes, as to enable the in-depth evaluation of the observed patterns by disease subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifestyle and health determinants of cardiovascular disease among Greek older adults living in Eastern Aegean Islands: An adventure within the MEDIS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Foscolou

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Overall, CVD risk seems to be low among Eastern Aegean Islanders; certain differences in CVD risk factors exist between Greek islanders and their counterparts living in Gökçeada, and those differences may be attributed to various environmental, cultural and lifestyle factors.

  10. A Discourse of Disconnect: Young People from the Eastern Cape Talk about the Failure of Adult Communications to Provide Habitable Sexual Subject Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jearey-Graham, Nicola; Macleod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Face-to-face adult communication with young people about sexuality is, for the most part, assigned to two main groups of people: educators tasked with teaching school-based sexuality education that is provided as part of the compulsory Life Orientation (LO) learning area, and parents. In this paper, we report on a study conducted with Further…

  11. Migration patterns of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed migration strategies of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the poorly studied Eastern European– East African flyway. Four adult birds were equipped with GPS-based satellite-transmitters or data-loggers in their breeding sites in Estonia (north-eastern Europe) and tracked to their wintering grounds in Africa and ...

  12. Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin and Low Iodine Intake Are Associated with Nontoxic Nodular Goiter among Adults Living near the Eastern Mediterranean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv S. Ovadia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information about iodine intake is crucial for preventing thyroid diseases. Inadequate iodine intake can lead to thyroid diseases, including nontoxic nodular goiter (NNG. Objective. To estimate iodine intake and explore its correlation with thyroid diseases among Israeli adults living near the Mediterranean coast, where iodine-depleted desalinated water has become a major source of drinking water. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients attending Barzilai Medical Center Ashkelon. Participants, who were classified as either NNG (n=17, hypothyroidism (n=14, or control (n=31, provided serum thyroglobulin (Tg and completed a semiquantitative iodine food frequency questionnaire. Results. Elevated serum Tg values (Tg > 60 ng/mL were significantly more prevalent in the NNG group than in the other groups (29% versus 7% and 0% for hypothyroidism and controls, resp., P<0.05. Mean estimated iodine intake was significantly lower in the NNG group (65±30 μg/d than in controls (115±60 μg/d (P<0.05 with intermediate intake in the hypothyroid group (73±38 μg/d. Conclusions. Elevated serum Tg values and low dietary iodine intake are associated with NNG among adult patients in Ashkelon District, Israel. Larger studies are needed in order to expand on these important initial findings.

  13. Cervical spine collar clearance in the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient: a systematic review and practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayur B; Humble, Stephen S; Cullinane, Daniel C; Day, Matthew A; Jawa, Randeep S; Devin, Clinton J; Delozier, Margaret S; Smith, Lou M; Smith, Miya A; Capella, Jeannette M; Long, Andrea M; Cheng, Joseph S; Leath, Taylor C; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Haut, Elliott R; Como, John J

    2015-02-01

    With the use of the framework advocated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, our aims were to perform a systematic review and to develop evidence-based recommendations that may be used to answer the following PICO [Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes] question:In the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient, should cervical collar removal be performed after a negative high-quality cervical spine (C-spine) computed tomography (CT) result alone or after a negative high-quality C-spine CT result combined with adjunct imaging, to reduce peri-clearance events, such as new neurologic change, unstable C-spine injury, stable C-spine injury, need for post-clearance imaging, false-negative CT imaging result on re-review, pressure ulcers, and time to cervical collar clearance? Our protocol was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews on August 23, 2013 (REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42013005461). Eligibility criteria consisted of adult blunt trauma patients 16 years or older, who underwent C-spine CT with axial thickness of less than 3 mm and who were obtunded using any definition.Quantitative synthesis via meta-analysis was not possible because of pre-post, partial-cohort, quasi-experimental study design limitations and the consequential incomplete diagnostic accuracy data. Of five articles with a total follow-up of 1,017 included subjects, none reported new neurologic changes (paraplegia or quadriplegia) after cervical collar removal. There is a worst-case 9% (161 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of stable injuries and a 91% negative predictive value of no injury, after coupling a negative high-quality C-spine CT result with 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging, upright x-rays, flexion-extension CT, and/or clinical follow-up. Similarly, there is a best-case 0% (0 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of unstable

  14. The role of family bio-social variables in depression in a resource-constrained environment: A cross-sectional study of ambulatory adult patients in a primary care clinic in Eastern Nigerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is a family and public health condition that has negative consequences for the victim, family, friends, and society with significant socio-family dysfunction, especially when it is undiagnosed. Aim: The present study was aimed at determining the role of family bio-social variables in depression among ambulatory adult patients in a primary care clinic in the Eastern Nigerian. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 400 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Family Assessment Device, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Brief Family Relationship Scale. Results: The age of the study participants ranged from 18 to 78 years. There were 40.5% of male and 59.5% of female. The prevalence of depression was 48.5% with the most common pattern being mild depression (32.3%. Depression was significantly associated with unhealthy family functioning (P = 0.002, low-acuity family support (P = 0.039, family with least cohesion (P = 0.044, least expressiveness (P = 0.013, and most conflict (P = 0.013. The most significant predictor of depression was unhealthy family functioning (Odds ratio = 3.14 [1.82–3.77]; P = 0.001. Depressed patients who had unhealthy family functioning were three times more likely to experience depressive illness compared to their counterparts who were from healthy functional family. Conclusion: Depression occurred among the study participants and was significantly associated with unhealthy family functioning, low family support, least family cohesion and expressiveness and most family conflict. Assessment of family biosocial factors should be part of the reason for encounter during consultation to unravel family variables that positively or negatively influence depression.

  15. Variation of the active sulfur and its leave content in the adult African palm in the piedemonte soils of the Colombian eastern plains, during two climatic periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila, Gustavo A; Guerrero R; Rojas L A

    2000-01-01

    Investigations carried out until the present in Colombia on critical levels of sulfur in soils and its concentration in plant tissues of the oil palm is very scarce. Therefore, critical levels in soils obtained for other crops in Colombia and investigations about S content in oil palm accomplished in other countries, had been taken into account in order to have an idea of the nutritional S status in the Colombian oil palm crops. The present work had as an objective to measure the concentration of S in the tissue of the 17th leaf of adult oil palms (7-9 years) and the content of the active element in soil (by using the 0.008 m. monocalcic phosphate method) in two climatic periods (wet-dry) on soils (oxisols and inceptisols) of 12 plantations of the western Colombian plains. The evaluated soils were S deficient (< 5 ppm), with the exception of three plantations (Palmeta, Palmallano and Palmar of Manavire) at the first sampling depth (0-30 cm) during the two climatic periods evaluated. The greatest accumulation of S was found in the second sampling depth (30-60 cm). The leave concentration of S in most of the plantations was lower than the critical levels (0,20-0,23%) reported by other investigators (Malavolta, 1994; Hagstron (1988) y Ollagnier et al (1970), cited by Owen (1991), and Von Euxkull, 1996), during the two climatic periods of sampling, with no correlation to the values found in soils. the previous permits to deduce that: a) the concentrations of S in leave tissues for adult oil palm were less than the reported values in other countries. b) The critical levels for S in the soils tend to be in general, lower than those established in Colombia for other crops. C) The fertilization levels with S, tend be insufficient to satisfy the demand of the element in the evaluated plantations d) It is considered necessary to evaluate the efficiency of other methodologies to evaluate the S content in the plant as well as in the soil

  16. Epidemiology and clinical parameters of adult human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in South eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, Gu; Ele, Pu; Okocha, Ec; Iloduba, Uc

    2014-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has continued to ravage the teeming populations in Nigeria, with disastrous consequences. Despite many studies and progress on HIV/AIDS in Africa, the data on the status of the patients at the commencement of therapy is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the demographic, clinical and some laboratory features of adult HIV/AIDS patients, seen at the commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria between July 2002 and October 2004. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Adult patients living with HIV/AIDS were studied using an interview administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1. A total of 400 respondents participated in this study. The mean age was 36.8 (8.8) years. Almost 60% patients were married and the HIV concordance rate was 53.3% (136/255). Nearly 30% of the families had at least one child positive for HIV. The most common associated risky behavior was injection administered in patent medicine stores 74.5%(302/400) and the most common clinical symptom was respiratory. Of the 400 patients recruited in this study, 19 (4.8%) were lost to follow-up on the 6 months' visit, giving a follow-up rate of 95.2% (381/400). There was statistically significant difference in the mean body weight (P = 0.02), mean total white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and mean CD4(+) count (P < 0.001) at presentation and after 6 months of ART therapy. HIV/AIDS patients present late and body weight, CD4(+) count and total white blood cell count seemed to recover quickly on commencement of ART. The prevalence of concordance among couples and mother to child transmission rates tended to be high. Administration of injectable at patent medicine stores and multiple sexual partners are the most significant risk factors.

  17. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of adult behaviour of Culex (Culex species was carried out from August 1992 through December 1993 in a human modified (anthropic environment in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil. Culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. Nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. So it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. Nonetheless, Cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially St. Louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.São relatados os resultados obtidos mediante coletas regulares de adultos de Culex (Culex em ambientes antrópico do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1992 a dezembro de 1993. Pôde-se evidenciar a dominancia de Culex nigripalpus nas várias coletas efetuadas. Revelou-se claramente a preferência por parte desse mosquito em aumentar sua densidade no ambiente antrópico. Todavia, sua freqüência ao domicílio mostrou-se baixa, revelando fraco grau de sinantropia. Assim sendo, seu papel vetor de arbovirus parece restringir-se à participação no ciclo natural desses agentes infecciosos. Contudo, pode-se considerá-lo como vetor potencial no meio extradomiciliar. Nesse particular, seu papel pode não ser negligenciável, especialmente no que tange à possibilidade de transmissão de encefalite de S.Luís, cujo agente já foi assinalado na região.

  18. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  19. Malignant central nervous system tumors among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years old) in 14 Southern-Eastern European registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program: Mortality and survival patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Themistocleous, Marios; Tolia, Maria; Tzanis, Spyridon; Alexiou, George A; Papanikolaou, Panagiotis G; Nomikos, Panagiotis; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Petridou, Eleni T

    2017-11-15

    Unique features and worse outcomes have been reported for cancers among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years old). The aim of this study was to explore the mortality and survival patterns of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors among AYAs in Southern-Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison with the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Malignant CNS tumors diagnosed in AYAs during the period spanning 1990-2014 were retrieved from 14 population-based cancer registries in the SEE region (n = 11,438). Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated and survival patterns were evaluated via Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses, and they were compared with respective 1990-2012 figures from SEER (n = 13,573). Mortality rates in SEE (range, 11.9-18.5 deaths per million) were higher overall than the SEER rate (9.4 deaths per million), with decreasing trends in both regions. Survival rates increased during a comparable period (2001-2009) in SEE and SEER. The 5-year survival rate was considerably lower in the SEE registries (46%) versus SEER (67%), mainly because of the extremely low rates in Ukraine; this finding was consistent across age groups and diagnostic subtypes. The highest 5-year survival rates were recorded for ependymomas (76% in SEE and 92% in SEER), and the worst were recorded for glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (28% in SEE and 37% in SEER). Advancing age, male sex, and rural residency at diagnosis adversely affected outcomes in both regions. Despite definite survival gains over the last years, the considerable outcome disparities between the less affluent SEE region and the United States for AYAs with malignant CNS tumors point to health care delivery inequalities. No considerable prognostic deficits for CNS tumors are evident for AYAs versus children. Cancer 2017;123:4458-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  1. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Southwest Mississippi Tributaries Study Area Environmental Inventory; Wildlife Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    X Ruby-crowned kinglet (R. calendula ) X Blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) X X *’ Bluebirds and thrushes Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) X...struction, timber sales, and oil well operations, are restricted within that zone. Understory and midstory growth must be periodically removed to maintain

  3. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Satish, Karthyayani Priya; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ibrahim, Halah

    2016-08-19

    Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900) from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) sampling adequacy and Bartlett's tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach's α =0.85), validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant). The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13), screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients' ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a significant impact. This will be the first steptowards providing

  4. Feeding rates, double brooding, nest reuse, and seasonal fecundity of eastern wood-pewees in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah W. Kendrick; Frank R. III Thompson; Jennifer L. Reidy

    2014-01-01

    Despite being widespread and abundant, little is known about the breeding ecology and natural history of the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens), in part because nests are often high in the canopy, difficult to view, and adults are monomorphic. We monitored nests of Eastern Wood-Pewees and recorded the feeding rate of nestlings by adults as part of...

  5. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP...... essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...

  6. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  7. Quantity, Type, and Correlates of Physical Activity among American Middle Eastern University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs.…

  8. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  9. Eastern Europe's market role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, trade in nuclear fuel between market economy countries and those with planned economies was limited. The exception to this was in the enrichment market across Western Europe during the 1970s. Most of the nuclear generating plants in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are light water reactors needing enriched uranium. Under the fuel supply agreements with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has provided all of the regions' enrichment services, and therefore it has developed the only enrichment facilities. Techsnabexport (TENEX), the USSR foreign trade organization for the nuclear fuel cycle, first appeared in the early 1970s. It was as an alternative supplier to the US government, which had a monopoly in the West regarding enrichment. In 1986 the USSR entered and soon dominated the spot market for enrichment. Political changes in Eastern Europe at the end of 1989 and throughout 1990 opened the nuclear fuel market even wider. In 1990 the USSR began allowing exports of concentrates, as well as enriched product, and a free flow of trade to the Western market is now developing for both enrichment and uranium. (author)

  10. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandrasekhar Nair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. Methods By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900 from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Results Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach’s α =0.85, validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant. Conclusion The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13, screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients’ ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a

  11. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  12. Energy in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The present energy market in Central and Eastern Europe differs strongly from the energy situation in open market economies. Compared to the European Communities, the energy market in Central and eastern Europe is characterized by its high energy intensity, high quantity of imported oil and gas from a one country (the ex-Soviet Union), the dominant role of solid fossil fuels in some countries, and environmental pollution. Expected future developments are the reduction of the energy intensity and the total energy consumption, the reduction of the industrial energy consumption, the reduction of the solid fossil fuels as well as the geographic distribution of energy import. The restructuring of the energy industry has been started by introducing a market orientated policy including privatisation and the promotion of the free play of price-making forces, accompanied by relatively small-scale investments. Recent data indicate a decrease of energy consumption due to the economic decline and the shut-down of companies in the heavy industries. (A.S.) 4 figs. 5 tabs

  13. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  14. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  15. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  17. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  18. Dementia in Eastern Mediterranean countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Sara Mahmoud; Bartlett, Ruth; Brannelly, Tula

    2018-01-01

    Globally, there is an increase in the older population, whose lives are affected by local cultural norms. In Eastern Mediterranean countries, dementia is conventionally hidden from view with few dedicated services or recognition for diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the limited literature on dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in Eastern Mediterranean countries to present an evaluation of current practices and to consolidate knowledge for future planning. Thirty-three studies were identified for inclusion in the review, and four themes were apparent. Firstly, prevalence, comorbidity and gender: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, many studies identify that the prevalence of dementia is high. As is the case elsewhere, many older adults in Eastern Mediterranean countries have at least one coexisting long-term condition, and some experience low life-satisfaction. Secondly, culture: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, the older adult is highly respected, and placement outside of the family home is considered an abandonment of family duty. The term dementia carries stigma, and it is widely believed that dementia is caused by 'fate'. Thirdly, recognition and tools: There is a lack of verified assessment instruments to assess for dementia. Despite concerns about the cultural appropriateness of the Mini-Mental State Exam, particularly for people who have low literacy levels, and low literacy being the norm in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Mini-Mental State Examination is the main assessment instrument. Translation and transition of non-Arabic assessment instruments and tools with psychometric properties presents a challenge for clinicians. Finally, workforce issues: health care workers lack knowledge about dementia, as dementia care is a relatively recent addition to the nursing and medical syllabi. While there were some inconsistencies in the papers published, many of the articles call for increasing educational programmes

  19. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  20. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  1. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  2. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  3. Sex-specific roost selection by adult red bats in a diverse forested landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill; S. Andrew Carter

    2007-01-01

    The eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) is a common, widespread species that occurs throughout eastern North America; however, information on potential differences in roost selection between sexes is limited. We studied summer diurnal roosting of adult red bats in a diverse forested landscape to: (1) characterize roosts of adult males and females, (2...

  4. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  5. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... in the area.   The municipalities acknowledge the articulation of the city region and the initiated planning process.  However, the municipalities might see the arena as means to lobby for infrastructure investments in Eastern Jutland, as it is doubtful whether the municipalities will feel encouraged to enter...... a process, which is aiming at increasing the national regulation within their territory.    The result might very well be that the discussion about future infrastructure investments is not linked to discussions about future urban development in Eastern Jutland.  These aspects raises serious questions about...

  6. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  7. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  8. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  9. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Comprehensive assessment of geographic variation in heat tolerance and hardening capacity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgro, Carla M.; Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2010-01-01

    We examined latitudinal variation in adult and larval heat tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia. Adults were assessed using static and ramping assays. Basal and hardened static heat knockdown time showed significant linear clines; heat tolerance increased towards the tropics...

  11. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  12. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  13. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  14. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Reproduction in eastern screech-owls fed selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Raptors are occasionally exposed to excessive selenium from contaminated prey, but the effects of this exposure on reproduction are unknown. Therefore, we fed captive eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) diets containing 0, 4.4, or 13.2 ppm (wet wt) added selenium in the form of seleno-DL-methionine. Adult mass at sacrifice and reproductive success of birds receiving 13.2 ppm selenium were depressed (P biochemistries indicative of oxidative stress were affected (P < 0.05) in 5-day-old nestlings from parents fed 4.4 ppm selenium and included a 19% increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, a 43% increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH), and a 17% increase in lipid peroxidation. Based on reproductive effects relative to dietary exposure, sensitivity of eastern screech-owls to selenium was similar to that of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) but less than that of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

  16. Annual survival rate estimate of satellite transmitter–marked eastern population greater sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, David L.; Andersen, David E.; Hanna, Everett E.; Cooper, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Several surveys have documented the increasing population size and geographic distribution of Eastern Population greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida since the 1960s. Sport hunting of this population of sandhill cranes started in 2012 following the provisions of the Eastern Population Sandhill Crane Management Plan. However, there are currently no published estimates of Eastern Population sandhill crane survival rate that can be used to inform harvest management. As part of two studies of Eastern Population sandhill crane migration, we deployed solar-powered global positioning system platform transmitting terminals on Eastern Population sandhill cranes (n  =  42) at key concentration areas from 2009 to 2012. We estimated an annual survival rate for Eastern Population sandhill cranes from data resulting from monitoring these cranes by using the known-fates model in the MARK program. Estimated annual survival rate for adult Eastern Population sandhill cranes was 0.950 (95% confidence interval  =  0.885–0.979) during December 2009–August 2014. All fatalities (n  =  5) occurred after spring migration in late spring and early summer. We were unable to determine cause of death for crane fatalities in our study. Our survival rate estimate will be useful when combined with other population parameters such as the population index derived from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service fall survey, harvest, and recruitment rates to assess the effects of harvest on population size and trend and evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies.

  17. Risk Factors for Drug Abuse among Nepalese Samples Selected from a Town of Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, Surya Raj; Chhetry, Devendra Bahadur; Singh, Girish Kumar; Nagesh, S.; Shyangwa, Pramod Mohan

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the serious issue related to the adolescents' and adults' behavior and health. It aims to identify the risk factors for drug abuse from samples taken from a town of Eastern Nepal. This is a matched case-control study. The conditional logistic regression method was adopted for data analysis. The diagnosis cut off was determined…

  18. Central and eastern European activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Florida State University/Technical University of Budapest environmental research center, Center for Hungarian/American Environmental Research, Studies and Exchanges (CHAERSE), provides a resource base for information and technologies that is used to address near- and long-term environmental problems within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in Central and Eastern Europe. The CHAERSE is used as a technology transfer conduit for environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and solutions. The International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) used the CHAERSE as one source of information for the identification of international ER/WM technologies being developed in Central and Eastern Europe. This was accomplished by matching high-priority problems in that region to high-priority problems in the DOE Complex; conducting symposia, meetings and workshops with international environmental experts; and identifying innovative technologies

  19. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses the operating experience of nuclear power plants in Eastern and Western Europe, the former Soviet Union and the United States to investigate differences in the effects of learning, technical change and the effect of recent political developments. The performance of Soviet-designed reactors compares favourably with Western reactors on the standard performance measures. However, learning curve estimates reveal a disturbing trend: the former Soviet Union and all countries in Eastern Europe experience increasing unplanned losses as plants age, whereas all Western countries reduce their unplanned losses. A similar ''forgetting'' phenomenon is observable for plant availability and there is some evidence that the recent political and economic reorganization have exacerbated this trend. (Author)

  20. Museology History of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia D. Firer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the aspects of the establishment of the first museums and libraries in Eastern Siberia. The author considers the role of the museum in development of culture and public education in Minusinsk, Yeniseysk, notes the valuable contribution of the activities of merchants and intelligentsia to the museum business, as well as the reflection of the present and past of museums in Siberia.

  1. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  2. CIS/Eastern countries. A curtain raising on eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Slowly and laboriously a new russian petroleum industry is setting in. To illustrate this new scenery, statistical data and maps, giving the production and consumption rates are presented. Two big companies (Shell and B.P.) stand for the privatization of Rosneft, the russian petroleum group. The legal and financial petroleum aspects of Russian are changing but very slowly, attracting the western companies around the petroleum industry. But this interest remains careful. The european bank of investment (BEI) decided to take a financial share in the eastern energy. (A.L.B.)

  3. Evaluating palliative care needs in Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, Michael; Fink, Regina M; Min, Sung-Joon; Mancuso, Mary P; Brant, Jeannine; Hajjar, Ramzi; Al-Alfi, Nesreen; Baider, Lea; Turker, Ibrahim; ElShamy, Karima; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Al-Jadiry, Mazin; Khader, Khaled; Kav, Sultan; Charalambous, Haris; Uslu, Ruchan; Kebudi, Rejin; Barsela, Gil; Kuruku, Nilgün; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Ozalp-Senel, Gulsin; Oberman, Amitai; Kislev, Livia; Khleif, Mohammad; Keoppi, Neophyta; Nestoros, Sophia; Abdalla, Rasha Fahmi; Rassouli, Maryam; Morag, Amira; Sabar, Ron; Nimri, Omar; Al-Qadire, Mohammad; Al-Khalaileh, Murad; Tayyem, Mona; Doumit, Myrna; Punjwani, Rehana; Rasheed, Osaid; Fallatah, Fatimah; Can, Gulbeyaz; Ahmed, Jamila; Strode, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries, most categorized as low- and middle-income, is predicted to double in the next 10 years, greater than in any other part of the world. While progress has been made in cancer diagnosis/treatment, much remains to be done to improve palliative care for the majority of patients with cancer who present with advanced disease. To determine knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and resources regarding palliative care services in Middle Eastern countries and use findings to inform future educational and training activities. Descriptive survey. Fifteen Middle Eastern countries; convenience sample of 776 nurses (44.3%), physicians (38.3%) and psychosocial, academic, and other health care professionals (17.4%) employed in varied settings. Palliative care needs assessment. Improved pain management services are key facilitators. Top barriers include lack of designated palliative care beds/services, community awareness, staff training, access to hospice services, and personnel/time. The nonexistence of functioning home-based and hospice services leaves families/providers unable to honor patient wishes. Respondents were least satisfied with discussions around advance directives and wish to learn more about palliative care focusing on communication techniques. Populations requiring special consideration comprise: patients with ethnic diversity, language barriers, and low literacy; pediatric and young adults; and the elderly. The majority of Middle Eastern patients with cancer are treated in outlying regions; the community is pivotal and must be incorporated into future plans for developing palliative care services. Promoting palliative care education and certification for physicians and nurses is crucial; home-based and hospice services must be sustained.

  4. Cultural Clues to the Middle Eastern Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Orin D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Cultural patterns and characteristics of Middle Eastern students indicate their adaptability ease or difficulty in American society. Manners, paternalistic patterns, religion, and social relationships are discussed. (LBH)

  5. Andragogical Methods to Sustain Quality Adult Education in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Yilfashewa; Basha, Garkebo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the extent andragogy serves as a means to secure quality in adult education programs. It attempts to scrutinize how active learning methods are implemented effectively in adult education program in the Eastern part of Ethiopia. A survey research design was adapted as a method of the study. Stratified and purposive…

  6. Re-membering Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    -Soviet states into the “Eurovision” has been represented and discussed in Britain and Denmark, two countries with their own complex and complicated relationship to "Europe". Taking the cue from a growing scholarly production that argues for the importance of pop culture in the construction of social...... for analysing (political) memory. It then discusses the ways that the “Eastern enlargement” of the Contest in the 1990s triggered discussions of borders and belonging in both a historical and contemporary perspective. Finally the paper zooms in on British and Danish debates of three post-Soviet states; Estonia...

  7. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...

  8. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  9. Project finance in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A dysfunctional system of commercial, legal, and financial institutions is the primary problem facing the energy sectors in Eastern Europe. Generally, a major systemic transformation is well underway in the area and is already showing signs of success. The empty promise of export credit financing exerts a significant negative influence on this reform process. The discipline of project finance provides the best, if not the only, basis for financing the modernization of the Eastern European energy sector. An example is given of the Cracow Environmental Project, a modernization project. The power plant is a combined heat and power facility with 460 MW of electric capacity and 1450 MW of thermal energy capacity. Located near the center of Cracow, the plant burns hard coal and provides more than seventy percent of the central district heat consumed in the city. The scope of proposed improvements has changed from the addition of capacity to a combination of modernization and environmental retrofit of the existing plant. The total estimated cost of the improvements program is 150 million dollars. The project consists of three major elements. First, it has proposed and is in the process of restructuring the ownership of the power plant. Second, it is engaged in a major restructuring of the commercial arrangements that govern the operation of the plant. Finally, it is in the late stages of selecting an engineering, procurement, and construction consortium with which it will contract to design and make major improvements to the existing plant

  10. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H

    1994-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  11. 76 FR 28210 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties will meet...: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee, Apache...

  12. 76 FR 41755 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties Resource... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource...

  13. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  14. Babesia microti infection, eastern Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Marcela E Perez; Ender, Peter T; Smith, Erin M; Jahre, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.

  15. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  16. tive conflict resolution mechanism in eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Ethiopia: The case of the Ittu ... The study was conducted in eastern Ethiopia where the Somali and ... Zigale Tamir Tenaw is assistant professor in the Department of Gender and Development ..... regional state in collaboration with the local people – aggravate the already ..... Resource Based Conflict Network,.

  17. STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGIC AND MORPHOMETRIC PATTERNS OF TALAR ARTICULAR FACETS ON DRY ADULT CALCANEAL BONES IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIAN POPULATION. Estudio de los patrones morfológicos y morfométricos de las facetas articulares talares en huesos calcaneos a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukoha Ukoha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcaneum is the largest and longest tarsal bone in the foot and forms the prominence of the heel. Objective: The aim of the study was to observe the variations in the morphology and morphometry of the talar articular facets on the superior surface of human calcanei in South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 220 adult non-pathological dry calcanei of unknown sex from bone banks of various medical colleges in South-Eastern Nigeria. Each calcaneum was examined for various patterns of articulating facets. Results: Pattern 1 was 55.4% of the studied population, Pattern II 7.7%, Pattern III 12.7% and Pattern IV 24%. The oval shape was 52.86% and 64.39% in the anterior and middle talar articular facets respectively, oval and convex was 70% in the posterior facet and the elongated shape was 63.12% in the fused anterior and middle facet with elongated oval 27.87% in subtype 2 and elongated constricted 35.25% in subtype 1. The length of the calcanei was recorded at a mean±SD of 7.10±0.70cm (left side and 7.01±0.72cm (right side. The width was 2.77±0.38cm (left side and 2.77±0.37cm (right side. The distance between the anterior and middle facets was 0.50±0.15cm (left side and 0.48±0.15cm (right side; the posterior and middle facets at 0.59±0.20cm (left side and 0.56±0.17cm (right side and that between the anterior and posterior facets at 1.43±0.27cm (left side and 1.42±0.29cm (right side. Conclusion: A good knowledge of the calcaneal facet pattern and shape may be useful in forensic medicine. Antecedentes: El calcáneo es el hueso tarsiano más largo y más largo del pie y forma la prominencia del talón. El tercio medio de la superficie superior del calcáneo proporciona una faceta articular para el hueso del talud. Objetivo: El estudio busca observar las variaciones en la morfología y morfometría de las facetas articulares del talar en la superficie superior de huesos calcánicos secos de

  18. 77 FR 51966 - Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee...

  19. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  20. Movements and landscape use of Eastern Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Bragin, Evgeny A.; Sharpe, Peter B.; Garcelon, David K.; Bartoszuk, Kordian; Katzner, Todd E.

    2018-01-01

    Capsule: We describe ecological factors associated with movements of a globally declining raptor species, the Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca.Aims: To describe the movements, habitat associations and resource selection of Eastern Imperial Eagles marked in Central Asia.Methods: We used global positioning system (GPS) data sent via satellite telemetry devices deployed on Eastern Imperial Eagles captured in Kazakhstan to calculate distances travelled and to associate habitat and weather variables with eagle locations collected throughout the annual cycle. We also used resource selection models to evaluate habitat use of tracked birds during autumn migration. Separately, we used wing-tagging recovery data to broaden our understanding of wintering locations of eagles.Results: Eagles tagged in Kazakhstan wintered in most countries on the Arabian Peninsula, as well as Iran and India. The adult eagle we tracked travelled more efficiently than did the four pre-adults. During autumn migration, telemetered eagles used a mixture of vegetation types, but during winter and summer, they primarily used bare and sparsely vegetated areas. Finally, telemetered birds used orographic updrafts to subsidize their autumn migration flight, but they relied on thermal updrafts during spring migration.Conclusion: Our study is the first to use GPS telemetry to describe year-round movements and habitat associations of Eastern Imperial Eagles in Central Asia. Our findings provide insight into the ecology of this vulnerable raptor species that can contribute to conservation efforts on its behalf.

  1. Records of the Genus Paramerina (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from Eastern Himalaya and Satpura Hill Regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, N; Hazra, N; Mazumdar, A

    2013-10-01

    The pupa and the male imago of Paramerina valida n. sp. and the larva of Paramerina inficia Chaudhuri & Debnath are described and illustrated along with a brief re-description of the adult of P. inficia from the Eastern Himalaya and Satpura hill regions of India. A key to the adult males of the Indian species of the genus Paramerina Fittkau is provided. The notes on ecology of the two species are also provided.

  2. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  3. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  4. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  5. Epidemiological Study of Hepatitis A Infection in Eastern Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsankova, Gabriela St; Todorova, Tatina T; Ermenlieva, Neli M; Popova, Tsvetelina K; Tsankova, Dayana T

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is an acute, self-limited liver disease transmitted usually through the faecal-oral route via person-to-person contact. Bulgaria has intermediate HAV endemicity with higher susceptibility among adults and recurrent outbreaks. As HAV infection is strongly related to human movements and represents a significant risk to travelers and migrants, as well as to local population receiving these groups, we set out to analyze the epidemiological data on hepatitis A in five of the largest tourist border regions of Bulgaria located in its eastern part: Varna, Shumen, Dobrich, Burgas and Yambol. We reviewed retrospectively all reported cases of acute hepatitis A in the eastern regions of Bulgaria over a 7-year period between 2008 and 2014. A total of 2879 newly infected patients were registered during the study period, the number varying widely: from 190 cases in 2014 to 923 in 2012. The average incidence of HAV was higher in the south-eastern regions than in the northeastern regions (55.30%000 vs 15.04%000 respectively, p < 0.0001). The most affected age group in all regions was the 5-9-year olds (p < 0.0001) and males were significantly more susceptible to HAV (p = 0.02). Hepatitis A is still a major public health problem in Bulgaria; there is a significant difference in the incidence of the disease between the regions in the south-east and those in the north-east and between the different age groups and sexes.

  6. DNA locus HLA-DQ alpha polymorphism in human population of the north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiński, W; Skawrońska, M; Janica, J

    1996-01-01

    Investigations on DNA polymorphism locus HLA-DQ alpha were carried out on a sample of 117 adult unrelated inhabitants from the north-eastern Poland. The polymerase chain reaction and the reverse dot-blot hybridisation were employed to detect 6 different HLA-DQ alpha alleles. Population data on 20 different genotypes served as a basis for statistic evaluation. The results of genotype analysis were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Other population data were compared.

  7. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    L?, Aissata; Tall-Dia, Anta; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania.Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania.Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were rando...

  8. 78 FR 43874 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-514-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On July 2, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) filed... natural gas facilities no longer in service. As described more fully in the Application, Texas Eastern...

  9. 76 FR 7833 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 25, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above... TEAM 2012 Project. Specifically, Texas Eastern requests: (i) Authorization under NGA sections 7(b) and...

  10. Transcultural Memory in Eastern European Migrant Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortner, Jessica

    of the major processes that circulate memories across cultural and national borderlines. This paper will investigate the circulation of memories in Eastern Europe migrant-literature that since 2000 has become an increasingly influential literary tendency in Germany. Articulating an eastern perspective...... consciously follow the mission to “enlighten and inform Western readers about their eastern neighbours” (Haines 2008). Causing an “eastern enlargement” of German literature (Bürger-Koftis 2008), the wave of migrant authors broadens Germany’s cultural memory by supplementing it with “new” memories. Furthermore......The “transcultural turn” of memory studies focuses on the fluid and dynamic aspects of cultural memory. This paper is concerned with the traveling of memories along the paths of migration. As migrants carry along “collective images and narratives of the past” (Erll 2011), migration is one...

  11. Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogubazghi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Member countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Seismologica Working Group are listed. The presentation also gives the objectives, activities, date of birth and sponsors of the said ESARSWG. Areas of possible cooperation with CTBTO are indicated

  12. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  13. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela

    1998-01-01

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  14. The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean is reviewed following five years of monitoring (1999-2003. The mean number of nests recorded during the annual nesting season (June-October was 53 (± 24.9 SD; range: 13-43. In accordance with earlier reports, the nesting of hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata and green (Chelonia mydas turtles was confirmed on several beaches around the island. Only non-nesting emergences were documented for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta and there was no evidence of nesting by leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea; however, it is possible that additional survey effort would reveal low density nesting by these species. Officially reported turtle capture data for 1993-2003 suggest that a mean of 0.9 turtle per year (±1.2 SD; range: 0-4 were landed island-wide, with all harvest having occurred during the annual open season (1 October to 31 May. Informed observers believe that the harvest is significantly under-reported and that fishermen avoid declaring their catch by butchering turtles at sea (both during and outside the open season. Of concern is the fact that breeding adults are potentially included in the harvest, and that the open season partially coincides with the breeding season. The present study has shown that although Montserrat is not a major nesting site for sea turtles, it remains important on a regional basis for the Eastern Caribbean.

  15. Human rickettsioses in the Batna area, eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, Khamsa; Tebbal, Soraya; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of rickettsioses in febrile exanthemas in eastern Algeria, we conducted a prospective serological analysis of all patients presenting with this clinical picture at the Infectious Diseases Department in the Batna Hospital from January 2000 to September 2006. One hundred and eight adult patients were included in the study, 46% of whom younger than 25 years, and 72.5% were admitted from May to September. Patients were tested for antibodies to Rickettsia conorii conorii, R. conorii israelensis, R. aeschlimannii, R. felis, R. sibirica mongolitimonae, R. africae, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii using microimmunofluorescence and Western blot as confirmation procedure. Both methods confirmed the diagnosis of Mediterranean spotted fever in 5 patients (4.6%), flea spotted fever in 2 patients (1.9%), and R. aeschlimannii infection in 2 patients (1.9%). In addition, 4 patients were diagnosed as having murine typhus (3.7%) and one with epidemic typhus (0.9%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of R. felis infection and R. aeschlimannii infection in Algeria. In conclusion, at least 5 different kinds of rickettsiosis coexist in eastern Algeria and, being responsible for 13% of cases of febrile exanthemas, should be considered among major causes of this clinical picture in this area. In addition, we emphasize the high incidence of typhus group rickettioses, including epidemic typhus, in this area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Adult Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents For Adolescents For Adults Scoliosis Kyphosis Spondylolysis Other Spine Deformities & Conditions Conditions of the Aging ... For Parents For Adolescents For Adults Scoliosis Kyphosis Spondylolysis Other Spine Deformities & Conditions Conditions of the Aging ...

  17. The energy question in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a first part, this book describes the energetic schemes, energy consumption and centralized economy in Eastern Europe countries. In the second part, the relationships between energy supply and macro-economic disequilibria in USSR is studied: Petroleum and power generation are chosen as example. In the third part, the book shows the energetic stakes in Central and Eastern Europe: the end of the exchange model (imports, exports) and the energetic schemes facing economical reforms

  18. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parasites of skipjack, Katsuwonus pelamis, from Madeira, Eastern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Cavaleiro, Bárbara; Gouveia, Lídia; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2018-04-01

    Skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a tropical species of economic importance for fisheries around the world. It occurs seasonally in subtropical waters around Madeira archipelago, in the warmer months. In this study, a parasitological analysis was carried out on a sample of 30 skipjack caught near Madeira Island. A total of 24 parasite taxa were found in this sample. The skipjack parasite community detected was characterized by a wide diversity of parasites, with a predominance of adult didymozoid trematodes, and high prevalences of Tentacularia coryphaenae cestode larvae and Anisakis sp. larvae. Microhabitat distribution of gill parasites was assessed for the most prevalent species, and correlations between parasite abundance and various host features such as size, condition, and fat content were investigated. Parasite taxa which might be useful as biological tags in future studies of skipjack migrations in the Eastern Atlantic were selected.

  20. 75 FR 68397 - DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-DeQueen and Eastern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC (DQE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company and to operate approximately 47 miles of...

  1. Adult medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rege S.V.; Patil Harshad; Narayan Sharadendu

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from the cerebellum. It is the most common primary malignant intracranial childhood neoplasm. In adults, medulloblastoma are much less common, accounting for < 1% of all adult brain tumors. Herein, author has described a rare case of cerebellar medulloblastoma in adult.

  2. Chaudhuriomyia, a new tanypod genus of Macropelopiini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nilotpol; Mazumdar, Abhijit

    2015-05-06

    A new genus, Chaudhuriomyia in the tribe Macropelopiini belonging to subfamily Tanypodinae is described and illustrated in all life stages. The genus can be distinguished from all the other known Macropelopiini by the presence of a blunt claw on fore leg and a smooth surface of tibial spur in adult male, seminal capsules without proper neck in adult female, round anal lobe in pupa, and slightly inwardly bent inner tooth of ligula in larva. Generic diagnoses for larva, pupa and adult are provided. Taxonomic position and distribution of the genus are discussed along with a new adult key of tribe Macropelopiini. The specimens were collected from a stream in Indo-Bhutan border area of Eastern Himalaya in Indian Subcontinent. A note on the ecology and biology of the new genus is included.

  3. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  4. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  5. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  6. Foggy Diaspora: Romanian Women in Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorescu-Marinković Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ethnographic and anthropological research on the Romanian communities in Eastern Serbia, this article seeks to contribute to the global scholarship on diaspora and migration. It reveals interesting differences between the well defined and intensely studied notion of “diaspora” on the one hand, and the understudied, but useful concept of “near diaspora” on the other. First, the presence of Romanians in Eastern Serbia is looked at from a gender perspective, in the wider context of feminization of international migration. Second, the paper argues that the Romanian women in Eastern Serbia adopt the strategy of living in the “social fog”, thus becoming what can be termed “foggy diaspora”.

  7. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radl, Christina Mathilde; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R.

    2012-01-01

    are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. Method: The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari......: It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health...

  8. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  9. Eastern Germany Ahead in Employment of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Holst; Anna Wieber

    2014-01-01

    Almost a quarter of a century after the fall of the Wall, there are still more women in employment in eastern Germany than in the west. Although the disparity is marginal now, the two regions started from dramatically different levels. In 1991, immediately after reunification, the employment rate for women in western Germany was 54.6 percent, but since then it has increased year on year, reaching 67.5 percent in 2012. In eastern Germany, female employment initially plummeted after the fall of...

  10. Fission track geochronology of Eastern Ghats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virk, H S; Koul, S L; Singh, S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1978-12-01

    Fission track geochronology of Eastern Ghats has been established by using fission track technique in dating micaceous and accessory minerals occurring in the region. Annealing studies confirm that radiation damage fossil tracks can be erased in minerals under intense metamorphic episodes thus resetting the geological clock. The fission track ages of the minerals range between 450 +- 5 m.y. to 622 +- 148 m.y. It is concluded that f.t. ages of the minerals date the last metamorphic event of the Eastern Ghats, known as the Indian Ocean Cycle.

  11. Middle Eastern Christian spaces in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hunter, Alistair; McCallum, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Despite little scholarly attention, Middle Eastern Christian Churches are a well-established element of the European religious landscape. Based on collaborative research, this article examines how three mutual field visits facilitated a deeper understanding of the complexity that characterises...... church establishment and activities among Iraqi, Assyrian/Syriac and Coptic Orthodox Christians in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. Exploring analytical dimensions of space, diversity, size, and minority position we identify three positions of Middle Eastern Christians: in London as the epitome of super...

  12. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...... Rubinson, Professor of Education, University of British Colombia, Vancouver skrev: "Illeris viser et fantastisk overblik over nøgleproblematikkerne når vi taler voksenuddannelse og læring. Han har en evne til fremvise komplekse emner og sammenhænge, som selv menigmand let kan forstå."...

  13. Immunizing Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.

  14. Adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Larson, Anne; Cort, Pia

    education works well, serving relevant needs of citizens as well as the labour market and contributes to social justice. Thus policy intervention is not needed and the workings of adult education are more or less invisible (2) the Danish system of adult education confronts problems of quality......When the first round of results from the PIAAC survey was published in 2013, the media coverage in Denmark was limited and quickly focused on how to enhance learning in primary school (Cort & Larson, 2015). What could have led to an increased focus on adult education and training, thus, instead...... revealed how the interest in adult education and training was being overshadowed by a dominant focus on primary education. This apparent lack of interest for adult education and training is not a given in the international context and perhaps especially in Denmark. In the 1970’s, both UNESCO and the OECD...

  15. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Estimation of stature from facial parameters in adult Abakaliki people ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is carried out in order to estimate the height of adult Igbo people of Abakaliki ethnic group in South-Eastern Nigeria from their facial Morphology. The parameters studied include Facial Length, Bizygomatic Diameter, Bigonial Diameter, Nasal Length, and Nasal Breadth. A total of 1000 subjects comprising 669 ...

  18. Morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 in the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the analysis of morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise from three localities in south­eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija. 75 adult Hermann's tortoises (33 males and 42 females have been analyzed. Morphometric analysis has been done on 7 traits. We considered the plastron black pigmentation patterns and frequencies for each pigmentation states were calculated. Females were larger than males for all morphometric traits. Based on the most important dimensions of carapace and plastron length and width, the Hermann's tortoises from the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija are the most similar to the individuals of the population from the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula (the southern part of Serbia and the northern part of Greece. In relation to the populations from central and eastern Serbia, individuals from our studied area have higher values.

  19. 78 FR 6319 - Eastern Hydroelectric Corporation; Notice Rejecting Request for Rehearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 7019-068] Eastern... an order amending license Article 401 for Eastern Hydroelectric Corporation's (Eastern Hydroelectric....\\1\\ On January 11, 2013, Eastern Hydroelectric filed a request for rehearing of Commission staff's...

  20. Gluing of Eastern Hardwoods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry Sellers; James R. McSween; William T. Nearn

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of years, inrreasing demand for softwoods in the Eastern United States has led to an increase in the growth of hardwoods on cut-over softwood sites. Unfortunately these hardwood trees are often of a size and shape unsuitable for the production of high-grade lumber and veneer. They do, however, represent a viable, economic soures of raw material for...

  1. Diagnosing injury to eastern forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Skelly; Donald D. Davis; William Merrill; E. Alan Cameron; H. Daniel Brown; David B. Drummond; Leon S., eds. Dochinger

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to assist members of the National Vegetation Survey in recognizing air pollutant-induced injury and in identifying disease and insect damage that may be confused with air pollutant-induced injury to forest vegetation in the eastern United States. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, and, to a limited geographic extent, hydrogen fluoride, are all...

  2. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  3. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    are tested using the new members of the EU in Eastern Europe and the candidate country of Croatia as cases. There is no coherent panel data, but by categorizing specific trends in each country and then combining the different trend variables it is possible to identify the most important factors influencing...

  4. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...

  5. INORGANIC ELEMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF EASTERN OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. In press. Inorganic Elements and Distribution of Eastern Oysters (Abstract). To be presented at the 96th Annual Meeting (Aquaculture 2004) of the National Shellfisheries Association, 1-5 March 2004, Honolulu, HI. 1 p. (ERL,GB R962). For over a century w...

  6. Faulting in eastern New Mexico: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-08-01

    This area in eastern New Mexico is being studied because of its proximity to a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Regional and local tectonics must be thoroughly understood in order to be able to predict future tectonic activities in the site region. Hydrogeologic studies indicate that ground-water recharge, for regional deep and shallow aquifer systems, occurs primarily within the study area. Regional, easterly ground-water flow may be significantly affected by the spacing, orientation, and character of faults identified in this report. The tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is developed from information from 660 exploratory wells. A history of recurrent tectonic movements is evident, beginning possibly in the late Precambrian and extending into the late Cenozoic. The nature of the evidence includes the lateral and vertical distribution and the lithology of these deposits. The results are presented mainly as isopach and structure contour maps and as structural cross sections. The Paleozoic tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is similar and related to the history of the Texas Panhandle. Differences occur primarily in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic histories; tectonic uplift persisted for longer periods and faults show evidence of repeated movements in eastern New Mexico. This is probably a result of the proximity of the area to the Laramide and Basin and Range deformational events. 442 refs., 35 figs

  7. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  8. Efficient silvicultural practices for eastern hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; John E. Baumgras

    1994-01-01

    Eastern hardwood forests are now managed to meet a wide range of objectives, resulting in the need for silvicultural alternatives that provide timber, wildlife, aesthetics, recreation, and other benefits. However, forest management practices must continue to be efficient in terms of profiting from current harvests, protecting the environment, and sustaining production...

  9. Is Eastern Hardwood Sawtimber Becoming Scarcer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the hardwood lumber industry has become increasingly concerned about the availability and quality of hardwood sawtimber. However, these concerns seem to contradict USDA Forest Service estimates of increased volume and quality of hardwood sawtimber. This paper examines changes in eastern hardwood sawtimber inventories and the apparent contradiction...

  10. What's known about managing eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Lockard

    1959-01-01

    At the 1957 meeting of the Northeastern Forest Research Advisory Council the comment was made that although Eastern white pine has been the most studied forest tree species in the Northeast, the only literature on the management of the species was in reports on isolated and uncoordinated studies. There was no comprehensive compendium of knowledge.

  11. Biomass productivity improvement for eastern cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Robison; Randy J. Rousseau; Jianwei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood ( Populus deltoides Marsh.) is grown in plantations by MeadWestvaco for use at its Wickliffe Kentucky Fine Papers Mill1. Genetic and productivity research over the past two decades have led to significant increases in biomass yield while reducing production costs.Initially, genetic research identified fast growing...

  12. Eastern national forests: managing for nontimber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2002-01-01

    Many products are harvested from the forests of the eastern United States that are not timber-based but originate from plant materials. Over the past decade, concern has grown about the sustainability of the forest resources from which these products originate, and an associated interest in managing for these products has materialized. A content analysis of the...

  13. Lifting the curtain in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the opportunities for engineering and technical services and investment in Eastern Bloc nations. Topics include political stability, capital and currency, economies, municipal waste processing plants, power generation equipment, nuclear and fossil power, technology, environmental protection, and construction and operation practices

  14. Rhinoplasty in the Middle Eastern nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin, Fazil

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the main characteristics of Middle Eastern patients seeking rhinoplasty are reported. Besides the preoperative preparation, surgical techniques that can be used to obtain good results are discussed. The pitfalls of profile alignment, tip procedures and skin have been noted as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development (EAJRD) is now going to be jointly published by the Ugandan Agricultural Economics Association - a professional body for Agricultural Economists and those interested in agricultural economics and rural development issues - and the Department of Agricultural Economics ...

  16. Culture and Language Learning: Middle Eastern Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Douglas

    Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…

  17. Astroparticle physics at the Eastern Colombia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, Hernán; Núñez, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at the Eastern Colombia region, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitacin of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  18. Environmental Factors Influencing Artisanal Fishing in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study identified the environmental factors affecting artisanal fishing in. Eastern Obolo local government area of Akwa ... colonial administration (Anko &Eyo, 2003). According to Olomola (1998), artisanal ... The problems faced by artisanal fishers in Nigeria are not far from what is experienced by artisanal fishermen in ...

  19. Tree Nonstructural Carbohydrate Reserves Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the roles, importance, and dynamics of tree non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) is currently an active area of research. The question of how the relationships between NSCs, growth, and mortality can be used to develop more accurate projections of forest dynamics is central to this research. To begin to address this question, we have asked an even more fundamental question: How much are trees allocating carbon to storage, in the form of NSCs, versus new growth? Ecological theory predicts that there should be trade-offs between different plant life history strategies provided that there are the carbon mass-balance constraints to enforce these trade-offs. Current data on tree NSCs lack the spatial and taxonomic extent required to properly address this question. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots at ten sites across the eastern US and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores and repeat measures of diameter at breast height (DBH). Increment cores were also used to measure sapwood NSCs. We hypothesized that across the eastern US, shade tolerant species, e.g. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) have the largest NSC reserves and that shade intolerant species have the lowest reserves. We also hypothesized that NSC reserves increase with temperature and precipitation, as with growth, and that within species NSC reserves increase with growth rate. Initial analyses of tree NSCs indicates that trees of intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) have the highest concentrations of sapwood NSCs, and among the highest growth rates. Across the entire study region, NSC concentrations are positively correlated with tree size and growth rate. Within species, NSC concentrations are also positively correlated with growth rate. Across functional groups healthy individuals have significantly higher sapwood NSC concentrations than visibly stressed individuals. There are also significantly lower NSC concentrations in sapwood of

  20. 78 FR 70573 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000 L14200000.BJ0000 14X] Eastern... BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450...

  1. 75 FR 4412 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  2. 76 FR 49760 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-524-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 29, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed with the Federal Energy...

  3. 75 FR 45611 - Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-471-000] Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application July 27, 2010. Take notice that on July 15, 2010, Texas Eastern Transmission (Texas Eastern), P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket No. CP10-471-000, an...

  4. 75 FR 39579 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... file the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  5. 78 FR 66352 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-9-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 17, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed an application in Docket No. CP14-9...

  6. 75 FR 65028 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  7. 78 FR 54482 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BK0000] Eastern States... the Federal Register, Volume 78, Number 2, on pages 318-319 a notice entitled ``Eastern States: Filing... resurvey of a portion of the Qualla Indian Boundary, land held in trust for the Eastern Band of Cherokee...

  8. 76 FR 77846 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  9. 75 FR 72837 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... (BLM) will file the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia...

  10. 76 FR 55700 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  11. 75 FR 18234 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...) will file the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia...

  12. 78 FR 48900 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  13. 76 FR 45293 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  14. 76 FR 48882 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice Of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  15. 76 FR 3651 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  16. 75 FR 13302 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia...

  17. 77 FR 30314 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior ACTION: Notice... the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  18. 78 FR 16294 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14100000-BX0000] Eastern States... of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern... Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard...

  19. 77 FR 63856 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  20. 76 FR 16444 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia. DATES: BLM will file the plat of survey on April 22, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450...

  1. 75 FR 33635 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM--Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date...--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn: Cadastral Survey. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  2. 78 FR 23952 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... file the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  3. 75 FR 42459 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  4. 76 FR 45292 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  5. 75 FR 80069 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  6. 78 FR 64933 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-4-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 10, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, (Texas Eastern), having its principal place of business at 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas, 77056...

  7. 76 FR 38381 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-67-001] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 13, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an amendment...

  8. 77 FR 37919 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L19100000-Bk0000] Eastern States... of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern... Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard...

  9. 76 FR 2133 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  10. 76 FR 6816 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  11. 76 FR 26767 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  12. 78 FR 79687 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-29-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 10, 2013 Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), at 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed an application in Docket No. CP14...

  13. 77 FR 26534 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-164-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No. CP12-164-000, a request...

  14. 77 FR 20015 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-88-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed an application in Docket No...

  15. 76 FR 33342 - Eastern States; Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...] Eastern States; Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... published in the Federal Register, Volume 75, Number 174, on page 54910 a notice entitled ``Eastern States..., 2011 and the plat of survey accepted June 22, 2010, was officially filed in Eastern States Office...

  16. 75 FR 4412 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  17. 77 FR 12045 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-68-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 16, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), PO Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77056 filed an application in the above referenced docket...

  18. 76 FR 18210 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-138-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On March 15, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  19. 77 FR 58575 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice... the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  20. 76 FR 65533 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... of survey of the land described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  1. 75 FR 18145 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties Resource... Rivera, Coordinator, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee, c/o Forest Service, USDA, P.O...

  2. 75 FR 54910 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  3. [Eponyms and epilepsy (history of Eastern civilizations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Drulović, J; Stojsavljević, N; Veskov, R; Ivanus, J

    1996-01-01

    The history of eponyms for epilepsy in the lands of the Eastern globe present the portrait of the attitudes of both the laymen and skilled people towards the disease and patient, as well as to the Nature itself. As opposed to the West which during the Middle ages changed its concepts of epilepsy as the organic brain disease for the sublime 'alchemic' position, the people of the East were more prone to consider from the beginning of their civilization till the XIX century that epilepsy is the consequence of the evanescent spiritual and extracorporal forces which by themselves were out of their reach. As compared to the western civilization, the historical resources are, often as a consequence of a linguistic barriers, more scarce-as consequently is the number of eponyms, but are nevertheless picturesque. The medical science from Babylonian period presumed that epileptic manifestations are the consequence of the demonic or ill spiritual actions. There existed an attitude that at the beginning of an epileptic attack the patient was possessed by a demon (the Akkadic, i.e., Babylonian verb "sibtu" denoting epilepsy, had the meaning "to seize" or "to be obsessed"); at the end of the clonic phase the demon departed from the body. Different demons were responsible for different forms of epilepsy such as nocturnal and children epilepsy, absence epilepsy and pure convulsions, simple and complex automatisms, and gelastic epilepsy. Thus, the doctors from the period of Babylon aside from making primordial classification of epilepsies, knew about their clinical picture (prodromal symptoms and aura, Jackson's epilepsy. Todd's paralysis), postictal phenomena and intericatl emotional instability; provocative factors were also known (sleep deprivation, emotions, as well as alcohol, albeit in a negative sense-as a cure for epilepsy). There is no doubt than in the period of Babylon the clinical picture of serial fits and its progress to status epilepticus were clearly recognized and

  4. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Satish, Karthyayani Priya; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ibrahim, Halah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restr...

  5. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  6. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher...... as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert...

  7. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  8. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  9. Population dynamics of mallards breeding in eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Bruce D.; Coluccy, John M.; Dugger, Katie M.; Fox, Trevor T.; Kraege, Donald K.; Petrie, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in regional population trends for mallards breeding in the western United States indicates that additional research into factors that influence demographics could contribute to management and understanding the population demographics of mallards across North America. We estimated breeding incidence and adult female, nest, and brood survival in eastern Washington in 2006 and 2007 by monitoring female mallards with radio telemetry and tested how those parameters were influenced by study year (2006 vs. 2007), landscape type (agricultural vs. natural), and age (second year [SY] vs. after second year [ASY]). We also investigated the effects of female body condition and capture date on breeding incidence, and nest initiation date and hatch date on nest and brood survival, respectively. We included population parameters in a stage-based demographic model and conducted a perturbation analysis to identify which vital rates were most influential on population growth rate (λ). Adult female survival was best modeled with a constant weekly survival rate (0.994, SE = 0.003). Breeding incidence differed between years and was higher for birds in better body condition. Nest survival was higher for ASY females (0.276, SE = 0.118) than SY females (0.066, SE = 0.052), and higher on publicly managed lands (0.383, SE = 0.212) than agricultural (0.114, SE = 0.058) landscapes. Brood survival was best modeled with a constant rate for the 7-week monitoring period (0.50, SE = 0.155). The single variable having the greatest influence on λ was non-breeding season survival, but the combination of parameters from the breeding grounds explained a greater percent of the variance in λ. Mallard population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in non-breeding survival, nest success, brood survival, and breeding incidence. Future management decisions should focus on activities that improve these vital rates if managers want to increase the production of

  10. A review of the siricid woodwasps and their Ibaliid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Siricidae, Ibaliidae) in the Eastern United States, with emphasis on the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Smith; Nathan M. Schiff

    2002-01-01

    Keys are presented for the five genera and 15 species of adult Siricidae and one genus and two species of their parasitoids of the family Ibaliidae that occur in or may be adventive in the Eastern United States. Sircid larvae are wood borers in conifers and broadleafed trees. Notes on their biology, fungal symbionts, distributions, and host associations are given. Data...

  11. Compilation of 1993 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Tabs G-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    10 2 2 Regulus satrapa Ruby-crowned Kinglet 2 10 2 2 Regulus calendula Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 3 10 1 3 Polioptila caerulea Eastern Bluebird 4 12 5 2...on a Zeiss microscope equipped with phase contrast illumination and an oil immersion 10OX Neofluar phase objective with numerical aperture of 1.30

  12. Compilation of 1991 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications Systems Ecological Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    crowned Kinglet 46 36 48 31 49 40 7 12 15 11 Reaulus satraoaa I Ruby-crowned Kinglet 19 9 4 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 Regulus calendula I Eastern Bluebird 0 0 3 2 0 0...determinations was done at 1250X magnification on a Zeiss microscope equipped with phase contrast illumination and an oil immersion 10OX Neofluar phase

  13. Prevalence of blood parasites in eastern versus Western house finches: are eastern birds resistant to infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Hood, Wendy R; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2013-09-01

    The rapid spread of the bacterial disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), throughout the introduced range of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches from both populations. We conducted a light-microscope survey of hemoparasites in populations of finches from Arizona (within the western range) and from Alabama (within the eastern range), and compared our estimates of prevalence to published reports from house finches sampled in both ranges. Of the 33 Arizona birds examined, we recorded hematozoan infections in 16 (48.5%) individuals, compared to 1 infected Alabama bird out of 30 birds examined (3.3%). Based on independent surveys of seven western North American and five eastern North American populations of house finches the average prevalence of blood parasites in western populations is 38.8% (±17.9 SD), while the average prevalence within the eastern range is only 5.9% (±6.1 SD). The average rate of infection among all songbirds sampled in the east is 34.2% (±4.8 SD). Thus, our surveys of wild birds as well as previously published observations point to eastern house finches having a much lower prevalence of blood parasite infections than their western counterparts. Combined with the fact that eastern finches also tend to have lower rates of avian pox infections than do western birds (based on a literature review), these observations suggest that eastern birds have either strong resistance to these infections or high susceptibility and associated mortality.

  14. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... control. Menopause also increases the risk of a UTI. The following also increase your chances of developing ...

  15. Fuel shortage hits eastern Siberia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    Moscow's loss of absolute authority over the Russian economy has contributed to growing chaos in the supply of oil and gas to the former U.S.S.R.'s far eastern territories. This paper reports that Sakhalin Island, which has provided a substantial portion of the area's hydrocarbon fuels, has shown increasing reluctance to sell oil and gas for nearly worthless rubles to its eastern Siberian neighbors. Instead, it is bartering as much as possible of its surplus petroleum for foreign food and consumer goods. Moscow's Izvestia newspaper strongly criticized Sakhalin authorities for placing the island's interests ahead of the welfare of the Russian republic as a whole. It the Sakhalin's selfish attitude resulted in near disaster last winter for the economy and populace of neighboring Khabarovsk territory on the Siberian mainland. Only milder than normal winter weather prevented a catastrophe, Izvestia reported. Even so, some old people died from the cold in Khabarovsk, a city of 600,000 population

  16. International uranium production. An eastern Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Eastern Canadian perspective on uranium production is based on 30 years of continuous mining at Elliot Lake and on the experience of selling uranium over the same time period, mainly to export markets. In Ontario the orebodies are basically contiguous, being part of the same large formation. All the mining is underground. Ore grades are low, but economic extraction is improved by continuity and uniformity of grades, stable ground conditions, and the ability to mine and mill on a large scale. Mining is being carried out by two companies, Denison and Rio Algom. It is unlikely that mine capacity will be increased. Government policies have significant effects on the Eastern Canadian uranium industry in particular, as to U.S. import policies. (L.L.)

  17. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna......) to younger strata exclusively yielding specimens of H.gigas. As H.gigas occurs in the upper part of the Cape Calhoun Formation in Washington Land, it indicates that the upper boundary of the Cape Calhoun Formation is considerably younger than previous estimates, reaching into the uppermost Katian (middle...... (Richmondian), it possesses a strong provincial signal during the later Ordovician. The new occurrences indicate that this fauna extended to the north-eastern margin of the Laurentian Craton. It lived in close association with cosmopolitan faunal elements that may have been the earliest sign of the succeeding...

  18. Nuclear insurance in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the world outside the former Soviet Union, insurance industries in their respective domestic markets have pooled their resources so as to provide a secure and cost-effective conduit for the transaction of insurance business on behalf of the nuclear industry. These are the so-called nuclear pools. This paper explains the four main principles behind nuclear liability insurance and discusses their application to Central Europe and in particular to the problems facing the nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. (author)

  19. Phytoremediation of Excavation in Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Zhmurova, T. M.

    2017-04-01

    The paper deals with prospects and applicability of phytoremediation technology in the conditions of Eastern Siberia as applied to gypsum stone extraction of Zalarinsky deposit in Irkutsk region. It analyses dust intensity for different technological processes of the deposit and evaluates the dust loading on the workers of the deposit. The selection of plantings that have potential to neutralize the dust loading produced by the plot “Severniy” is carried out.

  20. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  1. Cancer Control in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Conte, Pierfranco

    2016-01-01

    In Central and Western Europe, cancer mortality is declining at slower rates as compared with rates in the rest of the world. More than a generation has now passed since the end of nonmarket economies in Central and Eastern Europe. It is time for this area of the continent to close the gap in cancer incidence and mortality rates between it and Western Europe and other high-income areas of the world.

  2. EU, Eastern Europe and Values Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of'values imperialism'as a helpful way of conceptualising the relationship between the EU and the states that came within its sphere of influence after the end of the Cold War, particularly its 'neighbours' in Eastern Europe. Values imperialism places its emphasis on the 'superstructure', including norms, laws and social practices. EU larger objective was that the assumptions about government and ownership that were favoured by the dominant powers (EU and the West in the broad term should be absorbed and recapitulated by those countries that were subordinate. The broad framework ofsubordination was established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements that began to be concluded from 1994 onwards. Patterns of'values imperialism'could also be discovered in the EU Common Strategies on Russia and Ukraine that were adopted in 1999. Article also points out several cases when the EU intervened directly in the domestic affairs of the Eastern Europe countries in a manner that was not always compatible with the provisions on state sovereignty: a 'European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights', launched in 2006, interventions ofEU representatives in the work of local courts and organisation of exit polls, which could be used to discredit the official election results and in this way to undermine the position of local governments. Finally, the author concludes that the EU used 'values imperialism'practices in order to extend its influence, particularly in the Eastern Europe.

  3. SO2 emission scenarios of eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, L.; Hao, J.; Lu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Under the National Key Project in Eighth Five-year Plan, a study was carried out on forecasting SO 2 emission from coal combustion in China, with a special emphasis on the eastern area. 3 scenarios, i.e. 'Optimistic', 'Pessimistic' and 'Business as Usual' scenarios were developed trying to cover changing scale of coal consumption and SO 2 emission from 1990 to 2020. A 'Top-down' approach was employed, and coal consumption elasticity was defined to project future economic growth and coal consumption. SO 2 emission scenarios were outlined, based on coal consumption, estimated sulfur content level and prospective SO 2 control situation. Emission level for each 1 degree longitude x 1 degree latitude grid cell within eastern China was also estimated to show geographical distribution of SO 2 sources. The results show that SO 2 emission in China will increase rapidly, if the current situation for energy saving and SO 2 control is maintained without improvement; measures enhanced reasonably with economic growth could stop further increase of emission by 2010. Realization of more encouraging objective to keep emission at even below 1990 level needs, however, more stringent options. The share of eastern China in the country's total emission would increase until 2000, while the general changing tendency would principally follow the scenarios of the whole country. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Human paleoecological integration in subarctic eastern Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoë, François B.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Holmes, Charles E.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-11-01

    We contribute to the understanding of megafauna extinction and human dispersal in subarctic eastern Beringia by focusing on changes in the trophic dynamics of the large mammal community as well as the ecological role of humans as a predator and competitor. We reconstruct habitat use by megafauna and humans throughout the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary based on zooarchaeological data and stable isotope ratios of collagen. Our results are consistent with habitat heterogeneity and availability being important factors in the changing abundance of large herbivores. We argue that an increase in herbivore diversity and biomass at the beginning of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and a relative lack of competitors favored the initial human colonization of subarctic eastern Beringia. As herbivore resources dwindled later in the Late Glacial, people increasingly relied on bison and wapiti. By efficiently extracting some of the highest-ranked resources in the landscape, people are likely to have contributed to the trophic displacement or regional extirpation of other large predators. The ecological patterns that we observe in subarctic eastern Beringia are consistent with a mixture of both top-down and bottom-up controls over biotic turnover.

  5. Crisis of the EU Eastern Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Bolgova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the Vilnius summit of the EaP project and the consequent Ukrainian crisis with major international effects make possible questioning about the eventual scenarios of the EU eastern politics and possible configurations ofinternational interactions. The article elaborates on the key elements and trends of the EU activities at the post-soviet space that are likely to frame the context of its further developments. The most visible trends analysed here are the extreme differentiation of bilateral relations within the EaP project alongside with the growing symbolism of official rhetoric and program practices of the European Union. As a result, we see the EU's intention to narrow the geographical and qualitative field of its activities on the eastern directionwith saving the shell of the EaP for nominal functioning. Such tactics is not likely to result in a drastic change of the model of conflict dependencies in the "shared neighbourhood". The article analyses key misperceptions of the actors involved in the complex of interactions in the region. The structure is complicated by the deepening and widening of Russia-lead Eurasian integration project. Current crisis of the EU eastern policy is considered to derive from the exaggeration of the value-based, normative aspect of the common foreign policy in general and will have the systemic consequences both for the European external actions and for its internal developments.

  6. Seismic hazard in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Boyd, Oliver; Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Shumway, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey seismic hazard maps for the central and eastern United States were updated in 2014. We analyze results and changes for the eastern part of the region. Ratio maps are presented, along with tables of ground motions and deaggregations for selected cities. The Charleston fault model was revised, and a new fault source for Charlevoix was added. Background seismicity sources utilized an updated catalog, revised completeness and recurrence models, and a new adaptive smoothing procedure. Maximum-magnitude models and ground motion models were also updated. Broad, regional hazard reductions of 5%–20% are mostly attributed to new ground motion models with stronger near-source attenuation. The revised Charleston fault geometry redistributes local hazard, and the new Charlevoix source increases hazard in northern New England. Strong increases in mid- to high-frequency hazard at some locations—for example, southern New Hampshire, central Virginia, and eastern Tennessee—are attributed to updated catalogs and/or smoothing.

  7. Killer whale (Orcinus orca photo-identification in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent G. Young

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We identified individual killer whales (Orcinus orca using recent (2004–09 photographs to obtain a minimum count of whales that use eastern Canadian Arctic waters. Fifty-three individuals were identified from nine different sightings; 11 individuals from western Hudson Bay sightings and 42 from the areas around northern and eastern Baffin Island. One whale was re-sighted: an adult female or large juvenile photographed 17 days and 375 km apart at Churchill, Manitoba, and off-shore of Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, in August 2007. With only one individual re-sighted, the number of individuals that use this area is likely much larger. No re-sightings occurred between Arctic killer whales and individuals photographed off the coast of Newfoundland. Our results represent the minimum number of killer whales sighted in eastern Canadian Arctic waters and provide the foundation for further killer whale research. Little is known about Arctic killer whales and, as a top predator, it is unclear what effect they have on Arctic marine ecosystems.

  8. Quantity, type, and correlates of physical activity among American Middle Eastern university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs. Daily step count averaged 9,256 (SD = 3,084) steps, while daily energy expenditure averaged 6.26 kcal/kg (SD = 4.92). Most participants reported no weekly engagement in sport (69.2%) and walk/run (52.8%) activities, and at least once-weekly engagement in conditioning (68.7%) activities. Moderately religious and highly acculturated men, and Muslims, and moderately/highly acculturated persons were more likely to average > or = 10,000 steps/day and engage in at least one sport activity per week, respectively. These findings may be related to religious and cultural issues unique to Middle Eastern American college students whose collectivist social affiliations with family and community members may facilitate or inhibit various aspects of PA behavior.

  9. Insights into the cystic fibrosis care in Eastern Europe: Results of survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka-Serzysko, Katarzyna; Peckova, Monika; Noordhoek, Jacquelien J; Sands, Dorota; Drevinek, Pavel

    2018-04-19

    The European cystic fibrosis (CF) Society Standards of Care were set to facilitate the delivery of high-quality care throughout Europe. However, their implementation may be difficult for less economically advantaged countries. This survey was performed to explore the gap in the knowledge of the level of CF care in Eastern Europe. Questionnaires were sent online to one CF professional and one CF patient representative for every Eastern European country. Although most respondents indicated the presence of CF centres, disparities in their framework among individual countries and between them and the European CF Standards of Care became apparent. A minority of countries achieved CF centre recognition by the government (6 of 16), provided CF care for adults (6 countries) and had a multidisciplinary team with all team members represented (2 countries). Patients were significantly more critical in the evaluation of various aspects of CF care than physicians, especially in the Balkan region. The survey results indicate that the organization and level of CF care across Eastern Europe is largely variable and lacks some of its fundamental attributes in several countries. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult Appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinehart, Kathleen; Kornegay, Jane G.

    1997-01-01

    To reach older, nontraditional students and alumni, alumni associations must offer a different type of programming Suggestions include ignoring class years of alumni, bringing current and former adult students together, emphasizing career connections, supporting networking, featuring a college speaker to satisfy lifelong learners' hunger for…

  11. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  12. Demographic and histopathological patterns of neuro-epithelial brain tumors in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud S; Almsned, Fahad M; Hassen, Mohammed A; Atean, Ibrahim M; Alwbari, Ahmed M; Alharbi, Qasim K; Abdulkader, Marwah M; Almuhaish, Husam S

    2018-01-01

    To review the demographic and pathological pattern of neuro-epithelial brain tumors in a tertiary referral center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and to compare the results of our study with other national and international studies. This is a retrospective chart-review study of all patients with neuro-epithelial brain tumors referred and treated in our center between January 2010 and January 2015. The age, gender, tumor location, and histopathology were recorded. The total number of cases was 149 including 96 adult cases and 53 pediatric cases. 58% of cases were male, and 42% were female. The age group distribution showed 2 peaks; one in the first 5 years of life and the second was in the age range from 26-45 years old. Glioblastoma multiforme was the most common pathological type (32%), followed by medulloblastoma (13.3%). This study showed similar results to a previous study conducted in the Eastern Province in terms of age and gender distribution, but pathologically, the tumors diagnosed in our study were generally of a higher grading. When comparing our results to other international studies in nearby countries (Jordan and Egypt), we found similarities in pathological patterns and age distribution. However, when comparing our results to a western country (USA), we found considerable differences in the age group distribution. Neuro-epithelial brain tumors in Saudi Arabia affect younger population according to our study compared to Western countries. These findings are similar to other studies from Middle Eastern countries. In addition, our study showed a significant increase in high grade gliomas in the Eastern Province compared to an old historical study. This increase should be interpreted cautiously due to possible selection errors, changes in pathological grading, and expertise.

  13. Summer and winter space use and home range characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A.; Brooks, Robert P.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brandes, David; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Movement behavior and its relationship to habitat provide critical information toward understanding the effects of changing environments on birds. The eastern North American population of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is a genetically distinct and small population of conservation concern. To evaluate the potential responses of this population to changing landscapes, we calculated the home range and core area sizes of 52 eagles of 6 age–sex classes during the summer and winter seasons. Variability in range size was related to variation in topography and open cover, and to age and sex. In summer, eagle ranges that were smaller had higher proportions of ridge tops and open cover and had greater topographic roughness than did larger ranges. In winter, smaller ranges had higher proportions of ridge tops, hillsides and cliffs, and open cover than did larger ranges. All age and sex classes responded similarly to topography and open cover in both seasons. Not surprisingly, adult eagles occupied the smallest ranges in both seasons. Young birds used larger ranges than adults, and subadults in summer used the largest ranges (>9,000 km2). Eastern adult home ranges in summer were 2–10 times larger than those reported for other populations in any season. Golden Eagles in eastern North America may need to compensate for generally lower-quality habitat in the region by using larger ranges that support access to adequate quantities of resources (prey, updrafts, and nesting, perching, and roosting sites) associated with open cover and diverse topography. Our results suggest that climate change–induced afforestation on the breeding grounds and ongoing land cover change from timber harvest and energy development on the wintering grounds may affect the amount of suitable habitat for Golden Eagles in eastern North America.

  14. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, D; Ng, T; Ahmad, C; Alfakeeh, A; Alruzug, I; Biagi, J; Brierley, J; Chaudhury, P; Cleary, S; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Ferland, E; Galiatsatos, P; Girard, S; Gray, S; Halwani, F; Kopek, N; Mahmud, A; Martel, G; Robillard, L; Samson, B; Seal, M; Siddiqui, J; Sideris, L; Snow, S; Thirwell, M; Vickers, M; Goodwin, R; Goel, R; Hsu, T; Tsvetkova, E; Ward, B; Asmis, T

    2016-12-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents.

  15. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... is available in different formats and is accompanied by an extensive documentation of the floristic, physiognomic and other characteristics of the different vegetation types and useful woody species in the 8 countries. It is complemented by a species selection tool, which can be used to 'find the right tree...

  16. Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern Railroad: 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Reed; Carol J. Cumber

    1998-01-01

    Approximately twenty-five years ago, a majority of the railroads in the industry were either in or near bankruptcy. As a partial cure, a series of federal and state legislation was enacted which freed the industry from archaic laws passed in the days railroads enjoyed a virtual monopoly in U.S. transportation. One of the outcomes of this new legislation was the freedom granted major railroads to abandon or sell off excess trackage to entrepreneurs. The Dakota Minnesota & Eastern (DM&E) is a r...

  17. Diatoms in Liyu Lake, Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chi Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study described the diatoms appeared in the sediments of Liyu Lake, a lowland natural lake situated at Hualen, eastern Taiwan. A total of 50 species was found in the sediments of this eutrophic lake. In them, 8 species were reported for the first time in Taiwan. They are: Cymbella thienemannii, Navicula absoluta, Navicula bacillum, Frustulia rhomboides var. crassinervia, Gyrosigma procerum, Nitzschia paleacea Epithemia smithii and Eunotia subarcuatioides. The ultrastructures of each species were described on the basis of observations under a scanning electron microscope. The ecological implications of the occurrence of these diatom species in this lake were inferred.

  18. Eastern and western happiness in work behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify what motivates East Asian work behavior. The research question is: How can a Western manager better understand work behavior and motivation in East Asian cultures? Knowledge about national culture, motivation and the concept of happiness are connected via deductive and comparative methods, while pointing out their new connections and relations. We argue that work motivation in East Asian cultures can be explained using the self-concept-based motivation meta-theory as it corresponds to the East Asian concept of face and that the East Asian self-concept originates with the Eastern concept of happiness.

  19. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  20. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  1. Wooden Calendar Sticks in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Vesselina; Koleva, Svetlana

    Wooden calendar sticks have preserved an archaic time-keeping tradition, which, during the Middle Ages, was one of the tools for establishing and disseminating Christian chronology and the liturgical calendars of the Western and Eastern Churches. The calendars vary in size and shape, type of signs, and structure of the record. Christian symbols interwoven with signs and pictograms mark days of importance in the ritual and economic year cycle. The wooden calendars are considered one of the proofs of the syncretism between the pagan tradition and Christian rites in folk cultures.

  2. The Trading Potential of Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen Kun; Winters, L. Alan

    1991-01-01

    This paper fits a gravity model to the trade of 76 market economies. It then applies the model to data on East European economies to estimate what their trading potential might have been, had behaved like market economies in the mid-1980s. At existing levels of national income, the liberalization of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is unlikely to affect their mutual trade and trade with developing countries, but it will increase trade with industrial counties by factors of three to thirty....

  3. Songbirds as sentinels of mercury in terrestrial habitats of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Adams, Evan M.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Edmonds, Samuel T.; Gray, Carrie E.; Hoskins, Bart; Lane, Oksana P.; Sauer, Amy; Tear, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed environmental contaminant with a variety of deleterious effects in fish, wildlife, and humans. Breeding songbirds may be useful sentinels for Hg across diverse habitats because they can be effectively sampled, have well-defined and small territories, and can integrate pollutant exposure over time and space. We analyzed blood total Hg concentrations from 8,446 individuals of 102 species of songbirds, sampled on their breeding territories across 161 sites in eastern North America [geometric mean Hg concentration = 0.25 μg/g wet weight (ww), range of the USEPA Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, which will reduce Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 %. Mixed-effects modeling indicated that habitat, foraging guild, and age were important predictors of blood Hg concentrations across species and sites. Blood Hg concentrations in adult invertebrate-eating songbirds were consistently higher in wetland habitats (freshwater or estuarine) than upland forests. Generally, adults exhibited higher blood Hg concentrations than juveniles within each habitat type. We used model results to examine species-specific differences in blood Hg concentrations during this time period, identifying potential Hg sentinels in each region and habitat type. Our results present the most comprehensive assessment of blood Hg concentrations in eastern songbirds to date, and thereby provide a valuable framework for designing and evaluating risk assessment schemes using sentinel songbird species in the time after implementation of the new atmospheric Hg standards.

  4. Maternal Demographic and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight in Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ming Li

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between birth weight and maternal sociodemographic characteristics was examined in a sample from two teaching hospitals in eastern Taiwan. Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted face- to-face interviews with women at antenatal clinics between 1998 and 1999 in Hualien City. One year later, we took the outcome of pregnancy from medical records and birth certificates from the Public Health Bureau of Hualien County. Of the 1,128 single live births, 6.8% had low birth weight (LBW using the World Health Organization cut-off of 2,500 g. LBW was more common in teenage ( 30 years, first-time, and unmarried mothers; those with basic/intermediate educational attainment; and residents of aboriginal districts. Teenage pregnancies were more likely than those in adults to be unplanned, and such mothers had smoking or alcohol-drinking behavior. Prevention of teenage pregnancy is crucial to lower LBW rates in eastern Taiwan. For adult mothers, basic or intermediate educational attainment, residence in an aboriginal district, and first-term pregnancy were significant factors associated with LBW, after adjustment for other psychosocial attributes, such as psychologic distress and poor family support. Thus, we should pay more attention when caring for pregnant women with such sociodemographic characteristics, and ensure that they have adequate prenatal care and can adopt a healthy lifestyle.

  5. [Adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality.

  6. Cancer in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Navigating Cancer Care > For Older Adults For Older Adults A full-text transcript is available. More than ... Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Aging and Cancer Cancer Care Decisions for ...

  7. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2017-12-01

    The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges

  8. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Pilfold

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650 and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida lairs (n=1396 observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation.Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2% while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344 of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344. Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344 of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121, and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78. The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2 =0.30, P=0.04, but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37.Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  9. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n=1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2) =0.30, P=0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37). Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  10. Preferred nasolabial angle in Middle Eastern population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharethy, Sami

    2017-05-01

    To define the preferred nasolabial angle measurement in Middle Eastern population. An observational study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2016 at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1027 raters, 506 males, and 521 females were asked to choose the most ideal nasolabial angle for 5 males and 5 females lateral photographs whose nasolabial angle were modified with Photoshop into the following angles (85°, 90°, 95°, 100°, 105°, and 110°). Male raters preferred the angle of 89.5° ± 3.5° (mean ± SD) for males and 90.8° ± 5.6° for females. While female raters preferred the angle of 89.3° ± 3.8° for males and 90.5° ± 4.8° for females. ANOVA test compare means among groups: p: 0.342, and there is no statistically significant difference between groups. The results of our study showed an even more acute angles than degrees found in the literature. It shows that what young generation in our region prefers and clearly reflects that what could be explained as under rotation of the nasal tip in other cultures is just the ideal for some Middle Eastern population.

  11. Eastern Arc Mountains and their national and global importance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Arc Mountains comprise a chain of separate mountain blocks running from southern Kenya through Tanzania in a crescent or arc shape. In Tanzania, the Eastern Arc consists of North and South Pare, East and West Usambaras, Nguru, Ukaguru, Rubeho, Uluguru, Udzungwa and Mahenge Mountains.

  12. Quality of Antenatal care services in eastern Uganda: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) provides opportunity to detect and respond to risky maternal conditions. This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of benchmarking implications for interventions. Methods Data was collected from 15 health facilities in Eastern Uganda to establish capacity ...

  13. Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berglund, T.; Hanousek, Jan; Mramor, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2006), s. 280-282 ISSN 1566-0141. [ Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries. Prague, 26.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial markets * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  14. Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many ...

  15. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  16. Tourism Policies and the Space Economy of the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on ...

  17. Influences of eastern hemlock mortality on nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thad E. Yorks; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Donald J. Leopold; Dudley J. Raynal; David A. Orwig

    2000-01-01

    Mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) may be caused by a variety of agents, but hemlock trees of all sizes over a large geographic area are currently threatened by an outbreak of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA: Adelges tsugae Annand) in the eastern United States. In this paper, we review what is currently...

  18. Who needs credit and who gets credit in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Popov, A.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey data covering 8,387 firms in 20 countries we compare the access to bank credit for firms in Eastern Europe to that in selected Western European countries. Our analysis reveals five main results. First, the firm-level determinants of the propensity to apply are similar in Eastern and

  19. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Teachers (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. This was a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix C) was…

  20. Introduction to Eastern Philosophy, Social Studies: 6414.23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judy Reeder

    Major Eastern philosophies and/or religions consisting of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism are investigated by 10th through 12th grade students in this general social studies quinmester course. Since Eastern philosophical ideas are already influencing students, this course aims to guide students in a universal search for…

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease in children of middle eastern descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Christina Mai Ying; Leach, Steven T; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCHR). The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn's disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course.

  2. 75 FR 54910 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000-LXSITRST0000] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Federal Register, Volume 75, Number 131, on page 39579 a notice entitled ``Eastern States: Filing of Plats...

  3. 77 FR 54557 - Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Easern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee will meet... between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  4. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Fanourgakis, G.S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Krol, M.C.; Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.; Kanakidou, M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the

  5. Porters of the eastern hills of Nepal: Body size and load weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malville, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    This study documents the activities of 635 porters transporting goods along three traditional trade routes of eastern Nepal. Nearly 95% of the porters were male. They ranged in age from 10-65 years, and most of them had begun to perform long-distance portage at 12-15 years of age. Mean body mass and height of adult males in the combined sample (n = 438) was 49.7 +/- 5.0 kg and 155.5 +/- 6.5 cm, respectively. Adult males age 20-49 years carried loads of 73 +/- 15 kg, equivalent to 146% +/- 30% of body mass. Body size of adult males was not a strong predictor of load weight. The correlation between body mass and load was r = 0.24 (P porters to carry such large loads in spite of their small body size is the ability to pace themselves by making frequent rest stops. Heart rate monitoring of 26 adult male commercial porters demonstrated how porters regulate heart rate and energy expenditure by resting the load every two to three minutes on the T-headed walking stick (tokma) and by setting the load periodically on load-resting platforms (chautaras) for longer recovery periods. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:1-11, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  7. Eastern Europe: pronatalist policies and private behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1982-02-01

    Fertility trends in the 9 Eastern European socialist countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR, Yugoslavia) are reviewed. Official policy in all these countries but Yugoslavia is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees. Attention is directed to the following areas: similarities and differences; fertility trends (historical trends, post World War 2 trends, and family size); abortion trends (abortion legislation history, current legislation, abortion data, impact on birth rates, abortion seekers, health risks, and psychological aftereffects); contraceptive availability and practice; pronatal economic incentives (impact on fertility); women's position; and marriage, divorce, and sexual attitudes. The fact that fertility was generally higher in the Eastern European socialist countries than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell or threatened to fall below replacement level (2.1 births/woman) after abortion was liberalized in all countries but Albania, following the lead of the USSR in 1955. Fertility increased where access to abortion was again restricted (mildly in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary at various times, and severely in Romania in 1966) and/or economic incentives such as birth grants, paid maternity leave, family and child care allowances, and low interest loans to newlyweds were substantially increased (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to some extent, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the German Democratic Republic in 1976). Subsequent declines in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania suggest that policy induced increases in fertility are short-lived. Couples respond to abortion restrictions by practicing more efficient contraception or resorting to illegal abortion. It is evident that the region's low birth rate is realized mainly with abortion, for withdrawal remains the primary contraceptive

  8. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznan, Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Marczak, L.; Luczak, M.; Stobiecki, M.; Widlak, P.; Kovářová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-7 ISSN 1478-9450. [Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) /9./. Poznaň, 15.06.2015-18.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Central and Eastern Proteomic Conference * proteomics * mass spectrometry imaging Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.849, year: 2016

  9. [Adult phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumánszki, Csaba; Barta, András Gellért; Reismann, Péter

    2017-11-01

    Starting from 1975 phenylketonuria is part of the newborn screening program in Hungary. Since then a generation, treated with special diet and medical foods right after neonatal diagnosis has reached adulthood. Thanks to early treatment initiation, children with phenylketonuria are able to lead life to the full. Consequently, phenylketonuria is no longer considered a pediatric disease. Follow up of adult patients with phenylketonuria is performed in internal medicine centers specialized in metabolic diseases. The outcome of the lifelong special treatment, and the particularities of phenylketonuria in adulthood are yet to be determined. The aim of our review is to present recent findings in phenylketonuria focusing mainly on the adult care. After long time the first international guidelines appeared, new therapies were put in use, and these current developments are expected to be implemented in daily practice in the near future. New challenges must be met such as maternal phenylketonuria, long term effects of dietotherapy and the sequelae of untreated phenylketonuria in adulthood. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(46): 1857-1863.

  10. The mandibular angles of dry adult human mandibles from north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandibular angles of dry adult human mandibles from north-eastern arid zone of Nigeria. EF Mbajiorgu, AU Ekanem. Abstract. (Central African Journal of Medicine: 2002 48 (1-2): 9-13). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cajm.v48i1.8417 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  11. Financing clean coal projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Trade and Development Program (TDP), a U.S. Government agency, provides funding for US firms to carry out feasibility studies, consultancies, and other planning services related to major projects in developing countries. By providing assistance in project planning, TDP promotes economic development; at the same time, TDP helps US firms get involved in projects that offer significant export opportunities. TDP has programs throughout the developing world, including Central and Eastern Europe, and has recently been authorized to operate in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. The vast size and population of this region, as well as its tremendous infrastructural and basic industrial needs, present new challenges to TDP. The basic TDP program is described below; it is likely to be modified somewhat to meet the specific requirements of the NIS

  12. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  13. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  14. Eastern European patenting activities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, D. [Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia). Inst. of Sustainability & Technological Policy

    2001-09-01

    The patenting activities of the former centrally planned economies in the US between 1976 and 1999 are examined. The technological performance of Eastern Europe is assessed and compared with that of the OECD countries. A sharp decline is observed as a consequence of the economic changes undergone by these countries in recent years. The study reveals some common technological strengths, such as in the areas of petroleum, coal, chemicals and other related products, and country-specific advantages, such as in mining in the former USSR, Poland and Bulgaria, textiles, clothing, footwear and leather in the former Czechoslovakia, printing, publishing and recorded media in the former East Germany, health in the former Yugoslavia, energy in Romania and design in Slovenia. Recommendations are made for the future use of foreign patents.

  15. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  16. Western and Eastern Values are Complementary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available All values are spiritual in their essence, even those that appear to be physical. For all values seek perfection of the whole. The widest and highest perfection is based on the totality and oneness of reality. Such a perfection is comprehensive and inclusive. It is founded on truths that complete other truths rather than compete with them. Despite their vast cultural differences, Eastern and Western values reflect complementary aspects of a unified whole. But the process of developing values in any society depends on its underlying cultural perspective. The nature of mind is such that it divides and analyzes reality, and concentrates on one thing at a time, whereas spirituality is founded on the perception of the whole. This vast difference in underlying cultural orientation helps explain the immense gulf in understanding that has long distinguished and separated the cultures of Asia and Europe.

  17. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...... will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final...

  18. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  19. Disparities in Mortality Rates of Working-Age Population in Eastern, Central and Western Europe – A Comparative Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackó Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Even two decades after the start of transition, mortality rates in Central and Eastern Europe are much higher than in Western Europe. This study presents and quantifies the impact on mortality of factors beyond the usual explanations. These factors are the advantageous and disadvantageous health effects of the geographical location of individual countries, as well as the economic structure, price structure and political priorities of the pre-transition systems in Central and Eastern Europe associated with anomic, self-destructive lifestyles. For adult males, mortality results show significant impact from level of development, health expenditure, latitude of countries, spirit consumption, education and air pollution. The impact of development, health expenditure, latitude, air pollution appear the same for both gender’s mortality.

  20. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP – A PREMISE FOR AN ENHANCED EU-EASTERN NEIGHBOURS COOPERATION RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mocanu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union towards the Central and Eastern Europe has brought to attention the necessity to reshape the EU institutional framework and specific policies addressing its new neighbourhood. Repeatedly stating that the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP is not a preceding phase for membership, the European Union also embraced the Polish-Swedish initiative for an Eastern Partnership (EaP. Meant at first to counterbalance the Union for Mediterranean project, the EaP has developed into a distinct project, with specific and ambitious cooperation goals, a positive and constructive agenda meant to support six countries (Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Belarus develop and harmonize with the European standards and, at the same, attempting to build and further develop an Eastern dimension of the ENP. The questions of the efficiency of the conditionality derived from the EaP and also the complementarity of this initiative with other regional projects in the area can also be important matters of concern.

  1. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  2. The prevalence of extreme Middle Eastern ideologies around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy; Abd-el-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie

    2011-02-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the BDS, thus suggesting that the BDS could be used as an objective tool to measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies. Results also supported the hypothesis of prevalence of Middle Eastern extremist ideologies around different parts of the world.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated malignant lymphoma in eastern Denmark diagnosed from 1990-1996: clinical features, histopathology, and association with Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Penkowa, M; Kirk, O

    2000-01-01

    The clinicopathological features of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lymphoma were investigated in a retrospective study of 85 adult patients in eastern Denmark diagnosed during the period 1990-1996. The possible pathogenetic role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 8...

  4. Mass mortality of eastern box turtles with upper respiratory disease following atypical cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Price, Steven J; Nowakowski, A Justin; Augustine, Ben; Todd, Brian D

    2017-04-20

    Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper respiratory disease. We recorded deaths of 17 turtles that showed clinical signs of upper respiratory disease among 76 adult turtles encountered in Berea, Kentucky (USA), in 2014. Of the 17 mortalities, 11 occurred approximately 14 d after mean environmental temperature dropped 2.5 SD below the 3 mo mean. Partial genomic sequencing of the major capsid protein from 1 sick turtle identified a ranavirus isolate similar to frog virus 3. Turtles that lacked clinical signs of disease had significantly higher body temperatures (23°C) than sick turtles (21°C) during the mass mortality, but sick turtles that survived and recovered eventually warmed (measured by temperature loggers). Finally, there was a significant negative effect of daily environmental temperature deviation from the 3 mo mean on survival, suggesting that rapid decreases in environmental temperature were correlated with mortality. Our results point to a potential role for environmental temperature variation and body temperature in disease progression and mortality risk of eastern box turtles affected by upper respiratory disease. Given our findings, it is possible that colder or more variable environmental temperatures and an inability to effectively thermoregulate are associated with poorer disease outcomes in eastern box turtles.

  5. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Zatonski, Witold

    2007-01-01

    To give an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, beverage preference, and patterns of drinking among adults (people 15 years and older) in central and eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and to compare it to southern and western Europe, Russia and Ukraine. Secondary data analysis. Consumption and preferred beverage type data for the year 2002 were taken from the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and the WHO Global Alcohol Database. Average consumption in central and eastern Europe is high with a relatively large proportion of unrecorded consumption ranging from one litre in Czech Republic and Estonia to 10.5 l in Ukraine. The proportion of heavy alcohol consumption (more than 40 g of pure alcohol per day) among men was the lowest in Bulgaria (25.8%) and the highest in Czech Republic (59.4%). Among women, the lowest proportion of heavy alcohol consumption was registered in Estonia (4.0%) and the highest in Hungary (16.0%). Patterns of drinking are detrimental with a high proportion of binge drinking, especially in the group of countries traditionally drinking vodka. In most countries, beer is now the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Other studies suggest that the population drinking levels found in central and eastern Europe are linked with higher levels of detrimental health outcomes. Known effective and cost-effective programs to reduce levels of risky drinking should, therefore, be implemented, which may, in turn, lead to a reduction of alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

  6. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  7. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  8. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  9. Feeding by Leucopis argenticollis and Leucopis piniperda (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the western USA on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, K; Havill, N P; Arsenault-Benoit, A L; Mayfield, A E; Ott, D S; Ross, D; Whitmore, M C; Wallin, K F

    2017-10-01

    Leucopis argenticollis (Zetterstedt) and Leucopis piniperda (Malloch) are known to feed on the lineage of Adelges tsugae Annand that is native to western North America, but it is not known if they will survive on the lineage that was introduced from Japan to the eastern USA. In 2014, western Leucopis spp. larvae were brought to the laboratory and placed on A. tsugae collected in either Washington (North American A. tsugae lineage) or Connecticut (Japanese lineage). There were no significant differences in survival or developmental times between flies reared on the two different adelgid lineages. In 2015 and 2016, western Leucopis spp. adults were released at two different densities onto enclosed branches of A. tsugae infested eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) in Tennessee and New York. Cages were recovered and their contents examined 4 weeks after release at each location. Leucopis spp. larvae and puparia of the F1 generation were recovered at both release locations and adults of the F1 generation were collected at the Tennessee location. The number of Leucopis spp. offspring collected increased with increasing adelgid density, but did not differ by the number of adult flies released. Flies recovered from cages and flies collected from the source colony were identified as L.argenticollis and L. piniperda using DNA barcoding. These results demonstrate that Leucopis spp. from the Pacific Northwest are capable of feeding and developing to the adult stage on A. tsugae in the eastern USA and they are able to tolerate environmental conditions during late spring and early summer at the southern and northern extent of the area invaded by A. tsugae in the eastern USA.

  10. 76 FR 25330 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-216-000] Texas Eastern... Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No... in the termination of any services to Texas Eastern's customers, all as more fully set forth in the...

  11. 75 FR 68398 - Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Texas, Oklahoma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... & Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC (TOE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company and to operate...

  12. 76 FR 14387 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-118-000] Texas Eastern... Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), Post Office Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket... West Cameron Blocks 566, 565, and 548, offshore Louisiana, under Texas Eastern's blanket certificate...

  13. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  14. Discrepancy of Cytogenetic Analysis in Western and Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Chang

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrated regional differences in second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping results and established a database of common chromosomal anomalies that could be useful for genetic counseling, especially in eastern Taiwan.

  15. Accounting for violence in Eastern Congo: Young people's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In these accounts, the voices of young people have been largely absent. Although ... in eastern Congo from September to December 2009 as part of the author's doctoral ..... More rarely, young Congolese recognised the contribution made by ...

  16. Upwelling systems in eastern boundary currents have been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Differences are found in the location of return, onshore flow. .... eastern boundary currents, downstream of the west wind drift ... show maximum upwelling conditions (equatorward winds) in ..... The work of PTS and CJ was supported by Grant.

  17. Atmospheric pollution and its implications in the Eastern Transvaal highveld

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tyson, PD

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is a review of available information on the dispersion climatology, the degree of atmospheric pollution and the various impacts of that pollution on man and environment in the Eastern Transvaal Highveld (ETH) and adjacent regions...

  18. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation provides a rationale for off-grid projects, and then briefly discusses renewable energy for rural electrification in the Eastern Cape. The impact of this project, and related research work, is also touched on....

  19. Empowering vulnerable women in eastern Africa through innovative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Empowering vulnerable women in eastern Africa through innovative savings ... savings schemes play in empowering poor women to overcome economic ... and how decision-making power relations influence women's participation in SGs; ...

  20. INFLUENCE OF ALTERED FRESHWATER FLOWS ON EASTERN OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for National Shellfisheries AssociationEastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are prominent in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. Valued both commercially and ecologically, oyster populations are threatened by human activity, including dredging, harvesting, and upstream al...

  1. Feeding ecology of major carnivorous fish from four eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-03-29

    Mar 29, 1984 ... Whitfield & Blaber (1978) investigated the feeding ecology of piscivorous ...... Figure 3 Trophic relationships of carnivores (square blocks) in eastern Cape estuaries. ... Key species in the food chain of group A samples (Figures.

  2. Diet of bonnethead shark in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To examine variation in diet and daily ration of the bonnethead, Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus, 1758), sharks were collected from three areas in the eastern Gulf of...

  3. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  4. Secondary School Admissions Policies in Eastern Africa: Some Regional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, W. T. S.

    1974-01-01

    This discussion considers some regional issues implicit in current procedures regulating admission to secondary education in four countries of Eastern Africa and places these procedures in their general political context. (Author)

  5. Issues in Health Care of Middle Eastern Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Juliene G.; Meleis, Afaf I.

    1983-01-01

    Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Although Middle Easterners vary ethnically, they do share a core of common values and behavior that include the importance of affiliation and family, time and space orientations, interactional style and attitudes toward health and illness. Problems in providing health care involve obtaining adequate information, “demanding behavior” by a patient's family, conflicting beliefs about planning ahead and differing patterns of communicating grave diagnoses or “bad news.” There are guidelines that will provide an understanding of the cultural characteristics of Middle Easterners and, therefore, will improve rather than impede their health care. A personal approach and continuity of care by the same health care professional help to bridge the gap between Middle Eastern cultures and Western medical culture. In addition, periodic use of cultural interpreters helps ameliorate the intensity of some cultural issues. PMID:6364575

  6. Genetic Variation Among Open-Pollinated Progeny of Eastern Cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1970-01-01

    Improvement programs in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) are most frequently designed to produce genetically superior clones for direct commercial use. This paper describes a progeny test to assess genetic variability on which selection might be based.

  7. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience from Borno State. ... The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, drawing experience from Borno State. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Intraseasonal meridional current variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ogata, T.; Sasaki, H.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Masumoto, Y.

    . [2007] demonstrate the possibility of the air-sea interac- tion in the eastern Indian Ocean at the intraseasonal time- scale by analyzing observed and simulated data. Recent studies also reveal that multiscale air-sea interactions be- tween intraseasonal...

  9. Mutual-Help among Afar Pastoralists of Ethiopia | Hundie | Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 26, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  11. IS COPPER REQUIRED FOR EASTERN OYSTER SETTING AND METAMORPHOSIS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent field research with eastern oysters demonstrated higher defense activities, including hemocyte numbers, locomotion and bactericidal ability, associated with locations exhibiting relatively high contamination. Copper and zinc, found in high concentrations in tissues of oyst...

  12. 83rd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the International Program of the 83rd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association (EPA that took place on 1-4 March 2012 in Pittsburgh (USA is submitted in the publication.

  13. Eastern Europe major opportunity for oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmorgen, T.

    1991-01-01

    The joint effort to overcome the political, technical, and commercial obstacles to adequate energy supply in Eastern Europe may pose one of the biggest entrepreneurial challenges of the decades to come. This article focuses on the former East Germany and Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. They are the markets most likely to be developed in the near future. The best data are available on East Germany. Therefore, the forecast material will concentrate on that region. But the trends seen there will apply to the other countries, keeping in mind though, that East Germany was regarded as the most advanced member of the Former East Bloc in industrial development. A look at some key economic data reveals the potential of the oil markets. Looking at per capita energy consumption, these countries were real world champions. In view of the low standard of living, this is the yardstick of living, this is the yardstick for an unbelievable waste of scarce resources and indicates a total lack of respect for the environment

  14. Profile of colorectal cancer in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Snigdha; Mukherjee, Ramanuj; Paira, Susil Kumar; Roy, Bipradas; Banerjee, Shubhabrata; Mukherjee, Saibal Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Although colorectal cancer is a major cause of concern in the western population, recent studies are showing the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer to be rapidly rising in Asia. The present study is an insight into the epidemiological profile of colorectal cancer of a representative Eastern Indian population. Over a period of three years, all histologically proved patients with colorectal cancer were assessed for age, sex, body mass index, dietary habits, socioeconomic status and stage of disease. Of a total of 168 patients male to female ratio was 1.7:1.The mean age of presentation was 47.01 years. Although colorectal cancer has been known as a disease of sedentary obese men, 41.66% of the patients were from a low socioeconomic rural set-up and 40.47% were involved in heavy physical labour with only 15% of being obese; 62% patients were harbouring a locally advanced disease at the time of presentation. The epidemiological pattern of colorectal cancer in India is different from that of the west as regards to earlier age of presentation, prevalence in low socio economic class with low fat diet and scanty meat intake.

  15. Personhood and Bioethics: An Eastern Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Varghese

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The secular and theological prominence of the word “person” in bioethics creates ambiguity. This is perceptible in the conclusions of the scholars who asses the cognitive abilities of a human to define whether that human is a person or not. The very ancient philosophical thought ‘a human being is a rational being’ is ingrained in the analysis. This article studies how this methodology is pertinent in the light of Eastern Christian theology. The theological anthropology affirms that each human is the image and likeness of God and hence it prevents to separate a human from the state of ‘personhood’. A human should be considered beyond his / her physical and cognitive abilities and understood as a burgeoning being towards theosis. It affirms that a human has the capability to represent the whole universe and to engage in dialogue with the creator. This approach presents a human as a unique person and calls for a holistic perception pertaining to human beings in bioethics discussion.

  16. Acculturation Processes of Hmong in Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kha Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines acculturation processes among Hmong who live in Eastern Wisconsin by using the East Asian Acculturation Measure (EAAM, which was developed by Barry (2001. The results indicated that in terms of Acculturation, Hmong ranked highest in integration, then separation, assimilation, and lastly marginalization. Questions on each dimension of integration, separation, assimilation, and marginalization were analyzed and positive correlations were found between the youngest of the generations, the length of residency in the United States, and the ability to speak, read, and write in English. In contrast, the older the age of the participant when they came to the United States had a positive correlation with separation. The ability to speak, read, and write in English had a positive correlation with assimilation, and the older the age of coming to the United States had a positive correlation with marginalization. Assimilation and separation had a positive correlation with marginalization, while integration had a negative correlation with marginalization and a positive correlation with assimilation, and separation had no correlation with marginalization. Results are discussed in regards to previous Hmong acculturation studies.

  17. The Nuclear Power Revival in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayou, Celine

    2007-01-01

    Far from traumatized by the April 1986 Chernobyl accident, the Central and Eastern European countries as well as the CIS are showing a growing interest in nuclear energy: this choice may be explained by increased energy demands and safer supply requirements but also by the battle against global warming. In effect, commitments made on limiting greenhouse gas emissions (particularly for the EU new member states) are becoming increasingly important as these countries return to growth. Thus, nuclear power seems to be a partial but secure means of not endangering the latter while adopting a more respectful stance vis-a-vis the environment. Thus, each country is coming out in favour of the civilian use of nuclear power: Russia has been reviving its nuclear program over the last few years, while countries obliged to close their decrepit or Soviet style power stations (Bulgaria, Slovakia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Armenia) have projects to build new ones. Those who possess reactors (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, the Ukraine) are endeavouring to increase their potential, those which had hitherto no civilian nuclear facilities are now planning to build them (Belarus, Albania) or are contributing to projects in neighbouring countries (Estonia, Latvia, Poland). Within this context, the anti-nuclear argument has difficulty in finding a voice in the East

  18. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  19. Energy and the environment in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that three preeminent factors determine the nexus between energy policies and the environment in Eastern Europe. Economic planners in the region traditionally have emphasized supply-side policies to expand the amount, rather than demand-side policies to limit the consumption, of energy. Consequently, the East European economies have developed, in the words of Hungarian economists, an insatiable appetite for fuels and power that engenders among them a persisting propensity to overconsume these resources. All states in the region continue to devote between 40 and 45 percent of their total investments in industry to increase the indigenous production of fuels and power. The quality of the environment suffers considerably from these policies. The more energy an economy consumes (all other things being equal), the more wastes it creates, and so the more it pollutes the environment. Further, the enormous output of fiscal resources that these states devote to increasing their supply of energy severely constrains their capacity to pursue other investment opportunities, including opportunities to protect the environment

  20. Financing private power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Finance is needed for upgrading Eastern Europe's electric power industries. Capacity is not a problem, as all countries have more than adequate capacity in the light of the deep industrial recession. However, much of the capacity is elderly and poorly maintained, so availability is low. Coal fired plant may have electrostatic precipitators, but no desulfurization or de-NO x equipment is present. Price rises in oil and gas imported from Russia have however increased interest in energy efficiency measures. Power generation is mainly coal or lignite based. Commercial banks will be little involved in financing. The best viable sources of large scale financing will be the IBRD, EIB, EBRD, and IFC, among the multilateral investment banks. Loans so far have mainly gone to Poland. The multilateral institutions have great experience in lending to developing countries, but long procurement processes are often involved. Raising finance is inevitably a difficult process. The financing of the Cracow Environmental Project, a model private power venture in Poland is described and discussed, with particular reference to contract, legal and economic problems

  1. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  2. Women's reproductive rights in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The women of Eastern Europe currently face the enormous challenges of limited resources, religious opposition to family planning, and negative attitudes towards contraception in an attempt to gain reproductive freedom. These women need to become involved with the policy development and political processes that have recently come to be. Recently these issues were discussed during a workshop held in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Women's health and reproductive rights were highlighted. A representative of the International Planned Parenthood Foundation (IPPF), Karen Newman, attended the workshops and indicated that this meeting of women's organizations emphasized the importance for national development in the region to be led from within. The living conditions of the women of the region are such that this type of organization is severely hampered. There is a lot of effort being expended by these women, but unfortunately they have little or no experience in these matters. Networks and leaders must be found to combat the forces from, the Catholic Church and from government officials that have given these issues a low priority because of financial considerations. Lack of hard currency in countries like the Soviet Union and Poland have made contraceptive availability very scare. The result in both countries has been the use of abortion as a primary method of child spacing. Education and communication are not enough because without the service delivery the raised awareness will only crate disappointment and distrust in family planning.

  3. Metamorphic evolution of the eastern part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Inner to Central parts of the Western Carpathians consist of several tectonic units that provide unique opportunity to investigate Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the Western Carpathians. Lithological and geochemical composition of sedimentary and igneous rocks indicate the presence of Alpine-Meliata and Pre-Alpine Rakovec suture zones. The Meliata blueschists are the only evidence of subducted Triassic Meliata-Hallstatt oceanic basin and adjacent continental wedge which occurred during the Jurassic time. These processes were followed by the Cretaceous collision that suffered not only the Gemer but also the Vepor Belts. Since Alpine and Variscan metamorphism occurred in most tectonic units under similar pressure and/or temperature conditions, for reconstruction of Alpine development is necessary to understand Pre-Alpine history of each tectonic unit. The Field Meeting is aimed to comprehend Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the eastern parts of the Western Carpathians with a special respect to subduction and exhumation history of the Jurassic Meliata blueschists, as well as of Cretaceous collision in the Western Carpathians. In order to clear metamorphic characteristic and geological position of each unit a brief outline on structure and metamorphism of the Central Western Carpathians is given in the excursion guide. The manuscript of this work was improved by helpful suggestions of S. Jacko, D. Plašienka and M. Janák. This work was supported by Slovak Academic Agency, project WEGA-1/5003/98

  4. Interkosmos the Eastern bloc's early space program

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the Interkosmos program, which was formed in 1967, marking a fundamentally new era of cooperation by socialist countries, led by the Soviet Union, in the study and exploration of space. The chapters shed light on the space program that was at that time a prime outlet for the Soviet Union's aims at becoming a world power. Interkosmos was a highly publicized Russian space program that rapidly became a significant propaganda tool for the Soviet Union in the waning years of communism. Billed as an international “research-cosmonaut” imperative, it was also a high-profile means of displaying solidarity with the nine participating Eastern bloc countries. Those countries contributed pilots who were trained in Moscow for week-long “guest” missions on orbiting Salyut stations. They did a little subsidiary science and were permitted only the most basic mechanical maneuvers. In this enthralling new book, and following extensive international research, the authors fully explore ...

  5. Indoor radon survey in Eastern Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, R.; Immè, G.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.; Tazzer, A. Rosselli

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of radon (Rn-222) and its progeny is one of the most significant sources of natural radiation exposure of the population. Nowadays, high radon exposures have been shown to cause lung cancer and many governments all over the world have therefore recommended that radon exposures in dwellings and indoor workplaces should be limited. Radon levels in buildings vary widely from area to area depending on local geology. This paper presents the results of a long-term survey of radon concentrations carried out from 2005 till 2010 in schools and dwellings of Eastern Sicily, using the solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The investigated area shows medium-high indoor radon concentrations, higher than the Italian average of about 70 Bq/m 3 , with peaks of 500 Bq/m 3 or more in buildings near active faults. Fortunately, only a small fraction of the measurements, about 1.5% of total, was found greater than EU and Italian action limits for indoor and workplaces. - Highlights: ► In this paper we report radon monitoring survey carried out in the east Sicily in schools and dwellings. ► The detection methodology was the solid-state nuclear track detector one. ► The work was supported by a national projects financed by the National Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  6. Songbirds as sentinels of mercury in terrestrial habitats of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Adams, Evan M.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Edmonds, Samuel T.; Gray, Carrie E.; Hoskins, Bart; Lane, Oksana P.; Sauer, Amy; Tear, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed environmental contaminant with a variety of deleterious effects in fish, wildlife, and humans. Breeding songbirds may be useful sentinels for Hg across diverse habitats because they can be effectively sampled, have well-defined and small territories, and can integrate pollutant exposure over time and space. We analyzed blood total Hg concentrations from 8,446 individuals of 102 species of songbirds, sampled on their breeding territories across 161 sites in eastern North America [geometric mean Hg concentration = 0.25 μg/g wet weight (ww), range freshwater or estuarine) than upland forests. Generally, adults exhibited higher blood Hg concentrations than juveniles within each habitat type. We used model results to examine species-specific differences in blood Hg concentrations during this time period, identifying potential Hg sentinels in each region and habitat type. Our results present the most comprehensive assessment of blood Hg concentrations in eastern songbirds to date, and thereby provide a valuable framework for designing and evaluating risk assessment schemes using sentinel songbird species in the time after implementation of the new atmospheric Hg standards.

  7. Sulphate and desertification signals in Middle Eastern temperature trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrallah, H.A.; Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of Middle Eastern annual temperature anomalies over the past 40 years reveals statistically significant warming over this time period of 0.07 C per decade. The warming is most pronounced over the spring season and least apparent in the winter season. Spatial analysis reveals a positive relationship between Middle Eastern warming and the degree of human-induced desertification and a negative relationship between local warming and the atmospheric concentration of sulphate

  8. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  9. Prospects of Collective Security in the Eastern Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Union EAC East African Community EAR Eastern Africa Region EASBRIG East African Standby Brigade EASF Eastern Africa Standby Force ECOMOG ECOWAS...address inherent social, economic and political problems while at the same time facing the world economy as one block (AU 2000). The Union is a...the East African Community ( EAC ) will go on smoothly and its success will continue to attract other regional states to join thereby expanding the

  10. Practices of Citizenship among Middle Eastern Christians in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Lei; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    In this presentation we analyse three citizenship practices among Middle Eastern Christians in Denmark (serving, committing, consuming) and discuss how these are domesticated in accordance with the dominant Danish idea of cultural citizenship (in Danish: medborgerskab).......In this presentation we analyse three citizenship practices among Middle Eastern Christians in Denmark (serving, committing, consuming) and discuss how these are domesticated in accordance with the dominant Danish idea of cultural citizenship (in Danish: medborgerskab)....

  11. How the eastern US National Forests were formed [Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson

    2014-01-01

    As a landscape ecologist conducting research on eastern forests for the US Forest Service (e.g., www.nrs.fs.fed.us/atlas), I was eager to learn about how the eastern National Forests came to be, as these forests now play such an important part of the natural world and provide a large carbon sink. The book did not disappoint and I'm confident that it will be...

  12. Dreaming America: Middle Eastern Diaspora and Cultural Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet BESE; Nazila HEİDARZADEGAN

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to examine how Middle Eastern Americans settled in America in pursuit of happiness, a better life, and liberty, and the results of their expectations. Culture and religion play a significant role in lives of Middle Eastern Americans and actively effect people's attempts to be Americanized and forfeit their authenticity. Such cultural conflicts cause them to feel fragmented, split, or sometimes yearn for the days back in their homelands. People in diaspora, mostly fled fr...

  13. Discrepancy of cytogenetic analysis in Western and eastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Pui-Yi; Li, Tzu-Ying; Yeh, Chung-Nan; Li, Yi-Shian; Chu, Shao-Yin; Lee, Ming-Liang

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the results of second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping in western and eastern Taiwan, and identifying any regional differences in the prevalence of fetal chromosomal anomalies. From 2004 to 2009, pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis in their second trimester at three hospitals in western Taiwan and at four hospitals in eastern Taiwan were included. All the cytogenetic analyses of cultured amniocytes were performed in the cytogenetics laboratory of the Genetic Counseling Center of Hualien Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital. We used the chi-square test, Student t test, and Mann-Whitney U test to evaluate the variants of clinical indications, amniocyte karyotyping results, and prevalence and types of chromosomal anomalies in western and eastern Taiwan. During the study period, 3573 samples, 1990 (55.7%) from western Taiwan and 1583 (44.3%) from eastern Taiwan, were collected and analyzed. The main indication for amniocyte karyotyping was advanced maternal age (69.0% in western Taiwan, 67.1% in eastern Taiwan). The detection rates of chromosomal anomalies by amniocyte karyotyping in eastern Taiwan (45/1582, 2.8%) did not differ significantly from that in western Taiwan (42/1989, 2.1%) (p = 1.58). Mothers who had abnormal ultrasound findings and histories of familial hereditary diseases or chromosomal anomalies had higher detection rates of chromosomal anomalies (9.3% and 7.2%, respectively). The detection rate of autosomal anomalies was higher in eastern Taiwan (93.3% vs. 78.6%, p = 0.046), but the detection rate of sex-linked chromosomal anomalies was higher in western Taiwan (21.4% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.046). We demonstrated regional differences in second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping results and established a database of common chromosomal anomalies that could be useful for genetic counseling, especially in eastern Taiwan. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola flukes from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Singh, T Shantikumar; Shoriki, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Fasciola flukes from eastern India were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear ITS1. Both Fasciola gigantica and aspermic Fasciola flukes were detected in Imphal, Kohima, and Gantoku districts. The sequences of mitochondrial nad1 were analyzed to infer their phylogenetical relationship with neighboring countries. The haplotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes were identical or showed a single nucleotide substitution compared to those from populations in the neighboring countries, corroborating the previous reports that categorized them in the same lineage. However, the prevalence of aspermic Fasciola flukes in eastern India was lower than those in the neighboring countries, suggesting that they have not dispersed throughout eastern India. In contrast, F. gigantica was predominant and well diversified, and the species was thought to be distributed in the area for a longer time than the aspermic Fasciola flukes. Fasciola gigantica populations from eastern India were categorized into two distinct haplogroups A and B. The level of their genetic diversity suggests that populations belonging to haplogroup A have dispersed from the west side of the Indian subcontinent to eastern India with the artificial movement of domestic cattle, Bos indicus, whereas populations belonging to haplogroup B might have spread from Myanmar to eastern India with domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of a novel herpesvirus in captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Norton, Terry M; Bronson, Ellen; Allender, Matthew C; Stedman, Nancy; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-02-25

    Herpesviruses are significant pathogens of chelonians which most commonly cause upper respiratory tract disease and necrotizing stomatitis. Herpesvirus infection was identified in two populations of captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) using histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA sequencing. Necrotizing lesions with eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the tissues of one hatch-year individual in January 2013, which was herpesvirus positive by PCR. A separate captive group of adults had an observed herpesvirus prevalence of 58% using PCR in July 2011. In these cases, a novel herpesvirus, Terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), was identified and serves as the first herpesvirus sequenced in the genus Terrapene. Similar to the other herpesviruses of the Order Testudines, TerHV1 clusters with the genus Scutavirus of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Shelf spawning habitat of Emmelichthys nitidus in south-eastern Australia - Implications and suitability for egg-based biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Francisco J.; Lyle, Jeremy M.; Keane, John P.

    2009-03-01

    advancing, warm East Australian Current and cooler subantarctic water over the shelf. Overall, ichthyoplankton data, coupled with reproductive information from adults trawled off Tasmania, indicate that E. nitidus constitutes a suitable species for the application of the daily egg production method (DEPM) to estimate spawning biomass. This finding, together with evidence in support of a discrete eastern spawning stock extending from southern NSW to southern Tasmania, strengthens the need for DEPM-based biomass estimates of E. nitidus prior to further fishery expansion.

  17. Seropositivity of agents causing abortion in local goat breeds in Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BABÜR, Cahit; Tan, Tolga; ATASEVEN, Lale; ATASEVEN, Veysel Soydal; OĞUZOĞLU, Tuba Çiğdem

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiological information has not been available on the seroprevalenceof agents causing abortion and genital tract infection in indigenousgoats of Eastern and South-eastern regions of Turkey, yet. In these regions,the goats have importance for local economy and their production of meat,milk and mohair. There are also differences of the husbandry and climateconditions between two regions. The objective of this study was to describethe seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to agen...

  18. Concurrent validation of two key health literacy instruments in a South Eastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Sørensen, Kristine; Kamberi, Haxhi; Brand, Helmut

    2015-06-01

    Public health practice has come to increasing recognition of health promotion and the central role of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in achieving health promotion. Health literacy (HL) is an under-explored topic in South Eastern European countries. There are no HL reports from Albania to date. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in a population-based sample of adults in Albania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Tirana, Albania, including 239 individuals aged ≥ 18 years (61% women; 87% response). A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied twice (test and retest procedure after 2 weeks) including HLS-EU-Q and TOFHLA instruments. The internal consistency was high for both instruments (Cronbach's alpha for the test procedure was 0.92 for TOFHLA and 0.98 for HLS-EU-Q). Both tools exhibited a high stability over time (Spearman's rho: 0.88 for TOFHLA and 0.87 for HLS-EU). Mean values of both instruments were similar in men and women (mean score for TOFHLA: 76.0 vs. 76.5, P = 0.83; mean score for HLS-EU-Q: 32.2 vs. 32.6, P = 0.63). For both instruments, higher HL scores were significantly associated with younger age, higher educational and economic level and lower body mass index. Our study provides valuable novel evidence on concurrent validation of two major HL instruments in a South Eastern European population-based sample. Future studies should be conducted in order to confirm and expand our findings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Eastern Denali Fault surface trace map, eastern Alaska and Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Adrian M.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2017-05-04

    We map the 385-kilometer (km) long surface trace of the right-lateral, strike-slip Denali Fault between the Totschunda-Denali Fault intersection in Alaska, United States and the village of Haines Junction, Yukon, Canada. In Alaska, digital elevation models based on light detection and ranging and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data enabled our fault mapping at scales of 1:2,000 and 1:10,000, respectively. Lacking such resources in Yukon, we developed new structure-from-motion digital photogrammetry products from legacy aerial photos to map the fault surface trace at a scale of 1:10,000 east of the international border. The section of the fault that we map, referred to as the Eastern Denali Fault, did not rupture during the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake (moment magnitude 7.9). Seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic evidence, along with a paleoseismic record of past ground-rupturing earthquakes, demonstrate Holocene and contemporary activity on the fault, however. This map of the Eastern Denali Fault surface trace complements other data sets by providing an openly accessible digital interpretation of the location, length, and continuity of the fault’s surface trace based on the accompanying digital topography dataset. Additionally, the digitized fault trace may provide geometric constraints useful for modeling earthquake scenarios and related seismic hazard.

  20. Climatic and geographic predictors of life history variation in Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus: A range-wide synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T Hileman

    Full Text Available Elucidating how life history traits vary geographically is important to understanding variation in population dynamics. Because many aspects of ectotherm life history are climate-dependent, geographic variation in climate is expected to have a large impact on population dynamics through effects on annual survival, body size, growth rate, age at first reproduction, size-fecundity relationship, and reproductive frequency. The Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus is a small, imperiled North American rattlesnake with a distribution centered on the Great Lakes region, where lake effects strongly influence local conditions. To address Eastern Massasauga life history data gaps, we compiled data from 47 study sites representing 38 counties across the range. We used multimodel inference and general linear models with geographic coordinates and annual climate normals as explanatory variables to clarify patterns of variation in life history traits. We found strong evidence for geographic variation in six of nine life history variables. Adult female snout-vent length and neonate mass increased with increasing mean annual precipitation. Litter size decreased with increasing mean temperature, and the size-fecundity relationship and growth prior to first hibernation both increased with increasing latitude. The proportion of gravid females also increased with increasing latitude, but this relationship may be the result of geographically varying detection bias. Our results provide insights into ectotherm life history variation and fill critical data gaps, which will inform Eastern Massasauga conservation efforts by improving biological realism for models of population viability and climate change.

  1. Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Nuclear safety is one of the critical issues with respect to the enlargement of the European Union towards the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of the enlargement process, the European Commission overall strategy on nuclear safety matters has been to bring the general standard of nuclear safety in the pre-accession countries up to a level that would be comparable to the safety levels in the countries of the European Union. In this context, the primary objective of the project was to develop a common format and general guidance for the evaluation of the current nuclear safety status in countries that operate commercial nuclear power plants. Therefore, one of the project team first undertakings was to develop an approach that would allow for a consistent and comprehensive overview of the nuclear safety status in the CEEC, enabling an equal treatment of the countries to be evaluated. Such an approach, which did not exist, should also ensure identification of the most important safety issues of the individual nuclear power plants. The efforts resulted in the development of the ''Performance Evaluation Guide'', which focuses on important nuclear safety issues such as plant design and operation, the practice of performing safety assessments, and nuclear legislation and regulation, in particular the role of the national regulatory body. Another important aspect of the project was the validation of the Performance Evaluation Guide (PEG) by performing a preliminary evaluation of nuclear safety in the CEEC, namely in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. The nuclear safety evaluation of each country was performed as a desktop exercise, using solely available documents that had been prepared by various Western institutions and the countries themselves. Therefore, the evaluation is only of a preliminary nature. The project did not intend to re-assess nuclear safety, but to focus on a comprehensive summary

  2. Authigenic Uranium in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Loveley, M. R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Authigenic U concentrations have been used as an indicator of redox state in marine sediments. Soluble U(VI) in porewaters is reduced to insoluble U(IV) under suboxic conditions setting up a diffusion gradient through which U in bottom waters is supplied to reducing sediments. Researchers have used sedimentary redox enrichment of U as a tool to identify past redox changes, which may be caused by changes in organic carbon rain rates and/or bottom water oxygen levels. Differentiating between these two explanations is important, as the former is tied to the use of authigenic U as a paleoproductivity proxy. We examined sediments from 4 sediment cores retrieved from two different localities in the Panama Basin in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Two cores were retrieved from the northern Panama basin at the Cocos Ridge, (4JC at 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; 8JC at 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the south at the Carnegie Ridge, (11JC at 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; 17JC at 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Using 230Th systematics and seismic profiling at each of the sites, we've identified significant sediment winnowing (4JC and 11JC) and focusing (8JC and 17JC). At all sites, we believe that changes in age-model-derived sand (i.e., >63µm) mass accumulation rates (MAR) best represent changes in rain rates. Glacial rain rates are higher than those in the Holocene by a factor of 2-3 at both sites. Peak Mn levels (>1%), the brown-to-green color transition (which likely represents the oxic/post-oxic boundary), and peak U concentrations all appear in the same order with increasing depth down core. At the Carnegie sites, where MARs are greater than those at the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 4 ppm) occur during the mid- to late Holocene at depths of 10-15 cm. At the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 12 ppm) occur lower in the sediment column (25-30 cm) during the late glacial. The decrease

  3. Profile of Breast Diseases in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bajracharya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Breast problems, benign or malignant are common in occurrence worldwide. Breast problems can present themselves in a number of ways like breast pain, nipple discharge, cystic lesions and more commonly a lump. Breast diseases are under reported and cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women. This prospective study was undertaken with an aim to study the profile of various breast diseases in eastern Nepal.Materials & Methods:  This is a prospective study of women with breast diseases conducted from March 2011 to February 2012. Inclusion criteria were women irrespective of age with breast diseases with or without complaints. Exclusion criteria were women having breast abscess and mammary fistula.Results: Out of 125 breast diseases 39 cases (31% had malignancy and 86 cases (69% had BBD. The overall mean age for BBD was 25.9 years, with range of 10-60 years. The mean age for malignant breast diseases was 45.6 years, with range of 28-67 years. All of the cases had breast lump as their presenting complaints whether they came out benign or malignant. 52.8% had no significant pain associated with lump; in malignant cases 35.8% had pain associated with lump. In benign cases 68.7% had no perceptible change in lump size. On ultrasound scan, 69% of the lesions were designated benign compared to 31% malignant features. FNAC resulted in 68% lesions to be classified as of benign nature and 32% as malignant /suspicious malignancy.Conclusion: BBD constituted 69% of breast diseases, and mostly fibroadenoma and FCC/FCD and commonest malignant lesion was infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The BBD peaked at the age of 21-30 years.

  4. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  5. Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyikam, A.; Nzegwn, Martin A.; Olusina, Daniel B.; Okoye, I.; Ozumba, Ben C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to characterize benign breast diseases in Eastern Nigeria and to highlight the age variations of these lesions as base line data. The Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu caters for over 30 million African blacks and receives 2000 surgical pathology specimens yearly. Seven hundred and twenty-two benign breast specimens were analyzed over 5 years from Ist January 2000 to 31 December 2004, out of 1050 breast samples received. Of 1050 breast specimens received, 722 (68.8%) were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common lesion with 318 cases (44%), occurring at a mean age of 16-32 years. Next were fibrocystic changes with 165 cases (22.9%) at a mean age of 23-45 years. Normal breast in the axillary tail region was seen in 32 cases (4.4%), represented as no pathology, with a mean presentation age of 20-46 years. Low grade Phyllodes tumor had 28 cases (3.9%), presenting at an average mean age of 17-32 years. Lactating adenoma had 19 (2.6%) cases. Other lesions made up less than 3% each. Benign breast lesions peaked at the 20-24 age range and then declined. Most were females. Benign breast lesions occur more frequently than malignant breast lesions with a ratio of 2.3:1 and were presented 20 years earlier than their malignant counterparts. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign lesions followed by fibrocystic disease, similar to the findings in Western Nigeria. In Northern Nigeria, fibrocystic breast disease was more common. (author)

  6. The Manifestation of Corruption in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Hladky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the main manifestations of corruption in the states of Eastern Europe, and, first of all, in Ukraine, which since 2014 has been actively carrying out multiple anti-corruption transformations, although the state is becoming increasingly corrupt every year. The author defines the main groups of manifestations of corruption and analyzes their constituent elements, in the light of which, delineates such categories as "gratitude", bribe, and corruption "gratitude". Particular attention is paid to the study of corruption intercession, which unites nepotism, cronyism and corruption lobbying. It is noted that to date nepotism is essentially supplanted by the rabble, which is the advantage of "privatization" of the state in the light of the clan capitalism. It is concluded that bribery and deviant intercession (corruption protection, as the main manifestations of corruption, the facts that corruption behavior is life-affirming security and protective actions of people, to which they resort, on the one hand, because of the insolvency of the state and society, but, on the other hand, to optimize the achievement of the good that is provided by the state and society, however, in an improper way. Meanwhile, if the discrepancy measures and methods of granting the benefits of state benefits (i.e., on average, the measure and method is applicable, then ignoring the state provision of certain goods as such (i.e., they can be provided only in the corruption plane - this phenomenon is completely objective. On this basis, it is argued that the policy of counteracting corrupt practices in the state should focus, first of all, on the solution of such problems and objective problems, the refusal to account, which will lead to further criminalization of the society, which is observed, in particular, in modern Ukraine.

  7. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Coulson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha, and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter, many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%, but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%. We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47% cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74% in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea.

  8. Spatial and temporal ecology of eastern spadefoot toads on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-03-01

    Effective amphibian conservation must consider population and landscape processes, but information at multiple scales is rare. We explore spatial and temporal patterns of breeding and recruitment by Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii), using 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in longleaf pine-wiregrass sandhills. Breeding events (>25 adults at a pond within a month) occurred 23 times on nine occasions at seven of the eight study ponds, but substantial recruitment(>100 metamorphs) followed only five events. Recruitment ranged from 0-4,648 among ponds. Only four ponds functioned as population ''sources'', but only during some years. The other ponds, and even ''source'' ponds during some years, functioned either as ''sinks'', where breeding occurred with no resulting recruitment, or were not used at all for breeding. Most recruitment occurred during four years. Recruitment was correlated with adult breeding effort, but only during some years. Recaptures were rare, and inter-pond exchange of adults was minimal and short-distance (< 130 m; 1 was 416 m). Most (83.5%) individuals captured were metamorphs, and 15.9% were > 51 mm (est. > 4 years). We conservatively estimated a 7-year lifespan. Adult ''population'' trends clearly reflected breeding effort rather than numbers per se; capture rates fluctuated dramatically among years, but showed no overall trends during the 9-year study. Our paper provides empiracle information that can be used to generate realistic metapopulation models for S. holbrookii as a tool in conservation planning.

  9. Avian Plasmodium in Eastern Austrian mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Ellen; Uebleis, Sarah Susanne; Butter, Julia; Nawratil, Michaela; Cuk, Claudia; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Zechmeister, Thomas; Rubel, Franz; Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-29

    Insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. Despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites. In this study, nested PCR was used to determine Plasmodium spp. occurrence in pools of whole individuals, as well as the diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in 2013-2015. A total of 45,749 mosquitoes in 2628 pools were collected, of which 169 pools (6.43%) comprising 9 mosquito species were positive for avian Plasmodium, with the majority of positives in mosquitoes of Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium. Six different avian Plasmodium lineages were found, the most common were Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05, Plasmodium sp. Linn1 and Plasmodium relictum SGS1. In 2014, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were genetically identified and Culex pipiens f. pipiens presented with the highest number of avian Plasmodium positives (n = 37; 16.74%). Despite this, the minimum infection rate (MIR) was highest in Culex torrentium (5.36%) and Culex pipiens f. pipiens/f. molestus hybrids (5.26%). During 2014 and 2015, seasonal and annual changes in Plasmodium lineage distribution were also observed. In both years P. vaughani SYAT05 dominated at the beginning of the sampling period to be replaced later in the year by P. relictum SGS1 (2014) and Plasmodium sp. Linn1 (2015). This is the first large-scale study of avian Plasmodium parasites in Austrian mosquitoes. These results are of special interest, because molecular identification of the taxa of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium enabled the determination of Plasmodium prevalence in the different mosquito taxa and hybrids of this complex. Since pools of whole insects were used, it is not possible to assert any vector competence in any of the examined mosquitoes, but the results

  10. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  11. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

    2011-03-01

    The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater

  12. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources.

    This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant

  13. Regional Wave Climates along Eastern Boundary Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Two types of wind-generated gravity waves coexist at the ocean surface: wind sea and swell. Wind sea waves are waves under growing process. These young growing waves receive energy from the overlaying wind and are strongly coupled to the local wind field. Waves that propagate away from their generation area and no longer receive energy input from the local wind are called swell. Swell waves can travel long distances across entire ocean basins. A qualitative study of the ocean waves from a locally vs. remotely generation perspective is important, since the air sea interaction processes is strongly modulated by waves and vary accordingly to the prevalence of wind sea or swell waves in the area. A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves along eastern boundary currents (EBC; California Current, Canary Current, in the Northern Hemisphere, and Humboldt Current, Benguela Current, and Western Australia Current, in the Southern Hemisphere), based on the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis will be presented. The wind regime along EBC varies significantly from winter to summer. The high summer wind speeds along EBC generate higher locally generated wind sea waves, whereas lower winter wind speeds in these areas, along with stronger winter extratropical storms far away, lead to a predominance of swell waves there. In summer, the coast parallel winds also interact with coastal headlands, increasing the wind speed through a process called "expansion fan", which leads to an increase in the height of locally generated waves downwind of capes and points. Hence the spatial patterns of the wind sea or swell regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean along EBC, due to coastal geometry and fetch dimensions. Swell waves will be shown to be considerably more prevalent and to carry more energy in winter along EBC, while in summer locally generated wind sea waves are either more comparable to swell waves or

  14. Uplift of quaternary shorelines in eastern Patagonia: Darwin revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, Kevin; Regard, Vincent; Husson, Laurent; Martinod, Joseph; Guillaume, Benjamin; Fucks, Enrique; Iglesias, Maximiliano; Weill, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    During his journey on the Beagle, Darwin observed the uniformity in the elevation of coastal Eastern Patagonia along more than 2000 km. More than one century later, the sequences of Quaternary shorelines of eastern Patagonia have been described and their deposits dated but not yet interpreted in terms of geodynamics. Consequently, we i) mapped the repartition of the Quaternary coastal sequences in Argentinean Patagonia, ii) secured accurate altitudes of shoreline angles associated with erosional morphologies (i.e. marine terraces and notches), iii) took into account previous chrono-stratigraphical interpretations in order to calculate mean uplift rates since ~ 440 ka (MIS 11) and proposed age ranges for the higher and older features (up to ~ 180 m), and iv) focused on the Last Interglacial Maximum terrace (MIS 5e) as the best constrained marine terrace (in terms of age and altitude) in order to use it as a tectonic benchmark to quantify uplift rates along the entire passive margin of Eastern South America. Our results show that the eastern Patagonia uplift is constant through time and twice the uplift of the rest of the South American margin. We suggest that the enhanced uplift along the eastern Patagonian coast that interested Darwin during his journey around South America on the Beagle could originate from the subduction of the Chile ridge and the associated dynamic uplift.

  15. Vitamin D deficiency is endemic in Middle Eastern sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Bruce; Grantham, Justin; Racinais, Sebastien; Chalabi, Hakim

    2010-10-01

    While vitamin D deficiency is well recognized in Middle Eastern women as a result of cultural norms of remaining covered, Middle Eastern men are an under-reported group. Vitamin D is now known to have multiple effects, including an impact on muscle function, thereby increasing the relevance for sportsmen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in young male Middle Eastern athletes. Cross-sectional study. Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Ninety-three Middle Eastern men presenting to hospital for an annual screening undertook a blood test to evaluate their vitamin D status. Ninety-one per cent of athletes were found to be deficient in 25(OH)D (serum concentration Middle Eastern male athletes. Given the potentially significant long- and short-term effects of 25(OH)D deficiency, serum 25(OH)D evaluation should be part of the routine assessment in this region.

  16. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitakis, S; Daskalakis, N; Fanourgakis, G S; Voulgarakis, A; Krol, M C; Aan de Brugh, J M J; Kanakidou, M

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the Western basins and the boundary layer (BL) from the free troposphere (FT). The FT of the Eastern Mediterranean is shown to be a strong receptor of polluted air masses from the Western Mediterranean, and the most important source of polluted air masses for the Eastern Mediterranean BL, with about 40% of O3 and of CO in the BL to be transported from the FT aloft. Regional anthropogenic sources are found to have relatively small impact on regional air quality in the area, contributing by about 8% and 18% to surface levels of O3 and CO, respectively. Projections using anthropogenic emissions for the year 2050 but neglecting climate change calculate a surface O3 decrease of about 11% together with a surface CO increase of roughly 10% in the Eastern Mediterranean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Twitter intensity, time, and location on message lapse of bluebird's pursuit of fleas in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da'ar, Omar B; Yunus, Faisel; Md Hossain, Nassif; Househ, Mowafa

    The recent outbreak of bubonic plague in Madagascar reminds us of the continuing public health challenges posed by such deadly diseases in various parts of the world years after their eradication. This study examines the role of Twitter in public health disease surveillance with special focus on how Twitter intensity, time, and location issues explain Twitter plague message delay. We retrospectively analyzed the Twitter feeds of the 2014 bubonic plague outbreak in Madagascar. The analyses are based on the plague-related data available in the public domain between November 19th and 27th 2014. The data were compiled in March 2015. We calculated the time differential between the tweets and retweets, and analyzed various characteristics of the Tweets including Twitter intensity of the users. A total of 6873 Twitter users were included in the study, of which 52% tweeted plague-related information during the morning hours (before mid-day), and 87% of the tweets came from the west of the epicenter of the plague. More importantly, while session of tweet lease and relative location had effect on message lapse, absolute location did not. Additionally, we found no evidence of differential effect of location on message lapse based on relative location i.e. tweets from west or east nor number of following. However, there is evidence that more intense Twitter use appears to have significant effect on message lapse such that as the number of tweets became more intense, time differential between the tweets and retweets increased while higher number of retweets diminished message lapse. This study affirms that Twitter can play an important role in ongoing disease surveillance and the timely dissemination of information during public health emergencies independent of the time and space restrictions. Further ways should be explored to embed social media channels in routine public health practice. Copyright © 2017 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF MALATYA OLIGO-MIOCENE SUCCESSION (EASTERN TAURIDS, EASTERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma GEDİK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Oligo-Miocene aged Muratlı and Petekkaya formations which crop out over wide regions around Akçadağ town, west of Malatya pro- vince in Eastern Taurids were revealed in this study. Systematical sampling was carried out in measured stratigraphical sections in four locations in order to perform stratigraphical and paleontological investigations. Benthic foraminifera taken from 182 hard rock samples were defined and three biozones were determined as; SBZ 21-22, belonging to Oligocene (Rupe- lian - Early Chattian, SBZ 23 (Late Chattian and SBZ 25 belonging to Lower Miocene in shallow marine deposits in the region. It was stated that the assemblage of planktic forami- nifer and nannoplankton which stratigraphically detected within Chattian - Burdigalian units in the succession most probably indicated Aquitanian age. Besides; Oligo-Miocene transition in the region was approved with this study based on biostratigraphical locations of benthic foraminiferal taxa.

  19. The eastern Asian and eastern and western North American floristic disjunction: congruent phylogenetic patterns in seven diverse genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Q Y; Soltis, D E; Soltis, P S

    1998-10-01

    One of the most remarkable examples of intercontinental disjunction of the North Temperate Flora involves eastern Asia and eastern and western North America. Although there has been considerable interest in this phytogeographic pattern for over 150 years (e.g., Gray, 1859; Li, 1952; Graham, 1972; Boufford and Spongberg, 1983; Wu, 1983; Tiffney, 1985a, 1985b), relationships among taxa displaying the disjunction remain obscure. Understanding phylogenetic relationships is, however, a prerequisite for historical biogeographic analyses of this distributional pattern. To understand better the relationships of taxa displaying this intercontinental disjunction, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using a variety of DNA data sets for species of four genera (Cornus, Boykinia, Tiarella, and Trautvetteria) that occur in eastern Asia, eastern North America, and western North America. An area cladogram was constructed for each of the four genera, all of which show a similar pattern of relationship: the eastern Asian species are sister to all North American species. An identical phylogenetic pattern is also found in three other taxa exhibiting this disjunction (Aralia sect. Aralia, Calycanthus, and Adiantum pedatum). The congruent phylogenetic pattern found in these seven diverse genera raises the possibility of a common origin of the eastern Asia, eastern and western North America disjunction. The data are in agreement with the long-standing hypothesis that this well-known floristic disjunction represents the fragmentation of a once continuous Mixed Mesophytic forest community and suggest that the disjunction may have involved only two major vicariance events: an initial split between Eurasia and North America, followed by the isolation of floras between eastern and western North America. However, congruence between phylogenies and geographic distributions does not necessarily indicate an identical phytogeographic history. Taxa exhibiting the same phylogenetic pattern may have

  20. Social suffering and marginalisation among Eastern European students in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Dahlberg, Mette Ginnerskov

    2016-01-01

    Presenter: Lisanne Wilken, dr. phil. Global Studies, Aarhus University. ceklw@cas.au.dk Together with Mette Ginnerskov Hansen; phd-student, Global Studies, Aarhus University Theme 5: Reconsidering "Internationalisation" from peripheral perspectives Social suffering and marginalization among Eastern...... European students in Denmark In recent years Denmark has become a favoured destination for international students from the (South) Eastern Member States of the European Union. In 2013 Denmark was the 2nd most favoured destination for students from Latvia and Lithuania, the 6th most favoured destination...... for students from Romania and the 7th most favoured destination for students from Poland. Students from EU's Eastern member states are often attracted by the fee free access to highly ranked universities, and the possibilities for receiving economic student support, but also by the welfare society...

  1. A SPECIAL FOEHN CASE IN NORTH-EASTERN APUSENI MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. TUDOSE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study for the 9-10 January 2015 period, when foehn processes were occurred on the eastern slope of the Apuseni Mountains. With a view to establishing the synoptic context in which the phenomenon was manifested, an analysis of the atmospheric fields was used, while for determining the intensity of the process several meteorological parameters (temperature, wind and relative humidity were analyzed along three west-east profiles across the Apuseni Mountains. The analysis points out the presence of foehn processes on the eastern part of the Apuseni Mountains, the highest thermal and hygric differences being recorded on the north-eastern part of the mountains. The most important effect of this synoptic situation was the reduction of the snow cover depth.

  2. THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana JITARU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Partnership (EaP launched in 2009 as the Eastern dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy introduced the civil society as a new strategic actor in the EU's relations with Eastern Partnership countries. The civil society‟s role is to participate in policy making, to suggest new initiatives and to promote shared values of partnership, such as: democracy, promoting better governance, state law, sustainable development, respect for human rights and for the fundamental freedoms. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, we analyse the role of the civil society in the EaP and we ask whether the increasing role of the civil society in the EaP will lead to the success of this project. In the second part, we analyse the perceptions and the attitudes of civil society towards European integration.

  3. REGIONALIZATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE: OBSTACLES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Horváth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional policy depends on efficient administrative systems for designing and implementing strategies, and places considerable demands on Member States’ public administrations in terms of e.g. financial management and monitoring; project selection procedures; ex ante environmental impact assessments and cost-benefit analyses; and the monitoring and evaluation of outputs, results and impacts. EU member states have taken a range of different approaches to the administration of regional policy.The construction of regions in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe became one of the important debate topics for preparation for EU membership. Despite the numerous similarities in the changes that have taken place in the territorial structures of the Eastern and Central European countries, the differences in the responses individual countries gave to the challenges of regional development and the varied results of their development efforts demonstrate that the “Eastern European Bloc” is at least as heterogeneous as the former member states of the European Union. EU accession opened up a Pandora’s Box in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe. The fundamental issue of how unitarily structured states can be set on a decentralised path became the centre of debate. The paper introduces the Central and Eastern European achievements of region building processes and searches for an explanation of the reasons for the difficulties of Eastern and Central Europe in regional construction; it summarises the administrative and political development pre-requisites of the transition to a regional outline of the possible advantages of a regional institutional system in the creation of the Cohesion Policy ensuring a decrease in regional differences.

  4. A study of melanoma in Eastern European migrants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrua, Chiara; Fava, Paolo; Brizio, Matteo; Savoia, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Cancer survival rates are lower in Eastern Europe. To describe, based on a single-centre database in northern Italy, clinical, histopathological, and prognostic features of melanoma in a migrant population from Eastern Europe. We retrospectively analysed data from 18,190 consecutive foreign patients who visited our institution, with 49 cases of melanoma from Eastern Europe. The control group was represented by 1,003 Italian melanoma patients diagnosed and followed at our centre during the same time period. Patients from Eastern Europe were mainly females with lower median age, without significant differences regarding primary melanoma site, relative to the control group. Diagnosis was made at the place of birth in 30.6% and in our centre for the remainder. Median Breslow thickness was greater (p = 0.0178), and aggressive histotypes (p = 0.0017) and ulcerated melanomas (p = 0.002) were significantly over-represented, particularly when diagnosed in the patients' native country. Disease was more advanced at diagnosis (p = 0.0001), regardless of the place of initial diagnosis (51% had a progressive disease within one year which rose to 80% if diagnosed before admission to our centre), and the percentage of patients who died within one year was significantly higher (p = 0.022), relative to the control group. Our study shows a poor prognosis for melanoma patients diagnosed in Eastern Europe. Moreover, for migrant populations moving from Eastern to Western European countries, financial difficulties, poor social integration, and language barriers, with consequent late access to healthcare facilities, may account for a worse prognosis.

  5. An Investigation of the Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Adults with Undiagnosed and/or Untreated Phenylketonuria in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Artur; Jarochowicz, Sabina; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Gradowska, Wanda; Januszek-Trzciakowska, Aleksandra; O'Malley, Grace; Kwolek, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations in a group of patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) in the south-eastern part of Poland. Methods: The study was conducted among 400 adults with severe intellectual disability who were born prior to neonatal screening…

  6. Soil structure interactions of eastern U.S. type earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chen; Serhan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Two types of earthquakes have occurred in the eastern US in the past. One of them was the infrequent major events such as the 1811-1812 New Madrid Earthquakes, or the 1886 Charleston Earthquake. The other type was the frequent shallow earthquakes with high frequency, short duration and high accelerations. Two eastern US nuclear power plants, V.C Summer and Perry, went through extensive licensing effort to obtain fuel load licenses after this type of earthquake was recorded on sites and exceeded the design bases beyond 10 hertz region. This paper discusses the soil-structure interactions of the latter type of earthquakes

  7. The Extreme Right in Eastern Europe and Territorial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mareš

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses and compares the different territorial conceptions of the extreme right in Eastern Europe and their political impact, with a view to explaining how important the historical legacy of the supposed territorial and border claims and injustices is for the identity of the extreme right (or their parts in contemporary Eastern Europe. It analyses the historical roots of the territorial claims of the extreme right in the area, the current situation regarding their territorial claims and disputes, and the impact of these territorial claims on domestic politics, on the politics of the extreme right at the European level and on regional security in this area.

  8. Genocide in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia 1943–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Naleźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian nationalists tried to de-polonize the South-Eastern Borderlands by means of mass genocide and they achieved this goal to a great extent. That, however, puts them on a par with the criminal regimes of Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler. The author of this article describes the genocide of Polish inhabitants in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia committed by the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists (Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins’kykh Natsionalistiv, OUN and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya, UPA between 1943 and 1944. These events in European history are not well-known.

  9. Prospects of the power industry in central and eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubslaff, E.; Tillmann, H.B.; Lehmann, R.; Denk, P.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the Central and Eastern European countries is dependent to a large extent on the development of their national power industry. Until 1990, the development of the power industry of these countries was comparable to that of East Germany. After presenting an assessment of the upgrading of the power station park and grid in East Germany, we outline, by means of examples, the current situation in several Central and Eastern European countries and particularly in Russia. We discuss both the status quo of liberalisation and privatisation efforts made in these countries and the development of European transmission grids. (orig.) [de

  10. Biotechnological studies in the Far-Eastern Region of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonik, Valentin A; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bulgakov, Victor P; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2007-07-01

    Achievements and problems in both the studies on natural bioactive compounds from the Far-Eastern higher plants and marine invertebrates and development of the corresponding biotechnologies concerning new drugs and food supplements, as well as pharmaceutical leads are discussed. Special emphasis is made on recent results from the Far-eastern Institutions belonging to the Russian Academy of Sciences, and their application in both medicine and the food industry, as well as on peculiarities of biological and chemical diversity in the North-Western part of Asia and adjoining seas.

  11. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  12. MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS AND BANKING CONSOLIDATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Nicoleta Popovici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquisitions and mergers are the growth and expansion strategies that are commonly used by the companies in all over the world because of several reasons such as increasing the profit, sales and market share, entering into new markets, operating with economics of scale, coping with managerial problems and so on. This article underlines the characteristics of mergers and acquisitions (M&A, the different types of M&A, the challenges and opportunities for the banking system in Central and Eastern Europe and we analyze the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries.

  13. Population Assessment of an Endangered Shorebird: the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Amirault

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Small, at-risk populations are those for which accurate demographic information is most crucial to conservation and recovery, but also where data collection is constrained by logistical challenges and small sample sizes. Migratory animals in particular may experience a wide range of threats to survival and reproduction throughout each annual cycle, and identification of life stages most critical to persistence may be especially difficult for these populations. The endangered eastern Canadian breeding population of Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus was estimated at only 444 adults in 2005, and extensive effort has been invested in conservation activities, reproductive monitoring, and marking of individual birds, providing a comprehensive data set on population dynamics since 1998. We used these data to build a matrix projection model for two Piping Plover population segments that nest in eastern Canada in order to estimate both deterministic and stochastic rates of population growth (λd and λs, respectively. Annual population censuses suggested moderate growth in abundance between 1998–2003, but vital rate estimates indicated that this temporary growth may be replaced by declines in the long term, both in southern Nova Scotia (λd = 1.0043, λs = 0.9263 and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (λd = 0.9651, λs = 0.8214. Nonetheless, confidence intervals on λ estimates were relatively wide, highlighting remaining uncertainty in future population trajectories. Differences in projected growth between regions appear to be driven by low estimated juvenile post-fledging survival in the Gulf, but threats to juveniles of both population segments following departure from nesting beaches remain unidentified. Similarly, λ in both population segments was particularly sensitive to changes in adult survival as expected for most migratory birds, but very little is understood about the threats to Piping Plover survival during migration and overwintering

  14. SHC, Seismic Hazard Assessment for Eastern US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.; Davis, B.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SHC was developed as part of the Eastern United States (EUS) Seismic Hazard Characterization (SHC) Project to design an SHC methodology for the region east of the Rocky Mountains in a form suitable for probabilistic risk assessment and to apply that methodology to 69 site locations, some of them with local soil conditions. The method developed uses expert opinions to obtain the input to the analysis. SHC contains four modules which calculate the seismic hazard at a site located in a region of diffuse seismicity, where the seismicity is modeled by area sources. SHC integrates the opinions of 11 seismicity and five ground-motion experts. The PRDS model generates the discrete probability density function of the distances to the site for the various seismic source zones. These probability distributions are used by the COMAP module to generate the set of all alternative maps and the discrete probability density of the seismic zonation maps for each expert. The third module, ALEAS, uses these maps and their weights to calculate the best estimate and constant percentile hazard distribution resulting from the choice of a given seismicity expert for all ground-motion experts. This module can be used alone to perform a seismic hazard analysis as well as in conjunction with the other modules. The fourth module, COMB, combines the best- estimate and constant-percentile hazard over all seismicity experts, using the set of weights calculated by ALEAS, to produce the final probability distribution of the hazard for the site under consideration so that the hazard analysis can be performed for any location in the EUS. Local geological-site characteristics are incorporated in a generic fashion, and the data are developed in a generic manner. 2 - Method of solution: SHC uses a seismic-source approach utilizing statistical and geological evidence to define geographical regions with homogeneous Poisson activity throughout the zone, described by a

  15. Adult Day Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Aide Semi Private Private $25,000 Adult Day Servi Acesssisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes $0 1. General information based on industry views of various members of the National Adult ...

  16. Adult Education for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, T. R.

    1980-01-01

    Apathy, indifference, and neglect has characterized adult education for women in India. The National Adult Education Programme must focus attention and funding on women if the extremely low percentage of female literacy is to be improved. (SK)

  17. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...

  18. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  19. 75 FR 57768 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified Subcontractor AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Eastern Research Group... the information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES...

  20. Breeding biology of the eastern population of the Short-clawed Lark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding biology of the eastern population of the Short-clawed Lark in South Africa. ... courtship and copulation behaviour, the incubation period, description of the ... In contrast with the single-brooded western population, the eastern ...

  1. The Adult Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

  2. Adult Learning Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  3. Aspects of Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Rajkumari

    This book presents an overview of and prescription for adult education in India. Following an introduction to the problem of illiteracy in India, the book's 14 chapters cover a broad spectrum of adult education issues. Topics discussed include adult education and national development; roles of voluntary organizations, universities, colleges, and…

  4. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  5. Sustainable energy successes in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Oesterfelt, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The publication describes more than 20 `good practices` in energy conservation in Central and Eastern Europe: successful campaigns and projects for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. The cases are collected mainly by NGO-organisations in INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy) - Europe as part of their contributions to the ECO-Forum Energy and Climate Group. (LN)

  6. Examination of the 13 February 2001 Eastern Pacific Maritime Cyclogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Touchton, Marc

    2002-01-01

    .... The models did not properly forecast this system due to weak cold air advection over the Eastern Pacific Ocean and due to blending the subpolar and subtropical jets into a single feature. Data assimilation is suspected to have played a role in the mishandling of these key features.

  7. Maternal nutrition: how is Eastern and Southern Africa faring and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The progress in key maternal health indicators in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR) over the past two decades has been slow. Objective: This paper analyzed available information on nutrition programs and nutrition-specific interventions targeting maternal nutrition in the ESAR and proposes ...

  8. Determinants of Sexual Violence among Eastern Ethiopian Secondary School Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MA Bekele, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the determinants of sexual violence among Eastern Ethiopia secondary school students. To this end, we studied risk and protective factors for both sexual violence perpetration and victimization, and the moderating role of protective factors on the

  9. Integrated pest management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, N.

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines
    throughout the crop's

  10. Eastern wilderness users: perceptions from two small wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Palso; Alan Graefe

    2007-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of wilderness recreationists in the eastern United States, with a focus on definitions of wilderness areas and factors that may decrease enjoyment of the wilderness experience. The eventual aim is to compare these data with information collected from wilderness users in the western United States. The few studies performed on this...

  11. Antibiotic Treatment of Blister Rust Cankers in Eastern White Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Phelps; Ray Weber

    1970-01-01

    Cycloheximide (Acti-dione) and Phytoactin antibiotics, applied as basal stem treatments, aerial spray treatments, and complete foliar drenches were not effective in controlling blister rust cankers in eastern white pine. Cycloheximide was effective in suppressing canker activity and growth if directly applied to scarified cankers.

  12. Fragmentation of forest communities in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; John Coulston; James Wickham

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest communities in the eastern United States. Forest communities exhibiting either a low total area or low percentage of intact forest are subject to relatively higher risk of shifts in stand composition towards edge-adapted and invasive species. Such changes in stand composition could result in local extirpation...

  13. Scenarios for economy and environment in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, J.; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Maas, R.

    1993-01-01

    This draft report was produced within the framework of the Environmental Action Plant for Central and Eastern Europe on the request of the World Bank. A number of scenarios for this environment; Western Europe, Central Europe (the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary and Poland) and Eastern Europe (the former USSR) were developed. The environmental results related to scenarios applying future Western European techniques in future CEE (Environmental Action Plan for Central and Eastern Europe) investments were predicted - based on estimates of differences of energy efficiency and emission factors of techniques currently applied in CEE and Western Europe. The focus of the analysis is to reflect the effects on environmental quality in CEE assuming a gradual introduction of Western control technology. The results (in the form of maps, graphs and tables) of the analysis are given in detail, preceded by sections on socio-economic background and descriptions of scenarios and models. It is concluded that the main problem for Central and Eastern Europe will be to generate funds to restart economic growth after a difficult transition process. A more efficient use of energy should be encouraged and installations and industrial complexes should be retrofitted to help achieve this aim. Episodic peak concentrations of energy consumption should be reduced. (AB)

  14. Anophthalmia in a Wild Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Hartnett, Elizabeth A; James, Fiona M K; Grahn, Bruce H

    2017-10-01

    We describe bilateral true anophthalmia in a juvenile female eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with histologic confirmation that orbital contents lacked ocular tissues. Additionally, the optic chiasm of the brain was absent and axon density in the optic tract adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus was reduced.

  15. Patchy charnockites from Jenapore, Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ∗Present address: Department of Geology, J. K. College, Purulia 723 101, West Bengal, India. The charnockite ... tor of the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, are disposed in a linear fashion and generally have sharp ... Subse- quently, many workers suggested that the 'patchy ..... bly represent two different frozen-in conditions, as.

  16. Yield from an intensively hunted population of eastern fox squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; James S. Jordan

    1971-01-01

    Rates at which Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are exploited in areas open to public hunting may be useful guides for designing fall hunting seasons that are biologically defensible. However, there is a question whether the harvest of fox squirrels by public hunting will even occasionally be great enough to challenge the limit allowed by the best designed...

  17. Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe in Language Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Poul

    This paper outlines trends and activities in Central and Eastern European language research and language-related software development (language engineering) and briefly describes some specific projects. The language engineering segment of the European Union's Fourth Framework Programme, intended to facilitate use of telematics applications and…

  18. Community Education in Eastern Chinese Coastal Cities: Issues and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Suju

    2009-01-01

    This paper first reviews the development of community education in Shanghai, one of China's eastern coastal cities. Then the development of community education in the Xuhui District of Shanghai, especially its management system and operational mechanisms, school operating systems and networks, curriculum systems, and team building are presented.…

  19. Power generation needs and opportunities in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, C.R.; Hon, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the market for power generation and pollution control equipment in Eastern Europe. The topics of the article include financing equipment and services, financial and political incentives, capacity, environmental impacts, energy consumption and efficiency, energy prices, energy diversification, renewable energy opportunities, strategy for the market, and the example of Poland

  20. Performance of selected eastern oyster lines across northeastern US estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern oyster production derived from aquaculture has expanded, but growth potential is constrained by losses to disease. Breeding programs supporting industry in the Northeast have targeted resistance to three diseases: MSX, Dermo, and ROD. Selected lines should possess some level of resistance a...

  1. Markers associated with disease resistance in Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern oyster, Crassostrea viginica, is an economically important aquaculture species in the USA, but production has been impacted by diseases such as dermo and MSX. Efforts have been put into the development of disease-resistant oyster lines using selective breeding techniques. However, these met...

  2. Interpreting Democracy: Ethnic Politics and Democracy in the eastern Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    2014-01-01

    into ethnic grievances in order to facilitate political mobilization and deeper engagement with the state. In this process, discussions and debates are framed around ethnicity but are presented and deliberated within state approved democratic practices. In the eastern Himalaya, ethnic identity is one...

  3. Youth employment and migration in eastern and southern Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will focus on the way migration impacts youth employment, self-employment, and entrepreneurship in eastern and southern Africa. It will examine gender differences in migration trends ... Compétences pour l'emploi : Augmenter la formation technique et professionnelle. Ce projet aidera à préparer des jeunes de l'Afrique ...

  4. Snakes from the Leeward Group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1940-01-01

    Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck entrusted me with the study of the snakes, which he collected during his trips to the islands off the north coast of Venezuela, to the Venezuelan mainland, and to eastern Colombia. In the present paper the species collected by Dr. Hummelinck are listed with data on scale

  5. Frogs from the Leeward group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1948-01-01

    The present notes deal with a small collection of frogs that was made by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK during his visits to the islands of the Leeward Group, Venezuela and Eastern Colombia. I have included in this study the specimens of Pleurodema brachyops (Cope) already present in the Rijksmuseum van

  6. Characterization of microsatellite markers in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt; M. Hseih; R. Zahorchak

    1996-01-01

    An enrichment cloning method was evaluated for the isolation of microsatellite loci from eastern white pine and the resulting markers were examined for polymorphisms. A 200-fold enrichment was achieved for highly abundant (AC), repeats, but for much less abundant (ACAG), repeats an enrichment of only 20-fold was obtained. Using a single set of PCR conditions, 19...

  7. (drls) for radiography examinations in north eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    in two university teaching hospitals in north eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred ... review of procedures and the equipment in order to determine whether the .... The information obtained for the ... products of Variant medical system manufactured in China ... which is connected to the Reader via a serial communications port. a.

  8. Platinum-group elements in the Eastern Deccan volcanic province ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study is the first detailed investigation of the platinum-group elements (PGE) at the eastern mar- ... A Zr vs. Pd scattergram found a strong positive correlation for these two elements ..... and the PGE and Au collected by co-precipitation.

  9. Helicobacter pylori prevalence in dyspeptic patients in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori prevalence in dyspeptic patients in the Eastern Cape province – race and disease status. ... Fisher's exact test was used to assess the univariate association between H. pylori infection and the possible risk factors. ... Gender, antibiotic treatment and alcohol consumption may be risk factors for infection.

  10. Modern and Traditional Irrigation Technologies in the Eastern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... It presents a multidisciplinary view of the water crisis, with discussion in the disciplines of economics, hydrology, agronomics, engineering, and environmental sciences. As a sequel to Water Balances in the Eastern Mediterranean, this book will be of interest to policymakers, researchers, academics, and ...

  11. Exchanging Medical Information with Eastern Europe through the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Julie K.; Cronje, Ruth J.; Sokolowski, Beth C.

    1998-01-01

    Interviews foreign Information Coordinators who facilitate exchange of medical information over the Internet between healthcare providers in America and eastern Europe to learn how Internet technologies are being introduced, disseminated, and adopted in their institutions. Applies diffusion of innovations theory for interpretation. Shows technical…

  12. Growth and shifts in eastern hardwood lumber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in eastern U.S. hardwood lumber production indicates that total output increased sharply between 1977 and 1991. The increase, however, was much more pronounced in the East's northern tier of states than in the southern. This paper first examines recent hardwood lumber usage trends and historic hardwood lumber production trends. Changes...

  13. Quality index tables for some eastern hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph J. Mendel; William H. Smith; William H. Smith

    1970-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the quality-index concept, presents log-quality index tables for a selected group of eastern hardwood tree species, and explains how timber operators can use Q.I. for evaluating the lumber that can be sawed from logs and trees.

  14. Late Quaternary sedimentation in eastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Mascarenhas, A; Paropkari, A; Rao, Ch.M.

    This study presents variations in various size measures, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, clay mineralogy and major and trace elements in a core (5.40 m long, 2713 m depth) from the eastern Bay of Bengal. On a CM diagram, the sediments of the core...

  15. development of wheat germplasm for stem rust resistance in eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) rust outbreak is the primary production constraint in Eastern Africa. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are hot spots for the epidemic of rusts, due to higher rates of evolution of new pathogen races, especially of the virulent stem rust (Puccinia graminis) race, Ug99. The objective of this study was to ...

  16. Development of wheat germplasm for stem rust resistance in eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) rust outbreak is the primary production constraint in Eastern Africa. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are hot spots for the epidemic of rusts, due to higher rates of evolution of new pathogen races, especially of the virulent stem rust (Puccinia graminis) race, Ug99. The objective of this study was to ...

  17. Ectoparasite diversity in the eastern rock sengis ( Elephantulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasite diversity in the eastern rock sengis ( Elephantulus myurus ): the effect of seasonality and host sex. ... The ectoparasite assemblage comprised 11 groups of tick species, a single mite family, one louse and two flea species, with ticks and mites being the most numerous ectoparasites recovered. The prevalence ...

  18. Quality assurance in the foundation phase in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main focus of this study was whether and how provision is made to enhance the quality of education in the Foundation Phase. After a case study investigation into a primary school and its view on quality assurance and interviews with the Department of Education: Eastern Cape province it became apparent that more ...

  19. Resistance of eastern hardwood stems to fire injury and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the protective features and defensive responses of eastern hardwood species exposed to fire. Trees survive fire through protective features such as thick bark and the induced defenses of compartmentalization. Dissection of trees exposed to prescribed fire in an oak forest in southern Ohio highlights the need to distinguish between bark scorch, stem...

  20. An Interdisciplinary International Business Degree at Eastern Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2006, the College of Business at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) instituted a cross-disciplinary program in international business (IB). Business communication is a major component of the program. Moreover, the need for business communication in other languages contributed greatly to the cross-disciplinary nature of the program. This…

  1. 76 FR 44898 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-508-000] Texas Eastern... lateral line transportation service to the Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership (Grays Ferry) and..., the anticipated date for the Commission staff's issuance of the final environmental impact statement...

  2. Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern part of Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Stephen, SI Mshelia. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.127-130. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  3. Characteristics of Blister Rust Cankers on Eastern White Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Phelps; Ray Weber

    1969-01-01

    The growth, development, and sporulation of white pine blister rust cankers were studied on eastern white pine in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Three district canker types were identified on the basis of physical appearance, growth rate, and sporulation. Canker growth rate and sporulation decreased as tree size or age increased, and many cankers apparently became inactive...

  4. Odontogenic Tumors: A Review of 675 Cases in Eastern Libya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors (OTs) in an Eastern Libyan population based on the 2005 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, and also to compare the actual data with previous studies. Materials and Methods: We retrieved and analyzed 85 OTs from a ...

  5. Home births and postnatal practices in madagali, North.Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Home births are common in resource poor countries and postnatal practices vary from one community to the other. Objective: To determine the proportion of home births, reasons for home delivery, and evaluate postnatal practices in Madagali, north.eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  6. Geologic structure of the eastern mare basins. [lunar basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The thickness of mare basalts in the eastern maria are estimated and isopachs of the basalts are constructed. Sub-basalt basin floor topography is determined, and correlations of topographic variations of the surface with variations in basalt thickness or basin floor topography are investigated.

  7. Climate Change and Saltwater Intrusion along the Eastern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Eastern Mediterranean is highly vulnerable to saltwater intrusion into the freshwater aquifers along its coasts. The degradation of these aquifers would result in serious socioeconomic consequence to people living there. This project will investigate how climate change is affecting the salinity of coastal aquifers at several ...

  8. Mental health symptoms following war and repression in eastern Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Willem F.; Olff, Miranda; Ventevogel, Peter; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Jansveld, Eveline; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol A. Gotway

    2004-01-01

    Context Decades of armed conflict, suppression, and displacement resulted in a high prevalence of mental health symptoms throughout Afghanistan. Its Eastern province of Nangarhar is part of the region that originated the Taliban movement. This may have had a distinct impact on the living

  9. Increased mining activities in the eastern Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-20

    Oct 20, 2009 ... to the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, at 38%.9 The relative return to ... mining companies to invest in the eastern provinces of the country, presenting an opportunity to improve the nutritional and overall health status of children in the region. ... services for employees and their beneficiaries, potable water via.

  10. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Part I of this research paper presented a needs and gap analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. It identified deficits and inequitable distribution of human resources and beds in the province. In this article, Part II, the ...

  11. The western juniper resource of eastern Oregon, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; Bruce A. Hiserote; Paul A. Dunham

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes resource statistics for eastern Oregon's juniper forests, which are in Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties. We sampled all ownerships outside of the National Forest System; we report the statistics on juniper forest on...

  12. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  13. Modern and Traditional Irrigation Technologies in the Eastern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Özay Mehmet est professeur d'affaires internationales à l'École Norman Patterson d'affaires internationales de l'Université Carleton, à Ottawa, Canada. Il a publié notamment Towards a Fair Global Labour Market (Routledge 1999, avec E. Mendes et R. Sinding) et Water Balances in the Eastern Mediterranean (CRDI 2000, ...

  14. The Prevalence of Extreme Middle Eastern Ideologies around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy; Abd-El-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated…

  15. Competent Counseling for Middle Eastern American Clients: Implications for Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilian, Sepideh S.; Inman, Arpana G.

    2015-01-01

    The authors used a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine whether counselor trainees' group differences on measures of multicultural competence, empathy, and multicultural counseling self-efficacy (CSE) when working with Middle Eastern American (MEA) clients were moderated by trainee race. Two hundred and fifty-six…

  16. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  17. Surgical Indications for Eye Removal in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the surgical indications for removal of the eye in Enugu in south eastern Nigeria. Method: Retrospective case series review. Results: At the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, between 1st January 1994 and 31st December 2003, 106 eyes of 106 patients, comprising 71 (67.0%) males ...

  18. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Eastern and Central Africa ... Results: Only results that answer the objective(s) should be presented in a logical manner. ... Titles of table and figure titles should be descriptive enough to allow ...

  19. Modern Middle Eastern Fiction: An Approach to Studying the Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    The annotated listing cites Middle Eastern fiction which has been translated into English and can be used in humanities or social studies classes at the secondary level. The eight works of fiction listed contain materials that can be used to investigate the following topics: 1) contrasts between urban and village styles of life in the Middle East;…

  20. Needs Assessment of International Students at Eastern Oregon State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa

    The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…

  1. Sexuality and spirituality: the relevance of eastern traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, R T

    1992-01-01

    This article outlines some of the major Eastern sexual and spiritual traditions (primarily Hinduism, Taoism and Tantrism), and discusses their relevance for the contemporary Western world. The article begins by examining the sources of Eastern sexual traditions, before and after the "Axial" period, the turning point at which male consciousness and power gained ascendancy over the female principle. Although a phallocentric view of the world came to dominate the East, Eastern cultures -- unlike the West -- maintained a respect for nature. According to this view, health and spirituality are gained only when humanity respects its place in the cosmos and lives in harmony with nature. The article then examines the sexual traditions of Hinduism, in which sexual asceticism not only coexisted but also complimented the celebration of sexual desire and pleasure. The article then discusses the Taoist traditions, which, among other things, stressed the importance of female sexual satisfaction. Taoism argued that men cannot experience true sexual ecstasy unless they develop the ability to control their ejaculation. The Tantric sexual tradition, the article explains, maintained that ultimate sexual pleasure would enable one to experience the true nature of reality. The article then goes on to review variations of these traditions: the Hindu Tantric Doctrine (Shaktism), the Buddhist Tantric Doctrine, and Tantra and Yoga. Finally, the article considers the relevance of these Eastern philosophies to the Western sexual tradition, which has tended to view sexuality as antagonistic to spiritual liberation.

  2. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin R. Risch; John F. DeWild; David P. Krabbenhoft; Randall K. Kolka; Leiming. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall frompredominately deciduous forestswas measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry depositionwas significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (µg/m2), range 3.5-23.4 µg/m2...

  3. Evolving Privatization in Eastern and Central European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    With the fall of communism in 1989, Eastern and Central Europe would quickly become part of an already strong global tide of privatization in higher education. Nowhere else did private higher education rise so suddenly or strongly from virtual nonexistence to a major regional presence. A fresh database allows us to analyze the extent and…

  4. Socioeconomic Gradients in Eastern European Countries: Evidence from PIRLS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses educational inequalities related to socioeconomic status (SES) in 12 Eastern European countries that participated in the International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006. Economies and educational systems of these countries have undergone critical transformations since the fall of communism. The authors' analyses, using data…

  5. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in eastern India: Some new observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are hereditary, autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorders showing clinical and genetic heterogeneity. They are usually manifested clinically in the third to fifth decade of life although there is a wide variability in the age of onset. More than 36 different types of SCAs have been reported so far and about half of them are caused by pathological expansion of the trinucleotide, Cytosine Alanine Guanine (CAG repeat. The global prevalence of SCA is 0.3-2 per 100,000 population, SCA3 being the commonest variety worldwide, accounting for 20-50 per cent of all cases, though SCA 2 is generally considered as the commonest one in India. However, SCA6 has not been addressed adequately from India though it is common in the eastern Asian countries like, Japan, Korea and Thailand. Objective: The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of SCA6 in the city of Kolkata and the eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: 83 consecutive patients were recruited for the study of possible SCAs and their clinical features and genotype were investigated. Results: 6 of the 83 subjects turned out positive for SCA6, constituting therefore, 13.33% of the patient pool. Discussion: SCA6 is prevalent in the eastern part of India, though not as frequent as the other common varieties. Conclusions: Further community based studies are required in order to understand the magnitude of SCA6 in the eastern part, as well as in other regions of India.

  6. The ecology of garlic mustard in eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. McCarthy

    2003-01-01

    Upwards of 25% of the plant species in many eastern floras have been introduced. Many of these species have become invasive. Many of the worst invasives are native to Eurasia and were brought to the U.S. either intentionally for forage, fiber production, erosion control, ornamentals, or unintentionally via crop seed contaminant, transportation, or nursery stock.

  7. Organic No-Till Systems in Eastern Canada: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Halde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, studies have aimed to adapt the agronomy of organic no-till systems for the environmental conditions of Eastern Canada. Most research on organic no-till practices in Eastern Canada has been conducted in the province of Québec, where 4% of farms are certified organic, and results from these trials have been published in technical reports available in French. The objective of this review was to revisit previous research work on organic farming in Eastern Canada—the majority of which has been published as technical reports in the French language—in order to highlight important findings and to identify information gaps. Cover crop-based rotational no-till systems for organic grain and horticultural cropping systems will be the main focus of this review. Overall, a few trials have demonstrated that organic rotational no-till can be successful and profitable in warmer and more productive regions of Eastern Canada, but its success can vary over years. The variability in the success of organic rotational no-till systems is the reason for the slow adoption of the system by organic farmers. On-going research focuses on breeding early-maturing fall rye, and terminating cover crops and weeds with the use of bioherbicides.

  8. Indicators of regenerative capacity for eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Steve Horsley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood forests of the eastern United States are characterized by a complex mix of species associations that make it difficult to construct useful indicators of long-term sustainability, in terms of future forest composition and stocking levels. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study examines regeneration adequacy in the state. The study uses the Forest Service's...

  9. Assessing Child Welfare Outcomes in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczog, Maria

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need to examine effectiveness of services to children and families in central and eastern Europe, focusing on programs in Hungary. Notes that financial considerations and differences in objectives have increased the importance of outcomes measurement. Reports that the pilot implementation of "Looking After Children"…

  10. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  11. Inuit Education and Schools in the Eastern Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, sustained contact between Inuit and newcomers has led to profound changes in education in the Eastern Arctic, including the experience of colonization and progress toward the re-establishment of traditional education in schools. The milestone of the establishment of Nunavut Territory in 1999 was followed by the…

  12. «Eastern Partnership» after the Vilnius Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chernova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The third summit of EU's Eastern Partnership held in Vilnius in November 2013 became a real turning point in the development of this organization. And it didn't happen due to signing of the first EU Association Agreement of its kind with the partner states but due to a sudden turn of the largest and most important of them - Ukraine - to the Russia's rival integration project. By doing so Ukraine at least temporarily joined two of the other participating countries: Armenia and Belarus, the latter of which is already in the Custom Union. At the other pole of the Eastern Partnership there are Georgia and Moldavia which initialed the Association and Free Trade agreements with the EU in Vilnius. This widening gap within the Eastern Partnership attracted everybody's attention to the EU - Russia rivalry in the post-Soviet countries which is increasingly interpreted in terms of the clash of civilizations. In this article we'd rather touch upon some of the peculiarities of the Eastern Partnership itself and its participating countries which to a large extent predetermined such an outcome. Among them is the ambiguous legacy of the European Neighbourhood Policy, lack of membership perspective in the EU as well as the nature of societies and elites in these post-Soviet states.

  13. ( Mangifera indica L.) in Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mango production covers 35% of the total acreage allotted for fruit production in Harari Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. However, there is a declining trend in yield and quality of fruits from the trees. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the status, practices and challenges of mango production in the study area.

  14. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in eastern India: Some new observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B; Pulai, Debabrata; Guin, Deb Shankar; Ganguly, Goutam; Joardar, Anindita; Roy, Sarnava; Rai, Saurabh; Biswas, Atanu; Pandit, Alok; Roy, Arijit; Senapati, Asit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are hereditary, autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorders showing clinical and genetic heterogeneity. They are usually manifested clinically in the third to fifth decade of life although there is a wide variability in the age of onset. More than 36 different types of SCAs have been reported so far and about half of them are caused by pathological expansion of the trinucleotide, Cytosine Alanine Guanine (CAG) repeat. The global prevalence of SCA is 0.3-2 per 100,000 population, SCA3 being the commonest variety worldwide, accounting for 20-50 per cent of all cases, though SCA 2 is generally considered as the commonest one in India. However, SCA6 has not been addressed adequately from India though it is common in the eastern Asian countries like, Japan, Korea and Thailand. The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of SCA6 in the city of Kolkata and the eastern part of India. 83 consecutive patients were recruited for the study of possible SCAs and their clinical features and genotype were investigated. 6 of the 83 subjects turned out positive for SCA6, constituting therefore, 13.33% of the patient pool. SCA6 is prevalent in the eastern part of India, though not as frequent as the other common varieties. Further community based studies are required in order to understand the magnitude of SCA6 in the eastern part, as well as in other regions of India.

  15. Secular trends in Cherokee cranial morphology: Eastern vs Western bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, Rebecca; Ross, Ann H; Jantz, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The research objective was to examine if secular trends can be identified for cranial data commissioned by Boas in 1892, specifically for cranial breadth and cranial length of the Eastern and Western band Cherokee who experienced environmental hardships. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the degree of relationship between each of the cranial measures: cranial length, cranial breadth and cephalic index, along with predictor variables (year-of-birth, location, sex, admixture); the model revealed a significant difference for all craniometric variables. Additional regression analysis was performed with smoothing Loess plots to observe cranial length and cranial breadth change over time (year-of-birth) separately for Eastern and Western Cherokee band females and males born between 1783-1874. This revealed the Western and Eastern bands show a decrease in cranial length over time. Eastern band individuals maintain a relatively constant head breadth, while Western Band individuals show a sharp decline beginning around 1860. These findings support negative secular trend occurring for both Cherokee bands where the environment made a detrimental impact; this is especially marked with the Western Cherokee band.

  16. Fire in Eastern Hardwood Forests through 14,000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Stacy L. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Fire helped shape the structure and species composition of hardwood forests of the eastern United States over the past 14,000 years. Periodic fires were common in much of this area prior to European settlement, and fire-resilient species proliferated. Early European settlers commonly adopted Native American techniques of applying fire to the landscape. As the demand...

  17. Indo-Pacific echinoids in the tropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Kessing, B. D.; Wellington, G. M.; Graybeal, A.

    1996-06-01

    The existing literature reports that only one species of Indo-Pacific echinoid ( Echinometra oblonga), occurs in the eastern Pacific. In this study we confirm the presence of this species at Islas Revillagigedo and also report the presence of two species of Echinothrix (a genus hitherto unknown outside the Indo-Pacific) at Isla del Coco and at Clipperton Island. We also present evidence from isozymes and from mitochondrial DNA sequences indicating that at least one individual of Diadema at Clipperton may belong to a maternal lineage characteristic of the west Pacific species D. savignyi. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the observed populations of Indo-Pacific echinoid species are recent arrivals to the eastern Pacific, as opposed to the view that they are relicts of Tethyan pan-tropical distributions. Echinothrix diadema, in particular, may have arrived at Isla del Coco during the 1982-1983 El Nifio. In addition to Indo-Pacific species, Clipperton, Isla del Coco and the Revillagigedos contain a complement of eastern Pacific echinoids. The echinoid faunas of these islands should, therefore, be regarded as mixtures of two biogeographic provinces. Though none of the Indo-Pacific species are known to have reached the coast of the American mainland, their presence at the offshore islands of the eastern Pacific suggests that, for some echinoids, the East Pacific Barrier is not as formidable an obstacle to migration as was previously thought.

  18. The 'Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, Miguel; Agustí, Jorge; Raffi, I.; Taberner, C.; Zachariasse, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The late Miocene depositional history of the Lorca and Fortuna basins, both occupying an internal position in the eastern Betics of Spain, is marked by a regressive sequence from open marine marls, via diatomites and evaporites, to continental sediments. Based on facies similarities, these

  19. Geochemistry of sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Paropkari, A.L.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The bulk and partition geochemistry of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Cu have been investigated in sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India. The results show that (1) the bulk geochemistry varies from one shelf unit to the other, (2) all...

  20. Contract farming approach to essential oil production in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on empirical evidence from small scale growers and a processor, this study evaluated contract farming of rose geranium (Pelagonium graveoleus) production in a rural setting of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. With the aid of interview schedules and observation, cross sectional data were collected from the ...

  1. Kidnapping in the South eastern States of contemporary Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study empirically investigate salient social and demographic characteristics as determinants of kidnapping in the South-eastern States of contemporary Nigeria using inmates detained on the grounds of kidnapping in Abakaliki and Umuahia Prisons as a unit of analysis. The study adopted a cross-sectional research ...

  2. Business Schools Flourish in Post-Communist Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollag, Burton

    1997-01-01

    About 1,000 new business and management schools have opened in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics since the collapse of Communist rule. All present appealing fronts, but many are insubstantial. Some multinational companies are using the new institutions to train local managers. At many, English is the language of instruction. An…

  3. Sexual violence toward children and youth in war-torn eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. METHODS: Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤ 18 yrs and adult patients. FINDINGS: 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6-12], p72 hours after the assault was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2-4.0], p = 0.007. Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3-4.4], p = 0.006. Nine (2.9% pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34. INTERPRETATION: World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth.

  4. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.

    2006-01-01

    Predation, competition, and their interaction are known to be important factors that influence the structure of ecological communities. In particular, in those cases where a competitive hierarchy exists among prey species, the presence of certain keystone predators can result in enhanced diversity in the prey community. However, little is known regarding the influence of keystone predator presence on invaded prey communities. Given the widespread occurrence of invasive species and substantial concern regarding their ecological impacts, studies on this topic are needed. In this study I used naturalistic replications of an experimental tadpole assemblage to assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles. When newts were absent, the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive species, the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, resulted in decreased survival and growth rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris, and dominance of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis. However, the presence of one adult newt generally reduced or eliminated the negative impacts of O. septentrionalis tadpoles, resulting in comparable survival and performance of native species in invaded and noninvaded treatments. Differential mortality among the tadpole species suggests that newts preyed selectively on O. septentrionalis tadpoles, supporting the hypothesis that newts acted as keystone predators in the invaded assemblage. The presence of nonindigenous larval cane toads, Bufo marinus, did not significantly affect native species, and this species was not negatively affected by the presence of newts. Collectively, these results suggest that eastern newts significantly modified the competitive hierarchy of the invaded tadpole assemblage and reduced the impacts of a competitively superior invasive species. If general, these results suggest that the presence of

  5. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  6. Molecular epidemiological survey of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Ye; Gong, Xiang-Yao; Zheng, Chen; Song, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Ting; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Jie; Deng, Hong-Kuan; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Ticks are able to transmit various pathogens-viruses, bacteria, and parasites-to their host during feeding. Several molecular epidemiological surveys have been performed to evaluate the risk of tick-borne pathogens in China, but little is known about pathogens circulating in ticks from eastern China. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of bacteria and parasites in ticks collected from Xuzhou, a 11258km 2 region in eastern China. In the present study, ticks were collected from domestic goats and grasses in urban districts of Xuzhou region from June 2015 to July 2016. After tick species identification, the presence of tick-borne bacterial and parasitic pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia sp., Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and Theileria sp., was established via conventional or nested polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) and sequence analysis. Finally, a total of 500 questing adult ticks, identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, were investigated. Among them, 28/500 tick samples (5.6%) were infected with A. phagocytophilum, and 23/500 (4.6%) with Theileria luwenshuni, whereas co-infection with these pathogens was detected in only 1/51 (2%) of all infected ticks. In conclusion, H. longicornis is the dominant tick species in the Xuzhou region and plays an important role in zoonotic pathogen transmission. Both local residents and animals are at a significant risk of exposure to anaplasmosis and theileriosis, due to the high rates of A. phagocytophilum and T. luwenshuni tick infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Conservation assessments for five forest bat species in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R., III Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Assesses the status, distribution, conservation, and management considerations for five Regional Forester Sensitive Species of forest bats on national forests in the Eastern United States: eastern pipistrelle, evening bat, southeastern myotis, eastern small-footed myotis, and northern long-eared bat. Includes information on the taxonomy, description, life history,...

  8. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... of these fisheries are not likely to cause the eastern DPS to become in danger of extinction in the... coastal habitats is likely to cause the eastern DPS of Steller sea lion to become in danger of extinction... likely to cause the eastern DPS of Steller sea lions to become in danger of extinction in the foreseeable...

  9. Maintenance of eastern hemlock forests: Factors associated with hemlock vulnerability to hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Petra Bohall Wood

    2010-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.]) is the most shade-tolerant and long-lived tree species in eastern North America. The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) (HWA), is a nonnative invasive insect that feeds on eastern hemlock and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). HWA currently is established in...

  10. Cultural Clues to the Middle Eastern Student. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Orin D.; And Others

    This paper discusses characteristics common to all Middle Eastern students with the exception of Israelis, and addresses itself to those working with Middle Eastern students on American college and university campuses. Middle Eastern students will show themselves to be highly adaptable, but they may demonstrate a formality of manner, particularly…

  11. 78 FR 39719 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. CP13-498-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an application under section 7...

  12. 77 FR 67021 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey; Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey; Maine AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management--Eastern...

  13. 77 FR 42507 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on September 19...

  14. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana... Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on Mar. 24, 2011 in Miles City, Montana. The...

  15. 77 FR 70807 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on December 6, 2012...

  16. 75 FR 42125 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be...

  17. 77 FR 2755 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey; Alabama and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000 L14200000.BK0000] Eastern States... below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  18. 77 FR 50157 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...; HAG 12-0260] Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY.... Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council... Bureau of Land Management's Eastern Washington and San Juan Resource Management Plan and the U.S. Forest...

  19. 76 FR 29234 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-477-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 10, 2011 Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No. CP11-477-000...

  20. 77 FR 65542 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-6-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 12, 2012, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, filed in the above referenced docket...