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Sample records for adult brain tumours

  1. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our interpretation of HRMAS data and the translation of NMR tumour biomarkers to in-vivo studies. Results 1D and 2D 1H HRMAS NMR was used to determine that 29 small molecule metabolites, along with 8 macromolecule signals, account for the majority of the HRMAS spectrum of the main types of brain tumour (astrocytoma grade II, grade III gliomas, glioblastomas, metastases, meningiomas and also lymphomas. Differences in concentration of 20 of these metabolites were statistically significant between these brain tumour types. During the course of an extended 2D data acquisition the HRMAS technique itself affects sample analysis: glycine, glutathione and glycerophosphocholine all showed small concentration changes; analysis of the sample after HRMAS indicated structural damage that may affect subsequent histopathological analysis. Conclusions A number of small molecule metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of tumour type that may enable development of more selective in-vivo 1H NMR acquisition methods for diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumours.

  2. Primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the brain in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a mass in the left cerebral hemisphere of a 20-year-old man. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were consistent with primary malignant rhabdoid tumour. The age of presentation, imaging features prior to histological examination, and prognosis in this case were unusual. (orig.)

  3. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, A.J.; Fellows, G.A.; Griffiths, J.R.; Wilson, M.; Bell, B.A.; Howe, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our inter

  4. Childhood brain tumours : Health and function in adult survivors and parental fears

    OpenAIRE

    Anclair, Malin

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of the present research was to investigate health and functional ability of patients treated for childhood brain tumour and systematically examine parental fears after a child s brain tumour. The aims were realised through two part-studies. Childhood cancer once regarded as an acute fatal illness has become a life threatening disease. Previous studies of the long-term sequelae in survivors of children treated for a brain tumour reflect the fact that most ...

  5. International Case-Control Study of Adult Brain, Head and Neck Tumours: Results of the Feasibility Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the feasibility study were to collect and analyse the information necessary to assess the feasibility of a multi-centric study of adult head and neck tumours (including brain tumours) and mobile telephones. Information was obtained on the availability and accessibility of records from companies, the prevalence of mobile telephone use over time and the expected number of tumour cases in the proposed study regions. The conclusion is that it is feasible to develop a study of the relation between mobile telephone use and brain cancer risk. The feasibility of a study of the relation between radiofrequency exposure and cancer risk is, however, unclear at present. It is unknown whether a sufficiently accurate and precise RF exposure gradient can be derived to classify adequately each subject in the proposed study. A study of the relation between mobile telephone use and risk of salivary gland tumours and acoustic neurinomas is probably feasible, but more information is required about the logistic difficulties of ascertaining these cases in the study regions. Two subcommittees have been formed to develop the exposure measurement and epidemiological aspect of the study. (author)

  6. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers in adult and paediatric gliomas: towards personalised brain tumour treatment

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    KathreenaMaryKurian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly clear that both adult and paediatric glial tumour entities represent collections of neoplastic lesions, each with individual pathological molecular events and treatment responses. In this review we discuss the current prognostic biomarkers validated for clinical use or with future clinical validity for gliomas. Accurate prognostication is crucial for managing patients as treatments may be associated with high morbidity and the benefits of high risk interventions must be judged by the treating clinicians. We also review biomarkers with predictive validity which may become clinically relevant with the development of targeted therapies for adult and paediatric gliomas.

  7. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal and one temporal) underwent 12 oxygen-15 labelled water PET scans during overt verb generation and rest. Individual activation maps were calculated for P<0.005 and P<0.001 without anatomical normalisation and overlaid onto the individuals' magnetic resonance images for preoperative planning. Activations corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found in five and six cases, respectively, for P<0.005 and in three and six cases, respectively, for P<0.001. One patient with a glioma located in the classical Broca's area without aphasic symptoms presented an activation of the adjacent inferior frontal cortex and of a right-sided area homologous to Broca's area. Four additional patients with left frontal tumours also presented activations of the right-sided Broca's homologue; two of these showed aphasic symptoms and two only a weak or no activation of Broca's area. Other frequently observed activations included bilaterally the superior temporal gyri, prefrontal cortices, anterior insulae, motor areas and the cerebellum. The middle and inferior temporal gyri were activated predominantly on the left. An SPM group analysis (P<0.05, corrected) in patients with left frontal tumours confirmed the activation pattern shown by the individual analyses. We conclude that SPM analyses without stereotactic normalisation offer a promising alternative for analysing individual preoperative language function brain mapping studies. The observed right frontal activations agree with proposed reorganisation processes, but

  8. Imaging of adult astrocytic brain tumours with 7 T MRI: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study tumour vascularity and necrosis of intracranial astrocytomas were compared using 7 T and 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifteen patients with histologically proven astrocytomas (WHO grades II-IV) were prospectively examined at 1.5 T (Magnetom Espree or Sonata) and 7 T (Magnetom 7 T, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with T2*-w (weighted), T1-w with (only a subset of five patients at 7 T) and without contrast medium, T2-w and proton-density (PD)-w MRI. Clinically used 1.5 T sequences were adapted to 7 T. Histological findings and T2*-w MR images at both field strengths were compared for the presence of assumed tumour microvascularity and necrosis. Two diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas, four anaplastic astrocytomas and nine glioblastomas were included. T2*-w images depicted susceptibility patterns representing presumed tumour microvascularity in 8 out of 15 (53%) gliomas at 7 T compared with 5 out of 15 (33%) gliomas at 1.5 T. Compared with 1.5 T MRI three additional necrotic tumour areas were depicted only on 7 T T2- and T2*-w images of one glioblastoma. On T1-w MR images, contrast enhancement of five out of five glioblastomas was similar at both field strengths. 7 T gradient-echo sequences provide excellent image contrast of presumed microvasculature and necrosis in astrocytomas. (orig.)

  9. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  10. The negative brain scintiscan in brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of 53 histologically verified and two histologically unidentified brain tumours, the author examined the reasons for these wrongly negative scintiscans. EEGs and angiographies carried out at about the same time were taken into account and compared with the scintigraphic findings. (orig.)

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  12. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs, are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools.

  13. Movement disorders caused by brain tumours.

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    Bhatoe H

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders are uncommon presenting features of brain tumours. Early recognition of such lesions is important to arrest further deficit. We treated seven patients with movement disorders secondary to brain tumours over a period of seven years. Only two of these were intrinsic thalamic tumours (astrocytomas while the rest were extrinsic tumours. The intrinsic tumours were accompanied by hemichorea. Among the extrinsic tumours, there was one pituitary macroadenoma with hemiballismus and four meningiomas with parkinsonism. Symptoms were unilateral in all patients except one with anterior third falcine meningioma who had bilateral rest tremors. There was relief in movement disorders observed after surgery. Imaging by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory in the evaluation of movement disorders, especially if the presentation is atypical, unilateral and/or accompanied by long tract signs.

  14. Oncogenic extracellular vesicles in brain tumour progression

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    Esterina eD'Asti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a frequent site of neoplastic growth, including both primary and metastatic tumours. The clinical intractability of many brain tumours and their distinct biology are implicitly linked to the unique microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS and cellular interactions within. Among the most intriguing forms of cellular interactions is that mediated by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs. Their biogenesis (vesiculation and uptake by recipient cells serves as a unique mechanism of intercellular trafficking of complex biological messages including the exchange of molecules that cannot be released through classical secretory pathways, or that are prone to extracellular degradation. Tumour cells produce EVs containing molecular effectors of several cancer-related processes such as growth, invasion, drug resistance, angiogenesis, and coagulopathy. Notably, tumour-derived EVs (oncosomes also contain oncogenic proteins, transcripts, DNA and microRNA (miR. Uptake of this material may change properties of the recipient cells and impact the tumour microenvironment. Examples of transformation-related molecules found in the cargo of tumour-derived EVs include the oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII, tumour suppressors (PTEN and oncomirs (miR-520g. It is postulated that EVs circulating in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of brain tumour patients may be used to decipher molecular features (mutations of the underlying malignancy, reflect responses to therapy or molecular subtypes of primary brain tumours (e.g. glioma or medulloblastoma. It is possible that metastases to the brain may also emit EVs with clinically relevant oncogenic signatures. Thus EVs emerge as a novel and functionally important vehicle of intercellular communication that can mediate multiple biological effects. In addition, they provide a unique platform to develop molecular biomarkers in brain malignancies.

  15. Primary brain tumours, meningiomas and brain metastases in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheecke, Magali; Halaska, Michael J; Lok, Christianne A;

    2014-01-01

    to obtain better insight into outcome and possibilities of treatment in pregnancy. METHODS: We collected all intracranial tumours (primary brain tumour, cerebral metastasis, or meningioma) diagnosed during pregnancy, registered prospectively and retrospectively by international collaboration since 1973......, respectively. Eight patients (30%) underwent brain surgery, seven patients (26%) had radiotherapy and in three patients (11%) chemotherapy was administered during gestation. Two patients died during pregnancy and four pregnancies were terminated. In 16 (59%) patients elective caesarean section was performed...... were reassuring. CONCLUSION: Adherence to standard protocol for the treatment of brain tumours during pregnancy appears to allow a term delivery and a higher probability of a vaginal delivery....

  16. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... wireless devices Head injuries Smoking Hormone therapy SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ...

  17. Neuropsychological Differences between Survivors of Supratentorial and Infratentorial Brain Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S. K.; Mullins, W. A.; O'Neil, S. H.; Wilson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between brain tumour location and core areas of cognitive and behavioural functioning for paediatric brain tumour survivors. The extant literature both supports and refutes an association between paediatric brain tumour location and neurocognitive outcomes. We examined…

  18. TSPO expression in brain tumours:is TSPO a target for brain tumour imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaroli, Federico; Su, Zhangjie; Herholz, Karl; Gerhard, Alexander; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) alone or in combination with MRI is increasingly assuming a central role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for brain tumours with the aim of addressing tumour heterogeneity, assisting in patient stratification, and contributing to predicting treatment response. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is expressed in high-grade gliomas, while its expression is comparatively low in normal brain. In addition, the evidence of elevated TS...

  19. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  20. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  1. Adjustment, psychological functioning and health-related quality of life in adults with primary malignant brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The thesis has been prepared in a paper-based format and includes three papers: Paper 1, a systematic review; Paper 2, an empirical study; and Paper 3, a critical appraisal and reflection on the work.Paper 1 has been prepared for submission to Neuro-Oncology. The paper presents a systematic review of 21 studies concerning the relationships of demographic, clinical and mental health factors on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological functioning in adults with primary malignant...

  2. Telomerase activity in 144 brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, T; Asai, A.; Mishima, K.; Fujimaki, T.; Kirino, T.

    1998-01-01

    Unlimited proliferation in immortalized cells is believed to be highly dependent on the activity of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes telomeric repeats onto chromosome ends. Using a polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, we analysed telomerase activity in 99 benign and 45 malignant brain tumours. The TRAP assay results were quantitated by normalizing the telomerase activity of each specimen to that of human glioma cell line T98G to...

  3. A PROSPECTIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL-BASED STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS IN A REFERRAL CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathima Gujjaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brain neoplasms occur at all ages and account for around 2-3 percent of all deaths in adults. In children, the frequency increases to more than twenty percent. In children, it forms the second most common type of malignancy. Most of the tumours encountered are not related to any identifiable risk factors except for irradiation and some hereditary syndromes like subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, cerebellar haemangioblastoma, meningioma, Schwannoma of 7 th cranial nerve. Gliomas constitute fifty percent of the brain tumours and sixty percent of all gliomas are glioblastoma multiforme. Meningiomas constitute twenty percent and cerebral metastasis is seen in fifteen percent of the cases. Seventy percent of supratentorial tumours are found in adults and seventy percent of brain tumours in children are infratentorial. The three common tumours of cerebellum are medulloblastoma, haemangioblastoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. Brain tumours are space occupying lesions and cause compression and destruction of adjacent structures, brain oedema (Peritumoural tissue, infarction and ischaemia of brain by compressing/infiltrating cerebral blood vessels, obstruction of CSF flow causing hydrocephalus, and rise in intracranial pressure with herniations. Tumours can undergo ischaemic necrosis and necrotic tumours tend to bleed. Brain tumours generally do not metastasise. Schwannoma and meningioma are benign tumours. Medulloblastoma of childhood may have drop metastasis via CSF. A sincere effort has been put in this study to identify the incidence of each variety of brain tumour among the fifty confirmed and identified cases of brain tumours. METHODS The age range of the cases in present study was 5-72 years with a mean age of occurrence of 44.11 years and the peak age group affected were in the 3 rd and 4 th decades. Cerebral hemisphere was the commonest site for intracranial tumours. RESULT In the present study, fifty

  4. ABCB1 in children's brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Beth; Kessler, Maya; Sabnis, Durgagauri H; Kerr, Ian D

    2015-10-01

    Tumours of the central nervous system are the most common solid tumour, accounting for a quarter of the 1500 cases of childhood cancer diagnosed each year in the U.K. They are the most common cause of cancer-related death in children. Treatment consists of surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Survival rates have generally increased, but many survivors suffer from radiotherapy-related neurocognitive and endocrine side effects as well as an increased risk of secondary cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy is normally given in combination to circumvent chemoresistance, but several studies have demonstrated it to be ineffective in the absence of radiotherapy. The identification of children with drug-resistant disease at the outset could allow stratification of those that are potentially curable by chemotherapy alone. Ultimately, however, what is required is a means to overcome this drug resistance and restore the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Medulloblastomas and ependymomas account for over 30% of paediatric brain tumours. Advances in neurosurgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy have led to improvements in 5-year overall survival rates. There remain, however, significant numbers of medulloblastoma patients that have intrinsically drug-resistant tumours and/or present with disseminated disease. Local relapse in ependymoma is also common and has an extremely poor prognosis with only 25% of children surviving first relapse. Each of these is consistent with the acquisition of drug and radiotherapy resistance. Since the majority of chemotherapy drugs currently used to treat these patients are transport substrates for ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) we will address the hypothesis that ABCB1 expression underlies this drug resistance. PMID:26517917

  5. Scanning Techniques for Brain-Tumour, Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colour scanner has been used to scan two small clinical series of brain tumour cases, one by means of As74 using positron detection, the other with I131-labelled albumin using gamma detection and a focusing collimator. The results of these series are given and the value of the procedure to the clinician is presented. Matthews has shown, in studies on tumour- bearing rats, that Bi206 citrate should be a particularly favourable material for brain tumour localization and a preliminary attempt has been made to scan with this material using gamma detection and a focusing collimator. Preliminary results of this study are presented. The focusing collimators used with the gamma-emitting isotopes have a deep geometrical focus and isocount responses are obtained on point sources which are almost depth independent for 20 cm. Experimental results on a series of collimators lead to design data for building such collimators to a given specification. Stationary detector scanning has been carried out on brain-tumour cases using a gamma camera with storage-tube display. The advantages of such machines lie in greater sensitivity and more rapid visualization of the pattern of distribution of radioactivity, which in turn enables dynamic studies to be carried out. Problems which occur with such machines include the difficulty in marking anatomical features and the geometric distortions which occur. These are compared for pin-hole and matrix viewing apertures. The improvement in performance resulting from circuit modifications to remove the dependence of picture size on gamma-ray energy is discussed. The analysis of cerebral scans presents difficulties when the suspected region is only slightly greater in count-rate than its surroundings. A ''normal'' count-rate pattern for a head has been determined by dividing scans into regions which are approximately anatomically equivalent from patient to patient, and counting scintiscan marks in each region. Any abnormal scan may then be

  6. Osteopenia in children surviving brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitton, A.C.; Eves, M. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Hay, J. [Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada); Gill, G.J.; Webber, C.E. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University (Canada); Simpson, T. [Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Osteopenia has been reported in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, apparently as a consequence of therapy. It has been suggested that cranial irradiation may play a crucial role in this disorder. To explore that possibility, survivors of brain tumours in childhood, all of whom had received radiotherapy, were examined for evidence of bone mineral loss. 19 children were assessed, on average at 7 years after treatment. Measurements of growth velocities, plain radiography of the skeleton, bone densitometry, health-related quality of life and physical activity were undertaken. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency had been detected in 6 children and 5 had received GH replacement, for a minimum of more than 3 years. 9 children were radiographically osteopenic (including the 5 who had received GH). Z scores for bone mineral density (BMD) were negative in the majority of children. Health-related quality of life was less and pain more frequent in those with low BMD scores. Pain was correlated negatively with both free-time activity and seasonal activity (P<0.01). Osteopenia is a common sequel of therapy in children with brain tumours. Those with osteopenia have more pain and more compromised, health-related quality of life than those who are not osteopenic, and pain significantly limits physical activity. The pathogenesis of osteopenia in these children is still uncertain, but is likely to be multifactorial. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Osteopenia in children surviving brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteopenia has been reported in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, apparently as a consequence of therapy. It has been suggested that cranial irradiation may play a crucial role in this disorder. To explore that possibility, survivors of brain tumours in childhood, all of whom had received radiotherapy, were examined for evidence of bone mineral loss. 19 children were assessed, on average at 7 years after treatment. Measurements of growth velocities, plain radiography of the skeleton, bone densitometry, health-related quality of life and physical activity were undertaken. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency had been detected in 6 children and 5 had received GH replacement, for a minimum of more than 3 years. 9 children were radiographically osteopenic (including the 5 who had received GH). Z scores for bone mineral density (BMD) were negative in the majority of children. Health-related quality of life was less and pain more frequent in those with low BMD scores. Pain was correlated negatively with both free-time activity and seasonal activity (P<0.01). Osteopenia is a common sequel of therapy in children with brain tumours. Those with osteopenia have more pain and more compromised, health-related quality of life than those who are not osteopenic, and pain significantly limits physical activity. The pathogenesis of osteopenia in these children is still uncertain, but is likely to be multifactorial. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of...... (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The...

  9. RM-06IN VITRO CLONAL EVOLUTION OF GLIOBLASTOMA (GBM) BRAIN TUMOUR INITIATING CELLS (BTIC) TO MODEL TUMOUR RECURRENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Qazi, Maleeha; Vora, Parvez; Venugopal, Chitra; McFarlane, Nicole; Hallett, Robin; Singh, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and highly aggressive primary adult brain tumour. Despite multimodal therapy, patients on average experience relapse at 9 months and median survival rarely extends beyond 15 months. Targeting the cells that drive GBM formation as well as its inevitable and rapid recurrence has remained a major challenge, likely due to intra-tumoral heterogeneity. At the genetic level, this heterogeneity has prompted a molecular classification of GBM based on differential ...

  10. Brain perfusion CT compared with 15O-H2O PET in patients with primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion CT (PCT) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been proposed as a fast and easy method for identifying angiogenically active tumours. In this study, quantitative PCT rCBF measurements in patients with brain tumours were compared to the gold standard PET rCBF with 15O-labelled water (15O-H2O). On the same day within a few hours, rCBF was measured in ten adult patients with treatment-naive primary brain tumours, twice using 15O-H2O PET and once with PCT performed over the central part of the tumour. Matching rCBF values in tumour and contralateral healthy regions of interest were compared. PCT overestimated intratumoural blood flow in all patients with volume-weighted mean rCBF values of 28.2 ± 18.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for PET and 78.9 ± 41.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for PCT. There was a significant method by tumour grade interaction with a significant tumour grade rCBF difference for PCT of 32.9 ± 15.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for low-grade (WHO I + II) and 81.5 ± 15.4 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for high-grade (WHO III + IV) tumours, but not for PET. The rCBF PCT and PET correlation was only significant within tumours in two patients. Although intratumoural blood flow measured by PCT may add valuable information on tumour grade, the method cannot substitute quantitative measurements of blood flow by PET and 15O-H2O PET in brain tumours. (orig.)

  11. Brain tumour stem cells: the undercurrents of human brain cancer and their relationship to neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    Conceptual and technical advances in neural stem cell biology are being applied to the study of human brain tumours. These studies suggest that human brain tumours are organized as a hierarchy and are maintained by a small number of tumour cells that have stem cell properties. Most of the bulk population of human brain tumours comprise cells that have lost the ability to initiate and maintain tumour growth. Although the cell of origin for human brain tumours is uncertain, recent evidence poin...

  12. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Imaging and Biophysics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Saunders, Dawn E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  13. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of...... exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...... residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals...

  14. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K;

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...... amounts of GFA, up to 85 times the concentration in parietal grey substance of normal human brain. GFA was not found in neurinomas, meningiomas, adenomas of the hypophysis, or in a single case of metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Non-glial tumours of craniopharyngioma and haemangioblastoma were infiltrated by...

  15. Early recognition and management of brain tumours in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eleanor Katie; Cannon, Anna; Zaborowski, Krzysztof; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2016-08-31

    Brain tumours comprise over one quarter of all childhood cancers in the UK and are the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in children. The presentation of brain tumours can vary substantially in children. The presenting symptoms are often similar to less serious conditions, and are often managed as such initially. Therefore, it can be difficult to diagnose brain tumours in children. An early diagnosis is usually associated with more effective treatment and improved health outcomes. The diagnostic interval between first presentation to a health professional and diagnosis for brain tumours in children has been shown to be three times longer in the UK than in other developed countries. As a result, the HeadSmart campaign launched a symptom card in 2011 to increase awareness of brain tumours in children among the general population and healthcare professionals, with the aim of reducing the diagnostic interval to 5 weeks. Nurses have an essential role in early recognition of brain tumours in children, and in providing care and support to the child and their family following a diagnosis. PMID:27577312

  16. Intracerebral haemorrhage in primary and metastatic brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, Andrea; Erbetta, Alessandra; Silvani, Antonio; Maderna, Emanuela; Pollo, Bianca

    2008-09-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage may both be a presenting manifestation in unrecognised brain tumour or--more frequently--take place in the disease course of known/suspected brain tumour due to diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, including biopsy, locoregional treatments and anti-angiogenic therapies. Apart from the difficulties inherent to accurate neuroradiological diagnosis in selected cases with small tumour volume, the main clinical problem that neurologists face is represented by decision making in prophylaxis/treatment of venous thromboembolism in these patients. These points are briefly discussed and available evidence on the last point is commented on. PMID:18690513

  17. Neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β modulates tumour necrosis factor alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in brain and also in ovaries of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharan, Radhika Nagamangalam; Krishnagiri, Harshini; Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Sarangi, SitiKantha; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-02-01

    The sexually dimorphic organization in perinatal rat brain is influenced by steroid hormones. Exposure to high levels of estrogen or endocrine-disrupting compounds during perinatal period may perturb this process, resulting in compromised reproductive physiology and behavior as observed in adult In our recent observation neonatal exposure of the female rats to estradiol-17β resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α, up-regulation of COX-2 and increase in SDN-POA size in pre-optic area in the adulthood. It is known that the control of reproductive performance in female involves a complex interplay of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. The present study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism involved in changes observed in the ovarian morphology and expression of selected genes in the ovary. Administration of estradiol-17β (100 μg) on day 2 and 3 after birth revealed up-regulation of ER-α, ER-β, COX-2 and down-regulation of TNF-α expression. Also the decrease in the ovarian weight, altered ovarian morphology and changes in the 2D protein profiles were also seen. This is apparently the first report documenting that neonatal estradiol exposure modulates TNF-α and COX-2 expression in the ovary as seen during adult stage. Our results permit us to suggest that cues originating from the modified brain structure due to neonatal exposure of estradiol-17β remodel the ovary at the molecular level in such a way that there is a disharmony in the reproductive function during adulthood and these changes are perennial and can lead to infertility and changes of reproductive behavior. PMID:26872318

  18. Radiation-induced brain disorders in patients with pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced brain disorders (RIBD) are uncommon and they are grave sequelae of conventional radiotherapy. In the present report, we describe the clinical spectrum of RIBD in 11 patients who received post-surgery conventional megavoltage irradiation for residual pituitary tumours. Of these 11 patients (nine men, two women), seven had been treated for non-functioning pituitary tumours and four for somatotropinomas. At the time of irradiation the age of these patients ranged from 30 to 59 years (mean, 39.4 ± 8.3; median, 36) with a follow-up period of 696 months (mean, 18.3 ± 26.4; median, 11). The dose of radiation ranged from 45 to 90 Gy (mean, 51.3 ± 13.4; median, 45), which was given in 1530 fractions (mean, 18.6 ± 5.0; median, 15) with 2.8 ± 0.3 Gy (median, 3) per fraction. The biological effective dose calculated for late complications in these patients ranged from 78.7 to 180 Gy (mean, 99.1 ± 27.5; median, 90). The lag time between tumour irradiation and the onset of symptoms ranged from 6 to 168 months (mean, 46.3 ± 57.0; median, 57). The clinical spectrum of RIBD included new-onset visual abnormalities in five, cerebral radionecrosis in the form of altered sensorium in four, generalized seizures in four, cognitive dysfunction in five, dementia in three and motor deficits in two patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/CT of the brain was suggestive of radionecrosis in eight, cerebral oedema in three, cerebral atrophy in two and second neoplasia in one patient. Associated hormone deficiencies at presentation were hypogonadism in eight, hypoadrenalism in six, hypothyroidism in four and diabetes insipidus in one patient. Autopsy in two patients showed primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and brainstem radionecrosis in one, and a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe following radionecrosis in the other. We conclude that RIBD have distinctive but varying clinical and radiological presentations. Diabetes insipidus and PNET as a second neoplastic

  19. Emotional and personality changes following brain tumour resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lisanne M; Drummond, Katharine J; Andrewes, David G

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress has a high prevalence in brain tumour patients, and understanding the emotional and personality changes that may follow neurosurgery is important for clinical management of these patients. We aimed to characterise these emotional and personality changes using subjective, observer-rated and clinical measures. We examined subjective changes in emotional experience and observer-rated changes to personality disturbances following neurosurgery for brain tumours (n=44), compared to a control group that had undergone spinal surgery (n=26). Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a Subjective Emotional Change Questionnaire. Observers who knew the patients well also completed the Iowa Rating Scale of Personality Change. Compared to controls, patients with tumours reported significantly more changes to their subjective experience of emotions following neurosurgery, particularly anger, disgust and sadness. For the observer-ratings, tumour patients were described as having significant changes in the personality disturbances of irritability, impulsivity, moodiness, inflexibility, and being easily overwhelmed. Anxiety and depression were not significantly different between groups. Neurosurgical resection of a brain tumour is a major life event that changes patients' subjective experiences of different emotions, and leads to observer-rated changes in personality. In this study, these changes were not accompanied by increases in anxiety or depression. We conclude with a discussion of biological and psychosocial mechanisms that can impact emotional functioning and personality in patients with brain tumours. PMID:26898575

  20. A rare metastasis from a rare brain tumour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Kristine; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents the story of a patient with an oligodendroglioma metastasizing to the bone marrow and to lymph nodes of the neck. The patient had undergone primary brain surgery 13 years prior to the discovery of metastases and radiotherapy directed at the brain tumour two months prior........ Oligodendroglioma are rare primary brain tumours of which extraneural metastasis is even more rare. The incidence of cases like this may be increasing because of better treatment and thus longer survival of patients with oligodendroglioma....

  1. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  2. Histopathological characteristics of adult renal tumours: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the relative frequencies of different renal tumours in adults and to analyze the histopathologic characteristics of renal cell carcinoma and its variants in the population studied. The study was carried out at Histopathology Department, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) from April 2004 to October 2004. All consecutive adult patients with renal tumours managed surgically with tumour nephrectomies, were included. Nephrectomy specimens were fixed in 10% formalin. Gross and microscopic examination of the specimens was done according to standard protocol. Patients' demographic and clinical data were obtained from clinical charts and the histopathological features of tumours were retrieved from biopsy reports. Among 50 patients, 33 (66%) were males and 17 (34%) females. Mean age was 47.9+-15.1 years (range; 17 - 80 years). Most tumours were malignant: 47 (94%) vs. 3 (6%) benign. Among malignant tumours, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was commonest; 41 (87.2%). Various subtypes of RCC included: conventional/clear cell RCC, 30 (73.2%); papillary RCC, 6 (14.6%); chromophobe RCC, 1 (2.4%) and sarcomatoid RCC, 4 (9.7%). Other malignant tumours were: rhabdomyosarcoma, 2 (4.2%); primitive neuroectodermal tumour, 1 (2.1%); transitional cell carcinoma, 2 (4.2%); and squamous cell carcinoma, 1 (2.1%). Benign renal tumours included one case each of angiomyolipoma, oncocytoma and metanephric adenoma. The spectrum of adult renal tumours in this study consistent with that of previously reported literature. RCC is the commonest malignant tumor and conventional/clear cell RCC is the most common subtype. However, RCC presentation is delayed with a large size and an advanced stage of the disease, compared to published literature. (author)

  3. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  4. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-grade brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and among the most aggressive of all tumours. For several decades, the standard care of GBM was surgical resection followed by radiotherapy alone. In 2005, a landmark phase III clinical trial coordinated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) demonstrated the benefit of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. With TMZ, the median life expectancy in optimally managed patients is still only 12-14 months, with only 25% surviving 24 months. There is an urgent need for new therapies in particular in those patients whose tumour has an unmethylated methylguanine methyltransferase gene (MGMT) promoter, which is a predictive factor of benefit from TMZ. In this dissertation, the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation is investigated using both a mathematical model, based on in vivo population statistics of survival, and in vitro experimentation on a panel of human GBM cell lines. The results show that TMZ has an additive effect in vitro and that the population-based model may be insufficient in predicting TMZ response. The combination of TMZ with particle therapy is also investigated. Very little preclinical data exists on the effects of charged particles on GBM cell lines as well as on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. In this study, human GBM cells are exposed to 3 MeV protons and 6 MeV alpha particles in concomitance with TMZ. The results suggest that the radiation quality does not affect the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation, showing reproducible additive cytotoxicity. Since TMZ and radiation cause DNA damage in cancer cells, there has been increased attention to the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP is a family of enzymes that play a key role in the repair of DNA breaks. In this study, a novel PARP inhibitor, ABT-888

  5. Ten years summary: FDG-PET on irradiated brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate FDG-PET in differentiation of post-radiotherapy status: recurrence, radiation necrosis, malignant regression of low grade primary brain tumour, and to evaluate PET in terms of survival prediction. Material and methods: 117 irradiated patients (156 PET) were consecutively included. PET results were judged by a set of rigid follow-up standards. Brain metastases from lung carcinoma were further studied. Survival time was analysed with Kaplan-Meier method. Results: There were 61 true-positive, 2 false-positive, 15 false-negative, 51 true-negative PET; leaving 5 positive and 22 negative PET results indeterminate. PET positive predictive value was 96% in all and 100% in brain metastasis from lung carcinoma. PET negative predictive value was 55.6% among surgically selected cases. Survival time was significantly longer in patient's with negative PET, both brain metastasis and primary brain tumour. Conclusions: FDG-PET was a good method to pick up tumour recurrence from radiation necrosis, especially metastasis from lung carcinoma. FDG uptake could be used as a non-invasive parameter to predict patient's prognosis. (authors)

  6. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects outcome. Successful outcome after radiotherapy requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the selected target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance dose is not exceeded. For many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full prescription dose to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs, which is usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. This course will cover important concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation, and biologically effective dose (BED). Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, size and anatomical locations will be given

  7. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahkola, A.

    2010-05-15

    Mobile phone use has increased rapidly worldwide since the 1990's. As mobile telephones are used close to the head, the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile phones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for brain tumours. The effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, particularly gliomas and meningiomas as well as acoustic neuromas, was evaluated using both a case-control approach and a meta-analysis. In addition, one of the most important sources of error in a case-control study, selection bias due to differential participation, was assessed in a subset of the case-control data. The risk of glioma and meningioma in relation to mobile phone use was investigated in population-based case-control studies conducted in five North European countries. All these countries used a common protocol and were included in a multinational study on mobile phone use and brain tumours, the INTERPHONE study, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Cases (1,521 gliomas and 1,209 meningiomas) were identified mostly from hospitals and controls (3,299) from national population registers or general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained in personal interviews. Mobile phone use was assessed using several exposure indicators, such as regular use (phone use at least once a week for at least six months), duration of use as well as cumulative number of hours and calls. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, the existing evidence from the epidemiological studies published on the issue was combined using meta-analysis. In the analysis, a pooled estimate was calculated for all brain tumours combined, and also separately for the three most common tumour types, glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma using inverse variance-weighted method. Pooled estimate was also obtained for different telephone types (NMT and GSM) and by the location

  8. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobile phone use has increased rapidly worldwide since the 1990's. As mobile telephones are used close to the head, the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile phones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for brain tumours. The effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, particularly gliomas and meningiomas as well as acoustic neuromas, was evaluated using both a case-control approach and a meta-analysis. In addition, one of the most important sources of error in a case-control study, selection bias due to differential participation, was assessed in a subset of the case-control data. The risk of glioma and meningioma in relation to mobile phone use was investigated in population-based case-control studies conducted in five North European countries. All these countries used a common protocol and were included in a multinational study on mobile phone use and brain tumours, the INTERPHONE study, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Cases (1,521 gliomas and 1,209 meningiomas) were identified mostly from hospitals and controls (3,299) from national population registers or general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained in personal interviews. Mobile phone use was assessed using several exposure indicators, such as regular use (phone use at least once a week for at least six months), duration of use as well as cumulative number of hours and calls. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, the existing evidence from the epidemiological studies published on the issue was combined using meta-analysis. In the analysis, a pooled estimate was calculated for all brain tumours combined, and also separately for the three most common tumour types, glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma using inverse variance-weighted method. Pooled estimate was also obtained for different telephone types (NMT and GSM) and by the location of the

  9. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a wide variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects survival. In each case the intent of radiation therapy is to destroy the neoplasm without affecting normal tissues. However, for many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Successful outcome after radiation therapy of brain tumors usually requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance doses are not exceeded. For some tumors it may be impossible to satisfy all three criteria. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full dose of radiation to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs and are usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, sizes, and anatomic location will be given. For some tumors, protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. Several concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors will be discussed, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation and biologically effective dose (BED)

  10. Iodine-125 brachytherapy for brain tumours - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-125 brachytherapy has been applied to brain tumours since 1979. Even though the physical and biological characteristics make these implants particularly attractive for minimal invasive treatment, the place for stereotactic brachytherapy is still poorly defined. An extensive review of the literature has been performed, especially concerning indications, results and complications. Iodine-125 seeds have been implanted in astrocytomas I-III, glioblastomas, metastases and several other tumour entities. Outcome data given in the literature are summarized. Complications are rare in carefully selected patients. All in all, for highly selected patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent primary or metastatic tumours, this method provides encouraging survival rates with relatively low complication rates and a good quality of life

  11. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of human brain tumours: assessment of differences between tumour types and its applicability in brain tumour categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in categorizing brain tumours. In vivo single-voxel 1H MRS at an echo time of 136 ms was performed in 108 patients with brain neoplasms that included 29 meningiomas (MEN), 15 low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), 12 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), 25 glioblastomas (GBM) and 27 metastases (MET). Time-domain fitted areas of nine resonances were evaluated in all spectra. Twenty-five additional tumours were prospectively included as independent test set. Differences in at least two resonances were found in all pairwise comparisons of tumour groups except in GBM vs MET. Large lipid resonance at 1.30 ppm was found to be characteristic of GBM and MET, and alanine was characteristic of MEN. Significant differences were found between LGA and AA in choline-containing compounds and total creatine resonances. When implemented in a stepwise algorithm, these findings correctly classified 84% (21 of 25) tumours in the independent test set. Some additional utility was found in glycine/myo-inositol at 3.55 ppm for bilateral differentiation between GBM and MET (9 of 11, 82% correct classification in the test set). 1H MRS provides useful information to categorize the most common brain tumours that can be implemented in clinical practice with satisfactory results. (orig.)

  12. STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS BY NOVE L MAGNETIC RESONANCE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study , thirty patients in the age range of 22 to 63 years of age were included after being diagnosed to be having brain tumour on CT scan or conventional MRI. In addition DWI , MRS , and PWI were carried out i n these patients. All the patients with suspicious malignant lesions were then subjected to FDG - PET examination . Histopathological correlation was obtained in all the patients to serve as gold standard against which other modalities will be assessed for th eir sensitivity , specificity , positive predictive value , negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy. Out of thirty patients selected for this study , twenty cases were found to be malignant and ten cases were benign on Histopathological evaluation. Majority of malignant lesions were glioblastoma multiforme. Amongst benign cases , majorities were meningioma , one was a Granulomatous lesion and one was a benign cystic lesion. MRI including the novel techniques showed high sensitivity and spe cificity in identifying malignant brain lesions and has a future role in better characterization of brain tumours. Wherever available , it should be integrated in routine workup of patients presenting with brain tumours or for follow up of patients undergon e surgery / adjuvant chemotherapy.

  13. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects outcome. Successful outcome after radiotherapy requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the selected target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance dose is not exceeded. For many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full prescription dose to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs, which is usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. This course will cover important concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation, and biologically effective dose (BED). Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, size and anatomical locations will be given. Note: I will incorporate examples of interesting, difficult and unusual cases from other practices as time permits, provided slides and descriptive materials are sent to me in advance of the course

  14. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  15. Thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy and chemotherapy of brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Livesey, E A; Brook, C G

    1989-01-01

    We investigated thyroid function in 119 survivors of treatment for brain tumours not involving the hypothalamo-pituitary region. Cranial irradiation did not effect thyroid function but 11 of 47 children (23%) who had spinal irradiation had raised concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone. Chemotherapy further increased the incidence of thyroid dysfunction: two of four patients who had cranial irradiation and chemotherapy and 20 of 29 patients (69%) who had spinal irradiation and chemother...

  16. Behavioural and psychological outcomes in children treated for brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, C.

    2007-01-01

    There is a sparcity of literature examining the outcomes of those treated for childhood brain tumours using surgery-only. Although several areas of significant long-term problems have been identified, such as deficits in executive functions and raised levels of behavioural and psychological problems, research so far has failed to consistently identify factors that predict outcomes. This makes it very difficult to make recommendations about how to lessen the impact of these cognitive, behaviou...

  17. Atypical Teratoid/Rrhabdoid Tumour of Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sidhu,P.Sakhuja,V.Malhotra,R.Gondal S.Kumar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET / medulloblastoma (MB are the most commonmalignantcentral nervous tumors of the first decade of life. Atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor (ATT / RT isa tumor of infancy and childhood although occasional cases have also been described in adults.ATT/RT has a characteristic histopathological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural features.ATT /RT is a rare tumor, incidence of which remains to be defined with only hundred publishedcases. The present report docurilents the clinical features, histological and immunohistochemicalfindings of a case ofATT / RT.

  18. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in the INTEROCC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C; Benke, Geza; Bowman, Joseph D; Figuerola, Jordi; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Kincl, Laurel; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF) is a suspected risk factor for brain tumours, however the literature is inconsistent. Few studies have assessed whether ELF in different time windows of exposure may be associated with specific histologic types of brain tumours. This study examines the association between ELF and brain tumours in the large-scale INTEROCC study. Methods Cases of adult primary glioma and meningioma were recruited in seven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, United Kingdom) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of mean workday ELF exposure based on a job exposure matrix assigned. Estimates of cumulative exposure, average exposure, maximum exposure, and exposure duration were calculated for the lifetime, and 1–4, 5–9, and 10+ years prior to the diagnosis/reference date. Results There were 3,761 included brain tumour cases (1,939 glioma, 1,822 meningioma) and 5,404 population controls. There was no association between lifetime cumulative ELF exposure and glioma or meningioma risk. However, there were positive associations between cumulative ELF 1–4 years prior to the diagnosis/reference date and glioma (odds ratio (OR) ≥ 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–2.07, p < 0.0001 linear trend), and, somewhat weaker associations with meningioma (OR ≥ 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.23, 95% CI 0.97–1.57, p = 0.02 linear trend). Conclusions Results showed positive associations between ELF in the recent past and glioma. Impact Occupational ELF exposure may play a role in the later stages (promotion and progression) of brain tumourigenesis. PMID:24935666

  19. In situ and in vitro profiling of brain tumour initiating cells of high-grade gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Leidgens, Verena Jeannine

    2016-01-01

    High-grade gliomas, especially glioblastomas, are highly complex and heterogeneous primary brain tumours. Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers with poor overall survival prognosis. Fast and widespread invasion of the brain parenchyma by a subpopulation of progenitor tumour cells is a main pathophysiological feature of these tumours. Invasion renders localised therapies ineffective and is a primary cause of tumour recurrence as well as associated morbidity. Identification o...

  20. Alterations of monocarboxylate transporter densities during hypoxia in brain and breast tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chang; Edin, Nina F Jeppesen; Lauritzen, Knut H;

    2012-01-01

    Tumour cells are characterized by aerobic glycolysis, which provides biomass for tumour proliferation and leads to extracellular acidification through efflux of lactate via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Deficient and spasm-prone tumour vasculature causes variable hypoxia, which favours tum...... tumour cell survival and metastases. Brain metastases frequently occur in patients with advanced breast cancer.Effective treatment strategies are therefore needed against brain metastasis from breast carcinoma....

  1. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in brain tumours: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parallel to the rapid development of clinical MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS) has, after starting as an analytical tool used in chemistry and physics, evolved to a noninvasive clinical examination. Most common neuroradiological diagnostic indications for MRS are functional inborn errors, neonatal hypoxia, ischaemia, metabolic diseases, white matter and degenerative diseases, epilepsy, inflammation, infections and intracranial neoplasm. Compared to CT and MRI, well-established morphological diagnostic tools, MRS provides information on the metabolic state of brain tissue. We review the clinical impact of MRS in diagnosis of tumours and their differentiation from non-neoplastic lesions. (orig.)

  2. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Brain Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for brain tumours is based on data from 9 randomized trials and 1 meta-analysis. Moreover, data from 2 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 4 other articles were used. In total, 19 scientific articles are included, involving 4,266 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 11,252 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized as follows: The conclusion from SBU 129/2 that curative treatment is not available for patients with high-grade malignant glioma (grade III and IV) is still valid. The survival benefit from postoperative radiotherapy compared to supportive care only or chemotherapy is about 3-4 months, as demonstrated in earlier randomized studies. Quality of life is now currently estimated and considered to be of major importance when reporting the outcome of treatment for patients with brain tumours. There is no scientific evidence that radiotherapy using hyper- and hypofractionation leads to longer survival for patients with high-grade malignant glioma than conventional radiotherapy. There is large documentation, but only one randomized study. There is some documentation to support the view that patients with grade IV glioma and poor prognosis can be treated with hypofractionation and with an outcome similar to that after conventional fractionation. A shorter treatment time should be convenient for the patient. Documentation of the benefit of a radiotherapy boost with brachytherapy is limited and no conclusion can be drawn. There is no scientific evidence that radiotherapy prolongs life for patients with low-grade glioma. There are some data supporting that radiotherapy can be used to treat symptoms in

  3. CS-16THE eEF2 KINASE IS CRITICAL FOR BRAIN TUMOURS ADAPTATION TO METABOLIC STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leprivier, Gabriel; Remke, Marc; Rotblat, Barak; Agnihotri, Sameer; Kool, Marcel; Derry, Brent; Pfister, Stefan; Taylor, Michael D.; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2014-01-01

    During tumour progression, brain tumour cells are exposed to metabolic stress, such as nutrient deprivation, due to abnormal tumour vasculature. The ability of tumour cells to respond and manage reduced nutrient availability has a strong impact on tumour outcome. The molecular pathways supporting metabolic adaptation of brain tumour cells to nutrient stress represent potential therapeutic targets which are still not well defined. We report that the translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinas...

  4. The use of PET in evaluating patients with primary brain tumours: is it useful?

    OpenAIRE

    Olivero, W C; Dulebohn, S C; Lister, J R

    1995-01-01

    During an 18 month period 39 patients were evaluated with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET) for primary brain tumours. These included patients with suspected newly diagnosed tumours and patients with known tumours who were being evaluated for possible recurrence or increasing tumour grade. Scans were performed on a 951-31 Siemen's PET scanner with 4 mm resolution. Scanning time was about 20 minutes per patient. All patients had undergone recent cerebral MRI. These patients were divided i...

  5. Clinical applications of proton MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Bulakbasi, Nail

    2004-01-01

    There are few but important problems in magnetic resonance (MR) diagnosis of the brain tumours such as predicting the grade, exact definition of the tumour borders, differentiation of the cystic tumours from abscess, the tumoral core from peritumoral oedema, and the tumour recurrence from radiation necrosis. MR spectroscopy (MRS) can add more information to MR imaging (MRI) in solving many of these problems. Widespread usage of faster MRS applications with higher signal‒to‒noise ratio (SNR) a...

  6. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of {sup 201}TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse (Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per {sup 201}TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl<2.5 have been conservatively managed because of slow tumour growth. The other two pts have Tl>3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid {sup 201}TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid {sup 201}TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, {sup 201}TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited

  7. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of 201TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per 201TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid 201TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid 201TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, 201TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited number of medulloblastoma and optic gliomas pts studied. Whilst promising, further patient studies and longer follow-up is

  8. Guiding intracortical brain tumour cells to an extracortical cytotoxic hydrogel using aligned polymeric nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjana; Betancur, Martha; Patel, Gaurangkumar D.; Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Mukhatyar, Vivek J.; Vakharia, Ajit; Pai, S. Balakrishna; Brahma, Barunashish; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2014-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, invasive brain tumour with a poor survival rate. Available treatments are ineffective and some tumours remain inoperable because of their size or location. The tumours are known to invade and migrate along white matter tracts and blood vessels. Here, we exploit this characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme by engineering aligned polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanofibres for tumour cells to invade and, hence, guide cells away from the primary tumour site to an extracortical location. This extracortial sink is a cyclopamine drug-conjugated, collagen-based hydrogel. When aligned PCL-nanofibre films in a PCL/polyurethane carrier conduit were inserted in the vicinity of an intracortical human U87MG glioblastoma xenograft, a significant number of human glioblastoma cells migrated along the aligned nanofibre films and underwent apoptosis in the extracortical hydrogel. Tumour volume in the brain was significantly lower following insertion of aligned nanofibre implants compared with the application of smooth fibres or no implants.

  9. Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Takebayashi, T; Varsier, N.; Kikuchi, Y; Wake, K; Taki, M; Watanabe, S; Akiba, S; Yamaguchi, N

    2008-01-01

    In a case–control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use, we used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma (322 cases in total), and with 683 individually matched controls. All maximal SAR value...

  10. Imaging and pathological features of primary malignant rhabdoid tumours of the brain and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article two cases of primary malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumour are described. In the affected children the brain and the spinal cord were the primary sites of origin of the tumour. The imaging findings are presented and the pathology discussed. Although the imaging features are non-specific, rhabdoid tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of childhood intracranial and spinal neoplasms. (orig.). With 5 figs

  11. Imaging of tuberculosis. Pt. 3. Tuberculosis as a mimicker of brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To show that intracranial tuberculosis (TB) often masquerades as brain tumour. Material and Methods: Forty-six patients with intracranial TB, who after CT at the local hospital were referred for surgery or radiotherapy of brain tumour, are presented. Sometimes the correct diagnosis was first established during surgery for tumour. Results: The differentiation between TB and gliomas, meningiomas, metastases, or lymphomas may be impossible from the clinical history and CT findings. Angiography, done in 25 of our cases, often helped by not showing the expected tumour vasculature. MR, performed in 9 patients, helped by demonstrating a layered capsule on T2-weighted images in 4 of the lesions (hypointense rim outside hyperintense rim); the centres of the lesions were of decreased, usually very mixed T2 signal intensity. Conclusion: Even in patients with findings typical of brain tumour, TB remains an important differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Radiotherapy of primary brain tumours in the region of the third ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Struikmans, H

    1990-01-01

    Patients (n = 18) with a primary brain tumour near the third ventricle and treated by radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Four different subgroups of patients, according to the histology (germ cell tumours, astrocytomas, other histologies, no histology) were separately discussed. Third ventr

  13. Accuracy of computerised tomography in diagnosis of brain tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT scan has replaced most of the invasive techniques in diagnosis of brain tumours because it can accurately demonstrate, localize and characterize the brain tumours. The objective of this study was to observe the accuracy of CT scan in the diagnosis of brain tumours in children by comparing it with histopathology. This descriptive case series was conducted at Department of Radiology, Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from March 10, 2005 to March 9, 2007 both pre and post contrast CT scan was carried out on 120 patients referred to Radiology Department for CT scan suspected of having brain tumours. Data of CT findings/diagnosis of patients having brain tumours were collected on a proforma. Histopathology of specimen from operation or biopsy was carried out and compared with the CT scan diagnosis. Glial tumours comprised the largest category 68 (56.67%). Medulloblastoma was 23 (19.16%) Craniopharyngioma 8 (6.63%) and Ependymoma were 6 (5.0%) each. Hemangioblastoma 2 (1.67%), Choroid plexus one (0.83%) adenoma and pineal tumours were 9 (3.33%) each. As regards comparison between CT and histopathology, an agreement between the two was found in 104 (86.67%) cases whereas in 16 (13.33%) of the cases, the histopathology reports were different. In case of Astrocytomas 63 (92.64%) were confirmed on histopathology and 5 (7.36%) was reported differently. In Medulloblastomas 19 (82.60%) were accurately diagnosed on CT scan. Sensitivity of CT scan in diagnosis of brain tumours in children was 93.33%. CT Scan is more accurate predictor of brain tumour yet it is not always 100% accurate. (author)

  14. DMBT1, a new member of the SRCR superfamily, on chromosome 10q25.3-26.1 is deleted in malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, J; Wiemann, S; Scheurlen, W;

    1997-01-01

    Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancer. Medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme are the most common malignant brain tumours in children and adults, respectively. In glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form, 80% of the...... tumours show loss of 10q. We have used representational difference analysis to identify a homozygous deletion at 10q25.3-26.1 in a medulloblastoma cell line and have cloned a novel gene, DMBT1, spanning this deletion. DMBT1 shows homology to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily....... Intragenic homozygous deletions has been detected in 2/20 medulloblastomas and in 9/39 glioblastomas multiformes. Lack of DMBT1 expression has been demonstrated in 4/5 brain-tumour cell lines. We suggest that DMBT1 is a putative tumour-suppressor gene implicated in the carcinogenesis of medulloblastoma and...

  15. Comparison of contrast in brightness mode and strain ultrasonography of glial brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image contrast between normal tissue and brain tumours may sometimes appear to be low in intraoperative ultrasound. Ultrasound imaging of strain is an image modality that has been recently explored for intraoperative imaging of the brain. This study aims to investigate differences in image contrast between ultrasound brightness mode (B-mode) images and ultrasound strain magnitude images of brain tumours. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data was acquired during surgery in 15 patients with glial tumours. The data were subsequently processed to provide strain magnitude images. The contrast in the B-mode images and the strain images was determined in assumed normal brain tissue and tumour tissue at selected regions of interest (ROI). Three measurements of contrast were done in the ultrasound data for each patient. The B-mode and strain contrasts measurements were compared using the paired samples t- test. The statistical analysis of a total of 45 measurements shows that the contrasts in the strain magnitude images are significantly higher than in the conventional ultrasound B-mode images (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that ultrasound strain imaging provides better discrimination between normal brain tissue and glial tumour tissue than conventional ultrasound B-mode imaging. Ultrasound imaging of tissue strain therefore holds the potential of becoming a valuable adjunct to conventional intraoperative ultrasound imaging in brain tumour surgery

  16. Imaging of rare medullary adrenal tumours in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, C A; Tang, Y Z; Coniglio, G; Sahdev, A

    2016-05-01

    Although adrenal medullary tumours are rare, they have important clinical implications. They form a heterogeneous group of tumours, ranging from benign, non-secretory, incidental masses to hormonally active tumours presenting acutely, or malignant tumours with disseminated disease and a poor prognosis. Increasingly, benign masses are incidentally detected due to the widespread use of imaging and routine medical check-ups. This review aims to illustrate the multimodality imaging appearances of rare adrenal medullary tumours, excluding the more common phaeochromocytomas, with clues to the diagnosis and to summarise relevant epidemiological and clinical data. Careful correlation of clinical presentation, hormone profile, and various imaging techniques narrow the differential diagnosis. Image-guided percutaneous adrenal biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis, allowing for conservative management in selected cases. A close collaboration between the radiologist, endocrinologist, and surgeon is of the utmost importance in the management of these tumours. PMID:26944698

  17. Structural plasticity of the adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, Fred H.

    2004-01-01

    The adult brain has long been considered stable and unchanging, except for the inevitable decline that occurs with aqinq. This view is now being challenged with clear evidence that structural changes occur in the brain throughout life, including the generation of new neurons and other brain cells, and connections between and among neurons. What is as remarkable is that the changes that occur in the adult brain are influenced by the behaviors an individual engages in, as well as the environmen...

  18. Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel C.; Li, Xin; Springer, Charles S., Jr.

    2005-05-01

    In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against γ-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 ± 2% (p-value effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as ~10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema). All three authors have contributed equally to this work.

  19. Quantitative MR imaging and spectroscopy of brain tumours: a step forward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective quantitative MR study of brain tumours was performed to show the potential of combining different MR techniques to distinguish various disease processes in routine clinical practice. Twenty-three patients with various intracranial tumours before treatment (diagnosis confirmed by a biopsy) and 59 healthy subjects were examined on a 3-T system by conventional MR imaging, 1H spectroscopic imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and T2 relaxometry. Metabolic concentrations and their ratios, T2 relaxation times and mean diffusivities were calculated and correlated on a pixel-by-pixel basis and compared to control data. Different tumour types and different localisations revealed specific patterns of correlations between metabolic concentrations and mean diffusivity or T2 relaxation times. The patterns distinguish given tissue states in the examined area: healthy tissue, tissue infiltrated by tumour, active tumour, oedema infiltrated by tumour, oedema, etc. This method is able to describe the complexity of a highly heterogeneous tissue in the tumour and its vicinity, and determines crucial parameters for tissue differentiation. A combination of different MR parameters on a pixel-by-pixel basis in individual patients enables better identification of the tumour type, direction of proliferation and assessment of the tumour extension. (orig.)

  20. To SPECT diagnose of the brain tumour with Tc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the new diagnosing methods developed, the diagnosis of brain tumours - primary and metastasis - still represents a challenge and diagnosing problem. Therefore, we tried in our study to determine the value of Tc-MIBI as a new specific radiopharmaceutical in the tumour diagnosing. The examination was carried out by injecting in bolus 370 MBq of Tc-99m-MIBI under the gamma camera to be followed by a dynamic study on a computer - 60 images in 60 seconds - and the calculation of relative perfusion in the artery phase 3T out of the generated curve. After one hour we performed the SPECT study (60 images within 360 degrees) and made a reconstruction study of all standard sections and generated a 3D picture. The examination has been performed in 9 pts with brain tumour and 10 pts with no signs of brain tumour which were directed to the scintigraphy of myocardium with MIBI. In patients with a tumour 3T was 1.15 and 2.35., i.e. raised. SPECT 3D scintigram evidenced in all patients exactly localized sharp limits of the increased accumulation. In patients without signs of brain tumour 3T was between 0.92 and 1.05 i.e. normal, SPECT 3D scintigram detected no increased accumulation in the brain region. Conclusion: The preliminary study speaks in favour of the fact that a high possibility may be expected to diagnose brain tumours with the SPECT 3D study with Tc-MIBI. (author)

  1. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of paediatric low grade brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Low grade gliomas are the commonest brain tumours in children but present in a myriad of ways, each with its own treatment challenges. Conventional MRI scans play an important role in their management but have limited ability to identify likely clinical behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a method for detecting differences between the various low grade gliomas and related tumours in children. Patients and methods: Short echo time single voxel 1H MRS at 1.5 or 3.0 T was performed prior to treatment on children with low grade brain tumours at two centres and five MR scanners, 69 cases had data which passed quality control. MRS data was processed using LCModel to give mean spectra and metabolite concentrations which were compared using T-tests, ANOVA, Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Significant differences were found in concentrations of key metabolites between glioneuronal and glial tumours (T-test p < 0.05) and between most of the individual histological subtypes of low grade gliomas. The discriminatory metabolites identified, such as choline and myoinositol, are known tumour biomarkers. In the set of pilocytic astrocytomas and unbiopsied optic pathway gliomas, significant differences (p < 0.05, ANOVA) were found in metabolite profiles of tumours depending on location and patient neurofibromatosis type 1 status. Logistic regression analyses yielded equations which could be used to assess the probability of a tumour being of a specific type. Conclusions: MRS can detect subtle differences between low grade brain tumours in children and should form part of the clinical assessment of these tumours

  2. {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of paediatric low grade brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphanidou-Vlachou, E., E-mail: eleni.orphanidou@googlemail.com [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Auer, D., E-mail: dorothee.auer@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Academic Radiology, School of Medical and Surgical Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Brundler, M.A., E-mail: marie-anne.brundler@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Davies, N.P., E-mail: nigel.davies@nhs.net [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T., E-mail: tim.jaspan@nuh.nhs.uk [Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); MacPherson, L., E-mail: Lesley.MacPherson@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Natarajan, K., E-mail: Kal.Natarajan@uhb.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-06-15

    Introduction: Low grade gliomas are the commonest brain tumours in children but present in a myriad of ways, each with its own treatment challenges. Conventional MRI scans play an important role in their management but have limited ability to identify likely clinical behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a method for detecting differences between the various low grade gliomas and related tumours in children. Patients and methods: Short echo time single voxel {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 or 3.0 T was performed prior to treatment on children with low grade brain tumours at two centres and five MR scanners, 69 cases had data which passed quality control. MRS data was processed using LCModel to give mean spectra and metabolite concentrations which were compared using T-tests, ANOVA, Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Significant differences were found in concentrations of key metabolites between glioneuronal and glial tumours (T-test p < 0.05) and between most of the individual histological subtypes of low grade gliomas. The discriminatory metabolites identified, such as choline and myoinositol, are known tumour biomarkers. In the set of pilocytic astrocytomas and unbiopsied optic pathway gliomas, significant differences (p < 0.05, ANOVA) were found in metabolite profiles of tumours depending on location and patient neurofibromatosis type 1 status. Logistic regression analyses yielded equations which could be used to assess the probability of a tumour being of a specific type. Conclusions: MRS can detect subtle differences between low grade brain tumours in children and should form part of the clinical assessment of these tumours.

  3. Early medical rehabilitation after neurosurgical treatment of malignant brain tumours in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kos Natasa; Kos Boris; Benedicic Mitja

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with malignant brain tumours is on the rise, but due to the novel treatment methods the survival rates are higher. Despite increased survival the consequences of tumour properties and treatment can have a significant negative effect on the patients’ quality of life. Providing timely and appropriate rehabilitation interventions is an important aspect of patient treatment and should be started immediately after surgery. The most important goal of rehabilitation is to prev...

  4. Motor deficits correlate with resting state motor network connectivity in patients with brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Marc L.; Mikell, Charles B; Youngerman, Brett E.; Liston, Conor; Sisti, Michael B.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Small, Scott A.; McKhann, Guy M.

    2012-01-01

    While a tumour in or abutting primary motor cortex leads to motor weakness, how tumours elsewhere in the frontal or parietal lobes affect functional connectivity in a weak patient is less clear. We hypothesized that diminished functional connectivity in a distributed network of motor centres would correlate with motor weakness in subjects with brain masses. Furthermore, we hypothesized that interhemispheric connections would be most vulnerable to subtle disruptions in functional connectivity....

  5. Dynamic characterisation of brain tumours growth from time series of nuclear magnetic resonance scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of a high grade glioblastoma of a patient undergoing radio-therapy has been analysed by considering a mathematical model which simulates the brain tumour growth within a two-dimensional domain defined by the brain and ventricles geometry. This simulated behaviour was compared with morphological data obtained from successive nuclear magnetic resonance scans of the patient. The model parameters include the proliferation rate and the diffusion coefficient of the tumour cells as well as their sensitivity to the irradiation. They were estimated using optimisation techniques to minimise the distance between simulated tumour area and scan data from different brain sections. The relevance of this quantitative estimation for the prognosis and for the consideration of additional parameters in the pre and post therapeutic evaluation of glioma is discussed. (authors). 12 refs., 2 figs

  6. Brain tumour migration and invasion. The role of in vitro model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human primary (intrinsic) brain tumours rarely metastasis to distant organs, however they do show a marked propensity for diffuse infiltrative invasion of the contiguous, normal brain tissue. This is arguably the most important biological feature of this group of - predominantly glial - neoplasms. Single neoplastic glia may migrate several millimetres, or even centimetres from the major tumour mass and there is increasing evidence that during the migratory phase these cells transiently arrest from the cell cycle therefore rendering them refractory to therapeutic radiation. Moreover, they are protected from the action of the majority of cytotoxic drugs by virtue of their investment within areas of intact blood-brain barrier. These migratory, socalled ''guerrilla'' cells later return to the division phase, under hither to unknown microenvironmental cues, to form local recurrences of the primary tumour. (author)

  7. Pituitary dysfunction in adult patients after cranial irradiation for head and nasopharyngeal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pituitary insufficiency after radiotherapy in the hypothalamic pituitary region is a well-known complication. However, endocrine assessments are not incorporated in the follow-up after cranial irradiation for head and neck tumours. Aim of the study: To evaluate pituitary function in patients cranially irradiated for non-pituitary tumours. Patients and methods: Evaluation of pituitary function in all available patients treated at our centre with cranial radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. Results: We included 80 patients. Forty patients were treated for cerebral tumours, 15 for nasopharyngeal tumours, and 25 for different tumours like meningioma or cerebral metastasis. Mean age was 47.5 (18.6–89.7) years. Mean radiation dose delivered at the pituitary region was 56.27 Gy (40.0–70.0). Pituitary insufficiency was present in 16 patients within 2 years after irradiation 23/49 patients (47%) after 5 years and 27/45 (60%) after 10 years and 31/35 patients (89%) after 15 years. Conclusion: Pituitary insufficiency is highly prevalent in adult patients treated with cranial radiotherapy for head and nasopharyngeal tumours. These prevalence rates are comparable to those observed after radiotherapy for pituitary tumours. Because hormone replacement of endocrine deficits improves quality of life and prevents potential severe complications, such as Addisonian crises, periodical evaluation of pituitary function is advocated

  8. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 31P spectroscopy of large human brain tumours at 1.5 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Achten, E;

    1988-01-01

    31P MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours is one feature of magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients with large superficial brain tumours and eight healthy volunteers were examined with 31P spectroscopy using an 8 cm surface coil for volume selection. Seven frequencies were resolved in our spe...

  9. 1-123-lodo-{alpha}-methyl tyrosine SPECT in non-parenchymal brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheja, P.; Weckesser, M.; Franzius, Ch.; Riemann, B.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany); Rickert, Ch. [Inst. of Neuropathology, Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany); Palkovic, St. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Purpose: Scintigraphy using 1-123-iodo-{alpha}-methyl tyrosine (IMT) is useful in the preoperative characterization of gliomas, in detecting recurrent glioma and in the biological re-evaluation of residual or recurrent tumours. A systematic evaluation of non-parenchymal brain tumours has not yet been performed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate IMT SPECT in the management of intracerebral metastases and lymphomas. Patients and methods: IMT uptake was analyzed in 31 patients with 28 metastases of extracerebral solid tumours and 7 cerebral lymphomas. Histology revealed high grade lymphomas, melanomas, and carcinomas of the following origin: lung, unknown primary, breast, colon, renal cell, ovary, vagina, frontal sinus. IMT uptake was quantified as ratio between maximal tumour accumulation and average uptake in the contralateral hemisphere. Results: All tumours except two renal cell and one small cell lung carcinoma metastases accumulated IMT (91%). The highest IMT uptake was found in metastasis of lung carcinoma. IMT uptake was highly variable and was similar in primary and in recurrent tumours. Conclusion: Significant accumulation of IMT is seen in the majority of tumours, so that this technique might be helpful for the management of cerebral metastases and lymphomas. (orig.)

  10. 1-123-lodo-α-methyl tyrosine SPECT in non-parenchymal brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Scintigraphy using 1-123-iodo-α-methyl tyrosine (IMT) is useful in the preoperative characterization of gliomas, in detecting recurrent glioma and in the biological re-evaluation of residual or recurrent tumours. A systematic evaluation of non-parenchymal brain tumours has not yet been performed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate IMT SPECT in the management of intracerebral metastases and lymphomas. Patients and methods: IMT uptake was analyzed in 31 patients with 28 metastases of extracerebral solid tumours and 7 cerebral lymphomas. Histology revealed high grade lymphomas, melanomas, and carcinomas of the following origin: lung, unknown primary, breast, colon, renal cell, ovary, vagina, frontal sinus. IMT uptake was quantified as ratio between maximal tumour accumulation and average uptake in the contralateral hemisphere. Results: All tumours except two renal cell and one small cell lung carcinoma metastases accumulated IMT (91%). The highest IMT uptake was found in metastasis of lung carcinoma. IMT uptake was highly variable and was similar in primary and in recurrent tumours. Conclusion: Significant accumulation of IMT is seen in the majority of tumours, so that this technique might be helpful for the management of cerebral metastases and lymphomas. (orig.)

  11. Fractionated afterloading therapy in inoperable malignant tumours of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of the method of afterloading the range of uses for fractionated interstitial brady-therapy could be broadened to include malignant cerebral tumours. The mean survival time of 33 female patients was calculated to be 8.3 months for the entire group and 11.3 months for cases not otherwise pretreated. Even though the age, tumour volume, target dose and Karnofsky index obviously tended to influence the survival time, such relationships could not be confirmed statistically. Using the method by Kaplan-Meier it was determined that 65% of the total study group were likely to survive beyond six months and 32% to survive for one year. A separate analysis of patients receiving no previous treatment showed these chances to be 75% and 44%, respectively. The advantages of this therapy are discussed on a comparative basis. (VHE)

  12. Preclinical studies for increasing radiation response of malignant brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant gliomas are the most common among the CNS cancers. Standard treatment for these tumours - comprises of surgery, followed by Radiotherapy (RT). Combination of Temozolomide (TMZ) increases survival, but hematological toxicities are also increased as compared to RT alone. The median survival depends on grade and location of tumour, as well as the age of the patient. Grade IV gliomas (GSMs) are third leading cause of cancer induced death in the age group of 15 to 34 years. Therefore, it is important to carry out further preclinical studies to develop more effective treatment of malignant gliomas. The present studies were carried out on different established malignant glioma cell lines. (U373MG) as well as primary monolayer cultures derived from biopsies obtained from patients with malignant gliomas. Exponentially growing cells were exposed to TMZ, Lonidamine (LND) (in 0.1% DMSO), or 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG, aqueous solution) - with or without 60Co-Gamma-rays (1- 2 Gy). The drugs were removed 4 hours after irradiation and the cultures were processed further for different assays of damage. Short term (4 h) treatments with TMZ 20 μM, LND 100 μM or their combination; did not induce micronuclei formation in the unirradiated cultures of U373MG cells. However, radiation (2 Gy) induced micronuclei was significantly increased by drug treatments. In primary cultures from different tumours, TMZ (≤ 10 μM) or 2-DG (1 mM), or gamma-irradiation (1-2 Gy) induced micronuclei and/ or apoptosis. The effects, however, varied in different tumours. These data show that clinically achievable, very low concentrations of these drugs could induce cellular damage and death; and increase radiosensitivity of malignant gliomas. Therefore, adjuvants like Lonidamine and 2-DG, with non-overlapping toxicities, could optimize treatment of malignant gliomas, by reducing the side effects of radio-chemotherapy. (author)

  13. Imaging features of primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the central nervous system is a rare neoplasm affecting children. We present a pathologically proven case, which was initially referred to the paediatric surgeons as a sebaceous cyst, and highlights the importance of imaging prior to surgery of potentially innocuous scalp lesions. Imaging features on CT and MRI are presented, which show bony involvement not previously reported in the literature. (orig.)

  14. Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against γ-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 ± 2% (p-value <0.001) was observed in the rat brain-this may account for neurological and behavioural abnormalities found in mammals drinking highly deuterated water. In addition to characterizing the pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema, this report also estimates the impact of oedema on thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as ∼10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema)

  15. Human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp65 is detected in all intra- and extra-axial brain tumours independent of the tumour type or grade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Libard

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated.

  16. MRI and CT appearances of cardiac tumours in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary cardiac tumours are rare, and metastases to the heart are much more frequent. Myxoma is the commonest benign primary tumour and sarcomas account for the majority of malignant lesions. Clinical manifestations are diverse, non-specific, and governed by the location, size, and aggressiveness. Imaging plays a central role in their evaluation, and familiarity with characteristic features is essential to generate a meaningful differential diagnosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the reference technique for evaluation of a suspected cardiac mass. Computed tomography (CT) provides complementary information and, with the advent of electrocardiographic gating, has become a powerful tool in its own right for cardiac morphological assessment. This paper reviews the MRI and CT features of primary and secondary cardiac malignancy. Important differential considerations and potential diagnostic pitfalls are also highlighted.

  17. MR-based cerebral blood volume maps as a diagnostic tool for brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today contrast enhanced MR imaging is a reliable method for detecting mostly distinguishing between different histological types of tumours. In this study we use a MR-based method to measure the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV). Using this technique we try to judge the grading and vitality of the tumours. 26 patients with various types of brain tumours were examined. To calculate rCBV-maps of one slice, low-dosed Gd-DTPA was injected as a bolus. Using the relaxation effect the obtained signal intensity-time curves were converted pixel-wise into rCBV images. For the tumours rCBV-ratios were calculated relative to the corresponding area in the contralateral hemisphere. In the investigated group all tumours were detected on the basis of a raised rCBV-ratio. Since only vital parts of the tumour are perfused, the rCBV maps may be used to determine the place of biopsy. (orig./MG)

  18. MR imaging-guided cryoablation of metastatic brain tumours: initial experience in six patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengli; Wu, Lebin; Song, Jiqing; Liu, Ming; Lv, Yubo [Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco [Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Oulu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oulu (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    The objective was to evaluate the initial experience and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transcranial cryoablation in cystic metastatic brain tumours. Seven cystic metastatic brain tumours in six patients were treated with cryoablation. The approval from the local ethics committee and individual patient consent were acquired before the study. Before the procedure the tumours were detected with conventional CT or MRI. The procedure was performed under local anaesthesia and conscious sedation. A 0.23-T open MRI system with optical tracking was used for procedural planning, instrument guidance and procedural monitoring of the ice ball formation. An MR-compatible, argon-based cryoablation system was used. The schedule of follow-up imaging ranged from 12 days to 12 months. Seven treatment sessions were performed. All the cryoprobes were successfully inserted into the target with one pass. All the patients tolerated the procedure well without experiencing any neurological deficits during the treatment phase or during the immediate post-treatment period. One patient died 12 days after cryoablation. MR-guided and monitored metastasis brain tumour cryoablation is technically feasible and may represent an alternative treatment in selected patients. (orig.)

  19. Intra-operative 3-T MRI for paediatric brain tumours: challenges and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, L.J.; Avula, S.; Hughes, G.M. [Alder Hey Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Wright, E.J. [Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Department of Anaesthesia, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mallucci, C.L. [Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    MRI is the ideal modality for imaging intracranial tumours. Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) makes it possible to obtain scans during a neurosurgical operation that can aid complete macroscopic tumour resection - a major prognostic factor in the majority of brain tumours in children. Intra-operative MRI can also help limit damage to normal brain tissue. It therefore has the potential to improve the survival of children with brain tumours and to minimise morbidity, including neurological deficits. The use of ioMRI is also likely to reduce the need for second look surgery, and may reduce the need for chemotherapy and radiotherapy. High-field MRI systems provide better anatomical information and also enable effective utilisation of advanced MRI techniques such as perfusion imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. However, high-field ioMRI facilities require substantial capital investment, and careful planning is required for optimal benefit. Safe ioMRI requires meticulous attention to detail and rigorous application of magnetic field safety precautions. Interpretation of ioMRI can be challenging and requires experience and understanding of artefacts that are common in the intra-operative setting. (orig.)

  20. Spurious leptomeningeal enhancement on immediate post-operative MRI for paediatric brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjaja, Elysa; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Gatscher, Sylvia; McMullen, John [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic section of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    Immediate post-operative MRI has been recommended as an accurate and robust method to assess residual brain tumour. Early enhancement at the resection margin and in the dura is well recognized, but we describe two cases of enhancement in the basal cisterns on immediate post-operative MRI that resolved on follow-up. The underlying cause of the enhancement remains to be elucidated, but it should be recognized that leptomeningeal enhancement may occur after surgery and that this does not necessarily imply tumour spread. (orig.)

  1. Spurious leptomeningeal enhancement on immediate post-operative MRI for paediatric brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immediate post-operative MRI has been recommended as an accurate and robust method to assess residual brain tumour. Early enhancement at the resection margin and in the dura is well recognized, but we describe two cases of enhancement in the basal cisterns on immediate post-operative MRI that resolved on follow-up. The underlying cause of the enhancement remains to be elucidated, but it should be recognized that leptomeningeal enhancement may occur after surgery and that this does not necessarily imply tumour spread. (orig.)

  2. Neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumours in a tertiary hospital in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anecdotally, increasing number of patients are seen at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) with brain tumour. Neuro-ophthalmic symptoms and signs may help in timely diagnosis and intervention. The objective of this study is to evaluate the neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumour in patients presenting at a tertiary hospital in Ghana. The study design involved a prospective case series involving 36 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with brain tumour from November 2010 to October 2011, at the Ophthalmology, Neurosurgery and Endocrine units of KBTH, Ghana. All patients had clinical diagnosis of brain tumour with confirmation by computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen patients had histological confirmation of diagnosis. The outcome measures of the study include presenting visual acuity, colour vision, visual fields and cranial nerve deficits. Data of 36 patients were analysed. The results of the study showed that ages ranged from 3 to 69 years, mean (SD) 42.56(±16.6 years). Twenty-six (72%) were females. Tumours included pituitary adenoma (20, 55.5%), meningioma (10, 27.8%), choroid plexus tumour (1, 2.8%), medulloblastom (1, 2.8%), craniopharyngioma (1, 2.8%), haemangioblastoma (1, 2.8%), thalamic tumour (1, 2.8%) and haemangioma (1, 2.8%). Histologically confirmed tumours included pituitary adenoma (9, 69.2%), meningioma (3, 23.1%), craniopharyngioma (1, 7.7%). One patient had both a pituitary adenoma and meningioma. Blurred vision (30, 83.3%), headache (28, 77.8%) and photophobia (13, 36.1%) were predominant symptoms. Commonest neuro-ophthalmic signs were impaired colour vision (62 eyes, 88.6%), optic atrophy (26, 74.3%), unilateral or bitemporal hemianopia (15, 41.5%) and relative afferent pupillary defect (12, 34.3%). Seven (19.4%) patients were visually impaired and nine (25%) blind. Thirty-three of 72(45.8%) eyes had monocular blindness. Common neuro-ophthalmic characteristics were blurred vision

  3. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours: a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callot, Virginie [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR 6612, CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: virginie.callot@univmed.fr; Galanaud, Damien [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR 6612, CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 (France); Departement de Neuroradiologie, Hopital La Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Le Fur, Yann; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR 6612, CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-08-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is proposed in addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help in the characterization of brain tumours by detecting metabolic alterations that may be indicative of the tumour class. MRS can be routinely performed on clinical magnets, within a reasonable acquisition time and if performed under adequate conditions, MRS is reproducible and thus can be used for longitudinal follow-up of treatment. MRS can also be performed in clinical practice to guide the neurosurgeon into the most aggressive part of the lesions or to avoid unnecessary surgery, which may furthermore decrease the risk of surgical morbidity.

  4. First experience of brain tumour scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI before and after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Morphological imaging techniques like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely used to localize tumours. However, their use for prediction of histopathological diagnosis and tumour changes after treatment is difficult. Functional imaging using positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were introduced as non-invasive methods for the differentiation and evaluation of brain tumours, especially for their follow-up. The purpose of present study was to investigate the uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in case of malignant brain tumours before and after surgery. 25 patients (13 males and 12 females; age range 21-75 years; average age 48.76±17.25 years) with brain tumours were investigated. The histological diagnoses of the tumours were confirmed from surgical specimens. None of the patients had received any treatment before enrolment for the study. 99mTc-MIBI brain SPECT was performed 3.88±2.85 days before surgery and 9.88±2.24 days after surgery in all cases. SPECT scans were acquired in 64 projections over 360 deg. using a dual-head gamma camera (Siemens E.Cam) coupled with low energy collimator, 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 550 MBq 99mTc-MIBI. Data were recorded in a 64x64 matrix at a zoom factor of 1.78. SPECT images were reconstructed and analysed in the transversal, axial and coronal planes. The study results are presented in the table. Of the 25 tumors, only 19, majority glioblastoma (11) showed avid uptake in the pre- surgery scan. Tumors, II0 astrocytoma (1), oligoasrtrocytoma (1), III0 astrocytoma (3) were missed in the pre surgery scan. Comparison of pre- and postoperative images showed the reduction of 99mTc-MIBI uptake post-operatively except in one case of gliosarcoma where the uptake increased after surgery. In one case of III deg. astrocytoma the 99mTc-MIBI uptakes was observed only after the surgery. All post-operative images showed more intensive uptake in the scalp (zone of

  5. IDH1-associated primary glioblastoma in young adults displays differential patterns of tumour and vascular morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Popov

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive tumour with marked heterogeneity at the morphological level in both the tumour cells and the associated highly prominent vasculature. As we begin to develop an increased biological insight into the underlying processes driving the disease, fewer attempts have thus far been made to understand these phenotypic differences. We sought to address this by carefully assessing the morphological characteristics of both the tumour cells and the associated vasculature, relating these observations to the IDH1/MGMT status, with a particular focus on the early onset population of young adults who develop primary glioblastoma. 276 primary glioblastoma specimens were classified into their predominant cell morphological type (fibrillary, gemistocytic, giant cell, small cell, oligodendroglial, sarcomatous, and assessed for specific tumour (cellularity, necrosis, palisades and vascular features (glomeruloid structures, arcades, pericyte proliferation. IDH1 positive glioblastomas were associated with a younger age at diagnosis, better clinical outcome, prominent oligodendroglial and small cell tumour cell morphology, pallisading necrosis and glomeruloid vascular proliferation in the absence of arcade-like structures. These features widen the phenotype of IDH1 mutation-positive primary glioblastoma in young adults and provide correlative evidence for a functional role of mutant IDH1 in the differential nature of neo-angiogenesis in different subtypes of glioblastoma.

  6. Using R2* values to evaluate brain tumours on magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhenghua; Liao, Haibo; Yin, Jianhua [the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, The Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Medical Image Center, Nanchang (China); Li, Yanfang [Heze Medical College, The Department of Preventive Medicine, Shandong (China)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the usefulness of the R2* value in assessing the histopathological grade of glioma at magnetic resonance imaging and differentiating various brain tumours. Sixty-four patients with brain tumours underwent R2* mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging examinations. ANOVA was performed to analyse R2* values among four groups of glioma and among high-grade gliomas (grades III and IV), low-grade gliomas (grades I and II), meningiomas, and brain metastasis. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationships between the R2* values or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the histopathological grade of gliomas. R2* values of low- and high-grade gliomas were analysed with the receiver-operator characteristic curve. R2* values were significantly different among high-grade gliomas, low-grade gliomas, meningiomas, and brain metastasis, but not between grade I and grade II or between grade III and grade IV. The R2* value (18.73) of high-grade gliomas provided a very high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating low-grade gliomas. A strong correlation existed between the R2* value and the pathological grade of gliomas. R2* mapping is a useful sequence for determining grade of gliomas and in distinguishing benign from malignant tumours. R2* values are better than ADC for characterising gliomas. (orig.)

  7. Development of a positron probe for localization and excision of brain tumours during surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogalhas, F.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M.-A.; Lefebvre, F.; Palfi, S.; Pinot, L.; Siebert, R.; Ménard, L.

    2009-07-01

    The survival outcome of patients suffering from gliomas is directly linked to the complete surgical resection of the tumour. To help the surgeons to delineate precisely the boundaries of the tumour, we developed an intraoperative positron probe with background noise rejection capability. The probe was designed to be directly coupled to the excision tool such that detection and removal of the radiolabelled tumours could be simultaneous. The device consists of two exchangeable detection heads composed of clear and plastic scintillating fibres. Each head is coupled to an optic fibre bundle that exports the scintillating light to a photodetection and processing electronic module placed outside the operative wound. The background rejection method is based on a real-time subtraction technique. The measured probe sensitivity for 18F was 1.1 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the small head and 3.4 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the large head. The mean spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM on the detector surface. The γ-ray rejection efficiency measured by realistic brain phantom modelling of the surgical cavity was 99.4%. This phantom also demonstrated the ability of the probe to detect tumour discs as small as 5 mm in diameter (20 mg) for tumour-to-background ratios higher than 3:1 and with an acquisition time around 4 s at each scanning step. These results indicate that our detector could be a useful complement to existing techniques for the accurate excision of brain tumour tissue and more generally to improve the efficiency of radio-guided cancer surgery.

  8. Development of a positron probe for localization and excision of brain tumours during surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival outcome of patients suffering from gliomas is directly linked to the complete surgical resection of the tumour. To help the surgeons to delineate precisely the boundaries of the tumour, we developed an intraoperative positron probe with background noise rejection capability. The probe was designed to be directly coupled to the excision tool such that detection and removal of the radiolabelled tumours could be simultaneous. The device consists of two exchangeable detection heads composed of clear and plastic scintillating fibres. Each head is coupled to an optic fibre bundle that exports the scintillating light to a photodetection and processing electronic module placed outside the operative wound. The background rejection method is based on a real-time subtraction technique. The measured probe sensitivity for 18F was 1.1 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the small head and 3.4 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the large head. The mean spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM on the detector surface. The γ-ray rejection efficiency measured by realistic brain phantom modelling of the surgical cavity was 99.4%. This phantom also demonstrated the ability of the probe to detect tumour discs as small as 5 mm in diameter (20 mg) for tumour-to-background ratios higher than 3:1 and with an acquisition time around 4 s at each scanning step. These results indicate that our detector could be a useful complement to existing techniques for the accurate excision of brain tumour tissue and more generally to improve the efficiency of radio-guided cancer surgery.

  9. Image processing and quantitative assessment in computer tomography for non-surgical treatment of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the EMI computer tomographic (CT) system, EMI-1010, a series of new programmes were developed for the digital analysis of the CT images in order to make a more objective and quantitative assessment possible of two non-surgical methods of treatment of brain tumours such as irradiation and chemotherapy. Amongst the various therapeutic effects demonstrable from the CT data, a reduction of the mass effect was found to lower the average CT number, with a dilatation of the cisterns and ventricles. In contrast, an improvement in the amount of perifocal oedema increased the average CT number of the region, however the changes in CT number of the tumour itself may be variable. The separate evaluation of these factors, therefore, gives more information about the results of the treatment than a simple analysis of the histogram of the region. Circumscribed tumours are fairly well evaluated with our programme for the statistical analysis of the volume and the CT weight of tumours and the degree of contrast enhancement using histograms and subtraction scans. For the digital analysis of the ventricular system, the subarachnoid space, perifocal oedema, and irregularly shaped infiltrating tumours, our programmes for the character-image print-out and edge correction for the partial-volume effect of skull and air are much more useful than the CRT display for data extraction and geographic-pattern recognition. (Author)

  10. Mir-34a mimics are potential therapeutic agents for p53-mutated and chemo-resistant brain tumour cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Ngan Fan

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drug resistance and relapse remains a major challenge for paediatric (medulloblastoma and adult (glioblastoma brain tumour treatment. Medulloblastoma tumours and cell lines with mutations in the p53 signalling pathway have been shown to be specifically insensitive to DNA damaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of triggering cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma cells by a direct activation of pro-death signalling downstream of p53 activation. Since non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have the ability to fine tune the expression of a variety of target genes, orchestrating multiple downstream effects, we hypothesised that triggering the expression of a p53 target miRNA could induce cell death in chemo-resistant cells. Treatment with etoposide, increased miR-34a levels in a p53-dependent fashion and the level of miR-34a transcription was correlated with the cell sensitivity to etoposide. miR-34a activity was validated by measuring the expression levels of one of its well described target: the NADH dependent sirtuin1 (SIRT1. Whilst drugs directly targeting SIRT1, were potent to trigger cell death at high concentrations only, introduction of synthetic miR-34a mimics was able to induce cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. Our results show that the need of a functional p53 signaling pathway can be bypassed by direct activation of miR-34a in brain tumour cells.

  11. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intraventricular tumours of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, Carles; Aguilera, Carles [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI). Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Cos, Monica; Camins, Angels; Samitier, Alex; Castaner, Sara; Sanchez, Juan J. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI). Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Candiota, Ana P.; Delgado-Goni, Teresa [Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Unitat de Bioquimica de Biociencies, Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Mato, David [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Acebes, Juan J. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Arus, Carles [Unitat de Bioquimica de Biociencies, Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of proton MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of intraventricular tumours. Fifty-two intraventricular tumours pertaining to 16 different tumour types were derived from our database. All cases had single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy performed at TE at both 30 and 136 ms at 1.5 T. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to search for the most discriminative datapoints each tumour type. Characteristic trends were found for some groups: high Glx and Ala in meningiomas (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively), high mobile lipids in metastasis (p<0.001), high Cho in PNET (p<0.001), high mI+Gly in ependymoma (p<0.001), high NAC (p<0.01) in the absence of the normal brain parenchyma pattern in colloid cysts, and high mI/Gly and Ala in central neurocytoma. Proton MR spectroscopy provides additional metabolic information that could be useful in the diagnosis of intraventricular brain tumors. (orig.)

  12. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in the treatment patients with progressive recurrent malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.S.; Grunnet, K.; Sorensen, M.; Olsen, P.; Hasselbalch, B.; Nelausen, K.; Kosteljanetz, M.; Lassen, U.

    2009-01-01

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively determined the efficacy and safety of a combination of bevacizumab and irinotecan in a consecutive series of 52 heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours. Patients received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) and irinotecan [340 mg/m(2) for...... grade IV glioma and 32 weeks for grade III glioma. Four patients discontinued treatment because of unmanageable toxicity: cerebral haemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmia, intestinal perforation and diarrhoea, the latter resulting in death. DISCUSSION: We conclude that the combination of bevacizumab and...... irinotecan shows acceptable safety and is a clinically relevant choice of therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  13. Target volumes in radiation therapy of childhood brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric tumors have enjoyed considerable improvements for the past 30 years. This is mainly due to the extensive use of combined therapeutical modalities in which chemotherapy plays a prominent role. In many children, local treatment including radiotherapy, can nowadays be adapted in terms of target volume and dose to the 'response' to an initial course of chemotherapy almost on a case by case basis. This makes precise recommendation on local therapy highly difficult in this age group. We will concentrate in this paper on brain tumors in which chemotherapy is of limited value and radiotherapy still plays a key-role. (authors)

  14. The HealthAgents ontology: knowledge representation in a distributed decision support system for brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Miranda, Juan Crisóforo; Sáez Silvestre, Carlos; Hu, B.; Croitoru, M; Roset, R; Dupplaw, D.; Lurgi, M.; Dasmahapatra, S.; Lewis, P

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our experience of representing the knowledge behind HealthAgents (HA), a distributed decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis. Our initial motivation came from the distributed nature of the information involved in the system and has been enriched by clinicians' requirements and data access restrictions. We present in detail the steps we have taken towards building our ontology starting from knowledge acquisition to data access and reasoning. We motivate our ...

  15. The contribution of drug resistant cancer stem cells to paediatric brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies have revealed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in malignant disease. Additionally, it is proposed that these cells may survive following chemotherapy, and hence contribute to tumour relapse. A significant mechanism of drug resistance in CSCs is believed to be the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that efflux cytotoxic agents out of cells. The objective of this study was to study the existence of CSCs in a panel of primary paediatric brain tu...

  16. Treatment of brain tumours with electroporation and bleomycin in an in vivo rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Ljungvall, Magnus; Salford, Leif; Persson, Bertil R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the possibilities of prolonging the life of rats with brain tumours using electroporation only while conducting impedance scans to evaluate the rate of electroporation. During the experiments, the treated rats in the first batch had tumors grow for 14 days and were then given electroporation with 8 + 8 exponential pulses at 800 v/cm, and 15 micro-F. Three of the animals given electroporation and bleomycin and one of the animals given e...

  17. Adult Wilms' tumour: a case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda KM Srinivasa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wilms' tumor is the commonest primary malignant renal tumor in childhood. Rarely, it may present in the adult age group. Case presentation We report a 48-year-old male presenting with flank pain and haematuria. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a right renal mass measuring 11 × 10 cms, and a clinical diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma was made. Nephrectomy was performed, and a final diagnosis of adult Wilms' tumor was made based on the criteria proposed by Kilton et al. Conclusion The possibility of an adult Wilms' tumor should be considered when a patient presents with pain in the flank and a renal mass. Rarity of the tumor favors documentation in literature.

  18. Excretion of metabolites of biogenic amines in patients with irradiated brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolites of biogenic amines were determined in the 24-hour urine samples of patients submitted to surgical removal of a malignant brain tumour and subsequently to telecobalt therapy of the corresponding head region. A significant increase in the excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleasetic acid (5-HIAA), vanillinmandelic acid (VMA) as well as of free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG) during the period of irradiation was found. This increase is presumably the result of radiation induced release of their parent amines from the brain; in the case of VMA the secondary response of the peripheral sympathetic system might occur. (author)

  19. 3-O-Methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-l-DOPA and its evaluation in brain tumour imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-O-Methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-l-DOPA (OMFD) is a major metabolite of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA. Although synthesis of OFMD was primarily established to study the dopaminergic system, as it is an amino acid analogue, uptake in experimental tumours has been found. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of OMFD for brain tumour imaging and to obtain initial estimates of whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in humans. Nineteen patients with suspected or confirmed brain tumours were investigated with OMFD and dynamic brain PET, complemented by whole-body PET in seven patients. Tracer kinetics were compared for normal brain and intracerebral lesions. Tissue accumulation was quantified with standardised uptake values (SUVs). Whole-body distribution in combination with tracer kinetics from animal experiments was used for the calculation of radiation dosimetry data. On the basis of OMFD PET, viable brain tumour was suspected in 16 patients with SUVs of 3.0±0.8 and a tumour to non-tumour ratio of 1.9±0.5. Highest tumour and normal brain uptake occurred between 15 and 30 min, with a subsequent slow decrease. Late whole-body tracer distribution was uniform without specific organ accumulation. Elimination occurred via urine. The mean radiation dose to the whole body was estimated at 0.016 mSv/MBq, with the kidneys as dose-critical organ (0.033 mGy/MBq). In conclusion, OMFD enables the visualisation of brain tumours with SUVs similar to other fluorinated amino acids. The whole-body radiation exposure from OMFD is comparable to that from FDG imaging. (orig.)

  20. 3-O-Methyl-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-l-DOPA and its evaluation in brain tumour imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Bredow, J.; Hliscs, R.; Franke, W.G.; Kotzerke, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Technische Universitaet Dresden und PET Zentrum Rossendorf, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden (Germany); Burchert, W. [Institut fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, PET Zentrum Rossendorf, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Molekulare Biophysik, Radiopharmazie und Nuklearmedizin, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum Nordrhein-Westfalen, Universitaetsklinik der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Fuechtner, F.; Bergmann, R.; Johannsen, B. [Institut fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, PET Zentrum Rossendorf, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Alheit, H.D. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reiss, G.; Steinmeier, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    3-O-Methyl-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-l-DOPA (OMFD) is a major metabolite of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA. Although synthesis of OFMD was primarily established to study the dopaminergic system, as it is an amino acid analogue, uptake in experimental tumours has been found. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of OMFD for brain tumour imaging and to obtain initial estimates of whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in humans. Nineteen patients with suspected or confirmed brain tumours were investigated with OMFD and dynamic brain PET, complemented by whole-body PET in seven patients. Tracer kinetics were compared for normal brain and intracerebral lesions. Tissue accumulation was quantified with standardised uptake values (SUVs). Whole-body distribution in combination with tracer kinetics from animal experiments was used for the calculation of radiation dosimetry data. On the basis of OMFD PET, viable brain tumour was suspected in 16 patients with SUVs of 3.0{+-}0.8 and a tumour to non-tumour ratio of 1.9{+-}0.5. Highest tumour and normal brain uptake occurred between 15 and 30 min, with a subsequent slow decrease. Late whole-body tracer distribution was uniform without specific organ accumulation. Elimination occurred via urine. The mean radiation dose to the whole body was estimated at 0.016 mSv/MBq, with the kidneys as dose-critical organ (0.033 mGy/MBq). In conclusion, OMFD enables the visualisation of brain tumours with SUVs similar to other fluorinated amino acids. The whole-body radiation exposure from OMFD is comparable to that from FDG imaging. (orig.)

  1. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging increases the overall diagnostic accuracy in brain tumours: Correlation with histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Abul-Kasim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of multimodal MRI techniques, specifically perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI, and/or MR spectroscopy (MRS, in increasing the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in brain tumours.Methods: Forty-four patients with suspected brain tumours (27 (61% patients male, mean age 58±17 (mean±SD years were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were examined with conventional MR sequences, DWI, and with PWI and/or MRS. The concordance between the diagnoses obtained with multimodal MRI and with the conventional MR sequences, and the final diagnosis obtained by biopsy, was estimated. Fisher’s exact test and/or chi-square test was performed to estimate the added utility of multimodal MRI. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.Results: With multimodal MRI, the diagnosis in 41 (93% patients was the same as that obtained by biopsy, compared with 39% (17/44 patients when the readers were allowed to give one diagnostic possibility during the evaluation of the conventional MR sequences alone (p<0.001. The concordance between the diagnoses provided by evaluating the multimodal MRIs and the final diagnoses was almost perfect (κ value 0.92, 95% CI 0.82 - 1. PWI primarily helped to differentiate lymphomas from other solid tumours, whereas MRS helped to differentiate malignant glioma from metastasis. Both PWI and MRS helped in grading astrocytomas.Conclusion: Multimodal MRI increases diagnostic accuracy and should, wherever available, be performed in the work-up of brain tumours, although this entails increased examination cost and time.

  2. Three-dimensional textural features of conventional MRI improve diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetit, Ahmed E; Novak, Jan; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitits, Theodoros N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of three-dimensional texture analysis (3D TA) of conventional MR images for the classification of childhood brain tumours in a quantitative manner. The dataset comprised pre-contrast T1 - and T2-weighted MRI series obtained from 48 children diagnosed with brain tumours (medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and ependymoma). 3D and 2D TA were carried out on the images using first-, second- and higher order statistical methods. Six supervised classification algorithms were trained with the most influential 3D and 2D textural features, and their performances in the classification of tumour types, using the two feature sets, were compared. Model validation was carried out using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) approach, as well as stratified 10-fold cross-validation, in order to provide additional reassurance. McNemar's test was used to test the statistical significance of any improvements demonstrated by 3D-trained classifiers. Supervised learning models trained with 3D textural features showed improved classification performances to those trained with conventional 2D features. For instance, a neural network classifier showed 12% improvement in area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and 19% in overall classification accuracy. These improvements were statistically significant for four of the tested classifiers, as per McNemar's tests. This study shows that 3D textural features extracted from conventional T1 - and T2-weighted images can improve the diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours. Long-term benefits of accurate, yet non-invasive, diagnostic aids include a reduction in surgical procedures, improvement in surgical and therapy planning, and support of discussions with patients' families. It remains necessary, however, to extend the analysis to a multicentre cohort in order to assess the scalability of the techniques used. PMID:26256809

  3. USP11 regulates PML stability to control Notch-induced malignancy in brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Ching; Liu, Cheng-Hsin; Chung, Hsiang-Ching; Wang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Ya-Wen; Ma, Hsin-I; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Lawler, Sean E; Chen, Ruey-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein controls multiple tumour suppressive functions and is downregulated in diverse types of human cancers through incompletely characterized post-translational mechanisms. Here we identify USP11 as a PML regulator by RNAi screening. USP11 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PML, thereby counteracting the functions of PML ubiquitin ligases RNF4 and the KLHL20-Cul3 (Cullin 3)-Roc1 complex. We find that USP11 is transcriptionally repressed through a Notch/Hey1-dependent mechanism, leading to PML destabilization. In human glioma, Hey1 upregulation correlates with USP11 and PML downregulation and with high-grade malignancy. The Notch/Hey1-induced downregulation of USP11 and PML not only confers multiple malignant characteristics of aggressive glioma, including proliferation, invasiveness and tumour growth in an orthotopic mouse model, but also potentiates self-renewal, tumour-forming capacity and therapeutic resistance of patient-derived glioma-initiating cells. Our study uncovers a PML degradation mechanism through Notch/Hey1-induced repression of the PML deubiquitinase USP11 and suggests an important role for this pathway in brain tumour pathogenesis. PMID:24487962

  4. Role of diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI in distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, K.; Watanabe, N.; Nagayoshi, T.; Kanazawa, T.; Toyoshima, S.; Shimizu, M.; Seto, H. [Department of Radiology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar MRI in differentiating between brain abscess and tumour. We examined two patients with surgically confirmed pyogenic brain abscess and 18 with metastatic brain tumours or high-grade glioma, using a 1.5 T system. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of each necrotic or solid contrast-enhancing lesion was measured with two different b values (20 and 1200 s/mm{sup 2}). All capsule-stage brain abscesses (4 lesions) and zones of cerebritis (2 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as markedly high-signal areas of decreased ADC (range, 0.58-0.70 [(10-3 mm{sup 2}/s; mean, 0.63)]). All cystic or necrotic portions of brain tumours (14 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as low-signal areas of increased ADC (range, 2.20-3.20 [(10-3 mm{sup 2}/s; mean, 2.70)]). Solid, contrast-enhancing portions of brain tumours (19 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as high-signal areas of sightly decreased or increased ADC (range, 0.77-1.29 [(10-3 mm{sup 2}/s; mean, 0.94)]). Our preliminary results indicate that DW echo-planar MRI be used for distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  5. Role of diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI in distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar MRI in differentiating between brain abscess and tumour. We examined two patients with surgically confirmed pyogenic brain abscess and 18 with metastatic brain tumours or high-grade glioma, using a 1.5 T system. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of each necrotic or solid contrast-enhancing lesion was measured with two different b values (20 and 1200 s/mm2). All capsule-stage brain abscesses (4 lesions) and zones of cerebritis (2 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as markedly high-signal areas of decreased ADC (range, 0.58-0.70 [(10-3 mm2/s; mean, 0.63)]). All cystic or necrotic portions of brain tumours (14 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as low-signal areas of increased ADC (range, 2.20-3.20 [(10-3 mm2/s; mean, 2.70)]). Solid, contrast-enhancing portions of brain tumours (19 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as high-signal areas of sightly decreased or increased ADC (range, 0.77-1.29 [(10-3 mm2/s; mean, 0.94)]). Our preliminary results indicate that DW echo-planar MRI be used for distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour. (orig.) (orig.)

  6. Interstitial iridium-192 implantation for malignant brain tumours: Pt. 2. Clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, M.; McKeough, P.; Wu, A.; Kasdon, D.; Heros, D.; Chang, H.

    1989-02-01

    The treatment results of 37 patients with malignant brain neoplasms treated with a computed-tomography-guided stereotactic iridium-192 implant are reviewed. Of these, 29 patients with high-grade gliomas (20 with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), nine with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA)) received an implant as part of their initial management. The median survival was 14.5 and 15.5 months in the patients with previously untreated GBM and AA, respectively. In those patients with recurrent tumour after external-beam irradiation, durable local control over a year was achieved with implantation. Increasing the total tumour dose from 120 to 160 Gy did not improve survival or local control. Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) was used as an indicator of quality of life and was seen to decrease with a median interval of 8.5 months following treatment. No severe complications were noted in the entire group of patients treated with this implant procedure.

  7. Fast and accurate water content and T2⁎ mapping in brain tumours localised with FET-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of combined MR-PET scanners opens new opportunities for the characterisation of tumour environment. In this study, water content and relaxation properties of glioblastoma were investigated in five patients using advanced MRI. The region containing metabolically active tumour tissue was defined by simultaneously measured FET-PET uptake. The mean value of water content in tumour tissue – obtained noninvasively with high precision and accuracy for the first time – amounted to 84.5%, similar to the value for normal grey matter. Constancy of water content contrasted with a large variability of T2⁎ values in tumour tissue, qualitatively related to the magnetic inhomogeneity of tissue created by blood vessels and/or microbleeds. The quantitative MRI protocol takes 71/2 min of measurement time and is proposed for extended clinical use. -- Highlights: • Quantitative MRI and simultaneous FET-PET used for the study of brain tumours. • Quantitative water content and T2⁎ of the brain are reported in five glioblastoma patients. • The qMRI method achieves whole brain coverage in 71/2 min. • Water content in normal appearing tissue as well as tumour is constant within 1% for each class. • T2⁎ is highly variable within tumour volume and from patient to patient

  8. Pre- and post-operative values of serum CRP in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the concentration of C-reactive protein in pre- and post-operative serum samples of brain tumour patients in order to detect the potential risks of post-operative infections. Methods: Serum C-reactive protein was measured on pre- and post-operative Day 1, Day 2 and Day 7 in 18 patients who underwent surgery for brain tumours. The study was performed at the Neurosurgical Ward, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2007 to April 2008. Mean pre-operative patients and control values were compared using Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon tests for comparing between pre- and post-operative values. P-value was considered significant at 5.0mg/L but no statistically significant difference was found when compared with healthy controls, with mean 4.4+-6.6 and 0.9+-0.7, respectively. Significantly raised serum concentrations were observed in all post-operative samples when compared with pre-operative samples. Serum CRP concentrations significantly increased post-operatively on Day 1, with mean value of 102.9+-82.0mg/L (p<0.0005), and further increased on Day 2 with mean value of 166.9+-128.1mg/L (p<0.0005), but declined on Day 7, with mean value of 42.7+-63.6mg/L (p<0.005). Conclusion: Pre-operative serum C-reactive protein concentrations of 28% of the patients were elevated, suggesting an association with brain tumours. Post-operative serum concentrations were significantly higher than those noted before the surgery. Absence of a fall of concentration from peak value on post-operative Day 2 or a secondary rise from post-operative Day 7 could be alarming for inter-current infection. (author)

  9. Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case–control study with incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Denis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first case–control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case–control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case–control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted.

  10. The biological behaviour of technetium complexes with particular reference to brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic radionuclide complexes and in particular technetium compounds have long been the reagents of choice for the detection of brain tumours. Despite their lack of tumour specificity detection rates in the region of 80% can be routinely achieved. The most widely-used reagent to date has been sodium pertechnetate but recently a number of other technetium complexes such as DTPA, citrate and glucoheptonate with a more rapid blood clearance and better tumour to blood ratios than pertechnetate have been proposed as alternatives. All of these reagents are anionic complexes of reduced technetium which do not bind to any extent to plasma proteins or to enzymes. They do, however, satisfy the requirements of the ionic model proposed by Van der Pompe which has been outlined in the previous chapter. In the study reported here a number of technetium complexes, citrate, glucoheptonate and n-acetyl cysteine have been compared with pertechnetate with regard to their uptake in a transplantable rhabdomyosarcoma in the rat. The results obtained have then been used to provide a possible explanation for observed differences in clinical performance between these reagents. (Auth.)

  11. Prognostic implications of p53 protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 labelling in brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaros, E.; Perry, R H; Adam, L.; Kelly, P J; Crawford, P. J.; Kalbag, R M; Mendelow, A D; Sengupta, R P; Pearson, A D

    1992-01-01

    The expression of p53 protein, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and Ki-67 nuclear antigen was examined by immunohistochemistry in biopsies of 16 types of human brain tumours, including 43 astrocytomas. P53 protein, almost certainly its mutant form, was expressed in seven of the 16, and EGFR in 11 of the 16 types of tumours. In astrocytomas both the proportion of tumours which expressed p53 or EGFR increased with grade of malignancy as did the mean Ki-67 labelling index (LI): p53-0% in...

  12. Experimental evidence for sex-specific plasticity in adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Herczeg, Gábor; Gonda, Abigél; Balázs, Gergely; Noreikiene, Kristina; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain regions during early ontogeny is known from many vertebrate taxa, but less is known about plasticity in the brains of adults. In contrast to mammals and birds, most parts of a fish’s brain continue to undergo neurogenesis throughout adulthood, making lifelong plasticity in brain size possible. We tested whether maturing adult three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) reared in a stimulus-poor environment exhibited br...

  13. Modification of cellular radiosensitivity by the extracellular concentration of hydrogen ions - a possible explanation of the radiation resistance of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain tumours show a much higher local relapse frequency than other tumours after radiologic treatment. Influences of the extracellular environment on the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells were examined in vitro. The results indicate that the low pH-value in the tumour might contribute to the radiation resistence. (orig.)

  14. Combined therapy of irradiation and drug treatment in primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combinations of radiation - drug regimes in malignant brain tumours are not generally established. The reasons for their limited clinical use are due to the selective permeability of the blood/brain barrier to cytostatic drugs and the increased risk of acute and late effects by altered pathophysiology. Therefore, the effects of combined modality of radio- and chemotherapy in malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system such as malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas should be studied only in randomized trials. In spite of promising experimental results effective radiosensitizing agents are not available for clinical use. The biological response modifiers (Interferons, TNF, IL-2) are now introduced for clinical evaluations, but preliminary results postpone the hope for improvement the therapeutical results to following drug generations. (orig.)

  15. Low temperature magnetic analysis in the identification of iron compounds from human brain tumour tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brem, F [Institute of Geophysics, ETH-Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Hirt, A M [Institute of Geophysics, ETH-Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Simon, C [Neurology/EEG, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Wieser, H-G [Neurology/EEG, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Dobson, J [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 7QB, (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    In the brain, iron plays an important role, but also is potentially toxic if iron metabolism is disrupted. Excess iron accumulation in the brain has been shown to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, identification of iron compounds in human tissue is difficult because concentrations are very low. Three types of magnetic methods were used to characterize iron compounds in tumour tissue from epileptic patients. Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM) was measured at 77 K and 300 K and reveals a low-coercivity phase with the properties of magnetite or maghemite. Induced magnetization was measured between 2 K and 300 K after cooling in zero-field and in a 50 mT field. These curves reveal an average blocking temperature of 11 K, which is compatible with ferritin. The results of this study show that the combination of different magnetic methods provides a useful and sensitive tool for the characterisation of magnetic iron compounds in human tissue.

  16. Spectrum of Side Effects of Anticonvulsants in Patients with Brain Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benit CP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are a common manifestation in patients with brain tumours, and most patients need anticonvulsants. Apart from seizure control, the risk of side effects makes the proper choice of anticonvulsants a major concern. Toxicities not only exist as common side effects, but also appear as drug-drug interactions, neurotoxicities, and other organ dysfunctions. One reason for interactions is the use of the classical anti-epileptic drugs (AED, phenobarbital (PB, phenytoin (PHT, and carbamazepine (CBZ. Large differences in dose regimens with concomitant chemotherapy reflect the potency of these effects. Although valproic acid (VPA can be beneficial to prevent tumour growth, it may lead to bone marrow suppression and other toxicities because of its enzyme-inhibiting properties. Another noteworthy side effect are skin reactions, like erythema multiforme, which occasionally develops during radiation. Although this side effect is rare, it can be life-threatening. Many anti-epileptic drugs can have extra toxic effects with existing organ dysfunction, like bone-marrow suppression or liver abnormalities, this applies particularly for PB, PHT, CBZ, and VPA. Existing clinical or subclinical signs of brain damage secondary to space-occupying tumoural effects or the sequelae of previous neurosurgery, radio-, and chemotherapy enhance the chances of neurotoxicity. Besides, the intake of anticonvulsants itself and their total number strongly contribute to cognitive dysfunction. As neurocognitive decline interferes with quality of life, such changes may substantially affect daily activities of patients and their family members. The multitude of co-therapies applied with brain tumours contributes to a myriad of side effects that are almost impossible to unravel, as drugs and other therapies used can have aggravating or counteracting effects on each other. Knowledge of individual anticonvulsants and anticipation of toxicity including the recognition of already

  17. Metastatic disease of the brain: extra-axial metastases (skull, dura, leptomeningeal) and tumour spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroldi, Roberto; Ambrosi, Claudia; Farina, Davide [University of Brescia, Department of Radiology, Brescia, BS (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    Extra-axial intracranial metastases may arise through several situations. Hematogenous spread to the meninges is the most frequent cause. Direct extension from contiguous extra-cranial neoplasms, secondary invasion of the meninges by calvarium and skull base metastases, and migration along perineural or perivascular structures are less common. Leptomeningeal invasion gives rise to tumour cell dissemination by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), eventually leading to neoplastic coating of brain surfaces. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is complementary to CSF examinations and can be invaluable, detecting up to 50% of false-negative lumbar punctures. MR findings range from diffuse linear leptomeningeal enhancement to multiple enhancing extra-axial nodules, obstructive communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus. Both calvarial and epidural metastases infrequently transgress the dura, which acts as a barrier against tumour spread. Radionuclide bone studies are still a valuable screening test to detect bone metastases. With computed tomography (CT) and MR, bone metastases extending intracranially and primary dural metastases show the characteristic biconvex shape, usually associated with brain displacement away from the inner table. Although CT is better in detecting skull base erosion, MR is more sensitive and provides more detailed information about dural involvement. Perineural and perivascular spread from head and neck neoplasms require thin-section contrast-enhanced MR. (orig.)

  18. Metastatic disease of the brain: extra-axial metastases (skull, dura, leptomeningeal) and tumour spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extra-axial intracranial metastases may arise through several situations. Hematogenous spread to the meninges is the most frequent cause. Direct extension from contiguous extra-cranial neoplasms, secondary invasion of the meninges by calvarium and skull base metastases, and migration along perineural or perivascular structures are less common. Leptomeningeal invasion gives rise to tumour cell dissemination by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), eventually leading to neoplastic coating of brain surfaces. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is complementary to CSF examinations and can be invaluable, detecting up to 50% of false-negative lumbar punctures. MR findings range from diffuse linear leptomeningeal enhancement to multiple enhancing extra-axial nodules, obstructive communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus. Both calvarial and epidural metastases infrequently transgress the dura, which acts as a barrier against tumour spread. Radionuclide bone studies are still a valuable screening test to detect bone metastases. With computed tomography (CT) and MR, bone metastases extending intracranially and primary dural metastases show the characteristic biconvex shape, usually associated with brain displacement away from the inner table. Although CT is better in detecting skull base erosion, MR is more sensitive and provides more detailed information about dural involvement. Perineural and perivascular spread from head and neck neoplasms require thin-section contrast-enhanced MR. (orig.)

  19. Study Design for a Case Control Investigation of Cellular Telephones and Other Risk Factors for Brain Tumors in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aetiology of brain tumours is poorly understood. Due, in part, to public concern about a postulated relationship between the use of cellular telephones or other increasingly prevalent environmental exposures and the incidence of brain cancer in adults, the National Cancer Institute is collaborating with three US hospitals in a comprehensive case control study of malignant and benign brain tumours. Factors under consideration include use of cellular phones and other wireless communication devices, workplace exposures to chemical agents and electromagnetic fields, dietary factors, family history of tumours, genetic determinants of susceptibility, home appliance use, reproductive history and hormonal exposures, viruses, medical and dental exposure to ionising radiation, and other aspects of medical history. Approximately 800 newly diagnosed brain tumour cases and 800 controls were enrolled at hospitals in Boston, Phoenix and Pittsburgh from 1994 to 1998. Cases include all adults (age ≥ 18 y) newly diagnosed with a histologically confirmed intracranial glioma, histologically confirmed intracranial meningioma or acoustic neuroma. Controls are patients admitted to the same hospitals as the cases, and treated for any of a variety of non-malignant conditions. Key features of the study include its large size, the emphasis on rapid ascertainment of incident cases and interview of study subjects rather than surrogate respondents, the use of detailed, job-specific questions developed by industrial hygienists to ascertain occupational exposures, and the storage of blood samples for future evaluation of inherited susceptibility, biomarkers of exposure and gene environment interactions. (author)

  20. Study Design for a Case Control Investigation of Cellular Telephones and Other Risk Factors for Brain Tumors in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inskip, P.D.; Hatch, E.E.; Stewart, P.A.; Heineman, E.F.; Ziegler, R.G.; Dosemeci, M.; Parry, D.; Rothman, N.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wilcosky, T.C.; Watson, D.J.; Shapiro, W.R.; Selker, R.G.; Fine, H.A.; Black, P. McL.; Loeffler, J.S.; Linet, M.S

    1999-07-01

    The aetiology of brain tumours is poorly understood. Due, in part, to public concern about a postulated relationship between the use of cellular telephones or other increasingly prevalent environmental exposures and the incidence of brain cancer in adults, the National Cancer Institute is collaborating with three US hospitals in a comprehensive case control study of malignant and benign brain tumours. Factors under consideration include use of cellular phones and other wireless communication devices, workplace exposures to chemical agents and electromagnetic fields, dietary factors, family history of tumours, genetic determinants of susceptibility, home appliance use, reproductive history and hormonal exposures, viruses, medical and dental exposure to ionising radiation, and other aspects of medical history. Approximately 800 newly diagnosed brain tumour cases and 800 controls were enrolled at hospitals in Boston, Phoenix and Pittsburgh from 1994 to 1998. Cases include all adults (age {>=} 18 y) newly diagnosed with a histologically confirmed intracranial glioma, histologically confirmed intracranial meningioma or acoustic neuroma. Controls are patients admitted to the same hospitals as the cases, and treated for any of a variety of non-malignant conditions. Key features of the study include its large size, the emphasis on rapid ascertainment of incident cases and interview of study subjects rather than surrogate respondents, the use of detailed, job-specific questions developed by industrial hygienists to ascertain occupational exposures, and the storage of blood samples for future evaluation of inherited susceptibility, biomarkers of exposure and gene environment interactions. (author)

  1. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M.; Inscoe, Christy R.; Hadsell, Michael J.; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.

  2. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors. (paper)

  3. Unusual clustering of brain tumours in a family with NF1 and variable expression of cutaneous features

    OpenAIRE

    Faravelli, F.; Upadhyaya, M; Osborn, M.; Huson, S; Hayward, R.; Winter, R.

    1999-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the commonest autosomal dominant disorders in man. It is characterised by café au lait spots, peripheral neurofibromas, Lisch nodules, axillary freckling, skeletal dysplasia, and optic glioma. Symptomatic brain tumours occur in 1.5-2.2% of patients with NF1. We report here a family where seven members developed brain tumours. Of these, three have a clinical history strongly suggestive of NF1, while two do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for the disorder...

  4. Detection of comorbidities and synchronous primary tumours via thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography and their influence on treatment outcome in dogs with soft tissue sarcomas, primary brain tumours and intranasal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigio Marcello, A; Gieger, T L; Jiménez, D A; Granger, L Abbigail

    2015-12-01

    Canine soft tissue sarcomas (STS), primary brain tumours and intranasal tumours are commonly treated with radiotherapy (RT). Given the low metastatic potential of these tumours, recommendations regarding imaging tests as staging are variable among institutions. The purpose of our study was to describe thoracic radiographic and abdominal ultrasonographic findings in dogs with these neoplasms and to investigate association of abnormal findings with alterations in recommended treatment. Medical records from 101 dogs, each having thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound performed as part of their staging, were reviewed. In 98 of 101 (97%), imaging abnormalities were detected, 27% of which were further investigated with fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy. Nine percent of the detected abnormalities were considered serious comorbidities that altered treatment recommendations, including 3 (3%) which were confirmed as synchronous primary neoplasms. These findings may influence recommendations regarding the decision to perform thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound prior to initiation of RT. PMID:23968175

  5. Apoptosis induced in vivo by photodynamic therapy in normal brain and intracranial tumour tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilge, L; Portnoy, M; Wilson, B C

    2000-10-01

    The apoptotic response of normal brain and intracranial VX2 tumour following photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by 5 different photosensitizers (Photofrin, 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), chloroaluminium phthalocyanine (AlCIPc), Tin Ethyl Etiopurpurin (SnET(2)), and meta -tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m THPC)) was evaluated following a previous analysis which investigated the necrotic tissue response to PDT at 24 h post treatment. Free DNA ends, produced by internucleosomal DNA cleavage in apoptotic cells, were stained using a TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assay. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to quantify the local incidence of apoptosis and determine its spatial distribution throughout the brain. The incidence of apoptosis was confirmed by histopathology, which demonstrated cell shrinkage, pyknosis and karyorrhexis. At 24 h post PDT, AlClPc did not cause any detectable apoptosis, while the other photosensitizers produced varying numbers of apoptotic cells near the region of coagulative necrosis. The apoptotic response did not appear to be related to photosensitizer dose. These results suggest that at this time point, a minimal and fairly localized apoptotic effect is produced in brain tissues, the extent of which depends largely on the particular photosensitizer. PMID:10993661

  6. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of an open low-field magnetic resonance simulator for radiotherapy treatment planning of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.H.; Laursen, F.J.; Logager, V.;

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is superior to computed tomography (CT) in radiotherapy of brain tumours. In this study an open low-field MR-simulator is evaluated in order to eliminate the cost of and time spent on additional CT scanning. Materials and methods: Eleven...

  7. Intra-arterial and intra-venous chemotherapy combined with radiation in the treatment of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigations were undertaken to study the effect of combining different modalities of chemotherapy with radiation in post-operative treatment of brain tumours. The conclusions and clinical implication of the investigations are as follows: The combination of combined intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by radiation leads to an increased median survival with more long term survivors in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas and in patients older than 40 years with astrocytomas. In patients with glioblastoma multiforme, this modality of treatment do not improve median survival, but an increased number of long-term survivors may be seen. Patients younger than 40 years with astrocytomas do not benefit from this modality of treatment. A parallelism exists between sensitivity to chemotherapy and response to radiotherapy. Patients who will benefit from the treatment may be selected early, normally two months after treatment start. Combining intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation does not lead to an increased incidence of adverse CNS reactions. Specific transient abnormalities in the brain may occur during the first year after treatment and may be misinterpreted as tumour recurrence. EEG may be valuable in predicting adverse CNS reactions following treatment. Nuclear brain scan may be of valuable in selecting the patients who are in danger of developing adverse CNS reactions. Intra-arterial chemotherapy does have an effect in patients with brain tumours who have recurrent tumour after radiation. The most important prognostic factors are age, corticosteroid dependency at treatment start, performance status, histology and frontal lobe location. 103 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Evolution of growth hormone neurosecretory disturbance after cranial irradiation for childhood brain tumours: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the aetiopathology of post-irradiation growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we performed a mixed longitudinal analysis of 56 24 h serum GH concentration profiles and 45 paired insulin-induced hypoglycaemia tests (ITT) in 35 prepubertal children, aged 1.5-11.8 years, with brain tumours in the posterior foss (n = 25) or cerebral hemispheres (n 10). Assessments were made before (n = 16), 1 year (n = 25) and 2 to 5 years (n = 15) after a cranial irradiation (DXR) dose of at least 30 Gy. Fourier transforms, occupancy percentage, first-order derivatives (FOD) and mean concentrations were determined from the GH profiles taken after neurosurgery but before radiotherapy (n = 16) and in three treatment groups: Group 1: neurosurgery only without DXR 9n 9); Group 2: ≥ 30 Gy DXR only (n = 22); Group 3: ≥ 30 Gy DXR with additional chemotherapy (n = 9). Results were compared with those from 26 short normally growing (SN) children. (author)

  9. 5-Amino-4-oxopentanoic acid photodynamic diagnosis guided microsurgery and photodynamic therapy on VX2 brain tumour implanted in a rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hong; LIAO Qiong; CHENG Ming; LI Fei; XIE Bing; LI Mei; FENG Hua

    2009-01-01

    Background Complete tumour resection is important for improving the prognosis of brain tumour patients. However,extensive resection remains controversial because the tumour margin is difficult to be distinguished from surrounding brain tissue. It has been established that 5-amino-4-oxopentanoic acid (5-aminolevulinic acid, ALA) can be used as a photodynamic diagnostic marker and a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in surgical treatment of brain tumours. We investigated the efficacy of ALA photodynamically guided microsurgery and photodynamic therapy on VX2 brain tumour implanted in a rabbit model.Methods Eighty New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 brain tumours were randomly assigned to five groups: control, conventional white light microsurgery, a photodynamic therapy group, a photodynamically guided microsurgery group and a group in which guided microsurgery was followed by photodynamic therapy. The VX2 tumour was resected under a surgical microscope. The tumour resection was confirmed with histological analysis. All animals were examined with MRI for presence of any residual tumour tissue. The survival time of each rabbit was recorded.Results All treatment groups showed a significantly extended survival time compared with the control group.Photodynamically guided microsurgery combined with photodynamic therapy significantly prolonged survival time, compared with guided microsurgery alone. MRI and the autopsy results confirmed removal of most of the tumours.Conclusions Our results suggest that photodynamically guided surgery and photodynamic therapy significantly reduce or delay local recurrence, increase the effectiveness of radical resection and prolong the survival time of tumour bearing rabbits, Their combination has the potential to be used as a rapid and highly effective treatment of metastatic brain tumours.

  10. P17.35GEINO-10: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL MULTICENTER STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH INTRA-AXIAL BRAIN TUMOURS AND THEIR THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT IN SPANISH HOSPITALS

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Gil, M.J.; Sepúlveda, J.M.; Vieitez, J.M. (J. M.); Peñas, R. de las; Fernández-Pérez, I.; Pérez-Segura, P.; Fuster, P.; Martinez-García, M.; Quintanar, T.; del Barco, S.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Primitive brain tumours (BT) represent 2% of adult malignancies. BT patients are treated by different clinical specialists in Spanish hospitals. This means that we did not know with certainty how these patients are treated in Spain. To improve this knowledge the Neuro-Oncology Investigation Spanish Group (GEINO) designed this prospective observational multicenter study. OBJECTIVE: Describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and therapeutic management of intra-axial BT...

  11. From Child to Young Adult, the Brain Changes Its Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Kaustubh Supekar; Mark Musen; Vinod Menon

    2009-01-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at th...

  12. Experience-Dependent Neural Plasticity in the Adult Damaged Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Abigail L.; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Jones, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral experience is at work modifying the structure and function of the brain throughout the lifespan, but it has a particularly dramatic influence after brain injury. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of experience in reorganizing the adult damaged brain, with a focus on findings from rodent stroke models of chronic upper…

  13. Challenges in providing culturally-competent care to patients with metastatic brain tumours and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Lianne; Slater, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Being diagnosed with a metastatic brain tumour can be devastating as it is characterized by very low cure rates, as well as significant morbidity and mortality. Given the poor life expectancy and progressive disability that ensues, patients and family members experience much turmoil, which includes losses that bring about changes to family roles, routines and relationships. Crisis and conflict are common during such major disruptions to a family system, as individual members attempt to make sense of the illness experience based on cultural and spiritual beliefs, past experiences and personal philosophies. It is imperative health care providers strive towards increased awareness and knowledge of how culture affects the overall experience of illness and death in order to help create a mutually satisfactory care plan. Providing culturally-competent care entails the use of proper communication skills to facilitate the exploration of patient and family perspectives and allows for mutual decision making. A case study will illustrate the challenges encountered in providing culturally-competent care to a woman with brain cancer and her family. As the patient's health declined, the family entered into a state of crisis where communication between family members and health care professionals was strained; leading to conflict and sub-optimal outcomes. This paper will address the ethical dilemma of providing culturally-competent care when a patient's safety is at risk, and the nursing implications of upholding best practices in the context of differing beliefs and priorities. PMID:25265763

  14. Pathology of spontaneous tumour lesions in pullets and adult chickens in commercial farms - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-09-01

    Twenty pullets and adult chickens, aged 100 to 403 days, from several commercial chicken farms were examined by gross and histopathology. Grossly, all chickens had white-greyish masses in the visceral organs with or without enlargement of the peripheral nerves. Histopathological examination revealed Marek's disease (MD) lymphoma, lymphoid leukosis (LL) and myeloid leukosis (ML) in 14/20, 5/20 and 1/20 of the chickens, respectively. Lesions of the sciatic nerves in chickens diagnosed as having MD lymphoma were various. No neoplastic and/or inflammatory cells were noted in the peripheral nerves of chickens diagnosed as having LL and ML. These results indicated that MD lymphoma could also develop in older chickens; thus, microscopic examination is needed to identify MD in older chickens showing lymphocyte-derived tumours. PMID:22903077

  15. Increasing Rates of Brain Tumours in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Causes of Death Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Hardell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency emissions in the frequency range 30 kHz–300 GHz were evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e., “possibly”, carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC at WHO in May 2011. The Swedish Cancer Register has not shown increasing incidence of brain tumours in recent years and has been used to dismiss epidemiological evidence on a risk. In this study we used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR and Causes of Death Register (CDR to further study the incidence comparing with the Cancer Register data for the time period 1998–2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In the IPR we found a joinpoint in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC +4.25%, 95% CI +1.98, +6.57% during 2007–2013 for tumours of unknown type in the brain or CNS. In the CDR joinpoint regression found one joinpoint in 2008 with APC during 2008–2013 +22.60%, 95% CI +9.68, +37.03%. These tumour diagnoses would be based on clinical examination, mainly CT and/or MRI, but without histopathology or cytology. No statistically significant increasing incidence was found in the Swedish Cancer Register during these years. We postulate that a large part of brain tumours of unknown type are never reported to the Cancer Register. Furthermore, the frequency of diagnosis based on autopsy has declined substantially due to a general decline of autopsies in Sweden adding further to missing cases. We conclude that the Swedish Cancer Register is not reliable to be used to dismiss results in epidemiological studies on the use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk.

  16. Profiling of Sox4-dependent transcriptome in skin links tumour suppression and adult stem cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Foronda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells (ASCs reside in specific niches in a quiescent state in adult mammals. Upon specific cues they become activated and respond by self-renewing and differentiating into newly generated specialised cells that ensure appropriate tissue fitness. ASC quiescence also serves as a tumour suppression mechanism by hampering cellular transformation and expansion (White AC et al., 2014. Some genes restricted to early embryonic development and adult stem cell niches are often potent modulators of stem cell quiescence, and derailed expression of these is commonly associated to cancer (Vervoort SJ et al., 2013. Among them, it has been shown that recommissioned Sox4 expression facilitates proliferation, survival and migration of malignant cells. By generating a conditional Knockout mouse model in stratified epithelia (Sox4cKO mice, we demonstrated a delayed plucking-induced Anagen in the absence of Sox4. Skin global transcriptome analysis revealed a prominent defect in the induction of transcriptional networks that control hair follicle stem cell (HFSC activation such as those regulated by Wnt/Ctnnb1, Shh, Myc or Sox9, cell cycle and DNA damage response-associated pathways. Besides, Sox4cKO mice are resistant to skin carcinogenesis, thus linking Sox4 to both normal and pathological HFSC activation (Foronda M et al., 2014. Here we provide additional details on the analysis of Sox4-regulated transcriptome in Telogen and Anagen skin. The raw and processed microarray data is deposited in GEO under GSE58155.

  17. Profiling of Sox4-dependent transcriptome in skin links tumour suppression and adult stem cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Miguel; Morgado-Palacin, Lucia; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Domínguez, Orlando; Pisano, David G; Blasco, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) reside in specific niches in a quiescent state in adult mammals. Upon specific cues they become activated and respond by self-renewing and differentiating into newly generated specialised cells that ensure appropriate tissue fitness. ASC quiescence also serves as a tumour suppression mechanism by hampering cellular transformation and expansion (White AC et al., 2014). Some genes restricted to early embryonic development and adult stem cell niches are often potent modulators of stem cell quiescence, and derailed expression of these is commonly associated to cancer (Vervoort SJ et al., 2013). Among them, it has been shown that recommissioned Sox4 expression facilitates proliferation, survival and migration of malignant cells. By generating a conditional Knockout mouse model in stratified epithelia (Sox4 (cKO) mice), we demonstrated a delayed plucking-induced Anagen in the absence of Sox4. Skin global transcriptome analysis revealed a prominent defect in the induction of transcriptional networks that control hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) activation such as those regulated by Wnt/Ctnnb1, Shh, Myc or Sox9, cell cycle and DNA damage response-associated pathways. Besides, Sox4 (cKO) mice are resistant to skin carcinogenesis, thus linking Sox4 to both normal and pathological HFSC activation (Foronda M et al., 2014). Here we provide additional details on the analysis of Sox4-regulated transcriptome in Telogen and Anagen skin. The raw and processed microarray data is deposited in GEO under GSE58155. PMID:26697322

  18. Expression pattern of clinically relevant markers in paediatric germ cell- and sex-cord stromal tumours is similar to adult testicular tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Christiane Hammershaimb; Svingen, Terje; Nielsen, John Erik;

    2014-01-01

    , elaborate on clinical-pathological associations and better understand their developmental divergence. The tumours were screened for expression of stemness-related factors (OCT4, AP-2γ, SOX2), classical yolk sac tumours (YSTs; AFP, SALL4), GCTs (HCG, PLAP, PDPN/D2-40), as well as markers for sex-cord stromal...... tumour (PDPN, GATA4). All YSTs expressed AFP and SALL4, with GATA4 present in 13/14. The majority of teratomas expressed SOX2 and PDPN, whereas SALL4 was found in 8/13 immature teratomas. Adult seminoma markers AP-2γ, OCT4, SALL4 and PDPN were all expressed in dysgerminoma. We further report a previously...... unrecognised pathogenetic relationship between AFP and SALL4 in YST in that different populations of YST cells express either SALL4 or AFP, which suggests variable differentiation status. We also show that AP-2γ is expressed in the granulosa layer of ovarian follicles and weakly expressed in immature but not...

  19. Uptake of amino acids in brain tumours using positron emission tomography as an indicator for assessing metabolic activity and malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis and post-therapeutic follow-up of tumour patients necessitates morphological and particularly functional imaging methods. For the latter approach positron emission tomography has proven a valid tool for the measurement of perfusion, of energy consumption parameters such as oxygen extraction, glucose metabolism and amino acid uptake. However, neither perfusion nor energy consumption parameters have yielded unambiguous information on the clinical status of various tumours in respect of their malignancy and their growth status. It is shown in this paper that amino acid uptake seems to be a valid measure for the functional activity of tumour tissue for a broad range of neoplasms. The uptake of 11C-L-Methionine was measured in 33 patients having various brain tumours, and was compared with 6 patients who had an infarction, and with 8 patients suffering from arachnoidal cysts. The amino acid uptake correlated well with the histological grading of the tumours and the clinical status of the patient. The uptake was well differentiated against metabolically inactive lesions. Parallel investigations on the uptake mechanisms of amino acids in an animal model have shown that transport phenomena regulate the uptake rather than protein synthesis rates. However, protein synthesis may nevertheless exercise a control function on the transport process. (orig.)

  20. Tumours and tumourous diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book on tumours and tumourous diseases comprises two parts: 1. Bone tumours and tumourous lesions. 2. Soft tissue tumours and tumourous lesions. Details are presented on pathology, diagnosis, conservative and perioperative therapy, surgical therapy, complications after resection, indicators for amputation, recommendations for follow-up treatment, radiotherapy, radionuclide therapy, alternative therapies, therapy concepts in case of metastases, tissue engineering and plastic surgery. (uke)

  1. Mild traumatic brain injuries in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is the commonest form of TBI. Though the name implies, it may not be mild in certain cases. There is a lot of heterogeneity in nomenclature, classification, evaluation and outcome of mTBI. We have reviewed the relevant articles on mTBI in adults, particularly its definition, evaluation and outcome, published in the last decade. The aspects of mTBI like pediatric age group, sports concussion, and postconcussion syndrome were not reviewed. There is general agreement that Glasgow coma score (GCS of 13 should not be considered as mTBI as the risk of intracranial lesion is higher than in patients with GCS 14-15. All patients with GCS of <15 should be evaluated with a computed tomography (CT scan. Patients with GCS 15 and risk factors or neurological symptoms should also be evaluated with CT scan. The outcome of mTBI depends on the combination of preinjury, injury and postinjury factors. Overall outcome of mTBI is good with mortality around 0.1% and disability around 10%.

  2. The HealthAgents Ontology: How to Represent the Knowledge behind a Brain Tumour Distributed Decision System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bo; Croitoru, Madalina; Roset, Roman; David, Dupplaw; Miguel, Lurgi; Srinandan, Dasmahapatra; Lewis, Paul; Martinez-Miranda, Juan; Saez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our experience of representing the knowledge behind HealthAgents, a distributed decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis. Our initial motivation came from the distributed nature of the information involved in the system and has been enriched by clinicians' requirements and data access restrictions. We present in detail the steps we have taken towards building our ontology starting from knowledge acquisition to data access and reasoning. We motivate our repre...

  3. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic crit...

  4. A study of patients with a primary malignant brain tumour and their carers: symptoms and access to services.

    OpenAIRE

    Arber, A; Faithfull, S; Plaskota, M; Lucas, C.; De Vries, K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the symptom experience, access to supportive care services and rehabilitation of patients with a primary malignant brain tumour (PMBT) and their carers. Methods A case review of 70 patients with a diagnosis of PMBT who received palliative care in five specialist palliative care units between July 2005 and June 2006. The review examined patient’s symptom experience, care issues, access to rehabilitation and access to supportive care services....

  5. Long-term therapy related side effect on endocrine system among survivor with paediatric brain tumour and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Shu-wing, Sophia; 陳舒穎

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and brain tumours are frequently seen in childhood malignancies. With the improved effectiveness of treatments, approximately 70–80% patients can be cured of their primary illness. However, therapy-related long-term sequelae among survivors are becoming a major concern. Traditional treatments include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, and these have been shown to have prolonged side effects on the endocrine system, and symptoms may develop mon...

  6. Growth and growth hormone secretion in children following treatment of brain tumours with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the growth of 144 children after treatment of brain tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. All had cranial irradiation and 87 spinal irradiation. In 56 patients observed without intervention for 3 years, height SDS in the cranial (CR) group (n=20) declined from 0.02 to -0.44 and in the craniospinal (CS) group (n=36) from -0.28 to -1.11. Failure of spinal growth had a marked effect in the CS group. The onset of puberty was slightly but not significantly advanced; median ages at onset of puberty were 10.3 years in girls and 12.1 years in boys. Of the total group 86.4% had clinical and biochemical evidence of growth hormone insufficiency. Fifty-two children, 33 (28 CS; 5 CR) of whome were prepubertal, received biosynthetic human growth hormone, in a dose of 15 mU/m2/week by daily injection for a period of one year. Height velocity SDS increased significantly in both groups from -2.74 to +1.90 (CS) and from -1.0 to +4.26 (CR). Spinal response to GH treatment was restricted in the craniospinal group. (authors)

  7. Influence of X-rays on early response gene expression in rat astrocytes and brain tumour cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrdoljak, E.; Borchardt, P.E.; Bill, C.A.; Stephens, L.C.; Tofilon, P.J. [Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels were determined in cultures of rat perinatal type 1 astrocytes and two rat brain tumour cell lines, 175A and 9L. In astrocyte cultures X-ray doses as low as 1 Gy induced the expression of c-fos and jun-B but had essentially no effect on c-jun. The maximum increase in expression was found 1 h after irradiation, which then rapidly returned to control levels. These findings suggest that astrocytes may play a role in mediating the radiation response of the central nervous system via X-ray-induced changes in gene expression. In contrast, doses of up to 20 Gy had no effect on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels in the two brain tumour cell lines. In addition, whereas 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced the expression of these genes in astrocytes, it had little or no effect on fos or jun expression in 9L or 175A cells. These results suggest that the signal transduction pathways mediating radiation-induced genes expression may be different in normal astrocytes and brain tumour cells. (author).

  8. Influence of X-rays on early response gene expression in rat astrocytes and brain tumour cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing radiation on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels were determined in cultures of rat perinatal type 1 astrocytes and two rat brain tumour cell lines, 175A and 9L. In astrocyte cultures X-ray doses as low as 1 Gy induced the expression of c-fos and jun-B but had essentially no effect on c-jun. The maximum increase in expression was found 1 h after irradiation, which then rapidly returned to control levels. These findings suggest that astrocytes may play a role in mediating the radiation response of the central nervous system via X-ray-induced changes in gene expression. In contrast, doses of up to 20 Gy had no effect on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels in the two brain tumour cell lines. In addition, whereas 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced the expression of these genes in astrocytes, it had little or no effect on fos or jun expression in 9L or 175A cells. These results suggest that the signal transduction pathways mediating radiation-induced genes expression may be different in normal astrocytes and brain tumour cells. (author)

  9. Regulation and function of neurogenesis in the adult vertebrate brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendez-Otero R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most adult tissues retain a reservoir of self-renewing, multipotent stem cells that can generate differentiated tissue components. Until recently, the brain was thought to be an exception to this rule and for many years the pervasive dogma of neurobiology relegated neurogenesis to the embryonic and earlier postnatal stages of development. The discovery of constant neuronal replacement in the adult brain has changed the way we think about neurological diseases and about the exploration of new strategies for brain repair. In this review we will explore the potential of adult neural stem cells and we will present some of our own work on this subject. We will also discuss the possibility that adult neurogenesis and neuronal replacement may also play a role in therapies aimed at restoring impaired brain function. A better understanding of the various aspects of spontaneous neuronal replacement may also be used to increase the success of procedures with cell therapies.

  10. Ncut在颅脑 MRI肿瘤提取中的应用研究%ON APPLYING NORMALISED CUT TO BRAIN MRI TUMOUR EXTRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋广军; 赵春兰

    2013-01-01

    颅脑肿瘤自身边缘包含重要的病变信息,提取脑肿瘤区域,对脑部疾病的诊断和治疗具有重要意义。 Ncut ( Normalized Cut)是基于图理的典型分割方法。将Ncut算法应用到颅脑MRI肿瘤图像的分割中,针对不同颅脑MRI肿瘤图像,进行相关参数测试,选择合适的权重及参数,进行颅脑MR肿瘤的提取。通过利用Matlab进行仿真测试可知Ncut方法能够提取出肿瘤所在的基本轮廓,取得较好效果。%The brain tumour edge contains important pathology information itself ;it has the important meaning to extract brain tumour area for brain disease diagnosis and treatment .Ncut algorithm is the typical segmentation method based on graph theory .We apply the Ncut algorithm to MRI brain tumour image segmentation , test the related parameters according to different brain MRI tumour images , and select appropriate weights and parameters to extract MR image brain tumour .Through the use of Matlab in simulation test , we know that the Ncut method can extract the basic outline of tumour and achieve good effect .

  11. In vitro growth environment produces lipidomic and electron transport chain abnormalities in mitochondria from non-tumorigenic astrocytes and brain tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas N Seyfried

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial lipidome influences ETC (electron transport chain and cellular bioenergetic efficiency. Brain tumours are largely dependent on glycolysis for energy due to defects in mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation. In the present study, we used shotgun lipidomics to compare the lipidome in highly purified mitochondria isolated from normal brain, from brain tumour tissue, from cultured tumour cells and from non-tumorigenic astrocytes. The tumours included the CT-2A astrocytoma and an EPEN (ependymoblastoma, both syngeneic with the C57BL/6J (B6 mouse strain. The mitochondrial lipidome in cultured CT-2A and EPEN tumour cells were compared with those in cultured astrocytes and in solid tumours grown in vivo. Major differences were found between normal tissue and tumour tissue and between in vivo and in vitro growth environments for the content or composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. The mitochondrial lipid abnormalities in solid tumours and in cultured cells were associated with reductions in multiple ETC activities, especially Complex I. The in vitro growth environment produced lipid and ETC abnormalities in cultured non-tumorigenic astrocytes that were similar to those associated with tumorigenicity. It appears that the culture environment obscures the boundaries of the Crabtree and the Warburg effects. These results indicate that in vitro growth environments can produce abnormalities in mitochondrial lipids and ETC activities, thus contributing to a dependency on glycolysis for ATP production.

  12. Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a “cocktail” of non-tumourous elements is a reliable, quick and easy technique for inferring methylation status in glioblastomas and other primary brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Our aim was to develop a new protocol for MGMT immunohistochemistry with good agreement between observers and good correlation with molecular genetic tests of tumour methylation. We examined 40 primary brain tumours (30 glioblastomas and 10 oligodendroglial tumours) with our new technique, namely double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a "cocktail" of non-tumour antigens (CD34, CD45 and CD68). We compared the results with single-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA, a recognised molecular genetic technique which we applied as the gold-standard for the methylation status). Results Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT produced a visual separation of tumourous and non-tumourous elements on the same histological slide, making it quick and easy to determine whether tumour cell nuclei were MGMT-positive or MGMT-negative (and thereby infer the methylation status of the tumour). We found good agreement between observers (kappa 0.76) and within observer (kappa 0.84). Furthermore, double-labelling showed good specificity (80%), sensitivity (73.33%), positive predictive value (PPV, 83.33%) and negative predictive value (NPV, 68.75%) compared to MS-MLPA. Double-labelling was quicker and easier to assess than single-labelling and it outperformed quantitative computerised image analysis of MGMT single-labelling in terms of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. Conclusions Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a cocktail of non-tumourous elements provides a "one look" method for determining whether tumour cell nuclei are MGMT-positive or MGMT-negative. This can be used to infer the methylation status of the tumour. There is good observer agreement and good specificity, sensitivity, PPV and NPV compared to a molecular gold-standard. PMID:24252243

  13. Transcriptional signature of an adult brain tumor in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loop Thomas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations and gene expression alterations in brain tumors have been extensively investigated, however the causes of brain tumorigenesis are largely unknown. Animal models are necessary to correlate altered transcriptional activity and tumor phenotype and to better understand how these alterations cause malignant growth. In order to gain insights into the in vivo transcriptional activity associated with a brain tumor, we carried out genome-wide microarray expression analyses of an adult brain tumor in Drosophila caused by homozygous mutation in the tumor suppressor gene brain tumor (brat. Results Two independent genome-wide gene expression studies using two different oligonucleotide microarray platforms were used to compare the transcriptome of adult wildtype flies with mutants displaying the adult bratk06028 mutant brain tumor. Cross-validation and stringent statistical criteria identified a core transcriptional signature of bratk06028 neoplastic tissue. We find significant expression level changes for 321 annotated genes associated with the adult neoplastic bratk06028 tissue indicating elevated and aberrant metabolic and cell cycle activity, upregulation of the basal transcriptional machinery, as well as elevated and aberrant activity of ribosome synthesis and translation control. One fifth of these genes show homology to known mammalian genes involved in cancer formation. Conclusion Our results identify for the first time the genome-wide transcriptional alterations associated with an adult brain tumor in Drosophila and reveal insights into the possible mechanisms of tumor formation caused by homozygous mutation of the translational repressor brat.

  14. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawrylycz, M.J.; Beckmann, C.F.; et al., et al.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising

  15. Brain tumour imaging with carbon-11 choline: comparison with FDG PET and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Saito, Nobuhito; Sasaki, Tomio [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Gunma University School of Medicine (Japan); Oriuchi, Noboru; Inoue, Tomio [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical potential of methyl-{sup 11}C-choline ({sup 11}C-choline) in the diagnosis of brain tumours. To this end, the results of {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) in 22 patients suspected of having brain tumours were compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET. A histopathological diagnosis was made for each patient during open surgery. The standardised uptake values of brain tumours and the tumour-to-white matter count (T/W) ratios were determined. The degree of {sup 11}C-choline accumulation noted in PET images was compared with the gadolinium-enhanced areas of MR images. The mean T/W ratio of {sup 11}C-choline in high-grade gliomas was found to be higher than that in low-grade gliomas. This difference was statistically significant (mean{+-}SD: 8.7{+-}6.2, n=9 versus 1.5{+-}0.7, n=5, P<0.03) when data pertaining to the prominent uptake of {sup 11}C-choline in a patient with a pilocytic astrocytoma were excluded. {sup 11}C-choline PET failed to detect non-neoplastic lesions in two patients. Areas of {sup 11}C-choline accumulation in PET scans were larger than areas enhanced on MR images in five cases involving high-grade gliomas. {sup 11}C-choline PET differentiated between low-grade gliomas and high-grade gliomas, but did not differentiate between low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic lesions. The combination of {sup 11}C-choline PET and MR imaging may provide investigators with an accurate means by which to identify high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  16. Brain tumour imaging with carbon-11 choline: comparison with FDG PET and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical potential of methyl-11C-choline (11C-choline) in the diagnosis of brain tumours. To this end, the results of 11C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) in 22 patients suspected of having brain tumours were compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET. A histopathological diagnosis was made for each patient during open surgery. The standardised uptake values of brain tumours and the tumour-to-white matter count (T/W) ratios were determined. The degree of 11C-choline accumulation noted in PET images was compared with the gadolinium-enhanced areas of MR images. The mean T/W ratio of 11C-choline in high-grade gliomas was found to be higher than that in low-grade gliomas. This difference was statistically significant (mean±SD: 8.7±6.2, n=9 versus 1.5±0.7, n=5, P11C-choline in a patient with a pilocytic astrocytoma were excluded. 11C-choline PET failed to detect non-neoplastic lesions in two patients. Areas of 11C-choline accumulation in PET scans were larger than areas enhanced on MR images in five cases involving high-grade gliomas. 11C-choline PET differentiated between low-grade gliomas and high-grade gliomas, but did not differentiate between low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic lesions. The combination of 11C-choline PET and MR imaging may provide investigators with an accurate means by which to identify high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  17. Experience-dependent neural plasticity in the adult damaged brain

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Abigail L.; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Jones, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral experience is at work modifying the structure and function of the brain throughout the lifespan, but it has a particularly dramatic influence after brain injury. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of experience in reorganizing the adult damaged brain, with a focus on findings from rodent stroke models of chronic upper extremity (hand and arm) impairments. A prolonged and widespread process of repair and reorganization of surviving neural circuits is instigated by in...

  18. Tumour control by whole brain irradiation of anti-VEGF-treated mice bearing intracerebral glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.C. Verhoeff; L.J.A. Stalpers; A. Claes; K.E. Hovinga; G.D. Musters; W. Vandertop; D.J. Richel; W.P.J. Leenders; W.R. van Furth

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the study: Tumour angiogenesis and invasion are key features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Angiogenesis inhibitors increase progression-free survival (PFS) of recurrent GBM patients. VEGF inhibition controls the bulk tumour growth by inhibition of angiogenesis, but does not inhibit the in

  19. Tumour control by whole brain irradiation of anti-VEGF-treated mice bearing intracerebral glioma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, J.J.; Stalpers, L.J.; Claes, A.; Hovinga, K.E.; Musters, G.D.; Top, W.P. van der; Richel, D.J.; Leenders, W.P.J.; Furth, W.R. van

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Tumour angiogenesis and invasion are key features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Angiogenesis inhibitors increase progression-free survival (PFS) of recurrent GBM patients. VEGF inhibition controls the bulk tumour growth by inhibition of angiogenesis, but does not inhibit the in

  20. Expression of FGFR3 during human testis development and in germ cell-derived tumours of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewen, Katherine A; Olesen, Inge A; Winge, Sofia B;

    2013-01-01

    development and to ascertain whether FGFR3 signalling is linked to germ cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of young adult men. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we examined 58 specimens of human testes throughout development for FGFR3...... expression, and then compared expression of FGFR3 with proliferation markers (PCNA or Ki67). We also analysed for FGFR3 expression 30 TGCTs and 28 testes containing the tumour precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fetal and adult testes expressed exclusively the FGFR3IIIc isoform. FGFR3 protein expression......Observations in patients with an activating mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) suggest a role for FGFR3 signalling in promoting proliferation or survival of germ cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the FGFR3 subtype and the ontogeny of expression during human testis...

  1. Contribution of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tumours of posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work concerns 38 posterior cranial fossa tumour cases subjected to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy between May 1974 and June 1976. 33 of these patients have undergone an anatomical check while for the remaining 5, the existence of a posterior fossa tumour is established from the conjunction of clinical signs and other paraclinical examinations. The procedure was the same for all these 38 patients: after a 300 μC/kg injection of tracer, an immediate angioscintigraphic period, an early set of pictures (half an hour after the tracer injection) then delayed set (4 to 5 hours later) taken from 4 angles: front, back and two profiles. The examination was performed with an OHIO NUCLEAR SIEMENS gamma camera and sometimes a conventional scanner as well (the latter giving no better a diagnosis than the former). In 75% of the cases a hyperfixation of the injected tracer was observed and its site located quite accurately in the posterior fossa tumour. The etiology of the lesion could be diagnosed in 'most probable' or 'least probable' terms. Examination of work by other authors, who obtained similar results, leads to the conclusion that this method is very helpful in the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumours when used as a means of early detection, before the undertaking of more complex neuroradiological explorations

  2. Diversity of Neural Precursors in the Adult Mammalian Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaguidi, Michael A; Stadel, Ryan P; Berg, Daniel A; Sun, Jiaqi; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    Aided by advances in technology, recent studies of neural precursor identity and regulation have revealed various cell types as contributors to ongoing cell genesis in the adult mammalian brain. Here, we use stem-cell biology as a framework to highlight the diversity of adult neural precursor populations and emphasize their hierarchy, organization, and plasticity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26988967

  3. Advance care planning in patients with brain tumours: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Song

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess and understand the awareness and experience of brain tumour (BT patients in discussing Advance Care Planning (ACP, to identify main symptoms experienced, physical and functional status perceived quality of life, and level of coping. Methods: A prospective cohort study with an initial open-ended questionnaire followed by semi-structured interview questions regarding ACP with 18 patients diagnosed with BT (WHO Grade I-IV, metastatic BT in hospital and community. Standardized assessments measured coping strategies, and quality of life (QoL. Interview transcripts regarding ACP discussions were analyzed, coded and interpreted using qualitative analytic techniques for thematic analyses. Results: Participants' mean age was 51 years (range 22-65 years, female (61%; median time since BT diagnosis was 1.5 years and just over half (56% had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. Fatigue was the most common symptom reported by 83% of participants. Overall, participants indicated good QoL and used more problem-focused coping strategies including ‘acceptance’ and ‘positive reframing’. Thematic analyses indicated that participants had limited awareness and understanding of ACP, variable views on appropriate timing of ACP discussions and change of decisions over illness trajectory. Most felt able to discuss ACP and preferred dedicated sessions by a trained health professional. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of providing timely information regarding ACP to BT patients during the course of their disease. Established ACP discussions have an important role in enhancing patient autonomy and to guide delivery of end-of-life care. The demonstrated low uptake of ACP in this pilot study shows need for improved awareness in clinical practice for timely ACP discussions and multifaceted interventions system-wide in implementing ACP

  4. Misdiagnosis of Child Abuse Related to Delay in Diagnosing a Paediatric Brain Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Wrennall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicting opinion regarding the relative weight that should be allocated to the investigation of organic causes of child illness, compared to the pursuit of suspicions of child abuse, has generated considerable public debate. The discourse of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy/Fabricated and Induced Illness is at the centre of contention. In particular, concern has arisen that children’s medical needs are being neglected when their conditions are misdiagnosed as child abuse. This paper documents a case study in which the use of Child Protection procedures was linked to the belief that the child’s illness had “no organic cause.” The case study is contextualised in a review of literature relevant to the diagnostic process. The deployment of the Child Protection perspective resulted in significant delay in the diagnosis of the child’s brain tumour. The child was ultimately found to be suffering from an optic chasm mass lesion involving the hypothalamus and the medial temporal regions, resulting in Diencephalic Syndrome. The evidence in this case is that erring on the side of suspecting Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy/Fabricated and Induced Illness, was not “erring on the side of the child.” Several lessons need to be learned from the case. The importance of ensuring that the Child Protection perspective does not displace adequate assessment of alternative explanations for the child’s condition is emphasised, as is the need for good communication in medical relationships. Strategies involving empathy, mediation, negotiation and conflict resolution may provide a more appropriate and therapeutic alternative to the use of Child Protection procedures in cases where the diagnosis is contentious. The need to re-write relevant policy, protocols and guidance is imperative.

  5. Potential of anti-cancer therapy based on anti-miR-155 oligonucleotides in glioma and brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; D'Urso, Pietro I; Mezzolla, Valeria; D'Urso, Oscar F

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are aberrantly expressed in many cancers and can exert tumour-suppressive or oncogenic functions. As oncomirs promote growth of cancer cells and support survival during chemotherapy, thus microRNA-silencing therapies could be a valuable approach to be associated with anticancer drugs and chemotherapy treatments. miR-155 microRNA was found overexpressed in different types of cancer, such as leukaemias (PML, B-cell lymphomas), lung cancer and glioblastoma. GABA-A receptor downregulation was found correlated with glioma grading, with decreasing levels associated with higher grade of malignancies. A relationship between knock-down of miR-155 and re-expression of GABRA 1 protein in vivo was recently individuated. This finding has implication on the effectiveness of RNA-silencing approaches against miR-155 with the scope to control proliferation and signalling pathways regulated by GABA-A receptor. Applying microRNAs for treatment of brain tumours poses several problems, and fields to be solved are mainly the passage of the brain-blood barrier and the targeted delivery to specific cell types. Glioblastoma multiforme cells bud off microvesicles that deliver cytoplasmic contents to nearby cells. Thus, the exploitation of these mechanisms to deliver antagomir therapeutics targeting microvescicles in the brain could take the lead in the near future in the treatment for brain cancers in substitution of invasive surgical intervention. PMID:22834637

  6. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  7. Cellular Telephones, Magnetic Field Exposure, Risk of Brain Tumours and Cancer at Other Sites: A Cohort Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether exposure to electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones is associated with brain tumours and cancer at other sites. Key information has been obtained on all cellular telephone subscribers in Denmark from 1 January 1982 to 31 December 1995. The overall subscriber cohort will include approximately 500,000 individuals. Collected information includes name of subscriber, address, telephone number, system used (analogue or digital), and annual use of the telephone. The name and address of the subscribers will be linked to the Central Population Register, and the personal identification number will be supplied in addition to information on vital status and migration. Finally, all members of the cohort will be linked to the Danish Cancer Registry, and the observed number of tumours will be compared with those expected on the basis of national cancer incidence rates stratified by sex, age, and calendar time. (author)

  8. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in brain tumours : The Western Australia positron emission tomography/cyclotron service experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans in the first 49 patients referred with either possible brain tumour or brain tumour recurrence were reviewed. FDG-PET imaging was reported with reference to anatomical imaging. Based on the report the FDG study was classified as either positive or negative for the presence of tumour. Thirty-eight cases were included in the analysis, 21 having pathological data and 17 with diagnostic clinical follow up. Eleven were excluded, as they had inadequate follow-up data. Of the 21 cases with pathology, 18 were shown to have tumour. In this group there were five false-negative scans and two false-positive PET scans. Seventeen cases were assessed by clinical follow up, nine were considered to have been tumour. There were two false negatives with one false positive. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 74, 73, 87 and 53% respectively. This is similar to figures previously quoted in published work. Despite relatively limited numbers, the utility of FDG PET imaging in our hands is similar to published reports. With a positive predictive value of 87%, a positive FDG study indicates a high likelihood that there is brain tumour present. A negative study does not exclude the presence of tumour

  9. Whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Local tumour control and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlke, Oliver; Wucherpfennig, David; Prokic, Vesna [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Fels, Franziska [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); St. Josefs Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenburg (Germany); Frings, Lars [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Egger, Karl [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Weyerbrock, Astrid [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-16

    Hippocampal-avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) for multiple brain metastases may prevent treatment-related cognitive decline, compared to standard WBRT. Additionally, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) on individual metastases may further improve the outcome. Here, we present initial data concerning local tumour control (LTC), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity and safety for this new irradiation technique. Twenty patients, enrolled between 2011 and 2013, were treated with HA-WBRT (30 Gy in 12 fractions, D{sub 98} {sub %} to hippocampus ≤ 9 Gy) and a SIB (51 Gy) on multiple (2-13) metastases using a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) approach based on 2-4 arcs. Metastases were evaluated bidimensionally along the two largest diameters in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighed MRI. Median follow-up was 40 weeks. The median time to progression of boosted metastases has not been reached yet, corresponding to a LTC rate of 73 %. Median intracranial PFS was 40 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year PFS of 45.3 %. Median OS was 71.5 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year OS of 60 %. No obvious acute or late toxicities grade > 2 (NCI CTCAE v4.03) were observed. D{sub mean} to the bilateral hippocampi was 6.585 Gy ± 0.847 (α/β = 2 Gy). Two patients developed a new metastasis in the area of hippocampal avoidance. HA-WBRT (simultaneous integrated protection, SIP) with SIB to metastases is a safe and tolerable regime that shows favorable LTC for patients with multiple brain metastases, while it has the potential to minimize the side-effect of cognitive deterioration. (orig.) [German] Die Hippocampus-schonende Ganzhirnbestrahlung (HS-GHB) kann im Vergleich zur Standard-GHB die Verschlechterung der neurokognitiven Funktion verhindern. Zusaetzlich vermag ein simultan integrierter Boost (SIB) auf die Metastasen die Prognose der betroffenen Patienten weiter zu verbessern. In dieser Studie praesentieren wir erste Ergebnisse

  10. INCIDENCE AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF BRAIN TUMOURS IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The incidence of intracranial [IC] tumours depends on the sources and methods used to collect the data and whether conditions such as tuberculomas, parasitic cysts and vascular malformations are included. The general consensus is that the annual incidence rate of primary intracranial neoplasm is between 10 and 12 per 100,000 and these constitute approximately 9% of all primary cancers. The presenting features of the case in the Department of Medicine which ultimately leads to the definitive diagnosis depend on the situation of the tumour. So in the present study a valiant effort has been put to help the fellow clinicians to diagnose by knowing the incidence and the common sites that the tumour presents. The aim of the study is to: 1. To establish the incidence of different types of tumours encountered in the Department of Medicine. 2. To establish the site of the tumour. Fifty patients were studied in the Department of Medicine, A. J. Shetty Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore. The surgical reference was taken and the type was confirmed by histopathology. So in the present study a valiant effort has been put to help the fellow clinicians to diagnose by knowing the incidence and the common sites that the tumour presents.

  11. Hyperthermia improves the antitumour effect of metronomic cyclophosphamide in a rat transplantable brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: As low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide (CTX) and hyperthermia (HT) both exert antitumour effects in part through antiangiogenic mechanisms, interactive effects of the two modalities were explored. Materials and methods: Subcutaneously implanted rat tumours (BT4An) were treated with CTX 35 mg/kg i.p. three doses a week for two weeks, local water-bath HT yielding mean tumour temperature of 43 oC for one hour at day 0, both modalities combined (CTX-HT0), or saline. TUNEL assays, immunohistochemical staining of thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and real time RT-PCR of TSP-1 mRNA were analysed the first three hours after completed treatment day 0. Results: Metronomic dosed CTX (p = 0.006) and HT (p 0 (41%) treated rats. TSP-1 protein was specifically upregulated in the vascular matrix of tumours receiving CTX (weak), HT (moderate) and CTX-HT0 (strong). In contrast, reduced expression of TSP-1 protein was observed in tumour cells after HT alone and CTX-HT0. TUNEL assays indicated induction of apoptosis by HT and CTX-HT0 90 minutes after end of the first treatment. Conclusion: A single session of local HT enhances the effects of low-dose metronomic CTX, possibly in part mediated through a differential effect on TSP-1 protein levels in tumour cells and tumour vasculature

  12. Histomorphological Phenotyping of the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaleva, Anna; Kannan, Meghna; Wagner, Christel; Yalcin, Binnaz

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a series of standard operating procedures for morphological phenotyping of the mouse brain using basic histology. Many histological studies of the mouse brain use qualitative approaches based on what the human eye can detect. Consequently, some phenotypic information may be missed. Here we describe a quantitative approach for the assessment of brain morphology that is simple and robust. A total of 78 measurements are made throughout the brain at specific and well-defined regions, including the cortex, the hippocampus, and the cerebellum. Experimental design and timeline considerations, including strain background effects, the importance of sectioning quality, measurement variability, and efforts to correct human errors are discussed. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584555

  13. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of intra-axial brain tumours: differentiation of high-grade gliomas from primary CNS lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) allows to quantitatively assess haemodynamic characteristics of brain tissue. We investigated if different brain tumor types can be distinguished from each other using Patlak analysis of PCT data. PCT data from 43 patients with brain tumours were analysed with a commercial implementation of the Patlak method. Four patients had low-grade glioma (WHO II), 31 patients had glioblastoma (WHO IV) and eight patients had intracerebral lymphoma. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in a morphological image and automatically transferred to maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability (K Trans). Mean values were calculated, group differences were tested using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests. In comparison with normal parenchyma, low-grade gliomas showed no significant difference of perfusion parameters (p > 0.05), whereas high-grade gliomas demonstrated significantly higher values (p Trans, p Trans values compared with unaffected cerebral parenchyma (p = 0.0078) but no elevation of CBV. High-grade gliomas show significant higher CBV values than lymphomas (p = 0.0078). PCT allows to reliably classify gliomas and lymphomas based on quantitative measurements of CBV and K Trans. (orig.)

  14. Does Inflammation after Stroke Affect the Developing Brain Differently than Adult Brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Vexler, Zinaida S.; Yenari, Midori A.

    2009-01-01

    The immature brain is prone to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and stroke. The incidence of arterial stroke in newborns is similar to that in the elderly. However, the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury is profoundly affected by age at the time of the insult. Necrosis is a dominant type of neuronal cell death in adult brain, whereas widespread neuronal apoptosis is unique for the early postnatal synaptogenesis period. The inflammatory response, in conjunction with excitotoxic and oxidative...

  15. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Klæboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Lannering, Birgitta; Röösli, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. PMID:26625087

  16. Multimodal imaging utilising integrated MR-PET for human brain tumour assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuner, Irene [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Kaffanke, Joachim B. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); MR-Transfer e.K., Wuppertal (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef; Kops, Elena Rota; Tellmann, Lutz; Stoffels, Gabriele; Weirich, Christoph; Filss, Christian; Scheins, Juergen; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); Shah, N. Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The development of integrated magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging opens up new horizons for imaging in neuro-oncology. In cerebral gliomas the definition of tumour extent may be difficult to ascertain using standard MR imaging (MRI) only. The differentiation of post-therapeutic scar tissue, tumour rests and tumour recurrence is challenging. The relationship to structures such as the pyramidal tract to the tumour mass influences the therapeutic neurosurgical approach. The diagnostic information may be enriched by sophisticated MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multiple-volume proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Metabolic imaging with PET, especially using amino acid tracers such as {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) or {sup 11}C-l-methionine (MET) will indicate tumour extent and response to treatment. The new technologies comprising MR-PET hybrid systems have the advantage of providing comprehensive answers by a one-stop-job of 40-50 min. The combined approach provides data of different modalities using the same iso-centre, resulting in optimal spatial and temporal realignment. All images are acquired exactly under the same physiological conditions. We describe the imaging protocol in detail and provide patient examples for the different imaging modalities such as FET-PET, standard structural imaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1-weighted contrast agent enhanced), DTI, MRSI and fMRI. (orig.)

  17. Multimodal imaging utilising integrated MR-PET for human brain tumour assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of integrated magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging opens up new horizons for imaging in neuro-oncology. In cerebral gliomas the definition of tumour extent may be difficult to ascertain using standard MR imaging (MRI) only. The differentiation of post-therapeutic scar tissue, tumour rests and tumour recurrence is challenging. The relationship to structures such as the pyramidal tract to the tumour mass influences the therapeutic neurosurgical approach. The diagnostic information may be enriched by sophisticated MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multiple-volume proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Metabolic imaging with PET, especially using amino acid tracers such as 18F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) or 11C-l-methionine (MET) will indicate tumour extent and response to treatment. The new technologies comprising MR-PET hybrid systems have the advantage of providing comprehensive answers by a one-stop-job of 40-50 min. The combined approach provides data of different modalities using the same iso-centre, resulting in optimal spatial and temporal realignment. All images are acquired exactly under the same physiological conditions. We describe the imaging protocol in detail and provide patient examples for the different imaging modalities such as FET-PET, standard structural imaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1-weighted contrast agent enhanced), DTI, MRSI and fMRI. (orig.)

  18. Asymmetry of the Structural Brain Connectome in Healthy Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilha, Leonardo; Nesland, Travis; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is now possible to map neural connections in vivo across the whole brain (i.e., the brain connectome). This is a promising development in neuroscience since many health and disease processes are believed to arise from the architecture of neural networks. Objective: To describe the normal range of hemispheric asymmetry in structural connectivity in healthy older adults. Materials and Methods: We obtained high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) from 17 he...

  19. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C.; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M.; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P.; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of gene...

  20. Neuronal regeneration in a zebrafish model of adult brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihito Kishimoto

    2012-03-01

    Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the adult mammalian forebrain are a potential source of neurons for neural tissue repair after brain insults such as ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI. Recent studies show that neurogenesis in the ventricular zone (VZ of the adult zebrafish telencephalon has features in common with neurogenesis in the adult mammalian SVZ. Here, we established a zebrafish model to study injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult brain. We show that the adult zebrafish brain possesses a remarkable capacity for neuronal regeneration. Telencephalon injury prompted the proliferation of neuronal precursor cells (NPCs in the VZ of the injured hemisphere, compared with in the contralateral hemisphere. The distribution of NPCs, viewed by BrdU labeling and ngn1-promoter-driven GFP, suggested that they migrated laterally and reached the injury site via the subpallium and pallium. The number of NPCs reaching the injury site significantly decreased when the fish were treated with an inhibitor of γ-secretase, a component of the Notch signaling pathway, suggesting that injury-induced neurogenesis mechanisms are at least partly conserved between fish and mammals. The injury-induced NPCs differentiated into mature neurons in the regions surrounding the injury site within a week after the injury. Most of these cells expressed T-box brain protein (Tbr1, suggesting they had adopted the normal neuronal fate in this region. These results suggest that the telencephalic VZ contributes to neural tissue recovery following telencephalic injury in the adult zebrafish, and that the adult zebrafish is a useful model for regenerative medicine.

  1. Development of neural stem cell in the adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Xin; Kang, Eunchai; Liu, Cindy Y.; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2008-01-01

    New neurons are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus and in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles throughout life. The origin of these new neurons is believed to be from multipotent adult neural stem cells. Aided by new methodologies, significant progress has been made in the characterization of neural stem cells and their development in the adult brain. Recent studies have also begun to reveal essential extrinsic and intrinsic molecular mechani...

  2. Inflammation is detrimental for neurogenesis in adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Christine T.; Claasen, Jan-Hendrik; Bonde, Sara; Kokaia, Zaal; Lindvall, Olle

    2003-11-01

    New hippocampal neurons are continuously generated in the adult brain. Here, we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, which gives rise to microglia activation in the area where the new neurons are born, strongly impairs basal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. The increased neurogenesis triggered by a brain insult is also attenuated if it is associated with microglia activation caused by tissue damage or lipopolysaccharide infusion. The impaired neurogenesis in inflammation is restored by systemic administration of minocycline, which inhibits microglia activation. Our data raise the possibility that suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis by activated microglia contributes to cognitive dysfunction in aging, dementia, epilepsy, and other conditions leading to brain inflammation.

  3. Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina; Plum, Patrick; Reinartz, Andrea; Adolf, Maximilian; Renner, Marcus; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Wagner, Norbert; Mollenhauer, Jan; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Kaemmerer E, Schneider U, Klaus C, Plum P, Reinartz A, Adolf M, Renner M, Wolfs T G A M, Kramer B W, Wagner N, Mollenhauer J & Gassler N (2012) Histopathology Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis Aims:  Deleted in malignant brain...... bacteria-related active intestinal inflammation such as appendicitis. Methods and results:  mRNA and protein levels of DMBT1 were analysed in surgical resections of 50 appendices (active inflammation: n = 25). In non-actively inflamed appendices, inter-individual differences in basal DMBT1 levels of...... enterocytes and some non-epithelial cells were found. In active appendicitis, enterocytic DMBT1 mRNA expression was increased approximately fivefold, which was paralleled by a corresponding increase of cytoplasmic and secreted DMBT1 protein levels. Increased DMBT1 expression was predominant in enterocytes...

  4. X-ray fluorescence study of the concentration of selected trace and minor elements in human brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandzilak, Aleksandra; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Radwanska, Edyta; Adamek, Dariusz; Geraki, Kalotina; Lankosz, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Neoplastic and healthy brain tissues were analysed to discern the changes in the spatial distribution and overall concentration of elements using micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. High-resolution distribution maps of minor and trace elements such as P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn made it possible to distinguish between homogeneous cancerous tissue and areas where some structures could be identified, such as blood vessels and calcifications. Concentrations of the elements in the selected homogeneous areas of brain tissue were compared between tumours with various malignancy grades and with the controls. The study showed a decrease in the average concentration of Fe, P, S and Ca in tissues with high grades of malignancy as compared to the control group, whereas the concentration of Zn in these tissues was increased. The changes in the concentration were found to be correlated with the tumour malignancy grade. The efficacy of micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish between various types of cancer based on the concentrations of studied elements was confirmed by multivariate discriminant analysis. Our analysis showed that the most important elements for tissue classification are Cu, K, Fe, Ca, and Zn. This method made it possible to correctly classify histopathological types in 99.93% of the cases used to build the model and in as much as 99.16% of new cases.

  5. Diagnostic benefits of presurgical fMRI in patients with brain tumours in the primary sensorimotor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable imaging of eloquent tumour-adjacent brain areas is necessary for planning function-preserving neurosurgery. This study evaluates the potential diagnostic benefits of presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in comparison to a detailed analysis of morphological MRI data. Standardised preoperative functional and structural neuroimaging was performed on 77 patients with rolandic mass lesions at 1.5 Tesla. The central region of both hemispheres was allocated using six morphological and three functional landmarks. fMRI enabled localisation of the motor hand area in 76/77 patients, which was significantly superior to analysis of structural MRI (confident localisation of motor hand area in 66/77 patients; p < 0.002). FMRI provided additional diagnostic information in 96% (tongue representation) and 97% (foot representation) of patients. FMRI-based presurgical risk assessment correlated in 88% with a positive postoperative clinical outcome. Routine presurgical FMRI allows for superior assessment of the spatial relationship between brain tumour and motor cortex compared with a very detailed analysis of structural 3D MRI, thus significantly facilitating the preoperative risk-benefit assessment and function-preserving surgery. The additional imaging time seems justified. FMRI has the potential to reduce postoperative morbidity and therefore hospitalisation time. (orig.)

  6. Fatigue in adults with traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Kendzerska, Tetyana; Mollayeva, Shirin;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite strong indications that fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom after traumatic brain injury, little is known about its frequency, natural history, or relation to other factors. The current protocol outlines a strategy for a systematic review that will identify......, assess, and critically appraise studies that assessed predictors for fatigue and the consequences of fatigue on at least two separate time points following traumatic brain injury. METHODS/DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, and PsycINFO will be systematically...... quality appraisal. Randomized control trial data will be treated as a cohort. The quality will be assessed using the criteria defined by Hayden and colleagues. The review will be conducted and reported in compliance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...

  7. Adult Brain Plasticity Elicited by Anomia Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Katri; Laine, Matti; Tarkiainen, Antti; Järvensivu, Tiina; Martin, Nadine; Salmelin, Riitta

    2003-01-01

    We describe a study where a specific treatment method for word-finding difficulty (so-called contextual priming technique, which combines massive repetition priming with semantic priming) was applied with three chronic left hemisphere-damaged aphasics. Both before and after treatment, which focused on naming of a series of pictures, naming-related brain activity was measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Due to its excellent temporal resolution and good spatial resolution, we were able to ...

  8. [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapy has become a third major treatment option for patients with brain tumors, in addition to surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gliomas is no longer limited to recurrent disease. Temozolomide has become the standard of care in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Several ongoing trials seek to define the role of chemotherapy in the primary care of other gliomas. Some of these studies are no longer only based on histological diagnoses, but take into consideration molecular markers such as MGMT promoter methylation and loss of genetic material on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas. In contrast, there is no established role for chemotherapy in other tumors such as ependymomas, meningiomas or neurinomas. Primary cerebral lymphomas are probably the only brain tumors which can be cured by chemotherapy alone and only by chemotherapy. The chemotherapy of brain metastases follows the recommendations for the respective primary tumors. Further, strategies of combined radiochemotherapy using mainly temozolomide or topotecan are currently explored. Leptomeningeal metastases are treated by radiotherapy or systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy depending on their pattern of growth. PMID:18253773

  9. O-(2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine and L-[methyl-{sup 11}C]methionine uptake in brain tumours: initial results of a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.A.; Wester, H.J.; Herz, M.; Dzewas, B.; Stoecklin, G.; Schwaiger, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Grosu, A.L.; Feldmann, H.J.; Molls, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    O-(2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) is a recently described amino acid analogue that has shown high accumulation in animal tumours. The aim of this study was to compare the uptake of FET with that of l-[methyl-{sup 11}C]methionine (MET) in patients with suspected primary or recurrent intracerebral tumours. Sixteen consecutive patients with intracerebral lesions were studied on the same day by positron emission tomography (PET) using MET and FET. Uptake of FET and MET was quantified by standardized uptake values. Tracer kinetics for normal brain and intracerebral lesions were compared. On the basis of the MET-PET studies, viable tumour tissue was found in 13 patients. All tumours showed rapid uptake of FET and were visualized with high contrast. Mean uptake of FET for normal grey matter, white matter and tumour tissue was 1.1{+-}0.2, 0.8{+-}0.2 and 2.7{+-}0.8 SUV, respectively. In all three tissues, uptake of MET was slightly higher (1.4{+-}0.2, 0.9{+-}0.1 and 3.3{+-}1.0 SUV; P<0.01). However, contrast between tumour and normal tissues was not significantly different between MET and FET. Uptake of FET in non-neoplastic lesions (1.0{+-}0.1 SUV) was significantly lower than in tumour tissue (P=0.007). For all lesions there was a close correlation (r=0.98) between MET and FET uptake. In conclusion, in PET studies of human brain tumours, the uptake and image contrast of FET appear to be very similar to those of MET. The specificity of FET for tumour tissue is promising but has to be addressed in a larger series of patients with non-neoplastic lesions. (orig.)

  10. DNA synthesis and cell division in the adult primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that the adult human brain is incapable of producing new neuron. Even cursory examination of neurologic, neuropathologic, or neurobiological textbooks published during the past 50 years will testify that this belief is deeply entrenched. In his classification of cell populations on the basis of their proliferative behavior, Leblond regarded neurons of the central nervous system as belonging to a category of static, nonrenewing epithelial tissue incapable of expanding or replenishing itself. This belief, however needs to re reexamined for two major reasons: First, as reviewed below, a number of reports have provided evidence of neurogenesis in adult brain of several vertebrate species. Second, the capacity for neurogenesis in the adult primate central nervous system has never been examined by modern methods. In this article the author described recent results from an extensive autoradiographic analysis performed on twelve rhesus monkeys injected with the specific DNA precursor [3H] thymidine at ages ranging from 6 postnatal months to 17 years

  11. Pedophilic brain potential responses to adult erotic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner; Impey, Danielle; Fisher, Derek; Delpero, Emily; Fedoroff, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive mechanisms associated with the relative lack of sexual interest in adults by pedophiles are poorly understood and may benefit from investigations examining how the brain processes adult erotic stimuli. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to investigate the time course of the explicit processing of erotic, emotional, and neutral pictures in 22 pedophilic patients and 22 healthy controls. Consistent with previous studies, early latency anterior ERP components were highly selective for erotic pictures. Although the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli were similar in patients and controls, an early frontal positive (P2) component starting as early as 185 ms was significantly attenuated and slow to onset in pedophilia, and correlated with a clinical measure of cognitive distortions. Failure of rapid attentional capture by erotic stimuli suggests a relative reduction in early processing in pedophilic patients which may be associated with relatively diminished sexual interest in adults. PMID:26683083

  12. The effects of exogenous growth factors on matrix metalloproteinase secretion by human brain tumour cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rooprai, H K; Rucklidge, G J; Panou, C; Pilkington, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a growing family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading various components of the extracellular matrix. These enzymes have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions including embryogenesis and tumour invasion. The synthesis of many MMPs is thought to be regulated by growth factors, cytokines and hormones. In this study, we investigated the effects of five exogenous growth factors known to be expressed...

  13. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. Current technological progress in neurosurgery and its impact on surgical treatment of glioma brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain gliomas are characterized by infiltrative growth, with possible finding of functional brain tissue within the tumor. Intraoperatively are glioma borders often indistinguishable from surrounding brain. Eloquent areas can be damaged during surgical removal of tumors near or within these areas. Therefore, in addition to preoperative identification of cortical and subcortical eloquent areas, meticulous microsurgical technique, neuro navigation, intraoperative imaging, neuro monitoring and awake surgery are necessary. Using these methods, satisfactory and safe resection of tumors previously considered as unresectable is possible. (author)

  7. Brain tumours at 7T MRI compared to 3T - contrast effect after half and full standard contrast agent dose: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie; Weber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, P.; Juras, V. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kronnerwetter, C. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, G. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurosurgery, Vienna (Austria); Nemec, S.; Prayer, D. [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ladd, M.E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Trattnig, S. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-01-15

    To compare the contrast agent effect of a full dose and half the dose of gadobenate dimeglumine in brain tumours at 7 Tesla (7T) MR versus 3 Tesla (3T). Ten patients with primary brain tumours or metastases were examined. Signal intensities were assessed in the lesion and normal brain. Tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were calculated. Additionally, two independent readers subjectively graded the image quality and artefacts. The enhanced mean tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were significantly higher at 7T than at 3T for both half the dose (91.8 ± 45.8 vs. 43.9 ± 25.3 [p = 0.010], 128.1 ± 53.7 vs. 75.5 ± 32.4 [p = 0.004]) and the full dose (129.2 ± 50.9 vs. 66.6 ± 33.1 [p = 0.002], 165.4 ± 54.2 vs. 102.6 ± 45.4 [p = 0.004]). Differences between dosages at each field strength were also significant. Lesion enhancement was higher with half the dose at 7T than with the full dose at 3T (p =.037), while the tumour-to-brain contrast was not significantly different. Subjectively, contrast enhancement, visibility, and lesion delineation were better at 7T and with the full dose. All parameters were rated as good, at the least. Half the routine contrast agent dose at 7T provided higher lesion enhancement than the full dose at 3T which indicates the possibility of dose reduction at 7T. (orig.)

  8. Brain tumours at 7T MRI compared to 3T - contrast effect after half and full standard contrast agent dose: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the contrast agent effect of a full dose and half the dose of gadobenate dimeglumine in brain tumours at 7 Tesla (7T) MR versus 3 Tesla (3T). Ten patients with primary brain tumours or metastases were examined. Signal intensities were assessed in the lesion and normal brain. Tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were calculated. Additionally, two independent readers subjectively graded the image quality and artefacts. The enhanced mean tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were significantly higher at 7T than at 3T for both half the dose (91.8 ± 45.8 vs. 43.9 ± 25.3 [p = 0.010], 128.1 ± 53.7 vs. 75.5 ± 32.4 [p = 0.004]) and the full dose (129.2 ± 50.9 vs. 66.6 ± 33.1 [p = 0.002], 165.4 ± 54.2 vs. 102.6 ± 45.4 [p = 0.004]). Differences between dosages at each field strength were also significant. Lesion enhancement was higher with half the dose at 7T than with the full dose at 3T (p =.037), while the tumour-to-brain contrast was not significantly different. Subjectively, contrast enhancement, visibility, and lesion delineation were better at 7T and with the full dose. All parameters were rated as good, at the least. Half the routine contrast agent dose at 7T provided higher lesion enhancement than the full dose at 3T which indicates the possibility of dose reduction at 7T. (orig.)

  9. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  10. In-phantom two-dimensional thermal neutron distribution for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the in-phantom thermal neutron distribution derived from neutron beams for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). Gold activation wires arranged in a cylindrical water phantom with (void-in-phantom) or without (standard phantom) a cylinder styrene form placed inside were irradiated by using the epithermal beam (ENB) and the mixed thermal-epithermal beam (TNB-1) at the Japan Research Reactor No 4. With ENB, we observed a flattened distribution of thermal neutron flux and a significantly enhanced thermal flux delivery at a depth compared with the results of using TNB-1. The thermal neutron distribution derived from both the ENB and TNB-1 was significantly improved in the void-in-phantom, and a double high dose area was formed lateral to the void. The flattened distribution in the circumference of the void was observed with the combination of ENB and the void-in-phantom. The measurement data suggest that the ENB may provide a clinical advantage in the form of an enhanced and flattened dose delivery to the marginal tissue of a post-operative cavity in which a residual and/or microscopically infiltrating tumour often occurs. The combination of the epithermal neutron beam and IOBNCT will improve the clinical results of BNCT for brain tumours. (author)

  11. Patterns of exposure to infectious diseases and social contacts in early life and risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T V; Schmidt, L S; Poulsen, A H;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases and social contacts in early life have been proposed to modulate brain tumour risk during late childhood and adolescence. METHODS: CEFALO is an interview-based case-control study in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland, including children and adolescents aged 7...

  12. A combined MRI and MRSI based multiclass system for brain tumour recognition using LS-SVMs with class probabilities and feature selection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luts, J.; Heerschap, A.; Suykens, J.A.; Huffel, S. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the use of automated pattern recognition methods on magnetic resonance data with the ultimate goal to assist clinicians in the diagnosis of brain tumours. Recently, the combined use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (M

  13. Wnts in adult brain: from synaptic plasticity to cognitive deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina A. Oliva; Vargas, Jessica Y.; Nibaldo C Inestrosa

    2013-01-01

    During development of the central nervous system the Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in a wide spectrum of physiological processes, including neuronal connectivity and synapse formation. Despite Wnt proteins and components of the Wnt pathway are expressed in the brain since early development to the adult life, little is known about its role in mature synapses. Here, we review evidences indicating that Wnt proteins participate in the remodeling of pre- and postsynaptic regions, thus ...

  14. An Improved Image Mining Technique For Brain Tumour Classification Using Efficient Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendran, P

    2010-01-01

    An improved image mining technique for brain tumor classification using pruned association rule with MARI algorithm is presented in this paper. The method proposed makes use of association rule mining technique to classify the CT scan brain images into three categories namely normal, benign and malign. It combines the low level features extracted from images and high level knowledge from specialists. The developed algorithm can assist the physicians for efficient classification with multiple keywords per image to improve the accuracy. The experimental result on prediagnosed database of brain images showed 96 percent and 93 percent sensitivity and accuracy respectively.

  15. Assessment of executive functioning in children and young adults treated for frontal lobe tumours using ecologically valid tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaud-Valès, A; Chevignard, M; Dufour, C; Grill, J; Puget, S; Sainte-Rose, C; Valteau-Couanet, D; Dellatolas, G

    2016-08-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing executive functions (EF) using ecologically valid tests in children with frontal lobe lesions. This study aimed to (1) evaluate EF in children, adolescents and young adults treated for childhood frontal lobe tumours, (2) identify factors influencing performance, such as age at diagnosis or type of treatment, and (3) examine correlations between intellectual ability and classical and ecological tests of EF. Twenty-one patients, aged 8-27 years, treated for a childhood benign or malignant frontal lobe tumour, and 42 healthy controls (matched for gender, age and socio-economic status) were assessed using classical tests of EF, and the BADS-C ecological battery. Patients also underwent assessment of intellectual ability and parent and teacher ratings of the BRIEF questionnaire. IQ scores ranged from 45 to 125 (mean FSIQ = 84) and were lower in case of epilepsy, hydrocephalus and lower parental education. Patients displayed deficits in most, but not all measures of EF. Most classical and ecological measures of EF were strongly correlated to IQ. This study confirms the frequency of EF deficits in this population; it also highlights the utility of ecological measures of EF and some limitations of classical tests of EF in children. PMID:26272265

  16. Biodegradable interstitial release polymer loading a novel small molecule targeting Axl receptor tyrosine kinase and reducing brain tumour migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, S-Y; Chen, S-R; Hsieh, J; Li, Y-S; Chuang, S-E; Chuang, H-M; Huang, M-H; Lin, S-Z; Harn, H-J; Chiou, T-W

    2016-04-28

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumour. The neoplasms are difficult to resect entirely because of their highly infiltration property and leading to the tumour edge is unclear. Gliadel wafer has been used as an intracerebral drug delivery system to eliminate the residual tumour. However, because of its local low concentration and short diffusion distance, patient survival improves non-significantly. Axl is an essential regulator in cancer metastasis and patient survival. In this study, we developed a controlled-release polyanhydride polymer loading a novel small molecule, n-butylidenephthalide (BP), which is not only increasing local drug concentration and extending its diffusion distance but also reducing tumour invasion, mediated by reducing Axl expression. First, we determined that BP inhibited the expression of Axl in a dose- and time-dependent manner and reduced the migratory and invasive capabilities of GBM cells. In addition, BP downregulated matrix metalloproteinase activity, which is involved in cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BP regulated Axl via the extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is related to epithelial cells in the invasive migratory mesenchymal cells that underlie cancer progression; we demonstrated that BP reduced the expression of EMT-related genes. Furthermore, we used the overexpression of Axl in GBM cells to prove that Axl is a crucial target in the inhibition of GBM EMT, migration and invasion. In an in vivo study, we demonstrated that BP inhibited tumour growth and suppressed Axl expression in a dose-dependent manner according to a subcutaneous tumour model. Most importantly, in an intracranial tumour model with BP wafer in situ treatment, we demonstrated that the BP wafer not only significantly increased the survival rate but also decreased Axl expression, and inhibited tumour invasion. These results contribute to the

  17. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J; Lein, Ed S; Jones, Allan R; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of genes in the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). The AGEA includes three discovery tools for examining neuroanatomical relationships and boundaries: (1) three-dimensional expression-based correlation maps, (2) a hierarchical transcriptome-based parcellation of the brain and (3) a facility to retrieve from the ABA specific genes showing enriched expression in local correlated domains. The utility of this atlas is illustrated by analysis of genetic organization in the thalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex. The AGEA is a publicly accessible online computational tool integrated with the ABA (http://mouse.brain-map.org/agea). PMID:19219037

  18. Regional genome transcriptional response of adult mouse brain to hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Aigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since normal brain function depends upon continuous oxygen delivery and short periods of hypoxia can precondition the brain against subsequent ischemia, this study examined the effects of brief hypoxia on the whole genome transcriptional response in adult mouse brain. Result Pronounced changes of gene expression occurred after 3 hours of hypoxia (8% O2 and after 1 hour of re-oxygenation in all brain regions. The hypoxia-responsive genes were predominantly up-regulated in hindbrain and predominantly down-regulated in forebrain - possibly to support hindbrain survival functions at the expense of forebrain cognitive functions. The up-regulated genes had a significant role in cell survival and involved both shared and unshared signaling pathways among different brain regions. Up-regulation of transcriptional signaling including hypoxia inducible factor, insulin growth factor (IGF, the vitamin D3 receptor/retinoid X nuclear receptor, and glucocorticoid signaling was common to many brain regions. However, many of the hypoxia-regulated target genes were specific for one or a few brain regions. Cerebellum, for example, had 1241 transcripts regulated by hypoxia only in cerebellum but not in hippocampus; and, 642 (54% had at least one hepatic nuclear receptor 4A (HNF4A binding site and 381 had at least two HNF4A binding sites in their promoters. The data point to HNF4A as a major hypoxia-responsive transcription factor in cerebellum in addition to its known role in regulating erythropoietin transcription. The genes unique to hindbrain may play critical roles in survival during hypoxia. Conclusion Differences of forebrain and hindbrain hypoxia-responsive genes may relate to suppression of forebrain cognitive functions and activation of hindbrain survival functions, which may coordinately mediate the neuroprotection afforded by hypoxia preconditioning.

  19. Localisation of motor areas in brain tumour patients: a comparison of preoperative [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET and intraoperative cortical electrostimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Meyer, P.T.; Zeggel, T.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Spetzger, U.; Gilsbach, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Assessment of the exact spatial relation between tumour and adjacent functionally relevant brain areas is a primary tool in the presurgical planning in brain tumour patients. The purpose of this study was to compare a preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) activation protocol in patients with tumours near the central area with the results of intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation, and to determine whether non-invasive preoperative PET imaging can provide results equivalent to those achieved with the invasive neurosurgical ''gold standard''. In this prospective study, we examined 20 patients with various tumours of the central area, performing two PET scans (each 30 min after i.v. injection of 134-341 MBq [{sup 18}F]FDG) in each patient: (1) a resting baseline scan and (2) an activation scan using a standardised motor task (finger tapping, foot stretching). Following PET/MRI realignment and normalisation to the whole brain counts, parametric images of the activation versus the rest study were calculated and pixels above categorical threshold values were projected to the individual MRI for bimodal assessment of morphology and function (PET/MRI overlay). Intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation was performed using a Viking IV probe (5 pulses, each of 100 {mu}s) and documented using a dedicated neuro navigation system. Results were compared with the preoperative PET findings. PET revealed significant activation of the contralateral primary motor cortex in 95% (19/20) of the brain tumour patients (hand activation 13/13, foot activation 6/7), showing a mean increase in normalised [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake of 20.5%{+-}5.2% (hand activation task) and 17.2%{+-}2.5% (foot activation task). Additionally detected activation of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex was interpreted as a metabolic indication for interhemispheric compensational processes. Evaluation of the PET findings by

  20. Localisation of motor areas in brain tumour patients: a comparison of preoperative [18F]FDG-PET and intraoperative cortical electrostimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the exact spatial relation between tumour and adjacent functionally relevant brain areas is a primary tool in the presurgical planning in brain tumour patients. The purpose of this study was to compare a preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) activation protocol in patients with tumours near the central area with the results of intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation, and to determine whether non-invasive preoperative PET imaging can provide results equivalent to those achieved with the invasive neurosurgical ''gold standard''. In this prospective study, we examined 20 patients with various tumours of the central area, performing two PET scans (each 30 min after i.v. injection of 134-341 MBq [18F]FDG) in each patient: (1) a resting baseline scan and (2) an activation scan using a standardised motor task (finger tapping, foot stretching). Following PET/MRI realignment and normalisation to the whole brain counts, parametric images of the activation versus the rest study were calculated and pixels above categorical threshold values were projected to the individual MRI for bimodal assessment of morphology and function (PET/MRI overlay). Intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation was performed using a Viking IV probe (5 pulses, each of 100 μs) and documented using a dedicated neuro navigation system. Results were compared with the preoperative PET findings. PET revealed significant activation of the contralateral primary motor cortex in 95% (19/20) of the brain tumour patients (hand activation 13/13, foot activation 6/7), showing a mean increase in normalised [18F]FDG uptake of 20.5%±5.2% (hand activation task) and 17.2%±2.5% (foot activation task). Additionally detected activation of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex was interpreted as a metabolic indication for interhemispheric compensational processes. Evaluation of the PET findings by cortical stimulation yielded a 94% sensitivity

  1. Effects of NOS inhibitor on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury in the adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLi-Sha; XuJiang-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury (DBI) in the adult rat brain. Methods Adult male SD rats were subjected to diffuse brain injury (DBI) model. By using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we compared the proliferation rate of

  2. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation. PMID:22300952

  3. WAVELET STATISTICAL TEXTURE FEATURES WITH ORTHOGONAL OPERATORS TUMOUR CLASSIFICATION IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors medically also called neoplasms are an abnormal mass of tissue resulting from uncontrolled proliferation or division of cells occurring in the human body. If such growth is located in the brain then it is called as brain tumor. Identification of such tumors is a major challenge in the field of medical science. Early identification of tumors prove to be critical as serious consequences can be averted. Its threat level depends on a combination of various factors like the type of tumor, its location, its size and its developmental stage. Tumor can occur in any part of the body. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI technique is mainly used for analyzing the brain, as the images produced are of high precision and applicability. The main objective of this study is to classify the brain MRI dataset for the existence or non existence of tumors. The proposed method uses Two Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (2D-DWT for pre-processing and further classification with orthogonal operators and SVM. The usage of 2D-DWT for pre-processing improves the classification accuracy by 2% when compared to the existing classification techniques.

  4. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  5. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings

  6. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänggi Jürgen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurophysiological and neuroanatomical foundations of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS are still a matter of dispute. A main argument is that stutterers show atypical anatomical asymmetries of speech-relevant brain areas, which possibly affect speech fluency. The major aim of this study was to determine whether adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy in cortical speech-language areas. Methods Adults with PDS (n = 10 and controls (n = 10 matched for age, sex, hand preference, and education were studied using high-resolution MRI scans. Using a new variant of the voxel-based morphometry technique (augmented VBM the brains of stutterers and non-stutterers were compared with respect to white matter (WM and grey matter (GM differences. Results We found increased WM volumes in a right-hemispheric network comprising the superior temporal gyrus (including the planum temporale, the inferior frontal gyrus (including the pars triangularis, the precentral gyrus in the vicinity of the face and mouth representation, and the anterior middle frontal gyrus. In addition, we detected a leftward WM asymmetry in the auditory cortex in non-stutterers, while stutterers showed symmetric WM volumes. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence that adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy not only in perisylvian speech and language areas but also in prefrontal and sensorimotor areas. Whether this atypical asymmetry of WM is the cause or the consequence of stuttering is still an unanswered question.

  7. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert;

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain...

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits caused by radiation in patients with brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses about the diagnosis and evaluation of brain higher functions, feature of their impairment induced by radiotherapy for brain tumor, and association of the impairment and neurogenesis in hippocampus (H). Radiation is one of important causes of cognitive impairment in patients with brain tumor: exempli gratia (e.g.) single irradiation of 2 Gy increases its risk. The impairment is usually diagnosed and evaluated with neuropsychological tests like mini-mental state examination (MMSE), authors' Ryudai version of the brief neuropsychological test battery, etc. The neurotoxicity of radiation is classified in acute effect caused by destruction of the blood brain barrier (BBB) appearing within 2 weeks after irradiation, early-late one of demyelination as a result of BBB rupture within 1-6 months after radiotherapy and late-late effect accompanying serious symptoms like necrosis of irradiated region at later than a few months to several years. Lowered neurogenic function in H and invasion of microglia cells are observed in autopsy specimen of the irradiated brain, and single X-irradiation at 5 or 10 Gy is known to result in the arrest of neurogenesis in the mouse H dentate gyrus. Lowered cognition by irradiation of H in clinical cases is particularly reported in children. Inflammatory biomarkers like cytokines are detected in the serum of irradiated patients as well as of animals. Although fMRI alone is not satisfactory to diagnose and evaluate the radiation-induced impairment, the imaging reveals the association of anatomically different regions in cognition through neural network. It has been recently shown that the impairment can be partially protected by planning the irradiation field so as to avoid H, by medication with donepezil, memantine, erythropoietin and indomethacin, and by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. (T.T.)

  9. Needs for everyday life support for brain tumour patients' relatives: systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karina; Poulsen, H S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to undertake a review of the everyday lives and the need for support felt by relatives of adults with malignant cerebral glioma. Through electronic literature searches we identified studies with qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. Fourteen studies were ...

  10. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  11. A numerical model for the study of photoacoustic imaging of brain tumours

    CERN Document Server

    Firouzi, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has shown great promise for medical imaging, where optical energy absorption by blood haemoglobin is used as the contrast mechanism. A numerical method was developed for the in-silico assessment of the photoacoustic image reconstruction of the brain. Image segmentation techniques were used to prepare a digital phantom from MR images. Light transport through brain tissue was modelled using a Finite Element approach. The resulting acoustic pressure was then estimated by pulsed photoacoustics considerations. The forward acoustic wave propagation was modelled by the linearized coupled first order wave equations and solved by an acoustic k-space method. Since skull bone is an elastic solid and strongly attenuates ultrasound (due to both scattering and absorption), a k-space method was developed for elastic media. To model scattering effects, a new approach was applied based on propagation in random media. In addition, absorption effects were incorporated using a power law. Finally, the acoust...

  12. Detection of human herpesviruses 6 and 7 genomic sequences in brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, P K; Ng, H.K.; Cheng, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human herpesviruses 6 and 7 (HHV-6, HHV-7) are ubiquitous, with primary infection occurring early in life followed by persistence, which may involve neural tissue. While HHV-6 and HHV-7 are predominantly T lymphotropic, the extent of tissue tropism in persistent infection is not known. AIM: To investigate neuropersistence and the role of HHV-6 and HHV-7 in brain tumorigenesis. METHODS: Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HHV-6 and HHV-7 genomic sequences in prepara...

  13. Brain micro-ecologies: neural stem cell niches in the adult mammalian brain

    OpenAIRE

    Riquelme, Patricio A; Drapeau, Elodie; Doetsch, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in two germinal regions in the adult mammalian brain, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the hippocampal formation. Within these two neurogenic niches, specialized astrocytes are neural stem cells, capable of self-renewing and generating neurons and glia. Cues within the niche, from cell–cell interactions to diffusible factors, are spatially and temporally coordinated to regulate proliferation and neurogenesis, ultimately affect...

  14. Neurogenesis in the adult brain: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Veronica; Bredesen, Dale E

    2007-10-01

    The function of neurogenesis in the adult brain is still unknown. Interventions such as environmental enrichment and exercise impinge on neurogenesis, suggesting that the process is regulated by experience. Conversely, a role for neurogenesis in learning has been proposed through 'cellular plasticity', a process akin to synaptic plasticity but operating at the network level. Although neurogenesis is stimulated by acute injury, and possibly by neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), it does not suffice to restore function. While the role and direction of change in the neurogenic response at different stages of AD is still a matter of debate, it is possible that a deficit in neurogenesis may contribute to AD pathogenesis since at least one of the two regions ostensibly neurogenic in the adult human brain (the subgranular zone of the dentage gyrus and the ventriculo-olfactory neurogenic system) support high-level functions affected in early AD (associative memory and olfaction respectively). The age of onset and the rate of progression of sporadic forms of AD are highly variable. Sporadic AD may have a component of insufficient neurogenic replacement or insufficient neurogenic stimulation that is correlated with traits of personal history; the rate of neurogenesis and the survival of replicating progenitors is strongly modified by behavioral interventions known to impinge on the rate of neurogenesis and the probability of survival of newly born neurons--exercise, enriched experience, and learning. This view is consistent with epidemiological data suggesting that higher education and increased participation in intellectual, social and physical aspects of daily life are associated with slower cognitive decline in healthy elderly ("cognitive reserve") and may reduce the risk of AD. Although neurogenesis can be modulated exogenously by growth factors, stimulation of neurogenesis as a mean to treat neurodegeneration is still for the most part

  15. Use of the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) score in patients with brain metastases from primary tumours not represented in the diagnosis-specific GPA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Assessment of prognostic factors might influence treatment decisions in patients with brain metastases. Based on large studies, the diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score is a useful tool. However, patients with unknown or rare primary tumours are not represented in this model. A pragmatic approach might be use of the first GPA version which is not limited to specific primary tumours. Patients and methods: This retrospective analysis examines for the first time whether the GPA is a valid score in patients not eligible for the diagnosis-specific GPA. It includes 71 patients with unknown primary tumour, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, thyroid cancer or other uncommon primaries. Survival was evaluated in uni- and multivariate tests. Results: The GPA significantly predicted survival. Moreover, improved survival was seen in patients treated with surgical resection or radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. The older recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) score was significant in univariate analysis. However, the multivariate model with RPA, GPA and surgery or SRS versus none showed that only GPA and type of treatment were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion: Ideally, cooperative research efforts would lead to development of diagnosis-specific scores also for patients with rare or unknown primary tumours. In the meantime, a pragmatic approach of using the general GPA score appears reasonable. (orig.)

  16. Challenges relating to solid tumour brain metastases in clinical trials, part 1: patient population, response, and progression. A report from the RANO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nancy U; Lee, Eudocia Q; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Barani, Igor J; Baumert, Brigitta G; Brown, Paul D; Camidge, D Ross; Chang, Susan M; Dancey, Janet; Gaspar, Laurie E; Harris, Gordon J; Hodi, F Stephen; Kalkanis, Steven N; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Linskey, Mark E; Macdonald, David R; Margolin, Kim; Mehta, Minesh P; Schiff, David; Soffietti, Riccardo; Suh, John H; van den Bent, Martin J; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Wen, Patrick Y

    2013-09-01

    Therapeutic outcomes for patients with brain metastases need to improve. A critical review of trials specifically addressing brain metastases shows key issues that could prevent acceptance of results by regulatory agencies, including enrolment of heterogeneous groups of patients and varying definitions of clinical endpoints. Considerations specific to disease, modality, and treatment are not consistently addressed. Additionally, the schedule of CNS imaging and consequences of detection of new or progressive brain metastases in trials mainly exploring the extra-CNS activity of systemic drugs are highly variable. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group is an independent, international, collaborative effort to improve the design of trials in patients with brain tumours. In this two-part series, we review the state of clinical trials of brain metastases and suggest a consensus recommendation for the development of criteria for future clinical trials. PMID:23993384

  17. Integrative genomic analyses identify LIN28 and OLIG2 as markers of survival and metastatic potential in childhood central nervous system primitive neuro-ectodermal brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Daniel; Miller, Suzanne; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Bouffet, Eric; Rogers, Hazel A; Chan, Tiffany SY; Kim, Seung-Ki; Ra, Young-Shin; Fangusaro, Jason; Korshunov, Andrey; Toledano, Helen; Nakamura, Hideo; Hayden, James T; Chan, Jennifer; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Hu, Ping X; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M; Pomeroy, Scott L; Lau, Ching C; Ng, Ho-Keung; Jones, Chris; Meter, Timothy Van; Clifford, Steven C; Eberhart, Charles; Gajjar, Amar; Pfister, Stefan M; Grundy, Richard G; Huang, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood Central Nervous System Primitive Neuro-Ectodermal brain Tumours (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive brain tumours for which molecular features and best therapeutic strategy remains unknown. We interrogated a large cohort of these rare tumours in order to identify molecular markers that will enhance clinical management of CNS-PNET. Methods Transcriptional and copy number profiles from primary hemispheric CNS-PNETs were examined using clustering, gene and pathways enrichment analyses to discover tumour sub-groups and group-specific molecular markers. Immuno-histochemical and/or gene expression analyses were used to validate and examine the clinical significance of novel sub-group markers in 123 primary CNS-PNETs. Findings Three molecular sub-groups of CNS-PNETs distinguished by primitive neural (Group 1), oligo-neural (Group 2) and mesenchymal lineage (Group 3) gene expression signature were identified. Tumour sub-groups exhibited differential expression of cell lineage markers, LIN28 and OLIG2, and correlated with distinct demographics, survival and metastatic incidence. Group 1 tumours affected primarily younger females; male: female ratios were respectively 0.61 (median age 2.9 years; 95% CI: 2.4–5.2; p≤ 0.005), 1.25 (median age 7.9 years; 95% CI: 6–9.7) and 1.63 (median age 5.9 years; 95% CI: 4.9–7.8) for group 1, 2 and 3 patients. Overall outcome was poorest in group 1 patients which had a median survival of 0.8 years (95% CI: 0.47–1.2; p=0.019) as compared to 1.8 years (95% CI: 1.4–2.3) and 4.3 years; (95% CI: 0.82–7.8) respectively for group 2 and 3 patients. Group 3 tumours had the highest incidence of metastases at diagnosis; M0: M+ ratio were respectively 0.9 and 3.9 for group 3, versus group 1 and 2 tumours combined (p=0.037). Interpretation LIN28 and OLIG2 represent highly promising, novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers for CNS PNET that warrants further evaluation in prospective clinical trials. PMID:22691720

  18. Demyelinating disease simulating brain tumours: A histopathologic assessment of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepali

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demyelinating diseases can present as space occupying lesions with in the brain. It is clinically and radiologically difficult to differentiate them from primary neoplasms. Histopathologically they mimic astrocytic neoplasms closely and identifying these lesions correctly has a profound impact in treatment and prognosis of these patients. Aims and Objectives: The objective was to determine the histopathologic features of such acute focal demyelinating disease that clinically presented as brain tumors. Material and Methods: Seven cases were included for the study. Detailed histopathological examination including stains for myelin and axon were performed. The histopathological keys in arriving at the right diagnoses included a well demarcated lesion that contains uniform distribution of foamy macrophages in the absence of any associated coagulative necrosis, sheets of gemistocytic astrocytes in the white matter that show well-formed processes, perivascular chronic inflammatory cell infiltration and total absence of myelin with relative preservation of axons within these areas. Conclusion: The degree of suspicion (clinical, radiological and histopathological should be high to diagnose these group of lesions. The above-mentioned diagnostic keys should help in arriving at the correct histopathological diagnoses of such cases.

  19. Noncanonical Sites of Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, David M; Bordey, Angélique; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery that neural stem cells (NSCs) populate some regions of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), deep knowledge has been accumulated on their capacity to generate new neurons in the adult brain. This constitutive adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life primarily within remnants of the embryonic germinal layers known as "neurogenic sites." Nevertheless, some processes of neurogliogenesis also occur in the CNS parenchyma commonly considered as "nonneurogenic." This "noncanonical" cell genesis has been the object of many claims, some of which turned out to be not true. Indeed, it is often an "incomplete" process as to its final outcome, heterogeneous by several measures, including regional location, progenitor identity, and fate of the progeny. These aspects also strictly depend on the animal species, suggesting that persistent neurogenic processes have uniquely adapted to the brain anatomy of different mammals. Whereas some examples of noncanonical neurogenesis are strictly parenchymal, others also show stem cell niche-like features and a strong link with the ventricular cavities. This work will review results obtained in a research field that expanded from classic neurogenesis studies involving a variety of areas of the CNS outside of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ). It will be highlighted how knowledge concerning noncanonical neurogenic areas is still incomplete owing to its regional and species-specific heterogeneity, and to objective difficulties still hampering its full identification and characterization. PMID:26384869

  20. The significance of electron spin resonance of the ascorbic acid radical in freeze dried human brain tumours and oedematous or normal periphery.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, H. W.; Tannert, S.

    1986-01-01

    The ESR spectrum, attributed to the ascorbic acid (ascorbyl) radical and obtained by exposing freeze dried material to air, can not be used as proof for the occurrence of in vivo free radical reactions. Depending on the method of freeze drying, the content of blood or hemolyzed blood is the dominant factor in creating higher than normal ESR signals in brain or related tissue. These findings explain why the signal, though larger in many human brain tumours than in their surroundings, is not in...

  1. Clinical Feature And Pathogeny Analysis Of Brain Hemorrhage In Young Adult Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianming; Zeng Xiaoyun

    2000-01-01

    Objection: The trend of brain hemorrhage cases of young adults have increased recently. In this article, We studied brain hemorrhage clinical feature and pathogenic causes of 72 young adults, Whose ages are all beneath 45Y. We found That the major pathogen reasons of young adult brain hemorrhage are blood system diseases、 arteriovenous malformation of cerebral blood vessel、 hypertension arteriosclerosis、 arteritis and rheumatic heart disease et. We also found that the trend can be related to hard work、 tense life、 drinking too much alcohol and eating high lipid food, and cercbral vascular disease family history. So in order to reduce the incidence of young adult brain hemorrhage, Young adults should not drink and smoke heavily, should not eat too much high lipid food. Young adults who have hypertension and brain vessel disease family history should be regularly measured blood pressure and blood lipid. If they had hypertension, should be treated regularly.

  2. The INTERPRET Decision-Support System version 3.0 for evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy data from human brain tumours and other abnormal brain masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercadal Guillem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proton Magnetic Resonance (MR Spectroscopy (MRS is a widely available technique for those clinical centres equipped with MR scanners. Unlike the rest of MR-based techniques, MRS yields not images but spectra of metabolites in the tissues. In pathological situations, the MRS profile changes and this has been particularly described for brain tumours. However, radiologists are frequently not familiar to the interpretation of MRS data and for this reason, the usefulness of decision-support systems (DSS in MRS data analysis has been explored. Results This work presents the INTERPRET DSS version 3.0, analysing the improvements made from its first release in 2002. Version 3.0 is aimed to be a program that 1st, can be easily used with any new case from any MR scanner manufacturer and 2nd, improves the initial analysis capabilities of the first version. The main improvements are an embedded database, user accounts, more diagnostic discrimination capabilities and the possibility to analyse data acquired under additional data acquisition conditions. Other improvements include a customisable graphical user interface (GUI. Most diagnostic problems included have been addressed through a pattern-recognition based approach, in which classifiers based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA were trained and tested. Conclusions The INTERPRET DSS 3.0 allows radiologists, medical physicists, biochemists or, generally speaking, any person with a minimum knowledge of what an MR spectrum is, to enter their own SV raw data, acquired at 1.5 T, and to analyse them. The system is expected to help in the categorisation of MR Spectra from abnormal brain masses.

  3. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens mMR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBRmax) and BV (rBVmax), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. FET volume and TBRmax were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOLBV and rBVmax were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBRmax and rBVmax were positively correlated (R2 = 0.59, p < 0.001). FET and BV positivity were in agreement in only 26 of the 32 patients and in 42 of 63 lesions, and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes as assessed by the Dice coefficients was generally poor with median Dice coefficients exceeding 0.1 in less than half the patients positive on at least one modality for any pair of modalities. In 56 % of the patients susceptibility artefacts in DSC BV maps overlapped the tumour on MRI. The study demonstrated that although tumour volumes determined by BV MRI and FET PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in a mixed population of treated glioma patients was generally poor, and the modalities did not provide the same information in this population of patients. Combined imaging of brain tumour metabolism and perfusion using

  4. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Hansen, Adam E.; Law, Ian [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke A. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muhic, Aida; Poulsen, Hans S. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, Henrik B.W. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Glostrup (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    imaging of brain tumour metabolism and perfusion using hybrid PET/MR systems may provide complementary information on tumour biology, but the potential clinical value remains to be determined in future trials. (orig.)

  5. Intra-individual, randomised comparison of the MRI contrast agents gadobutrol versus gadoteridol in patients with primary and secondary brain tumours, evaluated in a blinded read

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prove that 1.0 M gadobutrol provides superior contrast enhancement and MRI image characteristics of primary and secondary brain tumours compared with 0.5 M gadoteridol, thereby providing superior diagnostic information. Brain MRI was performed in two separate examinations in patients scheduled for neurosurgery. Independent injections of 1.0 M gadobutrol and 0.5 M gadoteridol at doses of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg body weight were administered per patient in randomised order. Evaluation was performed in an off-site blinded read. Fifty-one patients in the full analysis set (FAS) were eligible for efficacy analysis and 44 for the per-protocol analysis. For the primary efficacy variable ''preference in contrast enhancement for one contrast agent or the other'', the rate of ''gadobutrol preferred'' was estimated at 0.73 (95 % confidence interval 0.61; 0.83), showing significant superiority of gadobutrol over gadoteridol. Calculated lesion-to-brain contrast and the results of all qualitative secondary efficacy variables were also in favour of gadobutrol. Keeping a sufficient time delay after contrast application proved to be essential to get optimal image quality. Compared with 0.5 M gadoteridol, 1.0 M gadobutrol was proven to have significantly superior contrast enhancement characteristics in a routine MRI protocol of primary and secondary brain tumours. (orig.)

  6. Wnts in adult brain: from synaptic plasticity to cognitive deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Carolina A.; Vargas, Jessica Y.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    During development of the central nervous system the Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in a wide spectrum of physiological processes, including neuronal connectivity and synapse formation. Wnt proteins and components of the Wnt pathway are expressed in the brain since early development to the adult life, however, little is known about its role in mature synapses. Here, we review evidences indicating that Wnt proteins participate in the remodeling of pre- and post-synaptic regions, thus modulating synaptic function. We include the most recent data in the literature showing that Wnts are constantly released in the brain to maintain the basal neural activity. Also, we review the evidences that involve components of the Wnt pathway in the development of neurological and mental disorders, including a special emphasis on in vivo studies that relate behavioral abnormalities to deficiencies in Wnt signaling. Finally, we include the evidences that support a neuroprotective role of Wnt proteins in Alzheimer’s disease. We postulate that deregulation in Wnt signaling might have a fundamental role in the origin of neurological diseases, by altering the synaptic function at stages where the phenotype is not yet established but when the cognitive decline starts. PMID:24348327

  7. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  8. Traumatic brain injury: endocrine consequences in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability in young adults with consequences ranging from physical disabilities to long-term cognitive, behavioral, psychological and social defects. Recent data suggest that pituitary hormone deficiency is not infrequent among TBI survivors; the prevalence of reported hypopituitarism following TBI varies widely among published studies. The most common cause of TBI is motor vehicle accidents, including pedestrian-car and bicycle car encounters, falls, child abuse, violence and sports injuries. Prevalence of hypopituitarism, from total to isolated pituitary deficiency, ranges from 5 to 90 %. The time interval between TBI and pituitary function evaluation is one of the major factors responsible for variations in the prevalence of hypopituitarism reported. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI in children and adolescents is common. Adolescence is a time of growth, freedom and adjustment, consequently TBI is also common in this group. Sports-related TBI is an important public health concern, but many cases are unrecognized and unreported. Sports that are associated with an increased risk of TBI include those involving contact and/or collisions such as boxing, football, soccer, ice hockey, rugby, and the martial arts, as well as high velocity sports such as cycling, motor racing, equestrian sports, skiing and roller skating. The aim of this paper is to summarize the best evidence of TBI as a cause of pituitary deficiency in children and adults. PMID:24030696

  9. Brain Function Differences in Language Processing in Children and Adults with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Diane L.; Vladimir L Cherkassky; Mason, Robert A.; Keller, Timothy A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children an...

  10. MRI EVALUATION OF SUPRATENTORIAL TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumours represents 1.7% of all cancers and contributes 1.8% of all cancer deaths. Of all the brain tumours 80% are supratentorial.1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging is an important modality, having higher sensitivity for detecting intracranial pathology. Multiplanar imaging is possible with MRI which helps in detection, localization and characterization of the lesion. The MRI examination has helped in early diagnosis, accurate localization of the tumour with prompt initiation of appropriate medical or surgical therapy. Recent advances like Magnetic Resonance (MR spectroscopy, MR fluoroscopy with stereotactic guided biopsy have revolutionized the role of MRI in study of intracranial tumours.

  11. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain: same regulators, different roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia eUrban

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis persists in adult mammals in specific brain areas, known as neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis is highly dynamic and is modulated by multiple physiological stimuli and pathological states. There is a strong interest in understanding how this process is regulated, particularly since active neuronal production has been demonstrated in both the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of adult humans.The molecular mechanisms that control neurogenesis have been extensively studied during embryonic development. Therefore, we have a broad knowledge of the intrinsic factors and extracellular signalling pathways driving proliferation and differentiation of embryonic neural precursors. Many of these factors also play important roles during adult neurogenesis, but essential differences exist in the biological responses of neural precursors in the embryonic and adult contexts. Because adult neural stem cells are normally found in a quiescent state, regulatory pathways can affect adult neurogenesis in ways that have no clear counterpart during embryogenesis. BMP signalling, for instance, regulates neural stem cell behaviour both during embryonic and adult neurogenesis. However, this pathway maintains stem cell proliferation in the embryo, while it promotes quiescence to prevent stem cell exhaustion in the adult brain. In this review, we will compare and contrast the functions of transcription factors and other regulatory molecules in the embryonic brain and in adult neurogenic regions of the adult brain in the mouse, with a special focus on the hippocampal niche and on the regulation of the balance between quiescence and activation of adult neural stem cells in this region.

  12. Preparation of Developing and Adult Drosophila Brains and Retinae for Live Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, W. Ryan; Hiesinger, P. Robin

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila brain and visual system are widely utilized model systems to study neuronal development, function and degeneration. Here we show three preparations of the brain and visual system that cover the range from the developing eye disc-brain complex in the developing pupae to individual eye and brain dissection from adult flies. All protocols are optimized for the live culture of the preparations. However, we also present the conditions for fixed tissue immunohistochemistry where appl...

  13. Brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery using the Leksell gamma knife: can FDG PET help to differentiate radionecrosis from tumour progression?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using the Leksell gamma knife promotes acute and chronic local changes in glucose metabolism. We have been able to find very few papers on Medline on the subject of assessment of metastases by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) after SRS. The aim of this work was to specify the additional value of FDG PET, in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in differentiating SRS-induced radionecrosis from viable brain metastasis in a clinical setting. Fifty-seven metastases in 25 patients were treated by SRS. An average of 33 weeks later, all the patients underwent FDG PET. At the same time (SD=2 weeks) all the patients underwent MRI. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both FDG PET and MRI examinations were calculated with reference to clinical and radiological follow-up or biopsies. The additional value derived from use of FDG PET after MRI was assessed and progression-free survival rates were compared. The difference in progression-free survival rates between the negative and positive subgroups was significant (P=0.0005) for MRI and even more so (P<0.00001) for FDG PET. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 75% (6/8), 93.9% (46/49) and 91.2% (52/57) for FDG PET, and 100% (8/8), 65.3% (32/49) and 70.2% (40/57) for MRI. In the subgroup of patients with positive or non-diagnostic MRI, the probability of presence of a viable tumour was only 32% (8/25). This probability increased to 100% (5/5) when subsequent FDG PET was positive and decreased to 11.1% (2/18) when FDG PET was negative. The frequency of a viable neoplasm was significantly different (P=0.001) in the FDG PET negative and positive subgroups. MRI and FDG PET both have an important predictive value for persistent viable metastases after treatment by SRS. Neither sensitive but non-specific MRI nor specific but insensitive FDG PET is reliable on its own. While FDG PET significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy in the

  14. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  15. Characterization of TLX Expression in Neural Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Adult Brains

    OpenAIRE

    Shengxiu Li; Guoqiang Sun; Kiyohito Murai; Peng Ye; Yanhong Shi

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analo...

  16. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain. PMID:24217015

  17. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida; Hansen, Adam E; Larsson, Henrik B W; Poulsen, Hans S; Law, Ian

    2016-01-01

    at least one modality for any pair of modalities. In 56 % of the patients susceptibility artefacts in DSC BV maps overlapped the tumour on MRI. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that although tumour volumes determined by BV MRI and FET PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in......PURPOSE: Both [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of...... simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. METHODS: A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens m...

  18. Encoding of mechanical nociception differs in the adult and infant brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Verriotis, Madeleine; Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Newborn human infants display robust pain behaviour and specific cortical activity following noxious skin stimulation, but it is not known whether brain processing of nociceptive information differs in infants and adults. Imaging studies have emphasised the overlap between infant and adult brain connectome architecture, but electrophysiological analysis of infant brain nociceptive networks can provide further understanding of the functional postnatal development of pain perception. Here we hypothesise that the human infant brain encodes noxious information with different neuronal patterns compared to adults. To test this we compared EEG responses to the same time-locked noxious skin lance in infants aged 0-19 days (n = 18, clinically required) and adults aged 23-48 years (n = 21). Time-frequency analysis revealed that while some features of adult nociceptive network activity are present in infants at longer latencies, including beta-gamma oscillations, infants display a distinct, long latency, noxious evoked 18-fold energy increase in the fast delta band (2-4 Hz) that is absent in adults. The differences in activity between infants and adults have a widespread topographic distribution across the brain. These data support our hypothesis and indicate important postnatal changes in the encoding of mechanical pain in the human brain. PMID:27345331

  19. An experimental environment for the production, exchange and discussion of fused radiology images, for the management of patients with residual brain tumour disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaropoulos, G C; Kagadis, G C; Karystianos, C; Karnabatidis, D; Constantoyannis, C; Nikiforidis, G C

    2003-06-01

    The present work aims to display the use of groupware as a tool for better management of the available resources (human, computing and imaging) within the University Hospital of Patras, Greece for the task of managing patients with postoperative residual brain tumour. Emphasis is given to the additional information that can be revealed and taken into account from novel image processing techniques, developed by our group, and the central role of the Medical Physicist in the groupware. Fused images, produced by the combination of CT, MR and SPECT representations of the brain, contain both anatomical and functional information and comprise a new representation of reality. Medical experts, unfamiliar with this new representation, form a groupware for the task of interpreting them and providing better services to the patient. Groupware procedures, facilitated by modern network technology, bring experts' tacit knowledge to the surface and facilitate its exchange. PMID:14692590

  20. Brain ventricular dimensions and relationship to outcome in adult patients with bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporrborn, Janni L; Baunbæk-Knudsen, Gertrud Louise; Sølling, Mette; Seierøe, Karina; Farre, Annette; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ø; Benfield, Thomas; Brandt, Christian T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggest that changes in brain ventricle size are key events in bacterial meningitis. This study investigated the relationship between ventricle size, clinical condition and risk of poor outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed...

  1. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  2. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia are at...... increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  3. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND NEUROGENESIS IN THE ADULT MAMMALIAN BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis—the formation of new neurons in adulthood—has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. Most recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult-adult (e.g., mating, conspecific, and chemosensory signal exposure and adult-offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant-subordinate interactions on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed.

  4. Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Previously Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wäljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu M; Julkunen, Juhani; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-04-15

    This prospective longitudinal study reports recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) across multiple domains in a carefully selected consecutive sample of 74 previously healthy adults. The patients with MTBI and 40 orthopedic controls (i.e., ankle injuries) completed assessments at 1, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome measures included cognition, post-concussion symptoms, depression, traumatic stress, quality of life, satisfaction with life, resilience, and return to work. Patients with MTBI reported more post-concussion symptoms and fatigue than the controls at the beginning of recovery, but by 6 months after injury, did not differ as a group from nonhead injury trauma controls on cognition, fatigue, or mental health, and by 12 months, their level of post-concussion symptoms and quality of life was similar to that of controls. Almost all (96%) patients with MTBI returned to work/normal activities (RTW) within the follow-up of 1 year. A subgroup of those with MTBIs and controls reported mild post-concussion-like symptoms at 1 year. A large percentage of the subgroup who had persistent symptoms had a modifiable psychological risk factor at 1 month (i.e., depression, traumatic stress, and/or low resilience), and at 6 months, they had greater post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depression, and worse quality of life. All of the control subjects who had mild post-concussion-like symptoms at 12 months also had a mental health problem (i.e., depression, traumatic stress, or both). This illustrates the importance of providing evidence-supported treatment and rehabilitation services early in the recovery period. PMID:26437675

  5. Development of a Conceptual Model to Predict Physical Activity Participation in Adults with Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…

  6. New neurons in the adult brain : The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistiberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E.

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a ma

  7. Migrating neuroblasts in the adult human brain: a stream reduced to a trickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miriam E van Strien; Simone A van den Berge; Elly M Hol

    2011-01-01

    It has long been thought that neurogenesis (birth of neurons) in the mammalian brain only occurs while the central nervous system is still developing.Although the first indications to the contrary already appeared in the 1960s,it took more than 30 years for the neuroscience community to accept that the mammalian adult brain also generates new neurons.Today it is completely accepted that neurogenesis occurs in two mammalian adult brain areas,the subventricular zone (SVZ) near the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the hippocampus.

  8. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Anil G. Jegga; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological ann...

  9. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain: same regulators, different roles

    OpenAIRE

    Urbán, Noelia; Guillemot, François

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in adult mammals in specific brain areas, known as neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis is highly dynamic and is modulated by multiple physiological stimuli and pathological states. There is a strong interest in understanding how this process is regulated, particularly since active neuronal production has been demonstrated in both the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult humans. The molecular mechanisms that control neurogenesis have been extensively s...

  10. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain: same regulators, different roles.

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia eUrban; François eGuillemot

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in adult mammals in specific brain areas, known as neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis is highly dynamic and is modulated by multiple physiological stimuli and pathological states. There is a strong interest in understanding how this process is regulated, particularly since active neuronal production has been demonstrated in both the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of adult humans.The molecular mechanisms that control neurogenesis have been extensively studied ...

  11. Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shufei Yin; Xinyi Zhu; Rui Li; Yanan Niu; Baoxi Wang; Zhiwei Zheng; Xin Huang; Lijuan Huo; Juan Li

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a multimodal intervention on spontaneous brain activity in healthy older adults. Seventeen older adults received a six-week intervention that consisted of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, while 17 older adults in a control group attended health knowledge lectures. The intervention group demonstrated enhanced memory and social support compared to the control group. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the middle fro...

  12. C1q-tumour necrosis factor-related protein 8 (CTRP8) is a novel interaction partner of relaxin receptor RXFP1 in human brain cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, Aleksandra; Kunanuvat, Usakorn; Stetefeld, Jörg; Patel, Trushar R; Thanasupawat, Thatchawan; Krcek, Jerry; Weber, Ekkehard; Wong, G William; Del Bigio, Marc R; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Klonisch, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    We report a novel ligand-receptor system composed of the leucine-rich G-protein-coupled relaxin receptor, RXFP1, and the C1q-tumour necrosis factor-related protein 8 (CTRP8) in human primary brain cancer, a tumour entity devoid of the classical RXFP1 ligands, RLN1-3. In structural homology studies and computational docking experiments we delineated the N-terminal region of the globular C1q region of CTRP8 and the leucine-rich repeat units 7 and 8 of RXFP1 to mediate this new ligand-receptor interaction. CTRP8 secreted from HEK293T cells, recombinant human (rh) CTRP8, and short synthetic peptides derived from the C1q globular domain of human CTRP8 caused the activation of RXFP1 as determined by elevated intracellular cAMP levels and the induction of a marked pro-migratory phenotype in established glioblastoma (GB) cell lines and primary cells from GB patients. Employing a small competitor peptide, we were able to disrupt the CTRP8-RXFP1-induced increased GB motility. The CTRP8-RXFP1-mediated migration in GB cells involves the activation of PI3K and specific protein kinase C pathways and the increased production/secretion of the potent lysosomal protease cathepsin B (cathB), a known prognostic marker of GB. Specific inhibition of CTRP8-induced cathB activity effectively blocked the ability of primary GB to invade laminin matrices. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed the direct interaction of human CTRP8 with RXFP1. Our results support a therapeutic approach in GB aimed at targeting multiple steps of the CTRP8-RXFP1 signalling pathway by a combined inhibitor and peptide-based strategy to block GB dissemination within the brain. PMID:24014093

  13. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia are at...... increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid.......2-3.1) for brain cancer, and 3.3 (95% CI, 2.5-4.4) for NHL. Corresponding hazard ratios after childhood leukemia were 10.4 (95% CI, 0.4-223) for thyroid cancer, 7.2 (95% CI, 2.0-26) for brain cancer, and 6.5 (95% CI, 0.4-110) for NHL. Patients with adult leukemia have excess risk of thyroid cancer, brain...

  14. An empirical EEG analysis in brain death diagnosis for adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhe; Cao, Jianting; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Yue; Gu, Fanji; Zhu, Guoxian; Zhen HONG; Wang, Bin; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is often used in the confirmatory test for brain death diagnosis in clinical practice. Because EEG recording and monitoring is relatively safe for the patients in deep coma, it is believed to be valuable for either reducing the risk of brain death diagnosis (while comparing other tests such as the apnea) or preventing mistaken diagnosis. The objective of this paper is to study several statistical methods for quantitative EEG analysis in order to help bedside or ambu...

  15. Does acute caffeine ingestion alter brain metabolism in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pekar, James J; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-04-15

    Caffeine, as the most commonly used stimulant drug, improves vigilance and, in some cases, cognition. However, the exact effect of caffeine on brain activity has not been fully elucidated. Because caffeine has a pronounced vascular effect which is independent of any neural effects, many hemodynamics-based methods such as fMRI cannot be readily applied without a proper calibration. The scope of the present work is two-fold. In Study 1, we used a recently developed MRI technique to examine the time-dependent changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) following the ingestion of 200mg caffeine. It was found that, despite a pronounced decrease in CBF (pextraction fraction (OEF) was significantly elevated (p=0.002) to fully compensate for the reduced blood supply. Using the whole-brain finding as a reference, we aim to investigate whether there are any regional differences in the brain's response to caffeine. Therefore, in Study 2, we examined regional heterogeneities in CBF changes following the same amount of caffeine ingestion. We found that posterior brain regions such as posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal regions manifested a slower CBF reduction, whereas anterior brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial frontal cortex showed a faster rate of decline. These findings have a few possible explanations. One is that caffeine may result in a region-dependent increase or decrease in brain activity, resulting in an unaltered average brain metabolic rate. The other is that caffeine's effect on vasculature may be region-specific. Plausibility of these explanations is discussed in the context of spatial distribution of the adenosine receptors. PMID:25644657

  16. Regeneration, Plasticity, and Induced Molecular Programs in Adult Zebrafish Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ilyas Cosacak; Christos Papadimitriou; Caghan Kizil

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative capacity of the brain is a variable trait within animals. Aquatic vertebrates such as zebrafish have widespread ability to renew their brains upon damage, while mammals have—if not none—very limited overall regenerative competence. Underlying cause of such a disparity is not fully evident; however, one of the reasons could be activation of peculiar molecular programs, which might have specific roles after injury or damage, by the organisms that regenerate. If this hypothesis is c...

  17. A brain sexual dimorphism controlled by adult circulating androgens

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Bradley M.; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Breedlove, S. Marc

    1999-01-01

    Reports of structural differences between the brains of men and women, heterosexual and homosexual men, and male-to-female transsexuals and other men have been offered as evidence that the behavioral differences between these groups are likely caused by differences in the early development of the brain. However, a possible confounding variable is the concentration of circulating hormones seen in these groups in adulthood. Evaluation of this possibility hinges on the extent to which circulatin...

  18. Expression of nestin by neural cells in the adult rat and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Neurons and glial cells in the developing brain arise from neural progenitor cells (NPCs. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, is thought to be expressed exclusively by NPCs in the normal brain, and is replaced by the expression of proteins specific for neurons or glia in differentiated cells. Nestin expressing NPCs are found in the adult brain in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus. While significant attention has been paid to studying NPCs in the SVZ and SGZ in the adult brain, relatively little attention has been paid to determining whether nestin-expressing neural cells (NECs exist outside of the SVZ and SGZ. We therefore stained sections immunocytochemically from the adult rat and human brain for NECs, observed four distinct classes of these cells, and present here the first comprehensive report on these cells. Class I cells are among the smallest neural cells in the brain and are widely distributed. Class II cells are located in the walls of the aqueduct and third ventricle. Class IV cells are found throughout the forebrain and typically reside immediately adjacent to a neuron. Class III cells are observed only in the basal forebrain and closely related areas such as the hippocampus and corpus striatum. Class III cells resemble neurons structurally and co-express markers associated exclusively with neurons. Cell proliferation experiments demonstrate that Class III cells are not recently born. Instead, these cells appear to be mature neurons in the adult brain that express nestin. Neurons that express nestin are not supposed to exist in the brain at any stage of development. That these unique neurons are found only in brain regions involved in higher order cognitive function suggests that they may be remodeling their cytoskeleton in supporting the neural plasticity required for these functions.

  19. Adult brain abscess associated with patent foramen ovale: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathopoulos Georgios T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brain abscess results from local or metastatic septic spread to the brain. The primary infectious site is often undetected, more commonly so when it is distant. Unlike pediatric congenital heart disease, minor intracardiac right-to-left shunting due to patent foramen ovale has not been appreciated as a cause of brain abscess in adults. Here we present a case of brain abscess associated with a patent foramen ovale in a 53-year old man with dental-gingival sepsis treated in the intensive care unit. Based on this case and the relevant literature we suggest a link between a silent patent foramen ovale, paradoxic pathogen dissemination to the brain, and development of brain abscess.

  20. Recommendations for the evaluation of risk and prophylaxis of tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) in adults and children with malignant diseases: an expert TLS panel consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Mitchell S; Coiffier, Bertrand; Reiter, Alfred; Younes, Anas

    2010-05-01

    Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening oncological emergency characterized by metabolic abnormalities including hyperuricaemia, hyperphosphataemia, hyperkalaemia and hypocalcaemia. These metabolic complications predispose the cancer patient to clinical toxicities including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, neurological complications and potentially sudden death. With the increased availability of newer therapeutic targeted agents, such as rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase), there are no published guidelines on the risk classification of TLS for individual patients at risk of developing this syndrome. We convened an international TLS expert consensus panel to develop guidelines for a medical decision tree to assign low, intermediate and high risk to patients with cancer at risk for TLS. Risk factors included biological evidence of laboratory TLS (LTLS), proliferation, bulk and stage of malignant tumour and renal impairment and/or involvement at the time of TLS diagnosis. An international TLS consensus expert panel of paediatric and adult oncologists, experts in TLS pathophysiology and experts in TLS prophylaxis and management, developed a final model of low, intermediate and high risk TLS classification and associated TLS prophylaxis recommendations. PMID:20331465

  1. Exploration and visualization of gene expression with neuroanatomy in the adult mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak Sayan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatially mapped large scale gene expression databases enable quantitative comparison of data measurements across genes, anatomy, and phenotype. In most ongoing efforts to study gene expression in the mammalian brain, significant resources are applied to the mapping and visualization of data. This paper describes the implementation and utility of Brain Explorer, a 3D visualization tool for studying in situ hybridization-based (ISH expression patterns in the Allen Brain Atlas, a genome-wide survey of 21,000 expression patterns in the C57BL6J adult mouse brain. Results Brain Explorer enables users to visualize gene expression data from the C57Bl/6J mouse brain in 3D at a resolution of 100 μm3, allowing co-display of several experiments as well as 179 reference neuro-anatomical structures. Brain Explorer also allows viewing of the original ISH images referenced from any point in a 3D data set. Anatomic and spatial homology searches can be performed from the application to find data sets with expression in specific structures and with similar expression patterns. This latter feature allows for anatomy independent queries and genome wide expression correlation studies. Conclusion These tools offer convenient access to detailed expression information in the adult mouse brain and the ability to perform data mining and visualization of gene expression and neuroanatomy in an integrated manner.

  2. Eph Receptor and Ephrin Signaling in Developing and Adult Brain of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ h...

  3. Neurobiological markers of exercise-related brain plasticity in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S; Alves, Heloisa; Szabo, Amanda; White, Siobhan M.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Mailey, Emily L; Olson, Erin A.; Gothe, Neha; Potter, Vicki V.; Martin, Stephen A.; Pence, Brandt D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined how a randomized one-year aerobic exercise program for healthy older adults would affect serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - putative markers of exercise-induced benefits on brain function. The study also examined whether (a) change in the concentration of these growth factors was associated with alterations in functional connectivity following exercise, ...

  4. Cranial irradiation induces bone marrow-derived microglia in adult mouse brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnatal hematopoietic progenitor cells do not contribute to microglial homeostasis in adult mice under normal conditions. However, previous studies using whole-body irradiation and bone marrow (BM) transplantation models have shown that adult BM cells migrate into the brain tissue and differentiate into microglia (BM-derived microglia; BMDM). Here, we investigated whether cranial irradiation alone was sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse brain. Transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter (MSCV-GFP mice) were used. MSCV-GFP mice express GFP in BM cells but not in the resident microglia in the brain. Therefore, these mice allowed us to detect BM-derived cells in the brain without BM reconstitution. MSCV-GFP mice, aged 8-12 weeks, received 13.0 Gy irradiation only to the cranium, and BM-derived cells in the brain were quantified at 3 and 8 weeks after irradiation. No BM-derived cells were detected in control non-irradiated MSCV-GFP mouse brains, but numerous GFP-labeled BM-derived cells were present in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex of the irradiated MSCV-GFP mice. These BM-derived cells were positive for Iba1, a marker for microglia, indicating that GFP-positive BM-derived cells were microglial in nature. The population of BMDM was significantly greater at 8 weeks post-irradiation than at 3 weeks post-irradiation in all brain regions examined. Our results clearly show that cranial irradiation alone is sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse. (author)

  5. Bi-parental care contributes to sexually dimorphic neural cell genesis in the adult mammalian brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria K Mak

    Full Text Available Early life events can modulate brain development to produce persistent physiological and behavioural phenotypes that are transmissible across generations. However, whether neural precursor cells are altered by early life events, to produce persistent and transmissible behavioural changes, is unknown. Here, we show that bi-parental care, in early life, increases neural cell genesis in the adult rodent brain in a sexually dimorphic manner. Bi-parentally raised male mice display enhanced adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis, which improves hippocampal neurogenesis-dependent learning and memory. Female mice display enhanced adult white matter oligodendrocyte production, which increases proficiency in bilateral motor coordination and preference for social investigation. Surprisingly, single parent-raised male and female offspring, whose fathers and mothers received bi-parental care, respectively, display a similar enhancement in adult neural cell genesis and phenotypic behaviour. Therefore, neural plasticity and behavioural effects due to bi-parental care persist throughout life and are transmitted to the next generation.

  6. In Vivo Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Rodent Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain have a significant level of neurogenesis plasticity. In vivo monitoring of adult endogenous NSCs would be of great benefit to the understanding of the neurogenesis plasticity under normal and pathological conditions. Here we show the feasibility of in vivo targeted MR imaging of endogenous NSCs in adult mouse brain by intraventricular delivery of monoclonal anti-CD15 antibody conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. After intraventricular administration of these nanoparticles, the subpopulation of NSCs in the anterior subventricular zone and the beginning of the rostral migratory stream could be in situ labeled and were in vivo visualized with 7.0-T MR imaging during a period from 1 day to 7 days after the injection. Histology confirmed that the injected targeted nanoparticles were specifically bound to CD15 positive cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix. Our results suggest that in vivo targeted MR imaging of endogenous neural stem cells in adult rodent brain could be achieved by using anti-CD15-SPIONs as the molecular probe; and this targeting imaging strategy has the advantage of a rapid in vivo monitoring of the subpopulation of endogenous NSCs in adult brains.

  7. Using network science to evaluate exercise-associated brain changes in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Burdette

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature has shown that exercise is beneficial for cognitive function in older adults and that aerobic fitness is associated with increased hippocampal tissue and blood volumes. The current study used novel network science methods to shed light on the neurophysiological implications of exercise-induced changes in the hippocampus of older adults. Participants represented a volunteer subgroup of older adults that were part of either the exercise training (ET or healthy aging educational control (HAC treatment arms from the Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P trial. Following the four-month interventions, MRI measures of resting brain blood flow and connectivity were performed. The ET group’s hippocampal CBF exhibited statistically significant increases compared to the HAC group. Novel whole-brain network connectivity analyses showed greater connectivity in the hippocampi of the ET participants compared to HAC. Furthermore, the hippocampus was consistently shown to be within the same network neighborhood (module as the anterior cingulate cortex only within the ET group. Thus, within the ET group, the hippocampus and anterior cingulate were highly interconnected and localized to the same network neighborhood. This project shows the power of network science to investigate potential mechanisms for exercise-induced benefits to the brain in older adults. We show a link between neurological network features and cerebral blood flow, and it is possible that this alteration of functional brain networks may lead to the known improvement in cognitive function among older adults following exercise.

  8. Decrease of deleted in malignant brain tumour-1 (DMBT-1) expression is a crucial late event in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Huang, S-F; Chen, M-F;

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the participation of DMBT-1, a candidate tumour suppressor gene, in the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma via intraductal papillary neoplasm of the liver (IPN-L) arising in hepatolithiasis. DMBT-1 plays a role in mucosal immune defence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The...... expression of DMBT-1 was examined immunohistochemically in biliary epithelial cells in hepatolithiasis (n = 25), invasive and non-invasive cholangiocarcinoma associated with hepatolithiasis (n = 52), IPN-L with hepatolithiasis (n = 49), cholangiocarcinoma without hepatolithiasis (n = 32), and 10 normal...... control livers. DMBT-1 was expressed more frequently in the biliary epithelia of hepatolithiasis when compared with normal livers (P < 0.05). DMBT-1 expression was also frequent in IPN-L (57%) and non-invasive cholangiocarcinoma (79%). By contrast, DMBT-1 was decreased in invasive cholangiocarcinoma with...

  9. Brain Swelling and Mannitol Therapy in Adult Cerebral Malaria: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj Kanti; Patnaik, Rajyabardhan; Dutt, Anil Kumar; Pradhan, Sudhir; Das, Bhabanisankar; Patnaik, Jayakrushna; Mohanty, Akshaya Kumar; Lee, Sue J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background.  Coma is a frequent presentation of severe malaria in adults and an important cause of death. The role of cerebral swelling in its pathogenesis, and the possible benefit of intravenous mannitol therapy to treat this, is uncertain. Methods.  A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the cerebrum and lumbar puncture with measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure were performed on admission for 126 consecutive adult Indian patients with cerebral malaria. Patients with brain swellin...

  10. New neurons in the adult brain: The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    OpenAIRE

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H Craig; McGinty, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a matter of debate. In the case of the hippocampus, integration of new cells in to the existing neuronal circuitry may be involved in memory processes and the regulation of emotionality. In recent year...

  11. Moderate traumatic brain injury promotes proliferation of quiescent neural progenitors in the adult hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiang; Enikolopov, Grigori; Chen, Jinhui

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that traumatic brain injury (TBI) regulates proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of adult hippocampus. There are distinct classes of neural stem/progenitor cells in the adult DG, including quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs), which carry stem cell properties, and their progeny, amplifying neural progenitors (ANPs). The response of each class of progenitors to TBI is not clear. We here used a transgenic reporter Nestin-GFP mouse line, in...

  12. Adult Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Mimicking a Cortical Brain Tumor: MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Weon, Young Cheol; Suh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young; Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. Although a PMA is generally a tumor of early childhood and typically occurs in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region, it can mimic cortical tumors, especially in adults. We report the MR findings of a PMA presenting as a cortical brain tumor in an adult with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

  13. Adult Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Mimicking a Cortical Brain Tumor: MR Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. Although a PMA is generally a tumor of early childhood and typically occurs in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region, it can mimic cortical tumors, especially in adults. We report the MR findings of a PMA presenting as a cortical brain tumor in an adult with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

  14. Educating the adult brain: How the neuroscience of learning can inform educational policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2014-05-01

    The acquisition of new skills in adulthood can positively affect an individual's quality of life, including their earning potential. In some cases, such as the learning of literacy in developing countries, it can provide an avenue to escape from poverty. In developed countries, job retraining in adulthood contributes to the flexibility of labour markets. For all adults, learning opportunities increase participation in society and family life. However, the popular view is that adults are less able to learn for an intrinsic reason: their brains are less plastic than in childhood. This article reviews what is currently known from neuroscientific research about how brain plasticity changes with age, with a particular focus on the ability to acquire new skills in adulthood. Anchoring their review in the examples of the adult acquisition of literacy and new motor skills, the authors address five specific questions: (1) Are sensitive periods in brain development relevant to learning complex educational skills like literacy? (2) Can adults become proficient in a new skill? (3) Can everyone learn equally effectively in adulthood? (4) What is the role of the learning environment? (5) Does adult education cost too much? They identify areas where further research is needed and conclude with a summary of principles for enhancing adult learning now established on a neuroscience foundation.

  15. The effects of sleep deprivation on brain functioning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almklov, Erin L; Drummond, Sean P A; Orff, Henry; Alhassoon, Omar M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on cognitive performance and brain activation using functional MRI (fMRI) in older adults. The current study examines blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in older adults and younger adults during the sustained attention (GO) and response inhibition (NOGO) portions of a GO-NOGO cognitive task following 36 hr of total sleep deprivation. No significant performance differences were observed between the groups on the behavioral outcome measures of total hits and false alarms. Neuroimaging results, however, revealed a significant interaction between age-group and sleep-deprivation status. Specifically, older adults showed greater BOLD activation as compared to younger adults after 36 hours total sleep deprivation in brain regions typically associated with attention and inhibitory processes. These results suggest in order for older adults to perform the GO-NOGO task effectively after sleep deprivation, they rely on compensatory recruitment of brain regions that aide in the maintenance of cognitive performance. PMID:24787041

  16. Early life stress differentially modulates distinct forms of brain plasticity in young and adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Herpfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. CONCLUSION: Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Adult Brain Plasticity. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Moderate Fetal Alcohol Exposure Impairs the Neurogenic Response to an Enriched Environment in Adult Mice" (I. Y. Choi; A. M. Allan; and L. A. Cunningham). Observations of mice…

  18. Structural and functional rich club organization of the brain in children and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Grayson

    Full Text Available Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI have proposed that the brain's white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain's major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism.

  19. Canonical genetic signatures of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L; Jegga, Anil G; Aronow, Bruce J; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F; Dierker, Donna L; Menche, Jörg; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-12-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure and function. We applied a correlation-based metric called differential stability to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing mesoscale genetic organization. The genes with the highest differential stability are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related annotations, disease associations, drug targets and literature citations. Using genes with high differential stability, we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely patterned genes displayed marked shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  20. Regeneration, Plasticity, and Induced Molecular Programs in Adult Zebrafish Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosacak, Mehmet Ilyas; Papadimitriou, Christos; Kizil, Caghan

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative capacity of the brain is a variable trait within animals. Aquatic vertebrates such as zebrafish have widespread ability to renew their brains upon damage, while mammals have—if not none—very limited overall regenerative competence. Underlying cause of such a disparity is not fully evident; however, one of the reasons could be activation of peculiar molecular programs, which might have specific roles after injury or damage, by the organisms that regenerate. If this hypothesis is correct, then there must be genes and pathways that (a) are expressed only after injury or damage in tissues, (b) are biologically and functionally relevant to restoration of neural tissue, and (c) are not detected in regenerating organisms. Presence of such programs might circumvent the initial detrimental effects of the damage and subsequently set up the stage for tissue redevelopment to take place by modulating the plasticity of the neural stem/progenitor cells. Additionally, if transferable, those “molecular mechanisms of regeneration” could open up new avenues for regenerative therapies of humans in clinical settings. This review focuses on the recent studies addressing injury/damage-induced molecular programs in zebrafish brain, underscoring the possibility of the presence of genes that could be used as biomarkers of neural plasticity and regeneration. PMID:26417601

  1. Proliferation zones in the brain of adult fish Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiform: Rivulidae): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A S; Rosillo, J C; Casanova, G; Olivera-Bravo, S

    2011-08-25

    In contrast with mammals, adult fish brains exhibit an enormous potential to produce new cells. Proliferation zones, however, have been described in only a few species, hindering comparisons among genuses and orders. Here we analyzed brain cell proliferation in annual teleostean fishes Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiform: Rivulidae). Immunocytochemistry against 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was quantitated and mapped 24 h after injection in three species with different phylogenetic positions or habitats. All species had similar brain anatomy and total volume, but olfactory bulbs, torus longitudinalis and cerebellum were of different sizes in different species. Cell proliferation was found throughout the brain. Three-D reconstructions provided evidence for contiguity along the rostro-caudal axis and concentration in the vicinity of the ventricles. Brain regions analyzed exhibited high mitotic activity, and the torus longitudinalis had the highest volume-normalized proliferation index. A. affinis exhibited the highest normalized proliferation indexes in visual regions but the lowest in olfactory bulb. A. reicherti showed an inverse pattern, suggesting that these species have a different hierarchy of sensorial modalities that could be related to phylogeny or habitat. Double immunostaining against BrdU and cell-type specific markers was performed to determine the fate of proliferating cells. A widespread gliogenesis was evidenced. Few cells positive for both BrdU and the neuronal marker HuC/D were found in the brain of the three species, demonstrating neurogenesis in the adult Austrolebias brain. Summarizing, adult members of the three species showed similar brain anatomy and cell proliferation patterns. Among species, volume-normalized proliferation indexes varied in regions involved in different sensory modalities. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing proliferating cells with neuronal markers as earlier as 24 h after BrdU injection. PMID:21664435

  2. Genetic Methods to Identify and Manipulate Newly born Neurons in the Adult Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru eImayoshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although mammalian neurogenesis is mostly completed by the perinatal period, new neurons are continuously generated in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, many extensive studies have been performed on various aspects of adult neurogenesis, including proliferation and fate-specification of adult neural stem cells, and the migration, maturation and synaptic integration of newly born neurons. Furthermore, recent research has shed light on the intensive contribution of adult neurogenesis to olfactory-related and hippocampus-mediated brain functions. The field of adult neurogenesis progressed tremendously thanks to technical advances that facilitate the identification and selective manipulation of newly born neurons among billions of pre-existing neurons in the adult central nervous system. In this review, we introduce recent advances in the methodologies for visualizing newly generated neurons and manipulating neurogenesis in the adult brain. Particularly, the application of site-specific recombinases and Tet inducible system in combination with transgenic or gene targeting strategy is discussed in further detail.

  3. Adding chemo after radiation treatment improves survival for adults with a type of brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with low-grade gliomas, a form of brain tumor, who received chemotherapy following completion of radiation therapy lived longer than patients who received radiation therapy alone, according to long-term follow-up results from a NIH-supported random

  4. Humor, Rapport, and Uncomfortable Moments in Interactions with Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarsky, Dana; Schiemer, Christine; Murray, Allison

    2011-01-01

    We examined uncomfortable moments that damaged rapport during group interactions between college students in training to become speech-language pathologists and adults with traumatic brain injury. The students worked as staff in a community-based program affiliated with a university training program that functioned as a recreational gathering…

  5. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age.

  6. Radiosensitivity in vitro of clonogenic and non-clonogenic glioblastoma cells obtained from a human brain tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buronfosse, A.; Thomas, C.P.; Ginestet, C.; Dore, J.F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1994-11-01

    Cells obtained from a human glioblastoma (G5) were characterized and used to develop an assay measuring their radiosensitivity in vitro. Surviving fractions were estimated 12 days after irradiation by image analysis of the total surface occupied by the cells. This report evaluates 4 experimental factors which may influence the radiosensitivity in vitro of G5 cells: passage number, delay between plating and irradiation, cell density and clonal heterogeneity. The radiosensitivity of the G5 cell line was found to be passage-independent at least between passages 12 and 75. Experimental conditions influence the radiosensitivity as surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) range from 90% (5 000 cells/well, irradiation 72 h after seeding) to 49% (2 500 cells per well, irradiation 24 h after seeding). The heterogeneity of the radiosensitivity is large at the clonal level as SF2 of six clones isolated from the G5 line were 45%, 50%, 72%, 74%, 79% and 84%. Finally, when G5 cells were irradiated at low cell density and at the beginning of the growth phase, the radiosensitivity measured with this assay is comparable to that obtained with a standard colony assay. We propose that this assay may be useful to determine the intrinsic radiosensitivity of cells obtained from human tumours. (authors). 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Fluoxetine targets early progenitor cells in the adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas, Juan M.; Vaahtokari, Anne; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2006-01-01

    Chronic treatment with antidepressants increases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. This increase in the production of new neurons may be required for the behavioral effects of antidepressants. However, it is not known which class of cells within the neuronal differentiation cascade is targeted by the drugs. We have generated a reporter mouse line, which allows identification and classification of early neuronal progenitors. It also allows accurate quantitation of changes induced by neuro...

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury Activation of the Adult Subventricular Zone Neurogenic Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eun Hyuk; Adorjan, Istvan; Mundim, Mayara V.; Sun, Bin; Dizon, Maria L. V.; Szele, Francis G.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both civilian and military life, placing a large burden on survivors and society. However, with the recognition of neural stem cells in adult mammals, including humans, came the possibility to harness these cells for repair of damaged brain, whereas previously this was thought to be impossible. In this review, we focus on the rodent adult subventricular zone (SVZ), an important neurogenic niche within the mature brain in which neural stem cells continue to reside. We review how the SVZ is perturbed following various animal TBI models with regards to cell proliferation, emigration, survival, and differentiation, and we review specific molecules involved in these processes. Together, this information suggests next steps in attempting to translate knowledge from TBI animal models into human therapies for TBI. PMID:27531972

  10. New Zealand adolescents’ cellphone and cordless phone user-habits: are they at increased risk of brain tumours already? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmayne Mary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellphone and cordless phone use is very prevalent among early adolescents, but the extent and types of use is not well documented. This paper explores how, and to what extent, New Zealand adolescents are typically using and exposed to active cellphones and cordless phones, and considers implications of this in relation to brain tumour risk, with reference to current research findings. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 373 Year 7 and 8 school students with a mean age of 12.3 years (range 10.3-13.7 years from the Wellington region of New Zealand. Participants completed a questionnaire and measured their normal body-to-phone texting distances. Main exposure-metrics included self-reported time spent with an active cellphone close to the body, estimated time and number of calls on both phone types, estimated and actual extent of SMS text-messaging, cellphone functions used and people texted. Statistical analyses used Pearson Chi2 tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Analyses were undertaken using SPSS version 19.0. Results Both cellphones and cordless phones were used by approximately 90% of students. A third of participants had already used a cordless phone for ≥ 7 years. In 4 years from the survey to mid-2013, the cordless phone use of 6% of participants would equal that of the highest Interphone decile (≥ 1640 hours, at the surveyed rate of use. High cellphone use was related to cellphone location at night, being woken regularly, and being tired at school. More than a third of parents thought cellphones carried a moderate-to-high health risk for their child. Conclusions While cellphones were very popular for entertainment and social interaction via texting, cordless phones were most popular for calls. If their use continued at the reported rate, many would be at increased risk of specific brain tumours by their mid-teens, based on findings of the Interphone and Hardell-group studies.

  11. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells. PMID:27259217

  12. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  13. Response assessment criteria for brain metastases : proposal from the RANO group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Nancy U.; Lee, Eudocia Q.; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Barani, Igor J.; Barboriak, Daniel P.; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Bendszus, Martin; Brown, Paul D.; Camidge, D. Ross; Chang, Susan M.; Dancey, Janet; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Harris, Gordon J.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Kalkanis, Steven N.; Linskey, Mark E.; Macdonald, David R.; Margolin, Kim; Mehta, Minesh P.; Schiff, David; Soffietti, Riccardo; Suh, John H.; van den Bent, Martin J.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2015-01-01

    CNS metastases are the most common cause of malignant brain tumours in adults. Historically, patients with brain metastases have been excluded from most clinical trials, but their inclusion is now becoming more common. The medical literature is difficult to interpret because of substantial variation

  14. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  15. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5±3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis

  16. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  17. Brain transcriptional stability upon prion protein-encoding gene invalidation in zygotic or adult mouse

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    Béringue Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological function of the prion protein remains largely elusive while its key role in prion infection has been expansively documented. To potentially assess this conundrum, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of the brain of wild-type mice with that of transgenic mice invalidated at this locus either at the zygotic or at the adult stages. Results Only subtle transcriptomic differences resulting from the Prnp knockout could be evidenced, beside Prnp itself, in the analyzed adult brains following microarray analysis of 24 109 mouse genes and QPCR assessment of some of the putatively marginally modulated loci. When performed at the adult stage, neuronal Prnp disruption appeared to sequentially induce a response to an oxidative stress and a remodeling of the nervous system. However, these events involved only a limited number of genes, expression levels of which were only slightly modified and not always confirmed by RT-qPCR. If not, the qPCR obtained data suggested even less pronounced differences. Conclusions These results suggest that the physiological function of PrP is redundant at the adult stage or important for only a small subset of the brain cell population under classical breeding conditions. Following its early reported embryonic developmental regulation, this lack of response could also imply that PrP has a more detrimental role during mouse embryogenesis and that potential transient compensatory mechanisms have to be searched for at the time this locus becomes transcriptionally activated.

  18. Normative data for subcortical regional volumes over the lifetime of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Dieumegarde, Louis; Duchesne, Simon

    2016-08-15

    Normative data for volumetric estimates of brain structures are necessary to adequately assess brain volume alterations in individuals with suspected neurological or psychiatric conditions. Although many studies have described age and sex effects in healthy individuals for brain morphometry assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, proper normative values allowing to quantify potential brain abnormalities are needed. We developed norms for volumetric estimates of subcortical brain regions based on cross-sectional magnetic resonance scans from 2790 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting subcortical regional volumes of each hemisphere were produced including age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors. The mean explained variance by the models was 48%. For most regions, age, sex and eTIV predicted most of the explained variance while manufacturer, magnetic field strength and interactions predicted a limited amount. Estimates of the expected volumes of an individual based on its characteristics and the scanner characteristics can be obtained using derived formulas. For a new individual, significance test for volume abnormality, effect size and estimated percentage of the normative population with a smaller volume can be obtained. Normative values were validated in independent samples of healthy adults and in adults with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27165761

  19. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890892

  20. Translation and pilot validation of Hindi translation of assessing quality of life in patients with primary brain tumours using EORTC brain module (BN-20

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    Budrukkar Ashwini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To translate and validate the European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer (EORTC brain cancer module (BN-20 into Hindi to make it available for patients and scientific community. Methods and Results: The EORTC BN-20 was translated into Hindi using standard guidelines by EORTC. The process included forward translation by two translators, discussion with the translators in case of discrepancies and formation of first intermediate questionnaire. This questionnaire was then given to two more translators who translated this questionnaire back into English. These 2 questionnaires were then compared with the original EORTC questionnaire and the second intermediate questionnaire was formed. The second intermediate questionnaire was subsequently administered in 10 patients with brain tumors who had never seen the questionnaire before, for pilot-testing. Each of these 10 patients after filling up the questionnaire themselves was then interviewed for any difficulty encountered during the filling up of the questionnaire. These were in the form of specific modules including difficulty in answering, confusion while answering and difficulty to understand, whether the questions were upsetting and if patients would have asked the question in any different way. There were major suggestions in three questions, which were incorporated into the second intermediate questionnaire to form the final Hindi BN-20 questionnaire. Conclusion: The final Hindi BN-20 has been approved by EORTC and can be used in clinical practice and studies for patients with brain tumors.

  1. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Grenzgänger: adult bone marrow cells populate the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priller, Josef

    2003-08-01

    While the brain has traditionally been considered a rather secluded site, recent studies suggest that adult bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells can generate glia and neurons in rodents and humans. Macrophages and microglia are the first to appear in the murine brain after transplantation of genetically marked BM cells. Within weeks after transplantation, some authors have found astrocytes and cells expressing neuronal antigens. We detected cerebellar Purkinje neurons and interneurons, such as basket cells, expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) 10-15 months after transplantation of GFP-labeled BM cells. The results push the boundaries of our classic view of lineage restriction. PMID:12898276

  2. Hypoperfusion in baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of adult and elderly patients with depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the rCBF abnormalities of the baseline and cognitively activated rCBF imaging in unmedicated adult and elderly patients with depression. Methods: The subjects were divided into four groups: depressed adults, normal adult controls, depressed elders and normal elderly controls. All depressed patients were unmedicated and the diagnoses (depression of moderate degree with accompanying somatization) were confirmed by the ICD-10 criteria. Age range of the 39 depressed adult patients was 17 - 55 years. 17 age-matched normal adult controls (age range 21 - 50 years) were studied under identical conditions. The age range of 18 depressed elderly patients was 62 - 76 years. 21 age-matched normal elderly controls (age range 60 - 72 years) were studied under identical conditions. Baseline and cognitively activated 99Tcm-ECD SPECT were performed on 25 of the 39 adult patients with depression and 17 normal adult controls. Baseline 99Tcm-ECD SPECT only was performed on the remaining 14 patients with depression. Baseline and cognitively activated 99Tcm-ECD SPECT were performed on 12 of the 18 elderly patients with depression and 18 of the 21 normal elderly controls. Baseline 99Tcm-ECD SPECT only was performed on the remaining elderly patients and 3 normal elderly controls. Results: 1) The characteristic abnormalities of baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of depression in adults: the baseline rCBF values of frontal and temporal lobe decreased significantly and the activated rCBF values of frontal, temporal lobe decreased more evidently than that in the baseline imaging and additionally decreased activated rCBF values in parietal lobe were found. 2) The characteristic abnormalities of baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of elderly patients with depression: the baseline rCBF values of frontal, temporal lobe and right basal ganglia decreased significantly and the activated rCBF values of frontal, temporal, right parietal lobe

  3. Pediatric Cancers and Brain Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Martin G; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal tumors classically occur in young children, some principally within the first year of life. Prospective national and international clinical trials during recent decades have brought about progressive improvements in survival, and associated biological studies have advanced our understanding of tumor biology, in some cases allowing biological tumor characteristics to be harnessed for therapeutic benefit. Embryonal tumors continue to occur, albeit less commonly, during childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood. These tumors are less well understood, usually not managed according to standardized protocols and rarely included in clinical trials. Survival outcomes are generally poorer than their childhood equivalents. We present here a summary of the published literature on embryonal tumors that present ectopically during adolescence and adulthood. We show that for some tumors protocol-driven treatment, supported by accurate and complete diagnostics and staging, can result in equivalent outcomes to those seen during childhood. We make the case that clinical trial eligibility criteria should be disease-based rather than age-based, and support improvements in dialogue between children's and adults' cancer clinicians to improve outcomes for these rare tumors. PMID:27595358

  4. Rehabilitation for Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury: Where Will We Be Clinically in 2026?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkstra, Lyn S

    2016-08-01

    In 10 years, there might be fewer adults who need rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury because of advances in injury prevention and very early treatment. For adults who do need rehabilitation, assessment might include biosensor recordings in their everyday communication contexts, and home practice might be delivered by a robot that can be programmed to mimic target characteristics of human behavior. These advances in science and technology will enhance rehabilitation, but it will always be our responsibility as speech-language pathologists to advocate for our patients and clients and support them in achieving the best possible quality of communication life. PMID:27232097

  5. Molecular imaging of tumour hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By allowing an earlier diagnosis and a more exhaustive assessment of extension of the disease, the tomography by emission of positrons (PET) transforms the care of numerous cancers. At present, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-F.D.G.) imaging appears as the only one available but new molecular markers are being developed. In the next future they would modify the approach of cancers. In this context, the molecular imaging of the hypoxia and especially the 18Fluoromisonidazole PET ([18F]-MISO PET) can give supplementary information allowing the mapping of hypoxic regions within the tumour. Because of the links, which exist between tumour hypoxia and treatment resistance of very numerous cancers, this information can have an interest, for determination of prognosis as well as for the delineation, volumes to be irradiated. Head and neck tumours are doubtless those for which the literature gives the most elements on the therapeutic impact of tumour hypoxia. Targeted therapies, based on hypoxia, already exist and the contribution of the molecular imaging could be decisive in the evaluation of the impact of such treatment. Molecular imaging of brain tumours remains to be developed. The potential contributions of the [18F]-MISO PET for the care of these patients need to be confirmed. In this context, we propose a review of hypoxia molecular imaging taking as examples head and neck tumours and glioblastomas (GB), two tumours for which hypoxia is one of the key factors to overcome in order to increase therapeutics results

  6. Interleukin-6 gene (IL-6: a possible role in brain morphology in the healthy adult brain

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    Baune Bernhard T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in dual functions in neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the genetic predisposition to neurodegenerative and neuroproliferative properties of cytokine genes. In this study the potential dual role of several IL-6 polymorphisms in brain morphology is investigated. Methodology In a large sample of healthy individuals (N = 303, associations between genetic variants of IL-6 (rs1800795; rs1800796, rs2069833, rs2069840 and brain volume (gray matter volume were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs followed a tagging SNP approach (e.g., Stampa algorigthm, yielding a capture 97.08% of the variation in the IL-6 gene using four tagging SNPs. Principal findings/results In a whole-brain analysis, the polymorphism rs1800795 (−174 C/G showed a strong main effect of genotype (43 CC vs. 150 CG vs. 100 GG; x = 24, y = −10, z = −15; F(2,286 = 8.54, puncorrected = 0.0002; pAlphaSim-corrected = 0.002; cluster size k = 577 within the right hippocampus head. Homozygous carriers of the G-allele had significantly larger hippocampus gray matter volumes compared to heterozygous subjects. None of the other investigated SNPs showed a significant association with grey matter volume in whole-brain analyses. Conclusions/significance These findings suggest a possible neuroprotective role of the G-allele of the SNP rs1800795 on hippocampal volumes. Studies on the role of this SNP in psychiatric populations and especially in those with an affected hippocampus (e.g., by maltreatment, stress are warranted.

  7. New Experimental Model of Brain Tumors in Brains of Adult Immunocompetent Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Baklaushev, Vladimir P.; Kavsan, Vadym M.; Balynska, Olena V; Yusubalieva, Gaukhar M.; Abakumov, Maxim A.; Chekhonin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Xenograft models, namely heterotransplantation of human cancer cells or tumor biopsies into immunodeficient rodents are the major preclinical approach for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. However, in these models the animals must be used only after the severe systemic immune suppression in order to ensure graft survival. Thus, additional new human brain tumor models without immune suppression of the recipient rodent may be required. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory o...

  8. Adult-Onset Leukoencephalopathy with Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Involvement and Normal Lactate: Case Report

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    Özdem Ertürk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and high lactate (LBSL is a recently described leukoencephalopathy with a genetically proven underlying defect. Clinical features are slowly progressive pyramidal, cerebellar and dorsal column dysfunction with childhood or rarely adult onset. The genetic basis of the disease was recently identified, which concerned mutations in the DARS2 gene encoding mitochondrial aspartly-tRNA synthetase. The disease has distinct magnetic resonance imaging findings including inhomogeneous cerebral white matter abnormalities and selective brain stem and spinal cord tract involvement. Additionally, there are usually increased lactate levels on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS of the abnormal white matter. In this case report, we describe the clinical and radiological features of a patient with genetically proven adult-onset LBSL and normal lactate levels on MRS.

  9. O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein expression by immunohistochemistry in brain and non-brain systemic tumours: systematic review and meta-analysis of correlation with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA repair protein O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers resistance to alkylating agents. Several methods have been applied to its analysis, with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) the most commonly used for promoter methylation study, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become the most frequently used for the detection of MGMT protein expression. Agreement on the best and most reliable technique for evaluating MGMT status remains unsettled. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between IHC and MSP. A computer-aided search of MEDLINE (1950-October 2009), EBSCO (1966-October 2009) and EMBASE (1974-October 2009) was performed for relevant publications. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were those comparing MGMT protein expression by IHC with MGMT promoter methylation by MSP in the same cohort of patients. Methodological quality was assessed by using the QUADAS and STARD instruments. Previously published guidelines were followed for meta-analysis performance. Of 254 studies identified as eligible for full-text review, 52 (20.5%) met the inclusion criteria. The review showed that results of MGMT protein expression by IHC are not in close agreement with those obtained with MSP. Moreover, type of tumour (primary brain tumour vs others) was an independent covariate of accuracy estimates in the meta-regression analysis beyond the cut-off value. Protein expression assessed by IHC alone fails to reflect the promoter methylation status of MGMT. Thus, in attempts at clinical diagnosis the two methods seem to select different groups of patients and should not be used interchangeably

  10. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age and a popular puzzle game (Tetris. Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the healthy young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields

  11. Applications of hybrid diffuse optics for clinical management of adults after brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meeri Nam

    Information about cerebral blood flow (CBF) is valuable for clinical management of patients after severe brain injury. Unfortunately, current modalities for monitoring brain are often limited by hurdles that include high cost, low throughput, exposure to ionizing radiation, probe invasiveness, and increased risk to critically ill patients when transportation out of their room or unit is required. A further limitation of current technologies is an inability to provide continuous bedside measurements that are often desirable for unstable patients. Here we explore the clinical utility of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) as an alternative approach for bedside CBF monitoring. DCS uses the rapid intensity fluctuations of near-infrared light to derive a continuous measure of changes in blood flow without ionizing radiation or invasive probing. Concurrently, we employ another optical technique, called diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS), to derive changes in cerebral oxyhemoglobin ( HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Our clinical studies integrate DCS with DOS into a single hybrid instrument that simultaneously monitors CBF and HbO2/Hb in the injured adult brain. The first parts of this dissertation present the motivations for monitoring blood flow in injured brain, as well as the theory underlying diffuse optics technology. The next section elaborates on details of the hybrid instrumentation. The final chapters describe four human subject studies carried out with these methods. Each of these studies investigates an aspect of the potential of the hybrid monitor in clinical applications involving adult brain. The studies include: (1) validation of DCS-measured CBF against xenon-enhanced computed tomography in brain-injured adults; (2) a study of the effects of age and gender on posture-change-induced CBF variation in healthy subjects; (3) a study of the efficacy of DCS/DOS for monitoring neurocritical care patients during various medical interventions such

  12. Eph receptor and ephrin signaling in developing and adult brain of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-02-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ hybridization for mRNA expression showed a uniform distribution of expression of both genes across the developing pupal and adult brain. However, in situ labeling with Fc fusion proteins indicated that the AmEphR and Amephrin proteins were differentially localized to cell body regions in the mushroom bodies and the developing neuropiles of the antennal and optic lobes. In adults, AmEphR protein was localized to regions of synaptic contacts in optic lobes, in the glomeruli of antennal lobes, and in the medial lobe of the mushroom body. The latter two regions are involved in olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee. Injections of EphR-Fc and ephrin-Fc proteins into the brains of adult bees, 1 h before olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, significantly reduced memory 24 h later. Experimental amnesia in the group injected with ephrin-Fc was apparent 1 h post-training. Experimental amnesia was also induced by post-training injections with ephrin-Fc suggesting a role in recall. This is the first demonstration that Eph molecules function to regulate the formation of memory in insects. PMID:17443785

  13. Cell proliferation in the Drosophila adult brain revealed by clonal analysis and bromodeoxyuridine labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Brand Andrea H; Egger Boris; von Trotha Jakob W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The production of new neurons during adulthood and their subsequent integration into a mature central nervous system have been shown to occur in all vertebrate species examined to date. However, the situation in insects is less clear and, in particular, it has been reported that there is no proliferation in the Drosophila adult brain. Results We report here, using clonal analysis and 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling, that cell proliferation does occur in the Droso...

  14. Brain Infarction and Hemorrhage in Young and Middle-aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Joseph R.; Filley, Christopher M.; Earnest, Michael P.; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    1984-01-01

    Of 131 young (17 to 44 years) and middle-aged (45 to 55 years) adults who had brain infarction or hemorrhage, the most common etiologic factors were rheumatic heart disease, migraine and oral contraceptive use among the younger group. In contrast, atherosclerotic, hypertensive and diabetes-associated cerebrovascular were the most common causes in the middle-aged group. Patients who have a stroke before age 45 should have prompt, complete laboratory and radiologic testing to define a possible ...

  15. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Weiland, Barbara J.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) ...

  16. Preoperative shunts in thalamic tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one patients with thalamic glioma underwent a pre-tumour resection shunt surgery. The procedure was uneventful in 23 patients with relief from symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Eight patients worsened after the procedure. The level of sensorium worsened from excessively drowsy state to unconsciousness in seven patients. Three patients developed hemiparesis, 4 developed paresis of extra-ocular muscles and altered pupillary reflexes, and 1 developed incontinence of urine and persistent vomiting. Alteration in the delicately balanced intracranial pressure and movements in the tumour and vital adjacent brain areas could be the probable cause of the worsening in the neurological state in these 8 patients. On the basis of these observations and on review of literature, it is postulated that the ventricular dilatation following an obstruction in the path of the cerebrospinal fluid flow by a tumour could be a natural defense phenomenon of the brain.

  17. Reawakening the sleeping beauty in the adult brain: neurogenesis from parenchymal glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Sophie; Berninger, Benedikt

    2015-10-01

    Life-long neurogenesis is highly restricted to specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain and therefore the brain's capacity for spontaneous regeneration is extremely limited. However, recent work has demonstrated that under certain circumstances parenchymal astrocytes and NG2 glia can generate neuronal progeny. In the striatum, stroke or excitotoxic lesions can reawaken in astrocytes a latent neurogenic program resulting in the genesis of new neurons. By contrast, in brain areas that fail to mount a neurogenic response following injury, such as the cerebral cortex, forced expression of neurogenic reprogramming factors can lineage convert local glia into induced neurons. Yet, injury-induced and reprogramming-induced neurogenesis exhibit intriguing commonalities, suggesting that they may converge on similar mechanisms. PMID:26296150

  18. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  19. Spatial distribution and cellular composition of adult brain proliferative zones in the teleost, Gymnotus omarorum

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    Daniel A Peterson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of stem/progenitor cells during development provides for the generation of mature cell types in the CNS. While adult brain proliferation is highly restricted in the mammals, it is widespread in teleosts. The extent of adult neural proliferation in the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum has not yet been described. To address this, we used double thymidine analog pulse-chase labeling of proliferating cells to identify brain proliferation zones, characterize their cellular composition, and analyze the fate of newborn cells in adult G. omarorum. Short thymidine analog chase periods revealed the ubiquitous distribution of adult brain proliferation, similar to other teleosts, particularly Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Proliferating cells were abundant at the ventricular-subventricular lining of the ventricular-cisternal system, adjacent to the telencephalic subpallium, the diencephalic preoptic region and hypothalamus, and the mesencephalic tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. Extraventricular proliferation zones, located distant from the ventricular-cisternal system surface, were found in all divisions of the rombencephalic cerebellum. We also report a new adult proliferation zone at the caudal-lateral border of the electrosensory lateral line lobe. All proliferation zones showed a heterogeneous cellular composition. The use of short (24hs and long (30d chase periods revealed abundant fast cycling cells (potentially intermediate amplifiers, sparse slow cycling (potentially stem cells, cells that appear to have entered a quiescent state, and cells that might correspond to migrating newborn neural cells. Their abundance and migration distance differed among proliferation zones: greater numbers and longer range and/or pace of migrating cells were associated with subpallial and cerebellar proliferation zones.

  20. Brain morphological changes in adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Konrad, K

    2016-08-01

    Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume loss occur in the brains of patients with acute anorexia nervosa (AN) and improve again upon weight restoration. Adolescence is an important time period for AN to begin. However, little is known about the differences between brain changes in adolescents vs adults. We used a meta-analysis and a qualitative review of all MRI studies regarding acute structural brain volume changes and their recovery in adolescents and adults with AN. 29 studies with 473 acute, 121 short-term weight-recovered and 255 long-term recovered patients with AN were included in the meta-analysis. In acute AN, GM and WM were reduced compared to healthy controls. Acute adolescent patients showed a significantly greater GM reduction than adults (-8.4 vs -3.1 %), the difference in WM (-4.0 vs -2.1 %) did not reach significance. Short-term weight-recovered patients showed a remaining GM deficit of 3.6 % and a non-significant WM reduction of 0.9 % with no age differences. Following 1.5-8 years of remission, GM and WM were no longer significantly reduced in adults (GM -0.4 %, WM -0.7 %); long-term studies for adolescents were scarce. The qualitative review showed that GM volume loss was correlated with cognitive deficits and three studies found GM regions, cerebellar deficits and WM to be predictive of outcome. GM and WM are strongly reduced in acute AN and even more pronounced in adolescence. Long-term recovery appears to be complete for adults while no conclusions can be drawn for adolescents, thus caution remains. PMID:27188331

  1. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  2. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) and brain cancer in adults and children: review and comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, J. G.; van Wijngaarden, E.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental research on the potential carcinogenic effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) has now been conducted for over two decades. Cancer epidemiology studies in relation to EMF have focused primarily on brain cancer and leukemia, both from residential sources of exposure in children and adults and from occupational exposure in adult men. Because genotoxic effects of EMF have not been shown, most recent laboratory research has attempted to show biological effects that could be related to cancer promotion. In this report, we briefly review residential and occupational EMF studies on brain cancer. We also provide a general review of experimental studies as they relate both to the biological plausibility of an EMF-brain cancer relation and to the insufficiency of such research to help guide exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. We conclude from our review that no recent research, either epidemiologic or experimental, has emerged to provide reasonable support for a causal role of EMF on brain cancer. PMID:11550314

  3. Plasticity of brain networks in a randomized intervention trial of exercise training in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle W Voss

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown the human brain is organized into separable functional networks during rest and varied states of cognition, and that aging is associated with specific network dysfunctions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine low-frequency (.008<.08 Hz coherence of cognitively relevant and sensory brain networks in older adults who participated in a one-year intervention trial, comparing the effects of aerobic and non-aerobic fitness training on brain function and cognition. Results showed that aerobic training improved the aging brain’s resting functional efficiency in higher-level cognitive networks. One year of walking increased functional connectivity between aspects of the frontal, posterior, and temporal cortices within the Default Mode Network and a Frontal Executive Network, two brain networks central to brain dysfunction in aging. Length of training was also an important factor. Effects in favor of the walking group were observed only after 12 months of training, compared to non-significant trends after six months. A non-aerobic stretching and toning group also showed increased functional connectivity in the DMN after six months and in a Frontal Parietal Network after 12 months, possibly reflecting experience-dependent plasticity. Finally, we found that changes in functional connectivity were behaviorally relevant. Increased functional connectivity was associated with greater improvement in executive function. Therefore the study provides the first evidence for exercise-induced functional plasticity in large-scale brain systems in the aging brain, using functional connectivity techniques, and offers new insight into the role of aerobic fitness in attenuating age-related brain dysfunction.

  4. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype. PMID:27298360

  5. Reduced brain resting-state network specificity in infants compared with adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylie KP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Korey P Wylie,1,* Donald C Rojas,1,* Randal G Ross,1 Sharon K Hunter,1 Keeran Maharajh,1 Marc-Andre Cornier,2 Jason R Tregellas1,3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 3Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Infant resting-state networks do not exhibit the same connectivity patterns as those of young children and adults. Current theories of brain development emphasize developmental progression in regional and network specialization. We compared infant and adult functional connectivity, predicting that infants would exhibit less regional specificity and greater internetwork communication compared with adults.Patients and methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest was acquired in 12 healthy, term infants and 17 adults. Resting-state networks were extracted, using independent components analysis, and the resulting components were then compared between the adult and infant groups.Results: Adults exhibited stronger connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex node of the default mode network, but infants had higher connectivity in medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex than adults. Adult connectivity was typically higher than infant connectivity within structures previously associated with the various networks, whereas infant connectivity was frequently higher outside of these structures. Internetwork communication was significantly higher in infants than in adults.Conclusion: We interpret these findings as consistent with evidence suggesting that resting-state network development is associated with increasing spatial specificity, possibly reflecting the corresponding functional specialization of regions and their interconnections through experience. Keywords: functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging

  6. Comparative study of delayed brain damage in pubescent and adult rhesus monkeys from radiation within the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole brains of pubescent and fully adult rhesus monkeys were subjected to 6,000 rads of fractionated supervoltage X-irradiation, and the difference of these two age groups in clinical and neuropathological changes after the irradiation was studied. The pubescent monkey was more vulnerable to irradiation than the fully adult monkey, and showed more clinical signs and more focal lesions of delayed brain damage from radiation. (author)

  7. Cardiovascular risks and brain function: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Yi-Fang; Eldreth, Dana; Kirk I Erickson; Varma, Vijay; Harris, Gregory; Fried, Linda P.; Rebok, George W.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive impairment and risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms linking them are not clear. This study aims to investigate the association between aggregate CV risk, assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile, and functional brain activation in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty participants (mean age: 64.6 years) from the Brain Health ...

  8. Elevated brain lesion volumes in older adults who use calcium supplements: a cross sectional clinical observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Martha E.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.; Anderson, John J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated calcium supplements with elevated vascular risk, and therefore these supplements may also relate to the occurrence of brain lesions (or hyperintensities) in older adults. These lesions represent damage to brain tissue that is caused by ischaemia. This cross sectional clinical observational study examined the association between use of calcium-containing dietary supplements and lesion volumes in a sample of 227 older adults (60 years and older). Food and suppleme...

  9. Distinct Brain and Behavioral Benefits from Cognitive vs. Physical Training: A Randomized Trial in Aging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sandra B; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S; Keebler, Molly W; DeFina, Laura F; Didehbani, Nyaz; Perez, Alison M; Lu, Hanzhang; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Insidious declines in normal aging are well-established. Emerging evidence suggests that non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive and physical training, may counter diminishing age-related cognitive and brain functions. This randomized trial compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training (CT) vs. physical training (PT) on cognition and brain function in adults 56-75 years. Sedentary participants (N = 36) were randomized to either CT or PT group for 3 h/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline-, mid-, and post-training using neurocognitive, MRI, and physiological measures. The CT group improved on executive function whereas PT group's memory was enhanced. Uniquely deploying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) MRI, the CT cohort showed increased CBF within the prefrontal and middle/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) without change to CVR compared to PT group. Improvements in complex abstraction were positively associated with increased resting CBF in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Exercisers with higher CBF in hippocampi bilaterally showed better immediate memory. The preliminary evidence indicates that increased cognitive and physical activity improves brain health in distinct ways. Reasoning training enhanced frontal networks shown to be integral to top-down cognitive control and brain resilience. Evidence of increased resting CBF without changes to CVR implicates increased neural health rather than improved vascular response. Exercise did not improve cerebrovascular response, although CBF increased in hippocampi of those with memory gains. Distinct benefits incentivize testing effectiveness of combined protocols to strengthen brain health. PMID:27462210

  10. Promoting brain health through exercise and diet in older adults: a physiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Philippa A; Pialoux, Vincent; Corbett, Dale; Drogos, Lauren; Erickson, Kirk I; Eskes, Gail A; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-08-15

    The rise in incidence of age-related cognitive impairment is a global health concern. Ageing is associated with a number of changes in the brain that, collectively, contribute to the declines in cognitive function observed in older adults. Structurally, the ageing brain atrophies as white and grey matter volumes decrease. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote endothelial dysfunction thereby hampering cerebral perfusion and thus delivery of energy substrates and nutrients. Further, the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles contributes to neuronal loss. Of interest, there are substantial inter-individual differences in the degree to which these physical and functional changes impact upon cognitive function as we grow older. This review describes how engaging in physical activity and cognitive activities and adhering to a Mediterranean style diet promote 'brain health'. From a physiological perspective, we discuss the effects of these modifiable lifestyle behaviours on the brain, and how some recent human trials are beginning to show some promise as to the effectiveness of lifestyle behaviours in combating cognitive impairment. Moreover, we propose that these lifestyle behaviours, through numerous mechanisms, serve to increase brain, cerebrovascular and cognitive reserve, thereby preserving and enhancing cognitive function for longer. PMID:27524792

  11. Distinct Brain and Behavioral Benefits from Cognitive vs. Physical Training: A Randomized Trial in Aging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Keebler, Molly W.; DeFina, Laura F.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Perez, Alison M.; Lu, Hanzhang; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Insidious declines in normal aging are well-established. Emerging evidence suggests that non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive and physical training, may counter diminishing age-related cognitive and brain functions. This randomized trial compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training (CT) vs. physical training (PT) on cognition and brain function in adults 56–75 years. Sedentary participants (N = 36) were randomized to either CT or PT group for 3 h/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline-, mid-, and post-training using neurocognitive, MRI, and physiological measures. The CT group improved on executive function whereas PT group's memory was enhanced. Uniquely deploying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) MRI, the CT cohort showed increased CBF within the prefrontal and middle/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) without change to CVR compared to PT group. Improvements in complex abstraction were positively associated with increased resting CBF in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Exercisers with higher CBF in hippocampi bilaterally showed better immediate memory. The preliminary evidence indicates that increased cognitive and physical activity improves brain health in distinct ways. Reasoning training enhanced frontal networks shown to be integral to top-down cognitive control and brain resilience. Evidence of increased resting CBF without changes to CVR implicates increased neural health rather than improved vascular response. Exercise did not improve cerebrovascular response, although CBF increased in hippocampi of those with memory gains. Distinct benefits incentivize testing effectiveness of combined protocols to strengthen brain health. PMID:27462210

  12. Diffusion-weighted MRI and proton MR spectroscopy in adult hypoxic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The clinical and imaging assessment of patients with severe hypoxic brain injury is difficult, especially in the first few days after the insult. Proton spectroscopy has shown promise in the assessment of neonatal hypoxic brain injury, but there has been little experience with it in adults with such injury. The high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for early stroke suggests that it may be more sensitive to hypoxic injury than conventional sequences. Patients with documented acute hypoxic episodes (cardiac arrest, hanging, measured severe arterial hypotension) and clinical evidence of hypoxic brain injury were included. MRI was not performed until sedation had been ceased for at least 24 hours. In addition to conventional T2-weighted and FLAIR imaging, six patients underwent DWI. A further ten patients underwent conventional imaging plus DWI and proton spectroscopy (PRESS TE 135, 2 x 2 x 2 cm voxel in parasagittal occipital cortex antero-inferiorly). Three of these patients were examined twice because of ongoing radiological and clinical uncertainty. In acute hypoxic insults, a negative diffusion-weighted study does not exclude significant brain injury. Proton spectroscopy is more sensitive to hypoxic brain injury, at least from 48 hours post-ictus, and may provide an index of severity. The findings suggest that acute hypoxia can trigger ongoing neuronal loss (over at least a week) without evidence of macroscopic infarction. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    King, Tricia Z.; Liya Wang; Hui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. Methods Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an in...

  14. Influence of mild traumatic brain injury during pediatric stage on short-term memory and hippocampal apoptosis in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mi-Sook; Oh, Hyean-Ae; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of neurological deficit in the brain, which induces short- and long-term brain damage, cognitive impairment with/without structural alteration, motor deficits, emotional problems, and death both in children and adults. In the present study, we evaluated whether mild TBI in childhood causes persisting memory impairment until adulthood. Moreover, we investigated the influence of mild TBI on memory impairment in relation with hippocampal apoptosis....

  15. In vivo quantification of brain injury in adult Niemann-Pick Disease Type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Crespy, Lydie; Rico, Audrey; Faivre, Anthony; Soulier, Elisabeth; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Kaphan, Elsa; Audoin, Bertrand

    2011-06-01

    Development of surrogate markers is necessary to assess the potential efficacy of new therapeutics in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NP-C). In the present study, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, a quantitative MRI imaging technique sensitive to subtle brain microstructural changes, was applied in two patients suffering from adult NP-C. Statistical mapping analysis was performed to compare each patient's MTR maps with those of a group of 34 healthy controls to quantify and localize the extent of brain injury of each patient. Using this method, pathological changes were evidenced in the cerebellum, the thalami and the lenticular nuclei in both patients and also in the fronto-temporal cortices in the patient with the worse functional deficit. In addition, white matter changes were located in the midbrain, the cerebellum and the fronto-temporal lobes in the patient with the higher level of disability and in only one limited periventricular white matter region in the other patient. A 6-month follow-up was performed in the patient with the lower functional deficit and evidenced significant extension of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) injuries during the following period (14% of increased injury for GM and 53% for WM). This study demonstrates that significant brain injury related to clinical deficit can be assessed in vivo in adult NP-C using MTR imaging. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that MTR imaging may be a relevant candidate for the development of biomarker in NP-C. PMID:21397539

  16. Growth Factors Released from Gelatin Hydrogel Microspheres Increase New Neurons in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Nakaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that new neurons are continuously generated by endogenous neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the adult mammalian brain. Some of these new neurons migrate to injured brain tissues and differentiate into mature neurons, suggesting that such new neurons may be able to replace neurons lost to degenerative disease or injury and improve or repair neurological deficits. Here, we tested whether delivering growth factors via gelatin hydrogel microspheres would support neurogenesis in the SVZ. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons in the SVZ. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons migrating from the SVZ towards the injured striatum in a stroke model in mouse. These results suggest that the strategy of using gelatin hydrogel microspheres to achieve the sustained release of growth factors holds promise for the clinical regeneration of damaged brain tissues from endogenous neural stem cells in the adult SVZ.

  17. Microparticles from apoptotic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells carry tumour necrosis factor-α functionally active on cardiomyocytes from adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Milbank

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After ischaemic injury and in patients with atherosclerosis, the pool of inflammatory macrophages is enlarged in the heart and in atherosclerotic plaques. Monocyte/macrophage-derived microparticles (MPs are part of the pathological process of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. The present study focused on effects of MPs, produced by apoptotic murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, in adult murine cardiomyocytes. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that these MPs contained the soluble form of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Cardiomyocyte sarcomere shortening amplitudes and kinetics were reduced within 5 min of exposure to these MPs. Conversely, Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics were not modified. The contractile effects of MPs were completely prevented after pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase or TNF-α inhibitors as well as blocking TNF-α receptor 1 with neutralizing antibody. Microscopy showed that, after 1 h, MPs were clearly surrounding rod-shaped cardiomyocytes, and after 2 h they were internalized into cardiomyocytes undergoing apoptosis. After 4 h of treatment with MPs, cardiomyocytes expressed increased caspase-3, caspase-8, Bax and cytochrome C. Thus, MPs from apoptotic macrophages induced a negative inotropic effect and slowing of both contraction and relaxation, similar to that observed in the presence of TNF-α. The use of specific inhibitors strongly suggests that TNF-α receptors and the guanylate cyclase/cGMP/PKG pathway were involved in the functional responses to these MPs and that the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway was implicated in their proapoptotic effects. These data suggest that MPs issued from activated macrophages carrying TNF-α could contribute to propagation of inflammatory signals leading to myocardial infarction.

  18. The effects of radiotherapy on psychosocial and cognitive functioning in adults with a primary brain tumor: a prospective evaluation†

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, Maria; Tate, Robyn L.; Williams, Janet R.; Smee, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of studies have evaluated the biopsychosocial factors contributing to quality of life (QoL) in adults with a primary brain tumor (BT). Our objective was to investigate (i) the effects of radiotherapy on the psychosocial (ie, posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS]) and cognitive functioning of adults with a primary BT, assessed preradiotherapy [T1] and postradiotherapy [T2], and (ii) predictors of PTSS and QoL postradiotherapy. Seventy adults with a BT were assessed at T1, and 67 patie...

  19. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  20. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Ali [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Katz, Mindy J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Michael L. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center and Departments of Radiology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, The Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Richard B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Verghese, Joe [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Division of Cognitive and Motor Aging, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  1. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  2. Identification and characterization of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream of the adult human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congmin Wang; Qiangqiang Zhang; Yue Zhang; Rui Chen; Hongjun Song; Zhengang Yang; Fang Liu; Ying-Ying Liu; Cai-Hong Zhao; Yan You; Lei Wang; Jingxiao Zhang; Bin Wei; Tong Ma

    2011-01-01

    It is of great interest to identify new neurons in the adult human brain,but the persistence of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the existence of the rostral migratory stream (RMS)-like pathway in the adult human forebrain remain highly controversial.In the present study,we have described the general configuration of the RMS in adult monkey,fetal human and adult human brains.We provide evidence that neuroblasts exist continuously in the anterior ventral SVZ and RMS of the adult human brain.The neuroblasts appear singly or in pairs without forming chains; they exhibit migratory morphologies and co-express the immature neuronal markers doublecortin,polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule and βI-tubulin.Few of these neuroblasts appear to be actively proliferating in the anterior ventral SVZ but none in the RMS,indicating that neuroblasts distributed along the RMS are most likely derived from the ventral SVZ.Interestingly,no neuroblasts are found in the adult human olfactory bulb.Taken together,our data suggest that the SVZ maintains the ability to produce neuroblasts in the adult human brain.

  3. Efficient Cargo Delivery into Adult Brain Tissue Using Short Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caghan Kizil

    Full Text Available Zebrafish brains can regenerate lost neurons upon neurogenic activity of the radial glial progenitor cells (RGCs that reside at the ventricular region. Understanding the molecular events underlying this ability is of great interest for translational studies of regenerative medicine. Therefore, functional analyses of gene function in RGCs and neurons are essential. Using cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI, RGCs can be targeted efficiently but the penetration capacity of the injected molecules reduces dramatically in deeper parts of the brain tissue, such as the parenchymal regions that contain the neurons. In this report, we tested the penetration efficiency of five known cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs and identified two- polyR and Trans - that efficiently penetrate the brain tissue without overt toxicity in a dose-dependent manner as determined by TUNEL staining and L-Plastin immunohistochemistry. We also found that polyR peptide can help carry plasmid DNA several cell diameters into the brain tissue after a series of coupling reactions using DBCO-PEG4-maleimide-based Michael's addition and azide-mediated copper-free click reaction. Combined with the advantages of CVMI, such as rapidness, reproducibility, and ability to be used in adult animals, CPPs improve the applicability of the CVMI technique to deeper parts of the central nervous system tissues.

  4. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Ch. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: meinecke@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 {mu}m thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 {mu}m) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques.

  5. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 μm thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 μm) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques

  6. Dopamine from the brain promotes spinal motor neuron generation during development and adult regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Michell M; Norris, Anneliese; Ohnmacht, Jochen; Patani, Rickie; Zhong, Zhen; Dias, Tatyana B; Kuscha, Veronika; Scott, Angela L; Chen, Yu-Chia; Rozov, Stanislav; Frazer, Sarah L; Wyatt, Cameron; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Patton, E Elizabeth; Panula, Pertti; Chandran, Siddharthan; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2013-06-10

    Coordinated development of brain stem and spinal target neurons is pivotal for the emergence of a precisely functioning locomotor system. Signals that match the development of these far-apart regions of the central nervous system may be redeployed during spinal cord regeneration. Here we show that descending dopaminergic projections from the brain promote motor neuron generation at the expense of V2 interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord by activating the D4a receptor, which acts on the hedgehog pathway. Inhibiting this essential signal during early neurogenesis leads to a long-lasting reduction of motor neuron numbers and impaired motor responses of free-swimming larvae. Importantly, during successful spinal cord regeneration in adult zebrafish, endogenous dopamine promotes generation of spinal motor neurons, and dopamine agonists augment this process. Hence, we describe a supraspinal control mechanism for the development and regeneration of specific spinal cell types that uses dopamine as a signal. PMID:23707737

  7. Adult axolotls can regenerate original neuronal diversity in response to brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamoto, Ryoji; Huerta, Violeta Gisselle Lopez; Takahashi, Emi; Dai, Guangping; Grant, Aaron K; Fu, Zhanyan; Arlotta, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The axolotl can regenerate multiple organs, including the brain. It remains, however, unclear whether neuronal diversity, intricate tissue architecture, and axonal connectivity can be regenerated; yet, this is critical for recovery of function and a central aim of cell replacement strategies in the mammalian central nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that, upon mechanical injury to the adult pallium, axolotls can regenerate several of the populations of neurons present before injury. Notably, regenerated neurons acquire functional electrophysiological traits and respond appropriately to afferent inputs. Despite the ability to regenerate specific, molecularly-defined neuronal subtypes, we also uncovered previously unappreciated limitations by showing that newborn neurons organize within altered tissue architecture and fail to re-establish the long-distance axonal tracts and circuit physiology present before injury. The data provide a direct demonstration that diverse, electrophysiologically functional neurons can be regenerated in axolotls, but challenge prior assumptions of functional brain repair in regenerative species. PMID:27156560

  8. Netrin-5 is highly expressed in neurogenic regions of the adult brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eYamagishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian netrin family proteins are involved in targeting of axons, neuronal migration, and angiogenesis and act as repulsive and attractive guidance molecules. Netrin-5 is a new member of the netrin family with homology to the C345C domain of netrin-1. Unlike other netrin proteins, murine netrin-5 consists of two EGF motifs of the laminin V domain (LE and the C345C domain, but lacks the N-terminal laminin VI domain and one of the three LE motifs. We generated a specific antibody against netrin-5 to investigate its expression pattern in the rodent adult brain. Strong netrin-5 expression was observed in the olfactory bulb, rostral migrate stream (RMS, the subventricular zone (SVZ, and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, where neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain. In the SVZ and RMS, netrin-5 expression was observed in Mash1-positive transit-amplifying cells and in Doublecortin (DCX-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes. In the olfactory bulb, netrin-5 expression was maintained in neuroblasts, but its level was decreased in NeuN-positive mature neurons. In the hippocampal SGZ, netrin-5 was observed in Mash1-positive cells and in DCX-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes, suggesting that netrin-5 expression occurs from type 2a to type 3 cells. These data suggest that netrin-5 is produced by both transit-amplifying cells and neuroblasts to control neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  9. Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Adult Primary Brain Cancers: A Systematic Review

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    A Guzman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and highvoltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary.

  10. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  11. Astrogliosis in the neonatal and adult murine brain post-trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostworowski, M; Balasingam, V; Chabot, S;

    1997-01-01

    inflammatory cytokines in injury systems in which the presence or absence of astrogliosis could be produced selectively. A stab injury to the adult mouse brain using a piece of nitrocellulose (NC) membrane elicited a prompt and marked increase in levels of transcripts for interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, and...... greater extent by an NC-implant injury, which produced astrogliosis, than after an NC-stab, with minimal astrogliosis. We determined whether endogenous interferon (IFN)-gamma could be responsible for the observed increases in IL-1 and TNF-alpha, because IFN-gamma is a potent microglia/macrophage activator...

  12. Characterising benign fibrous soft-tissue tumours in adults: why is it so difficult and what do we need to know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrous, myofibroblastic, and fibrohistiocytic soft-tissue tumours are amongst the most common benign soft-tissue lesions encountered in clinical practice. They demonstrate varied biological behaviour and imaging characteristics. Benign fibroblastic lesions, such as nodular fasciitis, are small, have a self-limited course, and rarely recur after excision, whereas deep fibromatosis and plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumours tend to exhibit more aggressive features and often have high recurrence rates. MRI with its superior tissue contrast, multiplanar imaging capability, and lack of ionising radiation is regarded as the preferred method of tumour evaluation, tissue characterisation, and assessment of treatment response. Histopathological features are depicted at MRI, reflecting the amount and distribution of the cellular and fibrous matrix. Cellular tumours tend to show higher T2 signal intensity and post-contrast enhancement as compared to tumours with greater collagenous content, which appear dark and show less enhancement. Awareness of MR characteristics, pathological behaviour, and common sites of occurrence of fibrous soft-tissue tumours will help radiologists to determine the appropriate differential diagnosis and guide patient management

  13. Age-related decreased inhibitory versus excitatory gene expression in the adult autistic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Nathan van de Lagemaat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted behaviour and interests. A disruption in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission has been hypothesised to underlie these disorders. Here we demonstrate that genes of both pathways are affected by ASD, and that gene expression of inhibitory and excitatory genes is altered in the cerebral cortex of adult but not younger autistic individuals. We have developed a measure for the difference in the level of excitation and inhibition based on gene expression and observe that in this measure inhibition is decreased relative to excitation in adult ASD compared to control. This difference was undetectable in young autistic brains. Given that many psychiatric features of autism are already present at an early age, this suggests that the observed imbalance in gene expression is an ageing phenomenon in ASD rather than its underlying cause.

  14. Primary Neuronal Precursors in Adult Crayfish Brain: Replenishment from a Non-neuronal Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeman David C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis, the production and integration of new neurons into circuits in the brains of adult animals, is a common feature of a variety of organisms, ranging from insects and crustaceans to birds and mammals. In the mammalian brain the 1st-generation neuronal precursors, the astrocytic stem cells, reside in neurogenic niches and are reported to undergo self-renewing divisions, thereby providing a source of new neurons throughout an animal's life. In contrast, our work shows that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii brain, which also have glial properties and lie in a neurogenic niche resembling that of vertebrates, undergo geometrically symmetrical divisions and both daughters appear to migrate away from the niche. However, in spite of this continuous efflux of cells, the number of neuronal precursors in the crayfish niche continues to expand as the animals grow and age. Based on these observations we have hypothesized that (1 the neuronal stem cells in the crayfish brain are not self-renewing, and (2 a source external to the neurogenic niche must provide cells that replenish the stem cell pool. Results In the present study, we tested the first hypothesis using sequential double nucleoside labeling to track the fate of 1st- and 2nd-generation neuronal precursors, as well as testing the size of the labeled stem cell pool following increasing incubation times in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU. Our results indicate that the 1st-generation precursor cells in the crayfish brain, which are functionally analogous to neural stem cells in vertebrates, are not a self-renewing population. In addition, these studies establish the cycle time of these cells. In vitro studies examining the second hypothesis show that Cell Tracker™ Green-labeled cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to

  15. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting 3H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities

  16. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, C.K.; Ho, I.K.; Hoskins, B.

    1986-03-01

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting /sup 3/H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities.

  17. Functional neuroanatomy of executive function after neonatal brain injury in adults who were born very preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; <33 gestational weeks are at risk of experiencing deficits in tasks involving executive function in childhood and beyond. In addition, the type and severity of neonatal brain injury associated with very preterm birth may exert differential effects on executive functioning by altering its neuroanatomical substrates. Here we addressed this question by investigating with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI the haemodynamic response during executive-type processing using a phonological verbal fluency and a working memory task in VPT-born young adults who had experienced differing degrees of neonatal brain injury. 12 VPT individuals with a history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH, 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads ('easy' and 'hard' letters. Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n = 10, UPVH; n = 8 performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back. Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury.

  18. Low-intensity treadmill exercise and/or bright light promote neurogenesis in adult rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Jin Kwon; Jeongsook Park; So Yun Park; Kwang Seop Song; Sun Tae Jung; So Bong Jung; Ik Ryeul Park; Wan Sung Choi; Sun Ok Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region responsible for learning and memory functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise and bright light exposure on neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in adult rat hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, exercise, light, or exercise + light groups (n = 9 per group). The rats in the exercise group were subjected to treadmill exercise (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, over a 4-week period), the light group rats were irradiated (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, 10 000 lx, over a 4-week period), the exercise + light group rats were subjected to treadmill exercise in combination with bright light exposure, and the control group rats remained sedentary over a 4-week period. Compared with the control group, there was a significant increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats in the exercise, light, and exercise + light groups. Moreover, the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly higher in the exercise group and light group than that in the control group. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression between the control group and exercise + light group. These results indicate that low-intensity treadmill exercise (first 5 minutes at a speed of 2 m/min, second 5 minutes at a speed of 5 m/min, and the last 20 minutes at a speed of 8 m/min) or bright-light exposure therapy induces positive biochemical changes in the brain. In view of these findings, we propose that moderate exercise or exposure to sunlight during childhood can be beneficial for neural development.

  19. Application of SPET using technetium-99m sestamibi in brain tumours and comparison with expression of the MDR-1 gene: is it possible to predict the response to chemotherapy in patients with gliomas by means of 99mTc-sestamibi SPET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, MIBI SPET was compared with thallium-201 (Tl) SPET using magnetic resonance imaging as a guide in 16 patients with untreated brain tumours (ten glioblastomas (GBs)), two anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), two low-grade gliomas (LGASs) and two metastatic brain tumours and in four patients who had received treatment for with brain tumours (two GBs, two AAs). In addition, we investigated the expression of the MDR-1 gene and its product Pgp inn the same patients, and compared the results with MIBI SPET findings. MIBI, as well as Tl, was highly accumulated and retained in the enhanced region of malignant gliomas. In addition, MIBI SPET yielded sharp and well-contrasted images, and the margin of the tumour was more clearly defined than with Tl SPET due to a good signal-to-noise ratio. Follow-up MIBI SPET in patients who had received therapy showed marked uptake in a patient with malignant transformation, who deteriorated clinically. Patients with no uptake on MIBI SPET showed no sign of recurrence. Semiquantitative analysis of untreated patients showed a relationship between the early uptake index and the degree of malignancy. The retention index (RI, ratio of delayed to early UI) of MIBI was significantly lower than that of Tl in metastatic brain tumours (P<0.05), but not in malignant gliomas. Histological and biological investigation of gliomas showed that the MDR-1 gene and its product Pgp were expressed only in normal endothelial cells and not in tumour cells or proliferating enen550601l cells; Pgp tended to decrease as the degree of malignancy rose. Hence, the presence of Pgp and the grade of malignancy were inversely related in gliomas. By contrast, immunohistochemical study showed strong accumulation of Pgp in metastatic brain tumour cells. (orig./MG) (orig.)

  20. Ribosomal protein L11 is related to brain maturation during the adult phase in Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Lu, Wenjing; Yu, Feifei; Kang, Mingjiang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-05-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) play pivotal roles in developmental regulation. The loss or mutation of ribosomal protein L11 ( RPL11) induces various developmental defects. However, few RPs have been functionally characterized in Apis cerana cerana. In this study, we isolated a single copy gene, AccRPL11, and characterized its connection to brain maturation. AccRPL11 expression was highly concentrated in the adult brain and was significantly induced by abiotic stresses such as pesticides and heavy metals. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that AccRPL11 was localized to the medulla, lobula and surrounding tissues of esophagus in the brain. The post-transcriptional knockdown of AccRPL11 gene expression resulted in a severe decrease in adult brain than in other tissues. The expression levels of other brain development-related genes, p38, ERK2, CacyBP and CREB, were also reduced. Immunofluorescence signal attenuation was also observed in AccRPL11-rich regions of the brain in ds AccRPL11-injected honeybees. Taken together, these results suggest that AccRPL11 may be functional in brain maturation in honeybee adults.

  1. 3D standard brain of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: a tool to study metamorphic development and adult plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dreyer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0. The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes, optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the antennal lobes. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, very importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity.

  2. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  3. Brain structure and cognitive correlates of body mass index in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzenius, Jacob D.; Laidlaw, David H.; Cabeen, Ryan P.; Conturo, Thomas E.; McMichael, Amanda R.; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Heaps, Jodi M.; Salminen, Lauren E.; Baker, Laurie M.; Scott, Staci E.; Cooley, Sarah A.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, commonly measured with body mass index (BMI), is associated with numerous deleterious health conditions including alterations in brain integrity related to advanced age. Prior research has suggested that white matter integrity observed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is altered in relation to high BMI, but the integrity of specific white matter tracts remains poorly understood. Additionally, no studies have examined white matter tract integrity in conjunction with neuropsychological evaluation associated with BMI among older adults. The present study examined white matter tract integrity using DTI and cognitive performance associated with BMI in 62 healthy older adults (20 males, 42 females) aged 51 to 81. Results revealed that elevated BMI was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus, though there was no evidence of an age by BMI interaction relating to FA in this tract. No relationships were observed between BMI and other white matter tracts or cognition after controlling for demographic variables. Findings suggest that elevated BMI is associated with lower structural integrity in a brain region connecting frontal and temporal lobes and this alteration precedes cognitive dysfunction. Future studies should examine biological mechanisms that mediate the relationships between BMI and white matter tract integrity, as well as the evolution of these abnormalities utilizing longitudinal designs. PMID:25448431

  4. Neurobehavioural treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder in an adult with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco, Lucius

    2008-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder has been reported as one of many anxiety-related sequelae of brain injury, few empirical data of its responsiveness to psychological intervention are available. In this study, a single participant changing criterion experimental design was used to evaluate a neurobehavioural intervention for compulsive behaviour of an adult with severe traumatic brain injury. The participant, a man aged 24 years, had sustained frontal-temporal lobe brain trauma 12 months earlier, and presented with compulsive counting and voiding of bladder. The neurobehavioural intervention consisted of regular in-home consultations, self-regulation procedures including self-recording of compulsive behaviour, stress-coping strategies, errorless remediation, social reinforcement, and gradual fading of intervention. Baseline showed counting occurred on average 80% of daily hourly intervals, and voiding 12 times per day. Intervention produced elimination of compulsive counting, acceptable voiding at 8 times per day, and reports of the participant's satisfaction with intervention methods and outcomes. At 6 months follow-up, counting remained at zero levels, and voiding had decreased further to 7 times per day. PMID:18058389

  5. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eBarth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  6. Cognitive function and brain structure after recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries in young-to-middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan List

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs are regarded as an independent risk factor for developing dementia in later life. We here aimed to evaluate associations between recurrent mTBIs, cognition, and grey matter volume and microstructure as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the chronic phase after mTBIs in young adulthood. We enrolled 20 young-to-middle-aged subjects, who reported two or more sports-related mTBIs, with the last mTBI>6 months prior to study enrolment (mTBI group, and 21 age-, sex- and education matched controls with no history of mTBI (control group. All participants received comprehensive neuropsychological testing, and high resolution T1-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI in order to assess cortical thickness (CT and microstructure, hippocampal volume, and ventricle size. Compared to the control group, subjects of the mTBI group presented with lower CT within the right temporal lobe and left insula using an a priori region of interest approach. Higher number of mTBIs was associated with lower CT in bilateral insula, right middle temporal gyrus and right entorhinal area. Our results suggest persistent detrimental effects of recurrent mTBIs on CT already in young-to-middle-aged adults. If additional structural deterioration occurs during aging, subtle neuropsychological decline may progress to clinically overt dementia earlier than in age-matched controls, a hypothesis to be assessed in future prospective trials.

  7. Expression of Npas4 mRNA in telencephalic areas of adult and postnatal mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula H Winzer-Serhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4 is an inducible immediate early gene which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses, and could have a significant regulatory role during cortical circuit formation. However, little is known about basal Npas4 mRNA expression during postnatal development. Here, postnatal and adult mouse brain sections were processed for isotopic in situ hybridization using an Npas4 specific cRNA antisense probe. In adults, Npas4 mRNA was found in the telencephalon with very restricted or no expression in diencephalon or mesencephalon. In most telencephalic areas, including the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, piriform cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, dorsal caudate putamen (CPu, septum and basolateral amygdala nucleus (BLA, basal Npas4 expression was detected in scattered cells which exhibited strong hybridization signal. In embryonic and neonatal brain sections, Npas4 mRNA expression signals were very low. Starting at postnatal day 5 (P5, transcripts for Npas4 were detected in the AON, CPu and piriform cortex. At P8, additional Npas4 hybridization was found in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layer, and in primary motor cortex. By P13, robust mRNA expression was located in layers IV and VI of all sensory cortices, frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. After onset of expression, postnatal spatial mRNA distribution was similar to that in adults, with the exception of the CPu, where Npas4 transcripts became gradually restricted to the most dorsal part. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of Npas4 mRNA is mostly restricted to telencephalic areas, and the temporal expression increases with developmental age during postnatal development, which seem to correlate with the onset of activity-driven excitatory transmission.

  8. Prediction of tumour necrosis fractions using metabolic and volumetric 18F-FDG PET/CT indices, after one course and at the completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in children and young adults with osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility of combined metabolic and volumetric 18F-FDG PET/CT indices for predicting tumour necrosis fractions following neoadjuvant chemotherapy has not been extensively studied in osteosarcoma. Furthermore, little is known of the early PET/CT responses after only one chemotherapy course. Enrolled in the study were 20 children and young adults with resectable osteosarcoma who had undergone 18F-FDG PET/CT scans before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Maximum standardized uptake value (mSUV), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured. From among the 20 patients, 14 were prospectively recruited and underwent an additional PET/CT scan after one chemotherapy course. Histopathological necrosis fractions were compared with the above-mentioned PET/CT indices and their ratios. MTV at the SUV threshold of 2 g/ml was closely correlated with the magnetic resonance image volumes before therapy (r = 0.91). In the prospective cohort, five patients were classified as good responders and nine as poor responders. All the metabolic indices (mSUV and its ratio) and combined metabolic/volumetric indices (MTV, TLG, and their ratios) except the mSUV ratio determined after therapy showed significant differences between good and poor responders (P 18F-FDG PET/CT indices (either combined metabolic/volumetric or metabolic indices) determined after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were useful in predicting tumour responses. This held true after only one chemotherapy course. (orig.)

  9. Measuring inhibitory control in children and adults: brain imaging and mental chronometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., "fast thinking" in Daniel Kahneman's words). The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics) by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children's conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number-conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need "prefrontal pedagogy" in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases) in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative priming paradigm). We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks. PMID:24994993

  10. Measuring inhibitory control in children and adults: brain imaging and mental chronometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eHoudé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., fast thinking in Daniel Kahneman’s words. The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children’s conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need prefrontal pedagogy in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative-priming paradigm. We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks.

  11. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults : a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ponce de León; John Waterworth

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cogn...

  12. Radionuclide gamma-topography of the brain in the diagnosis of inflammatory process in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-topography of the brain as a differential diagnostic method permits the recognition of an inflammatory process and specification of its localization. Altogether 61 patients were investigated: abscesses of the brain (36 patients, of them 16 children); focal arachnoencephalitides (14 patients, of them 5 children); arachnoiditides (11 patients). Due to its simplicity, small radiation exposure and noninvasive character of the method gamma-topography can be recommended in outpatient clinics and hospitals both for children and adults

  13. Immunocytochemical localization of a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in nervous tissue. I. Adult brain, retina, and peripheral nerve

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Monospecific antibodies were prepared to a previously characterized chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain and used in conjunction with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique to localize the proteoglycan by immunoelectron microscopy. The proteoglycan was found to be exclusively intracellular in adult cerebellum, cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord. Some neurons and astrocytes (including Golgi epithelial cells and Bergmann fibers) showed strong cytoplasmic staining. Although in the centr...

  14. Adult neurogenesis in the crayfish brain: proliferation, migration, and possible origin of precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Allodi, Silvana; Sandeman, David C; Beltz, Barbara S

    2009-06-01

    The birth of new neurons and their incorporation into functional circuits in the adult brain is a characteristic of many vertebrate and invertebrate organisms, including decapod crustaceans. Precursor cells maintaining life-long proliferation in the brains of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Cherax destructor) and clawed lobsters (Homarus americanus) reside within a specialized niche on the ventral surface of the brain; their daughters migrate to two proliferation zones along a stream formed by processes of the niche precursors. Here they divide again, finally producing interneurons in the olfactory pathway. The present studies in P. clarkii explore (1) differential proliferative activity among the niche precursor cells with growth and aging, (2) morphological characteristics of cells in the niche and migratory streams, and (3) aspects of the cell cycle in this lineage. Morphologically symmetrical divisions of neuronal precursor cells were observed in the niche near where the migratory streams emerge, as well as in the streams and proliferation zones. The nuclei of migrating cells elongate and undergo shape changes consistent with nucleokinetic movement. LIS1, a highly conserved dynein-binding protein, is expressed in cells in the migratory stream and neurogenic niche, implicating this protein in the translocation of crustacean brain neuronal precursor cells. Symmetrical divisions of the niche precursors and migration of both daughters raised the question of how the niche precursor pool is replenished. We present here preliminary evidence for an association between vascular cells and the niche precursors, which may relate to the life-long growth and maintenance of the crustacean neurogenic niche. PMID:19294644

  15. The relation between brain activity during memory tasks and years of education in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mellanie V; McIntosh, Anthony R; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl L

    2005-03-01

    Higher education is associated with less age-related decline in cognitive function, but the mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. The authors examined the effect of age on the relation between education and brain activity by correlating years of education with activity measured using functional MRI during memory tasks in young and older adults. In young adults, education was negatively correlated with frontal activity, whereas in older adults, education was positively correlated with frontal activity. Medial temporal activity was associated with more education in young adults but less education in older adults. This suggests that the frontal cortex is engaged by older adults, particularly by the highly educated, as an alternative network that may be engaged to aid cognitive function. PMID:15769202

  16. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in boys, adolescents and adult men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia may be associated with the CYP21A2 mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Jørgensen, Niels; Main, Katharina M; Schwartz, Marianne; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder with impaired function of the adrenal cortex caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. Deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase accounts for 80-95% of CAH cases. Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) may be prevalent in up to 95...

  17. Adult sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic brain injury during aquatic sports was similarly associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOSs, medical complications, and failure to be discharged to home. CONCLUSIONS Age, hypotension on ED admission, severity of head and extracranial injuries

  18. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  19. Tumours and tumourous diseases; Tumoren, tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, W. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    This book on tumours and tumourous diseases comprises two parts: 1. Bone tumours and tumourous lesions. 2. Soft tissue tumours and tumourous lesions. Details are presented on pathology, diagnosis, conservative and perioperative therapy, surgical therapy, complications after resection, indicators for amputation, recommendations for follow-up treatment, radiotherapy, radionuclide therapy, alternative therapies, therapy concepts in case of metastases, tissue engineering and plastic surgery. (uke) [German] Der vorliegende Band der Reihe Orthopaedie und orthopaedische Chirurgie behandelt das Thema Tumoren und tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen. Der Band teilt sich in zwei Kapitel: 1. Knochentumoren und tumorartige Laesionen und 2. Weichteiltumoren und tumorartige Laesionen. Dargestellt werden Pathologie, Diagnostik, konservative und perioperative Therapie, chirurgische Therapie, Komplikationen nach Resektion, Indikatoren zur Amputation, Nachsorgeempfehlung, Strahlentherapie, Radionuklidtherapie, alternative Therapieverfahren, Therapiekonzepte bei Metastasen, Tissue Engineering und plastisch-chirurgische Massnahmen. (uke)

  20. Transsynaptic trophic effects of steroid hormones in an avian model of adult brain plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenowitz, Eliot A.

    2014-01-01

    The avian song control system provides an excellent model for studying transsynaptic trophic effects of steroid sex hormones. Seasonal changes in systemic testosterone (T) and its metabolites regulate plasticity of this system. Steroids interact with the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to influence cellular processes of plasticity in nucleus HVC of adult birds, including the addition of newborn neurons. This interaction may also occur transsynpatically; T increases the synthesis of BDNF in HVC, and BDNF protein is then released by HVC neurons on to postsynaptic cells in nucleus RA where it has trophic effects on activity and morphology. Androgen action on RA neurons increases their activity and this has a retrograde trophic effect on the addition of new neurons to HVC. The functional linkage of sex steroids to BDNF may be of adaptive value in regulating the trophic effects of the neurotrophin and coordinating circuit function in reproductively relevant contexts. PMID:25285401

  1. The evidence for increased L1 activity in the site of human adult brain neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Kurnosov

    Full Text Available Retroelement activity is a common source of polymorphisms in human genome. The mechanism whereby retroelements contribute to the intraindividual genetic heterogeneity by inserting into the DNA of somatic cells is gaining increasing attention. Brain tissues are suspected to accumulate genetic heterogeneity as a result of the retroelements somatic activity. This study aims to expand our understanding of the role retroelements play in generating somatic mosaicism of neural tissues. Whole-genome Alu and L1 profiling of genomic DNA extracted from the cerebellum, frontal cortex, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, and the myocardium revealed hundreds of somatic insertions in each of the analyzed tissues. Interestingly, the highest concentration of such insertions was detected in the dentate gyrus-the hotspot of adult neurogenesis. Insertions of retroelements and their activity could produce genetically diverse neuronal subsets, which can be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

  2. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'. PMID:26644026

  3. A study on brain ventricle measurement of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be a reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebroventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shape in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  4. A study on brain ventricle measurements of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebrocventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shaped in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  5. Species differences in brain gene expression profiles associated with adult behavioral maturation in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Gene E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Honey bees are known for several striking social behaviors, including a complex pattern of behavioral maturation that gives rise to an age-related colony division of labor and a symbolic dance language, by which successful foragers communicate the location of attractive food sources to their nestmates. Our understanding of honey bees is mostly based on studies of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, even though there are 9–10 other members of genus Apis, showing interesting variations in social behavior relative to A. mellifera. To facilitate future in-depth genomic and molecular level comparisons of behavior across the genus, we performed a microarray analysis of brain gene expression for A. mellifera and three key species found in Asia, A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata. Results For each species we compared brain gene expression patterns between foragers and adult one-day-old bees on an A. mellifera cDNA microarray and calculated within-species gene expression ratios to facilitate cross-species analysis. The number of cDNA spots showing hybridization fluorescence intensities above the experimental threshold was reduced by an average of 16% in the Asian species compared to A. mellifera, but an average of 71% of genes on the microarray were available for analysis. Brain gene expression profiles between foragers and one-day-olds showed differences that are consistent with a previous study on A. mellifera and were comparable across species. Although 1772 genes showed significant differences in expression between foragers and one-day-olds, only 218 genes showed differences in forager/one-day-old expression between species (p Conclusion We conclude that the A. mellifera cDNA microarray can be used effectively for cross-species comparisons within the genus. Our results indicate that there is a widespread conservation of the molecular processes in the honey bee brain underlying behavioral maturation. Species differences in

  6. Mathematical Modelling of a Brain Tumour Initiation and Early Development: A Coupled Model of Glioblastoma Growth, Pre-Existing Vessel Co-Option, Angiogenesis and Blood Perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Wu, Jie; Li, Zhiyong; Long, Quan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a coupled mathematical modelling system to investigate glioblastoma growth in response to dynamic changes in chemical and haemodynamic microenvironments caused by pre-existing vessel co-option, remodelling, collapse and angiogenesis. A typical tree-like architecture network with different orders for vessel diameter is designed to model pre-existing vasculature in host tissue. The chemical substances including oxygen, vascular endothelial growth factor, extra-cellular matrix and matrix degradation enzymes are calculated based on the haemodynamic environment which is obtained by coupled modelling of intravascular blood flow with interstitial fluid flow. The haemodynamic changes, including vessel diameter and permeability, are introduced to reflect a series of pathological characteristics of abnormal tumour vessels including vessel dilation, leakage, angiogenesis, regression and collapse. Migrating cells are included as a new phenotype to describe the migration behaviour of malignant tumour cells. The simulation focuses on the avascular phase of tumour development and stops at an early phase of angiogenesis. The model is able to demonstrate the main features of glioblastoma growth in this phase such as the formation of pseudopalisades, cell migration along the host vessels, the pre-existing vasculature co-option, angiogenesis and remodelling. The model also enables us to examine the influence of initial conditions and local environment on the early phase of glioblastoma growth. PMID:26934465

  7. MRI-guided stereotaxic brain surgery in the infant and adult common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundinano, Inaki-Carril; Flecknell, Paul A; Bourne, James A

    2016-07-01

    In the past decade, the New World common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has taken a seminal position in neurobiological research, fueled in part by its smooth cortical sheet, which allows cortical areas to be easily accessed by current technologies on the dorsal surface of the brain. In this protocol, we describe a method for the precision placement of agents (e.g., tracers or neurotoxins) into small brain regions of the infant and adult marmoset, using an MRI-guided approach. This strategy uses a protocol for prolonged anesthesia without the need for intubation that we have recently developed, alongside appropriate analgesia and monitoring. The protocol can be readily adapted to be used together with advanced research techniques, such as two-photon microscopy and optical imaging. Including a 5-d postoperative care plan, this protocol takes 7 d to complete. The protocol requires a team of personnel experienced in marmoset care and handling, and small-animal neurosurgery; an assistant for monitoring the animal and assisting with anesthesia; and an MRI technician. PMID:27336707

  8. Outcome of decompressive craniectomy (DC) for severe traumatic brain injury (stbi) in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the outcomes of decompressive craniectomy (DC) in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Study Design: Observational cross-sectional. Place and Duration of Study: Neurosurgical unit CMH Rawalpindi from July, 2011 to June 2014. Material and Methods: Total of 39 patients who underwent DC for STBI were included in the study. Patients of both sexes and of age range 20 - 48 (32.03 +- 8.01) years were included in the study. The DC was performed within 24 and after 24 hours. Parameters recorded were mortality, neurological outcome / complications like brain herniation, wound dehiscence, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, contusion expansion, sinking flap syndrome, subdural hygromas and hydrocephalus. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 17 and descriptive statistics, frequency, rate and percentage was computed for presentation of qualitative outcomes. Results: Favourable neurological outcome was seen in 21 patients (53.85%) where as 6 patients (15.38%) had moderate to severe disability and 3 patients (7.69%) were vegetative respectively. Patients operated within 24 hours and with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) range 6-8 had better outcome. Overall 9 patients (23.08%) did not survive the injury and procedure. Conclusion: As high mortality is associated with STBI, DC is an effective option to lower down the refractory intracranial hypertension with an acceptable surgical outcome. (author)

  9. Figurative language processing after traumatic brain injury in adults: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fanpei Gloria; Fuller, Jerome; Khodaparast, Navid; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2010-06-01

    Figurative speech (e.g., proverb, irony, metaphor, and idiom) has been reported to be particularly sensitive to measurement of abstract thinking in patients who suffer from impaired abstraction and language abilities. Metaphor processing was investigated with fMRI in adults with moderate to severe post-acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and healthy age-matched controls using a valence-judgment task. We hypothesized that TBI patients would display decreased activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), which is considered central to semantic memory retrieval and abstract thought, in comparison with healthy controls. We also predicted that decreased activation in TBI individuals would correlate with their behavioral response times. A whole-brain analysis across the two participant groups revealed that patients did not strongly engage frontal and temporal regions related to semantic processing for novel metaphor comprehension, whereas control participants exhibited more intensive and concentrated activation within frontal and temporal areas. A region of interest (ROI) analysis verified that the LIFG was underactivated in TBI patients compared to controls across all conditions. TBI patients' impaired abstraction of novel stimuli may stem from reduced prefrontal control of semantic memory as well as disrupted interconnectivity of prefrontal cortex with other regions. PMID:20230844

  10. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor into adult neocortex strengthens a taste aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2016-01-15

    Nowadays, it is known that brain derived neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in regulating long-term memory related mechanisms. Previous studies from our group in the insular cortex (IC), a brain structure of the temporal lobe implicated in acquisition, consolidation and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), demonstrated that BDNF is essential for CTA consolidation. Recent studies show that BDNF-TrkB signaling is able to mediate the enhancement of memory. However, whether BDNF into neocortex is able to enhance aversive memories remains unexplored. In the present work, we administrated BDNF in a concentration capable of inducing in vivo neocortical LTP, into the IC immediately after CTA acquisition in two different conditions: a "strong-CTA" induced by 0.2M lithium chloride i.p. as unconditioned stimulus, and a "weak-CTA" induced by 0.1M lithium chloride i.p. Our results show that infusion of BDNF into the IC converts a weak CTA into a strong one, in a TrkB receptor-dependent manner. The present data suggest that BDNF into the adult insular cortex is sufficient to increase an aversive memory-trace. PMID:26433146

  11. Adult axolotls can regenerate original neuronal diversity in response to brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamoto, Ryoji; Huerta, Violeta Gisselle Lopez; Takahashi, Emi; Dai, Guangping; Grant, Aaron K; Fu, Zhanyan; Arlotta, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The axolotl can regenerate multiple organs, including the brain. It remains, however, unclear whether neuronal diversity, intricate tissue architecture, and axonal connectivity can be regenerated; yet, this is critical for recovery of function and a central aim of cell replacement strategies in the mammalian central nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that, upon mechanical injury to the adult pallium, axolotls can regenerate several of the populations of neurons present before injury. Notably, regenerated neurons acquire functional electrophysiological traits and respond appropriately to afferent inputs. Despite the ability to regenerate specific, molecularly-defined neuronal subtypes, we also uncovered previously unappreciated limitations by showing that newborn neurons organize within altered tissue architecture and fail to re-establish the long-distance axonal tracts and circuit physiology present before injury. The data provide a direct demonstration that diverse, electrophysiologically functional neurons can be regenerated in axolotls, but challenge prior assumptions of functional brain repair in regenerative species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13998.001 PMID:27156560

  12. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)…

  13. Comparison of specific absorption rate induced in brain tissues of a child and an adult using mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2012-04-01

    The steady increase of mobile phone usage, especially mobile phones by children, has led to a rising concern about the possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. The objective of this work is to study whether there is a larger radio frequency energy absorption in the brain of a child compared to that of an adult. For this reason, three high-resolution models, two child head models (6 - and 11-year old) and one adult head model (34-year old) have been used in the study. A finite-difference time-domain method was employed to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the models from exposure to a generic handset at 1750 MHz. The results show that the SAR distributions in the human brain are age-dependent, and there is a deeper penetration of the absorbed SAR in the child's brain. The induced SAR can be significantly higher in subregions of the child's brain. In all of the examined cases, the SAR values in the brains of a child and an adult are well below the IEEE safety standard.

  14. Diurnal microstructural variations in healthy adult brain revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Jiang

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is a fundamental property of human physiology. Changes in the extracellular space induced by cell swelling in response to the neural activity enable the in vivo characterization of cerebral microstructure by measuring the water diffusivity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. To study the diurnal microstructural alterations of human brain, fifteen right-handed healthy adult subjects were recruited for DTI studies in two repeated sessions (8∶30 AM and 8∶30 PM within a 24-hour interval. Fractional anisotropy (FA, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, axial (λ// and radial diffusivity (λ⊥ were compared pixel by pixel between the sessions for each subject. Significant increased morning measurements in FA, ADC, λ// and λ⊥ were seen in a wide range of brain areas involving frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Prominent evening dominant λ⊥ (18.58% was detected in the right inferior temporal and ventral fusiform gyri. AM-PM variation of λ⊥ was substantially left side hemisphere dominant (p<0.05, while no hemispheric preference was observed for the same analysis for ADC (p = 0.77, λ// (p = 0.08 or FA (p = 0.25. The percentage change of ADC, λ//, λ⊥, and FA were 1.59%, 2.15%, 1.20% and 2.84%, respectively, for brain areas without diurnal diffusivity contrast. Microstructural variations may function as the substrates of the phasic neural activities in correspondence to the environment adaptation in a light-dark cycle. This research provided a baseline for researches in neuroscience, sleep medicine, psychological and psychiatric disorders, and necessitates that diurnal effect should be taken into account in following up studies using diffusion tensor quantities.

  15. Relationship of metabolic and endocrine parameters to brain glucose metabolism in older adults: do cognitively-normal older adults have a particular metabolic phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, S; Castellano, C A; Bocti, C; Dionne, I; Fulop, T; Cunnane, S C

    2016-02-01

    Our primary objective in this study was to quantify whole brain and regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRg) in young and older adults in order to determine age-normalized reference CMRg values for healthy older adults with normal cognition for age. Our secondary objectives were to--(i) report a broader range of metabolic and endocrine parameters including body fat composition that could form the basis for the concept of a 'metabolic phenotype' in cognitively normal, older adults, and (ii) to assess whether medications commonly used to control blood lipids, blood pressure or thyroxine affect CMRg values in older adults. Cognition assessed by a battery of tests was normal for age and education in both groups. Compared to the young group (25 years old; n = 34), the older group (72 years old; n = 41) had ~14% lower CMRg (μmol/100 g/min) specifically in the frontal cortex, and 18% lower CMRg in the caudate. Lower grey matter volume and cortical thickness was widespread in the older group. These differences in CMRg, grey matter volume and cortical thickness were present in the absence of any known evidence for prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Percent total body fat was positively correlated with CMRg in many brain regions but only in the older group. Before and after controlling for body fat, HOMA2-IR was significantly positively correlated to CMRg in several brain regions in the older group. These data show that compared to a healthy younger adult, the metabolic phenotype of a cognitively-normal 72 year old person includes similar plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and TSH, higher hemoglobin A1c and percent body fat, lower CMRg in the superior frontal cortex and caudate, but the same CMRg in the hippocampus and white matter. Age-normalization of cognitive test results is standard practice and we would suggest that regional CMRg in cognitively healthy older adults should also be age-normalized. PMID:26364049

  16. DCC Expression by Neurons Regulates Synaptic Plasticity in the Adult Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Horn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmembrane protein deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC and its ligand, netrin-1, regulate synaptogenesis during development, but their function in the mature central nervous system is unknown. Given that DCC promotes cell-cell adhesion, is expressed by neurons, and activates proteins that signal at synapses, we hypothesized that DCC expression by neurons regulates synaptic function and plasticity in the adult brain. We report that DCC is enriched in dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice, and we demonstrate that selective deletion of DCC from neurons in the adult forebrain results in the loss of long-term potentiation (LTP, intact long-term depression, shorter dendritic spines, and impaired spatial and recognition memory. LTP induction requires Src activation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR function. DCC deletion severely reduced Src activation. We demonstrate that enhancing NMDAR function or activating Src rescues LTP in the absence of DCC. We conclude that DCC activation of Src is required for NMDAR-dependent LTP and certain forms of learning and memory.

  17. Differential vascular permeability along the forebrain ventricular neurogenic niche in the adult murine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-Castelán, Dannia; Ramírez-Santos, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2016-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis is influenced by blood-borne factors. In this context, greater or lesser vascular permeability along neurogenic niches would expose differentially neural stem cells (NSCs), transit amplifying cells (TACs), and neuroblasts to such factors. Here we evaluate endothelial cell morphology and vascular permeability along the forebrain neurogenic niche in the adult brain. Our results confirm that the subventricular zone (SVZ) contains highly permeable, discontinuous blood vessels, some of which allow the extravasation of molecules larger than those previously reported. In contrast, the rostral migratory stream (RMS) and the olfactory bulb core (OBc) display mostly impermeable, continuous blood vessels. These results imply that NSCs, TACs, and neuroblasts located within the SVZ are exposed more readily to blood-borne molecules, including those with very high molecular weights, than those positioned along the RMS and the OBc, subregions in which every stage of neurogenesis also takes place. These observations suggest that the existence of specialized vascular niches is not a precondition for neurogenesis to occur; specialized vascular beds might be essential for keeping high rates of proliferation and/or differential differentiation of neural precursors located at distinct domains. PMID:26492830

  18. Analysis of Altered Baseline Brain Activity in Drug-Naive Adult Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Using Resting-State Functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Changjian; Feng, Yuan; Meng, Yajing; Liao, Wei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Zhu, Chunyan; Chen, Huafu; Gong, Qiyong; ZHANG Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective We hypothesize that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) is involved in the altered regional baseline brain function in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of the study was to analyze the altered baseline brain activity in drug-naive adult patients with SAD. Methods We investigated spontaneous and baseline brain activities by obtaining the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 20 drug-naïve adult SAD patients and 19 healthy controls. Voxels wer...

  19. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit;

    2006-01-01

    Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain......, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression...... the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes...

  20. Imaging diagnostics and therapy of soft tissue tumours. with pathological classification, nuclear medicine and interventional therapy; Bildgebende Diagnostik und Therapie der Weichteiltumoren. Mit pathologischer Klassifikation, Nuklearmedizin, interventioneller Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenseher, M. [Landesklinikum Waldviertel Horn (Austria). Roentgenklinik; Dominikus, M [Medizinische Univ. Wien, Vienna (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie; Amann, G. (eds.) [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Wien, Vienna (Austria). Klinisches Inst. fuer Pathologie

    2008-07-01

    The book covers the following topics: general fundamentals, clinical diagnostics of soft-tissue tumours, soft-tissue tumours from a pathological view, general information and systematic according the WHO classification 2002, imaging diagnostics of soft-tissue tumours, radiological diagnostics of soft-tissue tumours, orthopedic-surgical therapy of soft-tissue tumours, radiological-interventional therapy of vascular soft-tissue tumours, chemotherapy of adult soft-tissue extremity sarcomas, radiotherapy of soft-tissue tumours.

  1. Association of Metabolic Dysregulation With Volumetric Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cognitive Markers of Subclinical Brain Aging in Middle-Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Beiser, Alexa S; Au, Rhoda; Himali, Jayandra J.; Debette, Stephanie; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wolf, Philip A.; Seshadri, Sudha; Tan, Zaldy S.; Fox, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic and prediabtic states, including insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia, are associated with metabolic dysregulation. These components have been individually linked to increased risks of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to comprehensively relate all of the components of metabolic dysregulation to cognitive function and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in middle-aged adults. Research Design and Methods: Framingham Offspring ...

  2. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  3. Pharmacological reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis modifies functional brain circuits in mice exposed to a cocaine conditioned place preference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Pedraz, María; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) behaviour and the functional brain circuitry involved. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was pharmacologically reduced with temozolomide (TMZ), and mice were tested for cocaine-induced CPP to study c-Fos expression in the hippocampus and in extrahippocampal addiction-related areas. Correlational and multivariate analysis revealed that, under normal conditions, the hippocampus showed widespread functional connectivity with other brain areas and strongly contributed to the functional brain module associated with CPP expression. However, the neurogenesis-reduced mice showed normal CPP acquisition but engaged an alternate brain circuit where the functional connectivity of the dentate gyrus was notably reduced and other areas (the medial prefrontal cortex, accumbens and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus) were recruited instead of the hippocampus. A second experiment unveiled that mice acquiring the cocaine-induced CPP under neurogenesis-reduced conditions were delayed in extinguishing their drug-seeking behaviour. But if the inhibited neurons were generated after CPP acquisition, extinction was not affected but an enhanced long-term CPP retention was found, suggesting that some roles of the adult-born neurons may differ depending on whether they are generated before or after drug-contextual associations are established. Importantly, cocaine-induced reinstatement of CPP behaviour was increased in the TMZ mice, regardless of the time of neurogenesis inhibition. The results show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis sculpts the addiction-related functional brain circuits, and reduction of the adult-born hippocampal neurons increases cocaine seeking in the CPP model. PMID:25870909

  4. Diffusion tensor trace mapping in normal adult brain using single-shot EPI technique: A methodological study of the aging brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantify age-related changes of the average diffusion coefficient value in normal adult brain using orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace mapping and to address the methodological influences on diffusion quantification. Material and Methods: Fifty-four normal subjects (aged 20-79 years) were studied on a 1.5-T whole-body MR medical unit using a diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging technique. Orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace maps were constructed for each subject using diffusion-weighted MR measurements in four different directions using a tetrahedral gradient combination pattern. The global average (including cerebral spinal fluid) and the tissue average of diffusion coefficients in adult brains were determined by analyzing the diffusion coefficient distribution histogram for the entire brain. Methodological influences on the measured diffusion coefficient were also investigated by comparing the results obtained using different experimental settings. Results: Both global and tissue averages of the diffusion coefficient are significantly correlated with age (p<0.03). The global average of the diffusion coefficient increases 3% per decade after the age of 40, whereas the increase in the tissue average of diffusion coefficient is about 1% per decade. Experimental settings for self-diffusion measurements, such as data acquisition methods and number of b-values, can slightly influence the statistical distribution histogram of the diffusion tensor trace and its average value. Conclusion: Increased average diffusion coefficient in adult brains with aging are consistent with findings regarding structural changes in the brain that have been associated with aging. The study also demonstrates that it is desirable to use the same experimental parameters for diffusion coefficient quantification when comparing between different subjects and groups of interest

  5. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-06-15

    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  6. Ablation of lung tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Gillams, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Radiofrequency, laser, microwave and cryotherapy have all been used for the ablation of lung tumours. However, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation are the most widely used technologies. RFA has been successfully applied to tumour measuring from

  7. Control of the blood-brain barrier function in cancer cell metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz, Kinga G; Colla, Ruben; Rohde, Veit; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral metastases are the most common brain neoplasms seen clinically in the adults and comprise more than half of all brain tumours. Actual treatment options for brain metastases that include surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are rarely curative, although palliative treatment improves survival and life quality of patients carrying brain-metastatic tumours. Chemotherapy in particular has also shown limited or no activity in brain metastasis of most tumour types. Many chemotherapeutic agents used systemically do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whereas others may transiently weaken the BBB and allow extravasation of tumour cells from the circulation into the brain parenchyma. Increasing evidence points out that the interaction between the BBB and tumour cells plays a key role for implantation and growth of brain metastases in the central nervous system. The BBB, as the tightest endothelial barrier, prevents both early detection and treatment by creating a privileged microenvironment. Therefore, as observed in several in vivo studies, precise targetting the BBB by a specific transient opening of the structure making it permeable for therapeutic compounds, might potentially help to overcome this difficult clinical problem. Moreover, a better understanding of the molecular features of the BBB, its interrelation with metastatic tumour cells and the elucidation of cellular mechanisms responsible for establishing cerebral metastasis must be clearly outlined in order to promote treatment modalities that particularly involve chemotherapy. This in turn would substantially expand the survival and quality of life of patients with brain metastasis, and potentially increase the remission rate. Therefore, the focus of this review is to summarise the current knowledge on the role and function of the BBB in cancer metastasis. PMID:26032862

  8. Prediction of tumour necrosis fractions using metabolic and volumetric {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT indices, after one course and at the completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in children and young adults with osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Hyung Jun; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok-ki [National Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seog-Yun; Min, Hye Sook [National Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, June Hyuk; Kang, Hyun Guy [National Cancer Center, Orthopedic Oncology Clinic, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Eun [National Cancer Center, Cancer Biostatistics Branch, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Mi Mi; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Byung-Kiu [National Cancer Center, Center for Pediatric Oncology, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The utility of combined metabolic and volumetric {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT indices for predicting tumour necrosis fractions following neoadjuvant chemotherapy has not been extensively studied in osteosarcoma. Furthermore, little is known of the early PET/CT responses after only one chemotherapy course. Enrolled in the study were 20 children and young adults with resectable osteosarcoma who had undergone {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Maximum standardized uptake value (mSUV), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured. From among the 20 patients, 14 were prospectively recruited and underwent an additional PET/CT scan after one chemotherapy course. Histopathological necrosis fractions were compared with the above-mentioned PET/CT indices and their ratios. MTV at the SUV threshold of 2 g/ml was closely correlated with the magnetic resonance image volumes before therapy (r = 0.91). In the prospective cohort, five patients were classified as good responders and nine as poor responders. All the metabolic indices (mSUV and its ratio) and combined metabolic/volumetric indices (MTV, TLG, and their ratios) except the mSUV ratio determined after therapy showed significant differences between good and poor responders (P <0.05). Differences were also noted for all of these indices determined after one chemotherapy course. Furthermore, most of these indices determined after therapy as well as after one chemotherapy course had good sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value with respect to predicting histological response to chemotherapy. In our osteosarcoma patient population, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT indices (either combined metabolic/volumetric or metabolic indices) determined after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were useful in predicting tumour responses. This held true after only one chemotherapy course. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Stanić; Sydney Dubois; Hui Kheng Chua; Bruce Tonge; Nicole Rinehart; Malcolm K Horne; Wah Chin Boon

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, in...

  10. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  11. IGF-I: A key growth factor that regulates neurogenesis and synaptogenesis from embryonic to adult stages of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa eNieto-Estévez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The generation of neurons in the adult mammalian brain requires the activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs. This activation and the sequential steps of neuron formation from NSCs are regulated by a number of stimuli, which include growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I exert pleiotropic effects, regulating multiple cellular processes depending on their concentration, cell type and the developmental stage of the animal. Although IGF-I expression is relatively high in the embryonic brain its levels drop sharply in the adult brain except in neurogenic regions, i.e., the hippocampus (HP and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB. By contrast, the expression of IGF-IR remains relatively high in the brain irrespective of the age of the animal. Evidence indicates that IGF-I influences NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and glia as well as neuronal maturation including synapse formation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IGF-I not only promote adult neurogenesis by regulating NSC number and differentiation but also, by influencing neuronal positioning and migration as described during SVZ-OB neurogenesis. In this article we will revise and discuss the actions reported for IGF-I signaling in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on the maintenance and proliferation of NSCs/progenitors, neurogenesis and neuron integration in synaptic circuits.

  12. IGF-I: A Key Growth Factor that Regulates Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis from Embryonic to Adult Stages of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Defterali, Çağla; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The generation of neurons in the adult mammalian brain requires the activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs). This activation and the sequential steps of neuron formation from NSCs are regulated by a number of stimuli, which include growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exert pleiotropic effects, regulating multiple cellular processes depending on their concentration, cell type, and the developmental stage of the animal. Although IGF-I expression is relatively high in the embryonic brain its levels drop sharply in the adult brain except in neurogenic regions, i.e., the hippocampus (HP) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB). By contrast, the expression of IGF-IR remains relatively high in the brain irrespective of the age of the animal. Evidence indicates that IGF-I influences NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and glia as well as neuronal maturation including synapse formation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IGF-I not only promote adult neurogenesis by regulating NSC number and differentiation but also by influencing neuronal positioning and migration as described during SVZ-OB neurogenesis. In this article we will revise and discuss the actions reported for IGF-I signaling in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on the maintenance and proliferation of NSCs/progenitors, neurogenesis, and neuron integration in synaptic circuits. PMID:26941597

  13. Effects of methylphenidate on resting-state brain activity in normal adults: an fMRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong Zhu; Bin Gao; Jianming Hua; Weibo Liu; Yichao Deng; Lijie Zhang; Biao Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Although several studies have evaluated the effects of MPH on human brain activation during specific cognitive tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),few studies have focused on spontaneous brain activity.In the current study,we investigated the effect of MPH on the intra-regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity during the resting state in 18normal adult males.A handedness questionnaire and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were applied before medication,and a resting-state fMRI scan was obtained 1 h after medication (20 mg MPH or placebo,order counterbalanced between participants).We demonstrated that:(1) there were no significant differences in the performance of behavioral tasks between the MPH and placebo groups; (2) the left middle and superior temporal gyri had stronger MPH-related regional homogeneity (ReHo); and (3) the left lingual gyrus had weaker MPH-related ReHo.Our findings showed that the ReHo in some brain areas changes with MPH compared to placebo in normal adults,even though there are no behavioral differences.This method can be applied to patients with mental illness who may be treated with MPH,and be used to compare the difference between patients taking MPH and normal participants,to help reveal the mechanism of how MPH works.

  14. Migration of bone marrow progenitor cells in the adult brain of rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennie, Donnahue; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David S

    2016-04-26

    Neurogenesis takes place in the adult mammalian brain in three areas: Subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG); subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle; olfactory bulb. Different molecular markers can be used to characterize the cells involved in adult neurogenesis. It has been recently suggested that a population of bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells may migrate to the brain and differentiate into neuronal lineage. To explore this hypothesis, we injected recombinant SV40-derived vectors into the BM and followed the potential migration of the transduced cells. Long-term BM-directed gene transfer using recombinant SV40-derived vectors leads to expression of the genes delivered to the BM firstly in circulating cells, then after several months in mature neurons and microglial cells, and thus without central nervous system (CNS) lesion. Most of transgene-expressing cells expressed NeuN, a marker of mature neurons. Thus, BM-derived cells may function as progenitors of CNS cells in adult animals. The mechanism by which the cells from the BM come to be neurons remains to be determined. Although the observed gradual increase in transgene-expressing neurons over 16 mo suggests that the pathway involved differentiation of BM-resident cells into neurons, cell fusion as the principal route cannot be totally ruled out. Additional studies using similar viral vectors showed that BM-derived progenitor cells migrating in the CNS express markers of neuronal precursors or immature neurons. Transgene-positive cells were found in the subgranular zone of the DG of the hippocampus 16 mo after intramarrow injection of the vector. In addition to cells expressing markers of mature neurons, transgene-positive cells were also positive for nestin and doublecortin, molecules expressed by developing neuronal cells. These cells were actively proliferating, as shown by short term BrdU incorporation studies. Inducing seizures by using kainic acid increased the number of BM progenitor cells

  15. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. PMID:26609811

  16. Blockage of VIP during mouse embryogenesis modifies adult behavior and results in permanent changes in brain chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanna M; Hauser, Janet M; Sheppard, Lia M; Abebe, Daniel; Spivak-Pohis, Irit; Kushnir, Michal; Deitch, Iris; Gozes, Illana

    2007-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates growth and development during the early postimplantation period of mouse embryogenesis. Blockage of VIP with a VIP antagonist during this period results in growth restriction, microcephaly, and developmental delays. Similar treatment of neonatal rodents also causes developmental delays and impaired diurnal rhythms, and the adult brains of these animals exhibit neuronal dystrophy and increased VIP binding. These data suggest that blockage of VIP during the development of the nervous system can result in permanent changes to the brain. In the current study, pregnant mice were treated with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10. The adult male offspring were examined in tests of novelty, paired activity, and social recognition. Brain tissue was examined for several measures of chemistry and gene expression of VIP and related compounds. Glial cells from the cortex of treated newborn mice were plated with neurons and examined for VIP binding and their ability to enhance neuronal survival. Treated adult male mice exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior and deficits in social behavior. Brain tissue exhibited regionally specific changes in VIP chemistry and a trend toward increased gene expression of VIP and related compounds that reached statistical significance in the VIP receptor, VPAC-1, in the female cortex. When compared to control astrocytes, astrocytes from treated cerebral cortex produced further increases in neuronal survival with excess synaptic connections and reduced VIP binding. In conclusion, impaired VIP activity during mouse embryogenesis resulted in permanent changes to both adult brain chemistry/cell biology and behavior with aspects of autism-like social deficits. PMID:17726225

  17. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Adult Brain and Success in Second-Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Berken, Jonathan A; Barbeau, Elise B; Soles, Jennika; Callahan, Megan; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-01-20

    There is considerable variability in an individual's ability to acquire a second language (L2) during adulthood. Using resting-state fMRI data acquired before training in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course, we investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity relate to a person's ability to acquire an L2. We focused on two key aspects of language processing--lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed--and computed whole-brain functional connectivity from two regions of interest in the language network, namely the left anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and the visual word form area (VWFA). Connectivity between the left AI/FO and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and between the left AI/FO and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlated positively with improvement in L2 lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech. Connectivity between the VWFA and left mid-STG correlated positively with improvement in L2 reading speed. These findings are consistent with the different language functions subserved by subcomponents of the language network and suggest that the human capacity to learn an L2 can be predicted by an individual's intrinsic functional connectivity within the language network. Significance statement: There is considerable variability in second-language learning abilities during adulthood. We investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic functional connectivity in the adult brain relate to success in second-language learning, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course. We found that pretraining functional connectivity within two different language subnetworks correlated strongly with learning outcome in two different language skills: lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed. Our results suggest that the human

  18. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N Wong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.

  19. Correlation of Nr4a2 expression with the neuron progenitors in adult zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Luo, Guang Rui; Li, Ting; Liu, Ting Xi; Le, Weidong

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study showed that although Nr4a2b transcripts have little co-localization with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the posterior tuberculum area, knockdown of Nr4a2 caused a decrease in the number of TH-positive (TH(+)) neurons in the posterior tuberculum area. It suggests that Nr4a2 expression in the progenitors may play an important role in regulating differentiation rather than survival of TH(+) progenitors in the posterior tuberculum area during early zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we determined the correlation between TH and Nr4a2 in adult zebrafish brain and found that Nr4a2b was co-localized with the spindle-shaped TH(+) cells in the posterior tuberculum area and some small round TH(+) cells in the pretectum area, but not with large pear-shaped TH(+) cells in adult zebrafish diencephalon. In the pretectum area, Nr4a2(+) cells were localized next to the dorsal side of TH(+) cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nr4a2 was co-expressed with nestin in the progenitors of pretectum area and caudal periventricular hypothalamic zones with a lateral symmetry pattern beside the diencephalic ventricle. Co-expression of Nr4a2 and nestin in these areas was remarkably declined with aging. These findings indicate that Nr4a2 is expressed in the neuronal progenitors and plays a crucial role in the differentiation process of dopamine neuron from the stem cell. The change in Nr4a2 expression with aging suggests its possible association with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23842887

  20. Postnatal day 7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult mouse brain volume and cortical neurons with sex specific effects on neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Leon G.; Oguz, Ipek; Lee, Joohwi; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol treatment on postnatal day seven (P7) causes robust brain cell death and is a model of late gestational alcohol exposure (Ikonomidou et al., 2000). To investigate the long-term effects of P7 ethanol treatment on adult brain, mice received either two doses of saline or ethanol on P7 (2.5g/kg, s.c., 2 hours apart) and were assessed as adults (P82) for brain volume (using postmortem MRI) and cellular architecture (using immunohistochemistry). Adult mice that received P7 ethanol had reduc...

  1. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  2. Detection of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreber, Lisa A; Griesbach, Grace S; Ashley, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during the post-acute phase of recovery and whether GHD was associated with increased disability, decreased independence, and depression. A secondary objective was to determine the accuracy of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in predicting GHD in patients with TBI. Anterior pituitary function was assessed in 235 adult patients with TBI through evaluation of fasting morning hormone levels. GH levels were assessed through provocative testing, specifically the glucagon stimulation test. GHD was diagnosed in a significant number of patients, with 45% falling into the severe GHD (≤3 μg/L) category. IGF-1 levels were not predictive of GHD. Patients with GHD were more disabled and less independent compared with those patients who were not GHD. Those patients with more severe GHD also showed decreased levels of cortisol and testosterone. Symptoms of depression were also more prevalent in this group. In addition, patients with severe GHD had delayed admission to post-acute rehabilitation. This study confirms the high prevalence of GHD in patients with TBI and the necessity to monitor clinical symptoms and perform provocative testing to definitively diagnose GHD. PMID:26414093

  3. Fat brains, greedy genes, and parent power: a biobehavioural risk model of child and adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Susan; Kim, Yale; Pryor, Katherine

    2012-06-01

    We live in a world replete with opportunities to overeat highly calorific, palatable foods - yet not everyone becomes obese. Why? We propose that individuals show differences in appetitive traits (e.g. food cue responsiveness, satiety sensitivity) that manifest early in life and predict their eating behaviours and weight trajectories. What determines these traits? Parental feeding restriction is associated with higher child adiposity, pressure to eat with lower adiposity, and both strategies with less healthy eating behaviours, while authoritative feeding styles coincide with more positive outcomes. But, on the whole, twin and family studies argue that nature has a greater influence than nurture on adiposity and eating behaviour, and behavioural investigations of genetic variants that are robustly associated with obesity (e.g. FTO) confirm that genes influence appetite. Meanwhile, a growing body of neuroimaging studies in adults, children and high risk populations suggests that structural and functional variation in brain networks associated with reward, emotion and control might also predict appetite and obesity, and show genetic influence. Together these different strands of evidence support a biobehavioural risk model of obesity development. Parental feeding recommendations should therefore acknowledge the powerful - but modifiable - contribution of genetic and neurological influences to children's eating behaviour. PMID:22724640

  4. Progressive mental deterioration after radiotherapy in adult patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a study on changes of mental function in twenty five adult patients with cerebral low-grade gliomas after radiotherapy. None of them had shown mental deterioration before radiotherapy nor tumor recurrence after radiotherapy. Radiation was given at a dose of 48 to 78 Gy (mean: 54.2 Gy). Patients were assigned for mental functional levels according to Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) after radiotherapy. Ten patients (40%) were normal. Seven patients (28%) showed moderate disabilities and 8 (32%) severe disabilities. The median interval time from radiotherapy to the onset of mental deterioration was 2.5 years in the moderate group and 1.6 years in the severe group. CT findings in severe group demonstrated severe brain atrophy and diffuse low density in the white matter after radiotherapy. The risk factors responsible for progressive mental deterioration after radiotherapy may be radiation site and size (whole frontal lobe), total dose (over 60 Gy) and patient age at the time of radiotherapy (over 60 yrs). (author)

  5. The Mediating Role of Visuospatial Planning Skills on Adaptive Function Among Young-Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tricia Z; Smith, Kristen M; Ivanisevic, Mirjana

    2015-08-01

    The Boston Qualitative Scoring System (BQSS) was used as a method to examine executive skills on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF). Young-adult survivors of childhood brain tumor (N = 31) and a demographically-matched comparison group (N = 33) completed the ROCF copy version and Grooved Pegboard, and informants were administered the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Survivors had significantly lower BQSS planning and SIB-R community living skills and greater perseveration. Mediation analyses found that BQSS planning skills mediate the relationship between group and community living skills. Convergent findings of the BRIEF Planning, and discriminant findings with the BQSS Fragmentation, BRIEF Emotional Control, and Grooved Pegboard support the planning construct as the specific mediator in this model. Together, these findings highlight the role of planning skills in adaptive functions of young-adult survivors of childhood brain tumor. PMID:26055499

  6. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Its Role in Early Neural Development and in Adult and Aged Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Lombó, Carla; Gonsebatt, María E

    2016-01-01

    The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals triggered by energy, stress, oxygen levels, and growth factors. It regulates ribosome biogenesis, mRNA translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. mTOR participates in various functions of the brain, such as synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, memory, and learning. mTOR is present during early neural development and participates in axon and dendrite development, neuron differentiation, and gliogenesis, among other processes. Furthermore, mTOR has been shown to modulate lifespan in multiple organisms. This protein is an important energy sensor that is present throughout our lifetime its role must be precisely described in order to develop therapeutic strategies and prevent diseases of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to present our current understanding of the functions of mTOR in neural development, the adult brain and aging. PMID:27378854

  7. Environmental changes in oxygen tension reveal ROS-dependent neurogenesis and regeneration in the adult newt brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, L Shahul; Berg, Daniel A; Belnoue, Laure; Jensen, Lasse D; Cao, Yihai; Simon, András

    2015-01-01

    Organisms need to adapt to the ecological constraints in their habitat. How specific processes reflect such adaptations are difficult to model experimentally. We tested whether environmental shifts in oxygen tension lead to events in the adult newt brain that share features with processes occurring during neuronal regeneration under normoxia. By experimental simulation of varying oxygen concentrations, we show that hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation lead to neuronal death and hallmarks of an injury response, including activation of neural stem cells ultimately leading to neurogenesis. Neural stem cells accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during re-oxygenation and inhibition of ROS biosynthesis counteracts their proliferation as well as neurogenesis. Importantly, regeneration of dopamine neurons under normoxia also depends on ROS-production. These data demonstrate a role for ROS-production in neurogenesis in newts and suggest that this role may have been recruited to the capacity to replace lost neurons in the brain of an adult vertebrate. PMID:26485032

  8. MR diffusion imaging of human intracranial tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K; Gideon, P; Wagn, P; Hansen, Ulla; Thomsen, C; Madsen, F

    1997-01-01

    We used MRI for in vivo measurement of brain water self-diffusion in patients with intracranial tumours. The study included 28 patients (12 with high-grade and 3 with low-grade gliomas, 7 with metastases, 5 with meningiomas and 1 with a cerebral abscess). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) wer...

  9. Paediatric high and low grade glioma: the impact of tumour biology on current and future therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, Darren

    2009-08-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of paediatric brain tumour and range from benign low grade gliomas which can be resected/observed to aggressive brainstem gliomas with dismal survival rates. Current therapies rely on neurosurgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combination of these conventional modalities and although histopathology helps to direct therapy, molecular pathology has so far not played a major role in the management of paediatric glioma. However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact on drug development towards targeted therapies. Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood low grade brain tumour, has recently been shown to harbour an activated BRAF/MAPK/ERK pathway in the majority of cases; this represents an attractive target for new agents. The molecular biology of adult malignant glioma is now well described and targeted therapies against VEGFR are already playing a role in the management of glioblastoma. It is likely that high grade gliomas in children and adults share common aberrant molecular pathways but the frequency and mechanisms involved probably will exhibit key differences and on-going comprehensive molecular analyses of paediatric high grade glioma are essential to determine which targets are important in children. However, selection for specific targeted therapy is unlikely to be based on, or restricted by, age but will require individual case by case testing for target presence in order to direct and maximise the efficacy of molecular therapy. Brainstem glioma remains a tumour with a dismal prognosis but relatively little is known about the underlying biology and progress will require a concerted effort to collect tissue by biopsy and autopsy to allow appropriate analysis to identify and validate targets. A new era of molecular based therapies offers the promise of major benefits in the management of paediatric glioma but translating this promise into reality will require further understanding of the biology

  10. Tumours and tumour mimics in the olecranon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesions in the olecranon are rare and may be identified during the investigation of a clinically suspected abnormality or as an incidental finding. This review describes the spectrum of tumours and tumour-like lesions that can involve the olecranon and illustrates the radiographic, CT, and MRI appearances that may facilitate diagnosis. A variety of pathological processes affecting the olecranon are presented and discussed including the epidemiology and imaging features

  11. Gene expression analysis of neuronal precursors from adult mouse brain and differential screen for neural stem cell markers

    OpenAIRE

    Pennartz, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    In the adult mouse brain, neuronal precursor cells continuously emanate from neural stem cells (NSC) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate into the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate to serve as replenishment for GABAergic interneurons. During the migration process, PSA-NCAM (Polysialic acid-Neural cell adhesion molecule) specifically marks the neuronal precursors (PSA+ cells). This phenomenon was exploited in the framework of this doctoral thesis to isolate a homogeneous cel...

  12. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in non-clinical adults: A dimensional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh M. H. Mohamed; Borger, Norbertus; Geuze, Reint; van der Meere, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical studies reported a compromised Brain Lateralization (BL) in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the question remains whether the deficit is in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that research on patients is vulnerable to comorbidities involved in clinical ADHD and medical history variability. Therefore, the present study applied the dimensional approach to test the relationship between BL in a non-clinical healthy adults and s...

  13. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings. PMID:26979897

  14. Long-term upregulation of inflammation and suppression of cell proliferation in the brain of adult rats exposed to traumatic brain injury using the controlled cortical impact model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Acosta

    Full Text Available The long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI, specifically the detrimental effects of inflammation on the neurogenic niches, are not very well understood. In the present in vivo study, we examined the prolonged pathological outcomes of experimental TBI in different parts of the rat brain with special emphasis on inflammation and neurogenesis. Sixty days after moderate controlled cortical impact injury, adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were euthanized and brain tissues harvested. Antibodies against the activated microglial marker, OX6, the cell cycle-regulating protein marker, Ki67, and the immature neuronal marker, doublecortin, DCX, were used to estimate microglial activation, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation, respectively, in the subventricular zone (SVZ, subgranular zone (SGZ, striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle. Stereology-based analyses revealed significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle. In parallel, significant decrements in Ki67-positive proliferating cells in SVZ and SGZ, but only trends of reduced DCX-positive immature neuronal cells in SVZ and SGZ were detected relative to sham control group. These results indicate a progressive deterioration of the TBI brain over time characterized by elevated inflammation and suppressed neurogenesis. Therapeutic intervention at the chronic stage of TBI may confer abrogation of these deleterious cell death processes.

  15. Contribution of non-genetic factors to dopamine and serotonin receptor availability in the adult human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J; Cervenka, S; Kuja-Halkola, R; Matheson, G J; Jönsson, E G; Lichtenstein, P; Henningsson, S; Ichimiya, T; Larsson, H; Stenkrona, P; Halldin, C; Farde, L

    2016-01-01

    and environmental factors, respectively, on dopaminergic and serotonergic markers in the living human brain. Eleven monozygotic and 10 dizygotic healthy male twin pairs were examined with PET and [(11)C]raclopride binding to the D2- and D3-dopamine receptor and [(11)C]WAY100635 binding to the......The dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission systems are of fundamental importance for normal brain function and serve as targets for treatment of major neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite central interest for these neurotransmission systems in psychiatry research, little is known about...... binding and a major contribution of environmental factors (pairwise shared and unique individual; 0.70-0.75) on neocortical 5-HT1A receptor binding. Our findings indicate that individual variation in neuroreceptor availability in the adult brain is the end point of a nature-nurture interplay, and call for...

  16. Expression of the neurotrophin receptors Trk A and Trk B in adult human astrocytoma and glioblastoma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shashi Wadhwa; Tapas C Nag; Anupam Jindal; Rahul Kushwaha; Ashok K Mahapatra; Chitra Sarkar

    2003-03-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors of the Trk family play a critical role in proliferation, differentiation and survival of the developing neurons. There are reports on their expression in neoplasms too, namely, the primitive neuroectodermal tumours of childhood, and in adult astrocytic gliomas. The involvement of Trk receptors in tumour pathogenesis, if any, is not known. With this end in view, the present study has examined 10 tumour biopsy samples (identified as astrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and glioblastoma) and peritumoral brain tissue of adult patients, for the presence of Trk A and Trk B receptors, by immunohistochemistry. The nature of the tumour samples was also confirmed by their immunoreactivity (IR) to glial fibrillary acidic protein. In the peritumoral brain tissue, only neurons showed IR for Trk A and Trk B. On the contrary, in the tumour sections, the IR to both receptors was localized in the vast majority of glia and capillary endothelium. There was an obvious pattern of IR in these gliomas: high levels of IR were present in the low-grade (type I and II) astrocytoma; whereas in the advanced malignant forms (WHO grade IV giant cell glioblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme) the IR was very weak. These findings suggest that Trk A and Trk B are involved in tumour pathogenesis, especially in the early stage, and may respond to signals that elicit glial proliferation, and thus contribute to progression towards malignancy.

  17. A Novel Procedure for Rapid Imaging of Adult Mouse Brains with MicroCT Using Iodine-Based Contrast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Anderson

    Full Text Available High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been the primary modality for obtaining 3D cross-sectional anatomical information in animals for soft tissue, particularly brain. However, costs associated with MRI can be considerably high for large phenotypic screens for gross differences in the structure of the brain due to pathology and/or experimental manipulations. MicroCT (mCT, especially benchtop mCT, is becoming a common laboratory equipment with throughput rates equal or faster than any form of high-resolution MRI at lower costs. Here we explore adapting previously developed contrast based mCT to image adult mouse brains in-situ. We show that 2% weight per volume (w/v iodine-potassium iodide solution can be successfully used to image adult mouse brains within 48 hours post-mortem when a structural support matrix is used. We demonstrate that hydrogel can be effectively used as a perfusant which limits the tissue shrinkage due to iodine.

  18. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Z King

    Full Text Available Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood.Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an intelligence test (IQ. Voxel-wise group comparisons of fractional anisotropy calculated from DTI data were performed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS on 27 survivors (14 treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy and 13 treated without radiation treatment on average over 13 years since diagnosis and 27 healthy comparison participants. Whole brain white matter fractional anisotropy (FA differences were explored between each group. The relationships between IQ and FA in the regions where statistically lower FA values were found in survivors were examined, as well as the role of cumulative neurological factors.The group of survivors treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy had lower IQ relative to the group of survivors without radiation treatment and the healthy comparison group. TBSS identified white matter regions with significantly different mean fractional anisotropy between the three different groups. A lower level of white matter integrity was found in the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated group compared to the group without radiation treatment and also the healthy control group. The group without radiation treatment had a lower mean FA relative to healthy controls. The white matter disruption of the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated survivors was positively correlated with IQ and cumulative neurological factors.Lower long-term intellectual outcomes of childhood brain tumor survivors are associated with lower white

  19. Expression and regulation of the Fkbp5 gene in the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian H Scharf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic stress has been found to be a major risk factor for various human pathologies. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is tightly regulated via, among others, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. The activity of the GR is modulated by a variety of proteins, including the co-chaperone FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5. Although FKBP5 has been associated with risk for affective disorders and has been implicated in GR sensitivity, previous studies focused mainly on peripheral blood, while information about basal distribution and induction in the central nervous system are sparse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we describe the basal expression pattern of Fkbp5 mRNA in the brain of adult male mice and show the induction of Fkbp5 mRNA via dexamethasone treatment or different stress paradigms. We could show that Fkbp5 is often, but not exclusively, expressed in regions also known for GR expression, for example the hippocampus. Furthermore, we were able to induce Fkbp5 expression via dexamethasone in the CA1 and DG subregions of the hippocampus, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN and the central amygdala (CeA. Increase of Fkbp5 mRNA was also found after restrained stress and 24 hours of food deprivation in the PVN and the CeA, while in the hippocampus only food deprivation caused an increase in Fkbp5 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interestingly, regions with a low basal expression showed higher increase in Fkbp5 mRNA following induction than regions with high basal expression, supporting the hypothesis that GR sensitivity is, at least partly, mediated via Fkbp5. In addition, this also supports the use of Fkbp5 gene expression as a marker for GR sensitivity. In summary, we were able to give an overview of the basal expression of fkbp5 mRNA as well as to extend the findings of induction of Fkbp5 and its regulatory influence on GR sensitivity from peripheral blood to the brain.

  20. Development and psychometric properties of an informant assessment scale of theory of mind for adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dengke; Pang, Yanxia; Cai, Weixiong; Fazio, Rachel L; Ge, Jianrong; Su, Qiaorong; Xu, Shuiqin; Pan, Yinan; Chen, Sanmei; Zhang, Hongwei

    2016-08-01

    Impairment of theory of mind (ToM) is a common phenomenon following traumatic brain injury (TBI) that has clear effects on patients' social functioning. A growing body of research has focused on this area, and several methods have been developed to assess ToM deficiency. Although an informant assessment scale would be useful for examining individuals with TBI, very few studies have adopted this approach. The purpose of the present study was to develop an informant assessment scale of ToM for adults with traumatic brain injury (IASToM-aTBI) and to test its reliability and validity with 196 adults with TBI and 80 normal adults. A 44-item scale was developed following a literature review, interviews with patient informants, consultations with experts, item analysis, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The following three common factors were extracted: social interaction, understanding of beliefs, and understanding of emotions. The psychometric analyses indicate that the scale has good internal consistency reliability, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, structural validity, discriminate validity and criterion validity. These results provide preliminary evidence that supports the reliability and validity of the IASToM-aTBI as a ToM assessment tool for adults with TBI. PMID:25849662

  1. Time course of hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency in adults receiving cranial radiotherapy for primary extrasellar brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: No longitudinal data on hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) function are available in patients who had received cranial radiation therapy (CRT) for primary extrasellar brain tumors (PBT). Purpose: To investigate the effects of CRT on HP function in adults with PBT. Patients and methods: Twenty-six adults irradiated for PBT and six CRT naive controls were studied. CRT was delivered with 6 MV X-ray by a linear accelerator (2 Gy fraction schedule). Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) excluded the HP region that was contoured on the planning CT. Median dose to the HP region was 41.8 Gy (IQR: 30.7-49.8). Results: All controls maintained normal HP function. Hypopituitarism developed in 38% of CRT patients (GH deficiency 29%, ACTH 22%, TSH 14%, gonadotropin 4%, no abnormal prolactin level or diabetes insipidus). All HP failures occurred within 32 months after CRT. Conclusions: Adults undergoing CRT for PBT are at increased risk for HP dysfunction within 3 years from CRT. Endocrine surveillance is recommended also in adults patients exposed to CRT for primary brain tumors distant from HP region.

  2. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  3. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFranke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain MRIs. The Brain Age Gap Estimation (i.e., BrainAGE score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM completed an MRI at 3T, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001, whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034, whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor (TNFα levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe depression. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019 and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025. In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM.

  4. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar, Sniya; Gibikote, Sridhar [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Mistry, Yogesh [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pathology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Dastidar, Arindam; Sen, Sudipta [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  5. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  6. Adult medulloblastoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pobereskin, L; Treip, C

    1986-01-01

    Twelve cases of adult onset medulloblastoma are presented. Clinical features, treatment and outcome are discussed. It was found that the survival rates for adults are no better than for children. There were no clinical or histological features that distinguished these tumours from those occurring in childhood, except for a higher incidence of hemisphere lesions.

  7. Brain metastases of solid tumour. Treatment distribution and analysis of survival in the period 1/01/2004 to 31/12/2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics, treatments and survival analysis in patients with solid tumors with brain metastases (E IV) assisted in Unit Neuro-Oncology over a period of five years. Patients and methods: The records of patients (pts) with diagnosis of brain metastases from solid tumors assisted in Neuro-Oncology Unit, from 1/01/2004 and 31/12/2008. Results: 51 new patients carriers of brain metastases were treated with solid tumors. The median age at diagnosis was 57 years, ranging from 30 to 75. They corresponded to the male 37 and female 14 ratio 2.5 / 1. The majority was presented as metastases 31/51. The location was in the supratentorial region in 27 cases, posterior fossa in 11 and 13 were supra and infratentorial. In only 5 patients cranial MRI was performed in only one case and it changed the therapeutical strategy. In 35 patients he corresponded to the lung primary tumor (CBP), following cancer renal (5/51). Within the CBP, the most common histologic subtypes were to large cells and adenocarcinomas, 11 and 10, respectively. In 32 patients were not found dissemination elsewhere. Surgery + RT was performed in 30 cases, in 11 exclusive RT, exclusive surgery in 4 and 3 patients symptomatic treatment. In 39 cases did not Systemic treatment diagnosis. When a progression was only diagnosed It could make systemic treatment 5 pts. The median survival was 15.4 weeks (1-301 weeks). Conclusions: Lung cancer is the most common source of metastases brain, with a poor survival. The results of other characteristics patients, systemic treatments performed and survival according to the treatments performed will be presented during the congresss

  8. Brain structural deficits and working memory fMRI dysfunction in young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Lindholm, Päivi; Moilanen, Irma; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Mäki, Pirjo; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Barnett, Jennifer H; Nikkinen, Juha; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B; Veijola, Juha; Murray, Graham K

    2016-05-01

    When adolescents with ADHD enter adulthood, some no longer meet disorder diagnostic criteria but it is unknown if biological and cognitive abnorma lities persist. We tested the hypothesis that people diagnosed with ADHD during adolescence present residual brain abnormalities both in brain structure and in working memory brain function. 83 young adults (aged 20-24 years) from the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort were classified as diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence (adolescence ADHD, n = 49) or a control group (n = 34). Only one patient had received medication for ADHD. T1-weighted brain scans were acquired and processed in a voxel-based analysis using permutation-based statistics. A sub-sample of both groups (ADHD, n = 21; controls n = 23) also performed a Sternberg working memory task whilst acquiring fMRI data. Areas of structural difference were used as a region of interest to evaluate the implications that structural abnormalities found in the ADHD group might have on working memory function. There was lower grey matter volume bilaterally in adolescence ADHD participants in the caudate (p < 0.05 FWE corrected across the whole brain) at age 20-24. Working memory was poorer in adolescence ADHD participants, with associated failure to show normal load-dependent caudate activation. Young adults diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence have structural and functional deficits in the caudate associated with abnormal working memory function. These findings are not secondary to stimulant treatment, and emphasise the importance of taking a wider perspective on ADHD outcomes than simply whether or not a particular patient meets diagnostic criteria at any given point in time. PMID:26307356

  9. Predicting healthy older adult's brain age based on structural connectivity networks using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Jin, Cong; Fu, Zhenrong; Zhang, Baiwen; Bin, Guangyu; Wu, Shuicai

    2016-03-01

    Brain ageing is followed by changes of the connectivity of white matter (WM) and changes of the grey matter (GM) concentration. Neurodegenerative disease is more vulnerable to an accelerated brain ageing, which is associated with prospective cognitive decline and disease severity. Accurate detection of accelerated ageing based on brain network analysis has a great potential for early interventions designed to hinder atypical brain changes. To capture the brain ageing, we proposed a novel computational approach for modeling the 112 normal older subjects (aged 50-79 years) brain age by connectivity analyses of networks of the brain. Our proposed method applied principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the redundancy in network topological parameters. Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) improved by hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is established to model the relation among principal components (PCs) and brain age. The predicted brain age is strongly correlated with chronological age (r=0.8). The model has mean absolute error (MAE) of 4.29 years. Therefore, we believe the method can provide a possible way to quantitatively describe the typical and atypical network organization of human brain and serve as a biomarker for presymptomatic detection of neurodegenerative diseases in the future. PMID:26718834

  10. Neuron-enriched gene expression patterns are regionally anti-correlated with oligodendrocyte-enriched patterns in the adult mouse and human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell PatrickChengTan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An important goal in neuroscience is to understand gene expression patterns in the brain. The recent availability of comprehensive and detailed expression atlases for mouse and human creates opportunities to discover global patterns and perform cross-species comparisons. Recently we reported that the major source of variation in gene transcript expression in the adult normal mouse brain can be parsimoniously explained as reflecting regional variation in glia-to-neuron ratios, and is correlated with degree of connectivity and location in the brain along the anterior-posterior axis. Here we extend this investigation to two gene expression assays of adult normal human brains that consisted of over 300 brain region samples, and perform comparative analyses of brain-wide expression patterns to the mouse. We performed principal components analysis (PCA on the regional gene expression of the adult human brain to identify the expression pattern that has the largest variance. As in the mouse, we observed that the first principal component is composed of two anti-correlated patterns enriched in oligodendrocyte and neuron markers respectively. However, we also observed interesting discordant patterns between the two species. For example, a few mouse neuron markers show expression patterns that are more correlated with the human oligodendrocyte-enriched pattern and vice-versa. In conclusion, our work provides insights into human brain function and evolution by probing global relationships between regional cell type marker expression patterns in the human and mouse brain.

  11. Deconstructing brain-derived neurotrophic factor actions in adult brain circuits to bridge an existing informational gap in neuro-cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Bowling; Aditi Bhattacharya; Eric Klann; Moses V Chao

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plas-ticity, learning and memory, and in preventing neurodegeneration. Despite decades of investigations into downstream signaling cascades and changes in cellular processes, the mechanisms of how BDNF reshapes circuitsin vivo remain unclear. This informational gap partly arises from the fact that the bulk of studies into the molecular actions of BDNF have been performed in dissociated neuronal cultures, while the ma-jority of studies on synaptic plasticity, learning and memory were performed in acute brain slices orin vivo. A recent study by Bowling-Bhattacharya et al., measured the proteomic changes in acute adult hippocampal slices following treatment and reported changes in proteins of neuronal and non-neuronal origin that may in concert modulate synaptic release and secretion in the slice. In this paper, we place these ifndings into the context of existing literature and discuss how they impact our understanding of how BDNF can reshape the brain.

  12. Whole-brain structural topology in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Preserved global – disturbed local network organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Sidlauskaite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies demonstrate altered organization of functional brain networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, the structural underpinnings of these functional disturbances are poorly understood. In the current study, we applied a graph-theoretic approach to whole-brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate the organization of structural brain networks in adults with ADHD and unaffected controls using deterministic fiber tractography. Groups did not differ in terms of global network metrics — small-worldness, global efficiency and clustering coefficient. However, there were widespread ADHD-related effects at the nodal level in relation to local efficiency and clustering. The affected nodes included superior occipital, supramarginal, superior temporal, inferior parietal, angular and inferior frontal gyri, as well as putamen, thalamus and posterior cerebellum. Lower local efficiency of left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri was associated with higher ADHD symptom scores. Also greater local clustering of right putamen and lower local clustering of left supramarginal gyrus correlated with ADHD symptom severity. Overall, the findings indicate preserved global but altered local network organization in adult ADHD implicating regions underpinning putative ADHD-related neuropsychological deficits.

  13. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  14. Exploration and visualization of gene expression with neuroanatomy in the adult mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak Sayan; Thompson Carol; Ng Lydia; Lau Christopher; Kuan Leonard; Jones Allan; Hawrylycz Mike

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Spatially mapped large scale gene expression databases enable quantitative comparison of data measurements across genes, anatomy, and phenotype. In most ongoing efforts to study gene expression in the mammalian brain, significant resources are applied to the mapping and visualization of data. This paper describes the implementation and utility of Brain Explorer, a 3D visualization tool for studying in situ hybridization-based (ISH) expression patterns in the Allen Brain At...

  15. Brain aromatase (Cyp19A2) and estrogen receptors, in larvae and adult pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis: Neuroanatomical and functional relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl-Mazzulla, P. H.; Lethimonier, C.; Gueguen, M.M.; Karube, M.; Fernandino, J.I.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patino, R.; Strussmann, C.A.; Kah, O.; Somoza, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Although estrogens exert many functions on vertebrate brains, there is little information on the relationship between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of two estrogen receptors, ?? and ??, in pejerrey. Both receptors' mRNAs largely overlap and were predominantly expressed in the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonads. Also brain aromatase and estrogen receptors were up-regulated in the brain of estradiol-treated males. In situ hybridization was performed to study in more detail, the distribution of the two receptors in comparison with brain aromatase mRNA in the brain of adult pejerrey. The estrogen receptors' mRNAs exhibited distinct but partially overlapping patterns of expression in the preoptic area and the mediobasal hypothalamus, as well as in the pituitary gland. Moreover, the estrogen receptor ??, but not ??, were found to be expressed in cells lining the preoptic recess, similarly as observed for brain aromatase. Finally, it was shown that the onset expression of brain aromatase and both estrogen receptors in the head of larvae preceded the morphological differentiation of the gonads. Because pejerrey sex differentiation is strongly influenced by temperature, brain aromatase expression was measured during the temperature-sensitive window and was found to be significantly higher at male-promoting temperature. Taken together these results suggest close neuroanatomical and functional relationships between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors, probably involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain and raising interesting questions on the origin (central or peripheral) of the brain aromatase substrate. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Improved outcome of adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by moderately intensified chemotherapy which includes a 'pre-induction' course for rapid tumour reduction : preliminary results on 66 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daenen, S; Van Imhoff, GW; Van den Berg, E; De Kam, PJ; Haaxma-Reiche, H; Vellenga, E; Smit, JW; Halie, RM

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-six consecutive adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were treated with intensified chemotherapy which included a 'pre-induction' course of cytarabine (AraC) and etoposide (VP16) when the white blood cell count (WBC) was greater than or equal to 30x10(9)/l (18 patients), and

  17. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  18. Structural Dissociation of Attentional Control and Memory in Adults with and without Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niogi, Sumit N.; Mukherjee, Pratik; Ghajar, Jamshid; Johnson, Carl E.; Kolster, Rachel; Lee, Hana; Suh, Minah; Zimmerman, Robert D.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    Memory and attentional control impairments are the two most common forms of dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lead to significant morbidity in patients, yet these functions are thought to be supported by different brain networks. This 3 T magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study investigates whether…

  19. Hydrocephalus following severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Incidence, timing, and clinical predictors during rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Linnemann, Mia; Tibæk, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    To investigate timing and clinical predictors that might predict hydrocephalus emerging during rehabilitation until 1 year following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).......To investigate timing and clinical predictors that might predict hydrocephalus emerging during rehabilitation until 1 year following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)....

  20. Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Wolf, Martin; Schumann, Martina; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults. PMID:27148041