WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult aya cancer

  1. Treatment of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer in a multidisciplinary setting: on the way to a highly specialized AYA unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernig, T; Jahn, F; Witkowsky, S; Huehn, R; Hentschel, A; Kegel, T; Schmoll, H-J; Körholz, D

    2013-11-01

    Further survival improvements of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer are clearly affected by biological characteristics of the malignancies and age-specific needs. Multidisciplinary teams drawing expertice from both pediatric and adult cancer teams as well as clinical trials are required to meet the age specific needs of AYA patients with cancer. In 2011, the first AYA unit was established at the University Hospital Halle (Saale), where patients with newly-diagnosed cancer aged 15-25 are treated interdisciplinary by pediatric and adult oncologists. The enrollment into pediatric or adult clinical trials is controlled by age 18. Over the last 2 years, 19 AYA with cancer have been treated at the unit; and, in turn patients and their relatives reflected a high satisfaction with the offered novel health care approach. In the scope of the future Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University Hospital Halle (Saale), a complete ward is planned for all admitted AYA up to 25 years with cancer. The patients will be treated by a tumor-specialized multidisciplinary team of adult or pediatric oncologists and oncological surgeons. Therefore, we intend to establish a special teaching curriculum for physicians, nurses and psychosocial health care staff. Rather than age, cancer biology of a malignancy, surveillance data of late side effects as well as the age-specific needs of AYA patients will be crucial for best treatment options. PMID:24166088

  2. Unmet Support Service Needs and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The AYA HOPE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Wilder Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer for adolescents and young adults (AYA differs from younger and older patients; AYA face medical challenges while navigating social and developmental transitions. Research suggests that these patients are under- or inadequately served by current support services, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL.Methods: We examined unmet service needs and HRQOL in the National Cancer Institute’s Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE study, a population-based cohort (n=484, age 15-39, diagnosed with cancer 6-14 months prior, in 2007-2009. Unmet service needs were psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and financial services where respondents endorsed that they needed, but did not receive, a listed service. Linear regression models tested associations between any or specific unmet service needs and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, medical and health insurance variables.Results: Over one-third of respondents reported at least one unmet service need. The most common were financial (16%, mental health (15%, and support group (14% services. Adjusted models showed that having any unmet service need was associated with worse overall HRQOL, fatigue, physical, emotional, social, and school/work functioning, and mental health (p’s<0.0001. Specific unmet services were related to particular outcomes (e.g., needing pain management was associated with worse overall HRQOL, physical and social functioning (p’s<0.001. Needing mental health services had the strongest associations with worse HRQOL outcomes; needing physical/occupational therapy was most consistently associated with poorer functioning across domains.Discussion: Unmet service needs in AYAs recently diagnosed with cancer are associated with worse HRQOL. Research should examine developmentally appropriate, relevant practices to improve access to services demonstrated to adversely impact HRQOL, particularly physical therapy and mental

  3. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

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    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    -based programs in an online modality are highlighted, and the role of both peer and caregiver support in enhancing the effectiveness of this skills-based intervention is also discussed. The innovative videoconferencing delivery method Recapture Life uses has the potential to address the geographic and psychological isolation of adolescents and young adults as they move toward cancer survivorship. It is expected that teaching AYAs coping skills as they resume their normal lives after cancer may have long-term implications for their quality of life. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000717055

  4. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

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    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  5. Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer, AYA cancer survivors have excess medical expenditures greater than $3,000 per person and excess annual productivity losses greater than $2,000 per person. [PubMed Abstract] Additional Resources for AYA Cancers NCI Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Portal Information about cancer in ...

  6. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review

    OpenAIRE

    Sansom-Daly, Ursula M.; Wakefield, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This ...

  7. Breast cancer in adolescent and young adult women.

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    Gewefel, Hanan; Salhia, Bodour

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women, accounting for approximately 14% of all AYA cancer diagnoses and 7% of all breast cancer. Breast cancer in AYA women is believed to represent a more biologically aggressive disease, but aside from commonly known hereditary predispositions, little is still known about the underlying molecular genetic causes. This review examines the current trends of breast cancer in AYA women as they relate to clinical, social, genetic, and molecular pathologic characteristics. We highlight existing trends, treatment and imaging approaches, and health burdens as they relate to breast cancer in AYA women and provide a discussion on ways to help improve the overall management of this breast cancer cohort. PMID:25034440

  8. Reimagining care for adolescent and young adult cancer programs: Moving with the times.

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    Gupta, Abha A; Papadakos, Janet K; Jones, Jennifer M; Amin, Leila; Chang, Eugene K; Korenblum, Chana; Mina, Daniel Santa; McCabe, Lianne; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith E

    2016-04-01

    Literature regarding the development of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer programs has been dominantly informed by pediatric centers and practitioners. However, the majority of young adults are seen and treated at adult cancer centers, in which cancer volumes afford the development of innovative supportive care services. Although the supportive care services in adult cancer centers are helpful to AYAs, some of the most prominent and distinct issues faced by AYAs are not adequately addressed through these services alone. This article describes how the AYA Program at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre has collaborated with existing supportive care services in addition to supplying its own unique services to meet the comprehensive needs of AYAs in the domains of: symptom management (sexuality and fatigue), behavior modification (return to work and exercise), and health services (advanced cancer and survivorship). These collaborations are augmented by patient education interventions and timely referrals. The objective of this article was to assist other centers in expanding existing services to address the needs of AYA patients with cancer. Cancer 2016;122:1038-1046. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26848554

  9. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan.

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    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called "no man's land" between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients' needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  10. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  11. Epidemiology of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer in Europe.

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    Desandes, Emmanuel; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    To design the services for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we need to understand the patterns of disease and the other clinical and managerial challenges of the patient group. Cancer occurring between the ages of 15 and 39 years is 4 times less rare than cancer occurring during the first 15 years of life and consists of 2% of all invasive cancer in Europe, about 66,000 patients in Europe each year. AYAs have a unique distribution of cancer types, including the peak in incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or germ cell tumors. The relative improvement in the survival rate in AYAs has not kept pace with that achieved in younger children, especially for acute leukemia, non-HLs, Ewing tumors and rhabdomyosarcoma. Etiological factors are under-researched and remain largely hypothetical. In this unique group of illnesses, improving AYA cancer management involves bridging interfaces. Since this has begun, outcomes have also begun to improve. The local nature of these interfaces determines the age group considered as AYA. Specific skills are necessary in the clinical, biological and psychosocial domains. Services need support from policy, clinical and administrative professionals. National policy and supranational groups such as SIOPE and ESMO are in constructive collaboration to develop this further. PMID:27595352

  12. Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll: caring for adolescents and young adults with cancer.

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    Morgan, Sue; Davies, Simon; Palmer, Susan; Plaster, Meg

    2010-11-10

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are a distinct group whose needs have been poorly addressed within health care systems. This imbalance is being addressed in some countries, and this growing specialty is now receiving the recognition it requires in order to develop further. This article discusses some of the psychosocial issues of AYAs and, with reference to the phrase of sex, drugs, and rock and roll, highlights the various rites of passage that young people experience. It also discusses how services and professionals can work alongside AYAs, enabling them to feel a part of the process by providing age-appropriate environment and expertise. PMID:20498401

  13. Strategies to promote regular exercise in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes MJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Margaux J Barnes, Krista Casazza, Heather Austin Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs diagnosed with cancer are at increased risk for current and future health problems and premature death. Given the known risks for increased mortality and morbidity, fostering the development of exercise behaviors that may target the specific late effects experienced by AYA cancer survivors is crucial for healthy aging. Exercise is particularly important in the mitigation of late effects as it alters metabolic pathways that ultimately influence the development of chronic diseases associated with cancer treatment in AYAs. Despite the importance of exercise, a large proportion of AYA survivors do not meet recommended guidelines for exercise. The current review summarizes the beneficial effects of exercise in AYA survivors, evaluates strategies utilized in interventions that have been developed to address exercise engagement, and provides recommendations for psychosocial strategies on how to improve these behaviors in this population. A total of nine empirical articles examining exercise interventions in AYAs with a history of cancer were included for review. While several exercise strategies appear promising, more research is needed to evaluate long-term influence of strategies on exercise engagement, as well as the interactions these strategies have on AYA exercise maintenance and health outcomes as they continue into adulthood. Future interventions should evaluate key psychosocial strategies to increase both short- and long-term exercise adherence as well as overall health benefits. Keywords: oncology, physical activity, adolescents, young adults 

  14. Cancer Incidence Among Adolescents and Young Adults (15 to 29 Years) in Brazil.

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    Balmant, Nathalie V; de Souza Reis, Rejane; Pinto Oliveira, Julio F; Ferman, Sima; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of cancers commonly found in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) differs from those in children and adults; therefore, the childhood classification is not appropriate for this population. Here we used a newly proposed classification system to reclassify cases of AYAs from Brazilian population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in 5 geographic regions of Brazil. We aimed to describe the cancer incidence rates within this age group according to PBCR. Using the world population, incidence rates per million were analyzed in each diagnostic subgroup according to sex and age at diagnosis (15 to 19 y, 20 to 24 y, and 25 to 29 y). The median incidence rate was 232.31 per million for females and 218.07 per million for males. Incidence increased with age, with the highest rate observed for 25- to 29-year-olds in both sexes. Carcinomas, lymphomas, and skin tumors were most frequent among AYAs. High incidence rates of cervix-uterus carcinoma were observed in most PBCRs. AYAs present epidemiological characteristics that differ from those of children, reinforcing the need for a new classification. This study describes, for the first time, the cancer incidence rate in AYAs in Brazil, and we believe that our findings represent the Brazilian profile. PMID:26950086

  15. Palliative care for adolescents and young adults with cancer

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    Rosenberg AR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abby R Rosenberg,1–3 Joanne Wolfe4–61Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA; 2Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 4Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care/Division of Pediatric Palliative Care, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; 5Department of Medicine/Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA; 6Department of Pediatrics, Harvard University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer represent a unique and challenging group of patients with distinct developmental and psychosocial needs that may be unrecognized or unmet during their cancer experience. Palliative care refers to the total care of a patient, regardless of his or her disease status, and aims to improve quality of life by controlling symptoms and alleviating physical, social, psychological, and spiritual suffering. Integrating palliative care into standard oncology practice for AYAs is therefore valuable, if not imperative, in improving their overall cancer experience. In this review, we aimed to describe the scope, benefits, and challenges of palliative care for AYA oncology patients. We provide a broad impression of the existing literature describing or investigating palliative care in this population. Put together, the evidence suggests that palliative care is not only needed, but can also be critically beneficial to patients, families, and health care professionals alike. As we increase public and professional awareness of the needs and applications of palliative care for AYA patients with cancer, we will ultimately enable better psychosocial outcomes of the AYA patients and their larger communities.Keywords: supportive care, end of life, psychosocial outcomes, psychosocial oncology, psychosocial needs, quality of life

  16. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer

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    Wiener L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lori Wiener,1,*,# Meaghann Shaw Weaver,2,3,*,# Cynthia J Bell,4,# Ursula M Sansom-Daly,5–7 1Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Oncology, Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC, USA; 3Department of Oncology, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA; 4College of Nursing, Wayne State University and Hospice of Michigan Institute, Detroit, MI, USA; 5Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children’s Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 6Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women’s and Children’s Health, UNSW Medicine, The University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 7Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children’s/Prince of Wales Hospitals, Randwick, NSW, Australia *These authors have contributed equally to this work #On behalf of the Pediatric Palliative Care Special Interest Group at Children’s National Health System Abstract: Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs. The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential

  17. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care

    OpenAIRE

    Ramphal, R; Aubin, S.; Czaykowski, P.; Pauw, S; Johnson, A.; McKillop, S.; Szwajcer, D; Wilkins, K; ROGERS, P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas—medical, psychosocial, and research—and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Ma...

  18. Assessing and optimizing health-related quality of life during and after cancer treatment in adolescents and young adults

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    Szalda D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dava Szalda,1 Esther Kim,2 Jill P Ginsberg1,2 1Division of Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Adolescent and young adults (AYAs with cancer have needs unique from their pediatric or adult counterparts at diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout survivorship care. Healthcare teams may find it difficult to assess and manage the complex psychosocial needs of AYA patients, however, attention to the multi-faceted care of the AYA oncology patient may directly affect health outcomes and quality of life. Comprehensive AYA care therefore must be maximized during treatment and in transition to survivorship care by including assessments of general health, sexual health, mental health, health behaviors, and conversations concerning transition to survivorship and adulthood with AYA patients. Identifying and treating issues that arise in the AYA population may help promote adherence to treatment, engagement in follow-up care, and ultimately quality of life for this unique group of patients. Keywords: quality of life, sexual health, health behaviors, mental health, transition, survivorship

  19. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

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    Live Korsvold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions, encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients.

  20. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

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    Korsvold, Live; Lie, Hanne Cathrine; Mellblom, Anneli Viktoria; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon Håvard; Finset, Arnstein

    2016-01-01

    Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness) and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions), encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients. PMID:27125477

  1. Strategies to improve adherence to treatment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review

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    Robertson EG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eden G Robertson,1,2 Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Kate H Marshall,2 Ursula M Sansom-Daly1–3 1Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 2Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Prince of Wales/Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia Purpose: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have higher rates of nonadherence to treatment relative to younger and older cancer patients. Efforts to improve adherence in this population are therefore increasing. This review aimed: 1 to synthesize recommendations and strategies used to improve treatment adherence in AYAs with cancer, and 2 to summarize the available evidence supporting the efficacy of adherence-promoting strategies for AYAs with cancer.Methods: We conducted a systematic review with two stages: 1 a narrative stage, to analyze expert recommendations, and 2 an evaluative stage, to summarize quantitative evidence for interventions. Four electronic databases were searched for studies involving AYAs, aged 10–39 years, with cancer, published from 2005 to 2015. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines were used to ensure quality of the review. The Delphi list was used to assess study quality.Results: Nine articles were identified in the narrative stage of the review. For the evaluative stage, out of 113 screened abstracts, only one eligible intervention was identified. Common themes of adherence-promoting strategies were grouped into five domains: developmental, communication, educational, psychological well-being, and logistical/management strategies. Strategies to address developmental stage and to improve communication were the most highly recommended to improve adherence. Few strategies focused on the role of the patient in adherence. One

  2. Strategies to promote regular exercise in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes MJ; Casazza K; Austin H

    2015-01-01

    Margaux J Barnes, Krista Casazza, Heather Austin Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer are at increased risk for current and future health problems and premature death. Given the known risks for increased mortality and morbidity, fostering the development of exercise behaviors that may target the specific late effects e...

  3. Assessment of psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review of available instruments

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    Wakefield CE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Pandora Patterson,3 Fiona E J McDonald,3 Helen L Wilson,1,2 Esther Davis,3 Ursula M Sansom-Daly2,41School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3CanTeen, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Given the burgeoning body of research relating to the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer, this review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of the instruments available for use in this unique population. Specifically, we reviewed published instruments developed to assess psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of recurrence, psychological growth (resilience, posttraumatic growth, and benefit finding, unmet needs, coping, quality of life, identity, and mindfulness-based practices and skills in AYAs with cancer. Given the dearth of validated instruments targeting AYAs with cancer, this review also provides a summary of promising measures yet to be formally validated in this population.Methods: Five electronic databases were searched by a team of six researchers, and studies involving AYAs (who have or have had cancer aged 15–30 years, and published between 1982 and 2012 were reviewed. Of 410 abstracts, 7 instruments were identified as validated in this population, with a further 19 identified as promising.Results: While there are numerous scales to assess psychosocial outcomes in cancer, few have been specifically validated for AYAs affected by cancer, particularly in the domains of psychological distress, psychological growth, coping, unmet needs, and identity. There are relatively more instruments validated, or promising, for assessment of quality of life than scales for other domains.Conclusion: In the AYA context

  4. Next steps for adolescent and young adult oncology workshop: An update on progress and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley Wilder; Seibel, Nita L; Lewis, Denise R; Albritton, Karen H; Blair, Donald F; Blanke, Charles D; Bleyer, W Archie; Freyer, David R; Geiger, Ann M; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Tricoli, James V; Wagner, Lynne I; Zebrack, Bradley J

    2016-04-01

    Each year, 70,000 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) between ages 15 and 39 years in the United States are diagnosed with cancer. In 2006, a National Cancer Institute (NCI) Progress Review Group (PRG) examined the state of science associated with cancer among AYAs. To assess the impact of the PRG and examine the current state of AYA oncology research, the NCI, with support from the LIVESTRONG Foundation, sponsored a workshop entitled "Next Steps in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology" on September 16 and 17, 2013, in Bethesda, Maryland. This report summarizes the findings from the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and suggestions for future research priorities. Multidisciplinary teams that include basic scientists, epidemiologists, trialists, biostatisticians, clinicians, behavioral scientists, and health services researchers will be essential for future advances for AYAs with cancer. Cancer 2016;122:988-999. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26849003

  5. A review of mobile applications to help adolescent and young adult cancer patients

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    Wesley KM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly M Wesley,1 Philip J Fizur2 1Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 2Department of Psychology, La Salle University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: To review research articles utilizing mobile applications with adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer patients. Materials and methods: We identified articles via online searches and reference lists (eg, PsycInfo, PubMed. Articles were reviewed by two study team members for target population, stated purpose, technological utilization, sample size, demographic characteristics, and outcome data. Strengths and weaknesses of each study were described. Results: Of 19 identified manuscripts, six met full inclusion criteria for this review (four smartphone applications and two tablet applications. One additional article that included an application not specific to oncology but included AYA patients with cancer within the target sample was also reviewed. Uses of these applications included symptom tracking, pain management, monitoring of eating habits following bone marrow transplant, monitoring of mucositis, and improving medication management. Utility results from pilot studies are presented. Conclusion: Mobile applications are growing in number and increasingly available to AYAs with and without chronic illness. These applications may prove useful in helping to support AYAs throughout their cancer treatment and beyond. However, few applications provide empirical data supporting their utility. Numerous strengths and benefits of these applications include increased accessibility to educational resources and self-management strategies, more frequent physical and emotional symptom tracking, and increased access to peer support. Despite these strengths, numerous limitations are identified, highlighting the need for future research in this area. Keywords: adolescent, young adult, cancer, smartphone, mobile, applications

  6. Adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

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    Hochberg, Jessica; El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Abla, Oussama

    2016-05-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies accounting for a significant portion of cancers occurring in children, adolescents and young adults with an increasing incidence with age. The adolescent and young adult (AYA) population presents a specific set of characteristics and challenges. The most common diseases occurring in adolescents and young adults include Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. There is also a higher incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AYA patients. Cure rates largely depend on risk-stratification, and are generally superior to outcomes in comparison to older adult data but less than in younger children. Here, we review the unique clinical and biological characteristics of NHL occurring in the AYA population with a focus on how to achieve similar curative outcomes in AYA that have been established in younger cohorts. PMID:27071675

  7. Cancer of Unknown Primary in Adolescents and Young Adults: Clinicopathological Features, Prognostic Factors and Survival Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Raghav

    Full Text Available Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYAs (15-39 years is increasingly recognized as a distinct clinical and biological entity. Cancer of unknown primary (CUP, a disease traditionally presenting in older adults with a median age of 65 years, poses several challenges when diagnosed in AYA patients. This study describes clinicopathological features, outcomes and challenges in caring for AYA-CUP patients.A retrospective review of 47 AYAs diagnosed with CUP at MD Anderson Cancer Center (6/2006-6/2013 was performed. Patients with favorable CUP subsets treated as per site-specific recommendations were excluded. Demographics, imaging, pathology and treatment data was collected using a prospectively maintained CUP database. Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test were used to estimate and compare overall survival. The cox-proportional model was used for multivariate analyses.Median age was 35 years (range 19-39. All patients underwent comprehensive workup. Adenocarcinoma was the predominant histology (70%. A median of 9 immunostains (range 2-29 were performed. The most common putative primary was biliary tract based on clinicopathological parameters as well as gene profiling. Patients presented with a median of 2 metastatic sites [lymph node (60%, lung (47%, liver (38% and bone (34%]. Most commonly used systemic chemotherapies included gemcitabine, fluorouracil, taxanes and platinum agents. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 10.0 (95% confidence interval (CI: 6.7-15.4 months. On multivariate analyses, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (Hazard ratio (HR 3.66; 95%CI 1.52-8.82; P = 0.004, ≥3 metastatic sites (HR 5.34; 95%CI 1.19-23.9; P = 0.029, and tissue of origin not tested (HR 3.4; 95%CI 1.44-8.06; P = 0.005 were associated with poor overall survival. Culine's CUP prognostic model (lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, liver metastases was validated in this cohort (median overall survival: good-risk 25.2 months vs

  8. Cancer in adolescents and young adults in countries with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Ian; Epelman, Sidnei

    2013-08-01

    Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYA) represents a higher fraction of all cancer in countries that are still undergoing a demographic transition. Such countries tend to have much younger populations, and therefore unless they have a particularly low incidence of cancer in this age group, will have a higher burden of cancer (absolute number of cases with cancer) in AYA. Cancers in AYA are comprised of the tail end of the incidence curve of cancers that have their peak incidence, or occur almost exclusively in childhood, the beginning of the incidence curve of cancers that primarily affect the elderly, and a third set of cancers that have their peak incidence (or are at least common) in the AYA age group (e.g., testicular cancer, sarcomas, melanoma, thyroid cancer). Many, but not all, of these cancers require radiation or cancer surgery, but the poorest countries do not have a sufficient number of radiation therapy units and surgical oncologists, or indeed medical and pediatric oncologists, to deal with the burden of cancer they face. The AYA age group is particularly important, both with regard to their contribution to the economy now and in the future (the majority are in the "working" age-group defined as 15-64 years), as well as their important role in caring for their families. Moreover, some of these cancers are eminently curable with chemotherapy alone, and more could be cured by simply improving the efficiency of existing health services and providing education and training to both the public as well as oncologists and other specialists required for the care of AYA (although such individuals will not necessarily be exclusively concerned with this age group). Of particular importance is the detection and diagnosis of cancer patients at the earliest possible time in the course of their disease. Avoiding delays in initiating therapy, which are partly due to the poverty and lack of education of the public as well as to a failure on the part of primary

  9. Recruitment of representative samples for low incidence cancer populations: Do registries deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanson-Fisher Rob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting large and representative samples of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer survivors is important for gaining accurate data regarding the prevalence of unmet needs in this population. This study aimed to describe recruitment rates for AYAs recruited through a cancer registry with particular focus on: active clinician consent protocols, reasons for clinicians not providing consent and the representativeness of the final sample. Methods Adolescents and young adults aged 14 to19 years inclusive and listed on the cancer registry from January 1 2002 to December 31 2007 were identified. An active clinician consent protocol was used whereby the registry sent a letter to AYAs primary treating clinicians requesting permission to contact the survivors. The registry then sent survivors who received their clinician's consent a letter seeking permission to forward their contact details to the research team. Consenting AYAs were sent a questionnaire which assessed their unmet needs. Results The overall consent rate for AYAs identified as eligible by the registry was 7.8%. Of the 411 potentially eligible survivors identified, just over half (n = 232, 56% received their clinician's consent to be contacted. Of those 232 AYAs, 65% were unable to be contacted. Only 18 AYAs (7.8% refused permission for their contact details to be passed on to the research team. Of the 64 young people who agreed to be contacted, 50% (n = 32 completed the questionnaire. Conclusions Cancer registries which employ active clinician consent protocols may not be appropriate for recruiting large, representative samples of AYAs diagnosed with cancer. Given that AYA cancer survivors are highly mobile, alternative methods such as treatment centre and clinic based recruitment may need to be considered.

  10. Adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes following treatment of adolescent and young adult cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Haggar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obstetric and perinatal outcomes among female survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancers and their offspring. METHODS: Using multivariate analysis of statewide linked data, outcomes of all first completed pregnancies (n = 1894 in female survivors of AYA cancer diagnosed in Western Australia during the period 1982-2007 were compared with those among females with no cancer history. Comparison pregnancies were matched by maternal age-group, parity and year of delivery. RESULTS: Compared with the non-cancer group, female survivors of AYA cancer had an increased risk of threatened abortion (adjusted relative risk 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.51-2.74, gestational diabetes (2.65, 2.08-3.57, pre-eclampsia (1.32, 1.04-1.87, post-partum hemorrhage (2.83, 1.92-4.67, cesarean delivery (2.62, 2.22-3.04, and maternal postpartum hospitalization>5 days (3.01, 1.72-5.58, but no excess risk of threatened preterm delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes, failure of labor to progress or retained placenta. Their offspring had an increased risk of premature birth (<37 weeks: 1.68, 1.21-2.08, low birth weight (<2500 g: 1.51, 1.23-2.12, fetal growth restriction (3.27, 2.45-4.56, and neonatal distress indicated by low Apgar score (<7 at 1 minute (2.83, 2.28-3.56, need for resuscitation (1.66, 1.27-2.19 or special care nursery admission (1.44, 1.13-1.78. Congenital abnormalities and perinatal deaths (intrauterine or ≤7 days of birth were not increased among offspring of survivors. CONCLUSION: Female survivors of AYA cancer have moderate excess risks of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes arising from subsequent pregnancies that may require additional surveillance or intervention.

  11. Preliminary development and psychometric evaluation of an unmet needs measure for adolescents and young adults with cancer: the Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton-McHarg Tara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adult (AYA cancer survivors may have unique physical, psychological and social needs due to their cancer occurring at a critical phase of development. The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically rigorous measure of unmet need to capture the specific needs of this group. Methods Items were developed following a comprehensive literature review, focus groups with AYAs, and feedback from health care providers, researchers and other professionals. The measure was pilot tested with 32 AYA cancer survivors recruited through a state-based cancer registry to establish face and content validity. A main sample of 139 AYA cancer patients and survivors were recruited through seven treatment centres and invited to complete the questionnaire. To establish test-retest reliability, a sub-sample of 34 participants completed the measure a second time. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and the measure was assessed for internal consistency, discriminative validity, potential responsiveness and acceptability. Results The Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP has established face and content validity, and acceptability. The final measure has 70 items and six factors: Treatment Environment and Care (33 items; Feelings and Relationships (14 items; Daily Life (12 items; Information and Activities (5 items; Education (3 items; and Work (3 items. All domains achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.80. Item-to-item test-retest reliability was also high, with all but four items reaching weighted kappa values above 0.60. Conclusions The CNQ-YP is the first multi-dimensional measure of unmet need which has been developed specifically for AYA cancer patients and survivors. The measure displays a strong factor structure, and excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. However, the small sample size has implications for the reliability of the statistical analyses undertaken

  12. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-06-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan. PMID:26695739

  13. Brief Introduction of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines for Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is always a main factor threatening human’s health and life, and its incidence and mortality are gradually increasing in recent years. However, some advances have been made with the unremitting efforts and exploration human made and the improvement is mainly made in cancer treatment of young children and older adults, while little in adolescent and young adult (AYA patients, who are generally defined as individuals of 15 to 39 years old at the time of initial cancer diagnosis due to many factors. To highlight the issues of this unique population, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN absorbs a large amount of information and previous researches and develops a set of clinical practice guidelines. Though the guidelines are more supportive care guidelines than treatment guidelines, they give us the opportunity to learn the latest international developments in AYA treatment and more survival chance for the treatment of AYA patients.

  14. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS. PMID:26442952

  15. Validation of the distress thermometer for use among adolescents and young adults with cancer in Australia: a multicenter study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pandora Patterson,1,2 Fiona EJ McDonald,1,2 Antoinette Anazodo,3 Daniel SJ Costa,4 Claire E Wakefield,5,6 Kate White,2 Kate Thompson,7 Michael P Osborn8 1Research, Evaluation and Social Policy, CanTeen Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Nursing Research Unit, Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children's Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 4Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research group, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 6Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 7Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 8Youth Cancer Service SA/NT, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs diagnosed with cancer commonly experience elevated levels of distress. Routinely administered distress screening tools can be effective in identifying individuals in need of referral to psychosocial services. The distress thermometer and problem checklist are widely used screening tools that have been validated among some cancer populations, but which have not to date been validated for use among AYAs with cancer. The primary aim of this study is to validate the distress thermometer and a modified problem checklist for use with AYA cancer patients, aged 15–25 years. Specifically, we aim to 1 determine appropriate cutoffs for clinical referral on the distress thermometer; 2 investigate the content validity of the modified problem checklist; and 3 assess the clinical utility of the tool from the perspectives of both patients and health care professionals. The secondary aims of the study are to 4 establish prevalence and predictors of distress in AYA cancer patients and 5 examine the

  16. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Types of Cancers ... Fund for Young Adults Vital Options Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teens Living with Cancer ...

  17. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  18. How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000845.htm How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers To use ... children with cancer can be cured. Types of Childhood Cancers Cancer in children is rare, but some ...

  19. Challenges faced in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  20. Clinical and biological aspects of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coso D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diane Coso, Sylvain Garciaz, Réda BouabdallahDepartment of Hematology, Cancer Center Institut J. Paoli-I. Calmettes, University of La Méditerranée, Marseille, FranceAbstract: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs are one of the most frequent malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA. Among NHLs, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL represents approximately 40% while diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL accounts for nearly 20% of cases. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma is a variant of DLBCL, which preferentially concerns young patients. Biology of B-NHLs is well known and several pathways involving chromosomal translocations, gene rearrangements, and molecular profiling are the subject of continuous investigations. AYA with B-NHL have inferior survival when compared with children. The reasons for this unfavorable outcome are multifactorial, but disease-related biological characteristics of the tumor represent a powerful factor influencing survival. The choice of optimal strategy in the management of B-NHL in patients of 15–29 years old remains controversial and depends on the treating institution and its physicians. Although children and younger adolescents benefit from pediatric approaches using intensive treatment, older adolescents are often treated with adult rituximab-based chemotherapy. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge relevant to AYA with DLBCL and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.Keywords: DLBCL, PMBCL, AYA, prognosis, treatment

  1. Germ Cell Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaminus, Gabriele; Joffe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a group of biologically complex malignancies that affect patients at different sites within the body and at different ages. The varying nature of these tumors reflects their cell of origin which is the primordial germ cell, which normally gives rise to ovarian and testicular egg and sperm producing cells. These cells retain an ability to give rise to all types of human tissues, and this is illustrated by the different kinds of GCTs that occur. In adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, GCTs predominantly present as testicular, ovarian or mediastinal primary GCTs, and represent some of the most complex therapeutic challenges within any AYA practice. The varying types of GCTs, defined by primary site and/or age at presentation, can look very similar microscopically. However, there is growing evidence that they may have different molecular characteristics, different biology and different requirements for curative treatments. Whilst in adult testicular GCTs there is evidence for an environmental cause during fetal development and a genetic component, these causative factors are much less well understood in other GCTs. GCTs are some of the most curable cancers in adults, but some patients exhibit resistance to standard treatments. Because of this, today's clinical research is directed at understanding how to best utilize toxic therapies and promote healthy survivorship. This chapter explores the biology, behavior and treatment of GCTs and discusses how the AYA group of GCTs may hold some of the keys to understanding fundamental unanswered questions of biological variance and curability in GCTs. PMID:27595361

  2. Clinical and biological aspects of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bouabdallah, Réda

    2015-01-01

    Diane Coso, Sylvain Garciaz, Réda BouabdallahDepartment of Hematology, Cancer Center Institut J. Paoli-I. Calmettes, University of La Méditerranée, Marseille, FranceAbstract: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are one of the most frequent malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA). Among NHLs, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) represents approximately 40% while diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for nearly 20% of cases. Primary mediastinal B-cell l...

  3. Clinical and biological aspects of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Coso D; Garciaz S; Bouabdallah R

    2015-01-01

    Diane Coso, Sylvain Garciaz, Réda BouabdallahDepartment of Hematology, Cancer Center Institut J. Paoli-I. Calmettes, University of La Méditerranée, Marseille, FranceAbstract: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are one of the most frequent malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA). Among NHLs, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) represents approximately 40% while diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for nearly 20% of cases. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma is a var...

  4. Comorbidity in older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Grant R; Mackenzie, Amy; Magnuson, Allison; Olin, Rebecca; Chapman, Andrew; Mohile, Supriya; Allore, Heather; Somerfield, Mark R; Targia, Valerie; Extermann, Martine; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Hurria, Arti; Holmes, Holly

    2016-07-01

    Comorbidity is an issue of growing importance due to changing demographics and the increasing number of adults over the age of 65 with cancer. The best approach to the clinical management and decision-making in older adults with comorbid conditions remains unclear. In May 2015, the Cancer and Aging Research Group, in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging, met to discuss the design and implementation of intervention studies in older adults with cancer. A presentation and discussion on comorbidity measurement, interventions, and future research was included. In this article, we discuss the relevance of comorbidities in cancer, examine the commonly used tools to measure comorbidity, and discuss the future direction of comorbidity research. Incorporating standardized comorbidity measurement, relaxing clinical trial eligibility criteria, and utilizing novel trial designs are critical to developing a larger and more generalizable evidence base to guide the management of these patients. Creating or adapting comorbidity management strategies for use in older adults with cancer is necessary to define optimal care for this growing population. PMID:26725537

  5. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tuesday, August 11, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cancer Unique to Older ... effect of your narcotic medications. These include: antidepressants anti-epileptic (anti-seizure) drugs steroids. Radiation for pain ...

  6. Ruth Ayaß: Kommunikation und Geschlecht. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Goll

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Ayaß gibt in der vorliegenden Einführung einen Überblick über den Forschungsstand und die wesentlichen Diskussionsstränge zum Thema Kommunikation und Geschlecht. Sie zeigt dabei, ob und wie sich männliche von weiblichen Gesprächstilen unterscheiden lassen und wie verschiedene Geschlechter erst interaktiv, nämlich durch kommunikative Prozesse, erzeugt werden. Der Band eignet sich hervorragend als Lehrbuch in soziologischen und sprachwissenschaftlichen Studiengängen, bietet aber auch für die konstruktivistische Genderforschung wichtige Anknüpfungspunkte.In this introductory text, Ruth Ayaß presents an overview of the state of research and the important issues on the topic of Communication and Gender (Kommunikation und Geschlecht. She thus shows if and how masculine and feminine speech styles can be differentiated and how different genders come into being through interaction, or more specifically, through communicative processes. The volume is excellently suited for use as a textbook in sociological and linguistic disciplines while also offering important points of departure for constructivist gender research.

  7. Home care to Older adult with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Home care of the elderly with cancer. After the development of a program of oncology home care and over a period of five years, we believe that the evaluation allows us to have our proposal and challenges in the continuity of the program. This evidence is based in our old advanced Uruguayan population, and consequently increase this cancer population, we should define which pointed toward our objective, in order to get the best quality life. After one year with a project based on general rules, the evidence threw an evaluation, that we should review the model of care with which we were working. We continue to Auto-care model Dorothea Orem. The main objective became quality of life:Take care as the primary Older Adult; Specific care their cancer to become symptomatic secondary complications to the evolution of tumor biology; Secondary prevention of cause therapeutic effect; Family integration, without changing the pace of life that the elderly had before being with cancer. Nursing challenge: Maintain autonomy achieved in these 5 years. Deepen the social equilibrium that we are committed daily between patient and family.Do not miss the professionalism achieved today.Proposal for nursing: Consider a wide field of nursing and for this achievement is need knowledge of 2nd level of community work, knowledge Clinical knowledge in Oncology Nursing, autonomy in decision making. For older adults with cancer: No out of its middle. Maintain priority habits and customs. Do not let it lose their self-esteem with their own values. Caution changes must take care to better manage the evolution of their illness. Conclusion: Oncology nursing is a specialty. Without this formation will be ever more away the development of these programs in our environment, or fall in applying for only economic convenience, losing professionalism. Our population is increasing

  8. Primary Care Use before Cancer Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults - A Nationwide Register Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ) was measured during the two years preceding the diagnosis (index date), and collected data were analysed in a negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: The cases generally increased their use of primary care already from 8 months before a cancer diagnosis, whereas a similar trend was not found for...... little is known about their pre-diagnostic healthcare use. This study investigates the use of primary care among AYAs during the two years preceding a cancer diagnosis. METHODS: The study is a retrospective population-based matched cohort study using Danish nationwide registry data. All persons diagnosed...... with cancer during 2002-2011 in the age group 15-39 years were included (N = 12,306); each participant was matched on gender, age and general practice with 10 randomly selected references (N = 123,060). The use of primary healthcare services (face-to-face contacts, blood tests and psychometric tests...

  9. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  10. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  11. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Lange, Theis; Tjønneland, Anne; Baker, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect on...... the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was...... obtained through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate...

  12. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients: comparing adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henyse Gómez Valiente da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category Methods: Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. Results: A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p < 0.01 and a lower frequency of being overweight (7% vs. 15.1%, p < 0.01 than adults. Both, adult and older adults had a high frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. The older adults had lower consumption of calories, intake of iron and folic acid. Inadequacy of vitamin intake was observed in both groups; respectively, 52%, 43%, 95%, 76% and 88% for Vitamin A, C, D, E and folic acid. The older adults had a higher folic acid and calcium inadequacy than the adults (97% vs 82%, p <0.01; 88% vs 72%, p < 0.01. There was no association of micronutrient intake with cancer, nor with nutritional status. Conclusion: The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category.

  13. The Doctor-Patient Relationship in the Adolescent Cancer Setting: A Developmentally Focused Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siembida, Elizabeth J; Bellizzi, Keith M

    2015-09-01

    Several national reports and many individuals in the clinical oncology community have defined the adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer population as individuals diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39. However, neuroscience and developmental research have identified important decision-making skills (e.g., information processing, reasoning, emotion regulation) that are not fully developed during adolescence, making general, AYA-focused doctor-patient interaction guidelines potentially questionable for the adolescent cancer population. Most studies include adolescents in samples of pediatric cancer patients or include adolescents in samples of young adult cancer patients, but studies rarely consider adolescent cancer patients as a distinct, developmentally unique group. A systematic literature review was undertaken in October 2014 to begin to understand what is known about the doctor-patient relationship and communication preferences within adolescent oncology. From the 25 included studies, three important conclusions emerged: (1) discrepancies among adolescent patients, parents, and providers about the desired extent of involvement in treatment-related decisions; (2) patient desire for developmentally and culturally appropriate information provision; and (3) the desire and preference for how information is delivered, with recognition that these preferences may change with age. There was some variation in themes by study design, with studies directly observing medical consultations reporting less adolescent involvement in discussions than studies that surveyed doctors. The results of this review support the need for developmentally focused research and clinical guidelines that emphasize the experience of adolescent cancer patients separate from their older and younger counterparts. PMID:26812664

  14. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia are at...... increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  15. Involved site radiation therapy for the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portlock CS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carol S Portlock1,2 1Division of Hematologic Oncology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 2Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Radiation therapy technology has permitted the development of new treatment planning techniques. Involved field, involved node, and involved site radiotherapy fields are discussed and compared. Indications for and implications of combined modality therapy are examined, particularly as pertinent to the adolescent and young adult population. Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma, AYA, involved site or involved node radiotherapy

  16. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Adult Cancer Survivors in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin Joo; Park, Hyun Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated not only with increased risk of cancer incidence, but also influences prognosis, and the quality of life of the cancer survivors. Thus, smoking cessation after cancer diagnosis is necessary. However, smoking behavior among Korean cancer-survivors is yet unknown. Materials and Methods We investigated the smoking status of 23770 adults, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the Health Interview Survey of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Exami...

  17. Occupational Therapy Use by Older Adults With Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Weinberger,Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study of 27,131 older adults diagnosed with cancer between 2004 and 2007 found that survivors who used occupational therapy after diagnosis also had the highest levels of comorbidities.

  18. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for cancer pain in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, Karen; Bennett, Michael I.; Johnson, Mark I.; Simpson, Karen H; Oxberry, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cancer-related pain is complex and multi-dimensional but the mainstay of cancer pain management has predominately used a biomedical approach. There is a need for non-pharmacological and innovative approaches. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) may have a role for a significant number of patients but the effectiveness of TENS is currently unknown. Objectives The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of TENS for cancer-related pain in adults. ...

  19. Lymphoma in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugières, Laurence; Brice, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas are one of the commonest malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA) accounting respectively for 22% of all cancers in patients aged 15-24 years (16% for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 6% for non-HL (NHL)). The distribution of NHL subtypes in this age group differs strikingly from the distribution in children and in older adults with 4 main subtypes accounting for the majority of the cases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma or anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Age-related differences in tumor biology have been demonstrated mainly in DLBCL but there is still a need for biological studies to better understand age-related differences in this age group. AYA patients currently diagnosed with HL and NHL have 5-year survival expectations exceeding 90 and 75%, respectively. Different therapeutic strategies are often used in children and adult lymphoma and the dispersion of lymphoma care between adult and pediatric hematologist-oncologists results in heterogeneous strategies for each subgroup according to age. The impact of these different strategies on outcomes is not easy to evaluate given the paucity of population-based data focused on this age group, taking into account tumor biology and the lack of a uniform staging system. Given the excellent results obtained with current therapies, the challenge now is to develop strategies aimed at reducing acute and long-term toxicity in most patients while maintaining high cure rates and to identify patients at high risk of failure requiring new strategies including more selective targeted therapies. PMID:27595360

  20. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias, 1968-; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. METHODS As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age

  1. Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain. The study of parasitoid Hymenoptera is of significance for the assessment of diversity in a given area because of their role in the regulation of insects populations. The present work analyses diversity within Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Forested Estate of Artikutza, located in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya, western Pyrenees, Spain. Collection of specimens was spread over two years and was carried out in two different habitats: mixed forest and beech forest. A total of 2,270 specimens, belonging to 22 separate genera, were captured. Subsequently, alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the beech forest was proven to host greater diversity than the mixed forest. A sampling strategy was adopted for the analysis of Alysiinae phenology and its relationship with environmental climatic conditions; as a result, a direct relationship between phenology and temperature was attested.Biodiversidade na Alyssinae subfamília (Hymenoptera, Braconidae no Parque Natural Peñas de Aya (Espanha. O estudo dos himenópteros parasitóides é significativo para uma avaliação da diversidade em determinada área por causa do seu papel no controle das populações de insetos. O presente trabalho analisa a diversidade no taxon Alysiinae (Himenóptero, Braconidae na área de floresta de Artikutza, localizada no Parque Natural de Peñas de Aya, Pirinéus ocidentais, Espanha. A coleta de espécimes dividiu-se em dois anos e foi realizada em dois habitats diferentes: floresta mista e floresta de faias. No total, foram capturados 2.270 exemplares pertencentes a 22 gêneros distintos. Subsequentemente, as variedades alfa, beta e gama foram analisadas, comprovando-se que a floresta de faias apresenta uma diversidade maior que a floresta mista. Adotou-se a estratégia de amostra para análise da fenologia da Alysiinae e da sua relação com

  2. Peculiarities of Anxiety Score Distribution in Adult Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Mikhail; Blank, Olga; Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to investigate and analyze possible peculiarities of the psychological state of cancer patients undergoing treatment. Scores characterizing the trait and state anxiety were acquired using the Integrative Anxiety Test from four groups: adults with no appreciable disease, pregnant women, cancer patients examined during the specific antitumor treatment, and cancer patients brought into lasting clinical remission. Statistical analysis of the testing results revealed the bimodal type of the distribution of scores. The only statistically significant exception was the distribution of the state anxiety scores in cancer patients undergoing treatment that was clearly unimodal. PMID:26176239

  3. Screening methods of ovarian cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Vera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is associated with high mortality rate which has improved a little despite therapeutic advances. It causes more deaths than combined cervical and uterine cancer. High mortality is believed to be a direct result of already advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival is excellent in case of early stage disease but poor in late stage disease, regardless of histology. The goal of screening for ovarian cancer is restricted to detection of asymptomatic early stage disease, as precursor lesions of ovarian cancer have not been identified. At present, there is no reliable method of ovarian cancer screening which has been shown to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer. Therefore, routine screening of women in general population can not be currently advised. Screening should be limited to high-risk population and subjects participating in research projects as long as the results of current studies are available.

  4. Opioid Misuse Behaviors in Adolescents and Young Adults in a Hematology/Oncology Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrentraut, Jennifer Harman; Kern, Kathleen Danielle; Long, Sarah A.; An, Angel Qi; Faughnan, Lane G.; Anghelescu, Doralina L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the occurrence and psychosocial correlates of aberrant opioid-associated behavior (AOB) in adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematology and oncology patients prescribed opioid therapy. Methods Structured retrospective chart reviews were conducted for AYA patients (N = 398) accepted for active treatment at a large pediatric hematology/oncology institution over a 17-month period. Opioid therapy was documented in the records of 94 out of the 398 patients. The records of thos...

  5. Occupational Causes of Testicular Cancer in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Fritschi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is one of the commonest cancers in men of working age, and is increasing in incidence in Europe and North America. One suggested mechanism of causation is that there is impaired differentiation of germ cells in the pre- or perinatal period, followed by malignant transformation in later life, possibly by a hormonal mechanism. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs have been a major focus of interest for etiological research into testicular cancer because they interact with various hormonal pathways. Several EDCs including bisphenol A, phthalates, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorines have been investigated, but there are few studies and those that exist have not been able to assess exposure well. In addition, several studies, particularly those with better exposure assessment, have suggested that workers in electrical occupations have increased risks of testicular cancer. Electromagnetic radiation may have subthermal effects or may disrupt hormone release. Chronodisruption such as due to shift-work could potentially increase the risk of testicular cancer via disruption of hormonal cycles, but only one study has so far investigated this possibility. Lastly, solvent exposure, particularly to dimethylformamide, has been suggested to be associated with testicular cancer, but almost all these studies are based on job title only, with no specific assessment of solvent exposure. In conclusion, there is little evidence available on which to base definitive statements about occupational causes of testicular cancer. Future studies need to improve exposure assessment and develop ways to adjust for possible prenatal factors.

  6. Supportive Care in Older Adults with Cancer: Across the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koll, Thuy; Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Holmes, Holly M; Pieters, Huibrie C; van Londen, G J; Marcum, Zachary A; MacKenzie, Amy R; Steer, Christopher B

    2016-08-01

    Supportive care is an essential component of anticancer treatment regardless of age or treatment intent. As the number of older adults with cancer increases, and supportive care strategies enable more patients to undergo treatment, greater numbers of older patients will become cancer survivors. These patients may have lingering adverse effects from treatment and will need continued supportive care interventions. Older adults with cancer benefit from geriatric assessment (GA)-guided supportive care interventions. This can occur at any stage across the cancer treatment continuum. As a GA commonly uncovers issues potentially unrelated to anticancer treatment, it could be argued that the assessment is essentially a supportive care strategy. Key aspects of a GA include identification of comorbidities, assessing for polypharmacy, screening for cognitive impairment and delirium, assessing functional status, and screening for psychosocial issues. Treatment-related issues of particular importance in older adults include recognition of increased bone marrow toxicity, management of nausea and vomiting, identification of anemia, and prevention of neurotoxicity. The role of physical therapy and cancer rehabilitation as a supportive care strategy in older adults is important regardless of treatment stage or intent. PMID:27342609

  7. Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain. The study of parasitoid Hymenoptera is of significance for the assessment of diversity in a given area because of their role in the regulation of insects populations. The present work analyses diversity within Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Forested Estate of Artikutza, located in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya, western Pyrenees, Spain. Collection of specimens was spread over two years and was carried out in two different habitats: mixed forest and beech forest. A total of 2,270 specimens, belonging to 22 separate genera, were captured. Subsequently, alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the beech forest was proven to host greater diversity than the mixed forest. A sampling strategy was adopted for the analysis of Alysiinae phenology and its relationship with environmental climatic conditions; as a result, a direct relationship between phenology and temperature was attested.

  8. PROVIDING AFFORDABLE HIGHER EDUCATION TO RURAL GIRLS IN INDIAN PUNJAB: A CASE STUDY OF BABA AYA SINGH RIARKI COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJIT SINGH GHUMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights a case study of a rural girls college located in a remote village of Gurdaspur district in Indian Punjab. The idea of this unique college was conceptualised by one Baba Aya Singh, a social and religious activist, from a village near the college way back in 1925. It was really a revolutionary idea because female education in India, particularly higher education, was a distant dream at that time. The college was, however, started with only 14 rural girls after about half-a-century when the great visionary Baba Aya Singh had a dream to educate the rural girls. Access to and affordability of higher education is the uniqueness of this college. The student has to pay only Rs. 5800 (about US $ 65 per annum, which includes both the tuition fee and boarding and lodging. It is equally significant to note that the entire expenses of the college are met by this and the produce of agricultural land of the college. The college does not take any outside help. The meritorious senior class students teach the junior class students. The college in its own humble, but significant, way made a revolutionary contribution to the education of poor rural girls who, otherwise, would not have dreamt of college education. Apart from, class-room teaching and bookish knowledge, the students are taught social, ethical and management skills in a most natural manner. The product of the college has proved to be the agents of change and rural transformation.

  9. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia are at...... increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid.......2-3.1) for brain cancer, and 3.3 (95% CI, 2.5-4.4) for NHL. Corresponding hazard ratios after childhood leukemia were 10.4 (95% CI, 0.4-223) for thyroid cancer, 7.2 (95% CI, 2.0-26) for brain cancer, and 6.5 (95% CI, 0.4-110) for NHL. Patients with adult leukemia have excess risk of thyroid cancer, brain...

  10. Occupational Therapy for Adults With Cancer: Why It Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Williams, Grant R; Campbell, Claudine; Munoz, Lauro A; Muss, Hyman B

    2016-03-01

    Adults with cancer may be at risk for limitations in functional status and quality of life (QOL). Occupational therapy is a supportive service with the specific mission to help people functionally engage in life as safely and independently as possible with the primary goal of improving QOL. Unfortunately, for people with cancer, occupational therapy remains underused. The overall purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of what occupational therapy is and its relevance to patients with cancer, highlight the reasons to refer, and, last, provide general advice on how to access services. PMID:26865588

  11. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea. PMID:25975449

  12. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age 4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, p<0.001). Older age, male sex, personal and parental education, and number of working hours were associated with high income. Survivors of leukemia (OR = 0.40, p<0.001), lymphoma (OR = 0.63, p = 0.040), CNS tumors (OR = 0.22, p<0.001), bone tumors (OR = 0.24, p = 0.003) had a lower income than siblings. Survivors who had cranial irradiation, had a lower income than survivors who had no cranial irradiation (OR = 0.48, p = 0.006). Discussion Even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  13. Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International...... Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes I10-I79) were compared with the expected numbers derived from the comparison cohort. We calculated the absolute excess risks attributable to status as a survivor of cancer and standardized hospitalization rate ratios (RRs). All statistical tests were two...

  14. Primary care for young adult cancer survivors: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Blake-Gumbs, Lyla; Miedema, Baujke;

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Internationally, family physicians (FP) are not routinely involved in young adult cancer (YAC) care. In this short report, we would like to make a compelling argument for primary care involvement. METHODS: Comparative descriptions and literature review. RESULTS: Cancer among YAs is rare...... psychosocial issues the YA cancer patient may present with. The role of the FP in follow-up care seems to be very limited. CONCLUSIONS: YACs in the western world seem to have comparable medical and psychosocial problems. However, the nature of health insurance is such that it impacts differently on the care of...... this group of cancer patients. Primary care features such as patient-centered, integrated, and comprehensive care over extended periods of time bring the FP into the unique position to provide follow-up for YAC. However, this will require integrating patient's perspectives on their care, professional...

  15. Cancer, a disease of aging (part 2) - risk factors for older adult cancer mortality in Switzerland 1991-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidlin, Kurt; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel; Stuck, Andreas; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Swiss National Cohort

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is disease of aging that disproportionately affects older adults and often results in considerable public health consequences. This study evaluated gender-age-specific cancer mortality risk factors in older adults in Switzerland with attention to the most common types of cancer.

  16. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Ps...

  17. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  18. Nasopharyngeal cancer; Cancers du cavum de l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, B.; Biston, M.C.; Montbarbon, X.; Pommier, P. [Departement de radiotherapie, Centre de lutte contre le cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to propose recommendations concerning the delineation of the target volume of the nasopharyngeal cancers, the planning of the treatment, and describe the expected results about the efficiency and the toxicities. Theses recommendations are based upon anatomy, natural history of theses tumors, and upon published experiences from different teams working with IMRT. (authors)

  19. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  20. Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad J

    2011-05-15

    Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748

  1. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka;

    2014-01-01

    predominantly elderly community-dwelling women. Vitamin D₃ supplementation decreased cancer mortality and vitamin D supplementation decreased all-cause mortality, but these estimates are at risk of type I errors due to the fact that too few participants were examined, and to risks of attrition bias originating......BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of...... provided data for the analyses. All trials came from high-income countries. Most of the trials had a high risk of bias, mainly for-profit bias. Most trials included elderly community-dwelling women (aged 47 to 97 years). Vitamin D was administered for a weighted mean of six years. Fourteen trials tested...

  2. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified. PMID:7618909

  3. Determination of pathogens causing damping-off and their pathogenicity in tomato seedbeds in Ankara (Ayaş, Beypazarı and Nallıhan districts) province

    OpenAIRE

    AŞKIN, Ayşe; KATIRCIOĞLU, Y. Zekai

    2009-01-01

    This research was carried out for determination of pathogens causing damping-off and their pathogenicity in tomato seedbeds in Ankara province (Ayaş, Beypazarı and Nallıhan districts) in 2003. Two hundred eleven samples of tomato seedlings, thought to be infected with damping off were collected from 42 seedbeds. Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from all collected  tomato seddlings. Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., R. solani a...

  4. Collaboration and Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, O; Manten-Horst, E; van der Graaf, W T A

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the need for collaboration across pediatric and adult cancer to care for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) arose from the recognition of the unique characteristics of AYAs with cancer. Neither pediatric nor adult oncology hospital departments are able to provide age-appropriate care single handedly. The best way to bridge the gap in care of AYA cancer patients is to centralize aspects of their care within dedicated AYA care programs, including the following essential components: provision of developmentally appropriate and multidisciplinary (supportive) care, availability of AYA inpatient and outpatient facilities and healthcare professional AYA expertise as collaboration between adult and pediatric departments. Barriers are related to the slowly emerging evidence of benefit, cultural differences (collaboration between pediatric and adult oncology professionals), administrative and logistic challenges (small number of AYAs makes it difficult to create an AYA program in every hospital) and financial aspects (dependency on philanthropic funds). The sustainable development of an AYA program requires acceptance as a standard of care at the clinical and patient community and at government level. To improve the quality, equity and quantity of research and innovation in AYA cancer care across the world, it is necessary to join forces and collaborate in international networks to study issues such as the features of quality care, collaboration between pediatric and adult clinical teams, trial groups and professional societies, and AYA-specific groups such as Critical Mass, Canteen or European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer. PMID:27595356

  5. Epoetin and Darbepoetin Treatment for Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Disparities and Cancer For Patient Advocates Public Policy Advocacy Cancer Awareness Dates Survivorship Blog About Us You ... Health Disparities and Cancer For Patient Advocates Public Policy Advocacy Cancer Awareness Dates Cancer.Net provides timely, comprehensive, ...

  6. The Clinician's Toolbox: Assessing the Sexual Impacts of Cancer on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer (AYAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Aubin, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Cancer can have a significant impact on numerous domains of AYAC sexuality. The assessment of and attention to the impact of sexuality on AYAC is crucial in order to provide effective and comprehensive quality patient cancer care. Aubin S and Perez S. The clinician's toolbox: assessing the sexual impacts of cancer on adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYAC. Sex Med 2015;3:198–212.

  7. Incorporating Geriatric Medicine Providers into the Care of the Older Adult with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Allison; Canin, Beverly; van Londen, G J; Edwards, Beatrice; Bakalarski, Pamela; Parker, Ira

    2016-11-01

    A significant proportion of cancer patients and survivors are age 65 and over. Older adults with cancer often have more complex medical and social needs than their younger counterparts. Geriatric medicine providers (GMPs) such as geriatricians, geriatric-trained advanced practice providers, and geriatric certified registered nurses have expertise in caring for older adults, managing complex medical situations, and optimizing function and independence for this population. GMPs are not routinely incorporated into cancer care for older adults; however, their particular skill set may add benefit at many points along the cancer care continuum. In this article, we review the role of geriatric assessment in the care of older cancer patients, highlight specific case scenarios in which GMPs may offer additional understanding and insight in the care of older adults with cancer, and discuss specific mechanisms for incorporating GMPs into oncology care. PMID:27613166

  8. Practices of healthcare professionals from the perspective of older adults living with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimara Sonaglio Rocha; Margrid Beuter; Eliane Tatsch Neves; Juliane Elis Both; Miriam da Silveira Perrando; Larissa Venturini

    2016-01-01

    Objective: understanding the care practices of health professionals caring for older adults living with cancer in outpatient treatment. Methods: a qualitative research conducted in a hematology oncology outpatient clinic in southern Brazil. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 15 older adults. Data were submitted to thematic analysis. Results: a category of care practice of health professionals amongst older adults living with cancer emerged with two subcategories: disclosure of the...

  9. Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldane Cengiz Seval

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review were to discuss standard and investigational treatment strategies for adolescent and young adult with acute myeloid leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML in adolescent and young adult patients (AYAs may need a different type of therapy than those currently used in children and older patients. As soon as AML is diagnosed, AYA patient should be offered to participate in well-designed clinical trials. The standard treatment approach for AYAs with AML is remission induction chemotherapy with an anthracycline/cytarabine combination, followed by either consolidation chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation, depending on the ability of the patient to tolerate intensive treatment and cytogenetic features. Presently, continuing progress of novel drugs targeting specific pathways in acute leukemia may bring AML treatment into a new era.

  10. Update on the Management of Pancreatic Cancer in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin Yin; Sissoko, Moussa; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is more common in older adults, who are underrepresented in clinical trials and frequently under treated. Chronological age alone should not deter clinicians from offering treatment to geriatric patients, as they are a heterogeneous population. Geriatric assessment, frailty assessment tools, and toxicity risk scores help clinicians select appropriate patients for therapy. For resectable disease, surgery can be safe but should be done at a high-volume center. Adjuvant therapy is important; though there remains controversy on the role of radiation, chemotherapy is well studied and efficacious. In locally advanced unresectable disease, chemoradiation or chemotherapy alone is an option. Neoadjuvant therapy improves the chances of resectability in borderline resectable disease. Chemotherapy extends survival in metastatic disease, but treatment goals and risk-benefit ratios have to be clarified. Adequate symptom management and supportive care are important. There are now many new treatment strategies and novel therapies for this disease. PMID:27492426

  11. Prospective study of falls and risk factors for falls in adults with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol A

    2012-06-10

    Retrospective studies of inpatients with cancer suggest that a cancer diagnosis confers a high risk of falls. In adults with advanced cancer, we aimed to prospectively document the incidence of falls, identify the risk factors, and determine if falls in this population occur predominantly in older patients.

  12. Campaign awareness and oral cancer knowledge in UK resident adult Bangladeshi: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Croucher, R; Islam, S. S.; Nunn, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study reports awareness of the ‘Open up to Mouth Cancer' campaign materials and oral cancer knowledge among two UK adult Bangladeshi communities, both at high risk for oral cancer. Methods: Differences in the outcomes of campaign awareness and knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and early signs were compared between campaign and comparison areas. Home-based interviews were conducted with representative samples from both areas by bilingual interviewers. Data collected includ...

  13. Serum carotenoid levels and risk of lung cancer death in US adults

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer-induced death in the USA. Although much attention has been focused on the anti-carcinogenic effect of consuming carotenoid-containing food or supplements, the results have been inconsistent. We investigated whether serum carotenoid levels were associated with the mortality risk of lung cancer in US adults using data from a nationally representative sample. The data were obtained from the Third Nutrition...

  14. Innovative fertility preservation strategies and programs for young adults with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson RH

    2016-01-01

    Rebecca H Johnson Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Mary Bridge Hospital, MultiCare Health System, Tacoma, WA, USA Abstract: Preservation of fertility is a key issue for young adults newly diagnosed with cancer. Up to 90% of cancer patients under the age of 45 are at risk for fertility impairment following cancer therapy. Cancer patients who are not offered fertility preservation (FP) and those who become infertile following therapy may experience long-term...

  15. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  16. The Experiences of Korean Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Photovoice Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Min Ah; An, Sangmin

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice was used to understand the impact of childhood cancer on Korean young adult survivors. Seven survivors of childhood cancer (currently aged 20-27 years), diagnosed before the age of 19 and with cancer treatment completed, participated in five sessions. The participants took photographs that captured their group's weekly topics and participated in discussions about their feelings and experiences. Fifty-six photo images with narratives on the survivors' experiences were produced on these four participant-selected themes: Relationships With Others, Stigma, Overcoming Difficulties, and The Future This study on Korean childhood cancer survivors sheds light on their perspectives about the impact of cancer. Using an innovative methodology that takes the participants' point of view, this study contributes to the literature on young adult cancer survivors' quality of life and their psychosocial adjustment. The results can inform educational programs and increase public awareness by providing survivors' schoolteachers and peers with knowledge about childhood cancer. PMID:26265716

  17. Pediatric Cancers and Brain Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Martin G; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal tumors classically occur in young children, some principally within the first year of life. Prospective national and international clinical trials during recent decades have brought about progressive improvements in survival, and associated biological studies have advanced our understanding of tumor biology, in some cases allowing biological tumor characteristics to be harnessed for therapeutic benefit. Embryonal tumors continue to occur, albeit less commonly, during childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood. These tumors are less well understood, usually not managed according to standardized protocols and rarely included in clinical trials. Survival outcomes are generally poorer than their childhood equivalents. We present here a summary of the published literature on embryonal tumors that present ectopically during adolescence and adulthood. We show that for some tumors protocol-driven treatment, supported by accurate and complete diagnostics and staging, can result in equivalent outcomes to those seen during childhood. We make the case that clinical trial eligibility criteria should be disease-based rather than age-based, and support improvements in dialogue between children's and adults' cancer clinicians to improve outcomes for these rare tumors. PMID:27595358

  18. Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention Targeting Young Adult Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Rabin, Carolyn; Dunsiger, Shira; Ness, Kirsten K.; Marcus, Bess H

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Young adults who have been treated for cancer face several health and psychosocial risks. To minimize these risks, is it imperative that they address any modifiable risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle. Unfortunately, more than half of young adult cancer survivors remain sedentary. To facilitate the adoption of physical activity (PA) in this population—potentially reducing health and psychosocial risks—we developed and pilot tested an internet-based PA intervention for young sur...

  19. Identifying religious and/or spiritual perspectives of adolescents and young adults receiving blood and marrow transplants: a prospective qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Judith R; Hegner, Mary Ann; Mueller, Mark; Davies, Stella

    2014-08-01

    The potential benefits (or detriments) of religious beliefs in adolescent and young adults (AYA) are poorly understood. Moreover, the literature gives little guidance to health care teams or to chaplains about assessing and addressing the spiritual needs of AYA receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). We used an institutional review board-approved, prospective, longitudinal study to explore the use of religion and/or spirituality (R/S) in AYA HSCT recipients and to assess changes in belief during the transplantation experience. We used the qualitative methodology, grounded theory, to gather and analyze data. Twelve AYA recipients were interviewed within 100 days of receiving HSCT and 6 participants were interviewed 1 year after HSCT; the other 6 participants died. Results from the first set of interviews identified 5 major themes: using R/S to address questions of "why me?" and "what will happen to me;" believing God has a reason; using faith practices; and benefitting from spiritual support people. The second set of interviews resulted in 4 major themes: believing God chose me; affirming that my life has a purpose; receiving spiritual encouragement; and experiencing strengthened faith. We learned that AYA patients were utilizing R/S far more than we suspected and that rather than losing faith in the process of HSCT, they reported using R/S to cope with illness and HSCT and to understand their lives as having special purpose. Our data, supported by findings of adult R/S studies, suggest that professionally prepared chaplains should be proactive in asking AYA patients about their understanding and use of faith, and the data can actively help members of the treatment team understand how AYA are using R/S to make meaning, address fear, and inform medical decisions. PMID:24769327

  20. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  1. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults – from genomics to the clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenderian SS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Saad Sirop Kenderian, Mark R Litzow Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adolescents and young adults (AYA represents a unique and challenging disease entity. Despite the recent improvement of survival in this population over the last decade, it is still lagging behind the excellent cure rates obtained in pediatric ALL. This special population of AYA receives care from pediatric as well as adult hematologists and can be treated on pediatric or adult protocols. There is a substantial difference in disease biology, response to chemotherapy, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation between pediatric and AYA patients. This review discusses current controversies in the management of AYA, outcomes following treatment with pediatric and adult protocols, and the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It focuses on the unique clinical, biological, and socioeconomic characteristics of this population that might partly explain the inferior outcomes. This review also explores recent advances in genomic profiling and emerging treatments in ALL. Keywords: novel agents, monoclonal antibodies, stem cell transplantation, bone marrow transplantation, Philadelphia positive ALL, genomic profile

  2. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort......-specific reference. Information on liver cancer was obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of liver cancer were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During 6,963,105 person-years of follow-up, 438 cases of primary liver cancer were recorded. The hazard ratio...... (95% CI) of adult liver cancer was 1.20 (1.07-1.33) and 1.30 (1.16-1.46) per 1-unit BMI z-score at 7 years and 13 years of age, respectively. Similar associations were found in boys and girls, for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across years of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of viral...

  3. Association Between Diagnosed Diabetes and Self-Reported Cancer Among U.S. Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Ford, Earl S.; Okoro, Catherine A; Tsai, James; Zhao, Guixiang

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association between diagnosed diabetes and self-reported cancer among U.S. adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data for 397,783 adults who participated in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and had valid data on diabetes and cancer. RESULTS After adjustment for potential confounders, diabetic men had higher adjusted prevalence ratios for cancers of the prostate (1.1 [95% CI 1.0–1.3]), colon (1.3 [1.0–1.7]), pancreas (4.6 [1.8–11.7]), rectum...

  4. An Individualized Approach to Cancer Screening Decisions in Older Adults: A Multilevel Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Erica S; Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld; Edwards, Heather M; Schonberg, Mara A; Saiontz, Nicole; Walter, Louise C

    2016-05-01

    Guidelines for optimal cancer screening in older adults remain unclear, particularly for adults over the age of 75. While cancer screening in older adults may benefit some in good health, it may cause unnecessary burdens in others with limited life expectancy. Thus, a systematic approach to enable individualized cancer screening decisions in older adults is needed. We suggest a framework that guides such decisions through evidence-based approaches from multiple interactions, and that involves the patient, clinician, and healthcare system. An individualized approach considers differences in disease risk rather than the chronological age of the patient. This paper presents a comprehensive framework that depicts the independent and converging levels of influences on individualized cancer screening decisions in older adults. This Individualized Decisions for Screening (IDS) framework recognizes the reality of these interrelationships, including the tensions that arise when behaviors and outcomes are valued differently at the patient, clinician, and healthcare organization levels. Person-centered approaches are essential to advancing multilevel research of individualized cancer screening decisions among older adults. PMID:26941042

  5. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Baker, J L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI, indepen......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  6. Expressions of Generativity and Posttraumatic Growth in Adult Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Keith M.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the psycho-oncology research that has been conducted to date has focused on understanding the negative psychological and psychosocial sequelae of cancer. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that many cancer survivors report psychological growth following a diagnosis of cancer. Further, there are few studies that examine the…

  7. Experiences of Parents and General Practitioners with End-of-Life Care in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaal, Suzanne E J; Kuijken, Noortje M J; Verhagen, Constant A H H V M; Jansen, Rosemarie; Servaes, Petra; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the experiences of Dutch bereaved parents and general practitioners (GPs) with palliative care of AYAs (18-35 years) in the terminal stage. Fifteen parents and nine GPs involved with nine deceased AYAs filled out questionnaires and were interviewed by telephone, respectively. In general, the parents were satisfied with the emotional care they themselves received and the medical care that their child received. The GPs were very satisfied with the cooperation with the palliative team. Gaps are present in the areas of symptom control, communication between hospital professionals and parents, aftercare, and transition between hospital and GP. PMID:26812457

  8. Innovative fertility preservation strategies and programs for young adults with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson RH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca H Johnson Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Mary Bridge Hospital, MultiCare Health System, Tacoma, WA, USA Abstract: Preservation of fertility is a key issue for young adults newly diagnosed with cancer. Up to 90% of cancer patients under the age of 45 are at risk for fertility impairment following cancer therapy. Cancer patients who are not offered fertility preservation (FP and those who become infertile following therapy may experience long-term psychosocial distress. This review summarizes the numerous effective strategies for preserving fertility, including sperm banking, electroejaculation, and testicular sperm extraction in males and cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes in females. This paper also highlights novel methods currently in development, such as gonadal tissue cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of gametes. In women, anti-Mullerian hormone is emerging as an accurate marker of ovarian reserve, and the use of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs to protect fertility is increasingly well validated. Although national guidelines mandate FP counseling and referral prior to the start of cancer therapy for patients with reproductive potential, only a minority of young cancer patients in the USA currently take steps to preserve fertility prior to the start of therapy. Some cancer centers across the USA are developing institutional strategies to support FP, resulting in increased utilization of fertility services by newly diagnosed cancer patients. Keywords: young adult, cancer, fertility preservation, program, oocyte, sperm

  9. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with

  10. GREAT PROMISE OF TISSUE-RESIDENT ADULT STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS IN TRANSPLANTATION AND CANCER THERAPIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cell research has inspired great interest because these immature cells from your own body can act as potential, easily accessible cell sources for cell transplantation in regenerative medicine and cancer therapies. The use of adult stem/progenitor cells endowed with a high self-renewal ability and multilineage differentiation potential, which are able to regenerate all the mature cells in the tissues from their origin, offers great prom...

  11. The lived experience of visual creative expression for young adult cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A R; Young, R A

    2015-09-01

    Engaging in visual creative expression individually and in a therapeutic setting can be a beneficial experience for cancer survivors; however, most research in this field has been conducted with older adults. The current study aimed to address this gap by utilising van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenology to answer the following question: 'What is the lived experience and meaning of visual creative expression for young adult cancer survivors?' Seven young adults, diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 18 and 35, were interviewed about creative expression experiences, which they engaged in individually and/or in a therapeutic setting. Data analysis included a thematic reflection, guided existential reflection, and a process of writing and rewriting. Two superordinate themes were identified: increased self-understanding and a healing experience. Seven subthemes were also identified and included the following: being in the flow, allowing the body to express itself, renegotiating control, changing one's environment, being seen, respect for art as a separate entity and giving back. Findings suggest that visual creative expression can be a meaningful experience for young adult cancer survivors, and that this experience espouses both similarities and differences from experiences of older adult survivors. Recommendations are made for future research, in addition to implications for practitioners. PMID:25413274

  12. Treatment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kah Poh; Mohile, Supriya G; Kessler, Elizabeth; Fung, Chunkit

    2016-10-01

    The aging of the population, along with rising life expectancy, means that increasing numbers of older men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, and a large proportion of these men will present with metastatic disease. In this paper, we discuss recent advances in prostate cancer treatment. In particular, we review management approaches for older patients with metastatic prostate cancer based on the decision tree developed by the International Society of Geriatric Oncology, which categorized older men as "fit," "vulnerable," and "frail" according to comprehensive geriatric assessment. PMID:27586377

  13. Pesticide sales and adult male cancer mortality in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Koifman, Sérgio; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula; Moreira, Josino Costa; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Meyer, Armando

    2009-05-01

    In Brazil, where the use of pesticide grows rapidly, studies that evaluate the impact of pesticide exposure on cancer incidence and mortality are very scarce. In this study, we evaluated the degree of correlation between pesticide sales in 1985 in eleven Brazilian states and cancer mortality rates during 1996-1998. Information of all cancer deaths occurred in men 30-69 years old from 1996 to 1998 were collected from National Mortality System. Single and multiple linear regression coefficients were obtained to assess the relationship between per capita sales of pesticides in 1985, specific-site cancer mortality rates (prostate, soft tissue, larynx, leukemia, lip, esophagus, lung, pancreas, bladder, liver, testis, stomach, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma) during 1996-1998, and several covariates. In addition, states were stratified into three groups according to tertiles of pesticides sales and cancer mortality rate ratios (MRR) were then calculated using first tertile as reference. Finally, a factor analysis was performed to reveal unapparent relationships between pesticide use and cancer mortality. Pesticide sales showed statistically significant correlation with the mortality rates for the cancers of prostate (r=0.69; p=0.019), soft tissue (r=0.71; p=0.015), leukemia (r=0.68; p=0.021), lip (r=0.73; p=0.010), esophagus (r=0.61; p=0.046), and pancreas (r=0.63; p=0.040). Moderate to weak correlations were observed for the cancers of larynx, lung, testis, bladder, liver, stomach, brain, and NHL and multiple myeloma. In addition, correlation between pesticide sales and specific-site cancer mortality rates was reinforced by multiple regression analysis. For all specific-sites, cancer mortality rates were significantly higher in the states of moderate (2nd tertile) and high (3rd tertile) pesticide sales, with MRR ranging from 1.11 to 5.61. Exploring hidden relationships between pesticide sales and cancer mortality in Brazil, through a factor analysis

  14. Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad Mohammad A; Munir Waqar; Jadoon Nauman A; Choudhry Zeshan S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and ...

  15. Yoga in adult cancer: an exploratory, qualitative analysis of the patient experience

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, Marcy; Thorne, Sally; Ward, Alison; Heneghan, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients receiving treatment in conventional health care systems access therapeutic yoga outside their mainstream care to improve cancer symptoms. Given the current knowledge gap around patient preferences and documented experiences of yoga in adult cancer, this study aimed to describe patient-reported benefits, barriers and characteristics of programming for yoga practice during conventional treatment. Methods In depth semi-structured interviews (n = 10) were conducted in men...

  16. Perceptions of Cancer Risk and Cause of Cancer Risk in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Eun Young; Oh, Kyounghee; Park, Keeho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of perceived risk for cancer; to explore associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cancer risk; to identify perceived cause of cancer risk; and to examine the associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cause of cancer risk. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,009 participants aged 30-69 years, selected from a popu...

  17. Survivorship Care in Reducing Symptoms in Young Adult Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Breast Carcinoma; Cancer Survivor; Depression; Fatigue; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Malignant Bone Neoplasm; Malignant Digestive System Neoplasm; Malignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm; Malignant Male Reproductive System Neoplasm; Pain; Sleep Disorder; Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  18. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L;

    2016-01-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we...... features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer....

  19. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  20. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. We investigated the association between birth weight and adult PLC...

  1. Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

  2. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin;

    2014-01-01

    children born after spontaneous conception (1.8/1000 children, 18.8/100 000 person-years). Leukaemia was the most common type of cancer (n = 278, 0.62/1000 children) but no significantly increased incidence was found among children born after ART. An increased risk was observed for 2 of 12 cancer groups......STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population...

  3. Thyroid cancer incidence in adult population of Belarus (25 years after the Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been obtained principally new data evidencing of high radiosensitivity of thyroid gland in adult population to the effect of ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident that resulted in multiple increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus. The paper demonstrates fast dynamics of incidence among individuals exposed to 131I and a number of other isotopes in adult age as well as short latent period of exposure effect manifestation. After the Chernobyl accident Belarus has the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate in adult population. The most significant incidence is observed in population living in regions close to nuclear power plant and in clean-up workers. At that female population was affected to the greatest extend. (authors)

  4. Incidence and Treatment Abandonment in Teen And Young Adult Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chitalkar

    2016-03-01

    Results- On analyzing data of three years ,hematolymphoid malignancy(28% cases are the most common cases seen followed by Breast (10% and head and neck (10%,cervix(6%,CNS(5% ,Bone( 4%. 38% TYA cancer patients abandoned treatment . Telephonic tracking, financial support, counseling of whole family are methods employed in reducing abandonment. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 77-79

  5. Wnt signaling in adult intestinal stem cells and cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Michaela; Kořínek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2014), s. 570-579. ISSN 0898-6568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/2347; GA ČR GAP305/11/1780 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Wnt * intestine * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.315, year: 2014

  6. Wnt signaling in adult intestinal stem cells and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krausová, M. (Michaela); Kořínek, V. (Vladimír)

    2014-01-01

    Signaling initiated by secreted glycoproteins of the Wnt family regulates many aspects of embryonic development and it is involved in homeostasis of adult tissues. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract the Wnt pathway maintains the self-renewal capacity of epithelial stem cells. The stem cell attributes are conferred by mutual interactions of the stem cell with its local microenvironment, the stem cell niche. The niche ensures that the threshold of Wnt signaling in the stem cell is kept in physi...

  7. Thyroid cancer after x-ray treatment of benign disorders of the cervical spine in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damber, Lena; Johansson, Lennart; Johansson, Robert; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar [Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden). Oncology Centre

    2002-02-01

    While there is very good epidemiological evidence for induction of thyroid cancer by radiation exposure in children, the risk for adults after exposure is still uncertain, especially when concerning relatively small radiation doses. A cohort of 27415 persons which in 1950 through 1964 had received x-ray treatment for various benign disorders in the locomotor system (such as painful arthrosis and spondylosis) was selected from three hospitals in Northern Sweden. A proportion of this cohort, consisting of 8144 persons (4075 men and 4069 women), had received treatment to the cervical spine and thereby received an estimated average dose in the thyroid gland of about 1 Gy. Standard incidence rates (SIR) were calculated by using the Swedish Cancer Register. In the cervical spine cohort, 22 thyroid cancers were found versus 13.77 expected (SIR 1.60; CI 1.00-2.42). The corresponding figures for women were 16 observed cases versus 9.60 expected cases (SIR 1.67; CI 0.75-2.71). Most thyroid cancers (15 out of 22) were diagnosed >15 years after the exposure. In the remaining part of the total cohort, i.e. those without cervical spine exposure, no increased risk of thyroid cancer was found (SIR 0.98; CI 0.64-1.38). The study strongly suggests that external radiation exposure of adults at relatively small doses increases the risk of thyroid cancer but also that this increase is very much lower than that reported after exposure in children.

  8. Thyroid cancer after x-ray treatment of benign disorders of the cervical spine in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While there is very good epidemiological evidence for induction of thyroid cancer by radiation exposure in children, the risk for adults after exposure is still uncertain, especially when concerning relatively small radiation doses. A cohort of 27415 persons which in 1950 through 1964 had received x-ray treatment for various benign disorders in the locomotor system (such as painful arthrosis and spondylosis) was selected from three hospitals in Northern Sweden. A proportion of this cohort, consisting of 8144 persons (4075 men and 4069 women), had received treatment to the cervical spine and thereby received an estimated average dose in the thyroid gland of about 1 Gy. Standard incidence rates (SIR) were calculated by using the Swedish Cancer Register. In the cervical spine cohort, 22 thyroid cancers were found versus 13.77 expected (SIR 1.60; CI 1.00-2.42). The corresponding figures for women were 16 observed cases versus 9.60 expected cases (SIR 1.67; CI 0.75-2.71). Most thyroid cancers (15 out of 22) were diagnosed >15 years after the exposure. In the remaining part of the total cohort, i.e. those without cervical spine exposure, no increased risk of thyroid cancer was found (SIR 0.98; CI 0.64-1.38). The study strongly suggests that external radiation exposure of adults at relatively small doses increases the risk of thyroid cancer but also that this increase is very much lower than that reported after exposure in children

  9. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) and brain cancer in adults and children: review and comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, J. G.; van Wijngaarden, E.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental research on the potential carcinogenic effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) has now been conducted for over two decades. Cancer epidemiology studies in relation to EMF have focused primarily on brain cancer and leukemia, both from residential sources of exposure in children and adults and from occupational exposure in adult men. Because genotoxic effects of EMF have not been shown, most recent laboratory research has attempted to show biological effects that could be related to cancer promotion. In this report, we briefly review residential and occupational EMF studies on brain cancer. We also provide a general review of experimental studies as they relate both to the biological plausibility of an EMF-brain cancer relation and to the insufficiency of such research to help guide exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. We conclude from our review that no recent research, either epidemiologic or experimental, has emerged to provide reasonable support for a causal role of EMF on brain cancer. PMID:11550314

  10. Perceived Medical Discrimination and Cancer Screening Behaviors of Racial and Ethnic Minority Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, LaVera M.; Ahn, David K.; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Discrimination has been shown as a major causal factor in health disparities, yet little is known about the relationship between perceived medical discrimination (vs. general discrimination outside medical settings) and cancer screening behaviors. We examined whether perceived medical discrimination is associated with lower screening rates for colorectal and breast cancers among racial and ethnic minority adult Californians. METHODS Pooled cross-sectional data from 2003 and 2005 California Health Interview Surveys were examined for cancer screening trends among African-American, American-Indian/Alaskan-Native, Asian, and Latino adult respondents reporting perceived medical discrimination compared to those not reporting discrimination (n=11,245). Outcome measures were dichotomous screening variables for colorectal cancer among respondents, ages 50 -75; and breast cancer among women, ages 40 - 75. RESULTS Women perceiving medical discrimination were less likely to be screened for colorectal (OR = 0.66; CI = 0.64 - 0.69) or breast cancer (OR = 0.52; CI = 0.51 - 0.54) compared to women not perceiving discrimination. Although men who perceived medical discrimination were no less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer than those who did not (OR = 1.02; CI = 0.97 - 1.07), significantly lower screening rates were found among men who perceived discrimination and reported having a usual source of health care (OR = 0.30; CI = 0.28 - 0.32). CONCLUSIONS These findings of a significant association between perceived racial or ethnic-based medical discrimination and cancer screening behaviors have serious implications for cancer health disparities. Gender differences in patterns for screening and perceived medical discrimination warrant further investigation. PMID:18687583

  11. Parenting Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: Challenges, Unmet Needs, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Brown, Jennifer L; Haddad, Lisa B; Chakraborty, Rana; Kourtis, Athena P

    2016-07-01

    Given the realistic expectations of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have children and start families, steps must be taken to ensure that youth are prepared to deal with the challenges associated with their HIV and parenting. Literature reviews were conducted to identify published research and practice guidelines addressing parenting or becoming parents among HIV-infected AYA in the United States. Research articles or practice guidelines on this topic were not identified. Given the paucity of information available on this topic, this article provides a framework for the development of appropriate interventions and guidelines for use in clinical and community-based settings. First, the social, economic, and sexual and reproductive health challenges facing HIV-infected AYA in the United States are summarized. Next, family planning considerations, including age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status to those who are perinatally infected, and contraceptive and preconception counseling are described. The impact of early childbearing on young parents is discussed and considerations are outlined during the preconception, antenatal, and postnatal periods with regard to antiretroviral medications and clinical care guidelines. The importance of transitioning AYA from pediatric or adolescent to adult-centered medical care is highlighted. Finally, a comprehensive approach is suggested that addresses not only medical needs but also emphasizes ways to mitigate the impact of social and economic factors on the health and well-being of these young parents and their children. PMID:27410495

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  13. Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: a risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Rainbow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults. Methods We estimated exposure to multiple food contaminants based on dietary data from preschool-age children (2–4 years, n=207, school-age children (5–7 years, n=157, parents of young children (n=446, and older adults (n=149. We compared exposure estimates for eleven toxic compounds (acrylamide, arsenic, lead, mercury, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, chlordane, DDE, and dioxin based on self-reported food frequency data by age group. To determine if cancer and non-cancer benchmark levels were exceeded, chemical levels in food were derived from publicly available databases including the Total Diet Study. Results Cancer benchmark levels were exceeded by all children (100% for arsenic, dieldrin, DDE, and dioxins. Non-cancer benchmarks were exceeded by >95% of preschool-age children for acrylamide and by 10% of preschool-age children for mercury. Preschool-age children had significantly higher estimated intakes of 6 of 11 compounds compared to school-age children (p Conclusions Dietary strategies to reduce exposure to toxic compounds for which cancer and non-cancer benchmarks are exceeded by children vary by compound. These strategies include consuming organically produced dairy and selected fruits and vegetables to reduce pesticide intake, consuming less animal foods (meat, dairy, and fish to reduce intake of persistent organic pollutants and metals, and consuming lower quantities of chips, cereal, crackers, and other processed carbohydrate foods to reduce acrylamide intake.

  14. Children and young adults with parents with cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syse A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Astri Syse1, Gjøril B Aas1, Jon H Loge2,31Cancer Registry of Norway, 2Oslo University Hospital, 3University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Today many people are choosing to have children later in life. Additionally, the use of sophisticated diagnostic tools and screening modalities has increased over recent years. Because of these factors, cancer is being diagnosed more frequently during the child-rearing years. Sociodemographic and cancer-related information on families and minor (0–18 years and young adult (YA (19–25 years children experiencing parental cancer is scarce, but this information is vital for healthcare initiatives aimed toward those potentially adversely affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe features of families and minor and YA children affected by parental cancer in a nationwide population.Methods: Complete Norwegian birth cohort data were obtained from national registries. Descriptive prevalence and incidence statistics were collected for parents and minor and YA children. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors likely to influence parental death.Results: Every year around 0.3% of all families with children under the age of 18 years encounter parental cancer, and 3.1% of minors and 8.4% of YAs have a parent who has been diagnosed with cancer. This study found skin, breast, testicular, and colorectal cancers were the most common forms of cancer diagnosed. The sociodemographic features of those affected were fairly similar to those of the general population. One in five children experienced parental death from cancer; parental death was more often paternal than maternal and was most common in parents diagnosed with leukemia or brain, colorectal, and lung tumors. Deaths are uncommon among parents without cancer.Conclusion: Adequate assistance for minor and YA children affected by parental cancer requires knowledge of their number and characteristics. Parental cancer is more common than

  15. Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Mohammad A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group. Results The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46 and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74. Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7% had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001. Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal

  16. Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group). The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46) and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74). Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7%) had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001). Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal malignancies, chest tumors and breast cancer. This study

  17. Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposures and Incident Cancers among Adults Living Near a Chemical Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Vaughn; Winquist, Andrea; Steenland, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic chemical ubiquitous in the serum of U.S. residents. It causes liver, testicular, and pancreatic tumors in rats. Human studies are sparse. Objective: We examined cancer incidence in Mid-Ohio Valley residents exposed to PFOA in drinking water due to chemical plant emissions. Methods: The cohort consisted of adult community residents who resided in contaminated water districts or worked at a local chemical plant. Most participated in a 200...

  18. Personality-Related Risk and Resilience Factors in Coping with Daily Stress among Adult Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    We employed a diary design to study personality-related risk and resilience factors in adult cancer patients coping with daily stress. We focused on individuals’ self-concept incoherence (SCI) as a personality-related risk factor and on psychological well-being (PWB) at baseline and daily beliefs of control as resilience factors. Reactivity to daily stress was assessed in terms of negative daily mood. Multilevel modeling analyses yielded significant main effects of daily stress, PWB at baseli...

  19. Safety of cabazitaxel in senior adults with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidenreich, Axel; Bracarda, Sergio; Mason, Malcolm;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cabazitaxel/prednisone has been shown to prolong survival versus mitoxantrone/prednisone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) that has progressed during or after docetaxel. Subsequently, compassionate-use programmes (CUPs) and expanded......-CSF, especially at cycle 1 and in men aged > or =75 years, is important and improves tolerability in senior adults treated with cabazitaxel....

  20. Cancer Prevention Among Adults Aged 45–64 Years: Setting the Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia G. Ory; Anderson, Lynda A.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Pulczinski, Jairus C.; Eugene, Nola; Satariano, William A

    2014-01-01

    As part of setting the stage for this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, a life-course perspective is presented to assist in understanding the importance of cancer prevention for adults in midlife, a period roughly spanning 20 years between ages 45 and 64 years. Drawing on disciplinary perspectives from the social sciences and public health, several life-course themes are delineated in this article: how specific life transitions present unique opportunities for interve...

  1. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children and adult population, living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the analysis of own and literature data on the occurrence and development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer are presented. Analysis involved distribution of the thyroid cancer incidence among 1 million children and 3 millions adults, living in the radioactively contaminated territories of Russia by age and sex. The main attention was paid to the understanding of latency period of spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer, comparison of oncological pathology features in children and adults, and the role of screening in the increase of incidence rate parameters. Analysis permitted to offer new interpretation of several previously known facts and to make new statements on the induction and development of radiogenic thyroid cancer, in particularly, on far more significant increase of the thyroid cancer incidence in adults, living in the contaminated territories, than it was considered earlier

  2. Double Jeopardy? Age, Race, and HRQOL in Older Adults with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M. Bellizzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the post-treatment physical and mental function of older adults from ethnic/racial minority backgrounds with cancer is a critical step to determine the services required to serve this growing population. The double jeopardy hypothesis suggests being a minority and old could have compounding effects on health. This population-based study examined the physical and mental function of older adults by age (mean age = 75.7, SD = 6.1, ethnicity/race, and cancer (breast, prostate, colorectal, and gynecologic as well as interaction effects between age, ethnicity/race and HRQOL. There was evidence of a significant age by ethnicity/race interaction in physical function for breast, prostate and all sites combined, but the interaction became non-significant (for breast and all sites combined when comorbidity was entered into the model. The interaction persisted in the prostate cancer group after controlling for comorbidity, such that African Americans and Asian Americans in the 75–79 age group report lower physical health than non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanic Whites in this age group. The presence of double jeopardy in the breast and all sites combined group can be explained by a differential comorbid burden among the older (75–79 minority group, but the interaction found in prostate cancer survivors does not reflect this differential comorbid burden.

  3. The Affordable Care Act and Cancer Stage at Diagnosis Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Zang Xiong, Ka; Kramer, Michael R; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act-dependent coverage expansion provision implemented in 2010 allows young adults to be covered under their parents' health insurance until age 26 years, and millions of young adults have gained insurance as a result. The impact of this policy on cancer patients has yet to be determined. Using 2007 to 2012 data from 18 registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, comparing cancer patients age 19 to 25 years to a control group of patients age 26 to 34 years who were not affected by the provision, we observed a 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7 to 3.4) percentage point decrease in uninsured rate and a 2.7 (95% CI = 0.6 to 4.8) percentage point increase in diagnosis at stage I disease for patients age 19-25 years. Further analyses by specific cancer site revealed that the statistically significant shifts were confined to carcinoma of cervix (21.2, 95% CI = 9.6 to 32.7 percentage points) and osseous and chondromatous neoplasms (14.4, 95% CI = 0.3 to 28.5 percentage points), which are detectable by either screening or clinical manifestation. These early observations suggest the policy has had positive benefits in cancer outcomes. PMID:27140956

  4. In a unique position or squeezed out? The professional roles of general practitioners in cancer care in general and of young adult cancer patients in particular

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, B.; Christensen, I.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploring experiences of general practitioners (GPs), regarding roles in cancer care of young adults (YAs). METHODS: Ten qualitative interviews with GPs were theoretically analyzed against professional characteristics. FINDINGS: The GPs tended to make general statements, using everyday...... language, they experience that their patients disappear, they are seldom involved, and they lack knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: GPs have few experiences with YA cancer patients, but they have a potentially unique role in general primary cancer care if they develop their vocational vocabulary, relate more to...

  5. Mechanisms in Psychosocial Interventions for Adults Living with Cancer: Opportunity for Integration of Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L.; Luecken, Linda J.; MacKinnon, David P.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis and treatment of cancer are highly stressful experiences that can profoundly affect emotional and physical well-being. Hundreds of longitudinal investigations that identify risk and protective factors for psychological and physical adjustment in adults living with cancer and numerous randomized controlled psychosocial…

  6. Older adults' attitudes about continuing cancer screening later in life: a pilot study interviewing residents of two continuing care communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Louise C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individualized decision making has been recommended for cancer screening decisions in older adults. Because older adults' preferences are central to individualized decisions, we assessed older adults' perspectives about continuing cancer screening later in life. Methods Face to face interviews with 116 residents age 70 or over from two long-term care retirement communities. Interview content included questions about whether participants had discussed cancer screening with their physicians since turning age 70, their attitudes about information important for individualized decisions, and their attitudes about continuing cancer screening later in life. Results Forty-nine percent of participants reported that they had an opportunity to discuss cancer screening with their physician since turning age 70; 89% would have preferred to have had these discussions. Sixty-two percent believed their own life expectancy was not important for decision making, and 48% preferred not to discuss life expectancy. Attitudes about continuing cancer screening were favorable. Most participants reported that they would continue screening throughout their lives and 43% would consider getting screened even if their doctors recommended against it. Only 13% thought that they would not live long enough to benefit from cancer screening tests. Factors important to consider stopping include: age, deteriorating or poor health, concerns about the effectiveness of the tests, and doctors recommendations. Conclusion This select group of older adults held positive attitudes about continuing cancer screening later in life, and many may have had unrealistic expectations. Individualized decision making could help clarify how life expectancy affects the potential survival benefits of cancer screening. Future research is needed to determine whether educating older adults about the importance of longevity in screening decisions would be acceptable, affect older adults

  7. Cancer Risk Associated with Insulin Glargine among Adult Type 2 Diabetes Patients – A Nationwide Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Toh, Sengwee; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ting; Kuo, Chuei-Wen; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2011-01-01

    Background Preclinical and observational studies raise the concern about the safety of insulin glargine in terms of cancer initiation and promotion. This study is designed to examine cancer incidence associated with use of insulin glargine vs. intermediate/long-acting human insulin (HI). Methodology A retrospective cohort study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database was conducted to identify adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without a history of cancer who i...

  8. Clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and management of noncentral nervous system cancer-related cognitive impairment in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefel, Jeffrey S; Kesler, Shelli R; Noll, Kyle R; Schagen, Sanne B

    2015-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Over the past few decades, a body of research has emerged confirming what many adult patients with noncentral nervous system cancer have long reported-that cancer and its treatment are frequently associated with cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). The severity of CRCI varies, and symptoms can emerge early or late in the disease course. Nonetheless, CRCI is typically mild to moderate in nature and primarily involves the domains of memory, attention, executive functioning, and processing speed. Animal models and novel neuroimaging techniques have begun to unravel the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying CRCI, including the role of inflammatory cascades, direct neurotoxic effects, damage to progenitor cells, white matter abnormalities, and reduced functional connectivity, among others. Given the paucity of research on CRCI with other cancer populations, this review synthesizes the current literature with a deliberate focus on CRCI within the context of breast cancer. A hypothetical case-study approach is used to illustrate how CRCI often presents clinically and how current science can inform practice. While the literature regarding intervention for CRCI is nascent, behavioral and pharmacologic approaches are discussed. PMID:25483452

  9. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS scale for long-term cancer survivors in a sample of breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Kristie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper evaluates psychometric properties of a recently developed measure focusing on the health-related quality of life (HRQL of long-term cancer survivors, the Quality of Life in Adult Survivors scale (QLACS, in a sample of breast cancer survivors. This represents an important area of study, given the large number of breast cancer patients surviving many years post diagnosis. Methods Analyses are based on an 8-year follow-up of a sample of breast cancer survivors who participated in an earlier study conducted in 1995. Participants were re-contacted in 2003 and those who were reachable and agreed to participate (n = 94 were surveyed using a variety of measures including the QLACS. Additional follow-up surveys were conducted 2 weeks and one year later. Psychometric tests of the QLACS included test-retest reliability, concurrent and retrospective validity, and responsiveness. Results The QLACS domain and summary scores showed good test-retest reliability (all test-retest correlations were above .7 and high internal consistency. The Generic Summary Score showed convergent validity with other measures designed to assess generic HRQL. The Cancer-Specific Summary score exhibited divergent validity with generic HRQL measures, but not a cancer-related specific measure. The QLACS Cancer-Specific Summary Score demonstrated satisfactory predictive validity for factors that were previously shown to be correlated with HRQL. The QLACS generally demonstrated a high level of responsiveness to life changes. Conclusion The QLACS may serve as a useful measure for assessing HRQL among long-term breast cancer survivors that are not otherwise captured by generic measures or those specifically designed for newly diagnosed patients.

  10. Neighborhood and Family Environment of Expectans Mothers May Influence Prenatal Programming of Adult Cancer Risk: Discussion and an Illustrative DNA Methylation Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood stressors including physical abuse predict adult cancer risk. Prior research portrays this finding as an indirect mechanism that operates through coping behaviors, including adult smoking, or through increased toxic exposures during childhood. Little is known about pote...

  11. Examining relationship between burnout level and socio-demographic characteristics of teachers: A case study for Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı, Nallıhan

    OpenAIRE

    Burhan Başoğlu; Mustafa Önder Şekeroğlu; Emrah Altun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine the relationship between 533 teachers’ level of burnout; who work in Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı and Nallıhan provinces in the northern of Ankara in different positions and their socio-demographic variables. According to obtained data results; number of children, staff position and felt wealth level in desensitisation dimension and gender, education level and staff position in personal success dimension were determined as significant. ...

  12. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth in 223 childhood cancer survivors: predictive risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eTremolada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2% to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG index.Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25, 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD=4.17. Most (52.5% had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD=4.40.The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4% and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%, with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r=0.24 p=0.0001. A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05 identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05 and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05 as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001, with

  13. 3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-20

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

  14. Evaluation of organ doses in brachytherapy treatment of uterus cancer using mathematical reference Indian adult phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying organ dose to healthy organs during radiotherapy is essential to estimate the radiation risk. Dose factors are generated by simulating radiation transport through an anthropomorphic mathematical phantom representing a reference Indian adult using the Monte Carlo method. The mean organ dose factors (in mGy min-1 GBq-1) are obtained considering the Micro Selectron 192Ir source and BEBIG 60Co sources in the uterus of a reference Indian adult female phantom. The present study provides the factors for mean absorbed dose to organs applicable to the Indian female patient population undergoing brachytherapy treatment of uterus cancer. This study also includes a comparison of the dimension of organs in the phantom model with measured values of organs in the various investigated patients. (author)

  15. Providers' Perspectives of Survivorship Care for Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla; Stratton, Erin; Esiashvili, Natia; Mertens, Ann; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2016-03-01

    We examined healthcare providers' perceptions of the goals of survivorship care and survivor programs, systems-level barriers and individual patient-level barriers to engaging patients in survivorship care, and potential resources for increasing engagement. In 2012, we recruited 21 healthcare providers of young adult survivors of childhood cancers from a children's hospital and a cancer center in the Southeastern USA to complete telephone-based semi-structured interviews. The sample was 45.95 years old (SD = 7.57) on average, 52.4 % female, and 81.0 % MDs. The major goals of survivorship programs identified were medical care management (e.g., addressing late and long-term effects, providing survivorship care plans (SCPs), assisting in transition of care) and holistic care including addressing psychosocial issues and promoting healthy lifestyles. Systems-level barriers to engagement in survivorship care included limited resources (e.g., time), role confusion (e.g., within cancer centers, from treatment team to survivorship care, role of primary care providers), communication challenges within the medical system (e.g., limited tracking of patients, lack of understanding of the role of survivorship clinic), communication challenges with patients (e.g., setting expectations regarding transition to survivorship care), and lack of insurance coverage. Perceived patient-level factors included psychological barriers (e.g., fear, avoidance), resistance to survivorship care, and physical barriers (e.g., distance from survivorship clinics). Resources to address these barriers included increased access to information, technology-based resources, and ensuring valuable services. There are several systems-level and patient-level barriers to survivorship care, thus requiring multilevel interventions to promote engagement in care among young adult survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:25943901

  16. Dealing with chemotherapy-related symptoms at home: a qualitative study in adult patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbrandt, A; Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Wildiers, H; Aertgeerts, B; Van der Elst, E; van Achterberg, T; Milisen, K

    2016-01-01

    Given that chemotherapy treatments are done mostly in an outpatient setting, patients with cancer must deal with treatment-related symptoms mainly at home. Evidence suggests that they often feel left alone or unprepared to do so. This qualitative study explores how patients deal with chemotherapy-related symptoms in their home, which factors and ideas influence their self-management and what role professional caregivers play. One-off, semi-structured interviews were held with 28 adult patients with cancer being treated with chemotherapy. Using a Grounded Theory approach, we cyclically collected and analysed data to come to a thorough understanding of the major conceptual themes and their interconnections. Dealing with chemotherapy-related symptoms involves a process of experiencing and learning how side effects unfold over time and how to deal with them. Patients express very personal symptom experiences and symptom-management styles, which are shaped by personal factors (e.g. coping with cancer and cancer treatment, perceived level of control) and environmental factors (e.g. professionals' attitude, information resources). Improving symptom self-management support requires active exploration of the personal symptom experience and symptom-management style. Professional care should be tailored to the patient's perspective and should address personal and environmental determinants of their behaviour. PMID:25752741

  17. A narrative review of the occurrence of posttraumatic stress responses in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuotto SC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stefanie C Vuotto,1 Katia M Perez,2 Kevin R Krull,1 Tara M Brinkman1 1Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, 2Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors may experience posttraumatic stress responses following cancer diagnosis or treatment. The current paper reviews 23 studies reporting the occurrence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and associated predictors of these outcomes in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. Results indicate considerable variability among prevalence estimates of PTSD (0%–34.8% and PTSS (4.4%–78%. Measurement inconsistencies limiting the ascertainment of reliable prevalence and risk estimates are discussed in the context of the reviewed literature. Specifically, differences in assessment measures utilized, the timing of assessment relative to diagnosis, the criteria used to define the outcome, and identification of the precipitating traumatic event may account for discrepancies in prevalence and risk estimates across studies. The application of specific PTSD diagnostic criteria to a survivorship population is discussed. Empirically supported interventions utilizing cognitive behavioral therapy approaches for the treatment of PTSS in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors are identified. Keywords: posttraumatic stress, adolescent and young adult, cancer survivors

  18. Primary care providers' perspective on prescribing opioids to older adults with chronic non-cancer pain: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Barbara J; Granieri Evelyn; Papaleontiou Maria; Moore Alison A; Spitz Aerin; Reid M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of opioid medications as treatment for chronic non-cancer pain remains controversial. Little information is currently available regarding healthcare providers' attitudes and beliefs about this practice among older adults. This study aimed to describe primary care providers' experiences and attitudes towards, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators to prescribing opioids as a treatment for chronic pain among older adults. Methods Six focus groups were conduct...

  19. Magnetic resonance characteristics of adult-onset Lhermitte-Duclos disease: An indicator for active cancer surveillance?

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Guangquan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Qinlong; KANG, XIAOWEI; Zhao, Haitao; LIU, XIANPING; Tang, Xing; Wu, Yuanming; HAN, JUNTAO; Yin, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) is a rare, non-cancerous entity characterized by enlarged, abnormally developed cerebellar folia containing dysplastic cells. Symptomatic LDD is commonly observed in adults (adult-onset LDD, aLDD) as an isolated condition or associated with Cowden’s disease (CD). The present study aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and the underlying pathological findings in 7 cases of aLDD, with emphasis on the association with CD and the ...

  20. Cancer treatment and gonadal function : experimental and established strategies for fertility preservation in children and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Richard A.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Kelsey, Tom; Spears, Norah; Telfer, Evelyn E.; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of gonadal function,is an important priority for the long-term health of cancer survivors of both sexes and all ages at treatment.. The loss of an opportunity for fertility is a prime concern in both male and female cancer survivors, however the endocrine consequences of gonadal damage are also central to long-term health and wellbeing. Some fertility preservation techniques, such as semen and embryo cryopreservation for the adult man and woman respectively, are established and s...

  1. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among California Adults With and Without Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Goldstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the extent and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use among a population-based sample of California adults that is highly diverse in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and health status. As a follow-up to a state-wide health survey of 55 428 people, 9187 respondents were interviewed by phone regarding their use of 11 different types of CAM providers, special diets, dietary supplements, mind–body interventions, self-prayer and support groups. The sample included all participants in the initial survey who reported a diagnosis of cancer, all the non-white respondents, as well as a random sample of all the white respondents. The relation of CAM use to the respondents' demographic characteristics and health status is assessed. CAM use among Californians is generally high, and the demographic factors associated with high rates of CAM use are the same in California as have been found in other studies. Those reporting a diagnosis of cancer and those who report other chronic health problems indicate a similar level of visits to CAM providers. However, those with cancer are less likely to report using special diets, and more likely to report using support groups and prayer. Health status, gender, ethnicity and education have an independent impact upon CAM use among those who are healthy as well as those who report suffering from chronic health problems, although the precise relation varies by the type of CAM used.

  2. Cancer in adolescents and young adults psychosocial aspects. Long-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltzer, L K

    1993-05-15

    Survivors of cancer diagnosed during adolescence and young adulthood have had to muster the resources to cope with cancer treatment while accomplishing the tasks unique to this developmental period, tasks such as the accomplishment of economic and emotional independence, capacity for intimacy, solidification of career goals, and formation of a comfortable identity. Studies of survivors of childhood cancer have not found major psychiatric disorders but have pointed out some adjustment difficulties, such as increased health concerns, worries about the development of second neoplasms, increased somatic complaints, and academic problems. Marriage may be delayed, and women, unlike men, worry about their fertility and the health of their future offspring. Survivors of both genders do not appear to be troubled by obvious-to-the-observer physical sequelae. Future studies should examine the quality of life issues pertinent to the successful accomplishment of adult tasks and should include assessment of the facilitators and impediments to carrying out these tasks, particularly during the transition from adolescence into young adulthood. The ultimate goal of the above assessments is to permit not only survival but quality survival. PMID:8490896

  3. Factors contributing to posttraumatic growth and its buffering effect in adult chidren of cancer patients undergoing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Ricardo João; Pereira, M. Graça

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relationships among demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables in adult children of cancer patients. Two hundred and fourteen participants completed measures of posttraumatic growth (PTG), distress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, social support, and family functioning. Significant gender differences in all PTG dimensions were found, as well as associations among PTG, gender, parental dependency, distress, PTSD, and family functio...

  4. PET-CT in Determining the Radioembolization Dose Delivered to Patients With Liver Metastasis, Primary Liver Cancer, or Biliary Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage D Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. Final results of a single institution experience with a pediatric-based regimen, the augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster, in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and comparison to the hyper-CVAD regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytting, Michael E; Jabbour, Elias J; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Ravandi, Farhad; Franklin, Anna R; Kadia, Tapan M; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Daver, Naval G; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Konopleva, Marina Y; Borthakur, Gautam; Garris, Rebecca; Wang, Sa; Pierce, Sherry; Schroeder, Kurt; Kornblau, Steven M; Thomas, Deborah A; Cortes, Jorge E; O'Brien, Susan M; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2016-08-01

    Several studies reported improved outcomes of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with pediatric-based ALL regimens. This prompted the prospective investigation of a pediatric Augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (ABFM) regimen, and its comparison with hyper-fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, Adriamycin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) in AYA patients. One hundred and six AYA patients (median age 22 years) with Philadelphia chromosome- (Ph) negative ALL received ABFM from October 2006 through March 2014. Their outcome was compared to 102 AYA patients (median age 27 years), treated with hyper-CVAD at our institution. The complete remission (CR) rate was 93% with ABFM and 98% with hyper-CVAD. The 5-year complete remission duration (CRD) were 53 and 55%, respectively (P = 0.98). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 60 and 60%, respectively. The MRD status on Day 29 and Day 84 of therapy was predictive of long-term outcomes on both ABFM and hyper-CVAD. Severe regimen toxicities with ABFM included hepatotoxicity in 41%, pancreatitis in 11%, osteonecrosis in 9%, and thrombosis in 19%. Myelosuppression-associated complications were most significant with hyper-CVAD. In summary, ABFM and hyper-CVAD resulted in similar efficacy outcomes, but were associated with different toxicity profiles, asparaginase-related with ABFM and myelosuppression-related with hyper-CVAD. Am. J. Hematol. 91:819-823, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27178680

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices about colorectal cancer among adults in an area of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Paolo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.

  7. Examining relationship between burnout level and socio-demographic characteristics of teachers: A case study for Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı, Nallıhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Başoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine the relationship between 533 teachers’ level of burnout; who work in Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı and Nallıhan provinces in the northern of Ankara in different positions and their socio-demographic variables. According to obtained data results; number of children, staff position and felt wealth level in desensitisation dimension and gender, education level and staff position in personal success dimension were determined as significant. It was concluded that marital status, duration of experience in job and staff position in management were not statistically significant on emotional exhaustion, desensitisation and personal success.

  8. Distribution of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Adult Cancer Patients Determined Using FLT-PET Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Given that proliferating hematopoietic stem cells are especially radiosensitive, the bone marrow is a potential organ at risk, particularly with the use of concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Existing data on bone marrow distribution have been determined from the weight and visual appearance of the marrow in cadavers. 18F-fluoro-L-deoxythymidine concentrates in bone marrow, and we used its intensity on positron emission tomography imaging to quantify the location of the proliferating bone marrow. Methods and Materials: The 18F-fluoro-L-deoxythymidine positron emission/computed tomography scans performed at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre between 2006 and 2009 on adult cancer patients were analyzed. At a minimum, the scans included the mid-skull through the proximal femurs. A software program developed at our institution was used to calculate the percentage of administered activity in 11 separately defined bony regions. Results: The study population consisted of 13 patients, 6 of whom were men. Their median age was 61 years. Of the 13 patients, 9 had lung cancer, 2 had colon cancer, and 1 each had melanoma and leiomyosarcoma; 6 had received previous, but not recent, chemotherapy. The mean percentage of proliferating bone marrow by anatomic site was 2.9% ± 2.1% at the skull, 1.9% ± 1.2% at the proximal humeri, 2.9% ± 1.3% at the sternum, 8.8% ± 4.7% at the ribs and clavicles, 3.8% ± 0.9% at the scapulas, 4.3% ± 1.6% at the cervical spine, 19.9% ± 2.6% at the thoracic spine, 16.6% ± 2.2% at the lumbar spine, 9.2% ± 2.3% at the sacrum, 25.3% ± 4.9% at the pelvis, and 4.5% ± 2.5% at the proximal femurs. Conclusion: Our modern estimates of bone marrow distribution in actual cancer patients using molecular imaging of the proliferating marrow provide updated data for optimizing normal tissue sparing during external beam radiotherapy planning.

  9. TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Maria Ribera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts andthe results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adolescents and young adults(AYA. After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALLin the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority ofpediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies inyoung adults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewedemphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with eventfreesurvival rates of 60-65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that theunfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescentswith ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensivechemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which aremore frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like,deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents havebeen translated to young adults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of thesepatients in recent years.

  10. Beating and insulting children as a risk for adult cancer, cardiac disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Michael E; Alkhalaf, Ahmed M; Whalley, Ben

    2013-12-01

    The use of physical punishment for children is associated with poor psychological and behavioral outcomes, but the causal pathway is controversial, and the effects on later physical health unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of asthma, cancer, and cardiac patients (150 in each category, 75 male) recruited from outpatient clinics and 250 healthy controls (125 male). All participants were 40-60 years old and citizens of Saudi Arabia, where the use of beating and insults is an acceptable parenting style. Demographic data and recalled frequency of beatings and insults as a child were assessed on an 8-point scale. Beating and insults were highly correlated (ρ = 0.846). Propensity score matching was used to control for demographic differences between the disease and healthy groups. After controlling for differences, more frequent beating (once or more per month) and insults were associated with a significantly increased risk for cancer (RR = 1.7), cardiac disease (RR = 1.3) and asthma (RR = 1.6), with evidence of increased risk for cancer and asthma with beating frequency of once every 6 months or more. Our results show that a threatening parenting style of beating and insults is associated with increased risk for somatic disease, possibly because this form of parenting induces stress. Our findings are consistent with previous research showing that child abuse and other early life stressors adversely affect adult somatic health, but provide evidence that the pathogenic effects occur also with chronic minor stress. A stress-inducing parenting style, even when normative, has long term adverse health consequences. PMID:23054177

  11. Young Adult Cancer Survivors' Experience with Cancer Treatment and Follow-Up Care and Perceptions of Barriers to Engaging in Recommended Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Stratton, Erin; Esiashvili, Natia; Mertens, Ann

    2016-09-01

    We examined correlates of low engagement in the healthcare system, experiences with survivorship care, barriers to follow-up care, and potential resources for promoting follow-up care among young adult survivors of childhood cancers. We conducted a mixed-method study involving surveys of 106 survivors of childhood cancer aged 18-34 recruited from a university-affiliated children's hospital and an NCI-designated cancer center in the Southeastern USA. Phone-based semistructured interviews were then conducted in a subset of 26. Assessments included health factors, psychosocial factors, healthcare system interaction, and interest in resources to promote engagement in healthcare. Survey participants were on average 22.14 (SD = 3.16) years old, 50.0 % female, and 77.4 % White. Overall, 46.0 % had attended survivorship clinic, 47.2 % reported receiving a treatment summary, 68.9 % had a primary care provider, and 17.0 % reported no interaction with healthcare in the past 2 years. Correlates of less than annual healthcare provider visits included being older (p = 0.003), being male (p adult care. Participants highlighted the need for educational and psychosocial resources, particularly technology-based resources. Multilevel interventions are needed to increase engagement in survivorship care among young adult cancer survivors. Technology-based resources addressing social support and mental well-being are intervention possibilities. PMID:25948413

  12. Considering GH replacement for GH-deficient adults with a previous history of cancer: a conundrum for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kevin C J; Heaney, Anthony P; Popovic, Vera

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that GH and IGF-I may enhance tumorigenesis, metastasis, and cell proliferation in humans and animals. Evidence supporting this notion is derived from animal model studies, epidemiological studies, experience from patients with acromegaly, molecular therapeutic manipulation of GH and IGF-I actions, and individuals with GH receptor and congenital IGF-I deficiencies. Prior exposure to radiation therapy, aging, family history of cancer, and individual susceptibility may also contribute to increase this risk. Therefore, the use of GH replacement in patients with a history of cancer raises hypothetical safety concerns for patients, caregivers, and providers. Studies of GH therapy in GH-deficient adults with hypopituitarism and childhood cancer survivors have not convincingly demonstrated an increased cancer risk. Conversely, the risk of occurrence of a second neoplasm (SN) in childhood cancer survivors may be increased, with meningiomas being the most common tumor; however, this risk appears to decline over time. In light of these findings, if GH replacement is to be considered in patients with a previous history of cancer, we propose this consideration to be based on each individual circumstance and that such therapy should only be initiated at least 2 years after cancer remission is achieved with the understanding that in some patients (particularly those with childhood cancers), GH may potentially increase the risk of SNs. In addition, close surveillance should be undertaken working closely with the patient's oncologist. More long-term data are thus needed to determine if GH replacement in GH-deficient adults with a history of cancer is associated with the development of de novo tumors and tumor recurrence. PMID:26732039

  13. Association between adult otitis media and nasopharyngeal cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the diagnosis of otitis media (OM) in adults is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Methods and materials: We selected 13,513 adult patients that had been previously diagnosed with OM between 2000 and 2005 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort, and randomly extracted the data of 135,130 participants matched by sex, age, and baseline year for the comparison cohort. The follow-up period was terminated upon developing NPC, withdrawal from the national health insurance system, or the end of 2009. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of NPC development were determined. Results: The subsequent NPC incidence rates in the OM and comparison cohorts were 6.41 and 0.58 per 10 000 person-years, respectively (adjusted HR, 11.04; 95% CI, 7.68–5.87; P < 0.0001). The NPC risk for males was significantly higher than that for females (adjusted HR = 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16–4.85). In both female and male patients, the diagnosis of OM was associated with a significantly increased risk for NPC (adjusted HR, 11.91 vs. 10.78, respectively). Among the OM cohort, 62 participants were subsequently diagnosed with NPC, with 71% of them occurring within 1 year following the diagnosis of OM. However, even after 5-year follow-up, the OM cohort still displayed a higher risk for NPC (adjusted HR = 2.50). Stratified by the frequency of OM episodes, more than one episode per year had a significantly greater risk of developing NPC, compared with the comparison cohort (HR = 29.22; 95% CI, 20.19–42.27). Conclusion: We found that adult OM is a warning sign for the development of NPC in Taiwan, with approximately an 11-fold higher risk for adult OM patients. We recommend that OM patients undergo follow-up examinations for at least 5 years. To extrapolate our findings, further studies are warranted in other

  14. Cancer treatment, symptom monitoring, and self-care in adults: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Phoebe Dauz; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Ducey, Kathleen; Badura, Jody; Boltz, Kristin D; Olberding, Karmen; Wingate, Anita; Williams, Arthur R

    2006-01-01

    A descriptive study was conducted on self-reported symptoms and self-care by 37 adults receiving chemotherapy primarily for leukemia, lymphomas, or breast cancer or radiation therapy for head and neck or lung cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist and demographic and interview forms on self-care for identified symptoms were used. Severe symptoms on the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist subscales fatigue, eating, nausea, pain, numbness in fingers/toes, hair loss, and constipation were reported by patients on chemotherapy. Those on radiation therapy reported severe symptoms on the eating, fatigue, skin changes, oropharynx, and constipation subscales.Self-care strategies were in the following categories, using complementary medicine as framework: diet/nutrition/lifestyle change (eg, use of nutritional supplements; modifications of food and of eating habits; naps, sleep, and rest); mind/body control (eg, relaxation methods, prayer, music, attending granddaughter's sports events); biologic treatments (vitamins); herbal treatments (green mint tea); and ethnomedicine (lime juice and garlic). The first category was predominantly used by patients in both treatment types. Medications were prescribed also to help control symptoms (eg, pain and nausea). Symptom monitoring and self-care for symptoms identified may be facilitated by the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist; based on reported symptom severity, care providers may prioritize interventions. A larger study needs to be done on (a) the use of the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist as a clinical tool to assess symptoms that oncology patients experience during therapy; (b) whether care providers, based on patient-reported symptom severity, can prioritize interventions--and how this influences the efficiency of care; (c) the self-care strategies used by patients on chemotherapy or radiation therapy or both; and (d) how useful these strategies are in alleviating symptoms. PMID:17006107

  15. Young Adult Cancer Survivors’ Experience with Cancer Treatment and Follow-Up Care and Perceptions of Barriers to Engaging in Recommended Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Erin; Esiashvili, Natia; Mertens, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We examined correlates of low engagement in the healthcare system, experiences with survivorship care, barriers to follow-up care, and potential resources for promoting follow-up care among young adult survivors of childhood cancers. We conducted a mixed-method study involving surveys of 106 survivors of childhood cancer aged 18–34 recruited from a university-affiliated children’s hospital and an NCI-designated cancer center in the Southeastern USA. Phone-based semistructured interviews were then conducted in a subset of 26. Assessments included health factors, psychosocial factors, healthcare system interaction, and interest in resources to promote engagement in healthcare. Survey participants were on average 22.14(SD=3.16) years old, 50.0 % female, and 77.4 % White. Overall, 46.0 % had attended survivorship clinic, 47.2 % reported receiving a treatment summary, 68.9 % had a primary care provider, and 17.0 % reported no interaction with healthcare in the past 2 years. Correlates of less than annual healthcare provider visits included being older (p=0.003), being male (pneed for educational and psychosocial resources, particularly technology-based resources. Multilevel interventions are needed to increase engagement in survivor-ship care among young adult cancer survivors. Technology-based resources addressing social support and mental well-being are intervention possibilities. PMID:25948413

  16. Adipokines and Insulin Resistance in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latoch, Eryk; Muszynska-Roslan, Katarzyna; Panas, Agata; Panasiuk, Anna; Sawicka-Zukowska, Malgorzata; Zelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Zabrocka, Ewa; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association between adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and resistin), radiotherapy, measurement of body fat, and insulin resistance among young adult survivors of childhood cancer (CCS). Materials and Methods. Seventy-six survivors were included (mean age 24.1 ± 3.5 years). Insulin resistance (IR) was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The serum levels of adipokines were assayed by immunoassays. Fat mass was evaluated by DXA. Results. Mean adiponectin level and mean body FAT were higher in the examined females than in males (10009 ± 6367 ng/mL versus 6433 ± 4136 ng/mL, p < 0.01; 35.98 ± 9.61% versus 22.7 ± 7.46%, p < 0.001). Among CCS, one of 75 patients met the criteria of insulin resistance, and in 14 patients there was impaired fasting glucose. The multiple regression model for females showed that leptin/adiponectin ratio (LA ratio) significantly affected HOMA-IR (increase of 0.024 per each unit of LA ratio; p < 0.05). Radiotherapy had no effect on serum adipokines and IR. Conclusion. The observed results support the hypothesis that adiponectin might be associated with insulin resistance and it can not be ruled out that changes in the mean level of adiponectin per FAT mass or leptin/adiponectin ratio may precede the occurrence of insulin resistance in the future.

  17. Is cancer a good way to die? A population-based survey among middle-aged and older adults in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Vrinten, C.; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite improved outcomes, cancer remains widely feared, often because of its association with a long and protracted death as opposed to the quick death that people associate with that other common cause of adult mortality: heart disease. Former editor-in-chief of the BMJ Richard Smith's view that 'cancer is the best way to die' therefore attracted much criticism. We examined middle-aged and older adults' agreement with this view and compared their attitudes towards dying from can...

  18. Childhood body size and associations with prostate and endometrial cancer risks and adult body size (Ph.D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Dansk: Prostata og livmoder carcinogenese er relateret til tidlig kropsstørrelse, hvilket indikerer, at disse sygdomme kunne opstå tidligt i livet. Selvom disse sammenhænge kunne forklares via tracking, er det ikke sandsynligt, at kropsstørrelse i voksenlivet fuldstændigt forklarer disse resultat...... of later prostate and endometrial cancer, childhood may be the period of time that mechanistic investigations should focus on in their search for links between body size and the risk of these cancer forms....... barndommen en periode hvor mekanistiske undersøgelser af disse sammenhænge skal fokusere. Engelsk: Prostate and endometrial cardinogenesis is linked to early life body size, suggesting that these diseases have early origins. Even though these associations may operate through adult body size, it is not likely...... that adult size entirely explains these findings. Overweight children have a high risk of being overweightas adults, however, these associations are weak at late adulthood, when most cancer forms emerge. Taken together, these findings highlight that, in addition to childhood body size indicating a risk...

  19. Characterization of Iron-Oxide Loaded Adult Stem Cells for Magnetic Particle Imaging in Targeted Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Rapoport, Daniel Hans; Schneider, Dagmar

    2010-12-01

    Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been presented as a new method for the measurement of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). MPI is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of nanoparticles that are subjected to a sinusoidal magnetic field. Spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio of MPI depend on the particle quality. This is particularly important when stem cells shall be tracked with MPI. Stem cell-based treatment is an upcoming technology in targeted cancer-therapy. In this study, we analyzed the particle quality of newly developed dextran-coated SPIONs—with respect to their response in the imaging experiment—using magnetic particle spectrometry. The uptake of dextran-coated SPIONs into rat and human adult stem cells was monitored via transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, adult stem cells were incubated with FITC-dextran-coated SPIONs and stained for confocal laser scanning microscopy. The dextran- and FITC-dextran coated SPIONs were localized in the cytoplasm of rat and human adult stem cells. MPI promises real-time imaging with high spatial resolution at high sensitivity. Our data support iron oxide loaded adult stem cells as a powerful tool for targeted cancer therapy.

  20. Spinal opioids in adult patients with cancer pain: a systematic review: a European Palliative Care Research Collaborative (EPCRC) opioid guidelines project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Kaasa, Stein; Sjøgren, Per

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review, undertaken according to an initiative to revise European Association for Palliative Care guidelines on the use of opioids for cancer pain, which aimed to analyse analgesic efficacy and side effects of spinal opioids in adult cancer patients previously treated with systemic...

  1. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  2. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... wireless devices Head injuries Smoking Hormone therapy SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ...

  3. Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Information Sources among Rural and Urban Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Engelman, Kimberly; Choi, Won

    2013-01-01

    Fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention can be a significant deterrent to one’s likelihood of engaging in cancer prevention behaviors. Lower education and less access to cancer information among rural residents may influence their level of cancer fatalism. The purpose of this study was to examine rural-urban differences in fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention and cancer information sources using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 1482 rural and 6192 urban residents). Results showed that rural residents were more likely to endorse multiple fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention than urban residents even after controlling for other significant demographic correlates. Urban residents were more likely to use the internet as their primary cancer information source, whereas rural residents were more likely to rely on print material and healthcare providers. Future educational work to communicate relevant and accurate cancer prevention information to rural residents should consider not only information access but also rural culture and fatalistic perspectives. PMID:23813489

  4. Determination of doses and cancer risk to paediatric and young adult patients undergoing plain radiographic and fluoroscopic guided surgical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty paediatric and young adult patients who underwent plain radiographic and fluoroscopic procedures in the operating theatres of a selected orthopaedic hospital were investigated. Radiation Dose was measured using single chip TLD (LiF) held at the skin surface at the beam entrance site for scoliotic, kyphotic and kyphoscoliotic patients undergoing Posterior Spinal Fusion (single stage), Posterior Spinal Fusion (two stage), Growing Rod and Revision Posterior Spinal Fusion as well as patients undergoing Intramedullary Nailing of the Femur and Osteotomy of the lower Extremity. The radiographic equipment were working at self-consistencies. The readings from the TLD, with patient data and other relevant information from the equipment console were used in Monte Carlo program software (PCMXC 2.0) to estimate organ and effective doses as well as assess cancer risk. Mean effective dose from Posterior Spinal Fusion (single stage), Posterior Spinal Fusion (two stage), Growing Rod, Revision Posterior Spinal Fusion, Nailing of the Femur and Osteotomy of the lower Extremity were found to be 7.62 ± 0.84 mSv, 7.48 ± 1.0, 6.82 ± 0.99 mSv, 2.50 ± 0.27 mSv, 0.18 ± 0.09 mSv and 0.001 ± 0.6E4 mSv respectively. The ribs recorded the highest bony organ tissue whiles the breast recorded the highest soft tissue organ dose with Posterior Spinal Fusion (single stage) recording the highest of 25.55±2.81 mGy and 11.49±1.22 mGy. Comparison of paediatric and young adult effective dose showed a higher effective dose in paediatric. Risk of radiation exposure induced cancer death from any cancer were considered for all the procedures and growing rod recorded the highest with 0.0954 % for females and 0.0500% for males. Risk of lung cancer was prevalent in all surgical procedures considered for the study followed by other cancers. However risk of breast cancer was high in females and risk of colon cancer for males. Paediatric and young adult patients exposure records were recommended to be

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/ ... the Precision Medicine Initiative® Cancer Moonshot Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/ ... Medicine Initiative® National Cancer Moonshot Initiative Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ...

  7. Race, Age, and Obesity Disparities in Adult Physical Activity Levels in Breast Cancer Patients And Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Cheryl L.; Owusu, Cynthia; Nock, Nora L.; Li LI; Berger, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer recurrence and survival. Although physical activity is known to decline with age, rates of change in physical activity have not been well characterized in breast cancer patients and subgroups with known disparities in breast cancer survival, especially in minorities, the elderly, and the obese. We evaluated moderate and strenuous physical activity from high school through diagnosis in 1,220 breast cancer patients, ...

  8. Chronic Conditions and Utility-Based Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jennifer M; Hanmer, Janel; Ward, Zachary J; Leisenring, Wendy M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Hudson, Melissa M; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Diller, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    Health utility, a summary measure of quality of life, has not been previously used to compare outcomes among childhood cancer survivors and individuals without a cancer history. We estimated health utility (0, death; 1, perfect health) using the Short Form-6D (SF-6D) in survivors (n = 7105) and siblings of survivors (n = 372) (using the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort) and the general population (n = 12 803) (using the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey). Survivors had statistically significantly lower SF-6D scores than the general population (mean = 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.766 to 0.771, vs mean = 0.809, 95% CI = 0.806 to 0.813, respectively, ITALIC! PYoung adult survivors (age 18-29 years) reported scores comparable with general population estimates for people age 40 to 49 years. Among survivors, SF-6D scores were largely determined by number and severity of chronic conditions. No clinically meaningful differences were identified between siblings and the general population (mean = 0.793, 95% CI = 0.782 to 0.805, vs mean = 0.809, 95% CI = 0.806 to 0.813, respectively). This analysis illustrates the importance of chronic conditions on long-term survivor quality of life and provides encouraging results on sibling well-being. Preference-based utilities are informative tools for outcomes research in cancer survivors. PMID:27102402

  9. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  10. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  11. Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: a risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt Rainbow; Bennett Deborah; Cassady Diana; Frost Joshua; Ritz Beate; Hertz-Picciotto Irva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults. Methods We estimated exposure to multiple food contaminants based on dietary data from preschool-age children (2–4 years, n=207), school-age children (5–7 years, ...

  12. [Usefulness of the oncogenetic molecular counselling in adults whith familial cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor M; Valdespino-Castillo, Víctor E

    2016-01-01

    More than 200 cancer susceptibility syndromes (CSS) have been recognized through performing classic epidemiologic studies and genetic linkage analysis. In most CSSs clinical conditions of the patients have been identified as well as their hereditary patterns and the predisponent genes to cancer development. Cancer hereditary identification is a useful condition, since cancer family integrants may benefit of efficient strategies in early screening and in tumor prevention strategies; this consultation is performed by oncogenetic molecular medical consultants who must be scientifically competent for Human Genetics and Cancer molecular biology domains. The oncogenetic molecular consult of patients and family relatives of cancer predisposition families is a medical service in health programs of developed and developing countries; in our country this type of medical service needs to be organized and settled to be part of the integral oncology medical service. The oncogenetic molecular consultation is a structural process of assessment and communication of the associated integral problems of the cancer inherited susceptibility in familial cancer. PMID:27100983

  13. The experience of Japanese adolescents and young adults after losing siblings to childhood cancer: three types of narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Hoshi, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Japanese adolescents' and young adults' experiences after losing siblings to childhood cancer. A conceptual framework of the transition and analysis based on narrative method were adopted from qualitative data from 6 Japanese adolescents and young adults who had lost their siblings to childhood cancer. It was revealed that the participants' psychological experience after the sibling's death was directed by their perceptions of their mothers' responses to bereavement. We also found that the psychological distance between participants and their mothers could be an important factor in enabling transition into mourning and in orienting the lost sibling in their mind. The stories obtained from these 6 participants were categorized into the following 3 types of narratives: "Mother in another world and the sibling who became a god," "Return of the loving mother and the sibling as savior," and "The poor mother and the sibling who needs my help to carry on her legacy." This typology will serve as a framework for grief care and future research. PMID:25413258

  14. Caring for young adults on a paediatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Paul A J; Routley, Christine; Paul, Siba Prosad

    The need for adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have suitable age-specific inpatient facilities has been recognised for many years, yet has received relatively little attention. This article reports the successful introduction of an inpatient facility for AYA, aged 17-24 years, on a general paediatric ward in a small district general hospital. From December 2010, a young person's unit (YPU) consisting of an 8-bed area was opened within a 24-bed children's ward. Nursing care was provided by the ward staff, all of whom had been trained in the care of young adults. Policies regarding admission criteria, safeguarding, patient choice, visiting and 'house rules' were drafted, implemented and modified as necessary. Discussions with the adult clinicians (for medical care) and site managers were held to ensure smooth running of the system, and to address any concerns or difficulties. Paediatric patients had priority of admission at times of bed crisis. During 2012, there were a total of 2351 inpatient admissions to the paediatric ward, of whom 379 (16%) were YPU patients aged from 17-24 years. Median length of stay was 2 days for patients aged 17-24 years as compared with 1 day for patients aged less than or equal to 16 years. Patients who chose admission to the paediatric ward tended to be younger, in transition from paediatric to adult services for chronic conditions, or with special needs. Patient surveys showed a high level of satisfaction with the facility. Young adults can be cared for safely and effectively on a paediatric ward with minimal additional costs. The essential ingredients for success include discussion with affected parties to address specific concerns, and the establishment of a clear, simple and unambiguous admission policy. PMID:24165407

  15. Prevalence of Diagnosed Cancer According to Duration of Diagnosed Diabetes and Current Insulin Use Among U.S. Adults With Diagnosed Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaoyang; Zhao, Guixiang; Okoro, Catherine A; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Ford, Earl S.; Balluz, Lina S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed cancer according to duration of diagnosed diabetes and current insulin use among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from 25,964 adults aged ≥18 years with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. RESULTS After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that the greater the duration of diagnosed diabetes, the higher the prevalence of diagnosed ...

  16. GABA's Control of Stem and Cancer Cell Proliferation in Adult Neural and Peripheral Niches

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Stephanie Z.; Bordey, Angélique

    2009-01-01

    Aside from traditional neurotransmission and regulation of secretion, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) through GABAA receptors negatively regulates proliferation of pluripotent and neural stem cells in embryonic and adult tissue. There has also been evidence that GABAergic signaling and its control over proliferation is not only limited to the nervous system, but is widespread through peripheral organs containing adult stem cells. GABA has emerged as a tumor signaling molecule in the periphery tha...

  17. Neighborhood and Family Environment of Expectant Mothers May Influence Prenatal Programming of Adult Cancer Risk: Discussion and an Illustrative DNA Methylation Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine E; Kane, Jennifer B; Scarbrough, Peter; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Childhood stressors including physical abuse predict adult cancer risk. Prior research portrays this finding as an indirect mechanism that operates through coping behaviors, including adult smoking, or through increased toxic exposures during childhood. Little is known about potential direct causal mechanisms between early-life stressors and adult cancer. Because prenatal conditions can affect gene expression by altering DNA methylation, with implications for adult health, we hypothesize that maternal stress may program methylation of cancer-linked genes during gametogenesis. To illustrate this hypothesis, we related maternal social resources to methylation at the imprinted MEG3 differentially methylated regulatory region, which has been linked to multiple cancer types. Mothers (n = 489) from a diverse birth cohort (Durham, North Carolina) provided newborns' cord blood and completed a questionnaire. Newborns of currently married mothers showed lower (-0.321 SD, p < .05) methylation compared to newborns of never-married mothers, who did not differ from newborns whose mothers were cohabiting and others (adjusted for demographics). MEG3 DNA methylation levels were also lower when maternal grandmothers co-resided before pregnancy (-0.314 SD, p < .05). A 1-SD increase in prenatal neighborhood disadvantage also predicted higher methylation (-0.137 SD, p < .05). In conclusion, we found that maternal social resources may result in differential methylation of MEG3, which demonstrates a potential partial mechanism priming socially disadvantaged newborns for later risk of some cancers. PMID:27050035

  18. Birth order, family size, and the risk of cancer in young and middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    K. Hemminki; Mutanen, P

    2001-01-01

    We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the effects of birth order and family size on the risk of common cancers among offspring born over the period 1958–96. Some 1.38 million offspring up to age 55 years with 50.6 million person-years were included. Poisson regression analysis included age at diagnosis, birth cohort, socio-economic status and region of residence as other explanatory variables. The only significant associations were an increasing risk for breast cancer by birth...

  19. Cancer cluster among young Indian adults living near power transmission lines in Bom Jesus do Tocantins, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study was carried out to explore the occurrence of a cancer cluster in 1992 among young indian adults living in an Amazonian village near two 500 kV power transmission lines that began operating a decade ago. Current blood levels of DDT and organophosphorus pesticides and metal levels in hair samples were measured. Extremely low magnetic field exposure was determined during current daily activities carried out by the Indian villagers. Taking into account the cancer incidence rates in different Brazilian cities, the probability of the occurrence of this cluster by chance was considered remote (p< 0.003, Poisson distribution. High blood levels of p,p'-DDT (median levels ranging from 26 to 58 ppb were observed. As a whole, this community showed a pattern of low exposure to organophosphorus pesticides, and high recent exposure was only observed in a few blood samples. Continuous exposure to extremely low electromagnetic fields originated in the power transmission lines (which reached 95.0 mG under the lines was observed on several opportunities during daily activities carried out by Indian villagers. Further observational studies should evaluate the interaction between exposure to extremely low electromagnetic fields and prior exposure to tumor initiators in cancer development.

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with increased risk for cancer mortality in adult Taiwanese-a 10 years population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Yu Tseng

    Full Text Available The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH and cancer mortality is seldom discussed.A total of 115,746 participants without thyroid disease history, aged 20 and above, were recruited from four nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999. SCH was defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of 5.0-19.96 mIU/L with normal total thyroxine concentrations. Euthyroidism was defined as a serum TSH level of 0.47-4.9 mIU/L. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs of death from cancer for adults with SCH during a 10-year follow-up period.Among 115,746 adults, 1,841 had SCH (1.6% and 113,905 (98.4% had euthyroidism. There were 1,532 cancer deaths during the 1,034,082 person-years follow-up period. Adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol drinking, betel nut chewing, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% confidence interval of cancer deaths among subjects with SCH versus euthyroid subjects were 1.51 (1.06 to 2.15. Cancer site analysis revealed a significant increased risk of bone, skin and breast cancer among SCH subjects (RR 2.79, (1.01, 7.70. The risks of total cancer deaths were more prominent in the aged (RR 1.71, (1.02 to 2.87, in females (RR 1.69 (1.08 to 2.65, and in heavy smokers (RR 2.24, (1.19 to 4.21.Subjects with SCH had a significantly increased risk for cancer mortality among adult Taiwanese. This is the first report to demonstrate the association between SCH and cancer mortality.

  3. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treanor Charlene

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are

  4. Human Adult Stem Cells as the Target Cells for the Initiation of Carcinogenesis and for the Generation of “Cancer Stem Cells”

    OpenAIRE

    Trosko, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The inference to stem cells has been found in ancient myths and the concept of stem cells has existed in the fields of plant biology, developmental biology and embryology for decades. In the field of cancer research, the stem cell theory was one of the earliest hypotheses on the origin of a cancer from a single cell. However, an opposing hypothesis had it that an adult differentiated somatic cell could “de-differentiate” to become a cancer cell. Only within the last decade, via the “cloning” ...

  5. Predictors of Family Conflict at the End of Life: The Experience of Spouses and Adult Children of Persons with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Betty J.; Kavanaugh, Melinda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Walsh, Matthew; Yonker, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Guided by an explanatory matrix of family conflict at the end of life, the purpose of this article was to examine the correlates and predictors of family conflict reported by 155 spouses and adult children of persons with lung cancer. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional statewide survey of family members of persons who died from lung…

  6. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Adult Cancer Patients and Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, Jacob; Wurtzen, Hanne; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) in oncology settings has become increasingly popular, and research in the field has rapidly expanded. The objective was by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of MBT on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and…

  7. Exploring Mediators of Physical Activity in Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Evidence from a Randomized Trial of a Facebook-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Carmina G.; Tate, Deborah F.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of a physical activity (PA) intervention for young adult cancer survivors on changes in self-efficacy, social support, and self-monitoring and determined whether changes in these social cognitive theory constructs mediated the relationship between the intervention and changes in PA.

  8. Fetal programming of colon cancer in adult rats: correlations with altered neonatal trajectory, circulating IGF-I and IGFPBs, and testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifelong consumption of soy protein isolate (SPI) reduces the incidence of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. We determined if a maternal SPI diet during pregnancy could protect against colon cancer in progeny. Four groups of male rats were used: a lifetime ...

  9. Exercise and nutrition routine improving cancer health (ENRICH: The protocol for a randomized efficacy trial of a nutrition and physical activity program for adult cancer survivors and carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyes Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH study is investigating a novel lifestyle intervention aimed at improving the health behaviors of adult cancer survivors and their carers. The main purpose of the study is to determine the efficacy of lifestyle education and skill development delivered via group-based sessions on the physical activity and dietary behaviors of participants. This article describes the intervention development, study design, and participant recruitment. Methods/Design ENRICH is a randomized controlled trial, conducted in Australia, with two arms: an intervention group participating in six, two-hour face-to-face sessions held over eight weeks, and a wait-list control group. Intervention sessions are co-facilitated by an exercise physiologist and dietician. Content includes healthy eating education, and a home-based walking (utilizing a pedometer and resistance training program (utilizing elastic tubing resistance devices. The program was developed with reference to social cognitive theory and chronic disease self-management models. The study population consists of cancer survivors (post active-treatment and their carers recruited through community-based advertising and referral from health professionals. The primary outcome is seven-days of sealed pedometry. Secondary outcomes include: self-reported physical activity levels, dietary intake, sedentary behavior, waist circumference, body mass index, quality of life, and perceived social support. The outcomes will be measured at baseline (one week prior to attending the program, eight-weeks (at completion of intervention sessions, and 20-weeks. The intervention group will also be invited to complete 12-month follow-up data collection. Process evaluation data will be obtained from participants by questionnaire and attendance records. Discussion No trials are yet available that have evaluated the efficacy of group-based lifestyle

  10. A pilot study assessing social support among cancer patients enrolled on clinical trials: a comparison of younger versus older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Novotny

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul J Novotny1, Denise J Smith1, Lorna Guse2, Teresa A Rummans3, Lynn Hartmann4, Steven Alberts4, Richard Goldberg5, David Gregory6, Mary Johnson7, Jeff A Sloan11Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Faculty of Nursing, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Psychiatry, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 5Oncology Services, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Faculty of Health Sciences Nursing, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada; 7Chaplain Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAPurpose: This study tested the logistical feasibility of obtaining data on social support systems from cancer patients enrolled on clinical trials and compared the social support of older adults (age ≥65 and younger adults (<50 years of age with cancer.Methods: Patients had to be eligible for a phase II or phase III oncology clinical trial and enter the study prior to treatment. Patients filled out the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS at baseline. The Symptom Distress Scale (SDS and single-item overall quality of life (QOL Uniscale were assessed at baseline and weekly for 4 weeks.Results: There was no significant difference in overall mean Lubben social support levels by age. Older patients had more relatives they felt close to (85% versus 53% with 5 or more relatives, P = 0.02, heard from more friends monthly (84% versus 53% with 3 or more friends, P = 0.02, less overall symptom distress (P = 0.03, less insomnia (P = 0.003, better concentration (P = 0.005, better outlook (P = 0.01, and less depression (P = 0.005 than younger patients.Conclusions: Younger subjects reported worse symptoms, a smaller social support network, and fewer close friends and relatives than older subjects. Having someone to discuss decisions and seeing friends or relatives often was associated with longer survival. Keywords: social support, Lubben scale, QOL, elderly

  11. The aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers among young adults in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macfarlane, Tatiana V

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is increasing throughout the world. To date the increases have been proportionally greatest among young people. Several reports have suggested that they often do not have a history of tobacco smoking or heavy alcohol consumption.

  12. Developmental Perspectives on Optimizing Educational and Vocational Outcomes in Child and Adult Survivors of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Meadows, Mary Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few decades, long-term survival rates of children diagnosed with the two most common forms of childhood cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and brain tumors have improved substantially. Neurodevelopmental and psychosocial sequelae resulting from these diseases and their treatment have a direct impact on the developing brain…

  13. Stress response symptoms in adolescent and young adult children of parents diagnosed with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, G.A.; Visser, A.; van der Graaf, W.T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Klip, E.C.; Pras, E.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess stress response symptoms in children of parents diagnosed with cancer 1-5 year prior to study entry. The impact of event scale was used to measure stress response symptoms in terms of intrusion and avoidance; the youth self-report assessed emotional and behavioura

  14. Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis as a primary manifestation of colon cancer in a young adult

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Anish; Lenox, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is a metastatic lung disease characterized by diffuse spread of the tumour to the pulmonary lymphatic system. We describe the case of a 31-year-old woman who initially received a diagnosis of sarcoidosis based on the results of imaging studies. However, results of a transbronchial biopsy led to the diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis from metastatic colon cancer.

  15. Recommended patient-reported core set of symptoms to measure in adult cancer treatment trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. Reeve; S.A. Mitchell; A.C. Dueck; E. Basch; D. Cella; C. Miller Reilly; L.M. Minasian; A.M. Denicoff; A.M. O'Mara; M.J. Fisch; C. Chauhan; N.K. Aaronson; C. Coens; D. Watkins Bruner

    2014-01-01

    Background: The National Cancer Institute’s Symptom Management and Health-Related Quality of Life Steering Committee held a clinical trials planning meeting (September 2011) to identify a core symptom set to be assessed across oncology trials for the purposes of better understanding treatment effica

  16. Effects of Art Therapy on Distress Levels of Adults with Cancer: A Proxy Pretest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinzak, Leara

    2016-01-01

    This study identified decreased distress after art therapy in a proxy pretest study with a convenience sample of 73 patients being treated for cancer. Art therapy outcomes from 4 settings (oncology unit, infusion clinic, individual sessions, and open studio) were measured via the self-report Distress Thermometer, which was collected as part of an…

  17. Primary care providers' perspective on prescribing opioids to older adults with chronic non-cancer pain: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Barbara J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of opioid medications as treatment for chronic non-cancer pain remains controversial. Little information is currently available regarding healthcare providers' attitudes and beliefs about this practice among older adults. This study aimed to describe primary care providers' experiences and attitudes towards, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators to prescribing opioids as a treatment for chronic pain among older adults. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with a total of 23 physicians and three nurse practitioners from two academically affiliated primary care practices and three community health centers located in New York City. Focus groups were audiotape recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed using directed content analysis; NVivo software was used to assist in the quantification of identified themes. Results Most participants (96% employed opioids as therapy for some of their older patients with chronic pain, although not as first-line therapy. Providers cited multiple barriers, including fear of causing harm, the subjectivity of pain, lack of education, problems converting between opioids, and stigma. New barriers included patient/family member reluctance to try an opioid and concerns about opioid abuse by family members/caregivers. Studies confirming treatment benefit, validated tools for assessing risk and/or dosing for comorbidities, improved conversion methods, patient education, and peer support could facilitate opioid prescribing. Participants voiced greater comfort using opioids in the setting of delivering palliative or hospice care versus care of patients with chronic pain, and expressed substantial frustration managing chronic pain. Conclusions Providers perceive multiple barriers to prescribing opioids to older adults with chronic pain, and use these medications cautiously. Establishing the long-term safety and efficacy of these medications, generating improved prescribing methods

  18. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguana, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast DensitometerTM (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31-82 years and 41 girls aged 8-18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women's most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=-0.52, passessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256

  19. Clinical audit on "Evaluation of special issues in adolescents with cancer treated in an adult cancer setting": An Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S Salins

    2012-01-01

    Results: Pain was the most common physical symptom seen in all 10 patients. 3 out of 10 patients were involved in decision making, 3 out of 10 patients had identity issues and 4 out of 10 patients had peer group isolation issues. Only 3 were aware of diagnosis and none were aware of treatment outcomes and mortality. 4 out of 10 had anxiety and depression and 3 out of 10 had body image issues. Sexuality, spiritual and existential issues were not explored in any of the patients studied. Conclusion: The outcomes of the study were in an adult oncology setting there was a poor recognition of key adolescent issues such as sexuality, body image, identity and peer group isolation. The psychosocial supports to these adolescents were minimal and spiritual and existential issues were not explored. The inferences drawn from this study suggested a need for multidisciplinary team approach oriented in handling adolescent care needs and preferably to have a dedicated space that will help the peer group to interact, bond and cope better with the illness.

  20. Autoimmune diseases in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Olsen, Jørgen H.; Mellemkjaer, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    all autoimmune diseases combined, corresponding to an AER of 67 per 100 000 person-years. The SHRRs were significantly increased for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (16.3), Addison's disease (13.9), polyarteritis nodosa (5.8), chronic rheumatic heart disease (4.5), localised scleroderma (3......OBJECTIVES: The pattern of autoimmune diseases in childhood cancer survivors has not been investigated previously. We estimated the risk for an autoimmune disease after childhood cancer in a large, population-based setting with outcome measures from comprehensive, nationwide health registries.......6), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (3.4), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (3.1), pernicious anaemia (2.7), sarcoidosis (2.2), Sjögren's syndrome (2.0) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1.6). The SHRRs for any autoimmune disease were significantly increased after leukaemia (SHRR 1.6), Hodgkin's lymphoma (1...

  1. The average body surface area of adult cancer patients in the UK: a multicentre retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Sacco

    Full Text Available The majority of chemotherapy drugs are dosed based on body surface area (BSA. No standard BSA values for patients being treated in the United Kingdom are available on which to base dose and cost calculations. We therefore retrospectively assessed the BSA of patients receiving chemotherapy treatment at three oncology centres in the UK between 1(st January 2005 and 31(st December 2005.A total of 3613 patients receiving chemotherapy for head and neck, ovarian, lung, upper GI/pancreas, breast or colorectal cancers were included. The overall mean BSA was 1.79 m(2 (95% CI 1.78-1.80 with a mean BSA for men of 1.91 m(2 (1.90-1.92 and 1.71 m(2 (1.70-1.72 for women. Results were consistent across the three centres. No significant differences were noted between treatment in the adjuvant or palliative setting in patients with breast or colorectal cancer. However, statistically significant, albeit small, differences were detected between some tumour groups.In view of the consistency of results between three geographically distinct UK cancer centres, we believe the results of this study may be generalised and used in future costings and budgeting for new chemotherapy agents in the UK.

  2. Thyroid neoplasia following irradiation in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To describe a cohort of survivors of childhood malignancy at risk of developing thyroid abnormality, and propose guidelines for management of such patients. 142 patients who had received irradiation to the thyroid from the 1970s onwards, who attended the late-effects clinic from May 1989 to December 1998 were included in this study. Thyroid palpation by an endocrinologist or surgeon, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone assay and thyroid ultrasound examination were performed on all subjects and, depending on findings, some subjects proceeded to fine-needle biopsy or surgery (total thyroidectomy). A few patients required adjuvant I-131 administration. 49 subjects (24 of 65 patients who received scatter irradiation to the thyroid and 25 of 78 patients who received direct irradiation) had thyroid surgery. Of these, 12 in the scatter and six in the direct irradiation group were found to have thyroid malignancy. Fifty subjects with abnormal ultrasound results remain under surveillance. Having a palpable thyroid was predictive of malignancy, but age at original diagnosis, sex, current age, time since irradiation, radiation dose, nodule type and nodal involvement were not. It was concluded that there is a significant risk of cancer in thyroid glands exposed to radiation as part of therapy for childhood cancer. This risk is greater for patients who received scatter (versus direct) irradiation. Nodular change is usually not apparent for many years, so lifelong surveillance is necessary. Palpation alone is not sufficient to detect thyroid cancer and thyroid ultrasound examination is recommended

  3. Illustrating the (invisible: Understanding the impact of loss in adults living with secondary lymphedema after cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roanne Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Life with a disability is often riddled with paradoxes, one of which is being visibly marked, while personal experiences, losses, and challenges remain hidden. Our article draws attention to this paradox among people who live with secondary lymphedema after cancer (SLC. SLC is a relatively unfamiliar chronic condition within medical and lay discourses of cancer, which proves challenging for the many cancer survivors who are in search of information and understanding. Thirteen men and women with SLC were recruited from two research sites (Fredericton, NB, and Ottawa, ON, Canada to participate in semi-structured interviews about the physical and psychosocial aspects of SLC. Using a methodology of interpretive description, our analysis of participant interviews reveals the complex ways in which men and women felt both visible and invisible within various contexts. We discuss three majors themes: (invisibility and appearance related to material losses; (invisibility and action connected to visible losses in function, as well as invisible struggles to care for oneself; and the loss of present and future well-being, as SLC renders some limitations visible while potentially obscuring a hopeful future indefinitely. Our research indicates that timely diagnosis of SLC would be an immediate first step in recognizing the physical and emotional dimensions of the condition. To accomplish this, increased awareness is needed. To enhance quality of life for those living with SLC, the development of new resources and psychosocial supports is also required.

  4. Systematic Review of the Impact of Transition Interventions for Adolescents With Chronic Illness on Transfer From Pediatric to Adult Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Patricia Y; Maslow, Gary R; von Isenburg, Megan; Chung, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Transfer from pediatric to adult care is a critical component of a high-quality transition experience for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with chronic illness. To examine the current evidence regarding the effect of transition interventions on care transfer, we performed a systematic review of studies that evaluated the effect of transition interventions on the specific health services outcome of transfer. The Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies that evaluated 1) a discrete transition intervention for AYA, 2) included a comparison group, and 3) reported on the outcome of transfer from pediatric to adult healthcare. References were screened and reviewed separately by authors, and relevant study details were abstracted during the review process. Five studies from five different countries were included in the final analysis. All five studies were conducted in specialty care clinics, with three interventions involving a nurse practitioner or systems navigator and two interventions involving physicians. Four studies were retrospective observational studies, and one was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Three of the five studies found that the transition intervention was associated with increased rates of transfer while the other two showed no statistically significant effects. Overall, evaluation of transfer appears to be hindered by methodological challenges. Establishing clearer definitions and metrics of transfer and creating the infrastructure needed to monitor the transfer of patients more consistently are important goals. PMID:26209872

  5. Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Vera, Elsa; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Tejera, Agueda M.; Ayuso, Eduard; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year old mice with an adeno associated virus (AAV) of wide tropism expressing mouse TERT had remarkable beneficial effects on health and fitness,...

  6. Occurrence of bone cancer among young adult Beagles given 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred thirty-five young adult Beagles of both sexes were each given a single intravenous injection of 239Pu-citrate at graded dose-levels averaging about 0.026 to 106 kBq/kg when they were about 1 1/2 years of age and were maintained for lifespan observation. An additional 133 young adult Beagles of both sexes were entered into the experiment as control animals. All of these animals have now died or have been removed from the colony, and the occurrence of skeletal malignancies has been determined from histological examination. There were a total of 85 radiographically apparent malignant bone tumors in 77 dogs given 239Pu, and there was one control animal that developed a skeletal malignancy. Most of these were osteosarcomas, but there were seven chondrosarcomas of bone, one liposarcoma of bone, and in addition, there was one plasma cell myeloma and one ameloblastoma (admantinoma). Only those dogs that survived to at least the minimum latent period for death with radiation-induced bone sarcoma are included in the tabulation. There appeared to be a linear relationship between the percent of dogs with bone tumor and the average skeletal dose up to a dose of about 1 Gy. All dose-levels with skeletal doses of about 2 Gy and greater exhibited close to 100% occurrence

  7. Second Cancer Risk and Late Mortality in Adult Australians Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajdic, Claire M; Mayson, Eleni; Dodds, Anthony J; O'Brien, Tracey; Wilcox, Leonie; Nivison-Smith, Ian; Le Marsney, Renate; Daniels, Benjamin; Ashton, Lesley J

    2016-05-01

    We quantified the risk of second cancer and late mortality in a population-based Australian cohort of 3273 adult (≥15 years) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (1992 to 2007). Most recipients received nonradiation-based conditioning and a peripheral blood graft from a matched related donor. Using record linkage with death and cancer registries, 79 second cancers were identified a median of 3.5 years after transplantation. The competing-risk adjusted cumulative incidence of second cancers was 3.35% (95% CI, 2.59 to 4.24) at 10 years, and the cancer risk relative to the matched general population was 2.10 (95% CI, 1.65 to 2.56). We observed an excess risk of melanoma and lip, tongue, esophagus, and soft tissue cancers. Cancer risk relative to the general population was elevated for those transplanted for lymphoma, some leukemia subtypes, and severe aplastic anemia, recipients who developed chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and irrespective of radiation-based conditioning or stem cell source. In those alive 2 years after transplantation (n = 1463), the cumulative incidence of late mortality was 22.2% (95% CI, 19.7 to 24.9) at 10 years, and the risk of death relative to the matched general population was 13.8 (95% CI, 12.2 to 15.6). In multivariable modeling, risk of late death was reduced for females compared with males and those transplanted for chronic myeloid leukemia compared with acute myeloid leukemia; risk was increased for recipients with discordant sex donors, cGVHD, those undergoing second transplants, and disease relapse. Adults undergoing allogeneic transplantation have unique cancer and mortality risk profiles that continue to warrant prevention and surveillance activities targeted at high-risk subgroups. PMID:26860637

  8. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unneeded cells. Cancer cells may be able to influence the normal cells, molecules, and blood vessels that ... Cancers . We also have collections of information on childhood cancers and cancers in adolescents and young adults . ...

  9. Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Adult Primary Brain Cancers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guzman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and highvoltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary.

  10. [Bioethics and nutrition in adult patients with cancer in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroz, Monica de Oliveira; Faillace, Giovanna Borges Damião; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto

    2009-09-01

    Cancer constitutes a major group of chronic diseases and is the second leading cause of death in the developed countries. Palliative care proposes to offer comprehensive support to control symptoms and improve quality of life for patients and their families. Nutrition is an important tool in palliative care, helping patients with their physical, psychological, and social issues and promoting comfort and quality of life. However, in the context of palliative care, nutritional support rarely achieves its role of fully recovering and assuring nutritional status. At this point, the nutritionist must consider the individual patient's needs, preferences, and eating habits, which are essential both for controlling symptoms and assuring satisfaction and comfort. The impossibility of conventionally applying established management and the development of a new perception of the patient often raise dilemmas for professional nutritionists. PMID:19750375

  11. Copper Cu 64 Anti-CEA Monoclonal Antibody M5A PET in Diagnosing Patients With CEA Positive Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Breast Cancer; Colon Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Liver and Intrahepatic Biliary Tract Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Rectal Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. Exploration of risk taking behaviors and perceived susceptibility of colorectal cancer among Malaysian adults: a community based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dubai, S. A. R.; Ganasegeran, K.; Alabsi, A. M.; Shah, S. A.; Razali, F. M. M.; Arokiasamy, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perceived susceptibility to an illness has been shown to affect Health-risk behavior. The objective of the present study was to determine the risk taking behaviors and the demographic predictors of perceived susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a population-based sample. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 305 Malaysian adults in six major districts, selected from urban, semi-urban, and rural settings in one state in Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire...

  13. Associations of Filaggrin Gene Loss-of-Function Variants and Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancer and PreCancer in Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and thus a higher risk of HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer. We investigated the association of the FLG genotype with incidence of HPV-related cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and head and neck, and pre-cancer of the cervix. METHODS: We included 13...

  14. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  15. Markedly improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment with a pediatric protocol: a phase II study by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superiority of the pediatric protocol for adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has already been demonstrated, however, its efficacy in young adults remains unclear. The ALL202-U protocol was conducted to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a pediatric protocol in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with BCR–ABL-negative ALL. Patients aged 15–24 years (n=139) were treated with the same protocol used for pediatric B-ALL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the disease-free survival (DFS) rate and its secondary aims were to assess toxicity, the complete remission (CR) rate and the overall survival (OS) rate. The CR rate was 94%. The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 67% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58–75%) and 73% (95% CI 64–80%), respectively. Severe adverse events were observed at a frequency that was similar to or lower than that in children treated with the same protocol. Only insufficient maintenance therapy significantly worsened the DFS (hazard ratio 5.60, P<0.001). These results indicate that this protocol may be a feasible and highly effective treatment for AYA with BCR–ABL-negative ALL

  16. Evaluation of the Utility of a Transition Workbook in Preparing Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Transition to Adult Services: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashore, Lisa; Bender, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Transition to adult care for adolescent and young adult survivors is challenging and is inclusive of several factors like knowledge and developmental, emotional, and social status of survivors and parents. This pilot study addressed the feasibility of a transition workbook, a method of preparing adolescent and young adults to transition to adult care. Using a mixed methods design, investigators also measured transition worry and readiness in 30 survivors. Support was provided throughout a 6-month period as survivors and parents completed the workbook. The workbook included sections about the treatment history of survivors, when and who to call for worrisome symptoms, prescriptions and insurance, educational goals for health practices and how to get there, and independent living. Twenty survivors completed the study and reported greater worry about leaving pediatric oncology but indicated the need to make changes to transition to adult care. Ambiguity and intimidation about transitioning to adult providers and comfort in pediatric setting were themes expressed by survivors. Results indicate the need for adult/pediatric collaborative transition programs using various standardized methods of addressing transition readiness and evaluation. PMID:26206471

  17. Outcomes of adult medulloblastoma treated with a multimodality approach: A tertiary cancer center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adult medulloblastoma (AMB is a rare central nervous system tumor. We aimed to analyze the treatment outcomes of AMB treated at our institute with surgery followed by craniospinal irradiation (CSI and adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the treatment charts of 31 patients of AMB treated from 2003-2011. The patient demography, treatment details and survival data were collected in a predesigned proforma. Kaplan Meier method was used to analyze disease free survival (DFS and the impact of prognostic factors was determined by univariate analysis (log rank test. Results: Male: Female ratio was 21:10. Cerebrospinal fluid dissemination was noted in 16% cases. CSI (36 Gray at 1.8 Gray/fraction to entire neuraxis and 20 Gray at 2 Gray/fraction boost to posterior fossa was used in all cases. 26 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin plus etoposide. Median follows up was 26.85 months (9.47-119.73 months. The estimated 3 and 5 years DFS was found to be 84.9% and 50.7% respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor located laterally had a trend towards better DFS (HR 3.04; 95%CI 0.722 to 12.812; P = 0.07 compared to midline tumors. Other factors like adjuvant chemotherapy, age, gender, surgical extent had no statistically significant impact on survival. Conclusion: The results of our study (largest series from India show that the regimen of surgery, adjuvant CSI and chemotherapy is feasible and confers descent survival. AMB patients should be treated with a multimodality approach in a tertiary care centre.

  18. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... the affected area). Damage to the bowels, causing diarrhea and ... a second cancer caused by radiation exposure. Second cancers that develop ...

  19. Cancer incidence, hospital morbidity, and mortality in young adults in Brazil Incidencia, morbilidad hospitalaria y mortalidad por cáncer en adultos jóvenes en Brasil Incidência, morbidade hospitalar e mortalidade por câncer em adultos jovens no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalina Jorge Koifman; Leticia Rodrigues Melo; Sabrina da Silva Santos; Sergio Koifman

    2013-01-01

    There are still relatively few studies in the world on cancer incidence and mortality in young adults. The current study aimed to explore cancer distribution in young adults in Brazil. A descriptive study was conducted on cancer incidence (selected State capitals), hospital morbidity, and mortality (Brazil and selected capitals) in the 20-24-year age strata in 2000-2002, and trends in cancer mortality rates in Brazil in 1980-2008 in the same population. Testicular cancer was the principal ana...

  20. A Video Game Promoting Cancer Risk Perception and Information Seeking Behavior Among Young-Adult College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Ivan L; Chen, Minxing; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Background Risky behaviors tend to increase drastically during the transition into young adulthood. This increase may ultimately facilitate the initiation of carcinogenic processes at a young age, highlighting a serious public health problem. By promoting information seeking behavior (ISB), young adults may become aware of cancer risks and potentially take preventive measures. Objective Based on the protection motivation theory, the current study seeks to evaluate the impact of challenge in a fully automated video game called Re-Mission on young adult college students' tendency to perceive the severity of cancer, feel susceptible to cancer, and engage in ISB. Methods A total of 216 young adults were recruited from a university campus, consented, screened, and randomized in a single-blinded format to 1 of 3 conditions: an intervention group playing Re-Mission at high challenge (HC; n=85), an intervention group playing Re-Mission at low challenge (LC; n=81), and a control group with no challenge (NC; presented with illustrated pictures of Re-Mission; n=50). Measurement was conducted at baseline, immediate posttest, 10-day follow-up, and 20-day follow-up. Repeated-measures mixed-effect models were conducted for data analysis of the main outcomes. Results A total of 101 young adults continued until 20-day follow-up. Mixed-effect models showed that participants in the HC and LC groups were more likely to increase in perceived susceptibility to cancer (P=.03), perceived severity of cancer (P=.02), and ISB (P=.01) than participants in the NC group. The LC group took until 10-day follow-up to show increase in perceived susceptibility (B=0.47, standard error (SE) 0.16, P=.005). The HC group showed an immediate increase in perceived susceptibility at posttest (B=0.43, SE 0.14, P=.002). The LC group exhibited no changes in perceived severity (B=0.40, SE 0.33, P=.24). On the other hand, the HC group showed a significant increase from baseline to posttest (B=0.39, SE 0.14, P

  1. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  2. Cardiac Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer Exposed to Cardiotoxic Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Study from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Huang, Sujuan; Ness, Kirsten K.; Ehrhardt, Matthew J.; Joshi, Vijaya M.; Plana, Juan Carlos; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Green, Daniel M.; Srivastava, Deokumar; Santucci, Aimee; Krasin, Matthew J.; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of cardiac disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer have generally relied upon self-reported or registry-based data. Objective Systematically assess cardiac outcomes among childhood cancer survivors Design Cross-sectional Setting St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Patients 1,853 adult survivors of childhood cancer, ≥18 years old, and ≥10 years from treatment with cardiotoxic therapy for childhood cancer. Measurements History/physical examination, fasting metabolic and lipid panels, echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), 6-minute walk test (6MWT) all collected at baseline evaluation. Results Half (52.3%) of the survivors were male, median age 8.0 years (range: 0-24) at cancer diagnosis, 31.0 years (18-60) at evaluation. Cardiomyopathy was present in 7.4% (newly identified at the time of evaluation in 4.7%), coronary artery disease (CAD) in 3.8% (newly identified in 2.2%), valvular regurgitation/stenosis in 28.0% (newly identified in 24.8%), and conduction/rhythm abnormalities in 4.6% (newly identified in 1.4%). Nearly all (99.7%) were asymptomatic. The prevalences of cardiac conditions increased with age at evaluation, ranging from 3-24% among those 30-39 years to 10-37% among those ≥40 years. On multivariable analysis, anthracycline exposure ≥250 mg/m2 increased the odds of cardiomyopathy (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9) compared to anthracycline unexposed survivors. Radiation to the heart increased the odds of cardiomyopathy (OR 1.9 95% CI 1.1-3.7) compared to radiation unexposed survivors. Radiation >1500 cGy with any anthracycline exposure conferred the greatest odds for valve findings. Limitations 61% participation rate of survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies, which were limited to anthracyclines and cardiac-directed radiation. A comparison group and longitudinal assessments are not available. Conclusions Cardiovascular screening identified considerable subclinical disease among adult survivors of childhood

  3. Associations of filaggrin gene loss-of-function variants and human papillomavirus-related cancer and pre-cancer in Danish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Skaaby

    Full Text Available Filaggrin proteins are expressed in the skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, and cervical mucose. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG reduce filaggrin expression and cause an impaired skin barrier function. We hypothesized that FLG mutation carriers would be more susceptible to human papillomavirus (HPV infection and thus a higher risk of HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer. We investigated the association of the FLG genotype with incidence of HPV-related cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and head and neck, and pre-cancer of the cervix.We included 13,376 persons from four population-based studies conducted in the same background population in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants were genotyped for the most common FLG mutations in Europeans. Information on cancer was obtained from The Danish Cancer Registry until 11 July 2011.There were 489 cases of prevalent and 97 cases of incident HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer (median follow-up 11.5 years. There was a statistically significant association between FLG genotype and incident HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer with a hazard ratio, HR = 2.1 (95% confidence intervals, CI: 1.2, 3.7 for FLG mutation carriers vs. wild types.FLG loss-of-function mutations were associated with higher incidence of HPV-related cancers and pre-cancers that are potentially screening and vaccine preventable.

  4. Optimal Dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. for Average Adults has A Significant Anti-Cancer Effect, While Widely Used 2000 I.U. or Higher Promotes Cancer: Marked Reduction of Taurine & 1α, 25(OH)2D3 Was Found In Various Cancer Tissues and Oral Intake of Optimal Dose of Taurine 175mg for Average Adults, Rather Than 500mg, Was Found to Be A New Potentially Safe and More Effective Method of Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Yapor, Dario; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2016-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the author had found that the optimal dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. has safe & effective anticancer effects, while commonly used 2000-5000 I.U. of Vit. D3 often creates a 2-3 time increase in cancer markers. We examined the concentration of Taurine in normal internal organs and in cancer using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. We found that Taurine levels in normal tissue are 4-6ng. But, the amount of Taurine of average normal value of 5.0-5.25ng was strikingly reduced to 0.0025-0.0028ng in this study of several examples in adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, prostate, and lung, as well as breast cancer. The lowest Taurine levels of 0.0002-0.0005ng were found in so called Zika virus infected babies from Brazil with microcephaly. While Vitamin D3 receptor stimulant 1α, 25 (OH)2D3 in normal tissues was 0.45-0.53ng, they were reduced to 0.025-0.006ng in cancers (1/100th-1/200th of normal value), particularly in various adenocarcinomas. All of these adenocarcinomas had about 1500ng HPV-16 viral infection. In 500 breast cancers, about 97% had HPV-16. The optimal dose of Taurine for average adult has been found to be about 175mg, rather than the widely used 500mg. In addition, since Taurine is markedly reduced to close to 1/1000th-1/2000th of its normal value in these cancer tissues, we examined the effect of the optimal dose of Taurine on cancer patients. Optimal dose of Taurine produced a very significant decrease in cancer-associated parameters, such as Oncogene C-fosAb2 & Integrin α5β1 being reduced to less than 1/1,000th, and 8-OH-dG (which increases in the presence of DNA mutation) reduced to less than 1/10th. The optimal dose of Taurine 175mg for average adult various cancer patient 3 times a day alone provide beneficial effects with very significant anti-cancer effects with strikingly increased urinary excretion of bacteria, viruses, & funguses, asbestos, toxic metals & other toxic substances. However, optimal doses of

  5. Outcome and prognostic factors in cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme in adults: A retrospective study from the Rare Cancer Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome in patients with cerebellar glioblastoma (GBM) treated in 15 institutions of the Rare Cancer Network. Methods and Materials: Data from a series of 45 adult patients with cerebellar GBM were collected in a retrospective multicenter study. Median age was 50.3 years. Brainstem invasion was observed in 9 (20%) patients. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered to 36 patients (with concomitant chemotherapy, 7 patients). Adjuvant chemotherapy after RT was administered in 8 patients. Median RT dose was 59.4 Gy. Median follow-up was 7.2 months (range, 3.4-39.0). Results: The 1-year and 2-year actuarial overall survival rate was 37.8% and 14.7%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by salvage treatment (p = 0.048), tumor volume (p = 0.044), extent of neurosurgical resection (p = 0.019), brainstem invasion (p = 0.0013), additional treatment after surgery (p < 0.001), and completion of the initial treatment (p < 0.001) on univariate analysis. All patients experienced local progression: 8 and 22 had progression with and without a distant failure, respectively. The 1- and 2-year actuarial progression free survival was 25% and 10.7%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by brainstem invasion (p = 0.002), additional treatment after surgery (p = 0.0016), and completion of the initial treatment (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, survival was negatively influenced by the extent of surgery (p = 0.03) and brainstem invasion (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In this multicenter retrospective study, the observed pattern of failure was local in all cases, but approximately 1 patient of 4 presented with an extracerebellar component. Brainstem invasion was observed in a substantial number of patients and was an adverse prognostic factor

  6. Cost and Outcome of Treatment of Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia at the National Cancer Institute-Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite important advances in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the majority of patients die of their disease, unless bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is done. Infection and hemorrhage are still the major causes of mortality in AML patients. Progress in therapy and supportive care has led to gradual improvement in the overall results, but further improvements are still needed. Patients and Methods: The aim of this study is to identify the outcome and costs of adult AML patients treated with conventional chemotherapy (CCT) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University during the time period from April 1999 to January 2002. Clinical, laboratory characteristics were all recorded. Data regarding different types of therapies given for these patients including response, outcome and costs were also collected. Results: The median age of 82 identified AML patients was 34 years. The complete remission (CR) rate after induction with CCT was 52% (42/82 patients) with a median CR duration of 9 months. Twenty-eight percent of patients who achieved CR subsequently relapsed. By January 2003, fifty-eight patients were dead (70.7%). Infections were the major mortality cause, followed by disease progression then bleeding (65%, 28% and 7% respectively). The median treatment cost per patient was 33158 Egyptian Pounds (LE). It was higher for patients who achieved CR compared to those who relapsed and/or died. Drugs contributed by 78 % to the total treatment cost, while hospitalization, investigations and blood-component therapy contributed by 6%, 7% and 8% respectively. Conclusions: Outcome of patients with AML treated at NCI- Cairo University can be enhanced by improvement of supportive therapy; mainly infection control and expanding BMT programs to accommodate all eligible patients

  7. Cancer-Related Pain in Older Adults Receiving Palliative Care: Patient and Family Caregiver Perspectives on the Experience of Pain

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Christine J; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Lobchuk, Michelle M; Kilgour, Kelly N

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite an emphasis on pain management in palliative care, pain continues to be a common problem for individuals with advanced cancer. Many of those affected are older due to the disproportionate incidence of cancer in this age group. There remains little understanding of how older patients and their family caregivers perceive patients’ cancer-related pain, despite its significance for pain management in the home setting.OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the cancer pain percepti...

  8. Patient–provider discussions about lung cancer screening: Results from the 2012/2013 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Austin R.; Trevor Christensen; Welsh, Ericka M; Babalola Faseru

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Prior to the 2013 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines for lung cancer screening, the American Cancer Society released interim guidance recommending physicians discuss lung cancer screening with high risk patients. We included a question on patient–provider discussions about lung cancer screening on a statewide population-based survey to establish baseline prevalence for surveillance and to identify subpopulation disparities. Methods: We analyzed the 2012/2013 K...

  9. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  10. The frequency and management of asparaginase-related thrombosis in paediatric and adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute consortium protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Rachael F; Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Neuberg, Donna; Sallan, Stephen E; Connors, Jean M; Neufeld, Ellis J; Deangelo, Daniel J; Silverman, Lewis B

    2011-02-01

    The optimal management of asparaginase-associated thrombotic complications is not well-defined. We report the features, management and outcome of paediatric (ages 0-18years) and adult (18-50years) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with asparaginase-related venous thromboembolic events (VTE) treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute on clinical trials for newly diagnosed ALL between 1991-2008. Of 548 patients, 43 (8%) had VTE, including 27/501 (5%) paediatric and 16/47 (34%) adult patients. Sinus venous thrombosis occurred in 1·6% of patients. Age was the only significant predictor of VTE, with those aged >30years at very high risk (VTE rate 42%). 74% of patients received low molecular weight heparin after VTE. Complications of anticoagulation included epistaxis (9%), bruising (2%) and, in two adult patients, major bleeding. Thirty patients (70%) ultimately received at least 85% of the intended doses of asparaginase. 33% of patients experienced recurrent VTE (paediatric 17% vs. adults 47%, P=0·07). The 48-month event-free survival for patients with VTE was 85±6% compared with 88±2% for those without VTE (P=0·36). This study confirms that, after VTE, asparaginase can be restarted with closely monitored anticoagulation after imaging demonstrates clot stabilization or improvement. With this management strategy, a history of VTE does not appear to adversely impact prognosis. PMID:21210774

  11. Irradiation of the potential cancer stem cell niches in the adult brain improves progression-free survival of patients with malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor in adults. The mechanisms leading to glioblastoma are not well understood but animal studies support that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in neural stem cells (NSC) is required and sufficient to induce glial cancers. This suggests that the NSC niches in the brain may harbor cancer stem cells (CSCs), Thus providing novel therapy targets. We hypothesize that higher radiation doses to these NSC niches improve patient survival by eradicating CSCs. 55 adult patients with Grade 3 or Grade 4 glial cancer treated with radiotherapy at UCLA between February of 2003 and May of 2009 were included in this retrospective study. Using radiation planning software and patient radiological records, the SVZ and SGL were reconstructed for each of these patients and dosimetry data for these structures was calculated. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis we show that patients whose bilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) received greater than the median SVZ dose (= 43 Gy) had a significant improvement in progression-free survival if compared to patients who received less than the median dose (15.0 vs 7.2 months PFS; P = 0.028). Furthermore, a mean dose >43 Gy to the bilateral SVZ yielded a hazard ratio of 0.73 (P = 0.019). Importantly, similarly analyzing total prescription dose failed to illustrate a statistically significant impact. Our study leads us to hypothesize that in glioma targeted radiotherapy of the stem cell niches in the adult brain could yield significant benefits over radiotherapy of the primary tumor mass alone and that damage caused by smaller fractions of radiation maybe less efficiently detected by the DNA repair mechanisms in CSCs

  12. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  13. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  14. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  15. Development and Implementation of the National Cancer Institute’s Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to Assess Correlates of Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Erinosho, Temitope O.; Pinard, Courtney A.; Nebeling, Linda C.; Moser, Richard P.; Shaikh, Abdul R; Resnicow, Ken; Oh, April Y.; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally as well as in the United States. Much of the population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. This paper describes the development of psychosocial measures of FV intake for inclusion in the U.S. National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 3,397 adults from the United States. Scales included conventional c...

  16. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... but these effects are uncommon ( 1 , 3 , 7 ). Diarrhea , nausea, and vomiting ... a standard treatment for cancer ( 1 , 3 , 6 , 7 ). Many clinical trials are ...

  17. Measured adolescent body mass index and adult breast cancer in a cohort of 951,480 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levine, Hagai; Derazne, Estela; Molina-Hazan, Vered; Kark, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, studied predominantly as a self-reported risk factor for breast cancer (BC), may have been subjected to recall bias. We examined the association between measured BMI in adolescence and the incidence of BC by menopausal status. 951,480 Jewish Israeli females aged 16-19 who underwent anthropometric measurements in 1967-2011 were followed up to 31.12.2012 for BC incidence. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between adolescent BMI (as age-specific CDC percentiles) and time to BC diagnosis, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. The analysis was also subdivided by age at diagnosis. 9619 BC cases diagnosed during 18,078,941 person-years of follow-up were included in multivariable analyses: 4901 premenopausal, 3809 perimenopausal, and 909 postmenopausal. Compared with 'healthy' BMI (5th-country of origin, education, and height, adolescent BMI was largely negatively associated with BC: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.057 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.955-1.169, p = 0.286) in underweight (<5th percentile); HR = 0.918 (95 % CI 0.849-0.993, p = 0.032) in overweight (85th-<95th percentiles); and HR = 0.682 (95 % CI 0.552-0.843, p = 0.00004) in obese (≥95th percentile) women. In premenopausal, but not peri- and postmenopausal BC, associations were statistically significant; underweight was associated with increased risk of premenopausal BC (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.01-1.31, p = 0.037), and overweight and obesity with significantly lower risk. Adolescent thinness was associated with increased risk for early BC. Overweight and obesity were protectively associated with premenopausal but not postmenopausal BC. The lack of an association of adolescent overweight/obesity with increased peri- and postmenopausal BC suggests a causal role for adult weight gain. PMID:27306419

  18. Cancer risk of anti-TNF-α at recommended doses in adult rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis with intention to treat and per protocol analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Moulis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of malignancies on TNF-α antagonists is controversial. The aim of this survey was to assess cancer risk on TNF-α antagonists in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, including the five marketed drugs (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab and certolizumab used in line with the New Drug Application. Furthermore, the relative interest of modified intention to treat or per protocol analyses to assess such sparse events remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data sources were MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, ACR and EULAR meeting abstracts, scientific evaluation of the drugs leading to their marketing approval, and clinicaltrials.gov, until 31 December 2012.We selected double-blind randomized controlled trials in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, including at least one treatment arm in line with New Drug Application. We performed random effect meta-analysis, with modified intention to treat and per protocol analyses. Thirty-three trials were included. There was no excess risk of malignancies on anti-TNF-α administered in line with New Drug Application in the per protocol model (OR, 0.93 95%CI[0.59-1.44], as well as in the modified intention to treat model (OR, 1.27 95%CI[0.82-1.98]. There was a non-significant tendency for an excess non-melanoma skin cancer risk in both models (respectively, 1.37 [0.71-2.66] and 1.90 [0.98-3.67]. With fixed effect Peto model restricting to trials during at least 52 weeks, the overall cancer risk was respectively 1.60 [0.97-2.64] and 1.22 [0.72-2.08]. Whatever the model, modified intention to treat analysis led to higher estimations than per protocol analysis. The later may underestimate the treatment effect when assessing very sparse events and when many patients dropped out in placebo arms. In metaregression, there was no differential risk among the five drugs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study did not find any evidence for an excess cancer risk on TNF

  19. Perceptions of Young Adult Central Nervous System Cancer Survivors and Their Parents Regarding Career Development and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Chan, Fong; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identify barriers to career development and employment from both the survivor and parent perspective. Method: Young adult survivors (N = 43) and their parents participated in focus groups to elicit information regarding perceptions regarding career development and employment. Results: Perceptions of both the young adults and parents…

  20. Illustrating the (in)visible: Understanding the impact of loss in adults living with secondary lymphedema after cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Roanne; Hamilton, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Life with a disability is often riddled with paradoxes, one of which is being visibly marked, while personal experiences, losses, and challenges remain hidden. Our article draws attention to this paradox among people who live with secondary lymphedema after cancer (SLC). SLC is a relatively unfamiliar chronic condition within medical and lay discourses of cancer, which proves challenging for the many cancer survivors who are in search of information and understanding. Thirteen men and women w...

  1. Evaluation of educational videos to increase skin cancer risk awareness and sun safe behaviors among adult Hispanics (Revision 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Claudia; Wang, Stephanie; Abraham, Ivy; Angulo, Maria Isabel; Kim, Hajwa; Meza, Joyce R.; Munoz, Anastasia; Rodriguez, Lizbeth; Uddin, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Although skin cancer is less common in Hispanics, they are at higher risk for presenting with more advanced stage skin cancer. We performed semi-structured interviews with Hispanic women that found high concern for photo-aging from sun exposure. Based on these results, we developed two short Spanish language films. The first emphasized photo-aging benefits of sun protection, while the second focused on its benefits for skin cancer prevention. Our hypothesis was that the reduction of photo-agi...

  2. Adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and total cancer risk in an adult cohort from Southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrebola, Juan P; Fernández, Mariana F; Martín-Olmedo, Piedad;

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing trend in the incidence of cancer worldwide, and it has been accepted that environmental factors account for an important proportion of the global burden. The present paper reports preliminary findings on the influence of the historical exposure to a group of persistent...... cancer incidence was based on data from a population-based cancer registry. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariable Cox-regression models. In males, PCB 153 concentrations were positively associated with total cancer risk, with an adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.20 (1...

  3. Time-Dependent Risk of Cancer After a Diabetes Diagnosis in a Cohort of 2.3 Million Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankner, Rachel; Boffetta, Paolo; Balicer, Ran D; Boker, Lital Keinan; Sadeh, Maya; Berlin, Alla; Olmer, Liraz; Goldfracht, Margalit; Freedman, Laurence S

    2016-06-15

    Using a time-dependent approach, we investigated all-site and site-specific cancer incidence in a large population stratified by diabetes status. The study analyzed a closed cohort comprised of Israelis aged 21-89 years, enrolled in a health fund, and followed from 2002 to 2012. Adjusting for age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we calculated hazard ratios for cancer incidence using Cox regression separately for participants with prevalent and incident diabetes; the latter was further divided by time since diabetes diagnosis. Of the 2,186,196 individuals included in the analysis, 159,104 were classified as having prevalent diabetes, 408,243 as having incident diabetes, and 1,618,849 as free of diabetes. In both men and women, diabetes posed an increased risk of cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, endometrium, stomach, kidney, brain (benign), brain (malignant), colon/rectum, lung (all, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), ovary, and bladder, as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. No excess risk was observed for breast cancer in premenopausal women or for thyroid cancer. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratios for all-site and site-specific cancers were particularly elevated during the first year following diabetes diagnosis. The findings of this large study with a time-dependent approach are consistent with those of previous studies that have observed associations between diabetes and cancer incidence. PMID:27257115

  4. The use of the SF-36 questionnaire in adult survivors of childhood cancer: evaluation of data quality, score reliability, and scaling assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter David L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 has been used in a number of previous studies that have investigated the health status of childhood cancer survivors, but it never has been evaluated regarding data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability in this population. As health status among childhood cancer survivors is being increasingly investigated, it is important that the measurement instruments are reliable, validated and appropriate for use in this population. The aim of this paper was to determine whether the SF-36 questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing self-perceived health status of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We examined the SF-36 to see how it performed with respect to (1 data completeness, (2 distribution of the scale scores, (3 item-internal consistency, (4 item-discriminant validity, (5 internal consistency, and (6 scaling assumptions. For this investigation we used SF-36 data from a population-based study of 10,189 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results Overall, missing values ranged per item from 0.5 to 2.9 percent. Ceiling effects were found to be highest in the role limitation-physical (76.7% and role limitation-emotional (76.5% scales. All correlations between items and their hypothesised scales exceeded the suggested standard of 0.40 for satisfactory item-consistency. Across all scales, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability was found to be higher than the suggested value of 0.70. Consistent across all cancer groups, the physical health related scale scores correlated strongly with the Physical Component Summary (PCS scale scores and weakly with the Mental Component Summary (MCS scale scores. Also, the mental health and role limitation-emotional scales correlated strongly with the MCS scale score and weakly with the PCS scale score. Moderate to strong correlations with both summary scores were found for the general health perception, energy/vitality, and social functioning

  5. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007654.htm Adult soft tissue sarcoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Soft tissue sarcoma is cancer that forms in the soft ...

  6. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... going to the bathroom After changing a baby's diaper After coming in contact with people who are ... pneumoniae. Vaccines are even more important for older adults and people with diabetes, asthma, emphysema, HIV, cancer, ...

  7. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  8. Motexafin Gadolinium and Doxorubicin in Treating Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Colorectal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases; Prostate Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treating Long-Term Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Pelvic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    Bladder Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Gastrointestinal Complications; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Vaginal Cancer

  10. First description of seasonality of birth and diagnosis amongst teenagers and young adults with cancer aged 15–24 years in England, 1996–2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to examine evidence for an infectious aetiology among teenagers and young adults (TYA) by analysing monthly seasonality of diagnosis and birth amongst 15–24 year olds diagnosed with cancer in England. Cases of leukaemia, lymphoma and central nervous system (CNS) tumours were derived from the national TYA cancer register (1996–2005). Incidence rates (IR) and trends were assessed using Poisson regression. Seasonality of diagnosis and birth was assessed using Poisson and logistic regression respectively with cosine functions of varying periods. There were 6251 cases diagnosed with leukaemia (n = 1299), lymphoma (n = 3070) and CNS tumours (n = 1882), the overall IR was 92 (95% CI 89–96) per 1,000,000 15–24 year olds per year. There was significant evidence of seasonality around the time of diagnosis for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (P < 0.001) with a peak in February, and for ‘other CNS tumours’ (P = 0.010) with peaks in December and June. Birth peaks for those with ‘other Gliomas’ (Gliomas other than Astrocytoma and Ependymoma) were observed in May and November (P = 0.015). Our novel findings support an infectious aetiological hypothesis for certain subgroups of TYA cancer in England. Further work will examine correlation with specific infections occurring around the time of birth and diagnosis within certain diagnostic groups

  11. Music in Reducing Anxiety and Pain in Adult Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Biopsy for Hematologic Cancers or Other Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Pain; Precancerous Condition; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment

  12. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked with...... = 38.6 years), 171 women and 64 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Both height and BMI were positively associated with thyroid cancer risk, and these associations were similar by age at measurement. Using age 10 as an example, HRs per 1 unit increase in SDS for height (~6-7 cm) and BMI (~1.5-2 kg...

  13. Cancer incidence in children and young adults did not increase relative to parental exposure to atomic bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, S; Koyama, K; Soda, M; Suyama, A

    2003-11-01

    We have examined whether parental exposure to atomic bomb radiation has led to increased cancer risks among the offspring. We studied 40,487 subjects born from May 1946 through December 1984 who were cancer-free in January 1958. One or both parents were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombing and for childbirth. Using population-based tumor registry data we analyzed cancer incidence data from 1958 to 1997 by Cox regression models, and we examined the effects of both paternal and maternal irradiation with adjustment for city, sex, birth year, and migration. During follow-up, 575 solid tumor cases and 68 hematopoietic tumor cases were diagnosed. Median age at diagnosis was 39.7 years. Median doses were 143 millisierverts for 15,992 exposed (5+ millisierverts or unknown dose) fathers and 133 millisierverts for 10,066 exposed mothers. Cancer incidence was no higher for subjects with exposed parents than for the reference subjects (0-4 millisierverts), nor did the incidence rates increase with increasing dose. For 3568 subjects with two exposed parents, the adjusted risk ratio for all cancer was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.70-1.36). Because of the small number of cases, however, we cannot exclude an increase in cancer incidence at this time. PMID:14583774

  14. Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

    2012-01-01

    We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product because wealth probably increases the ability to detect cancer. We also included gender, cell phone use and latitude as variables in our initial models. Prevalence of T. gondii explained 19 per cent of the residual variance in brain cancer incidence after controlling for the positive effects of gross domestic product and latitude among nations. Infection with T. gondii was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the risk of brain cancers across the range of T. gondii prevalence in our dataset (4–67%). These results, though correlational, suggest that T. gondii should be investigated further as a possible oncogenic pathogen of humans.

  15. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); R. Pieters (Rob); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); J.P. Sluimer (Johanna); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Proc

  16. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Procedure We anal

  17. Evaluation of educational videos to increase skin cancer risk awareness and sun-safe behaviors among adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Claudia; Wang, Stephanie; Abraham, Ivy; Angulo, Maria Isabel; Kim, Hajwa; Meza, Joyce R; Munoz, Anastasia; Rodriguez, Lizbeth; Uddin, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    Although skin cancer is less common in Hispanics, they are at higher risk for presenting with more advanced stage skin cancer. We performed semi-structured interviews with Hispanic women that found high concern for photoaging from sun exposure. Based on these results, we developed two short Spanish-language films. The first emphasized photoaging benefits of sun protection, while the second focused on its benefits for skin cancer prevention. Our hypothesis was that the reduction of photoaging would be a more persuasive argument than skin cancer prevention for the adoption of sunscreen use by Hispanic women. Study participants were recruited from beauty salons located in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods. Each of the two Spanish-language films was approximately 3 min long. A pre-intervention questionnaire assessed subjects' general knowledge and sunscreen habits, and a second questionnaire administered after viewing both films assessed for improvements in risk perception and inquired about which film was more persuasive. Eighty Hispanics participated ranging in age from 19 to 75. The pre-education survey found that 54 out of 80 believed that fair-skin Hispanics (FS) were at risk for skin cancer, and 44 out of 80 believed that dark-skin Hispanics (DS) were at risk. These numbers increased to 72 (FS) and 69 (DS) after the intervention (p value: benefits of sun protection for skin cancer prevention as the more persuasive film (74 out of 80). A Spanish-language video has the potential to make an impact in healthy sun-protective behaviors, and information on how to properly apply sunscreen should be included in educational messages. PMID:24595966

  18. Validation of the distress thermometer for use among adolescents and young adults with cancer in Australia: a multicenter study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson P; McDonald FEJ; Anazodo A; Costa DSJ; Wakefield CE; White K; Thompson K; Osborn MP

    2015-01-01

    Pandora Patterson,1,2 Fiona EJ McDonald,1,2 Antoinette Anazodo,3 Daniel SJ Costa,4 Claire E Wakefield,5,6 Kate White,2 Kate Thompson,7 Michael P Osborn8 1Research, Evaluation and Social Policy, CanTeen Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Nursing Research Unit, Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children's Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 4Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research ...

  19. Surviving Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... his or her health status, when diagnosed with cancer may have an effect on their survival and recovery. Older adults are more likely to have other health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Managing these conditions can complicate ...

  20. Hacking the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne Bank; Thomsen, Stine Legarth;

    2016-01-01

    ). Students in architecture, design, engineering, communication and anthropology participated (27 young adults) - forming eight groups. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with current or former cancer experience participated as sparring partners. We provided workspace and food during the weekend. The groups...... in two-bed wardrooms and social contact with other hospitalized AYA. The winning project included an integrated concept for both wardrooms and the AYA day room, including logos and names for the rooms and an 'energy wall' in the day room. CONCLUSION: A hackathon event was an effective mode of youth...... participation. The design concepts and ideas were in line with current evidence regarding pleasing hospital environment and youth-friendly inpatient facilities and may be applicable to other young patients....

  1. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Halkjaer, Jytte; Schulze, Matthias B; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Feskens, Edith J M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake...

  2. Gastrointestinal and liver disease in Adult Life After Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdahl, Peter Haubjerg; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Bonnesen, Trine Gade; De Fine Licht, Sofie; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Malila, Nea; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Olsen, Jørgen Helge; Hasle, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Survival after childhood cancer diagnosis has remarkably improved, but emerging evidence suggests that cancer-directed therapy may have adverse gastrointestinal late effects. We aimed to comprehensively assess the frequency of gastrointestinal and liver late effects among childhood cancer survivors and compare this frequency with the general population. Our population-based cohort study included all 1-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden diagnosed from the 1940s and 1950s. Our outcomes of interest were hospitalization rates for gastrointestinal and liver diseases, which were ascertained from national patient registries. We calculated standardized hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) and absolute excess rates comparing hospitalizations of any gastrointestinal or liver disease and for specific disease entities between survivors and the general population. The study included 31,132 survivors and 207,041 comparison subjects. The median follow-up in the hospital registries were 10 years (range: 0-42) with 23% of the survivors being followed at least to the age of 40 years. Overall, survivors had a 60% relative excess of gastrointestinal or liver diseases [RR: 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-1.7], which corresponds to an absolute excess of 360 (95% CI: 330-390) hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years. Survivors of hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and leukemia had the highest excess of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. In addition, we observed a relative excess of several specific diseases such as esophageal stricture (RR: 13; 95% CI: 9.2-20) and liver cirrhosis (RR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.0-4.1). Our findings provide useful information about the breadth and magnitude of late complications among childhood cancer survivors and can be used for generating hypotheses about potential exposures related to these gastrointestinal and liver late effects. PMID:27194488

  3. New strategies to ensure good patient–physician communication when treating adolescents and young adults with cancer: the proposed model of the Milan Youth Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magni MC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria Chiara Magni,1 Laura Veneroni,1 Carlo Alfredo Clerici,2 Tullio Proserpio,3 Giovanna Sironi,1 Michela Casanova,1 Stefano Chiaravalli,1 Maura Massimino,1 Andrea Ferrari1 1Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 3Pastoral Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy Abstract: Adolescence is a particularly complex time of life, entailing physiological, psychological, and social changes that further the individual's cognitive, emotional, and social growth. Being diagnosed with cancer at this time can have important consequences on an individual's emotional and physical development, and adolescent and young adult cancer patients have particular medical and psychosocial needs. Patient–physician communications are important in any clinical relationship, but fundamental in the oncological sphere because their quality can affect the patient–physician relationship, the therapeutic alliance, and patient compliance. A major challenge when dealing with adolescent and young adult patients lies in striking the right balance between their need and right to understand their disease, treatment, and prognosis, and the need for them to remain hopeful and to protect their emotional sensitivity. We herein describe the activities of the Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, Italy in order to share a possible model of interaction with these special patients and the tactics our group has identified to help them communicate and share their thoughts. This model implies not only the involvement of a multidisciplinary team, including psychologists and spirituality experts, but also the constitution of dedicated creative activities to give patients the opportunity to express feelings they would otherwise never feel at ease putting into words. These efforts seek the goal to minimize the potentially

  4. Screening for Psychological Distress in Adult Primary Brain Tumor Patients and Caregivers: Considerations for Cancer Care Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Trad, Wafa; Koh, Eng-Siew; Daher, Maysaa; Bailey, Alanah; Kastelan, Marina; Legge, Dianne; Fleet, Marcia; Simpson, Grahame K.; Hovey, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess psychological distress (PD) as scored by the Distress Thermometer (DT) in adult primary brain tumor patients and caregivers (CGs) in a clinic setting and ascertain if any high-risk subgroups for PD exist. Material and methods From May 2012 to August 2013, n = 96 patients and n = 32 CG underwent DT screening at diagnosis, and a differing cohort of n = 12 patients and n = 14 CGs at first recurrence. Groups were described by diagnosis (high grad...

  5. Cancer during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protection during x-rays. Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scans. CT scans are similar to x-rays ... a Baby After Cancer: Pregnancy Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Being a Young Adult with Cancer When the ...

  6. Assessment of psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review of available instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Pandora

    2013-01-01

    Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Pandora Patterson,3 Fiona E J McDonald,3 Helen L Wilson,1,2 Esther Davis,3 Ursula M Sansom-Daly2,41School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3CanTeen, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Given the ...

  7. Assessment of psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review of available instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield CE; Patterson P; McDonald FEJ; Wilson HL; Davis E; Sansom-Daly UM

    2013-01-01

    Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Pandora Patterson,3 Fiona E J McDonald,3 Helen L Wilson,1,2 Esther Davis,3 Ursula M Sansom-Daly2,41School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3CanTeen, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Given the burgeoning body ...

  8. Eating extra calories when sick - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting more calories - adults; Chemotherapy - calories; Transplant - calories; Cancer treatment - calories ... eating pleasant. Use soft lighting and play relaxing music. Eat with family or friends. Listen to the ...

  9. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  10. Self-reported physical activity behaviour; exercise motivation and information among Danish adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, J.; Baadsgaard, M.T.; Moller, T.;

    2009-01-01

    . PURPOSE: The current study aimed at investigating self-reported physical activity behaviour, exercise motivation and information in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS AND SAMPLE: Using a cross-sectional design, 451 patients (18-65 years) completed a questionnaire assessing pre-illness and...... present physical activity; motivation and information received. RESULTS: Patients reported a significant decline in physical activity from pre-illness to the time in active treatment (p<0.001). Amongst the respondents, 68% answered that they believed exercise to be beneficial; and 78% claimed not...... exercising as much as desired. Exercise barriers included fatigue (74%) and physical discomfort (45%). Present physical activity behaviour was associated with pre-illness physical activity behaviour (p<0.001), exercise belief (p<0.001), and diagnosis (p<0.001). More patients <40 years than patients >40 years...

  11. A randomized trial of hypnosis for relief of pain and anxiety in adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Alison; Dorfman, David; Warbet, Rachel; Cammarata, Meredith; Eisenman, Stephanie; Zilberfein, Felice; Isola, Luis; Navada, Shyamala

    2012-01-01

    Pain and anxiety are closely associated with bone marrow aspirates and biopsies. To determine whether hypnosis administered concurrently with the procedure can ameliorate these morbidities, the authors randomly assigned 80 cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirates and biopsies to either hypnosis or standard of care. The hypnosis intervention reduced the anxiety associated with procedure, but the difference in pain scores between the two groups was not statistically significant. The authors conclude that brief hypnosis concurrently administered reduces patient anxiety during bone marrow aspirates and biopsies but may not adequately control pain. The authors explain this latter finding as indicating that the sensory component of a patient's pain experience may be of lesser importance than the affective component. The authors describe future studies to clarify their results and address the limitations of this study. PMID:22571244

  12. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  13. Screening for psychological distress in adult primary brain tumor patients and caregivers: considerations for cancer care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa eTrad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study aimed to assess psychological distress (PD as scored by the Distress Thermometer (DT in adult primary brain tumor (PBT patients and caregivers in a clinic setting, and ascertain if any high risk sub-groups for PD exist. Material and MethodsFrom May 2012 to August 2013, n=96 patients and n=32 caregivers (CG underwent DT screening at diagnosis, and a differing cohort of n=12 patients and n=14 caregivers at first recurrence. Groups were described by diagnosis (high grade, low grade and benign, and English versus non-English speaking. Those with DT score≥4 met caseness criteria for referral to psycho-oncology services. One-way ANOVA tests were conducted to test for between group differences where appropriate.ResultsAt diagnosis and first recurrence, 37.5% and 75.0% (respectively of patients had DT scores above the cut-off for distress. At diagnosis, 78.1% of caregivers met caseness criteria for distress. All caregivers at recurrence met distress criterion. Patients with high grade glioma had significantly higher scores than those with a benign tumor. For patients at diagnosis, non-English speaking participants did not report significantly higher DT scores than English speaking participants.DiscussionPsychological distress is particularly elevated in caregivers, and in patients with high grade glioma at diagnosis. Effective PD screening, triage and referral by skilled care coordinators is vital to enable timely needs assessment, psychological support and effective intervention.

  14. Preferences for end-of-life care among community-dwelling older adults and patients with advanced cancer: A discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Bilger, Marcel; Flynn, Terry N; Malhotra, Chetna

    2015-11-01

    Singapore is in the midst of several healthcare reforms in efforts to finance and deliver health services for a rapidly aging population. The primary focus of these reforms is to make healthcare services, including those at the end of life (EOL), affordable. Given the increasingly high health care costs at the EOL, policy makers need to consider how best to allocate resources. One strategy is to allocate resources based on the preferences of sub-populations most likely to be affected. This paper thus aims to quantify preferences for EOL care both among community dwelling older adults (CDOAs) and among patients with a life-limiting illness. A discrete choice experiment was administered to CDOAs and advanced cancer patients in Singapore and willingness to pay (WTP) for specific EOL improvements was estimated. We find that patients have a higher WTP for nearly all EOL attributes compared with CDOAs. We also show that, for both groups, moderate life extension is not the most important consideration; WTP for one additional life year is lower than common thresholds for cost-effectiveness. Irrespective of whose preference are considered, the results highlight the importance of pain management and supporting home deaths at the EOL, perhaps at the expense of public funding for costly but only marginally effective treatments. PMID:26421597

  15. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of first-line chemotherapy for adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Gerlinde; Boland, Angela; Brown, Tamara; Oyee, James; Bagust, Adrian; Dickson, Rumona

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of chemotherapy treatments currently licensed in Europe and recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for the first-line treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published from 2001 to 2010 was carried out. Relative treatment effects for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated using standard meta-analysis and mixed treatment comparison methodology. A total of 23 RCTs were included: 18 trials compared platinum-based chemotherapy, two compared pemetrexed and three compared gefitinib. There are no statistically significant differences in OS between any of the four third-generation chemotherapy regimens. There is statistically significant evidence that pemetrexed+platinum increases OS compared with gemcitabine+platinum. There are no statistically significant differences in OS between gefitinib and docetaxel+platinum or between gefitinib and paclitaxel+platinum. There is a statistically significant improvement in PFS with gefitinib compared with docetaxel+platinum and gefitinib compared with paclitaxel+platinum. Due to reduced generic pricing, third-generation chemotherapy regimens (except vinorelbine) are still competitive options for most patients. This research provides a comprehensive evidence base, which clinicians and decision-makers can use when deciding on the optimal first-line chemotherapy treatment regimen for patients diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC. PMID:25661113

  16. Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jinqin; Xie, Tianwu; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-01

    Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (≤3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning.

  17. Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (≤3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning. (paper)

  18. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer with a History of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Megan E; Steinberger, Julia; Ross, Julie A; Kelly, Aaron S; Chow, Eric J; Koves, Ildiko H; Hoffmeister, Paul; Sinaiko, Alan R; Petryk, Anna; Moran, Antoinette; Lee, Jill; Chow, Lisa S; Baker, K Scott

    2015-07-01

    Along with other childhood cancer survivors (CCS), hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at high risk of treatment-related late effects, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities may be exacerbated by inadequate physical activity (PA). Relationships between PA and cardiometabolic risk factors have not been well described in CCS with HCT. PA (self reported), mobility (timed up and go test), endurance (6-minute walk test), handgrip strength, and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured in 119 HCT survivors and 66 sibling controls ages ≥18 years. Adjusted comparisons between HCT survivors and controls and between categories of low and high PA, mobility, endurance, and strength were performed with linear regression. Among HCT survivors, the high PA group had lower waist circumference (WC) (81.9 ± 2.5 versus 88.6 ± 3.1 cm ± standard error (SE), P = .009) than the low PA group, whereas the high endurance group had lower WC (77.8 ± 2.6 versus 87.8 ± 2.5 cm ± SE, P = .0001) and percent fat mass (33.6 ± 1.8 versus 39.4 ± 1.7% ± SE, P = .0008) and greater insulin sensitivity (IS) (10.9 ± 1.0 versus 7.42 ± 1.14 mg/kg/min ± SE via euglycemic insulin clamp, P = .001) than the low endurance group. Differences were greater in HCT survivors than in controls for WC between low and high PA groups, triglycerides between low and high mobility groups, and WC, systolic blood pressure, and IS between low and high endurance groups (all Pinteraction HCT survivors, suggesting that interventions directed to increase endurance in survivors may reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease. PMID:25865649

  19. Ayağın sesamoid ve aksesuar kemikleri

    OpenAIRE

    Esenkaya, Irfan; Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Gorgec, Mucahit; Gurkaynak, Gokhan

    2004-01-01

    ln a normaI foot, there are two types of bones that remain unattached to the main body of any bone. These are the sesamoid and accessory bones. The female patient aged 54 years consulted at the Haydarpaşa Numune State Hospital, Orthopaedics and Traumatology outpatient department, in İstanbul. She complained of abducting the forefoot with weight bearing in the year of 1992. In the orthopaedic and radiologic examination of the case, besides flattening of the medial curve, in addition to the nor...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... times more likely to have heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or cancer than adults without disabilities. 1 in 2 Nearly half of ... serious chronic diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some cancers. Only 44% of adults with disabilities who visited a doctor in the ...

  1. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics Alcohol Use and Older Adults COPD Lung Cancer The information in this topic was provided by the National Cancer Institute Topic last reviewed: June 2014 For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older ...

  2. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  3. EF5 and Motexafin Lutetium in Detecting Tumor Cells in Patients With Abdominal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage 0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Gastric Cancer; Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Colon Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Rectal Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage

  4. Association of total and computed tomographic measures of regional adiposity with incident cancer risk: a prospective population-based study of older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Rachel A.; Bureyko, Taylor F.; Miljkovic, Iva; Cauley, Jane A.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Hue, Trisha F; Klepin, Heidi D.; Cummings, Steven R.; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of many types of cancer. Less is known regarding associations between adipose depots and cancer risk. We aimed to explore relationships between adipose depots, risk of cancer and obesity-related cancer (per NCI definition) in participants initially aged 70–79 without prevalent cancer (1,179 men, 1,340 women), and followed for incident cancer for 13 years. Measures included body mass index (BMI), total adipose tissue from dual-energy X-ray absorptiomet...

  5. Development and implementation of the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assess correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O Erinosho

    Full Text Available Low fruit and vegetable (FV intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally as well as in the United States. Much of the population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. This paper describes the development of psychosocial measures of FV intake for inclusion in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey.This was a cross-sectional study among 3,397 adults from the United States. Scales included conventional constructs shown to be correlated with fruit and vegetable intake (FVI in prior studies (e.g., self-efficacy, social support, and novel constructs that have been measured in few- to- no studies (e.g., views on vegetarianism, neophobia. FVI was assessed with an eight-item screener. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and regression analyses were conducted.Psychosocial scales with Cronbach's alpha ≥0.68 were self-efficacy, social support, perceived barriers and benefits of eating FVs, views on vegetarianism, autonomous and controlled motivation, and preference for FVs. Conventional scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were self-efficacy, social support, and perceived barriers to eating FVs. Novel scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were autonomous motivation, and preference for vegetables. Other single items that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI included knowledge of FV recommendations, FVI "while growing up", and daily water consumption.These findings may inform future behavioral interventions as well as further exploration of other potential factors to promote and support FVI.

  6. Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Mikhail; Aiwu Ruth He

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults. It is also the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent research supports that liver cancer is a disease of adult stem cells. From the models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, there may be at least three distinct cell lineages with progenitor properties susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Identification of specific cell surface markers fo...

  7. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  8. Combination Chemotherapy Plus Amifostine in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    Bladder Cancer; Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. Sunitinib Malate and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Kidney Cancer or Advanced Solid Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  10. Cancer and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Framework in a Mammography Promotion Campaign African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Evaluation Cancer Survival: The Start of Global ... Reducing Indoor Tanning Cervical Cancer Rates Among Young Women in the ... Use Social Media Skin Cancer Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Adults Annual ...

  11. Cancer and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Framework in a Mammography Promotion Campaign African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Evaluation Cancer Survival: The Start of Global ... Reducing Indoor Tanning Cervical Cancer Rates Among Young Women in the ... Use Social Media Skin Cancer Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Adults Annual ...

  12. Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Resource Center Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC) 95% of all testicular tumors are germ cell ... seen in young adults. Patients with mediastinal nonseminomatous EGC are typically classed as poor risk patients because ...

  13. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  14. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Traffic noise has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Potential modes of action are through stress and sleep disturbance, which may lead to endocrine dysregulation and overweight. Objectives We aimed to investigate the relationship between residential traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993–1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated. Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. Results Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic factors showed that 5-year mean road traffic noise exposure preceding enrollment was associated with a 0.35-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.21, 0.50) and a 0.18-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.12, 0.23) per 10 dB. Small, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure–response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1.19) and a 0.19-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.0072, 0.37) compared with unexposed participants (0–20 dB). Conclusions The present study finds positive associations between residential exposure to road traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Citation Christensen JS, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Nordsborg RB, Ketzel M, Sørensen TI, Sørensen M. 2016. Road traffic and railway noise exposures and adiposity in adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Danish Diet

  15. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motivation of the patient. In some cases, reconstructive plastic surgery or the use of prosthetic devices can restore ... cancers of the lip are highly curable by surgery or by radiation therapy, with cure rates of 90% to ... Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech and ...

  16. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL). Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism), their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL) in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Consecutive patients (n=101) treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years) with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL)-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and Psychological Well Being (PGWB) questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy) to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy) to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2). The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls

  17. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfdahl Elisabet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL. Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism, their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Methods Consecutive patients (n=101 treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, and Psychological Well Being (PGWB questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. Results The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2. The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. Conclusion In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls.

  18. Colonoscopy and Colorectal Cancer Screening in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Review of a Series of Cases and Recommendations for Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Leonard S.; Becker, Andrew; Paraguya, Maria; Chukwu, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) frequently have comorbidities that might interfere with colonoscopy preparation and examination. In this article, the authors review their experience with colonoscopies performed from 2002 through 2010 on adults with IDD at a state institution to evaluate quality and safety of…

  19. Hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS): a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Sofie; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of endocrine disorders in long-term survivors of childhood cancer has not been investigated comprehensively. Here, we aimed to assess the lifetime risk of these disorders in Nordic survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: From the national cancer registries of Denmark...... were linked to the national hospital registries, and observed numbers of first-time hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood cancer were compared with the expected numbers derived from the population comparison cohort. We calculated the absolute excess risks attributable...... to status as a childhood cancer survivor and standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (SHRRs). FINDINGS: Of the childhood cancer survivors, 3292 had contact with a hospital for an endocrine disorder, yielding a SHRR of 4·8 (95% CI 4·6-5·0); the highest risks were in survivors of leukaemia (SHRR 7·3 [95% CI...

  20. Comparison of diagnostic and prognostic utility of lactate and procalcitonin for sepsis in adult cancer patients presenting to emergency department with systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Keçe, Esra; YAKA, Elif; Yılmaz, Serkan; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Alyeşil, Cansu; Pekdemir, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in cancer patients is often challenging. Although lactate and procalcitonin have been studied extensively regarding sepsis management, little is known about their utility in cancer patients. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic and prognostic utility of lactate and procalcitonin for sepsis in cancer patients. Material and methods This prospective case-control study was con...

  1. İlkokul Öğrencileri ve Sınıf Öğretmeni Adaylarının Doğaya İlişkin Algıları ve Sorumluluklarına Yönelik Düşünceleri Elemantary Scholl Students’ And Prospective Elemantary Scholl Teachers’ Perceptions of Nature And Thoughts of Their Responsibilities Towards The Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer KÖŞKER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nature education provides important opportunities for learningabout nature, being aware of it and protecting it. The best way is tostart education of it from children. Education plays an important roleon the child in shaping his/her perceptions about nature andenvironment. Perception of people about nature affects their behaviorsand attitudes. Defining the perceptions of teachers that direct teachingprocess and students about nature and their responsibility towardsnature will be affective on the composition of nature education. The aimof this research is to define primary school students’ and prospectiveteachers’ perceptions of nature and thoughts of their responsibilitiestowards the nature. Data were collected from 150 primary schoolstudents and 123 prospective primary school teachers. Interview formswere used as data collection instrument Data were evaluated accordingto qualitative descriptive analysis and content analysis. According toresearch results, most of the primary school students define nature asplants while most of prospective primary school teachers define as aplace of life area. According to results, nature evokes those plants suchas tree and forest. Thoughts of their responsibilities towards the naturegathered under two themes: protection and greening. Most ofprospective primary school teachers and primary school students havefocused on their responsibility for protection more. It would be said thatboth students and prospective teachers pay attention to theirenvironment and their awareness level for protecting is very high. Doğayı tanımak, korumak ve farkındalık yaratmak açısından doğaeğitimi önemli fırsatlar yaratacaktır. Bu yönde bir eğitime çocuklardanbaşlamak ise en doğru adım olacaktır. Çocuğun içinde bulunduğu çevreve doğa hakkındaki algılarının şekillenmesinde eğitim belirleyici bir yertutmaktadır. Bireylerin doğaya ilişkin algıları, tutum ve davranışlarınıetkilemektedir.

  2. The Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) Scale: Validity, Reliability, and Relationship to Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Western Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Wilson, Carlene; Roberts, Rachel M.; Hutchinson, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing public knowledge remains one of the key aims of skin cancer awareness campaigns, yet diagnosis rates continue to rise. It is essential we measure skin cancer knowledge adequately so as to determine the nature of its relationship to sun-related behaviors. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a new measure of skin cancer…

  3. Growth hormone treatment in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Binnerts, Arjen

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWrth the development of recombinant DNA technology a practically limitless amount of GH became available for clinical use. Against the background of the sizable literature, aims of the work in this thesis were to further investigate: a) optimal dose regimens regarding beneficial and harmful effects of the administration of pharmacological doses of GH in catabolic elderly adults. b) the possible role of GH as a stimulator of cancer growth or in the treatment of cancer induced cache...

  4. Unmet Needs for Psychosocial Care in Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Anna; Wood, William A; Choi, Sung Won; Jim, Heather S L

    2016-08-01

    Individuals diagnosed with hematologic malignancies experience significant unmet psychological, physical, informational, financial, and spiritual needs. The goal of the current review is to summarize and highlight recent research focused on these issues in the diagnosis and treatment periods and beyond. The review also describes the needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) and pediatric patients. While a large body of research has reported on unmet needs among adult hematologic cancer patients, there is far less data regarding the challenges confronted by AYA and pediatric populations. Available data suggests that among all age groups, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a risk factor for greater unmet needs. Recommendations for screening and evidence-based interventions to prevent or ameliorate unmet needs are provided. Future research is needed to develop additional evidence-based psychosocial interventions with a focus on hematologic cancer. PMID:27113094

  5. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click "GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... people with health conditions such as a weakened immune system. If you have cancer or other immunocompromising conditions, ...

  6. Outcome analysis of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in adolescent and young adults with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saad; Rauf, Shahzad M; Elhassan, Tusneem A M; Maghfoor, Irfan

    2016-09-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) can salvage many patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). We are reporting the outcome of HDC auto-SCT and the impact of 21 prognostic factors in relapsed and refractory adolescent (14-21 years) and young adult (>21-30 years) (AYA) HL patients. We used Fine and Gray's competing risk analysis method and regression model for outcome analysis. From 1996 to 2013, 290 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven HL underwent HDC auto-SCT for relapsed/refractory HL; 216 patients (74.5 %) were AYA at the time of auto-SCT. Male/female were equal, median age at auto-SCT was 22.4 years, and there were 94 adolescent (43.5 %) and 122 young adults (56.5 %). There was refractory disease in 121 (56 %) patients, relapsed in 95 (44 %). Median follow-up was 72.6 months. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated that 5-year overall survival is 62.7 % (adolescents (63.5 %), young adults (62 %)) and event-free survival was 51.3 %. Five-year cumulative incidence of disease-specific death (DS-death) is 33 % and that of DS-event is 45 %. For DS-death, the multivariate analysis identified complete remission (CR) duration of HR) 3.61, P = 0.0009), no CR after salvage (HR: 3.93, P = 0.0002), and nodular sclerosis pathology (HR 3.3, P = 0.016) and positive B symptoms (HR 2, P = 0.028) as negative factors. For DS-event, CR duration of HR 1.88, P = 0.02), no CR after salvage (HR 3.47, P = 0.000005) and nodular sclerosis pathology (HR 1.88, P = 0.02) were found significant. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated overall survival (OS) at 36 months with 0-2:3:4 factors being 93.6:54:21 %, respectively (P value <0.001). Kaplan-Meier estimated event-free survival (EFS) at 36 months with 0-1:2:3 factors being 84.6:65:31 %, respectively (P value <0.001). Clinically, adolescents have similar outcomes as young adults. PMID:27376363

  7. Chemo May Prolong Lives of Some Brain Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158167.html Chemo May Prolong Lives of Some Brain Cancer Patients: Study Those with slow-growing gliomas lived ... States, nearly 23,000 adults were diagnosed with brain cancer in 2015, according to the U.S. National Cancer ...

  8. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  9. Adult medulloblastoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pobereskin, L; Treip, C

    1986-01-01

    Twelve cases of adult onset medulloblastoma are presented. Clinical features, treatment and outcome are discussed. It was found that the survival rates for adults are no better than for children. There were no clinical or histological features that distinguished these tumours from those occurring in childhood, except for a higher incidence of hemisphere lesions.

  10. Breakthrough Cancer Pain (BTcP): a Synthesis of Taxonomy, Pathogenesis, Therapy, and Good Clinical Practice in Adult Patients in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Zucco, Furio; Bonezzi, Cesare; Fornasari, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Pain presents in 80% of patients with advanced cancer, and 30% have periods of increased pain due to fluctuating intensity, known as breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP). BTcP is high-intensity, short-duration pain occurring in several episodes per day and is non-responsive to treatment. The clinical approach to BTcP is variable. A review of the literature was performed to provide clinicians and practitioners with a rational synthesis of the ongoing scientific debate on BTcP and to provide a basis...

  11. Pre-existing type 2 diabetes and risk of lung cancer: a report from two prospective cohort studies of 133 024 Chinese adults in urban Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wan-Shui; Yang, Yang; YANG, Gong; Chow, Wong-Ho; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Rothman, Nat; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Observational studies of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lung cancer risk are limited and controversial. We thus examined the association between T2D and risk of incident lung cancer using a cohort design. Setting Data from two ongoing population-based cohorts (the Shanghai Men's Health Study, SMHS, 2002–2006 and the Shanghai Women's Health Study, SWHS, 1996–2000) were used. Cox proportional-hazards regression models with T2D as a time-varying exposure were modelled to estimate HRs and 9...

  12. Adult Henoch-Schönlein purpura associated with small cell lung cancer: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xue-De; YANG, SHUAN-YING; Li, Wei; Ming, Zong-Juan; Hou, Yan-Li; Niu, Ze-Qun; Zhang, Yu-ping

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a 53-year-old male who had been suffering from coughing and the presence of a blood-streaked sputum for >1 month. Chest computed tomography (CT) and a bronchoscopic brush smear were performed. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (limited stage). The patient developed polyarthritis, abdominal pain, diarrhea and a purpuric rash at 14 days post thoracotomy surgery for lung cancer. Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) was diagnosed ba...

  13. Chronic conditions in adults with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, MD; Ryan, JM; Hurvitz, EA; E Mahmoudi

    2015-01-01

    Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) represent a growing population whose health status and healthcare needs are poorly understood.1 Mortality records reveal that death due to ischemic heart disease and cancer is higher among adults with CP;2 however, there have been no national surveillance efforts to track disease risk in this population. We examined estimates of chronic conditions in a population-representative sample of adults with CP.

  14. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Framework in a Mammography Promotion Campaign African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Evaluation Cancer Survival: The Start of Global ... Reducing Indoor Tanning Cervical Cancer Rates Among Young Women in the ... Use Social Media Skin Cancer Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Adults Annual ...

  15. The Relationships Among Pain, Non-pain Symptoms, and Quality of Life Measures in Older Adults with Cancer Receiving Hospice Care

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Brianne; Hartford, John A.; Herr, Keela; Fine, Perry; Sanders, Sara; Tang, Xiongwen; Bergen-Jackson, Kimberly; Titler, Marita; Forcucci, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Gathering first hand or reported information about patients in the final stages of terminal cancer is difficult due to patient frailty, cognitive impairment, excessive fatigue and severity of illness, as well as gatekeeping by hospice providers and caregivers, and highly variable documentation practices.

  16. Gastric cancer in Zambian adults: a prospective case-control study that assessed dietary intake and antioxidant status by using urinary isoprostane excretion123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asombang, Akwi W; Kayamba, Violet; Mwanza-Lisulo, Mpala; Colditz, Graham; Mudenda, Victor; Yarasheski, Kevin; Chott, Robert; Rubin, Deborah C; Gyawali, C Prakash; Sinkala, Edford; Mwanamakondo, Stayner; Anderson-Spearie, Catherine; Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is increasingly recognized in Zambia. Although nutritional factors contribute to gastric cancer risk, their effect in Zambia is unknown. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between intake of dietary antioxidants, urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α) as a marker of oxidative stress, and gastric cancer. Design: This was a case-control study at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia. Gastric cancer cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Urine 8-iso PGF2α was measured primarily by ELISA, and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in a subset, expressed as a ratio to creatinine. Blood was collected for Helicobacter pylori, HIV serology, gastrin-17, and pepsinogen 1 and 2 concentrations. Clinical and dietary data were collected by using questionnaires. Food items were broadly classified into 7 major categories (fruit, vegetables, fish, meat, insects, cereals, and starches). Results: Fifty cases with gastric cancer (mean age: 61 y; n = 31 males) and 90 controls (mean age: 54 y; n = 41 males) were enrolled. Median urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was higher in cases (0.014; IQR: 0.008–0.021) than in controls (0.011; IQR: 0.006–0.018; P = 0.039). On univariate analysis, habitual fruit intake was lower in cases than in controls during the dry season (P = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, smoking (OR: 7.22; IQR: 1.38–37.9) and gastric atrophy (OR: 2.43; IQR: 1.12–5.13) were independently associated with cancer, and higher fruit intake was protective (OR: 0.44; IQR: 0.20–0.95). Isoprostane excretion was inversely correlated with total fruit intake (ρ = −0.23; n = 140; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was associated with the risk of gastric cancer, as were smoking and gastric atrophy, but increased fruit intake conferred protection. This trial was registered at www.pactr.org as ISRCTN52971746. PMID:23535107

  17. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher as...... a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming...

  18. Characterization of adult α- and β-globin elevated by hydrogen peroxide in cervical cancer cells that play a cytoprotective role against oxidative insults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin (Hgb is the main oxygen and carbon dioxide carrier in cells of erythroid lineage and is responsible for oxygen delivery to the respiring tissues of the body. However, Hgb is also expressed in nonerythroid cells. In the present study, the expression of Hgb in human uterine cervix carcinoma cells and its role in cervical cancer were investigated. METHODOLOGY: The expression level of Hgb in cervical cancer tissues was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR. We applied multiple methods, such as RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analysis, to confirm Hgb expression in cervical cancer cells. The effects of ectopic expression of Hgb and Hgb mutants on oxidative stress and cell viability were investigated by cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS analysis and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH array, respectively. Both Annexin V staining assay by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay were used, respectively, to evaluate cell apoptosis. RESULTS: qRT-PCR analysis showed that Hgb-α- (HBA1 and Hgb-β-globin (HBB gene expression was significantly higher in cervical carcinoma than in normal cervical tissues, whereas the expression of hematopoietic transcription factors and erythrocyte specific marker genes was not increased. Immunostaining experiments confirmed the expression of Hgb in cancer cells of the uterine cervix. Hgb mRNA and protein were also detected in the human cervical carcinoma cell lines SiHa and CaSki, and Hgb expression was up-regulated by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Importantly, ectopic expression of wild type HBA1/HBB or HBA1, rather than mutants HBA1(H88R/HBB(H93R unable to bind hemo, suppressed oxidative stress and improved cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings show for the first time that Hgb is expressed in cervical carcinoma cells and may act as an antioxidant, attenuating oxidative stress-induced damage in cervical cancer cells. These data provide a

  19. Conserved POU-binding site linked to SP1-binding site within FZD5 promoter: Transcriptional mechanisms of FZD5 in undifferentiated human ES cells, fetal liver/spleen, adult colon, pancreatic islet, and diffuse-type gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-03-01

    Canonical WNT signals are transduced through Frizzled (FZD) family receptor and LRP5/LRP6 co-receptor to upregulate FGF20, JAG1, DKK1, WISP1, CCND1 and MYC genes for cell-fate determination, while non-canonical WNT signals are transduced through FZD family receptor and ROR2/PTK7/RYK co-receptor to activate RHOA/RHOU/RAC/CDC42, JNK, PKC, NLK and NFAT signaling cascades for the regulation of tissue polarity, cell movement, and adhesion. We previously reported molecular cloning and characterization of human FZD5, which showed six amino-acid substitutions with human Hfz5. FZD5, functioning as WNT5A receptor, is the key molecule in the fields of oncology, regenerative medicine, cardiology, rheumatology, diabetology, and gastroenterology. Here, comparative integromics analyses on FZD5 orthologs were performed by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Chimpanzee FZD5 and cow Fzd5 genes were identified within NW_104292.1 and AC166656.2 genome sequences, respectively. FZD5 orthologs were seven-transmembrane proteins with extracellular Frizzled domain, leucine zipper motif around the 5th transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic DVL- and PDZ-binding motifs. Ser523 and Ser529 around the DVL-binding motif of FZD5 orthologs were putative aPKC phosphorylation sites. POU5F1 (OCT4)-binding site linked to SP1-binding site within the 5'-promoter region of human FZD5 gene was evolutionarily conserved among mammalian FZD5 orthologs. POU5F1 was more related to POU2F and POU3F subfamily members. POU5F1 was preferentially expressed in undifferentiated human embryonic stem (ES) cells, pancreatic islet, and diffuse-type gastric cancer. POU2F1 (OCT1) was expressed in ES cells, fetal liver/spleen, adult colon, POU2F2 in ES cells, fetal liver/spleen, and POU2F3 in diffuse-type gastric cancer. Multiple SP1/KLF family members, other than KLF2 or KLF4, were expressed in undifferentiated human ES cells. Together, these facts indicate that POU5F1 and POU2F subfamily members

  20. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  1. Cutting the research pie: a value-weighting approach to explore perceptions about psychosocial research priorities for adults with haematological cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, CL; Sanson-Fisher, R.; Douglas, HE; Clinton-Mcharg, T; Williamson, A; BARKER, D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burden of illness associated with haematological cancers, little research is available about improving psychosocial outcomes for this group. Given scarce research funds, it is important to ensure that resources are used strategically for improving their psychosocial well-being. This study aimed to identify the perceptions of professionals, patients and carers regarding prioritising psychosocial research efforts. First, an expert panel's views on priorities for research were identi...

  2. Central review of cytogenetics is necessary for cooperative group correlative and clinical studies of adult acute leukemia: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Maharry, Kati; Rao, Kathleen W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Watson, Michael S.; Arthur, Diane C.; Tantravahi, Ramana; Heerema, Nyla A.; Koduru, Prasad R. K.; Block, AnneMarie W; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Edwards, Colin G.; Sterling, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B has performed central review of karyotypes submitted by institutional cytogenetics laboratories from patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia since 1986. We assessed the role of central karyotype review in maintaining accurate, high quality cytogenetic data for clinical and translational studies using two criteria: the proportion of karyotypes rejected (i.e. inadequate), and, among accepted (i.e. adequate) cases, the proportion o...

  3. A retrospective study of cardio toxicities induced by 5-Fluouracil (5-FU) and 5-FU based chemotherapy regimens in Pakistani adult cancer patients at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study cardio toxicities, especially bradycardia in cancer patients treated with 5-Fluouracil and 5-Fluouracil based chemotherapy regimens in Pakistani population. Methods: Data was extracted from the medical records of all diagnosed cancer patients at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center registered between January 2002 and December 2004 receiving 5- Fluouracil based chemotherapy regimens. The data was analysed retrospectively, including electrocardiogram and cardiac markers. Pearson's Correlation coefficient was calculated to see any possible correlation between 5-Fluouracil alone and 5-Fluouracil based regimens and cardiotoxicity, and other variables. Results: Symptomatic cardiotoxicity was observed in 60 (19.93%) out of 301 patients whose cases were part of the study. Bradycardia was the most common cardiotoxicity and was observed in 36 (11.96%) patients. Nine (2.99%) mortalities were also observed. The incidence of cardiotoxicity was not significantly different between the patients with and without pre-existing cardiovascular disease (p = 0.095) and having negative correlation -0.305. Cardio toxicities were more common with Continuous Infusion (CI) of 5-Fluouracil, radiotherapy concurrent with 5-Fluouracil and when 5-Fluouracil was used in combination with Cisplatinum (CDDP). Conclusion: Cardio toxicities were more prevalent when 5-Fluouracil was used along with concurrent radiotherapy and with Cisplatinum and when administered in continuous infusion pattern. Hence, 5-Fluouracil and 5-Fluouracil based chemotherapy regimens cause cardio toxicities, especially bradycardia, in a significant number of cancer patients in Pakistani population. (author)

  4. 18F FPPRGD2 PET/CT or PET/MRI in Predicting Early Response in Patients With Cancer Receiving Anti-Angiogenesis Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Male Breast Cancer; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Tongue Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. What's New in Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) in Adults Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Cancer » Leukemia - Acute Lymphocytic (ALL) in Adults » Detailed Guide » What’s new in acute lymphocytic leukemia ... What`s New in Leukemia - Acute Lymphocytic (ALL) in Adults Research? TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » ...

  6. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Biliary, Pancreatic, Urothelial, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  7. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  8. Splenic lymphocytes of adult Xenopus respond differentially to PMA in vitro by either dying or dividing: significance for cancer resistance in this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S J; Johnson, R O; Ruben, L N; Clothier, R H

    2003-01-01

    Wild-type populations of amphibians, unlike mammalians, appear to be resistant to spontaneous and chemically induced neoplasms. Few true cancers have been reported for non-isogeneic members of Xenopus laevis, despite their widespread use in laboratories around the world. Injection of even the most powerful direct mammalian oncogens e.g. N-methyl N-nitrosourea, that depleted specific populations of T lymphocytes, did not induce cancer. Phorbol diesters, e.g. PMA, are mitogens and apoptogens in both amphibian, and mammalian immunocytes. In mammalian cells, regulation of the cell cycle and of apoptosis are often intimately linked, however, a disjunction in time between early apoptosis and later cell cycling, has been observed with PMA-treated Xenopus splenocytes. Thus, a particular difference between amphibians and mammals may be the requirement to enter the cell cycle before a progression to death by apoptosis. This hypothesis was tested here using dual staining flow cytometry. Xenopus laevis splenocytes were cultured for 8, 24 and 48 hours with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), previously shown to be mitogenic and apoptotic with mature Xenopus lymphocytes. The cells were stained with FITC-conjugated Annexin V or with FITC-labeled deoxyuridine triphosphates (FITC-dUTP) to assay for the apoptotic markers phosphotidylserine or DNA strand breaks respectively. Phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated anti-human proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PE-PCNA) was used as a cell cycle marker that is present during the entire cell cycle. Propidium iodide (PI) binds DNA and was used to assay for late stage apoptosis, as well as to assess DNA content. Significantly higher levels of apoptosis develop rapidly in PMA-exposed splenocytes and are maintained at 24 hours, declining by 48 hours. Cells expressing PCNA or incorporating PI in excess of the normal genomic level were found by 48 hours following PMA exposure. The absence of any significant rise in a small (<5%) dual staining cell

  9. Modeling the adult female phantom in the supine and prone postures and initial dose assessment in breast cancer diagnosis with Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the delivered dose for breast cancer diagnosis by NSECT was assessed in two different configurations, using a model of a human whole body, which was simulated in the supine and prone positions. In the system with the phantom in the prone posture, the adjacent organ doses were considerably decreased. In total irradiation, the breast equivalent dose was less than 10 mSv, which is received in a typical chest CT scan. To apply NSECT as a low-dose clinical imaging system, improving the detection system is required. (authors)

  10. Subclinical Hypothyroidism Is Associated with Increased Risk for Cancer Mortality in Adult Taiwanese—A 10 Years Population-Based Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Fen-Yu Tseng; Wen-Yuan Lin; Chia-Ing Li; Tsai-Chung Li; Cheng-Chieh Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and cancer mortality is seldom discussed. Methods A total of 115,746 participants without thyroid disease history, aged 20 and above, were recruited from four nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999. SCH was defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 5.0–19.96 mIU/L with normal total thyroxine concentrations. Euthyroidism was defined as a serum TSH level of 0.47–4.9 mIU/L. Cox propor...

  11. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  12. Validation of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire in an adult Belgian population: a report from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, M T; Kellen, E; Zeegers, M P; van Dongen, M C J M S; Dagnelie, P C; Muls, E; Buntinx, F

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to collect dietary data for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer. Thirty-seven men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from the University Hospital in Leuven, Belgium. Participants completed the IMMIDIET FFQ, a 7-day diet diary and a 24-hour diet recall. Median intakes and inter-quartile ranges were calculated for 27 foods and nutrients from each dietary assessment method. All dietary factors were log-transformed and adjusted for energy using the nutrient density method. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the different dietary assessment methods. Bland-Altman plots were also used to assess levels of agreement between the dietary methods. Energy, fruit and vegetable intake estimates were higher from the IMMIDIET FFQ compared with the two reference methods.The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 7-day diary were meat (0.58), bread (0.44), fruit (0.38) and fish (0.38). The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recall were for fruit (0.72), fat (0.48), alcohol (0.44), cholesterol (0.42), monounsaturated fatty acid (0.42) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (0.41). Generally, correlation was lower for the micro-nutrients except for phosphorus (0.42), vitamin C (0.41) and calcium (0.40). The IMMIDIET FFQ is an appropriate instrument to measure usual dietary intake for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Further investigation of nutritional assessment methods is necessary. PMID:21485759

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advanced melanoma. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 12 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain people. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  16. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  17. Adult health checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Jane; Ischayek, Amanda; Dubey, Vinita; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe updates to the Preventive Care Checklist Form© to help family physicians stay up to date with current preventive health care recommendations. Quality of evidence The Ovid MEDLINE database was searched using specified key words and other terms relevant to the periodic health examination. Secondary sources, such as the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Trip database, and the Canadian Medical Association Infobase, were also searched. Recommendations for preventive health care for average-risk adults were reviewed. Strong and weak recommendations are presented on the form in bold and italic text, respectively. Main message Updates were made to the form based on the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommendations on screening for obesity (2015), cervical cancer (2013), depression (2013), osteoporosis (2013), hypertension (2012), diabetes (2012, 2013), and breast cancer (2011). Updates were made based on recommendations from other Canadian organizations on screening for HIV (2013), screening for sexually transmitted infections (2013), immunizations (2012 to 2014), screening for dyslipidemia (2012), fertility counseling for women (2011, 2012), and screening for colorectal cancer (2010). Some previous recommendations were removed and others lacking evidence were not included. Conclusion The Preventive Care Checklist Form has been updated with current recommendations to enable family physicians to provide comprehensive, evidence-based care to patients during periodic health examinations. PMID:27076540

  18. Suggestion of a national diagnostic reference level for {sup 18}F-FDG/PET scans in adult cancer patients in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cassio Miri; Alonso, Thessa Cristina; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: cmo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: To suggest a national value for the diagnostic reference level (DRL) in terms of activity in MBq.kg{sup -1}, for nuclear medicine procedures with fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in whole body positron emission tomography (PET) scans of adult patients. Materials and methods: a survey on values of {sup 18}F-FDG activity administered in Brazilian clinics was undertaken by means of a questionnaire including questions about number and manufacturer of the installed equipment, model and detector type. The suggested DRL value was based on the calculation of the third quartile of the activity values distribution reported by the clinics. Results: Among the surveyed Brazilian clinics, 58% responded completely or partially the questionnaire; and the results demonstrated variation of up to 100% in the reported radiopharmaceutical activity. The suggested DRL for {sup 18}F-FDG/PET activity was 5.54 MBq.kg{sup 1} (0.149 mCi.kg{sup -1}). Conclusion: the present study has demonstrated the lack of standardization in administered radiopharmaceutical activities for PET procedures in Brazil, corroborating the necessity of an official DRL value to be adopted in the country. The suggested DLR value demonstrates that there is room for optimization of the procedures and {sup 18}F-FDG/PET activities administered in Brazilian clinics to reduce the doses delivered to patients. It is important to highlight that this value should be continually revised and optimized at least every five years. (author)

  19. Diaphragmatic congenital hernia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernias in adults are a rare entity that is not yet published, in thoracic surgery books and there are only few reports in the world. It is a problem that requires a precise diagnostic and not delayed surgery because of its complications sometimes lethal. We present two cases treated in the Colombia national institute of cancer, with the diagnostic workup, the procedure and the literature review

  20. [Adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  1. RO4929097 and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy or Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  2. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  3. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  4. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  6. Adult Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...

  7. Adult Leukemias

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Lyall K.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past several years, advances have been made in the classification, diagnosis and therapy of the adult leukemias. The overall prognosis and quality of life have improved greatly, especially for patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemias. Some of the advances are described in this article. The importance of the clinical, laboratory and diagnostic tests for acute, chronic granulocytic and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are stressed. The therapy and prognosis for patients with the vari...

  8. [The eye and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, Ann; Mantel, Irmela

    2015-12-16

    Cancer involves so rarely the eye that it may be recognized late. The most frequent primary intra-ocular tumours are retinoblastoma in small children and uveal melanoma in adults. Vision loss in systemic cancer has a varied differential diagnosis. Uveal metastases are most often associated with breast cancer, but can herald lung carcinoma. Masquerade syndrome looks like inflammation but represents the ocular involvement of primary CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Systemic cancer drugs, as well as radiotherapy, can cause ocular toxicity, mostly at the retina. In the rare paraneoplastic syndromes, patient's cancer antibodies cross-react with retinal antigens, leading to severe vision loss. When cancer involves the eye, a fast referral into specialized care can significantly improve visual and vital prognosis. PMID:26852556

  9. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J;

    2015-01-01

    comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P < 5×10(-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an...

  10. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  11. Vulva cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar ...

  12. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Kamen; Blosnich, John R.; Megan Lytle; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J; Mustian, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) adults smoke cigarettes at higher rates than heterosexual adults. Smoking after receiving a cancer diagnosis is a major health concern, yet risk of continued smoking among sexual minority cancer survivors is as yet unknown. The current study examines current smoking among sexual minority vs. heterosexual adult cancer survivors. Method: Data drawn from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in five states (Ala...

  13. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  15. Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  16. A Prospective Study of the Associations Between Treated Diabetes and Cancer Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Visvanathan, Kala; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Brancati, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify the association of treated diabetes with cancer incidence and cancer mortality as well as cancer case fatality and all-cause mortality in adults who subsequently develop cancer and to calculate attributable fractions due to diabetes on various cancer outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective data on 599 diabetic and 17,681 nondiabetic adults from the CLUE II (Give Us a Clue to Cancer and Heart Disease) cohort in Washington County, Maryland, were analyzed. Diabete...

  17. What Happens After Treatment for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Kidney Cancer (Adult) - Renal Cell Carcinoma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » After Treatment TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What happens after treatment for kidney cancer? Can I get another cancer after having kidney ...

  18. Living with Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other tip sheets. More than half of all adults 65 and older have three or more chronic (ongoing) medical problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, or arthritis. Caring for older patients with multiple ...

  19. Adult hepatoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Javier A. Cienfuegos; Tania Labiano; Nicolás Pedano; Gabriel N. Zozaya; Pablo Martí-Cruchaga; Ángel Panizo; Fernando Rotellar

    2013-01-01

    Adult hepatoblastoma (AHB) is a very rare tumor, having been described 45 cases up to June 2012. In contrast to HB in infancy (IHB), it has poor prognosis. We present the case of a 37-year-old asymptomatic woman who consulted for a large -12 cm diameter- mass involving segments 5 and 6 of the liver, and alfa-fetoprotein of 1,556,30 UI/mL. A bisegmentectomy was carried out. The microscopic study confirmed the AHB diagnosis, revealing the presence of epithelial cells forming clusters, trabecula...

  20. Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists ...

  1. What Are the Key Statistics about Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Kidney Cancer (Adult) - Renal Cell Carcinoma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » What Is Kidney Cancer? TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What ...

  2. Cancer survivors' experience of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dorte M.; Elverdam, Beth

    2007-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports a study to explore how cancer survivors talk about, experience and manage time in everyday life. BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in specific physical and psychosocial aspects of life after cancer diagnosis and treatment, but hardly any research follows cancer...... survivors over time to explore how perceptions and experiences change. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out in 2002-2004 with a purposive sample of adults who had experienced various forms of cancer. Data collection included 9 weeks of participant observation at a Cancer Rehabilitation Centre and...... prioritize how and with whom they want to spend their time. CONCLUSION: With an increasing number of people being cured following a cancer diagnosis, nurses and oncology nurse specialists who work with cancer survivors must be aware of the fact that time is a central theme in understanding cancer survivors...

  3. Vaccine Therapy With or Without Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Male Breast Cancer; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Paget Disease of the Breast With Intraductal Carcinoma; Paget Disease of the Breast With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  4. Pediatric cancer epigenome and the influence of folate

    OpenAIRE

    Yiu, Teresa T; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvement in clinical treatment of childhood cancer, it remains the leading cause of disease-related mortality in children with survivors often suffering from treatment-related toxicity and premature death. Because childhood cancer is vastly different from cancer in adults, a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms specific to childhood cancer is essential. Although childhood cancer contains much fewer mutations, a subset of cancer subtypes has a higher frequen...

  5. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 159-166

  6. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  7. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... youth and young adults by focusing on the social, environmental, advertising, and marketing influences that encourage youth and young adults to ... cancer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Why Young People Use Tobacco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Social ... youth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Retail marketing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Using media to promote products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 What ...

  8. Friendship and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Evans

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Friendships are a powerful healing force for physical and mental illness. The study of the role of friendship for cancer patients has been relatively neglected and academic evidence-based studies are lacking. A literature review of research was performed linking cancer with friendships and social support (other than that provided by family members or members of medical staff. Some studies report the importance of friendships formed amongst young children and often in a school context; fewer studies have focused on friendships amongst adults with cancer. Direct links between friendships formed and/or maintained amongst cancer patients and their precise effects on an individual’s battle with cancer have yet to be explored.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v6i2.1171

  9. Intrauterine nutritional programming of adult disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Siemelink M; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2001-01-01

    The intrauterine programming hypothesis states that the risk of acquiring diseases in adult life is determined in part by environmental factors during embryofetal development. Especially maternal nutrition has been related to the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and infectious diseas

  10. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  11. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... often lead to a complete cure. Almost all colon cancers start in the lining of the colon and ...

  12. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  16. Appendix Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Appendix Cancer Appendix Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Appendix Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Appendix Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  17. Physical diseases as predictors of suicide in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Stenager, Elsebeth; Conwell, Yeates

    2015-01-01

    of 2.5 (95 % CI 1.9-3.5) in men while excess suicide risk for women with brain cancer was 3.5 (95 % CI 1.1-10.8) within three years of diagnosis. Men and women diagnosed with liver diseases within three years experienced a 2.7- (95 % CI 1.7-4.2) and 4.0- (95 % CI 2.5-6.4) fold higher risk of suicide......, respectively, than those not diagnosed. Elevated risks of suicide were identified for lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, breast cancer, genital cancer, bladder cancer, lymph node cancer, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, cataract, heart diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPD...... calculated for 39 physical diseases while adjusting for period, age group, conjugal status, income, physical comorbidity, and psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: In all, 4792 older adults aged 65+ died by suicide during the follow-up of >16 million person-years. Gastrointestinal cancer was linked to a rate ratio...

  18. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qnad9A-rfcw?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Pancreas Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Primary Liver Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor markers . An increased level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood may be a sign of ... conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, may also increase AFP levels. Sometimes the AFP level is normal even ...

  20. Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor markers . An increased level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood may be a sign of ... conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, may also increase AFP levels. Sometimes the AFP level is normal even ...

  1. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor markers . An increased level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood may be a sign of ... conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, may also increase AFP levels. Sometimes the AFP level is normal even ...

  2. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor markers . An increased level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood may be a sign of ... conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, may also increase AFP levels. Sometimes the AFP level is normal even ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  5. Adult neural stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengke K Ma; Michael A Bonaguidi; Guo-li Ming; Hongjun Song

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present not only during the embryonic development but also in the adult brain of all mammalian species, including humans. Stem cell niche architecture in vivo enables adult NSCs to continuously generate functional neurons in specific brain regions throughout life. The adult neurogenesis process is subject to dynamic regulation by various physiological, pathological and pharmacological stimuli. Multipotent adult NSCs also appear to be intrinsically plastic, amenable to genetic programing during normal differentiation, and to epigenetic reprograming during de-differentiation into pluripotency. Increasing evidence suggests that adult NSCs significantly contribute to specialized neural functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Fully understanding the biology of adult NSCs will provide crucial insights into both the etiology and potential therapeutic interventions of major brain disorders. Here, we review recent progress on adult NSCs of the mammalian central nervous system, in-cluding topics on their identity, niche, function, plasticity, and emerging roles in cancer and regenerative medicine.

  6. Adult Neurogenesis in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Fernández-Hernández; Christa Rhiner; Eduardo Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been linked to several cognitive functions and neurological disorders. Description of adult neurogenesis in a model organism like Drosophila could facilitate the genetic study of normal and abnormal neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, formation of new neurons has not been detected in adult fly brains and hence has been thought to be absent in Drosophila. Here, we used an improved lineage-labeling method to show that, surprisingly, adult neurogenesis occurs in the m...

  7. Depression in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk fac...

  8. Stages of Adult Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unknown Primary Treatment Colon Cancer Treatment Leukemia Home Page Melanoma Treatment Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Renal Cell Cancer Treatment Small Cell ...

  9. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

  10. Cancer Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer) 59,940 8,110 Gynecologic (Cervical, Endometrial, Ovarian) 72,660 26,350 Source: American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2007 : NCI Cancer Screening Tests Screening tests can find diseases and conditions ...

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) mutation testing in adults with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer : a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westwood, Marie; Joore, Manuela; Whiting, Penny; van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Armstrong, Nigel; Misso, Kate; Severens, Johan; Kleijnen, Jos

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer. Some epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) mutations make tumours responsive to treatment with EGFR-TK inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) but less responsive to treatment with standard chemotherapy. Patie

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) mutation testing in adults with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Westwood (Marie); M.A. Joore (Manuela); P. Whiting (Penny); T. van Asselt (Thea); B.L.T. Ramaekers (Bram); N. Armstrong (Nigel); K. Misso (Kate); J.L. Severens (Hans); J. Kleijnen (Jos)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer. Some epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) mutations make tumours responsive to treatment with EGFR-TK inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) but less responsive to treatment wit

  13. Risk of thyroid cancer due to I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of increasing thyroid cancer in children after Chernobyl accident is explained. The current situation of thyroid exposure and ultrasonography of thyroid after Fukushima nuclear accident are compared with the experiment of Chernobyl. It is consisted of 1) thyroid and iodine, medical treatment for radioactive iodine, 2) adult thyroid cancer due to Chernobyl nuclear accident, 3) increase of adult thyroid cancer after Chernobyl nuclear accident, 4) Fukushima nuclear accident and thyroid cancer and 5) principle of future research of thyroid. Nuclear tests in the world and change of I-131 in thyroid of sheep in Tokyo (1955 to 1987), ultrasonography of thyroid for atomic bomb survivor, some examples of many adult patients of thyroid cancer at EU mission, annual incidence of adult thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident (1986 to 1995), distribution of thyroid I-131 from March 26 to 30, 2011, and results of thyroid test in Fukushima prefecture are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  14. Gynaecological cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffcoate, T. N. A.

    1999-01-01

    Gynaecological cancer encompasses a number of tumours with different epidemiology, pathology and treatment strategies. This article reviews the principal clinical advances and areas of development in cancer of the ovary, cervix, endometrium and vulva.


Keywords: ovarian cancer; cervical cancer; endometrial cancer; vulval cancer

  15. Unfavorable prognosis of nephroblastoma in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Huszno, Joanna; Starzyczny–Słota, Danuta; Jaworska, Magdalena; Nowara, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Wilms’ tumor is the most common type of malignant kidney tumor in children. Due to the fact that this type of cancer is so rare in adults, however, there is a significant lack of treatment strategies in this age group. Moreover, the treatment of adults is often based on protocols used in children. The present report describes a case of a 25–year–old male with nephroblastoma stage IV, who had a primary surgery and underwent chemotherapy with CDVC (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vepesid, carbop...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  17. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  18. Expressions of PCNA, p53, p21WAF-1 and cell proliferation in fetal esophageal epithelia: Comparative study with adult esophagea lesions from subjects at high-incidence area for esophageal cancer in Henan, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xing; Yu Ning; Li-Qiang Ru; Li-Dong Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the expression of p53, p21WAF-1 and proliferation-cell-nuclear-antigen (PCNA) in fetal esophageal epithelia and to determine the role of these genes in proliferation of fetal and adult esophageal epithelial cells.METHODS: Immunohistochemical avdin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) method was applied to 31 cases of fetal esophageal specimens and 194 cases of adult esophageal specimens to detect the expression of p53, p21WAF-1 and PCNA in fetal and adult esophageal epithelia.RESULTS: Both the PCNA positive immunostaining cell number and PCNA positive immunostaining rate in fetal esophageal epithelia (506±239) were significantly higher than those in adults,including normal epithelia (200±113) and epithelia with basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) (286±150) (P<0.05, ttest). However,the number of PCNA positive immunostaining cells in adult esophageal dysplasia (719±389) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (1261±545) was apparently higher than that in fetal esophageal epithelia (506±239) (P<0.05, ttest). The positive immunostaining rate of P53 was 10 % (3/3L) in fetal esophageal epithelia, which was significantly lower than that in adult normal esophageal epithelia (50 %), adult epithelia with basal cell hyperplasia (62 %), dysplasia (73 %) and squamous cell carcinoma (86 %) (P<0.05, Fisher′s exact test). No p21WAF-1positive immunostaining cells were observed in fetal esophageal epithelia. However, p21WAF-1 positive immunostaining cells were observed in adult esophagus with 39 % (11/28) in normal, 38% (14/37) in BCH, 27 % (3/11) in DYS and 14 % (1/7) in SCC.CONCLUSION: PCNA could act as an indicator accurately reflecting the high proliferation status of fetal esophageal epithelium. p53 may play an important role in growth and differentiation of fetal esophageal epithelium. p21WAF-1 may have no physiological function in development of fetal esophageal epithelium.

  19. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  20. Cell phones - do they cause cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007151.htm Cell phones and cancer To use the sharing features ... adults. For this reason, some agencies and government organizations recommend that children avoid prolonged use of cell phones. REDUCING RISKS Although health problems related to ...

  1. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  2. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  3. Bathroom safety - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000021.htm Bathroom safety - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Older adult bathroom safety What to consider at home Staying safe ...

  4. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Adults and Depression Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order a ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels down or sad sometimes, but these ...

  5. Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Endometrial, Ovarian, Liver, Carcinoid, or Islet Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Malignant Pancreatic Gastrinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Malignant Pancreatic Insulinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Somatostatinoma; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  6. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers

  7. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Mitsuko [Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)

    2012-07-18

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  8. Interleukin-12 and Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Cancer That Has High Levels of HER2/Neu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Bone Metastases; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Distal Urethral Cancer; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Liver Metastases; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Malignant Pericardial Effusion; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Parathyroid Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Newly Diagnosed Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Occult Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal

  9. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators’ required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural env...... profiles, the author notes that adult educators’ ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked....

  10. Adulto sobrevivente de câncer infantil: uma revisão bibliográfica Adulto sobreviviente de cáncer infantil: una revisión bibliográfica Adult survivors of child cancer: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Santos Teles

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo caracteriza-se como estudo bibliográfico e objetivou investigar, na literatura científica do período de janeiro de 2000 a abril 2007, artigos que abordam a temática de adultos sobreviventes a câncer infantil, a fim de traçar um panorama do que está sendo pesquisado e publicado na área, verificando a existência de tendências e possíveis lacunas. A coleta de dados foi realizada através da busca eletrônica de artigos indexados nas bases de dados Lilacs, Dedalus/Sibi, Scielo, Medline, PsycInfo a partir das palavras: "adult and survivor and child and cancer". As 36 publicações trabalhadas delinearam-se em quatro enfoques: aspectos psicossociais, abrangendo estudos sobre qualidade de vida, estresse pós-traumático, sequelas psicológicas e hospitalizações psiquiátricas; saúde física/comprometimento físico; segunda neoplasia; e fertilidade e reprodução. A maioria dos artigos objetiva conhecer o funcionamento psicossocial do sobrevivente de câncer infantil. Percebe-se uma tendência apontando que os sobreviventes apresentam funcionamento psicossocial sem nenhum tipo de comprometimento.Este artículo es caracterizado como estudio bibliográfico y objetivó investigar la literatura científica en el período de enero de 2000 a abril de 2007, artículos que tratan de la temática de adultos sobrevivientes de cáncer infantil, a fin de trazar un panorama de lo que está siendo investigado y publicado en el área, verificando la existencia de tendencias y posibles lagunas. La recolecta de datos fue realizada a través de la búsqueda electrónica de artículos indexados en las bases de datos Lilacs, Dedalus/Sibi, Scielo, Medline, PsycInfo, a partir de las palabras: "adult and survivor and child and cancer". Las 36 publicaciones trabajadas se delinearon en cinco enfoques: aspectos psicosociales, abarcando estudios sobre calidad de vida, estrés posttraumático, secuelas psicológicas, hospitalizaciones psiqui

  11. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  12. Adult Learning Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  13. Adult Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  14. Adults Role in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  15. Sexuality in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Sexuality in Older Adults Sexuality in Older Adults What are the benefits of a healthy sex life for older adults? Sex is ... concerns, and acknowledge new relationships with respect. Bibliography Sexuality in Later Life by National Institute on Aging ( ...

  16. Developing Effective Cancer Pain Education Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michelle Y.; Pisu, Maria; Kvale, Elizabeth A.; Johns, Shelley A.

    2012-01-01

    Pain is prevalent, burdensome, and undertreated in individuals with cancer across the disease trajectory. Providing patients and family caregivers psychosocial support and education to manage cancer pain is a core component of quality care that can result in significant clinical benefit. In this review, we (1) outline an approach for developing and assessing the effectiveness of education programs for adults with cancer pain; (2) discuss considerations for tailoring programs to the needs of d...

  17. Cancer incidence, hospital morbidity, and mortality in young adults in Brazil Incidencia, morbilidad hospitalaria y mortalidad por cáncer en adultos jóvenes en Brasil Incidência, morbidade hospitalar e mortalidade por câncer em adultos jovens no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Jorge Koifman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There are still relatively few studies in the world on cancer incidence and mortality in young adults. The current study aimed to explore cancer distribution in young adults in Brazil. A descriptive study was conducted on cancer incidence (selected State capitals, hospital morbidity, and mortality (Brazil and selected capitals in the 20-24-year age strata in 2000-2002, and trends in cancer mortality rates in Brazil in 1980-2008 in the same population. Testicular cancer was the principal anatomical site in young adult males; in young adult women, the main sites were thyroid, uterine cervix, and Hodgkin disease. Brain cancer was the principal cause of death from cancer in both sexes, and time trends in mortality showed an increase in mortality from brain cancer in men and from lymphocytic leukemia in both sexes. As a whole, the results show an epidemiological pattern of cancer in young adults with regional distribution characteristics.En el mundo todavía son relativamente pocos los estudios sobre la incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer en adultos jóvenes. El objetivo fue explorar la distribución de cáncer en adultos jóvenes en Brasil. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de la incidencia (capitales seleccionadas, de la morbilidad hospitalaria y de la mortalidad (Brasil y capitales seleccionadas por cáncer a los 20-24 años, en el período de 2000-2002, y de la evolución de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer en Brasil en el período de 1980-2008, en la misma población. El cáncer de testículo fue la principal localización anatómica en hombres, y las neoplasias de la glándula tiroides, del cuello de útero y la enfermedad de Hodgkin en las mujeres. El cáncer de encéfalo fue la principal causa de muerte por cáncer en ambos sexos y la tendencia temporal de la mortalidad muestra un aumento en la mortalidad por cáncer de encéfalo en hombres y por la leucemia linfoide en ambos sexos. En conjunto, los resultados presentados retratan un padr

  18. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rawad; Morales, Joshua; Rehman, Yasser; Khurshid, Humera

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is primarily a disease of older adults. The treatment of advanced stage tumors usually involves the use of systemic agents that may be associated with significant risk of toxicity, especially in older patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are newcomers to the oncology world with improved efficacy and better safety profiles when compared to traditional cytotoxic drugs. This makes them an attractive treatment option. While there are no elderly specific trials, this review attempts to look at the current available data from a geriatric oncology perspective. We reviewed data from phase III studies that led to newly approved indications of checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and renal cell cancer. Data were reviewed with respect to response, survival, and toxicity according to three groups: 75 years. Current literature does not allow one to draw definitive conclusions regarding the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in older adults. However, they may offer a potentially less toxic but equally efficacious treatment option for the senior adult oncology patient. PMID:27287329

  19. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  5. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklett, Emily J; Kadell, Andria R.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specific...

  6. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  7. 78 FR 36788 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Awareness and Beliefs About Cancer Survey, National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Beliefs About Cancer Survey, National Cancer Institute (NCI) Summary: In compliance with the requirement... this publication. Proposed Collection: Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer Survey, 0925-NEW, National... objective of the study is gather data about American adults' awareness and beliefs about cancer....

  8. Pegfilgrastim in pediatric cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Poele, EM; Kamps, WA; Tamminga, RYJ; Leew, JA; Postma, A; de Bont, ESJM

    2005-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a major dose-limiting side effect of intensive chemotherapy in cancer patients. Recently, pegfilgrastim (a product with a long half-life, resulting in once-per-cycle dosage) was introduced to prevent neutropenia in adults. The authors report 32 episodes of pegfilg

  9. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  10. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  11. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  12. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  13. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  14. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  15. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  16. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  17. Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  18. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  19. Anal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - anus; Squamous cell carcinoma - anal; HPV - anal cancer ... is unclear. However, there is a link between anal cancer and the human papillomavirus or HPV infection. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that ...

  20. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  1. 上海市成人男女性身高与恶性肿瘤发病的前瞻性队列研究%Prospective cohort study of body height and cancer incidence among adult men and women in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐认桥; 郑苇; 李泓澜; 高玉堂; 舒晓鸥; 项永兵

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨上海市成人男女性身高与常见恶性肿瘤发生的相关性.方法:利用1996-2000年上海市女性健康队列(Shanghai women's health study,SWHS)和2002-2006年上海市男性健康队列(Shanghai men's health study,SMHS)基线调查资料获得身高和肿瘤相关信息,排除身高数据缺失和随访时间<1年的对象,最终女性队列74709人、男性队列61161人纳入本次数据分析对象.随访至2009年底,女性队列累积收集肿瘤病例4031例,男性队列累积收集肿瘤病例2047例.用COX回归模型估计身高与常见肿瘤的相对风险比(hazard ratio,HR)及其95%可信区间(95% confidence interval,95% CI).结果:调整相关潜在混杂因子[如年龄、体重、体力活动、能量摄入、职业、经济收入和生理因素(仅对女性)等]后,身高每增加1个标准差单位(本研究中男、女性都为6 cm),女性总肿瘤发生的HR值为1.04(95% CI:1.00~1.08),其中胃癌HR值为1.18(95% CI:1.05~1.33)、肾癌HR值为1.34 (95%CI:1.06~1.70)、乳腺癌HR值为1.05 (95% CI.0.99~1.12);男性总肿瘤发生的HR值为1.06 (95%CI:1.00~1.11),其中肺癌HR值为1.11 (95% CI:1.00~1.25)、胰腺癌HR值为1.34 (95%CI:1.02~1.75)、直肠癌HR值为1.23 (95%CI:1.01~1.49)、前列腺癌HR值为0.78 (95% CI:0.66~0.94).结论:身高与恶性肿瘤发病之间存在一定的联系,不同的肿瘤发生部位,其结果可能存在一定差异.%Objective: To investigate the association between body height and risk of cancer incidence among adult men and women in Shanghai. Methods: Baseline information on body height and other factors relevant for cancer was obtained from Women's (1996-2000) and Men's Health Studies (2002-2006) in Shanghai. Participants with missing data on body height, or those lost to follow-up in one year after the study enrollment were excluded, leaving 74 709 women and 61 161 men for analysis. There were 4 031 incident cancers for women and 2

  2. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    OpenAIRE

    Manne, Sharon L; Perlis, Clifford S.; Teja Munshi; KLOSS, JACQUELINE D.; Jessye Cohen-Filipic; Susan Darlow; HECKMAN, CAROLYN J.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher percei...

  3. "I Am More than My Cancer": An Exploratory Examination of Adventure Programming and Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Adventure programs have recently emerged that are specifically designed for individuals living with cancer, yet few research studies document the outcomes of such programs. The purpose of the current qualitative study was to examine the effects of an adventure program on individual adult cancer survivors. Three central themes emerged from the…

  4. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that makes ...

  6. Multiple Chronic Conditions among Adults Aged 45 and Over: Trends Over the Past 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needs and use for Medicare and other payers. Keywords: hypertension, diabetes, cancer, prevalence The percentage of adults ... with two or more chronic conditions had increasing difficulty obtaining needed medical care and prescription drugs because ...

  7. Abdominal ultrasonographic screening of adult health study participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess ultrasonography's capabilities in the detection of cancer and other diseases, abdominal ultrasonographic screening was performed for 3,707 Hiroshima and 2,294 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors and comparison subjects who participated in the Adult Health Study from 1 November 1981 to 31 October 1985 in Hiroshima and from 1 August 1984 to 31 July 1986 in Nagasaki. A total of 20 cancers was detected, consisting of 7 hepatomas, 3 gastric cancers, 3 renal cancers, 2 cancers of the urinary bladder, and 1 cancer each of the ovary, pancreas, colon, ureter and liver (metastatic). The cancer detection rate was 0.33 %. The diagnoses of seven cancer subjects in each city were subsequently confirmed at autopsy or surgery; diagnoses of four cancer subjects in Hiroshima and two in Nagasaki were obtained from death certificates. Among the 20 cancer patients, 13 were asymptomatic. After the ultrasonographic detection and diagnosis of these 20 cancers, the medical records of each of the 20 cancer patients were reviewed for any evidence of cancer detection by other examining techniques, and the records of only 3 patients revealed such recent detection. The tumor and tissue registries were similarly checked, but no evidence of earlier diagnosis of their disease was found. Ten of the cancer patients had received ionizing radiation doses from the A-bombs ranging up to 3,421 mGy (DS86), but no correlation was established between cancer prevalence and the A-bomb doses. A variety of tumors, 259 in number and most probably benign, were also detected with ultrasonography. In addition, numerous other abnormalities were diagnosed, with prevalences of 7.7 % for cholelithiasis, 5.7 % for renal cysts, and 3.8 % for liver cysts. No statistical analysis was performed concerning the prevalence of the diseases detected. (author)

  8. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  9. Factors That Predict Persistent Smoking of Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoeun; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Park, Yong-Soon; Shin, Jin Young; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-01-01

    We conducted this cross-sectional study to elucidate factors that predict persistent smoking of the Korean cancer survivors. The subjects were 130 adult (≥19 yr old) cancer survivors who were smokers at the diagnosis of cancer and have participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2007 to 2011. We categorized them into the persistent smokers and the quitters, according to change in smoking status between the time of cancer diagnosis and the time o...

  10. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  11. Cancer of the Uterus (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Home For Patients Search FAQs Cancer of the ... Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] FAQ097, May 2011 PDF Format Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Gynecologic Problems What ...

  12. Adult congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Morphet, John AM

    2006-01-01

    One million people over the age of 20 suffer from congenital heart disease in the United States. These adult patients can slip through the cracks of our medical system; many are too old to be cared for in most pediatric institutions by pediatric cardiologists and, unfortunately, most adult cardiologists are not trained in congenital heart disease. Therefore, it is important to identify the common lesions in adult congenital heart disease and how they should be managed. Acyanotic congenital he...

  13. Culture And Adult Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Tamar Barbara; Fogde, Anne-Sofie; Rasmussen, Ditte Ninna; Uski, Juha Janne Olavi

    2005-01-01

    "Culture and adult immigrants" is a project about integration of adult immigrants into the Danish society. It is based on an integration theory by Charlotte Hamburger and a culture theory by Thomas Hylland Eriksen and Torunn Arntsen Sørheim. The two theories conclude in a joined analysis of language school material from the language centre of Roskilde, in search for an answer to the question if and how the Danish language education supports the integration of adult immigrants into the D...

  14. Medications and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older adults and often require the use of antihistamines. Antihistamines are divided into two classes: first generation antihistamines and second generation antihistamines. First generation antihistamines, while ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research ...

  16. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  17. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Cancer clusters can help scientists identify cancer-causing substances in the environment. For example, in the early 1970s, a cluster ... the area and time period over which the cancers were diagnosed. They also ask about specific environmental hazards or concerns in the affected area. If ...

  18. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spreads in different ways, and each is treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other organs in the body. Learn more about non-small cell lung cancer. Learn ...

  19. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  20. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  1. Second primary cancer risk - the impact of applying different definitions of multiple primaries: results from a retrospective population-based cancer registry study

    OpenAIRE

    Aishah, Coyte; Morrison, David S.; McLoone, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that cancer survivors are at increased risk of second primary cancers. Changes in the prevalence of risk factors and diagnostic techniques may have affected more recent risks. Methods: We examined the incidence of second primary cancer among adults in the West of Scotland, UK, diagnosed with cancer between 2000 and 2004 (n = 57,393). We used National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and International Agency for Research on Canc...

  2. Cancer : metabolic dysfunction, nutrition and quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Ravasco, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências da Saúde (Nutrição), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Medicina, 2007 Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cancer is the second most frequent cause of death and is becoming the leading cause of death in an ageing population, as most cancers occur in older adults; of note, cancer-related malnutrition is the immediate cause of death of 20% of the patients with cancer. Notwithstanding that different cancer ty...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  4. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & ...

  6. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  7. What Causes Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this section you can get information on cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use, and learn how it ... Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer ...

  8. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  9. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ... Using Trusted Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening ...

  14. What Is Colorectal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Key statistics for colorectal cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? How does colorectal cancer start? Most colorectal cancers begin as a growth ...

  15. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  17. Urothelial Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Dimov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence supporting the idea that tumors, similar to normal adult tissues, arise from a specific stem-like cell population, the cancer stem cells (CSCs, which are considered as the real driving force behind tumor growth, the ability to metastasize, as well as resistance to conventional antitumor therapy. The concept that cancer growth recapitulates normal proliferative and/or regenerative processes, even though in very dysfunctional ways, has tremendous implications for cancer therapy. The rapid development of the CSC field, shoulder to shoulder with powerful genome-wide screening techniques, has provided cause for optimism for the development of more reliable therapies in the future. However, several important issues still lie ahead. Recent identification of a highly tumorigenic stem-like compartment and existence of urothelial differentiation programs in urothelial cell carcinomas (UCCs raised important questions about UCC initiation and development. This review examines the present knowledge on CSCs in UCCs regarding the similarities between CSCs and the adult urothelial stem cells, potential origin of urothelial CSCs, main regulatory pathways, surface markers expression, and the current state of CSC-targeting therapeutic strategies.

  18. Adult Education Regional Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  19. Adult learning in modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the conditions for the growth of adult education in modern societies. It is argued that in modern adult life individual biographical reflection plays an increasing role, not only for educational and occupational choice but also in the process of identity formation and emotional...

  20. Toward Transpersonal Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for discussing transpersonal adult development, the author traces her trajectory, involvement in, and contribution to the modern transpersonal movement and her introduction of it to the adult learning literature, beginning during the early 1980s. Highlighted are the transpersonal domain and a differentiation between transpersonal…