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Sample records for ads target design

  1. XT-ADS Windowless spallation target thermohydraulic design and experimental setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Class, A.G., E-mail: andreas.class@kit.edu [KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Angeli, D. [AAA, Advanced Accelerator Applications, 20 Rue Diesel, 06130 Saint-Genis-Poully (France); Batta, A. [KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Dierckx, M. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Fellmoser, F. [KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Moreau, V. [CRS4, Polaris Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Roelofs, F. [NRG Petten, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Schuurmans, P.; Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Wetzel, T. [KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-08-31

    The objective of the European 6th framework Integrated Project (IP) EUROTRANS (EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) is to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation of high level nuclear waste using subcritical Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The spallation target represents the most challenging new component in an ADS since it is the component coupling the accelerator and the nuclear core and is subjected to very high thermal load in a high radiation field. In this document the thermal hydraulic activities which led to reliable design rules for a windowless target are presented and the status of the heavy liquid metal target mock-up experiment at the KArlsruhe Liquid metal LAboratory (KALLA) are reported.

  2. Physical Design of Critical Experiment Facility for Verifying Characteristics and Effects of Coupling Between Reactor and Spallation Target of ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Sheng-gui; ZHOU; Qi; LI; Yan

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of studying and verifying characteristics and effects of coupling between reactor and spallation target of ADS,based on the critical experimental facility design criteria and the availableexperiment condition,physical design of a critical experiment facility with lead coolant is completed,using critical calculation code MONK-9A.The contents of physical designs mainly include nuclear fuel,array of fuel rods,neutron source

  3. The MEGAPIE 1 MW target in support to ADS development: status of R and D and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeschel, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Spallation Neutron Source, Villigen, PSI (Germany)]. E-mail: friedrich.groeschel@psi.ch; Fazio, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: concetta.fazio@psf.fzk.de; Knebel, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Perret, Ch. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Spallation Neutron Source, Villigen, PSI (Germany); Janett, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Spallation Neutron Source, Villigen, PSI (Germany); Laffont, G. [CEA/Cadarache, DER/STR/LCET, St. Paul lez Durance (France); Cachon, L. [CEA/Cadarache, DER/STR/LCET, St. Paul lez Durance (France); Kirchner, Th. [Ecole des Mines, Laboratoire SUBATECH, Nantes (France); Cadiou, A. [Ecole des Mines, Laboratoire SUBATECH, Nantes (France); Guertin, A. [Ecole des Mines, Laboratoire SUBATECH, Nantes (France); Agostini, P. [ENEA, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-11-01

    The MEGAPIE project is aimed at designing, building and operating a liquid metal spallation neutron target as a key experiment on the road to an experimental accelerator driven system and to improve the neutron flux at the PSI spallation source. The design of the target system has been completed. The target configuration and the operating conditions have been defined and the expected performance assessed. A preliminary safety analysis has been performed considering normal, off-normal and accident conditions and a corresponding report has been submitted to the authorities for licensing. The experience gained up to now shows that MEGAPIE may well be the first liquid metal target to be irradiated under high power beam conditions.

  4. A Secure and Privacy-Preserving Targeted Ad-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven M.

    Thanks to its low product-promotion cost and its efficiency, targeted online advertising has become very popular. Unfortunately, being profile-based, online advertising methods violate consumers' privacy, which has engendered resistance to the ads. However, protecting privacy through anonymity seems to encourage click-fraud. In this paper, we define consumer's privacy and present a privacy-preserving, targeted ad system (PPOAd) which is resistant towards click fraud. Our scheme is structured to provide financial incentives to all entities involved.

  5. Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, En-Hua

    In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile

  6. Implementing Target Value Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  7. Investigation of the Compatibility Between ADS Target Material With Coolant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    At present, the program of the compatibility study on ADS project of China Institute of Atomic Energy is focused on the compatibility tests for the tungsten with water and sodium. An ADS verification facility is proposed in next phase of ADS project, an existent swimming pool reactor will be repack as the subcritical reactor system, and tungsten will be used as the target. On the other hand, our CEFR is being constructed now, it may be one of the options as the subcritical reactor system of ADS, thus, it is necessary to understand the compatibility characteristics of tungsten with sodium and water.

  8. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  9. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  10. Heavy density liquid metal spallation target studies for Indian ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sathamurthy; L M Gantayet; A K Ray

    2007-02-01

    Department of Atomic Energy, India has taken up the development of ADS in view of many attractive features like inherent safety, capability to transmute large quantities of nuclear waste, better utilization of thorium etc. A roadmap has been finalized for the development of ADS. One of the key components of the ADS is the spallation target. Considering the neutron yield, thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage issues, we are proposing to develop spallation target based on heavy density liquid metals like lead and lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE). Both window and windowless target configurations are presently being studied. In view of the various advantages we are also studying liquid metal flow circulation based on gas lift mechanism. An R&D programme has been initiated to address various physics and technology issues of ADS target. Under this programme, mercury and LBE experimental facilities are presently being set up. Along with these facilities, computational tools related to spallation physics (FLUKA) and CFD are being developed, and the existing ones are utilized to design the entire target loop as well as sub-systems. In this presentation the details of these activities are presented.

  11. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  12. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Debruyn, D. [SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium); Decreton, M. [Ghent Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  13. A Guide to Microsoft Active Directory (AD) Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, J

    2002-04-29

    The goal of this paper is to facilitate the design process for those DOE sites that are currently engaged in designing their Active Directory (AD) network. It is a roadmap to enable analysis of the complicated design tradeoffs associated with Active Directory Design. By providing discussion of Active Directory design elements which are permanent and costly to change once deployed, the hope is to minimize the risks of sponsoring failed designs, or joining existing infrastructures not suitable to programmatic needs. Specifically, most Active Directory structures will fall under one of three common designs: Single Domain, Single Forest with Multiple Domains, or Multiple Forests. Each has benefits and concerns, depending on programmatic and organizational structures. The comparison of these three approaches will facilitate almost any Active Directory design effort. Finally, this paper describes some best practices to consider when designing Active Directory based on three years of research and experience.

  14. Targeting modulates audiences' brain and behavioral responses to safe sex video ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Shi, Zhenhao; Bissey, Bryn; Metzger, David S; Langleben, Daniel D

    2016-10-01

    Video ads promoting condom use are a key component of media campaigns to stem the HIV epidemic. Recent neuroimaging studies in the context of smoking cessation, point to personal relevance as one of the key variables that determine the effectiveness of public health messages. While minority men who have sex with men (MSM) are at the highest risk of HIV infection, most safe-sex ads feature predominantly Caucasian actors in heterosexual scenarios. We compared brain respons of 45 African American MSM to safe sex ads that were matched (i.e. 'Targeted') to participants' sexual orientation and race, and 'Untargeted' ads that were un matched for these characteristics. Ad recall, perceived 'convincingness' and attitudes towards condom use were also assessed. We found that Targeted ads were better remembered than the Untargeted ads but perceived as equally convincing. Targeted ads engaged brain regions involved in self-referential processing and memory, including the amygdala, hippocampus, temporal and medial prefrontal cortices (MPFC) and the precuneus. Connectivity between MPFC and precuneus and middle temporal gyrus was stronger when viewing Targeted ads. Our results suggest that targeting may increase cognitive processing of safe sex ads and justify further prospective studies linking brain response to media public health interventions and clinical outcomes.

  15. Hemozoin Formation as a Target for Antimalarial Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0030 TITLE: Hemozoin Formation as a Target for Antimalarial Drug Design PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael K. Riscoe, Ph.D...Formation as a Target for Antimalarial Drug Design DAMD17-03-1-0030 6. A UTHOR(S) Michael K. Riscoe, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZA TION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...Report: by Principal Investigator - Michael K. Riscoe, Ph.D. DAMD1 7-03-1-0030: "Hemozoin Formation as a Target for Antimalarial Drug Design " INTRODUCTION

  16. Some considerations concerning the role of the ius ad bellum in targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, T.D.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution examines the influence of the ius ad bellum upon the targeting process. Specifically, it will examine how the rules of international law relating to the permissibility of the use of force can and do influence the targeting of both objects and persons which constitute military objec

  17. The FLUKA study of the secondary particles fluence in the AD-Antiproton Decelerator target area

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present Monte Carlo FLUKA simulations [1, 2] carried out to investigate the secondary particles fluence emerging from the antiproton production target and their spatial distribution in the AD target area. The detailed quantitative analysis has been performed for different positions along the magnet dog-leg as well as after the main collimator. These results allow tuning the position of the new beam current transformers (BCT) in the target area, in order to have a precise pulse-by-pulse evaluation of the intensity of negative particles injected in the AD-ring before the deceleration phase.

  18. Mechanism of ad5 vaccine immunity and toxicity: fiber shaft targeting of dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adenoviral (rAd vectors elicit potent cellular and humoral immune responses and show promise as vaccines for HIV-1, Ebola virus, tuberculosis, malaria, and other infections. These vectors are now widely used and have been generally well tolerated in vaccine and gene therapy clinical trials, with many thousands of people exposed. At the same time, dose-limiting adverse responses have been observed, including transient low-grade fevers and a prior human gene therapy fatality, after systemic high-dose recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5 vector administration in a human gene therapy trial. The mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood. Here, we define the mechanism by which Ad5 targets immune cells that stimulate adaptive immunity. rAd5 tropism for dendritic cells (DCs was independent of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, its primary receptor or the secondary integrin RGD receptor, and was mediated instead by a heparin-sensitive receptor recognized by a distinct segment of the Ad5 fiber, the shaft. rAd vectors with CAR and RGD mutations did not infect a variety of epithelial and fibroblast cell types but retained their ability to transfect several DC types and stimulated adaptive immune responses in mice. Notably, the pyrogenic response to the administration of rAd5 also localized to the shaft region, suggesting that this interaction elicits both protective immunity and vector-induced fevers. The ability of replication-defective rAd5 viruses to elicit potent immune responses is mediated by a heparin-sensitive receptor that interacts with the Ad5 fiber shaft. Mutant CAR and RGD rAd vectors target several DC and mononuclear subsets and induce both adaptive immunity and toxicity. Understanding of these interactions facilitates the development of vectors that target DCs through alternative receptors that can improve safety while retaining the immunogenicity of rAd vaccines.

  19. Effect of Target Configuration on the Neutronic Performance of the Gas-Cooled ADS

    CERN Document Server

    Biss, K; Shetty, N; Nabbi, R

    2013-01-01

    With the utilization of nuclear energy transuranic elements like Pu, Am and Cm are produced causing high, long term radioactivity and radio toxicity, respectively. To reduce the radiological impact on the environment and to the repository Partitioning and Transmutation is considered as an efficient way. In this respect comprehensive research works are performed at different research institutes worldwide. The results show that the transmutation of TRU is achieved with fast neutrons due to the higher fission probability. Based on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) those neutrons are used in a particular system, in which mainly liquid metal eutectic (lead bismuth) is used as coolant. The neutronic performance of an ADS system based on gas cooling was studied in this work by using the simulation tool MCNPX. The usage of the Monte-Carlo method in MCNPX allows the simulation of the physical processes in a 3D-model of the core. In dependence of the spallation target material and design several parameters like the mult...

  20. Design Optimization of ADS Target Based on Numerical Simulations of Flow Field%基于流场数值模拟的ADS靶件结构的设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长江; 陈海燕

    2003-01-01

    采用通用的计算流体力学(CFD)软件PHOENICS 3.3和BFC计算网格生成技术,对加速器驱动次临界系统(ADS)靶件的流场进行数值模拟计算.结果表明:束窗下方导流板起引导流体沿束窗表面流动的作用,消除了束窗两侧下方较大的旋涡,对于改善束窗附近流体的流动结构、提高束窗表面及散裂靶的换热,效果显著.

  1. Design of the next generation cognitive mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Ali; Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Xiaoming

    Cognition capability has been seen by researchers as the way forward for the design of next generation of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The reason why a cognitive paradigm would be more suited to a MANET is because MANETs are highly dynamic networks. The topology may change very frequently during the operation of a MANET. Traffic patterns in MANETs can vary from time to time depending on the need of the users. The size of a MANET and node density is also very dynamic and may change without any predictable pattern. In a MANET environment, most of these parameters may change very rapidly and keeping track of them manually would be very difficult. Previous studies have shown that the performance of a certain routing approach in MANETs is dependent on the size of the network and node density. The choice of whether to use a reactive or proactive routing approach comes down to the network size parameter. Static or offline approaches to fine tune a MANET to achieve certain performance goals is hence not very productive as a lot of these parameters keep changing during the course of operation of MANETs. Similarly, the performance of MANETs would improve greatly if the MAC layer entity could operate in a more flexible manner. In this paper we propose a cognitive MANET design that will ensure that all these dynamic parameters are automatically monitored and decisions are based on the current status of these parameters.

  2. LBNF 1.2 MW TARGET: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN & FABRICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, Cory F. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-29

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield. Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.

  3. Technical Design Report, Second Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bechtol, D. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Bethea, Katie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Carden, W. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chae, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, A. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Counce, Deborah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Craft, K. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Richard M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curry, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayton, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dean, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dye, T. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Eason, Bob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckroth, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fincrock, C. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Fritts, S. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gawne, Ken R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hess, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Horak, Charlie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Lorelei L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Larry C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, B. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Johnson, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Laughon, Gregory J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Kelly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Michilini, M. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Middendorf, Mark E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Neal, Ed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nemec, B. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Peters, Roy Cecil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reagan, G. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rennich, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saethre, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schubert, James Phillip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, C. Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strong, William Herb [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tallant, Kathie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tennant, David Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibadeau, Barbara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trumble, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Trotter, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Webb, Steven B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Derrick C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, Karen S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jinkui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Second Target Station (STS) is a proposed upgrade for SNS. It includes a doubling of the accelerator power and an additional instrument hall. The new instrument hall will receive a 467 kW 10 Hz beam. The parameters and preliminary design aspects of the STS are presented for the accelerator, target systems, instrument hall, instruments and civil construction aspects.

  4. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Toqeer Mahmood; Tabbassam Nawaz; Rehan Ashraf; Syed M. Adnan Shah

    2012-01-01

    A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed id...

  5. The Effect of Beam Intensity on Temperature Distribution in ADS Windowless Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Spallation Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spallation target is the component coupling the accelerator and the reactor and is regarded as the “heart” of the accelerator driven system (ADS. Heavy liquid metal lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is served as core coolant and spallation material to carry away heat deposition of spallation reaction and produce high flux neutron. So it is very important to study the heat transfer process in the target. In this paper, the steady-state flow pattern has been numerically obtained and taken as the input for the nuclear physics calculation, and then the distribution of the extreme large power density of the heat load is imported back to the computational fluid dynamics as the source term in the energy equation. Through the coupling, the transient and steady-state temperature distribution in the windowless spallation target is obtained and analyzed based on the flow process and heat transfer. Comparison of the temperature distribution with the different beam intensity shows that its shape is the same as broken wing of the butterfly. Nevertheless, the maximum temperature as well as the temperature gradient is different. The results play an important role and can be applied to the further design and optimization of the ADS windowless spallation target.

  6. Design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, C; Baltz, J; Malsbury, T; Atkinson, D; Brugmann, V; Coffield, F; Edwards, O; Haid, B; Locke, S; Shiromizu, S; Skulina, K

    2008-06-10

    The United States Department of Energy has embarked on a campaign to conduct credible fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2010. The target assembly specified for this campaign requires the formation of a deuterium/tritium (DT) fuel ice layer in a 2 mm diameter capsule at the center of a 9 mm long by 5 mm diameter cylinder, called a hohlraum. The ice layer must be formed and maintained at temperatures below 20 K. At laser shot time, the target is positioned at the center of the NIF target chamber, aligned to the laser beams and held stable to less than 7 {micro}m rms. We have completed the final design of the Cryogenic Target System and are integrating the devices necessary to create, characterize and position the cryogenic target for ignition experiments. These designs, with supporting analysis and prototype test results, will be presented.

  7. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  8. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, S. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K.; ; Buccellato, S. A. [Fermilab; Crowley, C. F. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. D. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Kasper, P. [Fermilab; Krafczyk, G. E. [Fermilab; Lee, A. [Fermilab; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Reitzner, S. D. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stefanik, A. M. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab; Vaziri, K. [Fermilab; Williams, K. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Densham, C. [RAL, Didcot

    2016-10-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-filled decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The target and horns are encased in actively cooled steel and concrete shielding in a chamber called the target chase. The reference design chase is filled with air, but nitrogen and helium are being evaluated as alternatives. A replaceable beam window separates the decay pipe from the target chase. The facility is designed for initial operation at 1.2 MW, with the ability to upgrade to 2.4 MW, and is taking advantage of the experience gained by operating Fermilab’s NuMI facility. We discuss here the design status, associated challenges, and ongoing R&D and physics-driven component optimization of the Target Station.

  9. Designing divertor targets for uniform power load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, W.; Reiter, D.; Baelmans, M.

    2015-08-01

    Divertor design for next step fusion reactors heavily relies on 2D edge plasma modeling with codes as e.g. B2-EIRENE. While these codes are typically used in a design-by-analysis approach, in previous work we have shown that divertor design can alternatively be posed as a mathematical optimization problem, and solved very efficiently using adjoint methods adapted from computational aerodynamics. This approach has been applied successfully to divertor target shape design for more uniform power load. In this paper, the concept is further extended to include all contributions to the target power load, with particular focus on radiation. In a simplified test problem, we show the potential benefits of fully including the radiation load in the design cycle as compared to only assessing this load in a post-processing step.

  10. 29 mm Diameter Test Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The Northstar target for Mo99 production is made up of Mo100 disks in a stack separated by coolant gaps for helium flow. A number of targets have been tested at ANL for both production of Mo99 and for thermal-hydraulic performance. These have all been with a 12 mm diameter target, even while the production goals have increased the diameter to now 29 mm. A 29 mm diameter target has been designed that is consistent with the ANL beam capabilities and the capabilities of the helium circulation system currently in use at ANL. This target is designed for 500 μA at 35 MeV electrons. While the plant design calls for 42 MeV, the chosen design point is more favorable and higher power given the limits of the ANL accelerator. The intended beam spot size is 12 mm FWHM, but the thermal analysis presented herein conservatively assumed a 10 mm FWHM beam, which results in a 44% higher beam current density at beam center.

  11. Beamforming in Ad Hoc Networks: MAC Design and Performance Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Fakih

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine in this paper the benefits of beamforming techniques in ad hoc networks. We first devise a novel MAC paradigm for ad hoc networks when using these techniques in multipath fading environment. In such networks, the use of conventional directional antennas does not necessarily improve the system performance. On the other hand, the exploitation of the potential benefits of smart antenna systems and especially beamforming techniques needs a prior knowledge of the physical channel. Our proposition performs jointly channel estimation and radio resource sharing. We validate the fruitfulness of the proposed MAC and we evaluate the effects of the channel estimation on the network performance. We then present an accurate analytical model for the performance of IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. We extend the latter model, by introducing the fading probability, to derive the saturation throughput for our proposed MAC when the simplest beamforming strategy is used in real multipath fading ad hoc networks. Finally, numerical results validate our proposition.

  12. New separation method of no-carrier-added {sup 47}Sc from titanium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, B.; Majkowska, A.; Kasperek, A.; Krajewski, S.; Bilewicz, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warszawa (Poland). Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Center

    2012-07-01

    Radionuclides with medium energy beta emission and a several day half-life are attractive candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Among the most promising in this category is {sup 47}Sc produced by fast neutron irradiation (E{sub n} > 1 MeV) of titanium target with high energy neutrons in {sup 47}Ti(n,p){sup 47}Sc nuclear reaction. In the previously reported production scheme the dissolution of the TiO{sub 2} target in hot concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and evaporation of the resulting solution were the most time-consuming steps. The present paper describes new, simple and efficient production method of {sup 47}Sc, where the slow dissolution of the target is avoided. After irradiation in fast neutron flux {sup 47}TiO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}{sup 47}TiF{sub 6} targets were dissolved in HF solutions. Next {sup 47}Sc was separated from the target using anion exchange resin Dowex 1 with 0.4 M HF + 0.06 M HNO{sub 3} solution as eluent. The eluted {sup 47}Sc was adsorbed on cation exchange resin and eluted with 0.5 M of ammonium acetate. The 47Sc separation yield in the proposed procedure is about 90% with the separation time less than 2 h. The obtained no-carrier-added {sup 47}Sc was used to label DOTATATE conjugate with 96% labeling yield. (orig.)

  13. Design and parameter optimization of a small-scale electron-based ADS for radioactive waste transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, H.; Ranjbar, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the design and feasibility of an electron-LINAC-based small-scale system (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation. FLUKA simulations have been performed to evaluate the photoneutron yield in high- Z metallic targets such as silver, tungsten, lead, tantalum and uranium irradiated by electron beams of 20-200MeV. The parameters involved in the photoneutron production mechanism including electron beam energy, target material and target shape have been investigated in order to obtain maximum photoneutron production. The neutron reflectors of the ADS, in particular, beryllium, lead and beryllium oxide (BeO) with various thicknesses have been studied. The results show that a combination of an internal reflector of Pb with a thickness of 3cm and an external reflector of BeO with a thickness of 10cm improves the fluence rate. The photoneutron energy spectrum, photoneutron fluence distribution and heat deposition in the electron target have also been presented. At incident electron beam energy of 155MeV, a neutron source of ˜ 4.6 × 1010 (n/cm2/s/mA) has been achieved, which is highly applicable for using in nuclear waste transmutation. The designed ADS has the ability to transmute ˜ 1.5 × 1022 (atoms/y/mA). The obtained results are promising and could lead to the development of a small-scale ADS based on electron LINAC for radioactive waste transmutation and for numerous applications when employed as a photoneutron source.

  14. Targeting targeted agents: open issues for clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannarelli Diana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecularly targeted agents for the treatment of solid tumors had entered the market in the last 5 years, with a great impact upon both the scientific community and the society. Many randomized phase III trials conducted in recent years with new targeted agents, despite previous data coming from preclinical research and from phase II trials were often promising, have produced disappointingly negative results. Some other trials have actually met their primary endpoint, demonstrating a statistically significant result favouring the experimental treatment. Unfortunately, with a few relevant exceptions, this advantage is often small, if not negligible, in absolute terms. The difference between statistical significance and clinical relevance should always be considered when translating clinical trials' results in the practice. The reason why this 'revolution' did not significantly impact on cancer treatment to displace chemotherapy from the patient' bedside is in part due to complicated, and in many cases, unknown, mechanisms of action of such drugs; indeed, the traditional way the clinical investigators were used to test the efficacy of 'older' chemotherapeutics, has become 'out of date' from the methodological perspective. As these drugs should be theoretically tailored upon featured bio-markers expressed by the patients, the clinical trial design should follow new rules based upon stronger hypotheses than those developed so far. Indeed, the early phases of basic and clinical drug development are crucial in the correct process which is able to correctly identify the target (when present. Targeted trial designs can result in easier studies, with less, better selected, and supported by stronger proofs of response evidences, patients, in order to not waste time and resources.

  15. Adding Intelligence to a Learning Environment: Learner-Centred Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brna, Paul; Cox, R.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of learner-centered design focuses on the development of switchEr, a specific learning environment changed to an intelligent learning environment by switching from one external representation (ER) to another. Topics include user-centered design; the role of artificial intelligence; and the development of effective educational computing…

  16. Transverse profile expansion and homogenization at target for the injector Scheme-I test stand of China-ADS

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zheng; Yan, Fang; Pei, Shi-Lun; Chen, Yuan; Li, Zhi-hui; Geng, Hui-Ping

    2014-01-01

    For the injector Scheme-I test stand of the China-ADS, a beam with the maximum power of 100 kW will be produced and transported to the beam dump. At the beam dump, the beam power will be converted to thermal load and brought away by the cooling water. Two measures are taken to deal with the huge power density at the target. One is to enlarge the contact area between the beam and the target, and this is to be accomplished by expanding the beam profile at the target and using two copper plates each having a 20o inclination angle relative to the beam direction. The other is to produce more homogenous beam profile at the target to minimize the maximum power density. Here the beam dump line is designed to meet the requirement of beam expansion and homogenization, and the step-like field magnets are employed for the beam spot homogenization. The simulations results including space charge effects and errors show that the beam line can meet the requirements very well at the three different energies (3.2 MeV, 5 MeV an...

  17. Test of a High Power Target Design

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS343 :\\\\ \\\\ A high power tantalum disc-foil target (RIST) has been developed for the proposed radioactive beam facility, SIRIUS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The yield and release characteristics of the RIST target design have been measured at ISOLDE. The results indicate that the yields are at least as good as the best ISOLDE roll-foil targets and that the release curves are significantly faster in most cases. Both targets use 20 -25 $\\mu$m thick foils, but in a different internal geometry.\\\\ \\\\Investigations have continued at ISOLDE with targets having different foil thickness and internal geometries in an attempt to understand the release mechanisms and in particular to maximise the yield of short lived isotopes. A theoretical model has been developed which fits the release curves and gives physical values of the diffusion constants.\\\\ \\\\The latest target is constructed from 2 $\\mu$m thick tantalum foils (mass only 10 mg) and shows very short release times. The yield of $^{11}$Li (half-life of ...

  18. Investigation of beam window buckling with consideration of irradiation effects for conceptual ADS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Takanori, E-mail: sugawara.takanori@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Kikuchi, Kenji; Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    The investigation of the beam window, which is a key component in the conceptual design of an Accelerator Driven System, has been performed. In the past studies, it was found that buckling failure due to hydrostatic pressure in the liquid lead bismuth was critical failure mode for the beam window and detailed structural analyses were performed. These investigations, however, did not consider irradiation effects by neutrons and protons. In this study, investigations based on the latest knowledge for irradiation effects obtained in the spallation target irradiation program are presented. By using the experimental data, it was found that the buckling pressure increased about 80% by the irradiation (20 dpa). It was assumed that if the beam window had integrity in the unirradiated condition, the buckling failure would not be critical issue during the ADS operation.

  19. Adding diverse noncanonical backbones to rosetta: enabling peptidomimetic design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Drew

    Full Text Available Peptidomimetics are classes of molecules that mimic structural and functional attributes of polypeptides. Peptidomimetic oligomers can frequently be synthesized using efficient solid phase synthesis procedures similar to peptide synthesis. Conformationally ordered peptidomimetic oligomers are finding broad applications for molecular recognition and for inhibiting protein-protein interactions. One critical limitation is the limited set of design tools for identifying oligomer sequences that can adopt desired conformations. Here, we present expansions to the ROSETTA platform that enable structure prediction and design of five non-peptidic oligomer scaffolds (noncanonical backbones, oligooxopiperazines, oligo-peptoids, [Formula: see text]-peptides, hydrogen bond surrogate helices and oligosaccharides. This work is complementary to prior additions to model noncanonical protein side chains in ROSETTA. The main purpose of our manuscript is to give a detailed description to current and future developers of how each of these noncanonical backbones was implemented. Furthermore, we provide a general outline for implementation of new backbone types not discussed here. To illustrate the utility of this approach, we describe the first tests of the ROSETTA molecular mechanics energy function in the context of oligooxopiperazines, using quantum mechanical calculations as comparison points, scanning through backbone and side chain torsion angles for a model peptidomimetic. Finally, as an example of a novel design application, we describe the automated design of an oligooxopiperazine that inhibits the p53-MDM2 protein-protein interaction. For the general biological and bioengineering community, several noncanonical backbones have been incorporated into web applications that allow users to freely and rapidly test the presented protocols (http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. This work helps address the peptidomimetic community's need for an automated and expandable

  20. Physics Design of Water Moderator Criticality Assembly in Experimental Research About ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Niu

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet the experimental demand of ADS research,we need to design a suitable criticality assembly.The key problem of the design work is the core design,we design a criticality assembly with the water moderator according to available nuclear material(Fig.1).The theoretical calculation have been

  1. Designed nucleases for targeted genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junwon; Chung, Jae-Hee; Kim, Ho Min; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Hyongbum

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome-editing technology using designed nucleases has been evolving rapidly, and its applications are widely expanding in research, medicine and biotechnology. Using this genome-modifying technology, researchers can precisely and efficiently insert, remove or change specific sequences in various cultured cells, micro-organisms, animals and plants. This genome editing is based on the generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs), repair of which modifies the genome through nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR). In addition, designed nickase-induced generation of single-strand breaks can also lead to precise genome editing through HDR, albeit at relatively lower efficiencies than that induced by nucleases. Three kinds of designed nucleases have been used for targeted DSB formation: zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and RNA-guided engineered nucleases derived from the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system. A growing number of researchers are using genome-editing technologies, which have become more accessible and affordable since the discovery and adaptation of CRISPR-Cas9. Here, the repair mechanism and outcomes of DSBs are reviewed and the three types of designed nucleases are discussed with the hope that such understanding will facilitate applications to genome editing.

  2. National Ignition Facility Target Design and Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R C; Kozioziemski, B J; Nikroo, A; Wilkens, H L; Bhandarkar, S; Forsman, A C; Haan, S W; Hoppe, M L; Huang, H; Mapoles, E; Moody, J D; Sater, J D; Seugling, R M; Stephens, R B; Takagi, M; Xu, H W

    2007-12-10

    The current capsule target design for the first ignition experiments at the NIF Facility beginning in 2009 will be a copper-doped beryllium capsule, roughly 2 mm in diameter with 160-{micro}m walls. The capsule will have a 75-{micro}m layer of solid DT on the inside surface, and the capsule will driven with x-rays generated from a gold/uranium cocktail hohlraum. The design specifications are extremely rigorous, particularly with respect to interfaces, which must be very smooth to inhibit Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. This paper outlines the current design, and focuses on the challenges and advances in capsule fabrication and characterization; hohlraum fabrication, and D-T layering and characterization.

  3. Selection and trajectory design to mission secondary targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorino Sarli, Bruno; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Recently, with new trajectory design techniques and use of low-thrust propulsion systems, missions have become more efficient and cheaper with respect to propellant. As a way to increase the mission's value and scientific return, secondary targets close to the main trajectory are often added with a small change in the transfer trajectory. As a result of their large number, importance and facility to perform a flyby, asteroids are commonly used as such targets. This work uses the Primer Vector theory to define the direction and magnitude of the thrust for a minimum fuel consumption problem. The design of a low-thrust trajectory with a midcourse asteroid flyby is not only challenging for the low-thrust problem solution, but also with respect to the selection of a target and its flyby point. Currently more than 700,000 minor bodies have been identified, which generates a very large number of possible flyby points. This work uses a combination of reachability, reference orbit, and linear theory to select appropriate candidates, drastically reducing the simulation time, to be later included in the main trajectory and optimized. Two test cases are presented using the aforementioned selection process and optimization to add and design a secondary flyby to a mission with the primary objective of 3200 Phaethon flyby and 25143 Itokawa rendezvous.

  4. Designing Multi-Targeted Therapeutics for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Senol, F Sezer

    2016-01-01

    Due to multi-faceted pathology of AD; no drug can seize the progress of the disease, whereas only the symptomatic treatment is available at the moment. Several drug classes to treat AD are available in clinical use, AChEIs being the most prescribed. In addition to AChEIs, secretase enzymes and iron chelators have turned out to be the focus of research and the popular targets in drug discovery against AD. The latest approaches such as immunotherapy, multi-targeted drug ligand design, AChE inhibitors, antioxidants, metal chelators, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, antiinflammatory drugs, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) inhibitors are currently in use to cure this disease to some extent. But, there is a certain need to develop new drugs to fight with AD, particularly acting on multi-targets or with dual mechanisms of action. In this review, a particular emphasis will be focused on multitargets aiming at AD to design new drug molecules with respect to treatment strategies and preventive measures. Since the underlying pathogenesis of AD is complicated and still under investigation, the attempts to design highly selective and potent agents to treat AD are quite intensively continuing. In this respect, designing novel drugs with dual/multi-acting mechanisms seems to be more rational.

  5. SMET: systematic multiple enzyme targeting - a method to rationally design optimal strains for target chemical overproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, David; Thompson, R Adam; Birdwell, Douglas; Wang, Tsewei; Trinh, Cong T

    2013-05-01

    Identifying multiple enzyme targets for metabolic engineering is very critical for redirecting cellular metabolism to achieve desirable phenotypes, e.g., overproduction of a target chemical. The challenge is to determine which enzymes and how much of these enzymes should be manipulated by adding, deleting, under-, and/or over-expressing associated genes. In this study, we report the development of a systematic multiple enzyme targeting method (SMET), to rationally design optimal strains for target chemical overproduction. The SMET method combines both elementary mode analysis and ensemble metabolic modeling to derive SMET metrics including l-values and c-values that can identify rate-limiting reaction steps and suggest which enzymes and how much of these enzymes to manipulate to enhance product yields, titers, and productivities. We illustrated, tested, and validated the SMET method by analyzing two networks, a simple network for concept demonstration and an Escherichia coli metabolic network for aromatic amino acid overproduction. The SMET method could systematically predict simultaneous multiple enzyme targets and their optimized expression levels, consistent with experimental data from the literature, without performing an iterative sequence of single-enzyme perturbation. The SMET method was much more efficient and effective than single-enzyme perturbation in terms of computation time and finding improved solutions.

  6. Targeted proteins for diabetes drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan Trang Nguyen, Ngoc; Thi Le, Ly

    2012-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolism disorder characterized by high glucose in the bloodstream, especially in the case of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Nowadays, it is very common in middle-aged people and involves such dangerous symptoms as increasing risk of stroke, obesity and heart failure. In Vietnam, besides the common treatment of insulin injection, some herbal medication is used but no unified optimum remedy for the disease yet exists and there is no production of antidiabetic drugs in the domestic market yet. In the development of nanomedicine at the present time, drug design is considered as an innovative tool for researchers to study the mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level. The aim of this article is to review some common protein targets involved in type 2 diabetes, offering a new idea for designing new drug candidates to produce antidiabetic drugs against type 2 diabetes for Vietnamese people.

  7. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls

    OpenAIRE

    Byoungjip Kim; Seungwoo Kang; Jin-Young Ha; Junehwa Song

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit pattern...

  8. Building for a better hospital. Value-adding management & design of healthcare real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan van der Zwart

    2014-09-01

    that links nine types of added value (Table 2
to the interests and needs of the stakeholders by four perspectives on real estate: strategic, financial, functional and physical. The value-impact-matrix was developed to support the alignment between the organisation’s key issues for success, the
added values of real estate and stakeholders different perspectives of real estate. This instrument makes it possible to highlight the added values of real estate from different perspectives on real estate (strategic, financial, functional and physical. Table 4 shows an example of possible connections between one of the values – patient satisfaction and healing environment – to four different perspectives.Hospital real estate design assessmentOnly those design decisions that are incorporated into the final design contribute
to achieving the objectives set, so the translation of accommodation targets into
the architectural design is a crucial step in achieving added value by real estate. In addition to defining these values in advance, applying added value as a framework also requires an assessment to measure these values in the design and use phase. Different analytical drawing techniques used in this part of the research show how the attainment of these values in the architectural design can be tested for different aspects of patient satisfaction. Pre-set values are visualised and different design solutions compared. In particular techniques that come from space syntax provide opportunities to study aspects of user-value in the architectural design drawings. The results are promising, despite the fact that PART 4 of the study is a first exploration of the possibilities of design-assessment. The graphs that can be produced seem to give good insight into the consequences of spatial design, although the analyses are still indicative and as yet unvalidated. More validating research is needed to examine the extent to which the results of the analyses are representative

  9. Designs Characteristics and Main Inherent Concerns of the Antiproton Decelerator Target

    CERN Document Server

    Torregrosa, C; Calviani, M

    2015-01-01

    In the context of AD area consolidation activities a redesign of the AD-target is planned. The information presented in this report is a starting point to this purpose. The current design dates from late 80’s and it was obtained after more than 10 years of iterations and improvements of the material choices and conceptual designs due to the complexity of physical phenomena occurring inside the target material. The present report summarizes this process from the existing documents found in the literature as well as the inherent concerns which will have to be faced in the future design. Two major concerns which limit the target operation life were identified (i) shock wave effects and (ii) radiation damage. Therefore, a deep study of these phenomena and development of reliable models will be the way forward for the next steps in the re-design process.

  10. Target Impact Detection Algorithm Using Computer-aided Design (CAD) Model Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 558 Technical Report ARMET-TR-13024 TARGET IMPACT DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ...DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ) MODEL GEOMETRY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This report documents a method and algorithm to export geometry from a three-dimensional, computer-aided design ( CAD ) model in a format that can be

  11. Cross-Layer Design Approach for Power Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarfaraz Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, communication among mobile nodes occurs through wireless medium The design of ad hoc network protocol, generally based on a traditional “layered approach”, has been found ineffective to deal with receiving signal strength (RSS-related problems, affecting the physical layer, the network layer and transport layer. This paper proposes a design approach, deviating from the traditional network design, toward enhancing the cross-layer interaction among different layers, namely physical, MAC and network. The Cross-Layer design approach for Power control (CLPC would help to enhance the transmission power by averaging the RSS values and to find an effective route between the source and the destination. This cross-layer design approach was tested by simulation (NS2 simulator and its performance over AODV was found to be better.

  12. Design and Implementation of SCSI Target Emulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A SCSI target emulator is used in a storage area network (SAN) environment to simulate the behavior of a SCSI target for processing and responding to I/O requests issued by initiators. The SCSI target emulator works with general storage devices with multiple transport protocols. The target emulator utilizes a protocol conversion module that translates the SCSI protocols to a variety of storage devices and implements the multi-RAID-level configuration and storage visualization functions. Moreover, the target emulator implements RAM caching, multi-queuing, and request merging to effectively improve the I/O response speed of the general storage devices. The throughput and average response times of the target emulator for block sizes of 4 KB to 128 KB are 150% faster for reads and 67% faster for writes than the existing emulator. With a block size of 16 KB, the I/O latency of the target emulator is only about 20% that of the existing emulator.

  13. Study of Un-added Allowance of Draping-Planar Designing Garment Prototype for Young Ladies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴刚; 李元虹; 苏同岳

    2003-01-01

    As for the theory and method in garment structural design according to human figures,a principle for garment design,i.e.body-fitting without added allowance,and a combination of draping and planar design (DPD hereunder) for young ladies has been put forward,and,also,a DPD garment prototype for them has been established.And the applied formulae for extensively-practicing operation have been set up,which proves to be,with actual samples,a systematic and practical garment structural designing theory and approach.

  14. Developments in high-intensity two-step target design

    CERN Document Server

    Talbert, W L; Hsu, H H; Wilson, M T

    2003-01-01

    The two-step fission-product target concept is analyzed to design a prototype target for testing at the ISAC facility. A two-step target consists of an inner cylinder of heavy metal irradiated by an energetic light ion beam; neutrons produced emerge from the target into a coaxial secondary target (blanket) of fissionable material. With this approach, the production of fission product activities is enhanced compared to other products that can interfere in experiments, and significantly less energy is deposited in the secondary target than for direct irradiation. The design is mechanically simple and provides independent control of operating temperatures. The analysis determined appropriate target and blanket dimensions, and energy deposition profiles, temperature distributions and fission production rates. The production rates of some neutron-rich isotopes for selected elements are summarized. A conceptual design is presented, along with issues on cooling the primary target and heating of the secondary target.

  15. Mechanisms of cisplatin resistance and targeting of cancer stem cells: Adding glycosylation to the equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José Alexandre; Peixoto, Andreia; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Reis, Celso A; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are the most frequently used (neo)adjuvant treatments for the majority of solid tumors. While platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens have proven effective against highly proliferative malignant tumors, significant relapse and progression rates as well as decreased overall survival are still observed. Currently, it is known that sub-populations of chemoresistant cells share biological properties with cancer stem cells (CSC), which are believed to be responsible for tumor relapse, invasion and ultimately disease dissemination through acquisition of mesenchymal cell traits. In spite of concentrated efforts devoted to decipher the mechanisms underlying CSC chemoresistance and to design targeted therapeutics to these cells, proteomics has failed to unveil molecular signatures capable of distinguishing between malignant and non-malignant stem cells. This has hampered substantial developments in this complex field. Envisaging a novel rationale for an effective therapy, the current review summarizes the main cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance and the impact of chemotherapy challenge in CSC selection and clinical outcome. It further emphasizes the growing amount of data supporting a role for protein glycosylation in drug resistance. The dynamic and context-dependent nature of protein glycosylation is also comprehensively discussed, hence highlighting its potentially important role as a biomarker of CSC. As the paradigm of cancer therapeutics shifts towards precision medicine and patient-tailored therapeutics, we bring into focus the need to introduce glycomics and glycoproteomics in holistic pan-omics models, in order to integrate diverse, multimodal and clinically relevant information towards more effective cancer therapeutics.

  16. Optimization studies of photo-neutron production in high- metallic targets using high energy electron beam for ADS and transmutation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Petwal; V K Senecha; K V Subbaiah; H C Soni; S Kotaiah

    2007-02-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed using MCNP code to study the optimization of photo-neutron yield for different electron beam energies impinging on Pb, W and Ta cylindrical targets of varying thickness. It is noticed that photo-neutron yield can be increased for electron beam energies ≥ 100 MeV for appropriate thickness of the target. It is also noticed that it can be maximized by further increasing the thickness of the target. Further, at higher electron beam energy heat gradient in the target decreases, which facilitates easier heat removal from the target. This can help in developing a photo-neutron source based on electron LINAC by choosing appropriate electron beam energy and target thickness to optimize the neutron flux for ADS, transmutation studies and as high energy neutron source etc. Photo-neutron yield for different targets, optimum target thickness and photo-neutron energy spectrum and heat deposition by electron beam for different incident energy is presented.

  17. Two-step Design of Pre-filter and Post-filter for AD/DA Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Nobutomo

    In the field of signal processing, AD/DA converter takes an important role for data compressing and circuits design. This paper proposes new design method of AD/DA system with pre-filter and post-filters for achieving small quantization noise effect. Both filters are designed to minimize noise and distortion toward original signal. The effectiveness is illustrated by numerical example.

  18. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking.

  19. Using a 'value-added' approach for contextual design of geographic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a 'value-added' approach can be used for user-centred design of geographic information. An information science perspective was used, with value being the difference in outcomes arising from alternative information sets. Sixteen drivers navigated a complex, unfamiliar urban route, using visual and verbal instructions representing the distance-to-turn and junction layout information presented by typical satellite navigation systems. Data measuring driving errors, navigation errors and driver confidence were collected throughout the trial. The results show how driver performance varied considerably according to the geographic context at specific locations, and that there are specific opportunities to add value with enhanced geographical information. The conclusions are that a value-added approach facilitates a more explicit focus on 'desired' (and feasible) levels of end user performance with different information sets, and is a potentially effective approach to user-centred design of geographic information.

  20. Comparisons of the simulation results using different codes for ADS spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hong Wei; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Zhao Zhi Xiang

    2002-01-01

    The calculations to the standard thick target were made by using different codes. The simulation of the thick Pb target with length of 60 cm, diameter of 20 cm bombarded with 800, 1000, 1500 and 2000 MeV energetic proton beam was carried out. The yields and the spectra of emitted neutron were studied. The spallation target was simulated by SNSP, SHIELD, DCM/CEM (Dubna Cascade Model /Cascade Evaporation Mode) and LAHET codes. The Simulation Results were compared with experiments. The comparisons show good agreement between the experiments and the SNSP simulated leakage neutron yield. The SHIELD simulated leakage neutron spectra are in good agreement with the LAHET and the DCM/CEM simulated leakage neutron spectra

  1. Design of the Next Generation Spallation Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferres, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    The purpose of this summary is to detail the studies that enable new nuclear physics experiments currently limited by neutron intensity or energy resolution available at LANSCE. The target is being redesigned so that the Flight Paths (FP) in the upper tier provide a higher intensity in the epithermal and medium energy ranges.

  2. Design of C Band Phase Detector Based on AD8302%基与AD8302的C波段鉴相器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 李少甫

    2014-01-01

    In order to detect the phase difference between the C band microwaves which we need to do power combining, the paper introduces the chip AD8302 which usually be used to measure the gain/loss and phase in RF/IF system. Then the paper re-ports the design of a C band phase detector that based on the phase measurement function of AD 8302. First, the front-end of fre-quency conversion circuit is introduced, it converts the C band input microwaves to appropriate frequency that can be processed directly in AD8302. Then, AD8302 module measures the phase difference. The last, the measurement result well agrees with the datasheet of the chip.%为解决C波段功率合成中相位测量的问题,该文介绍了一种用于RF/IF幅度和相位测量的AD8302芯片,并利用它的鉴相功能实现了一款C波段的鉴相器的设计。首先采用前端变频电路将信号频率变换到AD8302可以处理范围内,然后利用AD8302进行相位差的测量。测试结果与芯片说明手册的鉴相结果相吻合。

  3. Analysis and Design of AD590 Temperature Detection Circuit%AD590温度测量电路分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守峰

    2013-01-01

    This thesis briefly introduces the basic information and the thermometry principle of AD590, analyzes basic application circuit and common temperature measurement circuit, designs the temperature detection circuit based on SCM. AD conversion with ADC0809 is dynamically displayed on the LED.%文章简述了AD590的基本情况和测温原理,分析了AD590的基本应用电路和常用温度测量电路,设计了基于单片机的摄氏温度测量电路,并通过ADC0809进行AD转换在数码管上进行动态显示。

  4. Novel Design for High Speed and Resolution Delta-sigma A/D Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xue; HE Yi-gang; GUO Jie-rong; LI Hong-min

    2007-01-01

    The delta-sigma converter is one of the high speed and resolution analog-to-digital modulators. Its implementation needs the low oversampling technique and the multi-bit D/A converter. The noise induced by the multi-bit D/A converter becomes one of the key factors deteriorating the signal-to-noise rate of the delta-sigma A/D converter. A novel structure with signal unity transfunction, dynamic element matching(DEM) and noise-shaping is discussed. The method is investigated to design converter based on the proposed structure. The behavior simulation indicates that the structure and the design method are feasible.

  5. Nyquist AD Converters, Sensor Interfaces, and Robustness Advances in Analog Circuit Design, 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Steyaert, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    This book is based on the presentations during the 21st workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Expert designers provide readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including Nyquist analog-to-digital converters, capacitive sensor interfaces, reliability, variability, and connectivity.  This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development.  Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; Presents material in a tutorial-based format; Includes coverage of Nyquist A/D converters, capacitive sensor interfaces, reliability, variability, and connectivity.

  6. Eyelid conditioning to a target amplitude: adding how much to whether and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Joy C; Mauk, Michael D

    2010-10-20

    Conceptual and practical advantages of pavlovian eyelid conditioning facilitate analysis of cerebellar computation and learning. Even so, eyelid conditioning procedures are unrealistic in an important way. The error signal to the olivocerebellar system does not decrease as learning adapts response amplitude or gain. This inherently limits the utility of eyelid conditioning for studies investigating how cerebellar learning mechanisms acquire and store an adaptive response amplitude. We report the development and characterization of a training procedure in which conditioned response amplitude is brought under experimental control with contingencies that more closely parallel natural conditions. In this procedure, the delivery of the unconditioned stimulus (US) is made contingent on conditioned response amplitude: the US is delivered for responses that fail to reach a specified target amplitude and is omitted for responses that meet or exceed the target. We find that rabbits trained with either a tone or with mossy fiber stimulation as the conditioned stimulus learn responses that approach target amplitudes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. Inactivating the interpositus nucleus with muscimol infusions abolished these conditioned responses, indicating that cerebellar involvement in eyelid conditioning is not tied explicitly to the use of pavlovian procedures. Together with previous studies, these data suggest that response amplitude is learned and encoded in the cerebellum during eyelid conditioning. As such, these results provide a foundation for systematic and controlled investigations of the cerebellar mechanisms that learn and encode the proper amplitude of adaptive movements.

  7. Driver beam-led EURISOL target design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Catherall, Richard; Kadi, Yacine; Kharoua, Cyril; Lettry, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The EURISOL (European Isotope Separation Online) Design Study is addressing new high power target design challenges. A three-step method [1] was proposed to split the high power linac proton driver beam into one $H^{-}$ branch for the 4 $MW_{b}$ [2] mercury target that produces radioactive ion beams (RIB) via spallation neutroninduced fission in a secondary actinide target and three 100 $kW_{b}$ $H^{+}$ branches for the direct targets producing RIBs via fragmentation and spallation reactions. This scheme minimises transient thermo-mechanical stresses on targets and preserves the cw nature of the driver beam in the four branches. The heat load for oxides, carbides, refractory metal foils and liquid metals is driven by the incident proton driver beam while for actinides, exothermic fission reactions are an additional contribution. This paper discusses the constraints that are specific to each class of material and the target design strategies.

  8. Designing and implementing an experimental wireless mobile ad hoc networks testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Dai, Guanzhong; Mu, Dejun; Zhang, Huisheng

    2006-11-01

    A very large number of simulation models have been developed to study ad hoc network architectures and protocols under many network scenarios, number of nodes, mobility rates, etc. However, fidelity of simulation results has always been a concern, especially when the protocols being studied are affected by the propagation and interference characteristics of the radio channels. This paper describes our experience in designing and implementing a MANET prototype system, Experimental Wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks Testbed (EWMANT), in order to perform largescale, reproducible experiments. EWMANT aims at assessing several different protocols in a real-world environment instead of by simulation. It assists us with finding and evaluating a proper solution, showing the clear advantage of realworld implementations compared to simulations.

  9. Ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.M.; Lindl, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    The goal of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to produce significant thermonuclear burn from a target driven with a laser or ion beam. To achieve that goal, the national ICF Program has proposed a laser capable of producing ignition and intermediate gain. The facility is called the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This article describes ignition targets designed for the NIF and their modeling. Although the baseline NIF target design, described herein, is indirect drive, the facility will also be capable of doing direct-drive ignition targets - currently being developed at the University of Rochester.

  10. Beryllium ignition target design for indirect drive NIF experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Kline, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Clark, D. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Marinak, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Beryllium (Be) ablator offers multiple advantages over carbon based ablators for indirectly driven NIF ICF ignition targets. These are higher mass ablation rate, ablation pressure and ablation velocity, lower capsule albedo, and higher thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. Such advantages can be used to improve the target robustness and performance. While previous NIF Be target designs exist, they were obtained a long time ago and do not incorporate the latest improved physical understanding and models based upon NIF experiments. Herein, we propose a new NIF Be ignition target design at 1.45 MJ, 430 TW that takes all this knowledge into account.

  11. Evolutionary Multiobjective Design Targeting a Field Programmable Transistor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Arturo Hernandez; Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Coello, Carlos Coello

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the ISPAES algorithm for circuit design targeting a Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA). The use of evolutionary algorithms is common in circuit design problems, where a single fitness function drives the evolution process. Frequently, the design problem is subject to several goals or operating constraints, thus, designing a suitable fitness function catching all requirements becomes an issue. Such a problem is amenable for multi-objective optimization, however, evolutionary algorithms lack an inherent mechanism for constraint handling. This paper introduces ISPAES, an evolutionary optimization algorithm enhanced with a constraint handling technique. Several design problems targeting a FPTA show the potential of our approach.

  12. The design, construction and performance of the MICE target

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, C N; Howlett, L; Nicholson, R; Overton, E; Robinson, M; Smith, P J; Apollonio, M; Barber, G; Dobbs, A; Leaver, J; Long, K R; Shepherd, B; Adams, D; Capocci, E; McCarron, E; Tarrant, J

    2012-01-01

    The pion-production target that serves the MICE Muon Beam consists of a titanium cylinder that is dipped into the halo of the ISIS proton beam. The design and construction of the MICE target system are described along with the quality-assurance procedures, electromagnetic drive and control systems, the readout electronics, and the data-acquisition system. The performance of the target is presented together with the particle rates delivered to the MICE Muon Beam. Finally, the beam loss in ISIS generated by the operation of the target is evaluated as a function of the particle rate, and the operating parameters of the target are derived.

  13. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  14. Target based drug design - a reality in virtual sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Saroj; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S

    2015-01-01

    The target based drug design approaches are a series of computational procedures, including visualization tools, to support the decision systems of drug design/discovery process. In the essence of biological targets shaping the potential lead/drug molecules, this review presents a comprehensive position of different components of target based drug design which include target identification, protein modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, binding/catalytic sites identification, docking, virtual screening, fragment based strategies, substructure treatment of targets in tackling drug resistance, in silico ADMET, structural vaccinology, etc along with the key issues involved therein and some well investigated case studies. The concepts and working of these procedures are critically discussed to arouse interest and to advance the drug research.

  15. Customer Focused Product Design Using Integrated Model of Target Costing, Quality Function Deployment and Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Target costing by integrating customer requirements, technical attributes and cost information into the product design phase and eliminating the non-value added functions, plays a vital role in different phases of the product life cycle. Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE are two techniques which can be used for applying target costing, successfully. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of target costing, QFD and VE to explore the role of target costing in managing product costs while promoting quality specifications meeting customers’ needs. F indings indicate that the integration of target costing, QFD and VE is an essential technique in managing the costs of production process. Findings also imply that integration of the three techniques provides a competitive cost advantage to companies.

  16. Design of the Helium Purifier for IHEP-ADS Helium Purification System

    CERN Document Server

    Jianqin, Zhang; Zhuo, Zhang; Rui, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Helium Purification System is an important sub-system in the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System of the Institute of High Energy Physics(IHEP ADS). The purifier is designed to work at the temperature of 77K. The purifier will work in a flow rate of 5g/s at 20MPa in continuous operation of 12 hours. The oil and moisture are removed by coalescing filters and a dryer, while nitrogen and oxygen are condensed by a phase separator and then adsorbed in several activated carbon adsorption cylinders. After purification, the purified helium has an impurity content of less than 5ppm.

  17. Design of the Helium Purifier for IHEP-ADS Helium Purification System

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Helium Purification System is an important sub-system in the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System of the Institute of High Energy Physics(IHEP ADS). The purifier is designed to work at the temperature of 77K. The purifier will work in a flow rate of 5g/s at 20MPa in continuous operation of 12 hours. The oil and moisture are removed by coalescing filters and a dryer, while nitrogen and oxygen are condensed by a phase separator and then adsorbed in several activated carbon adsorption cylinders...

  18. Design and development issues for a control actuation system for the AdKEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayson, Stephen C.

    1992-05-01

    The paper addresses three issues critical to the design and development of the control actuation system (CAS) for the Advanced Kinetic Energy Missile (AdKEM), a hypersonic, kinetic energy weapon system. First of all, the small missile diameter requires that a high performance, three-axis control system be packaged within a limited amount of space. The second critical issue is the need for a high speed solenoid so that the system performance requirements may be met. Experimental data are presented to quantify the solenoid performance. Finally, the issue of control fin flutter, a phenomenon that could cause control system failure, is addressed.

  19. Design Study of Full Scale Accelerator Driven System (ADS, for Transmuting High Level Waste of MA/Pu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsodi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ADS system used in this study consisting of a high intensity proton linear accelerator, a spallation target, and a sub-critical reactor core. The Pb-Bi spallation target is bombarded by high intensity protons coming from the accelerator. The fast neutrons generated from the spallation reaction were used to drive the sub-critical reactor core. In this ADS system, the neutron source is in the center of reactor core region, so that the neutron distribution was concentrated in the center of core region. In this case, the B/T of MA/Pu could be performed effectively in the center of core region. The neutron energy in the outer region of reactor core was decreased due to the moderation of fuel and coolant materials. Such condition gives a chance to perform Burning and/or Transmutation of LLFPs.The basic parameters of this system are shown in the form of neutronic design, neutron spectrum and B/T rate, including other aspects related to the safety operation system. Furthermore, the analysis of the ADS system was accomplished using ATRAS computer code of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI[1]. Due to the complexity of the reactor calculation codes, the author has carried out only those calculations needed for analyzing the neutronics system and some parameters related to the safety system. Design study of the transmutation system was a full-scale power level system of 657.53 MWt sub-critical reactor for an accelerator-driven transmutation system. The liquid Pb-Bi was used together as the spallation target materials and coolant of the system, because of some advantages of Pb-Bi in the system concerning the comparison with the sodium coolant. Moreover, they have a possibility to achieve a hard neutron energy spectrum, avoid a positive void reactivity coefficient, allow much lower system operating temperatures, and are favorable for safety in the event of coolant leakage. The multiplication factor of sub-critical core design was adjusted

  20. Design of the next generation target at Lujan center, LANSCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferres, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-27

    This is a presentation given at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the design of the next generation target at Lujan center, LANSCE. The motivation for this design is to enable new nuclear physics experiments (defense program applications (DANCE)) that are currently limited by neutron intensity or energy resolution available at LANSCE. The target is being redesigned so that the Flight Paths in the upper tier provide a higher intensity in the epithermal and medium energy ranges.

  1. Computational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems for selective targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gregg A; Bevan, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues.

  2. Delta-Sigma AD-Converters Practical Design for Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaggl, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emphasis of this book is on practical design aspects for broadband A/D converters for communication systems. The embedded designs are employed for transceivers in the field of ADSL solutions and WLAN applications. An area- and power-efficient realization of a converter is mandatory to remain competitive in the market. The right choice for the converter topology and architecture needs to be done very carefully to result in a competitive FOM. The book begins with a brief overview of basic concepts about ADSL and WLAN to understand the ADC requirements. At architectural level, issues on different modulator topologies are discussed employing the provided technology node. The design issues are pointed out in detail for modern digital CMOS technologies, beginning with 180nm followed by 130nm and going down to 65nm feature size. Beside practical aspects, challenges to mixed-signal design level are addressed to optimize the converters in terms of consumed chip area, power consumption and design for high yield in ...

  3. Approximate Design of Alloy Composition of Cathode Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun ZHANG; Yu ZHANG; Li LI; Guoqiang LIN; Chuang DONG

    2006-01-01

    An empirical formula for composition demixing analysis in cathodic arc ion plating using alloy target is established based on the concepts of average charged state and relative demixing parameter. The level of composition demixing effect is presented by demixing degree of one element. For binary constituent alloy target, the composition change trend in coating is discussed and the limit of demixing degree for each element is determined. The content of one element with higher average charged state gets larger in coating than in alloy target, at meantime, the content of one element with lower average charged state gets less. For each one of the two constituents, the less the atom percent in alloy target, the larger the difference of its contents between the coating and the target. For triple constituent alloy target, the content change of one element with moderate average charged state is discussed in detail. Its content in coating getting larger or less is determined by the combination result of the contents of the other two elements in alloy target. For a given content of the element with moderate average charged state in triple alloy target, the content deviation level of that element from coating to alloy target will be not larger than that using binary alloy target containing only that element and one of the two others. According to the wanted coating composition, the composition design of alloy target is easily deduced from the formula.

  4. Production of no-carrier-added radiobromine. new nickel selenide target and optimized separation by dry distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Katharina; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5)

    2015-07-01

    Nickel(II) selenide (NiSe) was investigated as a new high-current target material for cyclotron production of radiobromine, as it contains a higher amount of selenium and has a lower melting point than the widely used Cu{sub 2}Se. Using a slanted target system, NiSe was successfully tested up to beam currents of 16 μA so far. With regard to the isolation of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) radiobromide from the target material, an improved dry distillation device with high yields of 76%-86% was developed. The implementation of a special custom-made quartz funnel decreased the dead volume of the apparatus and a quartz capillary for trapping the radiobromine allowed to concentrate the radioactivity in a small volume of less than 100 μL of 0.1 M NaOH, ready for immediate subsequent radiosyntheses. Thus, the new apparatus improves the handling of the isolation procedure and the radioactive product. The radiochemical purity of the resulting solution of n.c.a. [*Br]bromide was verified by radio-IC where no other species were detected.

  5. Design of ADS8322 Sampling Controller Based on Verilog HDL%基于Verilog HDL的ADS8322转换控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文桐; 黄金; 孙先松

    2011-01-01

    According to the project needs,the Cyclone Ⅱ series EP2C8 field programmable logic gate array(FPGA) is used to control 16bit high-speed analog-to-digital conversion chip ADS8322,we designed a kind of ADS8322 sampling control logic circuit based on Verilog hardware description languages.This paper discuss the characteristics and work timing of ADS8322 in detail,realizing the control logic by finite state machine.It also gives the function simulation waveform of sampling control circuit in Quartus9.1 software environment.Testing this system in practical,it is proved that the method is simple and effective and reliable.It can be used to control High-speed A/D.%根据项目需求,采用Cyclone II系列EP2C8现场可编程逻辑门阵列(FPGA)作为控制核心,对16位高速模数转换芯片ADS8322进行控制,设计了一种基于Verilog硬件描述语言的ADS8322采样控制逻辑电路,该文详细阐明了ADS8322的特点和工作时序,采用有限状态机,实现了控制器电路的时序逻辑。同时给出采样控制电路在Quartus II 9.1软件环境下的功能仿真波形。通过实际电路测试,证明该设计方案简洁、有效、可靠,同时可方便应用于其他类似的高速AD转换控制。

  6. A Design Methodology for Power-efficient Continuous-time Sigma-Delta A/D Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Bruun, Erik

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a design methodology for optimizing the power consumption of continuous-time (CT) ΣΔ A/D converters. A method for performance prediction for ΣΔ A/D converters is presented. Estimation of analog and digital power consumption is derived and employed to predict the most power...

  7. 定向天线在Ad Hoc网络中的设计与应用%Directional Antennas in Ad Hoc Network Design and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘罗仁

    2011-01-01

    定向天线可以有效提升Ad hoc网络路由协议和接入控制的性能,但同时也带来了一些新的问题;针对"隐藏终端"和"听不见"问题,文中设计两种新的协议:SDR-MAC协议和NDDMAC协议;最后,对NDDMAC协议进行仿真,结果表明,NDDMAc总的网络吞吐量优于现有的ORTS-OCTS协议和DMAC协议,有效提升了Ad hoc网络的整体性能.%Directional antennas can enhance the Ad hoc network routing protocols and access control performance, but also brought some new problems. For the "hidden terminal" and "hear" the problem, we design two new agreements: SDR - MAC protocol and NDDMAC a-greement. Finally, NDDMAC protocol simulation results show that, NDDMAC total network throughput than the existing ORTS - OCTS agreement and DMAC protocol, effectively improving the overall performance of Ad hoc networks.

  8. Targeting adolescents? The content and frequency of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverage ads in magazine and video formats November 1999-April 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Hust, Stacey J T

    2005-12-01

    This study compared alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverage advertising to which adolescents are exposed. A census of beverage advertising (N = 757) in popular magazines and television during November 1999-April 2000 was analyzed. Most alcohol ads appeared in Sports Illustrated (110), Rolling Stone (98), and Playboy (75) and outnumbered nonalcoholic beverage advertising by 3 to 1. Alcohol was almost never associated with dining. Alcohol ads emphasized sexual and social stereotypes and lacked diversity. One of every 6 magazine alcohol ads, and 1 of every 14 video-based ads, appeared to target teenagers. Many similarities existed between alcohol and nonalcohol ads. We conclude that alcohol is advertised heavily to youth through placement and appeals. The fact that themes in alcohol ads frequently parallel those in nonalcoholic beverage ads may further increase youths' receptivity.

  9. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoungjip; Kang, Seungwoo; Ha, Jin-Young; Song, Junehwa

    2015-07-16

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user's place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense.

  10. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungjip Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense.

  11. Design and R&D Progress of China Lead-Based Reactor for ADS Research Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yican Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched an engineering project to develop an accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS for nuclear waste transmutation. The China Lead-based Reactor (CLEAR, proposed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, was selected as the reference reactor for ADS development, as well as for the technology development of the Generation IV lead-cooled fast reactor. The conceptual design of CLEAR-I with 10 MW thermal power has been completed. KYLIN series lead-bismuth eutectic experimental loops have been constructed to investigate the technologies of the coolant, key components, structural materials, fuel assembly, operation, and control. In order to validate and test the key components and integrated operating technology of the lead-based reactor, the lead alloy-cooled non-nuclear reactor CLEAR-S, the lead-based zero-power nuclear reactor CLEAR-0, and the lead-based virtual reactor CLEAR-V are under realization.

  12. Design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qihe; Narayanan, Ram M

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are small electronic devices working in the radio frequency range. They use wireless radio communications to automatically identify objects or people without the need for line-of-sight or contact, and are widely used in inventory tracking, object location, environmental monitoring. This paper presents a design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing. In the design, a static or very slowly moving target in the field of RFID tags transmits a distinct pseudo-noise signal, and the RFID tags in the network collect the target information and route it to the command center. A map of each RFID tag's location is saved at command center, which can determine where a RFID tag is located based on each RFID tag's ID. We propose the target information collection method with target association and clustering, and we also propose the information routing algorithm within the RFID tag network. The design and operation of the proposed algorithms are illustrated through examples. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

  13. Quantitative modeling of selective lysosomal targeting for drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rosania, G.; Horobin, R.W.;

    2008-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic organelles and are involved in various diseases, the most prominent is malaria. Accumulation of molecules in the cell by diffusion from the external solution into cytosol, lysosome and mitochondrium was calculated with the Fick–Nernst–Planck equation. The cell model considers....... This demonstrates that the cell model can be a useful tool for the design of effective lysosome-targeting drugs with minimal off-target interactions....

  14. Target value design: applications to newborn intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkowski, Zofia K; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Ballard, H Glenn

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for greater understanding of the health impact of various design elements in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) as well as cost-benefit information to make informed decisions about the long-term value of design decisions. This is particularly evident when design teams are considering the transition from open-bay NICUs to single-family-room (SFR) units. This paper introduces the guiding principles behind target value design (TVD)-a price-led design methodology that is gaining acceptance in healthcare facility design within the Lean construction methodology. The paper also discusses the role that set-based design plays in TVD and its application to NICUs.

  15. Anti-malarial Drug Design by Targeting Apicoplasts: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinaba Mukherjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Malaria has been a major global health problem in recent times with increasing mortality. Current treatment methods include parasiticidal drugs and vaccinations. However, resistance among malarial parasites to the existing drugs has emerged as a significant area of concern in anti-malarial drug design. Researchers are now desperately looking for new targets to develop anti-malarials drug which is more target specific. Malarial parasites harbor a plastid-like organelle known as the ‘apicoplast’, which is thought to provide an exciting new outlook for the development of drugs to be used against the parasite. This review elaborates on the current state of development of novel compounds targeted againstemerging malaria parasites. Methods: The apicoplast, originates by an endosymbiotic process, contains a range of metabolic pathways and housekeeping processes that differ from the host body and thereby presents ideal strategies for anti-malarial drug therapy. Drugs are designed by targeting the unique mechanism of the apicoplasts genetic machinery. Several anabolic and catabolic processes, like fatty acid, isopenetyl diphosphate and heme synthess in this organelle, have also been targeted by drugs. Results: Apicoplasts offer exciting opportunities for the development of malarial treatment specific drugs have been found to act by disrupting this organelle’s function, which wouldimpede the survival of the parasite. Conclusion: Recent advanced drugs, their modes of action, and their advantages in the treatment of malaria by using apicoplasts as a target are discussed in this review which thought to be very useful in desigining anti-malarial drugs. Targetting the genetic machinery of apicoplast shows a great advantange regarding anti-malarial drug design. Critical knowledge of these new drugs would give a healthier understanding for deciphering the mechanism of action of anti-malarial drugs when targeting apicoplasts to overcome drug

  16. Joint MIMO-OFDM and MAC Design for Broadband Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dandan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM are very promising techniques to exploit spatial diversity and frequency diversity in the physical layer of broadband wireless communications. However, the application of these techniques to broadband multihop ad hoc networks is subject to inefficiencies since existing medium access control (MAC schemes are designed to allow only one node to transmit in a neighborhood. Therefore, adding more relays to increase the transmission range decreases the throughput. With MIMO-OFDM, multiple transmissions can coexist in the same neighborhood. A new transceiver architecture with MIMO-OFDM and MAC scheme is proposed in this paper. The new MAC scheme multiple-antennas receiver-initiated busy-tone medium access (MARI-BTMA is based on receiver-initiated busy-tone medium access (RI-BTMA and uses multiple out of band busy tones to avoid the collision of nodes on the same channel. With the proposed MAC scheme, multiple users can transmit simultaneously in the same neighborhood. Although basic MARI-BTMA shows good performance at high traffic load, to improve the performance at low traffic loads, 1-persistent MARI-BTMA is proposed so that users can choose different MAC scheme according to the statistical traffic load in the system. In this paper, both theoretical and numerical analysis of the throughput and delay are presented. Analysis and simulation results show the improved performance of MARI-BTMA compared with RI-BTMA and carrier sensing medium access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA.

  17. Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source (ORSNS) target station design integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamy, T.; Booth, R.; Cleaves, J.; Gabriel, T. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The conceptual design for a 1- to 3-MW short pulse spallation source with a liquid mercury target has been started recently. The design tools and methods being developed to define requirements, integrate the work, and provide early cost guidance will be presented with a summary of the current target station design status. The initial design point was selected with performance and cost estimate projections by a systems code. This code was developed recently using cost estimates from the Brookhaven Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source study and experience from the Advanced Neutron Source Project`s conceptual design. It will be updated and improved as the design develops. Performance was characterized by a simplified figure of merit based on a ratio of neutron production to costs. A work breakdown structure was developed, with simplified systems diagrams used to define interfaces and system responsibilities. A risk assessment method was used to identify potential problems, to identify required research and development (R&D), and to aid contingency development. Preliminary 3-D models of the target station are being used to develop remote maintenance concepts and to estimate costs.

  18. ENGINEERING DESIGN OF THE EURISOL MULTI-MW SPALLATION TARGET

    CERN Document Server

    Adonai Herrera-Martinez*, Yacine Kadi, Morteza Ashrafi-Nik, Karel Samec, Janis Freibergs, Ernests Platacis

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam project (EURISOL) is set to design the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW target assembly, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In this high power target station, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source. This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the mercury proton-to-neutron converter and the fission targets. The overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutron fluxes of the order ...

  19. Engineering design of the EURISOL multi-MW spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A; Ashrafi-Nik, M; Samec, K; Freibergs, J; Platacis, E

    2007-01-01

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam project (EURISOL) is set to design the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW target assembly, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In this high power target station, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source. This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the mercury proton-to-neutron converter and the fission targets. The overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutron fluxes of the order of 1...

  20. Designing Multi-target Compound Libraries with Gaussian Process Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, Michael; Reutlinger, Michael; Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Kriegl, Jan M; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-05-01

    We present the application of machine learning models to selecting G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-focused compound libraries. The library design process was realized by ant colony optimization. A proprietary Boehringer-Ingelheim reference set consisting of 3519 compounds tested in dose-response assays at 11 GPCR targets served as training data for machine learning and activity prediction. We compared the usability of the proprietary data with a public data set from ChEMBL. Gaussian process models were trained to prioritize compounds from a virtual combinatorial library. We obtained meaningful models for three of the targets (5-HT2c , MCH, A1), which were experimentally confirmed for 12 of 15 selected and synthesized or purchased compounds. Overall, the models trained on the public data predicted the observed assay results more accurately. The results of this study motivate the use of Gaussian process regression on public data for virtual screening and target-focused compound library design.

  1. VISRAD, 3-D Target Design and Radiation Simulation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovkin, Igor; Macfarlane, Joseph; Golovkina, Viktoriya

    2016-10-01

    The 3-D view factor code VISRAD is widely used in designing HEDP experiments at major laser and pulsed-power facilities, including NIF, OMEGA, OMEGA-EP, ORION, LMJ, Z, and PLX. It simulates target designs by generating a 3-D grid of surface elements, utilizing a variety of 3-D primitives and surface removal algorithms, and can be used to compute the radiation flux throughout the surface element grid by computing element-to-element view factors and solving power balance equations. Target set-up and beam pointing are facilitated by allowing users to specify positions and angular orientations using a variety of coordinates systems (e.g., that of any laser beam, target component, or diagnostic port). Analytic modeling for laser beam spatial profiles for OMEGA DPPs and NIF CPPs is used to compute laser intensity profiles throughout the grid of surface elements. We will discuss recent improvements to the software package and plans for future developments.

  2. An Evaluation of the Added Value of Co-Design in the Development of an Educational Game for Road Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    All, Anissa; Van Looy, Jan; Castellar, Elena Patricia Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the added value of co-design in addition to other innovation research methods in the process of developing a serious game design document for a road safety game. The sessions aimed at exploring 4 aspects of a location-based game experience: themes, game mechanics, mobile phone applications and locations for mini-games. In…

  3. Optimum nuclear design of target fuel rod for Mo-99 production in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Nuclear target design for Mo-99 production in HANARO was performed, KAERI proposed target design was analyzed and its feasibility was shown. Three commercial target designs of Cintichem, ANL and KAERI were tested for the HANARO irradiation an d they all satisfied with design specification. A parametric study was done for target design options and Mo-99 yields ratio and surface heat flux were compared. Tested parameters were target fuel thickness, irradiation location, target axial length, packing density of powder fuel, size of target radius, target geometry, fuel enrichment, fuel composition, and cladding material. Optimized target fuel was designed for both LEU and HEU options. (author). 17 refs., 33 figs., 42 tabs.

  4. Target selection and transfer trajectories design for exploring asteroid mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Technique of target selection and profiles of transfer trajectory for Chinese asteroid exploring mission are studied systemically.A complete set of approaches to selecting mission targets and designing the transfer trajectory is proposed.First,when selecting a target for mission,some factors regarded as the scientific motivations are discussed.Then,when analyzing the accessibility of targets,instead of the classical strategy,the multiple gravity-assist strategy is provided.The suitable and possible targets,taking into account scientific value and technically feasible,are obtained via selection and estimation.When designing the transfer trajectory for exploring asteroid mission,an approach to selecting gravity-assist celestial body is proposed.Finally,according to the mission constraints,the trajectory profile with 2-years △V-EGA for exploring asteroid is presented.Through analyzing the trajectory profile,unexpected result that the trajectory would pass by two main-belts asteroids is found.So,the original proposal is extended to the multiple flybys mission.It adds the scientific return for asteroid mission.

  5. A Systematic Design Method for Large-Scale Wireless Ad Hoc Network Protocol Based on Optimization Decomposition Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chaonong Xu; Chi Zhang; Yongjun Xu; Zhiguang Wang

    2015-01-01

    The idea of network protocol design based on optimization theory has been proposed and used practically in Internet for about 15 years. However, for large-scale wireless ad hoc network, although protocol could be viewed as a recursive solving of a global optimization problem, protocol design is still facing huge challenge because an effective distributed algorithm for solving global optimization problem is still lacking. We solve the problem by putting forward a systematic design method based...

  6. Pentameric models as alternative molecular targets for the design of new antiaggregant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera Guisasola, Exequiel E; Gutierrez, Lucas J; Andujar, Sebastián A; Angelina, Emilio; Rodríguez, Ana M; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    The structure-based drug design has been an extremely useful technique used for searching and developing of new therapeutic agents in various biological systems. In the case of AD, this approach has been difficult to implement. Among other several causes, the main problem might be the lack of a specific stable and reliable molecular target. In this paper the results obtained using a pentameric amyloid beta (Aβ) model as a molecular target are discussed. Our MD simulations have shown that this system is relatively structured and stable, displaying a lightly conformational flexibility during 2.0 μs of simulation time. This study allowed us to distinguish characteristic structural features in specific regions of the pentamer which should be taken into account when choosing this model as a molecular target. This represents a clear advantage compared to the monomer or dimer models which are highly flexible structures with large numbers of possible conformers. Using this pentameric model we performed two types of studies usually carried out on a molecular target: a virtual screening and the design on structural basis of new mimetic peptides with antiaggregant properties. Our results indicate that this pentameric model might be a good molecular target for these particular studies of molecular modeling. Details about the predictive power of our virtual screening as well as about the molecular interactions that stabilize the mimetic peptide-pentamer Aβ complexes are discussed in this paper.

  7. The multi megawatt target station integration of the MAFF/PIAFE fission target design

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Herrera-Martinez, A; Lettry, J; Ashrafi-Nik, M; Groeschel, F; Samec, K; Zanini, L; Alyakriskiy, O; Barbui, M; Tecchio, Luigi; Freibergs, J; Gross, M; Nebel, F; Thirolf, P; Negoita, F; Serbina, L; Romanets, Y; Vaz, P; Lindroos, M; Kadi, Y

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target (MAFF/PIAFE design like) and the overall performance of the facility, which will sust...

  8. Rational design of Rho GTPase-targeting inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xun; Zheng, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Rho GTPases have been implicated in diverse cellular functions and are potential therapeutic targets in inflammation, cancer, and neurologic diseases. Virtual screening of compounds that fit into surface grooves of RhoA known to be critical for guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) interaction produced chemical candidates with minimized docking energy. Subsequent screening for inhibitory activity of RhoA binding to the Rho-GEF, LARG, identified a Rho-specific inhibitor as a lead compound capable of blocking RhoA-LARG interaction and RhoA activation by LARG specifically and dose dependently. A microscale thermophoresis analysis was applied to directly quantify the binding interaction of the lead inhibitor with RhoA target. The lead inhibitor highlights the principle that rational targeting of subfamily members of Rho GTPases is feasible and potentially useful in future drug design effort.

  9. Medicinal chemistry design principles for liver targeting through OATP transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meihua; Mathiowetz, Alan M; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Cameron, Kimberly O; Dow, Robert L; Litchfield, John; Di, Li; Feng, Bo; Liras, Spiros

    2013-01-01

    The tissue distribution of a drug can have significant impact on both its efficacy and safety. As a consequence, selective tissue targeting has become an attractive approach for optimizing the window between efficacy and safety for drug targets that are ubiquitously expressed and important in key physiological processes. Given the liver's key role in metabolic regulation and the fact that it is the principal tissue affected by diseases such as hepatitis B and C viruses as well as hepatocellular carcinoma, designing drugs with hepatoselective distribution profiles is an important strategy in developing safe cardiovascular, metabolic, antiviral and oncology drug candidates. In this paper, we analyze a diverse set of compounds from four different projects within Pfizer that specifically pursued liver targeting strategies. A number of key in vitro and in vivo ADME endpoints were collected including in vivo tissue exposure, oral bioavailability, clearance in preclinical species and in vitro hepatic OATP uptake, in vitro rat liver microsomal stability, permeability, solubility, logD, and others. From this analysis, we determined a set of general structure-liver-selectivity guides for designing orally bioavailable, liver-targeted candidates using liver specific OATP transporters. The guidelines have been formulated using straightforward molecular descriptors and in vitro properties that medicinal chemists routinely optimize. Our analysis emphasizes the need to focus on a chemical space with balanced lipophilicity, high aqueous solubility and low passive permeability in order to achieve the desired hepatoselectivity while maintaining fraction absorbed.

  10. Contribution to design a communication framework for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp Barba, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The constant mobility of people, the growing need to be always connected, the large number of vehicles that nowadays can be found in the roads and the advances in technology make Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) be a major area of research. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are a special type of wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), which allow a group of mobile nodes configure a temporary network and maintain it without the need of a fixed infrastructure. A vehicular network presents some spec...

  11. Contribution to design a communication framework for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp Barba, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    La movilidad constante de las personas y la creciente necesidad de estar conectados en todo momento ha hecho de las redes vehiculares un área cuyo interés ha ido en aumento. La gran cantidad de vehículos que hay en la actualidad, y los avances tecnológicos han hecho de las redes vehiculares (VANETS, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) un gran campo de investigación. Las redes vehiculares son un tipo especial de redes móviles ad hoc inalámbricas, las cuales, al igual que las redes MANET (Mobile Ad hoc ...

  12. Target Station Design for the Mu2e Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronskikh, Vitaly [Fermilab; Ambrosio, Giorgio [Fermilab; Campbell, Michael [Fermilab; Coleman, Richard [Fermilab; Ginther, George [Fermilab; Kashikhin, Vadim [Fermilab; Krempetz, Kurt [Fermilab; Lamm, Michael [Fermilab; Lee, Ang [Fermilab; Leveling, Anthony [Fermilab; Mokhov, Nikolai [Fermilab; Nagaslaev, Vladimir [Fermilab; Stefanik, Andrew [Fermilab; Striganov, Sergei [Fermilab; Werkema, Steven [Fermilab; Bartoszek, Larry [Technicare; Densham, Chris [Rutherford; Loveridge, Peter [Rutherford; Lynch, Kevin [BMCC, New York; Popp, James [BMCC, New York

    2014-07-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is devoted to search for the conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos. One of the main parts of the Mu2e experimental setup is its Target Station in which negative pions are generated in interactions of the 8-GeV primary proton beam with a tungsten target. A large-aperture 5-T superconducting production solenoid (PS) enhances pion collection, and an S-shaped transport solenoid (TS) delivers muons and pions to the Mu2e detector. The heat and radiation shield (HRS) protects the PS and the first TS coils. A beam dump absorbs the spent beam. In order for the PS superconducting magnet to operate reliably the sophisticated HRS was designed and optimized for performance and cost. The beam dump was designed to absorb the spent beam and maintaining its temperature and air activation in the hall at the allowable level. Comprehensive MARS15 simulations have been carried out to optimize all the parts while maximizing muon yield. Results of simulations of critical radiation quantities and their implications on the overall Target Station design and integration will be reported.

  13. Nuclear data requirements for the ADS conceptual design EFIT: Uncertainty and sensitivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Herranz, N., E-mail: nuria@din.upm.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F. [CIEMAT (Spain); Sanz, J. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, UNED (Spain); Gonzalez-Romero, E.M. [CIEMAT (Spain); Juan, J. [Laboratorio de Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, we assess the impact of activation cross-section uncertainties on relevant fuel cycle parameters for a conceptual design of a modular European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with a 'double strata' fuel cycle. Next, the nuclear data requirements are evaluated so that the parameters can meet the assigned design target accuracies. Different discharge burn-up levels are considered: a low burn-up, corresponding to the equilibrium cycle, and a high burn-up level, simulating the effects on the fuel of the multi-recycling scenario. In order to perform this study, we propose a methodology in two steps. Firstly, we compute the uncertainties on the system parameters by using a Monte Carlo simulation, as it is considered the most reliable approach to address this problem. Secondly, the analysis of the results is performed by a sensitivity technique, in order to identify the relevant reaction channels and prioritize the data improvement needs. Cross-section uncertainties are taken from the EAF-2007/UN library since it includes data for all the actinides potentially present in the irradiated fuel. Relevant uncertainties in some of the fuel cycle parameters have been obtained, and we conclude with recommendations for future nuclear data measurement programs, beyond the specific results obtained with the present nuclear data files and the limited available covariance information. A comparison with the uncertainty and accuracy analysis recently published by the WPEC-Subgroup26 of the OECD using BOLNA covariance matrices is performed. Despite the differences in the transmuter reactor used for the analysis, some conclusions obtained by Subgroup26 are qualitatively corroborated, and improvements for additional cross sections are suggested.

  14. In silico design of targeted SRM-based experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahnsen Sven

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Selected reaction monitoring (SRM-based proteomics approaches enable highly sensitive and reproducible assays for profiling of thousands of peptides in one experiment. The development of such assays involves the determination of retention time, detectability and fragmentation properties of peptides, followed by an optimal selection of transitions. If those properties have to be identified experimentally, the assay development becomes a time-consuming task. We introduce a computational framework for the optimal selection of transitions for a given set of proteins based on their sequence information alone or in conjunction with already existing transition databases. The presented method enables the rapid and fully automated initial development of assays for targeted proteomics. We introduce the relevant methods, report and discuss a step-wise and generic protocol and we also show that we can reach an ad hoc coverage of 80 % of the targeted proteins. The presented algorithmic procedure is implemented in the open-source software package OpenMS/TOPP.

  15. Design and implementation of location-based wireless targeted advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Benjamin; Xu, Deyin

    2001-10-01

    As advertisements are time and location sensitive, a challenge for wireless marketing is to have advertisements delivered when and where they are most convenient. In this paper we introduce a two-stage auction model for location-based wireless targeted advertising. This system extends the notion of location-based service by using location information to target advertising, and does so specifically by enabling advertisers to specify their preferences and bid for advertisement delivery, where those preferences are then used in a subsequent automated auction of actual deliveries to wireless data users. The automated auction in the second stage is especially effective because it can use information about the individual user profile data, including customer relationship management system contents as well as location from the wireless system's location management service, including potentially location history such as current trajectory from recent history and longer-term historical trip records for that user. Through two-stage auction, real-time bidding by advertisers and matching ads contents to mobile users help advertising information reach maximal value.

  16. Designing to target cost: one approach to design/construction integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    One approach to a more integrated construction delivery process is the concept of ‘designing to target cost’ of which the first examples of application within a lean construction framework have recently been seen. This paper introduces the main principles of the design to target cost method...... and discusses the applicability of this approach to construction. The low degree of organizational and technical continuity from one construction project to the next limits the applicability of the design for target cost approach when compared to its origin in product development of mass manufactured artefacts....... The approach can, however, be applied as a way of substantially involving the production organisation from the earliest phases of schematic design and thus contribute to enhanced value and reduced waste for the overall project delivery as well as for the many assignments of which it is ultimately composed...

  17. Design and Implementation of Anycast Services in Ad Hoc Networks Connected to IPv6 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a communication model of implementing an Anycast service in an Ad Hoc network which is connected to IPv6 networks where IPv6 nodes can obtain the Anycast service provided by the Ad hoc network. In this model when an Anycast mobile member in an Ad hoc network moves it can keep the existing communications with its corresponding nodes to continue providing the Anycast services with good quality of service to IPv6 nodes. This model creates a new kind of IPv6 address auto-configuration scheme which does not need the address duplication detection. This paper deeply discusses and analyzes the model and the experimental data prove its validity and efficiency.

  18. Cross-layer design for intrusion detection and data security in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-09-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. The nodes are severely resource-constrained, with limited processing, memory and power capacities and must operate cooperatively to fulfill a common mission in typically unattended modes. In a wireless sensor network (WSN), each sensor at a node can observe locally some underlying physical phenomenon and sends a quantized version of the observation to sink (destination) nodes via wireless links. Since the wireless medium can be easily eavesdropped, links can be compromised by intrusion attacks from nodes that may mount denial-of-service attacks or insert spurious information into routing packets, leading to routing loops, long timeouts, impersonation, and node exhaustion. A cross-layer design based on protocol-layer interactions is proposed for detection and identification of various intrusion attacks on WSN operation. A feature set is formed from selected cross-layer parameters of the WSN protocol to detect and identify security threats due to intrusion attacks. A separate protocol is not constructed from the cross-layer design; instead, security attributes and quantified trust levels at and among nodes established during data exchanges complement customary WSN metrics of energy usage, reliability, route availability, and end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning. Statistical pattern recognition algorithms are applied that use observed feature-set patterns observed during network operations, viewed as security audit logs. These algorithms provide the "best" network global performance in the presence of various intrusion attacks. A set of mobile (software) agents distributed at the nodes implement the algorithms, by moving among the layers involved in the network response at each active node

  19. Design, Operations, and Safety Report for the MERIT Target System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Van B [ORNL; Spampinato, Philip Thomas [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Mercury Intense Target Project (MERIT) is a proof-of-principal experiment to determine the feasibility of using a free-jet of Hg as a spallation target in a Neutrino Factory or a Muon Collider facility. The 1-cm-diameter, 20-m/sec jet will be generated inside a 15-Tesla magnetic field, and high-speed optical diagnostics will be used to photograph the interaction between the Hg jet and a 24-GeV proton beam.The experiment is scheduled to be conducted at CERN in 2007. ORNL is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of a system to deliver the Hg jet within the confines of the 15-cm magnet bore. This report documents the functional and safety requirements of the Hg system along with descriptions of its interfaces to the other experimental equipment.

  20. Mechanism Design for Multi-slot Ads Auction in Sponsored Search Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaotie; Sun, Yang; Yin, Ming; Zhou, Yunhong

    In this paper, we study pricing models for multi-slot advertisements, where advertisers can bid to place links to their sales webpages at one or multiple slots on a webpage, called the multi-slot AD auction problem. We develop and analyze several important mechanisms, including the VCG mechanism for multi-slot ads auction, the optimal social welfare solution, as well as two weighted GSP-like protocols (mixed and hybrid). Furthermore, we consider that forward-looking Nash equilibrium and prove its existence in the weighted GSP-like pricing protocols.

  1. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression: Adding biological significance to microRNA target predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Iterson (Mat); S. Bervoets (Sander); E.J. de Meijer (Emile); H.P. Buermans (Henk); P.A.C. 't Hoen (Peter); R.X. Menezes (Renée); J.M. Boer (Judith)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCurrent microRNA target predictions are based on sequence information and empirically derived rules but do not make use of the expression of microRNAs and their targets. This study aimed to improve microRNA target predictions in a given biological context, using in silico predictions, mi

  2. Design and Implementation of Key Techniques for Mobile Ad hoc Network Adaptive QoS Provisioning Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOYinxiong; LIUJianxun; TANGXinhuai

    2004-01-01

    MAQF is a newly proposed adaptive QoS provisioning framework for Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) by the authors. Through modifying the architecture of INSIGNIA and adding some components, MAQF overcomes many disadvantages appearing in related works and supports QoS guarantees for MANET. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of some key techniques in MAQF, including QoS routing, signaling in band, adaptive control mechanism, dynamic resource adaptation algorithm and, etc. Simulation results are presented and have verified the validity of MAQF.

  3. On Energy Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Comaniciu, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  4. β-secretase 1´s Targeting Reduces Hyperphosphorilated Tau, Implying Autophagy Actors in 3xTg-AD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego ePiedrahita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 initiates APP cleavage, which has been reported to be an inducer of tau pathology by altering proteasome functions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, the exact relationship between BACE1 and PHF (Paired Helical Filaments formation is not clear. In this study, we confirm that BACE1 and Hsc70 are upregulated in the brains of AD patients, and we demonstrate that both proteins show enhanced expression in lipid rafts from AD-affected triple transgenic mouse brains. BACE1 targeting increased Hsc70 levels in the membrane and cytoplasm fractions and downregulated Hsp90 and CHIP in the nucleus in the hippocampi of 3xTg-AD mice. However, these observations occurred in a proteasome-independent manner in vitro. The BACE1miR-induced reduction of soluble hyperphosphorylated tau was associated with a decrease in MAPK activity. However, the BACE1 RNAi-mediated reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau was only blocked by 3-MA (3-methyladenine in vitro, and it resulted in the increase of Hsc70 and LAMP2 in lipid rafts from hippocampi of 3xTg-AD mice, and upregulation of survival and homeostasis signalling. In summary, our findings suggest that BACE1 silencing neuroprotects reducing soluble hyperphosphorylated tau, modulating certain autophagy-related proteins in aged 3xTg-AD mice.

  5. Adding a Factor in the Course of a Design Space Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, Eric D.; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort

    2012-01-01

    Introduction An early decision on the design space of a pharmaceutical could imply that some process parameter is to be held fixed during production. Therefore, the effect of such a parameter is not studied in the exploration of the design space with statistically designed experiments. Later decisio

  6. Adding a factor in the course of a design space characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, E.D.; Voort Maarschalk, K. van der

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: An early decision on the design space of a pharmaceutical could imply that some process parameter is to be held fixed during production. Therefore, the effect of such a parameter is not studied in the exploration of the design space with statistically designed experiments. Later decisi

  7. Adding Soft-Skills to the Hard Target of Adequacy: The Case for Rearticulation Based on a Multifocal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Brewer, Curtis A.; Lindle, Jane Clark; First, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the definition of adequacy by adding soft skills as a measure of school productivity. The singular focus on academic standards inherent in education policy has prevented scholars from seeing the concept of adequacy through myriad perspectives and has contributed to a resegregation of schools. Education policy…

  8. Unsupervised learning in persistent sensing for target recognition by wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In previous work by the author, effective persistent and pervasive sensing for recognition and tracking of battlefield targets were seen to be achieved, using intelligent algorithms implemented by distributed mobile agents over a composite system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for persistence and a wireless network of unattended ground sensors for pervasive coverage of the mission environment. While simulated performance results for the supervised algorithms of the composite system are shown to provide satisfactory target recognition over relatively brief periods of system operation, this performance can degrade by as much as 50% as target dynamics in the environment evolve beyond the period of system operation in which the training data are representative. To overcome this limitation, this paper applies the distributed approach using mobile agents to the network of ground-based wireless sensors alone, without the UAV subsystem, to provide persistent as well as pervasive sensing for target recognition and tracking. The supervised algorithms used in the earlier work are supplanted by unsupervised routines, including competitive-learning neural networks (CLNNs) and new versions of support vector machines (SVMs) for characterization of an unknown target environment. To capture the same physical phenomena from battlefield targets as the composite system, the suite of ground-based sensors can be expanded to include imaging and video capabilities. The spatial density of deployed sensor nodes is increased to allow more precise ground-based location and tracking of detected targets by active nodes. The "swarm" mobile agents enabling WSN intelligence are organized in a three processing stages: detection, recognition and sustained tracking of ground targets. Features formed from the compressed sensor data are down-selected according to an information-theoretic algorithm that reduces redundancy within the feature set, reducing the dimension of samples used in the target

  9. Adding a Design Perspective to Study Learning Environments in Higher Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitter, Ilya; De Bruijn, Elly; Simons, P. Robert Jan; Cate, Th. J. Ten

    2011-01-01

    How to design learning environments leading to learning-, thinking, collaboration- and regulation skills which can be applied to transferable, knowledge oriented learning outcomes is still controversial. We studied the designs of learning environments in innovative higher professional education more closely. To characterize learning environments…

  10. Adding Timing Requirements to the CODARTS Real-Time Software Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, K.R.

    The CODARTS software design method consideres how concurrent, distributed and real-time applications can be designed. Although accounting for the important issues of task and communication, the method does not provide means for expressing the timeliness of the tasks and communication directly...

  11. HIERARCHICAL DESIGN BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saiful Islam Mamun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs.However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deploymentin open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensornetwork from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusionprevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might besome attacks for which prevention method is not known. Besides preventing the system from someknown attacks, intrusion detection system gather necessary information related to attack technique andhelp in the development of intrusion prevention system. In addition to reviewing the present attacksavailable in wireless sensor network this paper examines the current efforts to intrusion detectionsystem against wireless sensor network. In this paper we propose a hierarchical architectural designbased intrusion detection system that fits the current demands and restrictions of wireless ad hocsensor network. In this proposed intrusion detection system architecture we followed clusteringmechanism to build a four level hierarchical network which enhances network scalability to largegeographical area and use both anomaly and misuse detection techniques for intrusion detection. Weintroduce policy based detection mechanism as well as intrusion response together with GSM cellconcept for intrusion detection architecture.

  12. Efficient Resource Conservation Design in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Reactive Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sujitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is a compilation of wireless mobile terminals that are in contact with each other in the absence of a permanent infrastructure network. This gives a irregular formation. Many resources like power, energy, reliable data delivery and end to end delay plays a significant role in the network. But due to the dynamic movement of nodes, power management and energy conservation stands as a critical area. This is also due to the limited battery power and the maximum utilization of power by the nodes in the network .The responsibility of saving power has increased and it is possible byminimizing the consumption during the routing process. It is done in order to expand the lifetime of the network. In view of such a vital position, we introduce a new algorithm using an MAODV( Modified AdHoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol protocol which exactly concentrates on power awareness at the time of route selection. Power status of each and every node is observed to avoid excess consumption. It also makes sure that there is a rise in the speed of route selection and discovery process. Route Patch-Up scheme used in this algorithm results in optimum utilization of power using an Modified AODV (MAODV protocol. Thus the idea proposed provides better performance through simulation over NS2.

  13. Design of Digital Synthesis Filters for Hybrid Filter Bank A/D Converters Using Semidefinite Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid filter bank (HFB analog-to-digital systems permit wideband, high frequency conversion. This paper presents mixed norm optimal design of digital synthesis filters of a HFB. The mixed norm is a convex combination of the 2-norm and the Chebyshev norm with a weighting parameter. Robust HFB design method based on worst-case ellipsoidal uncertainty in analog filters errors is also proposed. Both the problems can be solved using semidefinite programming. The proposed mixed norm method allows designers to select the best suitable filters among a family of synthesis filters for specific applications, and the robust design method is more insensitive to analog filters errors than the nominal minimax design

  14. Auto Target Tracking Robot Design Based on Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuen De Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robot tracking control design based on a smartphone using a commercial microprocessor. The system hardware consists of four major parts: an Android smartphone with an embedded camera, a Microchip microprocessor, a motor driver circuit and an Attacknid robot. First, an image of the surrounding environment is captured by the high definition camera embedded in the smartphone. The target is then recognized from the image using an algorithm developed in Android OS and OpenCV library. Third, motion control and laser activation strategies are achieved using the proposed algorithm implemented in Java. Fourth, the motion commands are delivered to the microchip processor through a USB interface. Finally, the processor produces a pulse width modulation (PWM voltage to control the robot’s motion and activate the laser diode according commands sent from the smart phone. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this proposed architecture.

  15. Berberine target key enzymes and amino acid inibitiors in AD treatment-----creation from berberine-based structure screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Lam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main components of berberine from coptis have a variety of pharmacological activity include the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The principle of berberine is inhibiting the lower activity of enzyme and amino acid to prevent (AD. Enzyme like acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AchE, butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BchE and monoamine oxidase (MAO; Amino acid like beta-amyloid (Aβ. Unfortunately, the single chemical structures of berberine is no significance to regulation effect. As a part of our consideration, the review paper studies on chemically modified and synthesis from berberine-derivatives. Results show that the structures of (23, (10, (86, (52, and (61 have a potential effect for AchE, BuChE and Aβ-amyloid inhibitors for the first time. Especially in (23 and (52 also has better than two western medicine were compared.

  16. Design study of ITER-like divertor target for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crescenzi, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.crescenzi@enea.it [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bachmann, C. [EFDA, Power Plant Physics and Technology, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Richou, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Roccella, S.; Visca, E. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); You, J.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ‘DEMO’ is a near-term Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS). • The ITER-like design concept represents a promising solution also for DEMO plasma facing units. • The optimization of PFUs aims to enhance the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the component. • The optimized geometry was evaluated by ITER SDC-IC criteria and in terms of low cycle fatigue (LCF). - Abstract: A near-term water-cooled target solution has to be evaluated together with the required technologies and its power exhaust limit under ‘DEMO’ conditions. The ITER-like design concept based on the mono-block technology using W as armour material and the CuCrZr-IG as structural material with an interlayer of pure copper represents a promising solution also for DEMO. This work reports the design study of an “optimized” ITER-like Water Cooled Divertor able to withstand a heat flux of 10 MW m{sup −2}, as requested for DEMO operating conditions. The optimization of plasma facing unit (PFU) aims to enhance the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the component by varying some geometrical parameters (monoblock size, interlayer thickness and, tube diameter and thickness). The optimization was performed by means of the multi-variable optimization algorithms using the FEM code ANSYS. The coolant hydraulic conditions (inlet pressure, temperature and velocity) were fixed for simplicity. This study is based on elastic analysis and 3 dimensional modelling. The resulting optimized geometry was evaluated on the basis of the ITER SDC-IC criteria and in terms of low cycle fatigue (LCF). The margin to the critical heat flux (CHF) was also estimated. Further design study (taking into account the effect of neutron radiation on the material properties) together with mock-up fabrication and high-heat-flux (HHF) tests are foreseen in next work programmes.

  17. Design of Thymidine Analogues Targeting Thymidilate Kinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Calvin Owono Owono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We design here new nanomolar antituberculotics, inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidine monophosphate kinase (TMPKmt, by means of structure-based molecular design. 3D models of TMPKmt-inhibitor complexes have been prepared from the crystal structure of TMPKmt cocrystallized with the natural substrate deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP (1GSI for a training set of 15 thymidine analogues (TMDs with known activity to prepare a QSAR model of interaction establishing a correlation between the free energy of complexation and the biological activity. Subsequent validation of the predictability of the model has been performed with a 3D QSAR pharmacophore generation. The structural information derived from the model served to design new subnanomolar thymidine analogues. From molecular modeling investigations, the agreement between free energy of complexation (ΔΔGcom and Ki values explains 94% of the TMPKmt inhibition (pKi=-0.2924ΔΔGcom+3.234;R2=0.94 by variation of the computed ΔΔGcom and 92% for the pharmacophore (PH4 model (pKi=1.0206×pKipred-0.0832,  R2=0.92. The analysis of contributions from active site residues suggested substitution at the 5-position of pyrimidine ring and various groups at the 5′-position of the ribose. The best inhibitor reached a predicted Ki of 0.155 nM. The computational approach through the combined use of molecular modeling and PH4 pharmacophore is helpful in targeted drug design, providing valuable information for the synthesis and prediction of activity of novel antituberculotic agents.

  18. Design of a Recommendation System for Adding Support in the Treatment of Chronic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkar, Simon; Benedik, Peter; Rajkovič, Uroš; Šušteršič, Olga; Rajkovič, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth of chronic disease cases around the world is adding pressure on healthcare providers to ensure a structured patent follow-up during chronic disease management process. In response to the increasing demand for better chronic disease management and improved health care efficiency, nursing roles have been specialized or enhanced in the primary health care setting. Nurses become key players in chronic disease management process. Study describes a system to help nurses manage the care process of patient with chronic disease. It supports focusing nurse's attention on those resources/solutions that are likely to be most relevant to their particular situation/problem in nursing domain. System is based on multi-relational property graph representing a flexible modeling construct. Graph allows modeling a nursing ontology and the indices that partition domain into an efficient, searchable space where the solution to a problem is seen as abstractly defined traversals through its vertices and edges.

  19. Study of spallation target of ADS neutron source based on MCNPX%基于MCNPX对ADS中子源散裂靶的物理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时磊; 景桂芬

    2011-01-01

    The spallation target of Accelerator-Driven sub-critical System (ADS) is studied using the program MCNPX. The calculation of standard lead target bombarded with 0. 6 - 1. 5 GeV proton beams is carried out. The neutron spectra and distribution over the lead target,energy deposition and neutron production in the lead target are studied. The simulation results agree with the former theoretical and experimental results.%运用蒙卡程序MCNPX对加速器驱动次临界反应堆系统(简称ADS)的标准散裂中子靶进行了计算研究.计算了在0.6~1.5 GeV的质子轰击下,标准Pb靶发生散裂反应产生的中子产额及分布、中子能谱以及靶内能量沉积分布.计算结果与文献理论数据、实验数据进行了比较.

  20. Colocated MIMO Radar: Beamforming, Waveform design, and Target Parameter Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-04-01

    Thanks to its improved capabilities, the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar is attracting the attention of researchers and practitioners alike. Because it transmits orthogonal or partially correlated waveforms, this emerging technology outperformed the phased array radar by providing better parametric identifiability, achieving higher spatial resolution, and designing complex beampatterns. To avoid jamming and enhance the signal to noise ratio, it is often interesting to maximize the transmitted power in a given region of interest and minimize it elsewhere. This problem is known as the transmit beampattern design and is usually tackled as a two-step process: a transmit covariance matrix is firstly designed by minimizing a convex optimization problem, which is then used to generate practical waveforms. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method maps easily generated Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability density function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. The second part of this thesis covers the topic of target parameter estimation. To determine the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum likelihood estimation yields the best performance. However, it requires a two dimensional search problem. Therefore, its computational complexity is prohibitively high. So, we proposed a reduced complexity and optimum performance algorithm which allows the two dimensional fast Fourier transform to jointly estimate the spatial location

  1. Use of the PHM Framework to Create Safe-Sex Ads Targeted to Mature Women 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cynthia R; Kim, Hyojin

    2015-01-01

    This research applies the Witte's persuasive health message (PHM) framework to the development of creative concepts that promote sexual health strategies to senior-aged women. The PHM framework proposes an integrated approach to improving message effectiveness and maximizing persuasion in health communication campaigns. A focus group method was used to explore two research questions focused on message effectiveness and persuasion. The findings suggest the PHM framework can be a useful starting point for ensuring that health communicators identify the criteria most relevant to successful ad promotions.

  2. The design of adaptive sigma-delta A/D converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Hui; Lin Zhenghui

    2005-01-01

    The signal to noise vatio (SNR) of conventional sigma delta analog to digital converter (ΣΔADC) reduces with input signal strength. The existing concept of adaptive quantization is applied to the design of ΣΔADC to improve SNR with high dynamic range. An adaptive algorithm and its circuit implementation is proposed. Because of the error due to the circuit implementation,an error self-calibration circuit is also designed. Simulation results indicate that SNR can be nearly independent of the signal strength.

  3. U.S. Biomass Opportunities for Value-added Biomass Exports based on the European Union Renewable Energy Share Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Lacoa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World energy demand is expected to continue increasing in the coming years. This situation has created a worldwide pressure for the development of alternative fuel and energy sources, pursuing a more environmentally friendly usage of biofuels. The EU has the target of generating 20% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Member States have different individual targets to meet this overall target. Meanwhile in the United States, there are about 750 million acres [300 million hectares] of forestland, with slightly more than two-thirds classified as timberland or land capable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre [1.4 m3 per hectare] annually of roundwood. Given these circumstances, this research aimed to understand the U.S. opportunities to export woody biomass based on the targets that the European Union has imposed to its Member States. The data collected allowed several scenario developments by identifying the possible EU’s biomass deficits and U.S.’s capacity to supply the gaps. Considering the physical availability, the U.S. would be able to satisfy between 42 and 48% depending on the energy efficiency scenario. Nevertheless, when considering reasonable biomass prices, only a small portion of the EU demand could be covered by the U.S.

  4. Complete determination of neutron yield from 62 MeV protons on 9Be for the design of a low - power ADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Maria; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ripani, Marco; Alba, Rosa; Ricco, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Massimo; Celentano, Andrea; Boccaccio, Pasquale; Cosentino, Luigi; Del Zoppo, Antonio; Di Pietro, Alessia; Esposito, Juan; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Kostyukov, Alexander; Maiolino, Concettina; Santonocito, Domenico; Viberti, Carlo Maria

    2014-03-01

    Within the European Partitioning & Transmutation research programs, infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental reactor physics of future fast neutron-based reactors are very important. In this respect, an Accelerator Driven System low-power prototype, based on a 70 MeV proton beam impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, was recently proposed and designed within the INFN-E project. The world data on neutron yield from Be target are scarce in this proton energy range. This lack of data calls for a dedicated measurement which was performed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, covering a wide angular range, from 0 to 150 degrees, and an almost complete neutron energy interval, from thermal up to the beam energy. In this contribution the results are discussed together with the description of the proposed ADS facility.

  5. Complete determination of neutron yield from 62 MeV protons on 9Be for the design of a low – power ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillaci Maria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the European Partitioning & Transmutation research programs, infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental reactor physics of future fast neutron-based reactors are very important. In this respect, an Accelerator Driven System low-power prototype, based on a 70 MeV proton beam impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, was recently proposed and designed within the INFN-E project. The world data on neutron yield from Be target are scarce in this proton energy range. This lack of data calls for a dedicated measurement which was performed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, covering a wide angular range, from 0 to 150 degrees, and an almost complete neutron energy interval, from thermal up to the beam energy. In this contribution the results are discussed together with the description of the proposed ADS facility.

  6. Benchmarking of Whole Exome Sequencing and Ad Hoc Designed Panels for Genetic Testing of Hereditary Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliubadaló, Lídia; Tonda, Raúl; Gausachs, Mireia; Trotta, Jean-Rémi; Castellanos, Elisabeth; López-Doriga, Adriana; Teulé, Àlex; Tornero, Eva; del Valle, Jesús; Gel, Bernat; Gut, Marta; Pineda, Marta; González, Sara; Menéndez, Mireia; Navarro, Matilde; Capellá, Gabriel; Gut, Ivo; Serra, Eduard; Brunet, Joan; Beltran, Sergi; Lázaro, Conxi

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing panels have been developed for hereditary cancer, although there is some debate about their cost-effectiveness compared to exome sequencing. The performance of two panels is compared to exome sequencing. Twenty-four patients were selected: ten with identified mutations (control set) and fourteen suspicious of hereditary cancer but with no mutation (discovery set). TruSight Cancer (94 genes) and a custom panel (122 genes) were assessed alongside exome sequencing. Eighty-three genes were targeted by the two panels and exome sequencing. More than 99% of bases had a read depth of over 30x in the panels, whereas exome sequencing covered 94%. Variant calling with standard settings identified the 10 mutations in the control set, with the exception of MSH6 c.255dupC using TruSight Cancer. In the discovery set, 240 unique non-silent coding and canonic splice-site variants were identified in the panel genes, 7 of them putatively pathogenic (in ATM, BARD1, CHEK2, ERCC3, FANCL, FANCM, MSH2). The three approaches identified a similar number of variants in the shared genes. Exomes were more expensive than panels but provided additional data. In terms of cost and depth, panels are a suitable option for genetic diagnostics, although exomes also identify variants in non-targeted genes. PMID:28050010

  7. Design and implementation of random noise radar with spectral-domain correlation for moving target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Phill; Jeong, Chi Hyun; Kim, Cheol Hoo

    2011-06-01

    A correlation processing algorithm in the spectral domain is proposed for detecting moving targets with random noise radar. AD converted reference and Rx signals are passed through FFT block, and they are multiplied after the reference signal is complex conjugated. Now inverse FFT yields the sub-correlation results, and range and velocity information can be accurately extracted by an additional FFT processing. In this design procedure, specific considerations have to be made for correlation length, averaging number, and number of sub-correlation data for Doppler processing. The proposed algorithm was verified by Simulink (Mathworks) simulation, and its logic was implemented with Xilinx FPGA device (Vertex5 series) by System Generator block sets (Xilinx) in the Simulink environment. A CW X-band random-FM noise radar prototype with an instantaneous bandwidth of 100 MHz was designed and implemented, and laboratory and field tests were conducted to detect moving targets, and the observed results showed the validity of the proposed algorithm and the operation of implemented FPGA logics.

  8. Application of the CBR method for adding the technological process designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbuś, K.

    2016-08-01

    The manufacturing process is a very important step in the process of new products creating. The market trends cause that the process must be very flexible to facilitate fast and cost-effective adaptation to changing market conditions. Commonly used CNC machine tools, grouped in flexible production systems significantly facilitate fast production adjusting to these dynamic changes. The programs for CNC machine tools could be easily modified or generated in the CAM class programs. It remains, however, the technological process, which should be planned and continuously optimized with respect to new details being produced. In this paper is proposed the method basing on the engineering knowledge and experience for adding the process of production preparation. The method, developed by authors, is based on the CBR (Case Based Reasoning) technique. CBR is a method of problems solving. It bases on seeking an analogy (similarity) between the task currently being solved, and the earlier tasks that had already been solved. The article presents an algorithm and formalized description of the developed method.

  9. Design and analysis of a network coding algorithm for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远; 徐华; 贾培发

    2015-01-01

    Network coding is proved to have advantages in both wireline and wireless networks. Especially, appropriate network coding schemes are programmed for underlined networks. Considering the feature of strong node mobility in aviation communication networks, a hop-by-hop network coding algorithm based on ad hoc networks was proposed. Compared with COPE-like network coding algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not require overhearing from other nodes, which meets confidentiality requirements of aviation communication networks. Meanwhile, it does save resource consumption and promise less processing delay. To analyze the performance of the network coding algorithm in scalable networks with different traffic models, a typical network was built in a network simulator, through which receiving accuracy rate and receiving delay were both examined. The simulation results indicate that, by virtue of network coding, the proposed algorithm works well and improves performance significantly. More specifically, it has better performance in enhancing receiving accuracy rate and reducing receiving delay, as compared with any of the traditional networks without coding. It was applied to both symmetric and asymmetric traffic flows and, in particular, it achieves much better performance when the network scale becomes larger. Therefore, this algorithm has great potentials in large-scale multi-hop aviation communication networks.

  10. A conceptual high flux reactor design with scope for use in ADS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Usha; Jagannathan, V.

    2007-02-01

    A 100 MWt reactor design has been conceived to support flux level of the order of 1015 n/cm2/s in selected flux trap zones. The physics design considers high enriched metallic alloy fuel in the form of annular plates placed in a D2O moderator tank in a hexagonal lattice arrangement. By choosing a tight lattice pitch in the central region and double the lattice pitch in the outer region, it is possible to have both high fast flux and thermal flux trap zones. By design the flux level in the seed fuel has been kept lower than in the high flux trap zones so that the burning rate of the seed is reduced. Another important objective of the design is to maximize the time interval of refueling. As against a typical refueling interval of a few weeks in such high flux reactor cores, it is desired to maximize this period to as much as six months or even one year. This is possible to achieve by eliminating the conventional control absorbers and replacing them with a suitable amount of fertile material loading in the reactor. Requisite number of seedless thorium-aluminum alloy plates are placed at regular lattice locations vacated by seed fuel in alternate fuel layers. It is seen that these thorium plates are capable of acquiring asymptotic fissile content of 14 g/kg in about 100 days of irradiation at a flux level of 8 x 1014 n/cm2/s. In summary, the core has a relatively higher fast flux in the central region and high thermal flux in the outer region. The present physics design envisages a flat core excess reactivity for the longest possible cycle length of 6 months to one year. It is also possible to modify the design for constant subcriticality for about the same period or longer duration by considering neutron spallation source at the centre and curtailing the power density in the inner core region by shielding it with a layer of thoria fuel loading.

  11. A conceptual high flux reactor design with scope for use in ADS applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha Pal; V Jagannathan

    2007-02-01

    A 100 MWt reactor design has been conceived to support flux level of the order of 1015 n/cm2/s in selected flux trap zones. The physics design considers high enriched metallic alloy fuel in the form of annular plates placed in a D2O moderator tank in a hexagonal lattice arrangement. By choosing a tight lattice pitch in the central region and double the lattice pitch in the outer region, it is possible to have both high fast flux and thermal flux trap zones. By design the flux level in the seed fuel has been kept lower than in the high flux trap zones so that the burning rate of the seed is reduced. Another important objective of the design is to maximize the time interval of refueling. As against a typical refueling interval of a few weeks in such high flux reactor cores, it is desired to maximize this period to as much as six months or even one year. This is possible to achieve by eliminating the conventional control absorbers and replacing them with a suitable amount of fertile material loading in the reactor. Requisite number of seedless thorium–aluminum alloy plates are placed at regular lattice locations vacated by seed fuel in alternate fuel layers. It is seen that these thorium plates are capable of acquiring asymptotic fissile content of 14 g/kg in about 100 days of irradiation at a flux level of 8 × 1014 n/cm2 /s. In summary, the core has a relatively higher fast flux in the central region and high thermal flux in the outer region. The present physics design envisages a flat core excess reactivity for the longest possible cycle length of 6 months to one year. It is also possible to modify the design for constant subcriticality for about the same period or longer duration by considering neutron spallation source at the centre and curtailing the power density in the inner core region by shielding it with a layer of thoria fuel loading.

  12. Full Custom Design of a 8-bit Subranging Flash A/D Convertor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sevenhans

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a Nonius Flash Analog to Digital Convertor for video-applications. The conversion is split up in two stages: the MSB and the LSB conversion stage. In the LSB conversion stage, the reference-voltage for the comparators is shifted up and down as a nonius of a vernier gauge, according to the MSB conversion obtained in the first half clock cycle. The MSB's and LSB's are simultaneously available at the output to make a 8-bit representation of the analog signal. Using the subranging mechanism, the number of comparators is reduced from 256 to 32 and the Nonius approach results in a very simple configuration for the subranging switches. The design has been simulated with HSPICE in ES2 1. 5 CMOS technology.

  13. Communication Interface Design of AD574A Based on Field- Programmable Gates Array%AD574A与现场可编程门阵列的通信接口设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占欣然; 徐精华

    2011-01-01

    该设计首先对电力系统谐波测量的要求以及AD574A的特点进行了分析,然后以Altera公司的DE2开发板为平台,实现了AD574A采样电路的硬件设计,同时在QuartusⅡ中完成了AD574A与现场可编程门阵列的接口设计,最后通过程序配置进行了AD采样实验,实验证明了该方法的正确性.%Based on the demand that measurement and control System is low power consumption, high precision and miniaturization, this design has analyzed the requirements of power system harmonic measurement and the characteristics of AD574A at first, then hardware design of sampling circuit is realized with the platform of Altera's DE2 board, and at the same time the interface design of AD574A and Field Programmable Gate Array (abbreviation - the FPGA) is completed in Quartus II, a AD sampling experiment is done under the program configuration at last, the correct ness of the method is proved by experiment.

  14. Methods for chemical recovery of non-carrier-added radioactive tin from irradiated intermetallic Ti-Sb targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena V [Troitsk, RU; Zhuikov, Boris L [Troitsk, RU; Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Ermolaev, Stanislav V [Obninsk, RU; Togaeva, Natalia R [Obninsk, RU

    2012-01-17

    The invention provides a method of chemical recovery of no-carrier-added radioactive tin (NCA radiotin) from intermetallide TiSb irradiated with accelerated charged particles. An irradiated sample of TiSb can be dissolved in acidic solutions. Antimony can be removed from the solution by extraction with dibutyl ether. Titanium in the form of peroxide can be separated from tin using chromatography on strong anion-exchange resin. In another embodiment NCA radiotin can be separated from iodide solution containing titanium by extraction with benzene, toluene or chloroform. NCA radiotin can be finally purified from the remaining antimony and other impurities using chromatography on silica gel. NCA tin-117m can be obtained from this process. NCA tin-117m can be used for labeling organic compounds and biological objects to be applied in medicine for imaging and therapy of various diseases.

  15. Advances in target design and fabrication for experiments on NIF

    OpenAIRE

    Obrey K.; Schmidt D.; Hamilton C.; Capelli D.; Williams J.; Randolph R.; Fierro F.; Hatch D.; Havrilla G.; Patterson B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to build target platforms for National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key feature in LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Target Fabrication Program. We recently built and manufactured the first LANL targets to be fielded on NIF in March 2011. Experiments on NIF require precision component manufacturing and accurate knowledge of the materials used in the targets. The characterization of foams and aerogels, the Be ignition capsule, and machining unique components are of main mater...

  16. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred T Welzel

    Full Text Available Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  17. Human Anti-Aβ IgGs Target Conformational Epitopes on Synthetic Dimer Assemblies and the AD Brain-Derived Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Alfred T.; Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A.; Ehrlich, Hartmut J.; Schwarz, Hans P.; Walsh, Dominic M.; Solomon, Alan; O’Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ’s conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody’s nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody’s lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted. PMID:23209707

  18. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Alfred T; Williams, Angela D; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Schwarz, Hans P; Walsh, Dominic M; Solomon, Alan; O'Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  19. Targeting Plasmodium Metabolism to Improve Antimalarial Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitia-Domínguez, Claudia; Sierra-Campos, Erick; Betancourt-Conde, Irene; Aguirre-Raudry, Miriam; Vázquez-Raygoza, Alejandra; Luevano-De la Cruz, Artemisa; Favela-Candia, Alejandro; Sarabia-Sanchez, Marie; Ríos-Soto, Lluvia; Méndez-Hernández, Edna; Cisneros-Martínez, Jorge; Palacio-Gastélum, Marcelo Gómez; Valdez-Solana, Mónica; Hernández-Rivera, Jessica; De Lira-Sánchez, Jaime; Campos-Almazán, Mara; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main infectious diseases in tropical developing countries and represents high morbidity and mortality rates nowadays. The principal etiological agent P. falciparum is transmitted through the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. The issue has escalated due to the emergence of resistant strains to most of the antimalarials used for the treatment including Chloroquine, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, and recently Artemisinin derivatives, which has led to diminished effectiveness and by consequence increased the severity of epidemic outbreaks. Due to the lack of effective compounds to treat these drug-resistant strains, the discovery or development of novel anti-malaria drugs is important. In this context, one strategy has been to find inhibitors of enzymes, which play an important role for parasite survival. Today, promising results have been obtained in this regard, involving the entire P. falciparum metabolism. These inhibitors could serve as leads in the search of a new chemotherapy against malaria. This review focuses on the achievements in recent years with regard to inhibition of enzymes used as targets for drug design against malaria.

  20. Designing block copolymer architectures for targeted membrane performance

    KAUST Repository

    Dorin, Rachel Mika

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of block copolymer self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation, isoporous ultrafiltration membranes were fabricated from four poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) triblock terpolymers with similar block volume fractions but varying in total molar mass from 43 kg/mol to 115 kg/mol to systematically study the effect of polymer size on membrane structure. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to probe terpolymer solution structure in the dope. All four triblocks displayed solution scattering patterns consistent with a body-centered cubic morphology. After membrane formation, structures were characterized using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and filtration performance tests. Membrane pore densities that ranged from 4.53 × 1014 to 1.48 × 1015 pores/m 2 were observed, which are the highest pore densities yet reported for membranes using self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation. Hydraulic permeabilities ranging from 24 to 850 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 and pore diameters ranging from 7 to 36 nm were determined from permeation and rejection experiments. Both the hydraulic permeability and pore size increased with increasing molar mass of the parent terpolymer. The combination of polymer characterization and membrane transport tests described here demonstrates the ability to rationally design macromolecular structures to target specific performance characteristics in block copolymer derived ultrafiltration membranes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design Method Based on Routing Tree for Topology Update in Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zheng-xi; ZHANG Hong; WANG Xiao-ling

    2006-01-01

    A design method based on the tree-model structure for topology update is presented. The routing tree of every node in network is built by defining the data structure and is used to save the topology information of neighbor nodes. The node topology update is accomplished by exchanging their routing trees. For saving the precious wireless bandwidth, the routing tree is sparsely shaped before sending by pruning the redundant routing information. Then, the node topology update is implemented by using algorithms of inserting and deleting routing sub-trees.

  2. Design and Implementation of AMRP for Multi hop wireless Mobile ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.R.Balakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper have analyzed the interruption concert of a multi-hop wireless network in which the routes between resource-objective pairs are fixed. It has developed a new queue grouping technique to handle the complex correlations of the service process resulting from the multi-hop nature of the flows and their mutual sharing of the wireless medium. A general set based interfering model is assumed that imposes constraints on links that can be served simultaneously at any given time. These interference constraints are used to obtain a fundamental lower bound on the interruption concert of any scheduling policy for the system. It presents a systematic methodology to derive such lower bounds. For a special wireless system, namely the clique, it design a policy that is sample path interruption is finest. For the cycle queue network, where the interruption finest policy is known, the expected interruption of the optimal policy numerically coincides with the lower bound. The lower bound analysis provides useful insights into the design and analysis of optimal or nearly optimal scheduling policies.

  3. Separation of no-carrier-added Cu-64 from a proton irradiated Ni-64 enriched nickel target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsen, U.; Jørgensen, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    are then absorbed on an anion exchange column. Co and Ni are removed from the column by eluting with 72% ethanol-0.3mol/l HCl. Finally, the Cu-64 is eluted with water. For separating Ni from Co isotopes and recovering the Ni-64 target, the eluate of 72% ethanol-0.3 mol/l HCl is evaporated to dryness, the residue...... a cyclotron. The decontamination of Co in Cu fraction is higher than 99% and recoveries of Cu-64 and Ni-64 are higher than 95%. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Adding Design Elements to Improve Time Series Designs: No Child Left behind as an Example of Causal Pattern-Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Some form of a short interrupted time series (ITS) is often used to evaluate state and national programs. An ITS design with a single treatment group assumes that the pretest functional form can be validly estimated and extrapolated into the postintervention period where it provides a valid counterfactual. This assumption is problematic. Ambiguous…

  5. Direct flow separation strategy, to isolate no-carrier-added {sup 90}Nb from irradiated Mo or Zr targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radchenko, Valery; Roesch, Frank [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Filosofov, Dmitry V.; Dadakhanov, Jakhongir [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Karaivanov, Dimitar V. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy; Marinova, Atanaska [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy; Baimukhanova, Ayagoz [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2016-11-01

    {sup 90}Nb has an intermediate half-life of 14.6 h, a high positron branching of 53% and optimal β{sup +} emission energy of only E{sub mean} 0.35 MeV per decay. These favorable characteristics suggest it may be a potential candidate for application in immuno-PET. Our recent aim was to conduct studies on distribution coefficients for Zr{sup IV} and Nb{sup V} in mixtures of HCl/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and HCl/oxalic acid for anion exchange resin (AG 1 x 8) and UTEVA resin to develop a ''direct flow'' separation strategy for {sup 90}Nb. The direct flow concept refers to a separation accomplished using a single eluent on multiple columns, effectively streamlining the separation process and increasing the time efficiency. Finally, we also demonstrated that this separation strategy is applicable to the production of the positron emitter {sup 90}Nb via the irradiation of molybdenum targets and isolation of {sup 90}Nb from the irradiated molybdenum target.

  6. The Design and Implementation of a Novel Skew Scenario Model in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vetrivelan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this research, it had been presented a novel Skew Scenario Model that has been developed and implemented for mobile ad hoc networks. There exist several mobility patterns that try to capture the behavior of the mobile devices under different circumstances, whereas in our work, the direction movement of the nodes is significantly specified horizontally, vertically and diagonally in the simulation area. Approach: Our novel Skew Scenario Model and the impact of mobility on MANET protocols had been compared and analyzed. The performance of DSDV and DSR under SSM in terms of packet delivery fraction, routing load and latency for varying source and destination traffic from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 under 100 nodes environment had been analyzed. Apart from this, our SSM with the existing waypoint model in 100 nodes environment had been compared. A suitable algorithm for SSM has also been developed. Results: Our simulation result showed that the functioning of our SSM had greatly influenced the performance of routing protocols in MANET environment. Simulation experiments confirm that for DSR under SSM, the PDF is highest between 93.56-99.43%, routing load is lowest between 1.005-1.068 and Latency is very less between 0.0163-0.049 sec, in the case of DSDV under SSM, the PDF is 63.22-79.104%, routing load is 1.20-1.58 and latency is 0.018-0.050 sec. The result revealed the fact that the reactive routing protocol DSR outperforms much more than the Proactive routing protocol DSDV. Our Novel Model has performed well when we compared it with existing waypoint mobility model while setting many source-destination connections. In DSR under SSM and waypoint model, PDF is between 93.56-99.43% in SSM and in waypoint 94.20-98.88%. Routing load in SSM is 1.0056-1.068, waypoint 1.01-1.06 seconds. Latency is between 0.026-0.063 in SSM and in waypoint 0.026-0.1235 sec. Conclusion: This study revealed the fact that the DSR discovers new routes faster

  7. Waveform design for cognitive radar: target detection in heavy clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Benjamin H.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Martone, Anthony F.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.

    2016-05-01

    In many applications of radar systems, detection of targets in environments with heavy clutter and interference can be difficult. It is desired that a radar system should detect targets at a further range as well as be able to detect these targets with very few false positive or negative readings. In a cognitive radar system, there are ways that these negative effects can be mitigated and target detection can be significantly improved. An important metric to focus on for increasing target detectability is the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). Cognitive radar offers solutions to issues such as this with the use of a priori knowledge of targets and environments as well as real time adaptations. A feature of cognitive radar that is of interest is the ability to adapt and optimize transmitted waveforms to a given situation. A database is used to hold a priori and dynamic knowledge of the operational environment and targets to be detected, such as clutter characteristics and target radar cross-section (RCS) estimations. Assuming this knowledge is available or can be estimated in real-time, the transmitted waveform can be tailored using methods such as transmission of a spectrum corresponding to the target-to-clutter ratio (TCR). These methods provide significant improvement in distinguishing targets from clutter or interference.

  8. Criteria for selection of target materials and design of high-efficiency-release targets for radioactive ion beam generation

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, G D; Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we define criteria for choosing target materials and for designing, mechanically stable, short-diffusion-length, highly permeable targets for generation of high-intensity radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for use at nuclear physics and astrophysics research facilities based on the ISOL principle. In addition, lists of refractory target materials are provided and examples are given of a number of successful targets, based on these criteria, that have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF).

  9. Alternative positron-target design for electron-positron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, R.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Nelson, W.R. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Current electron-positron linear colliders are limited in luminosity by the number of positrons which can be generated from targets presently used. This paper examines the possibility of using an alternate wire-target geometry for the production of positrons via an electron-induced electromagnetic cascade shower. 39 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Based on the AD9850 signal generator design%基于AD9850的信号发生器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝敏; 曾德志; 廖小新

    2007-01-01

    直接数字合成(DDS)是一种重要的频率合成技术,具有分辨率高、频率变换快等优点,在雷达及通信等领域有着广泛的应用前景.系统采用AD9850(DDS)与AT89S52单片机相结合的方法,以AD9850为频率合成器,以单片机为进程控制和任务调度的核心,设计了一个信号发生器.实现了输出频率在10Hz~1MHz范围可调,输出信号频率稳定度优于10-3的正弦波、方波和三角波信号.正弦波信号的电压峰峰值Vopp能在0~5V范围内步进调节,步进间隔达到0.1V,所有输出信号无明显失真,且带负载能力强.

  11. AD8302型相位差测量系统的设计%The Design of a System for Measuring the Phase Difference Based on AD8302

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑珍; 王海; 周渭; 张云华

    2005-01-01

    传统的相位差测量仪需要采用多片中小规模集成电路,不仅电路复杂,测量相位差的精度不高,而且适用的频率范围窄,因此在实际应用中存在着不足之处.本文介绍了用于RF/IF幅度和相位测量的芯片AD8302、一种高速异步FIFO芯片SN74ACT7808和高速A/D芯片TLC5540的性能特性,并利用MCU及上述芯片设计了一种新型的相位差测量系统,给出了该测量系统的接口电路,并阐述了它的实现原理.

  12. Design of Impedance Measurement System Based on AD8302%基于AD8302的阻抗测量系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟光红; 李廷军

    2015-01-01

    为了满足宽频、宽量程阻抗测量需求,设计了一种激励源灵活可调的复阻抗测量系统.该系统采用DDS技术提供宽频激励,通过可控参考阻抗电路和AD8302实现阻抗信息提取,提出了一种模拟移相的方法来鉴别相位极性.数据采集和整个系统控制由STM32控制器完成.结果表明:测量系统可在100 Hz~10 MHz工作正常,在宽阻抗范围内具有较高精度.

  13. Design and Simulation of Schedule Schemes in Bluetooth Ad hoc Network%蓝牙Ad hoc网调度策略的设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠建; 方旭明; 蔡海慧; 傲丹

    2006-01-01

    在分析现有蓝牙Ad hoc网轮询方案的基础上,分别提出一种基于传统轮询方案中的DRR(Deficit Round Robin)算法的改进方案--WDRR(Weighted Deficit Round Robin)算法和一种基于自适应轮询方案中的LWRR(Limited and Weighted Round Robin)策略的改进方案,并对WDRR算法进行了仿真.结果表明WDRR降低了网络的平均时延,在一定程度上改善了监牙Adhoc网的通信质量.

  14. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosales; Fajardo, Garcia; Curbelo, Perez; Oliva, Munoz; Hernandez, Garcia, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Habana City (Cuba); Castells, Escriva [Energetic Engeniering Institute, Politechnical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Abanades [Department of Simulation of Termoenergetic Systems, Politechnical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  15. The ignition design space of magnetized target fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemuth, Irvin R. [2490 North Grannen Road, Tucson, Arizona 85745 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The simple magnetized target implosion model of Lindemuth and Kirkpatrick [Nucl. Fusion 23, 263 (1983)] has been extended to survey the potential parameter space in which three types of magnetized targets—cylindrical with axial magnetic field, cylindrical with azimuthal magnetic field, and spherical with azimuthal magnetic field—might achieve ignition and produce large gain at achievable radial convergence ratios. The model has been used to compute the dynamic, time-dependent behavior of many initial parameter sets that have been based upon projected ignition conditions using the quasi-adiabatic and quasi-flux-conserving properties of magnetized target implosions. The time-dependent calculations have shown that energy gains greater than 30 can potentially be achieved for each type of target. By example, it is shown that high gain may be obtained at extremely low convergence ratios, e.g., less than 15, for appropriate initial conditions. It is also shown that reaching the ignition condition, i.e., when fusion deposition rates equal total loss rates, does not necessarily lead to high gain and high fuel burn-up. At the lower densities whereby fusion temperatures can be reached in magnetized targets, the fusion burn rate may be only comparable with the hydrodynamic heating/cooling rates. On the other hand, when the fusion burn rates significantly exceed the hydrodynamic rates, the calculations show a characteristic rapid increase in temperature due to alpha particle deposition with a subsequent increased burn rate and high gain. A major result of this paper is that each type of target operates in a different initial density-energy-velocity range. The results of this paper provide initial target plasma parameters and driver parameters that can be used to guide plasma formation and driver development for magnetized targets. The results indicate that plasmas for spherical, cylindrical with azimuthal field, and cylindrical with axial field targets must have an initial

  16. Design of targeting ligands in medicinal inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Tim; Thompson, Katherine H; Orvig, Chris

    2006-06-01

    This tutorial review will highlight recent advances in medicinal inorganic chemistry pertaining to the use of multifunctional ligands for enhanced effect. Ligands that adequately bind metal ions and also include specific targeting features are gaining in popularity due to their ability to enhance the efficacy of less complicated metal-based agents. Moving beyond the traditional view of ligands modifying reactivity, stabilizing specific oxidation states, and contributing to substitution inertness, we will discuss recent work involving metal complexes with multifunctional ligands that target specific tissues, membrane receptors, or endogenous molecules, including enzymes.

  17. The design and performance of an improved target for MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, C N; Langlands, J; Overton, E; Robinson, M; Smith, P J; Barber, G; Long, K R; Shepherd, B; Capocci, E; MacWaters, C; Tarrant, J

    2016-01-01

    The linear motor driving the target for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment has been redesigned to improve its reliability and performance. A new coil-winding technique is described which produces better magnetic alignment and improves heat transport out of the windings. Improved field-mapping has allowed the more precise construction to be demonstrated, and an enhanced controller exploits the full features of the hardware, enabling increased acceleration and precision. The new user interface is described and analysis of performance data to monitor friction is shown to allow quality control of bearings and a measure of the ageing of targets during use.

  18. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target diagnostics subsystem SSDR 1.8.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.

    1996-10-28

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Target Experimental System`s Diagnostic, WBS 1.8. 3. This includes the individual diagnostic components, the Target Diagnostic Data Acquisition System (Target DAS), the diagnostic vacuum system, the timing/fiducial system, and the EMI protection system.

  19. Separation of no-carrier-added {sup 66,67}Ga produced in heavy ion-induced cobalt target using alginate biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Dalia [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Banerjee, Anupam [University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700019 (India); Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)]. E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.in

    2007-08-15

    Heavy ion activation of natural cobalt foil with 84 MeV {sup 12}C results in the formation of no-carrier-added (nca) {sup 66,67}As radionuclides, along with their corresponding decay products, {sup 66,67}Ge and {sup 66,67}Ga, in the matrix. Because arsenic and germanium radionuclides are short-lived, after a cooling period of 10 h only nca gallium radionuclides remain in the matrix. We attempted to separate the nca gallium radionuclides from the target matrix cobalt by biopolymeric calcium alginate (CA) and Fe-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) beads. A complete separation has been achieved by adsorbing {sup 66,67}Ga and a lesser amount of bulk cobalt at pH 3 on Fe-CA beads, followed by desorbing cobalt from the beads with 0.4 M NaNO{sub 2}.

  20. Design of high-precision and multi-channel radar generator based on AD9959%基才AD9959的高精度多通道雷达信号源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋征; 许国宏; 李星

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure precision of power synthesize in phased array radar, a kind of high-precision multi-channel radar generator based on AD9959 is designed. Radar generator use host computer and FPGA to control ad9959 and Produce 32 channel sine wave.linear frequency modulation and encoding and so on, designed a multi--channel signal amplitude and phase measuring and adjustment system using ad8302. The radar generator have been applied in ,project, and the experimental results showed that the radar generator had several advantages such as high frequency stability, high precise of phase amplitude consistency, which fully meet the techinical requirements and performance index of the radar generator in phased array radar.%现代相控阵雷达为了保证空间功率合成精度需要高精度的雷达信号。设计实现了一种以AD9959为核心的高精度多通道雷达信号源。信号源利用多片AD9959产生32路正弦波、线性调频以及相位编码等多种信号形式.并设计采用AD8302对多路信号的幅度和相位进行检测与调整。该信号源已应用实际工程中,现场实验结果表明,该信号源系统产生的高频信号频率稳定度高、相位幅度一致性好,完全满足对信号源的性能指标的要求。

  1. Mechanic Design of the Radial Probe Target for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The radial probe target is an important diagnostic component of CYCIAE-100 that adopts blocking measurement. The probe placed in the median plane of sector gap of the cyclotron is mainly used to measure both the radial and vertical cross-sections of the beam,

  2. Advances in target design and fabrication for experiments on NIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrey K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to build target platforms for National Ignition Facility (NIF is a key feature in LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory Target Fabrication Program. We recently built and manufactured the first LANL targets to be fielded on NIF in March 2011. Experiments on NIF require precision component manufacturing and accurate knowledge of the materials used in the targets. The characterization of foams and aerogels, the Be ignition capsule, and machining unique components are of main material focus. One important characterization metric the physics' have determined is that the knowledge of density gradients in foams is important. We are making strides in not only locating these density gradients in aerogels and foams as a result of how they are manufactured and machined but also quantifying the density within the foam using 3D confocal micro x-ray fluorescence (μXRF imaging and 3D x-ray computed tomography (CT imaging. In addition, collaborative efforts between General Atomics (GA and LANL in the characterization of the NIF Ignition beryllium capsule have shown that the copper in the capsule migrates radially from the capsule center.

  3. Advances in target design and fabrication for experiments on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrey, K.; Schmidt, D.; Hamilton, C.; Capelli, D.; Williams, J.; Randolph, R.; Fierro, F.; Hatch, D.; Havrilla, G.; Patterson, B.

    2013-11-01

    The ability to build target platforms for National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key feature in LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Target Fabrication Program. We recently built and manufactured the first LANL targets to be fielded on NIF in March 2011. Experiments on NIF require precision component manufacturing and accurate knowledge of the materials used in the targets. The characterization of foams and aerogels, the Be ignition capsule, and machining unique components are of main material focus. One important characterization metric the physics' have determined is that the knowledge of density gradients in foams is important. We are making strides in not only locating these density gradients in aerogels and foams as a result of how they are manufactured and machined but also quantifying the density within the foam using 3D confocal micro x-ray fluorescence (μXRF) imaging and 3D x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. In addition, collaborative efforts between General Atomics (GA) and LANL in the characterization of the NIF Ignition beryllium capsule have shown that the copper in the capsule migrates radially from the capsule center.

  4. 基于AD8369的数字音频广播传输系统的研究与实现%Design of Digital Audio Broadcasting Power Amplifier System Based on AD8369

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明莹; 刘石; 王国裕; 张红升

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces in detail the structure and theory of AD8369,it functions inside as a digitally controlled variable gain amplifier,Digital Audio Broadcasting Transmitting System based on A8369 was designed.The system used digitally controlled variable gain amplifier device AD8369 fills the power amplifier in the original Digital Audio Broadcasting system.It presents the block of the structure of system,the hardware structure,the software flow chart,timing control chart,testing and certification and descripes in detail the operational principle and process of the system.%该文详细地介绍了具有内部可控功能的数字可控增益放大器件AD8369的结构与工作原理,设计了基于AD8369的数字音频广播传输系统。本系统采用的数字可控增益放大器件AD8369填补了原数字音频广播系统中没有输出功放的空白。该文给出了系统的结构框图、硬件结构框图、软件流程图和时序控制图及测试和验证,详细介绍了系统工作的原理和流程。

  5. ADS无窗散裂靶件水模拟实验研究%Studies on Free Surface Flow in ADS Windowless Spallation Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强成文; 赵强; 李龙; 王飞; 杨伟峰; 张学智; 张雪荧

    2015-01-01

    As the coupling component between accelerator and subcritical core, the spallation target is of crucial importance to the operation safety of the whole system. Hence, the spallation target is one of the most important parts in ADS corresponding researches. Due to lifetime limitation of material, the windowless target which has a stable free surface attracts more and more attention. The present paper deals with the experimental investigation on the free surface behavior in an approximately 1:1 size windowless target model using water as test fluid. We can get the flow and pressure conditions of windowless spallation target water simulation experiment from the platform. The free surface and field visualization were obtained by particle imaging velocimetry. The results show that the position and flow pattern of the free surface depend on experimental pressure, flow velocity and geometry of the target.%散裂靶件作为加速器和次临界堆芯的耦合部件,是ADS系统相关研究最主要的组成部分之一。无窗靶巧妙地利用了液体的自由液面特性,避免了质子束对结构材料直接轰击,是一种很有前景的散裂靶靶件形式。采用水作为实验工质搭建了一套无窗散裂靶水模拟实验台架,该实验系统覆盖了无窗散裂靶水模拟实验所需的流量及压力条件,采用粒子图像测速仪(PIV)对自由界面的流场进行可视化观察与分析,得到了自由界面的基本表征参数之间关系和可视化界面的流场信息。结果表明,无窗靶自由液面的位置和形状受到回路整体流量、压力和靶件几何尺寸的影响。

  6. Change in design targets for building energy towards smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Gianniou, Panagiota; Katsigiannis, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Designing cities from an overall energy optimization system point of view, demands changes in engineering procedures. Traditionally the design was driven independently between the involved domains and energy system components. By modelling the whole energy system in one, it is expected that there......Designing cities from an overall energy optimization system point of view, demands changes in engineering procedures. Traditionally the design was driven independently between the involved domains and energy system components. By modelling the whole energy system in one, it is expected...... so is, to move demands from high demand periods to low demand periods and hereby to avoid “peak” demands. This is called “flexibility” within the terminology of “smart grids”. In early solutions the search was for energy capacities within the domain of the electrical grid, hence car batteries where...

  7. Design of a cone target for fast ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunahara Atsushi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new type of target for the fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion. Pre-formed plasma inside a cone target can significantly reduce the energy coupling efficiency from the ultra-high intense short-pulse laser to the imploded core plasma. Also, in order to protect the tip of the cone and reduce generation of pre-formed plasma, we propose pointed shaped cone target. In our estimation, the shock traveling time can be delayed 20–30 ps by lower-Z material with larger areal density compared to the conventional gold flat tip. Also, the jet flow can sweep the blow-off plasma from the tip of the cone, and the implosion performance is not drastically affected by the existence of pointed tip. In addition, the self-generated magnetic field is generated along the boundary of cone tip and surrounding CD or DT plasma. This magnetic field can confine fast electrons and focus to the implosion core plasma. Resultant heating efficiency is improved by 30% compared to that with conventional gold flat tip.

  8. Pleiotropic effects of statins: new therapeutic targets in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Onkar; Dhawan, Veena; Sharma, P L; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-07-01

    The HMG Co-enzyme inhibitors and new lipid-modifying agents expand their new therapeutic target options in the field of medical profession. Statins have been described as the most effective class of drugs to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Since the discovery of the first statin nearly 30 years ago, these drugs have become the main therapeutic approach to lower cholesterol levels. The present scientific research demonstrates numerous non-lipid modifiable effects of statins termed as pleiotropic effects of statins, which could be beneficial for the treatment of various devastating disorders. The most important positive effects of statins are anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, anti-diabetes, and antithrombotic, improving endothelial dysfunction and attenuating vascular remodeling besides many others which are discussed under the scope of this review. In particular, inhibition of Rho and its downstream target, Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK), and their agonistic action on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) can be viewed as the principle mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic effects of statins. With gradually increasing knowledge of new therapeutic targets of statins, their use has also been advocated in chronic inflammatory disorders for example rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the scope of review, we highlight statins and their pleiotropic effects with reference to their harmful and beneficial effects as a novel approach for their use in the treatment of devastating disorders. Graphical abstract Pleiotropic effect of statins.

  9. 增值业务营销分析系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Value-added Business Marketing Analysis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双明

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the requi- rements of value-added business marketing analysis system. The overall structure is designed to implement some functions of value-added business marketing analysis system.%本文对增值业务营销分析系统进行了需求分析,设计出了整体架构,实现了增值业务营销分析系统部分功能。

  10. Designing Nonlinear Turbo Codes with a Target Ones Density

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jiadong; Chen, Tsung-Yi; Xie, Bike; Wesel, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Certain binary asymmetric channels, such as Z-channels in which one of the two crossover probabilities is zero, demand optimal ones densities different from 50%. Some broadcast channels, such as broadcast binary symmetric channels (BBSC) where each component channel is a binary symmetric channel, also require a non-uniform input distribution due to the superposition coding scheme, which is known to achieve the boundary of capacity region. This paper presents a systematic technique for designing nonlinear turbo codes that are able to support ones densities different from 50%. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our design technique, we design and simulate nonlinear turbo codes for the Z-channel and the BBSC. The best nonlinear turbo code is less than 0.02 bits from capacity.

  11. Design and synthesis of threading intercalators to target DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Lesley A; Gulam, Rosul; Mueller, Anja; O'Connell, Maria A; Searcey, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Threading intercalators are high affinity DNA binding agents that bind by inserting a chromophore into the duplex and locating one group in each groove. The first threading intercalators that can be conjugated to acids, sulfonic acids and peptides to target them to duplex DNA are described, based upon the well studied acridine-3- or 4-carboxamides. Cellular uptake of the parent acridine is rapid and it can be visualized in the nucleus of cells. Both the parent compounds and their conjugates maintain antitumor activity.

  12. TRPV1: A Target for Rational Drug Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Carnevale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 is a non-selective, Ca2+ permeable cation channel activated by noxious heat, and chemical ligands, such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX. Many compounds have been developed that either activate or inhibit TRPV1, but none of them are in routine clinical practice. This review will discuss the rationale for antagonists and agonists of TRPV1 for pain relief and other conditions, and strategies to develop new, better drugs to target this ion channel, using the newly available high-resolution structures.

  13. Conceptual design of the handling and storage system for spent target vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Junichi; Sasaki, Shinobu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    A conceptual design of a handling and storage system for spent target vessels has been carried out, in order to establish spent target technology for the neutron scattering facility. The spent target vessels must be treated remotely with high reliability and safety, since they are highly activated and contain the poisonous mercury. The system is composed of a target exchange trolley to exchange the target vessel, remote handling equipment such as manipulators, airtight casks for the spent target vessel, storage pits and so on. This report presents the results of conceptual design study on a basic plan, a handling procedure, main devices and their arrangement of a handling and storage system for the spent target vessels. (author)

  14. Design and nutritional properties of potential functional frankfurters based on lipid formulation, added seaweed and low salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to design and analyse the nutritional composition (fatty acid profile, cholesterol, mineral and amino acid content) of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (using algal oil to add 400mg of docosahexanoic acid - DHA/100g of product) as affected by the addition of seaweed (5.5% Himanthalia elongata) and the partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil (as a source of monounsaturated fatty acids - MUFA) or combinations of olive oil and seaweed. Reduction of NaCl level was also studied. The presence of algal oil produced frankfurters with high long-chain n-3 PUFA contents. The partial substitution of the pork fat by olive oil reduced (P<0.05) saturated fatty acids (SFA) and promoted (P<0.05) MUFA. A healthier lipid formulation (algal and olive oils and the reducing animal fat) produced a good balance of MUFA/SFA, PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Although adding seaweed had little effect on the lipid and amino acid profiles of frankfurters, it does constitute a means to produce low-sodium products with important dietary fibre content, with better Na/K ratios and rich in Ca.

  15. Representing Targets of Measurement within Evidence-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Packman, Sheryl; Hamen, Cynthia; Thurber, Allison Clark

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, the Advanced Placement (AP) Program[R] has used evidence-centered assessment design (ECD) to articulate the knowledge, skills, and abilities to be taught in the course and measured on the summative exam for four science courses, three history courses, and six world language courses; its application to calculus and English…

  16. Constraints on target chamber first wall and target designs that will enable NIF debris shields to survive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K.; Gerassimenko, Michel; Scott, J. M.; Latkowski, Jeff F.; Whitman, Pamela K.; Genin, Francois Y.; Hibbard, Wilthea; Peterson, P. F.; Tokheim, R. E.; Curran, D. R.

    1999-07-01

    The NIF target chamber interior materials and target designs themselves have to be compatible with survival of the final- optics debris shields. To meet the planned maintenance and refinishing rate, the contamination of the debris shields cannot exceed about 1 nm equivalent thickness per shot of total material. This implies that he target mass must be limited to no more than 1 gram and the ablated mass released to the chamber from all other components must not exceed 3 grams. In addition, the targets themselves must either completely vaporize or send any minor amounts of shrapnel towards the chamber waist to prevent excessive catering of the debris shields. The constraints on the first-wall debris will remobilize at a rate fast enough to require cleaning every 3 weeks, about three times more frequent than possible with planned robotics. Furthermore, a comparison of ablatants from B4C and stainless-steel louvers suggest that remobilization of target debris by x-rays will be greater than that of the base material in both cases, thereby reducing the performance advantage of clean B4C over much cheaper stainless steel. Neutronics calculations indicate that activation of thin Ni-free stainless steel is not a significant source of maintenance personnel radiation dose. Consequently, the most attractive first wall design consists of stainless-steel louvers. Evaluation of various unconverted-light beam dump designs indicates that stainless steel louvers generate no more debris than other matrices, so one single design can serve as both first wall and beam dumps, eliminating beam steering restrictions caused by size and location of the beam dumps. One reservation is that the allowable contamination rate of the debris shield is not yet completely understood. Consequently, it is likely that either a protruding beam tube, a rapid post-shot gas purge of the final optics assembly, or thin polymeric pre-shield will be required to prevent low-velocity contamination from reaching

  17. Target Area design basis and system performance for the National Ignition Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, M.; Karpenko, V.; Hagans, K.; Anderson, A.; Latkowski, J.; Warren, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wavrik, R.; Garcia, R.; Boyes, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The NIF Target Area is designed to confine the ICF target experiments leading up to and including fusion ignition and gain. The Target Area will provide appropriate in-chamber conditions before, during, and after each shot. The repeated introduction of large amounts of laser energy into the chamber and emission of fusion energy from targets represents a new challenge in ICF facility design. Prior to a shot, the facility provides proper illumination geometry, target chamber vacuum, and a stable platform for the target and its diagnostics. During a shot, the impact of the energy introduced into the chamber is minimized, and workers and the public are protected from excessive prompt radiation doses. After the shot, the residual radioactivation is managed to allow required accessibility. Tritium and other radioactive wastes are confined and disposed of. Diagnostic data is also retrieved, and the facility is readied for the next shot. The Target Area will accommodate yields up to 20 MJ, and its design lifetime is 30 years. The Target Area provides the personnel access needed to support the use precision diagnostics. The annual shot mix for design purposes is shown. Designing to this experimental envelope ensures the ability and flexibility to move through the experimental campaign to ignition efficiently.

  18. Targeting B cell responses in universal influenza vaccine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kaval; Sullivan, Meghan; Wilson, Patrick C

    2011-01-01

    Since its first administration in the 1940s, the influenza vaccine has provided tremendous relief against influenza infections. However, time has revealed the vaccine’s ultimate limit and the call for its reinvention has now come, just as we are beginning to appreciate the antibody immune responses vital in preventing infections. New strategies to design the influenza vaccine rely on selectively inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies that are specific for highly conserved viral epitopes. Such approaches take us away from the limited range of protection provided by current seasonal influenza vaccines and towards a future with a pan-influenza vaccine capable of providing universal strain coverage. PMID:21940217

  19. Computational design of high efficiency release targets for use at ISOL facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    This report describes efforts made at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design high-efficiency-release targets that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, controllable temperatures, and heat-removal properties required for the generation of useful radioactive ion beam (RIB) intensities for nuclear physics and astrophysics research using the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) technique. Short diffusion lengths are achieved either by using thin fibrous target materials or by coating thin layers of selected target material onto low-density carbon fibers such as reticulated-vitreous-carbon fiber (RVCF) or carbon-bonded-carbon fiber (CBCF) to form highly permeable composite target matrices. Computational studies that simulate the generation and removal of primary beam deposited heat from target materials have been conducted to optimize the design of target/heat-sink systems for generating RIBs. The results derived from diffusion release-rate simulation studies for selected t...

  20. Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis in Medaka Using Custom-Designed Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Ansai, Satoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Uemura, Norihito; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have become powerful tools for targeted genome editing. Here we demonstrate efficient targeted mutagenesis in medaka (Oryzias latipes), which serves as an excellent vertebrate model for genetics and genomics. We designed and constructed a pair of TALENs targeting the medaka DJ-1 gene, a homolog of human DJ-1 (PARK7). These TALENs induced a number of insertions and deletions in the injected embryos with extremely high efficiency. This in...

  1. Sustainable Process Design under uncertainty analysis: targeting environmental indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    from algae biomass is used as a case study. The results indicate there are considerable uncertainties in the calculated environmental indicators as revealed by CDFs. The underlying sources of these uncertainties are indeed the significant variation in the databases used for the LCA analysis......This study focuses on uncertainty analysis of environmental indicators used to support sustainable process design efforts. To this end, the Life Cycle Assessment methodology is extended with a comprehensive uncertainty analysis to propagate the uncertainties in input LCA data to the environmental...... indicators. The resulting uncertainties in the environmental indicators are then represented by empirical cumulative distribution function, which provides a probabilistic basis for the interpretation of the indicators. In order to highlight the main features of the extended LCA, the production of biodiesel...

  2. Design and test of a graphite target system for in-flight fragment separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S. G.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Song, J. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2014-07-01

    A graphite target system to produce rare isotope beams using in-flight fragmentation method has been designed for the rare isotope science project in Korea. A main primary beam to bombard the target is 238U in the energy of 200 MeV/u with a maximum power of 400 kW, in which the beam power deposit on the target amounts up to 100 kW. A multi-slice target concept was adopted to enhance radiation cooling effect. A finite element program ANSYS was used to analyze thermo-mechanical behavior of a single and multi-slice targets. To validate the design, an electron beam at the energy of 50 keV was used to test a single slice target. A good agreement of the hot spot temperature was achieved between the simulation and measurement. For multi-slice targets a series of ANSYS analysis was performed in search of the optimal design. Target design parameters for the isotope beam production, which can sustain an incident 400-kW 238U beam, have been found.

  3. Design and test of a graphite target system for in-flight fragment separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.G.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, M.J.; Song, J.S. [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Han-Nam University, Daejeon 306-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.W., E-mail: jwkim@ibs.re.kr [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    A graphite target system to produce rare isotope beams using in-flight fragmentation method has been designed for the rare isotope science project in Korea. A main primary beam to bombard the target is {sup 238}U in the energy of 200 MeV/u with a maximum power of 400 kW, in which the beam power deposit on the target amounts up to 100 kW. A multi-slice target concept was adopted to enhance radiation cooling effect. A finite element program ANSYS was used to analyze thermo-mechanical behavior of a single and multi-slice targets. To validate the design, an electron beam at the energy of 50 keV was used to test a single slice target. A good agreement of the hot spot temperature was achieved between the simulation and measurement. For multi-slice targets a series of ANSYS analysis was performed in search of the optimal design. Target design parameters for the isotope beam production, which can sustain an incident 400-kW {sup 238}U beam, have been found.

  4. Multi-target strategy to address Alzheimer's disease: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new tacrine-based dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Stefano; Bisi, Alessandra; Bartolini, Manuela; Mancini, Francesca; Belluti, Federica; Gobbi, Silvia; Andrisano, Vincenza; Rampa, Angela

    2011-09-01

    The multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) offers us a textbook example where parental compounds, mostly marketed, are modified with the aim of improving and/or conferring two or even more biological activities to contrast or less frequently revert the disease's symptoms. This is the case of tacrine and its dimeric derivative bis(7)-tacrine which, for instance, paved the way for the development of a broad collection of very interesting homo- and heterodimeric structures, conceived in light of the emerging multi-target approach for AD-related drug discovery. As a contribution to the topic, we report here the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 12 compounds referable to bis(7)-tacrine. In addition to the cholinesterase activity, some of the selected compounds (7-9 and 12) were capable of inhibiting the non-enzymatic function of AChE and/or showed a remarkable activity against BACE1. Thus, the present study outlines a series of newly synthesized molecules, structurally related to bis(7)-tacrine, endowed with extended biological profile in agreement with the emerging multi-target paradigm.

  5. Ad Hoc网络中联合速率与功率控制的跨层设计%The Cross Layer Design Joint Rate and Power Control in Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏威; 肖明波; 徐向南

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, with increasing demands for mobile services in different scenarios, no-center, distributed and self-organized Ad Hoc network has rapidly developed and plays a more and more important role in social life. However, how to design a reasonable and effective resource allocation scheme in Ad Hoc network is facing enormous challenge. This paper introduces the distributed Newton algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. The main idea of the algorithm is to use the current local information to solve the primary and dual variables in each iterative process. By introducing energy consumption cost into the utility maximization function, and using the information from network layer, data link layer and physical layer, this paper proposes a cross layer design joint rate and power control in the utility maximization model. This method transforms the maximization problem of object function after modeling the Ad Hoc network into sub-problems in each different layer, workingout the minimum power and the maximum rate of the Ad Hoc network, that the minimum power under the maximum sending rate. The simulation result shows that the secondary convergence speed of the algorithm is fast. Cross layer optimization joint rate and power control can guarantee network utility maximization and reduce the node transmit power at the same time, thus effectively prolonging the network lifetime. The lower power communication can also enhance the communication security of the Ad Hoc network.%近年来,随着人们在各种环境下对移动业务需求的增加,Ad Hoc网络以其无中心、分布式、自组织等特性,在社会生活中占据了越来越重要的地位.然而,如何在Ad Hoc网络中设计合理有效的资源分配方案面临着巨大的挑战.文章提出分布式牛顿算法来解决Ad Hoc网络中的资源分配问题,该算法的主要思想是利用当前的局部信息求解每次迭代过程中的原始变量和对偶变量,在效用最大化函

  6. Autonomous Rover Traverse and Precise Arm Placement on Remotely Designated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesnas, Issa A.; Pivtoraiko, Mihail N.; Kelly, Alonzo; Fleder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This software controls a rover platform to traverse rocky terrain autonomously, plan paths, and avoid obstacles using its stereo hazard and navigation cameras. It does so while continuously tracking a target of interest selected from 10 20 m away. The rover drives and tracks the target until it reaches the vicinity of the target. The rover then positions itself to approach the target, deploys its robotic arm, and places the end effector instrument on the designated target to within 2-3-cm accuracy of the originally selected target. This software features continuous navigation in a fairly rocky field in an outdoor environment and the ability to enable the rover to avoid large rocks and traverse over smaller ones. Using point-and-click mouse commands, a scientist designates targets in the initial imagery acquired from the rover s mast cameras. The navigation software uses stereo imaging, traversability analysis, path planning, trajectory generation, and trajectory execution. It also includes visual target tracking of a designated target selected from 10 m away while continuously navigating the rocky terrain. Improvements in this design include steering while driving, which uses continuous curvature paths. There are also several improvements to the traversability analyzer, including improved data fusion of traversability maps that result from pose estimation uncertainties, dealing with boundary effects to enable tighter maneuvers, and handling a wider range of obstacles. This work advances what has been previously developed and integrated on the Mars Exploration Rovers by using algorithms that are capable of traversing more rock-dense terrains, enabling tight, thread-the-needle maneuvers. These algorithms were integrated on the newly refurbished Athena Mars research rover, and were fielded in the JPL Mars Yard. Forty-three runs were conducted with targets at distances ranging from 5 to 15 m, and a success rate of 93% was achieved for placement of the instrument within

  7. Strategies for designing and monitoring malaria vaccines targeting diverse antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa E Barry

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than 50 years of intensive research and development, only one malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, has progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials. Despite only partial efficacy, this candidate is now forecast to become the first licensed malaria vaccine. Hence, more efficacious second-generation malaria vaccines that can significantly reduce transmission are urgently needed. This review will focus on a major obstacle hindering development of effective malaria vaccines: parasite antigenic diversity. Despite extensive genetic diversity in leading candidate antigens, vaccines have been and continue to be formulated using recombinant antigens representing only one or two strains. These vaccine strains represent only a small fraction of the diversity circulating in natural parasite populations, leading to escape of non-vaccine strains and challenging investigators’ abilities to measure strain-specific efficacy in vaccine trials. Novel strategies are needed to overcome antigenic diversity in order for vaccine development to succeed. Many studies have now catalogued the global diversity of leading Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax vaccine antigens. In this review, we describe how population genetic approaches can be applied to this rich data source to predict the alleles that best represent antigenic diversity, polymorphisms that contribute to it, and to identify key polymorphisms associated with antigenic escape. We also suggest an approach to summarise the known global diversity of a given antigen to predict antigenic diversity, how to select variants that best represent the strains circulating in natural parasite populations and how to investigate the strain-specific efficacy of vaccine trials. Use of these strategies in the design and monitoring of vaccine trials will not only shed light on the contribution of genetic diversity to the antigenic diversity of malaria, but will also maximise the potential of future malaria vaccine

  8. The design status of the liquid lithium target facility of IFMIF at the end of the engineering design activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitti, F.S., E-mail: francesco.nitti@enea.it [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho Japan (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ida, M. [IHI Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Favuzza, P. [ENEA Research Center Firenze (Italy); Furukawa, T. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Groeschel, F. [KIT Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Heidinger, R. [F4E Research Center, Garching (Germany); Kanemura, T. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho Japan (Japan); Kondo, H. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Micchiche, G. [ENEA Research Center, Brasimone (Italy); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA Research Center, Rokkasho Japan (Japan); Wakai, E. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Results of validation and design activity for the Li loop facility of IFMIF. • Demonstration of Li target stability, with surface disturbance <1 mm. • Demonstration of start-up and shut down procedures of Li loop. • Complete design of the heat removal system and C and O purification system. • Conceptual design of N and H isotopes purification systems. - Abstract: The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an experimental facility conceived for qualifying and characterizing structural materials for nuclear fusion applications. The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity (EVEDA) is a fundamental step towards the final design. It presented two mandates: the Engineering Validation Activities (EVA), still on-going, and the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) accomplished on schedule in June 2013. Five main facilities are identified in IFMIF, among which the Lithium Target Facility constituted a technological challenge overcome thanks to the success of the main validation challenges impacting the design. The design of the liquid Lithium Target Facility at the end of the EDA phase is here detailed.

  9. 基于AD5933的32通道岩土水分测量仪的研制%Design of 32-Channel Soil Moisture Meter Based on AD5933

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 伍群芳; 赖建英; 刁心宏; 彭皓

    2014-01-01

    基于将岩土水分转化成电信号测量的原理,研制出了一种以STM32为控制核心,以阻抗转换芯片AD5933为测量核心的32通道岩土介质水分测试仪系统。系统具有自动测量,自动校准,支持USB通讯等功能。测量实验表明,系统具有稳定可靠,测量精度高,体积小、低成本、操作简单等优点,具有很好的工程应用价值。%Based on the measurement principle of converting soil moisture measurement into electrical signal, this paper designs a 32-channel soil moisture meter which adopts STM32 as the control core and impedance con-version chip AD5933 as the measuring core. The system has the functions of automatic control,automatic cor-rection and supporting USB communication and so on. Results show that the measuring instrument has the ad-vantages of highly integrated circuits,easy operation,and high accuracy,stable and reliable performance, which may have wide engineering applications.

  10. Computer Aided Drug Design for Multi-Target Drug Design: SAR /QSAR, Molecular Docking and Pharmacophore Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Azizeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Ghasemi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Multi-target drugs against particular multiple targets get better protection, resistance profiles and curative influence by cooperative rules of a key beneficial target with resistance behavior and compensatory elements. Computational techniques can assist us in the efforts to design novel drugs (ligands) with a preferred bioactivity outline and alternative bioactive molecules at an early stage. A number of in silico methods have been explored extensively in order to facilitate the investigation of individual target agents and to propose a selective drug. A different, progressively more significant field which is used to predict the bioactivity of chemical compounds is the data mining method. Some of the previously mentioned methods have been investigated for multi-target drug design (MTDD) to find drug leads interact simultaneously with multiple targets. Several cheminformatics methods and structure-based approaches try to extract information from units working cooperatively in a biomolecular system to fulfill their task. To dominate the difficulties of the experimental specification of ligand-target structures, rational methods, namely molecular docking, SAR and QSAR are vital substitutes to obtain knowledge for each structure in atomic insight. These procedures are logically successful for the prediction of binding affinity and have shown promising potential in facilitating MTDD. Here, we review some of the important features of the multi-target therapeutics discoveries using the computational approach, highlighting the SAR, QSAR, docking and pharmacophore methods to discover interactions between drug-target that could be leveraged for curative benefits. A summary of each, followed by examples of its applications in drug design has been provided. Computational efficiency of each method has been represented according to its main strengths and limitations.

  11. Design of targeted libraries against the human Chk1 kinase using PGVL Hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwei; Hu, Qiyue

    2011-01-01

    PGVL Hub is a Pfizer internal desktop tool for chemical library and singleton design. In this chapter, we give a short introduction to PGVL Hub, the core workflow it supports, and the rich design capabilities it provides. By re-creating two legacy targeted libraries against the human checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) as a showcase, we illustrate how PGVL Hub could be used to help library designers carry out the steps in library design and realize design objectives such as SAR expansion and improvement in both kinase selectivity and compound aqueous solubility. Finally we share several tips about library design and usage of PGVL Hub.

  12. Design and activity evaluation of deoxyribozymes specifically targeting hepatitis C virus RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于乐成; 王宇明; 王升启; 顾长海; 毛青; 陈忠斌; 刘鸿凌

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the cleaving and inhibitory activity of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific deoxyribozymes (DRz) at both molecular and transgeneic cellular levels. Methods: According to the secondary structure of HCV 5′-noncoding region (5′-NCR) and the sites characterized with 5′…Y↓R...3′(Y=A/G,R=U/C), HCV-specific naive deoxyribozymes were designed and named DRz-232, DRz-127, DRz-84, DRz1, and the phosphorothioate deoxyribozymes (PSDRz) and mutated phosphorothioate deoxyribozymes (MPSDRz) were also designed. HCV RNA 5′-NCR was transcribed in vitro from linearized plasmid pHCV-neo and radiolabelled at its 5′-end. DRz, PSDRz or MPSDRz was respectively mixed with the substrate RNA and incubated under appropriate conditions, the cleaved products were displayed by 8% denaturated polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and autoradiography, and the optical density of each band was measured to calculate cleavage rates. After that, every kind of DRz was added respectively to the cultured transgeneic HepG2 cells containing luciferase gene controlled by HCV 5′-NCR. The cells were lysed at intended time points and the activity of luciferase was measured with chemiluminescence method for calculating inhibition rates. Results: After incubated for 90 min in vitro, the cleavage rates of DRz-127, PSDRz-127, DRz1 and PSDRz1 reached 32.6%, 30.8%, 24.3% and 21.5%, respectively. No cleavage product was observed in any MPSDRz. DRz-127, PSDRz-127, DRz1 and PSDRz1 had an inhibitory rate of 53.2%, 50.6%, 44.7% and 43.3% respectively in transgeneic HepG2 cells in the first 24 h when the final dose of the DRz was 0.5 μmol/L, higher than that of the corresponding MPSDRz. There was no significant difference between the inhibitory effect of each DRz and its PSDRz in HepG2 cells, but the inhibitory rate of DRz decreased more rapidly than that of the latter with the elapse of time. The results from transfection groups were significantly better than those of non

  13. Design and optimization for the windowless target of the China Nuclear Waste Transmutation Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, De Sheng; Wang, Weihua; Yang, Shi Jun; Deng, Haifei; Wang, Rong Fei; Wang, Bin Jun [Institute Applied Physics of AOA, Hefei (China)

    2016-04-15

    A windowless spallation target can provide a neutron source and maintain neutron chain reaction for a subcritical reactor, and is a key component of China's nuclear waste transmutation of coupling accelerator and subcritical reactor. The main issue of the windowless target design is to form a stable and controllable free surface that can ensure that energy spectrum distribution is acquired for the neutron physical design when the high energy proton beam beats the lead-bismuth eutectic in the spallation target area. In this study, morphology and flow characteristics of the free surface of the windowless target were analyzed through the volume of fluid model using computational fluid dynamics simulation, and the results show that the outlet cross section size of the target is the key to form a stable and controllable free surface, as well as the outlet with an arc transition. The optimization parameter of the target design, in which the radius of outlet cross section is 60 ± 1 mm, is verified to form a stable and controllable free surface and to reduce the formation of air bubbles. This work can function as a reference for carrying out engineering design of windowless target and for verification experiments.

  14. Design of Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection System Based on AD9273%基于AD9273的超声相控阵检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建; 徐大专

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a highly integrated ultrasonic phased array inspection system based on AD9273. The system is designed based on traditional ultrasound phased array inspection system. In the system, some new and highly integrated chips, such as AD9273 and HV748, are used to complete 32-channel high-voltage transmitter and receiver acquisition circuit, FPGA subsystem and ARM platform are used to constitute the core of digital signal processing part, and digital quadrature envelope detector is used to complete the receiver beamforming. The system meets the real-time, high-speed requirements of detection systems. Significant improvement appears in the system's level of miniaturization and digitization. This solution provides the basis for Portable ultrasonic phased array inspection system.%提出了一种基于AD9273的高集成度超声相控阵检测系统设计方案。在传统超声相控阵检测系统的基础上,利用新型高集成度芯片AD9273和HV748完成32通道高压发射电路和接收采集电路设计;采用FPGA子系统结合ARM平台的方式构成系统数字信号处理的核心;采用数字正交包络检波技术完成接收波束成形。系统满足探伤的实时、高速的要求。系统在小型化和数字化方面有显著提高,可为便携式超声相控阵检测系统设计奠定基础。

  15. Magnet Design for the ISIS Second Target Station Proton Beam Line

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Chris; Jago, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The ISIS facility, based at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, is an intense source of neutrons and muons for condensed matter research. The accelerator facility delivers an 800 MeV proton beam of 2.5x1013 protons per pulse at 50 Hz to the present target station. As part of a facility upgrade, it is planned to share the source with a second, 10 Hz, target station. The beam line supplying this target will extract from the existing target station beam line. Electromagnetic Finite Element Modelling techniques have been used to design the magnets required to meet the specified beam line optics. Kicker, septum, dipole, quadrupole, and steering magnets are covered. The magnet design process, involving 2D and 3D modelling, the calculation of ideal shims and chamfers, choice of steel, design of conducting coils, handling of heating issues and eddy current effects, is discussed.

  16. Design of photon converter and photoneutron target for High power electron accelerator based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Faezeh; Seifi, Samaneh; Anbaran, Hossein Tavakoli; Ghasemi, Farshad

    2015-12-01

    An electron accelerator, ILU-14, with current of 10 mA and 100 kW in power has been considered as one of the options for neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The final design of neutron target has been obtained using MCNPX to optimize the neutron production. Tungsten in strip shape and D2O in cylindrical form have been proposed as the photon converter and the photoneutron target, respectively. In addition calculation of heat deposition in the photon target design has been considered to ensure mechanical stability of target. The results show that about 8.37×10(12) photoneutron/s with average energy of 615 keV can be produced by this neutron source design. In addition, using an appropriate beam shaping assembly an epithermal neutron flux of the order of 1.24×10(8) cm(-2) s(-1) can be obtained for BNCT applications.

  17. 基于TMS320VC5509与AD7322的数据采集系统的设计%Design of a data acquisition system based on TMS320VC5509 and AD7322

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to enhance the signal sampling rate and conversion accuracy and to reduce system power consumption,a kind of dada acquisition system is designed based on the fixed-point DSP TMS320VC5509 and 2-channel,software-selectable,true bipolar input,1MSPS,12-Bit plus sign,successive approximation type ADC,AD7322,and the principle of hardware circuit and the method of connection and acquisition process are introduced.TCD1206SUP linear CCD with 2160 cells is adopted as image sensor,after CCD completes scanning data,the output of video signals will be filtered by a second-order active low pass circuit,these signals will be collected by the high speed serial ADC,AD7322,which will convert them to digital signals and be sent into DSP.The test result indicates that the system scheme designed is reasonable and design purpose and requirement are reached.%为了提高数据采集系统的采样速度、转换精度、降低系统功耗,设计了一种采用TI公司的C5000系列定点DSP芯片TMS320VC5509和ADI Device公司的2通道的、软件可选的、双极性输入的、最高转换速率是1MSpS、12位的带符号的逐次逼近型串行AD7322的数据采集系统,并阐述了该系统的主要硬件电路的搭建原理、连接方法以及采集过程。该系统的前端数据采集单元采用2160像元的TCD1206SUP线阵CCD作为图像传感器,CCD输出的视频信号经过一个二阶有源低通滤波电路进行滤波后,被高速串行A/D转换器AD7322采集并转换成数字信号,然后将数字信号送进DSP。通过测试表明,该系统设计方案合理,达到了设计目的和要求。

  18. Design of 5 .8GHz Circular Microstrip Rectenna Based on ADS%基于 ADS 的5.8GHz 圆形微带整流天线仿真设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿凯峰; 刘丽; 漆世锴

    2016-01-01

    Rectenna is one of the critical components of wireless power transmission(WPT ) .Common rectangle patch microstrip antenna have its shortages which include oversize area ,high-cost ,difficult integration and so on .According to the design theory of circular microstrip antenna and a source of feed cavity model theory ,a novel 5 .8GHz circular microstrip re-ctenna is designed .Optimizing the designed circular microstrip rectenna using ADS2008 software ,which makes this receiving antenna area of circular microstrip rectenna nearly 4 times smaller than the same kind rectangle patch microstrip antenna .It not only greatly reduces the production cost ,but also is easy to be integrated and conformal ,more suitable to make up anten-na array .Experimental results show that power transmission efficiency of this rectenna system is above 70% ,which indirect-ly demonstrates the simulation and optimization of this microstrip rectenna availability using ADS2008 software .%整流天线是无线能量传输的关键部件之一。常用的矩形微带天线存在面积大、成本高、不易集成等不足。根据圆形微带天线设计理论和有馈源的空腔模型理论,设计了一种工作在5.8GHz 的新型圆形微带整流天线。经过ADS2008软件仿真优化使得该圆形微带整流天线的接收天线面积比同类矩形微带天线将近小4倍左右,这不仅大大降低了生产成本,而且易集成和共形,更适合组成天线阵。实验结果表明,该整流天线系统的输能效率可达到70%以上,间接说明了利用 ADS2008仿真优化该微带整流天线的可行性。

  19. Molecular drug targets and structure based drug design: A holistic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shailza; Malik, Balwant Kumar; Sharma, Durlabh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Access to the complete human genome sequence as well as to the complete sequences of pathogenic organisms provides information that can result in an avalanche of therapeutic targets. Structure-based design is one of the first techniques to be used in drug design. Structure based design refers specifically to finding and complementing the 3D structure (binding and/or active site) of a target molecule such as a receptor protein. The aim of this review is to give an outline of studies in the fie...

  20. 浮选自动加药控制系统的设计%Design of Flotation Auto Chemical Adding Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平胜; 王然风

    2011-01-01

    The author studied the existing problems in the flotation auto chemical adding system and proposed the solutions. A new flotation auto chemical adding system was worked out through rational design and model selection, which could meet the serious environment in coal preparation plants.%论述了现有浮选自动加药系统存在的问题,提出了解决这些问题的解决方案,通过合理的设计和选型,设计了能够应对恶劣选煤厂环境的新型浮选加药系统。

  1. Computational Design of Proteins Targeting the Conserved Stem Region of Influenza Hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleishman, Sarel J.; Whitehead, Timothy A.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Corn, Jacob E.; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Wilson, Ian A.; Baker, David (UWASH); (Scripps)

    2011-09-28

    We describe a general computational method for designing proteins that bind a surface patch of interest on a target macromolecule. Favorable interactions between disembodied amino acid residues and the target surface are identified and used to anchor de novo designed interfaces. The method was used to design proteins that bind a conserved surface patch on the stem of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) from the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus. After affinity maturation, two of the designed proteins, HB36 and HB80, bind H1 and H5 HAs with low nanomolar affinity. Further, HB80 inhibits the HA fusogenic conformational changes induced at low pH. The crystal structure of HB36 in complex with 1918/H1 HA revealed that the actual binding interface is nearly identical to that in the computational design model. Such designed binding proteins may be useful for both diagnostics and therapeutics.

  2. Analysis of Operating Strategies Using Different Target Designs For 238Pu Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Tomcy [University of Tennessee (UT); Sherman, Steven R [ORNL; Sawhney, Dr. Rapinder [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-01-01

    An engineering effort is underway to re-establish capability to produce 238Pu oxide at the kilogram scale in the United States. A multi-step batch process is being developed to produce this important material. Recently, a portion of this process was studied using discrete-event simulation tools to determine whether the conceptual process might achieve its yearly production goal. The study showed the conceptual process can meet the yearly production goal under some circumstances, but process improvements would be needed to ensure greater likelihood of success. This study extends the work performed previously by examining the effects of changing the reactor target design on the yearly process output. Two new reactor target configurations are considered an aluminum-clad reactor target containing 50% greater 237Np oxide content than the original target, and a zirconium alloy-clad target using no aluminum. The results indicate that use of the new aluminum-clad target configuration may allow the process to achieve the same yearly production goal in less time using fewer targets. If the zirconium alloy-clad target is used, then even fewer targets would be needed to reach the production goal, but some process changes would be required to handle the zirconium cladding. The number of days needed to process a target batch to completion, and the steady state 238Pu oxide production rate, for each configuration are compared to the results from the initial simulation study.

  3. From laptop to benchtop to bedside: Structure-based Drug Design on Protein Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lu; Morrow, John K.; Tran, Hoang T.; Phatak, Sharangdhar S.; Du-Cuny, Lei; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    As an important aspect of computer-aided drug design, structure-based drug design brought a new horizon to pharmaceutical development. This in silico method permeates all aspects of drug discovery today, including lead identification, lead optimization, ADMET prediction and drug repurposing. Structure-based drug design has resulted in fruitful successes drug discovery targeting protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Meanwhile, challenges, noted by low accuracy and combinatoric issue...

  4. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)); Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D. (W.J. Schafer Associates, Livermore, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D[sub 2] or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  5. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D. [W.J. Schafer Associates, Livermore, CA (US)

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D{sub 2} or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  6. Autonomous Rover Traverse and Precise Arm Placement on Remotely Designated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Michael; Nesnas, Issa A.; Pivtoraiko, Mihail; Kelly, Alonzo; Volpe, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Exploring planetary surfaces typically involves traversing challenging and unknown terrain and acquiring in-situ measurements at designated locations using arm-mounted instruments. We present field results for a new implementation of an autonomous capability that enables a rover to traverse and precisely place an arm-mounted instrument on remote targets. Using point-and-click mouse commands, a scientist designates targets in the initial imagery acquired from the rover's mast cameras. The rover then autonomously traverse the rocky terrain for a distance of 10 - 15 m, tracks the target(s) of interest during the traverse, positions itself for approaching the target, and then precisely places an arm-mounted instrument within 2-3 cm from the originally designated target. The rover proceeds to acquire science measurements with the instrument. This work advances what has been previously developed and integrated on the Mars Exploration Rovers by using algorithms that are capable of traversing more rock-dense terrains, enabling tight thread-the-needle maneuvers. We integrated these algorithms on the newly refurbished Athena Mars research rover and fielded them in the JPL Mars Yard. We conducted 43 runs with targets at distances ranging from 5 m to 15 m and achieved a success rate of 93% for placement of the instrument within 2-3 cm.

  7. Analysis of the thermomechanical behavior of the IFMIF bayonet target assembly under design loading scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, D., E-mail: davide.bernardi@enea.it [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Arena, P.; Bongiovì, G.; Di Maio, P.A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Frisoni, M. [ENEA Bologna, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, Bologna (Italy); Miccichè, G.; Serra, M. [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    In the framework of the IFMIF Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (IFMIF/EVEDA) phase, ENEA is responsible for the design of the European concept of the IFMIF lithium target system which foresees the possibility to periodically replace only the most irradiated and thus critical component (i.e., the backplate) while continuing to operate the rest of the target for a longer period (the so-called bayonet backplate concept). In this work, the results of the steady state thermomechanical analysis of the IFMIF bayonet target assembly under two different design loading scenarios (a “hot” scenario and a “cold” scenario) are briefly reported highlighting the relevant indications obtained with respect to the fulfillment of the design requirements. In particular, the analyses have shown that in the hot scenario the temperatures reached in the target assembly are within the material acceptable limits while in the cold scenario transition below the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) cannot be excluded. Moreover, results indicate that the contact between backplate and high flux test module is avoided and that the overall structural integrity of the system is assured in both scenarios. However, stress linearization analysis reveals that ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) design rules are not always met along the selected paths at backplate middle plane section in the hot scenario, thus suggesting the need of a revision of the backplate design or a change of the operating conditions.

  8. Design and rationale for RE-VERSE AD : A phase 3 study of idarucizumab, a specific reversal agent for dabigatran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollack, Charles V.; Reilly, Paul A.; Bernstein, Richard; Dubiel, Robert; Eikelboom, John; Glund, Stephan; Huisman, Menno V.; Hylek, Elaine; Kam, Chak-Wah; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Kreuzer, Joerg; Levy, Jerrold H.; Sellke, Frank; Stangier, Joachim; Steiner, Thorsten; Wang, Bushi; Weitz, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Idarucizumab, a Fab fragment directed against dabigatran, produced rapid and complete reversal of the anticoagulation effect of dabigatran in animals and in healthy volunteers. The Study of the REVERSal Effects of Idarucizumab in Patients on Active Dabigatran (RE-VERSE AD (TM)) is a global phase 3 p

  9. Computational Design of High Efficiency Release Targets for Use at ISOL Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Middleton, J.W.

    1998-11-04

    This report describes efforts made at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design high-efficiency-release targets that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, controllable temperatures, and heat removal properties required for the generation of useful radioactive ion beam (RIB) intensities for nuclear physics and astrophysics research using the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) technique. Short diffusion lengths are achieved either by using thin fibrous target materials or by coating thin layers of selected target material onto low-density carbon fibers such as reticulated vitreous carbon fiber (RVCF) or carbon-bonded-carbon-fiber (CBCF) to form highly permeable composite target matrices. Computational studies which simulate the generation and removal of primary beam deposited heat from target materials have been conducted to optimize the design of target/heat-sink systems for generating RIBs. The results derived tlom diffusion release-rate simulation studies for selected targets and thermal analyses of temperature distributions within a prototype target/heat-sink system subjected to primary ion beam irradiation will be presented in this report.

  10. Adalimumab added to a treat-to-target strategy with methotrexate and intra-articular triamcinolone in early rheumatoid arthritis increased remission rates, function and quality of life. The OPERA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Hetland, Merete Lund; Junker, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An investigator-initiated, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, treat-to-target protocol (Clinical Trials:NCT00660647) studied whether adalimumab added to methotrexate and intra-articular triamcinolone as first-line treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) increased the frequency ...

  11. Thermal hydraulic design and decay heat removal of a solid target for a spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)]. E-mail: takenaka@mech.kobe-u.ac.jp; Nio, D. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kiyanagi, Y. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Mishima, K. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori (Japan); Kawai, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Furusaka, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Thermal hydraulic design and thermal stress calculations were conducted for a water-cooled solid target irradiated by a MW-class proton beam for a spallation neutron source. Plate type and rod bundle type targets were examined. The thickness of the plate and the diameter of the rod were determined based on the maximum and the wall surface temperature. The thermal stress distributions were calculated by a finite element method (FEM). The neutronics performance of the target is roughly proportional to its average density. The averaged densities of the designed targets were calculated for tungsten plates, tantalum-clad tungsten plates, tungsten rods sheathed by tantalum and Zircaloy and they were compared with mercury density. It was shown that the averaged density was highest for the tungsten plates and was high for the tantalum cladding tungsten plates, the tungsten rods sheathed by tantalum and Zircaloy in order. They were higher than or equal to that of mercury for the 1-2 MW proton beams. Tungsten target without the cladding or the sheath is not practical due to corrosion by water under irradiation condition. Therefore, the tantalum cladding tungsten plate already made successfully by HIP and the sheathed tungsten rod are the candidate of high performance solid targets. The decay heat of each target was calculated. It was low enough low compared to that of ISIS for the target without tantalum but was about four times as high as that of ISIS when the thickness of the tantalum cladding was 0.5 mm. Heat removal methods of the decay heat with tantalum were examined. It was shown that a special cooling system was required for the target exchange when tantalum was used for the target. It was concluded that the tungsten rod target sheathed with stainless steel or Zircaloy was the most reliable from the safety considerations and had similar neutronics performance to that of mercury.

  12. Radar Constant-Modulus Waveform Design with Prior Information of the Extended Target and Clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wenzhen; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yimin; Xie, Jingwen

    2016-06-17

    Radar waveform design is of great importance for radar system performances and has drawn considerable attention recently. Constant modulus is an important waveform design consideration, both from the point of view of hardware realization and to allow for full utilization of the transmitter's power. In this paper, we consider the problem of constant-modulus waveform design for extended target detection with prior information about the extended target and clutter. At first, we propose an arbitrary-phase unimodular waveform design method via joint transmitter-receiver optimization. We exploit a semi-definite relaxation technique to transform an intractable non-convex problem into a convex problem, which can then be efficiently solved. Furthermore, quadrature phase shift keying waveform is designed, which is easier to implement than arbitrary-phase waveforms. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  13. 移动Ad hoc网络服务发现协议的设计与实现%THE DESIGN AND LMPLEMENTATION OF SERVICE DISCOVERY PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 米智勇; 朱锋

    2011-01-01

    随着移动Ad hoc网络(Mobile Ad Hoc Network,MANET)在民用领域使用范围的扩大,实现MANET网络资源共享,提供适合于MANET网络的服务发现协议(Service Discovery Protocol,SDP)已成为1ETF MANET工作组研究的主要方向之一;MANET网络全局互连也已成为人们研究的焦点.本文根据MANET网络全局互连的情况提出一种基于网关的服务发现协议- SDPBG( Service Discovery Protocol Based on Gateway),并使用NS -2网络模拟器对该协议进行模拟,模拟结果显示,该协议适合于小型的MANET网络.%With the Mobile Ad Hoc Network( MANET) expanding in the common life, sharing MANET network resource and providing suitable MANET network service discovery protocol have become one of the main objections of research of the IETF MANET Working Group. Global interconnection for MANET has become a focus of research in the current year. . According to the global interconnection for MANET, this paper proposes the SDPBG(Service Discovery Protocol Based on Gateway) service discovery protocol, uses NS - 2 network simulator to simulate the protocol. We can draw the conclusion that the design of the SDPBG service discovery protocol suites for the small - scale MANET network.

  14. Designing nanoconjugates to effectively target pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmad Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in America. Monoclonal antibodies are a viable treatment option for inhibiting cancer growth. Tumor specific drug delivery could be achieved utilizing these monoclonal antibodies as targeting agents. This type of designer therapeutic is evolving and with the use of gold nanoparticles it is a promising approach to selectively deliver chemotherapeutics to malignant cells. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs are showing extreme promise in current medicinal research. GNPs have been shown to non-invasively kill tumor cells by hyperthermia using radiofrequency. They have also been implemented as early detection agents due to their unique X-ray contrast properties; success was revealed with clear delineation of blood capillaries in a preclinical model by CT (computer tomography. The fundamental parameters for intelligent design of nanoconjugates are on the forefront. The goal of this study is to define the necessary design parameters to successfully target pancreatic cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nanoconjugates described in this study were characterized with various physico-chemical techniques. We demonstrate that the number of cetuximab molecules (targeting agent on a GNP, the hydrodynamic size of the nanoconjugates, available reactive surface area and the ability of the nanoconjugates to sequester EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, all play critical roles in effectively targeting tumor cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the specific targeting of tumor cells depends on a number of crucial components 1 targeting agent to nanoparticle ratio 2 availability of reactive surface area on the nanoparticle 3 ability of the nanoconjugate to bind the target and 4 hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoconjugate. We believe this study will help define the design parameters for formulating better strategies

  15. Rational Design of Cancer-Targeted Benzoselenadiazole by RGD Peptide Functionalization for Cancer Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liye; Li, Wenying; Huang, Yanyu; Zhou, Yangliang; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-09-01

    A cancer-targeted conjugate of the selenadiazole derivative BSeC (benzo[1,2,5] selenadiazole-5-carboxylic acid) with RGD peptide as targeting molecule and PEI (polyethylenimine) as a linker is rationally designed and synthesized in the present study. The results show that RGD-PEI-BSeC forms nanoparticles in aqueous solution with a core-shell nanostructure and high stability under physiological conditions. This rational design effectively enhances the selective cellular uptake and cellular retention of BSeC in human glioma cells, and increases its selectivity between cancer and normal cells. The nanoparticles enter the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis via clathrin-mediated and nystatin-dependent lipid raft-mediated pathways. Internalized nanoparticles trigger glioma cell apoptosis by activation of ROS-mediated p53 phosphorylation. Therefore, this study provides a strategy for the rational design of selenium-containing cancer-targeted theranostics.

  16. Methods to enable the design of bioactive small molecules targeting RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Matthew D.; Yildirim, Ilyas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA is an immensely important target for small molecule therapeutics or chemical probes of function. However, methods that identify, annotate, and optimize RNA-small molecule interactions that could enable the design of compounds that modulate RNA function are in their infancies. This review describes recent approaches that have been developed to understand and optimize RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (StARTS), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), chemical similarity searching, structure-based design and docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Case studies described include the design of small molecules targeting RNA expansions, the bacterial A-site, viral RNAs, and telomerase RNA. These approaches can be combined to afford a synergistic method to exploit the myriad of RNA targets in the transcriptome. PMID:24357181

  17. Design of reconfigurable pipeline A/D converter%一种可重构流水线ADC的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振宇; 王立志; 杨勇

    2012-01-01

    The A/D converter in the multi-standard wireless communication system is studied in this paper. According to the multi-mode characteristics of the wireless communication system, the structure of a new reconfigurable pipeline A/D converter was built. The reconfiguration funetion of the A/D converteris was mainly aehieved by powering off the sub-stage pipeline in low resolution modes. The systematic index of the converter is 6~-14 b. In this condition,a novel reconfigurable control can be introduced to reduce the power dissipation without deteriorating the ADC performance. The simulation of the reconfigurable pipeline A/D converter was performed.%对多标准无线通信系统中的A/D转换器进行了研究,根据无线通信系统的特点,构建了一个新型可重构流水线A/D转换器结构,该A/D转换器的可重构功能是通过在低分辨率下关断子级流水线来实现的.转换器的系统指标为6~14 b,从而可以在保证不影响ADC性能的前提下,引入新颖的可重构控制以进一步降低功耗.最后对改进的可重构流水线ADC进行了性能仿真.

  18. CFD Analysis and Design of Detailed Target Configurations for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Adam; Merzari, Elia; Sofu, Tanju; Zhong, Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-08-01

    High-fidelity analysis has been utilized in the design of beam target options for an accelerator driven subcritical system. Designs featuring stacks of plates with square cross section have been investigated for both tungsten and uranium target materials. The presented work includes the first thermal-hydraulic simulations of the full, detailed target geometry. The innovative target cooling manifold design features many regions with complex flow features, including 90 bends and merging jets, which necessitate three-dimensional fluid simulations. These were performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+. Conjugate heat transfer was modeled between the plates, cladding, manifold structure, and fluid. Steady-state simulations were performed but lacked good residual convergence. Unsteady simulations were then performed, which converged well and demonstrated that flow instability existed in the lower portion of the manifold. It was established that the flow instability had little effect on the peak plate temperatures, which were well below the melting point. The estimated plate surface temperatures and target region pressure were shown to provide sufficient margin to subcooled boiling for standard operating conditions. This demonstrated the safety of both potential target configurations during normal operation.

  19. Signal waveform design to detect an underwater high-speed small target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chonglin; YAO Lan

    2002-01-01

    The problem of sonar signal waveform design to detect a high-speed small target in an underwater environment is discussed. From theoretical analysis, time-frequency hop signal is regarded as the most suitable signal waveform in this application. To get precise target parameter estimation ability, the signal should have high range-Doppler resolution performance.The results of signal analysis show that hop signal with frequency serial coding as Costas array has sharp ambiguity characteristic, so it can be used in an active sonar system to detect a high speed small target. A scheme of frequency coding is also presented.

  20. Interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors%介入导入Ad-p53基因联合超声辐照治疗兔VX2肝癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐劲松; 杨瑞民; 赵鹏; 张铭秋; 崔红凯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors, as well as its impact on VEGF and MMP2. Methods Forty-two Chinchilla rabbits were collected and VX2 cancer cells were injected into the left lobe of liver on the observation in rabbits. The growth of cancer was monitored by ultrasound. Thirty rabbit models were successfully made and divided into 3 groups (each n=10) randomly. Fourteen days after transplantation of cancer cells, Ad-p53 was administrated through hepatic artery (in Ad-p53 group) or combined with ultrasound wave irradiation (in Ad-p53 + US group), while the same amount of saline was given for rabbits in control group. Three days later, the tumor size was observed with ultrasound, and then all rabbits were sacrificed, the serum VEGF level was measured by ELISA, the hepatic tissue expression of p53, MMP2 and VEGF were detected respectively by immunohistochemistry, and expression level of wild type p53 was measured using Western blot. Results No difference of tumor size was found between 3 groups before therapy. All tumor sizes increased, but the tumors in Ad-p53 + US group were relatively smaller. The efficiency of Ad-p53 transfection was improved in Ad-p53 group compared with control group, which was the highest in Ad-p53 + US group. Furthermore, the serum VEGF level decreased in Ad-p53 + US group, so did the expression of MMP2 and VEGF in Ad-p53 group and Ad-p53 + US group, more obviously in Ad-p53 + US group. Conclusion Ad-p53 can suppress the growth of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbit models. The therapeutic efficacy of Ad-p53 can be improved by interventional targeting administration combining with ultrasound irradiation.%目的 探讨介入导向下联合超声辐照对兔VX2肝癌模型Ad-p53转染效率及该基因对VEGF、MMP2的影响.方法 青紫蓝兔42只,直视下手术,将VX2肿瘤细胞种植于肝左叶,以超声检测

  1. Design techniques and analysis of high-resolution neural recording systems targeting epilepsy focus localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaran, Mahsa; Pollo, Claudio; Leblebici, Yusuf; Schmid, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The design of a high-density neural recording system targeting epilepsy monitoring is presented. Circuit challenges and techniques are discussed to optimize the amplifier topology and the included OTA. A new platform supporting active recording devices targeting wireless and high-resolution focus localization in epilepsy diagnosis is also proposed. The post-layout simulation results of an amplifier dedicated to this application are presented. The amplifier is designed in a UMC 0.18µm CMOS technology, has an NEF of 2.19 and occupies a silicon area of 0.038 mm(2), while consuming 5.8 µW from a 1.8-V supply.

  2. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  3. Design of ECG Monitoring of the Amplified Signal Based on AD620%基于AD620的心电监测放大信号的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常星

    2016-01-01

    为了方便人们实时了解心律变化,得到较为准确的心电信号特征。提出了一种心电放大信号电路的设计,该设计采用低功耗、低成本、高精度仪表放大器AD620将心电信号(ECG)进行数据采集放大后,然后再经过低噪声、高精度、高度运算放大器OP07组成的滤波电路及主放大电路对前级放大的心电信号进行电路处理从而得到较为精确的心电信号。通过硬件测试系统达到了能够检测心电信好的目的。设计具有一定的实际应用价值。%In order to facilitate the people to understand the real-time heart rate variability to obtain more a-ccurate ECG feature.Proposed a ECG signal amplifying circuit design that uses low-power,low cost,high a-ccuracy instrumentation amplifier AD620 the ECG(ECG)be enlarged after data col ection,and then through t-he low pass noise,high accuracy,the height of the operational amplifier OP07 filter circuit composed of the m-ain amplifier and preamp on the ECG signal processing circuit to obtain a more accurate ECG.Hardware test system capable of detecting heart Telecom reached a good purpose.Design has some practical value.

  4. Flash在计算机中的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Flash Public Service Ads in Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史耀进

    2012-01-01

    本文将广告理论与Flash广告相结合,介绍了Flash公益广告的设计与实现,并通过实例分析了Flash公益广告的特色.%This paper introduced the design and implementation of Flash public service advertising combined with the Flash ads and theory of the traditional advertising, and analyzed the characteristics of Flash public service advertising through the case.

  5. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions. PMID:26216991

  6. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-08-11

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions.

  7. 1-MJ, Wetted-Foam Target-Design Performance for the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, T. J. B.

    2006-10-01

    Wetted-foam, direct-drive target designs are a path to high-gain experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Wetted-foam designs take advantage of the increased laser absorption provided by the higher-atomic-number elements in the mixture of plastic foam and deuterium--tritium (DT). The fractional absorption is expected to increase by as much as 30% relative to an ``all-DT'' target for a ˜1-MJ design, depending on the density of the foam and the specific target design. With the increased laser coupling, more fuel can be driven with the same incident laser energy, resulting in increased target gain and/or increased hydrodynamic stability. A stability analysis of a 1-MJ design performed using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in the presence of expected levels of laser and target nonuniformities will be shown. For this design, the sources of nonuniformity from the laser include power imbalance between laser beams and the imprint of single-beam nonuniformities on the target. Target nonuniformities include surface finish and inner-surface DT-ice roughness. The relative impact of these sources of nonuniformity on target performance will be examined. Particular emphasis will be placed on identifying the required levels of beam smoothing with regard to smoothing by spectral dispersion. While this emphasizes symmetric illumination, the results are relevant to polar direct drive, where a direct-drive target is driven on the NIF while it is in its indirect-drive configuration. S. Skupsky et al., in Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001, edited by K. Tanaka, D. D. Meyerhofer, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), p. 240. D.G. Colombant et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2046 (2000). P. W. McKenty et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2315 (2001). S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004). This work was supported by U. S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-92SF19460. Contributors: S. Skupsky, R

  8. Design and modeling of spectral-thermal unmixing targets for airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Phil

    2006-05-01

    Techniques to determine the proportions of constituent materials within a single pixel spectrum are well documented in the reflective (0.4-2.5μm) domain. The same capability is also desirable for the thermal (7-14μm) domain, but is complicated by the thermal contributions to the measured spectral radiance. Atmospheric compensation schemes for the thermal domain have been described along with methods for estimating the spectral emissivity from a spectral radiance measurement and hence the next stage to be tackled is the unmixing of thermal spectral signatures. In order to pursue this goal it is necessary to collect data of well-calibrated targets which will expose the limits of the available techniques and enable more robust methods to be designed. This paper describes the design of a set of ground targets for an airborne hyperspectral imager, which will test the effectiveness of available methods. The set of targets include panels to explore a number of difficult scenarios such as isothermal (different materials at identical temperature), isochromal (identical materials, but at differing temperatures), thermal adjacency and thermal point sources. Practical fabrication issues for heated targets and selection of appropriate materials are described. Mathematical modelling of the experiments has enabled prediction of at-sensor measured radiances which are used to assess the design parameters. Finally, a number of useful lessons learned during the fielding of these actual targets are presented to assist those planning future trials of thermal hyperspectral sensors.

  9. Reduced cost design of liquid lithium target for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Department of Fussion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Yutani, Toshiaki [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is being jointly planned to provide an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source to produce intense high energy neutrons (2 MW/m{sup 2}) up to 200 dpa and a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm{sup 3}) for testing the candidate materials and components up to about a full lifetime of their anticipated use in ITER and DEMO. To realize such a condition, 40 MeV deuteron beam with a current of 250 mA is injected into high speed liquid lithium flow with a speed of 20 m/s. Following Conceptual Design Activity (1995-1998), a design study with focus on cost reduction without changing its original mission has been done in 1999. The following major changes to the CAD target design have been considered in the study and included in the new design: i) number of the Li target has been changed from 2 to 1, ii) spare of impurity traps of the Li loop was removed although the spare will be stored in a laboratory for quick exchange, iii) building volume was reduced via design changes in lithium loop length. This paper describes the reduced cost design of the lithium target system and recent status of Key Element Technology activities. (author)

  10. Multi-target drug design approaches for multifactorial diseases: from neurodegenerative to cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katselou, M G; Matralis, A N; Kourounakis, A P

    2014-01-01

    In multi-target drug design (MTD) medicinal chemistry aims to integrate multiple pharmacophores into a single drug molecule in order to make it active on several molecular biological mechanisms simultaneously. Given the fact that most diseases are multifactorial in nature, MTD is being pursued with increasing intensity, which has resulted in improved outcomes in disease models and several compounds have entered clinical trials. In a wide range of examples we illustrate how various functionalities have been combined within single structures and how this has affected their (pre)clinical outcome. This review describes the successful application of MTD for disorders such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, diabetes, metabolic and inflammatory diseases, especially focusing on the field of atherosclerosis where multi-target strategies are a promising alternative to the classical "one target-one drug" design approach.

  11. Optimal drug cocktail design: methods for targeting molecular ensembles and insights from theoretical model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Mala L; Tidor, Bruce

    2008-05-01

    Drug resistance is a significant obstacle in the effective treatment of diseases with rapidly mutating targets, such as AIDS, malaria, and certain forms of cancer. Such targets are remarkably efficient at exploring the space of functional mutants and at evolving to evade drug binding while still maintaining their biological role. To overcome this challenge, drug regimens must be active against potential target variants. Such a goal may be accomplished by one drug molecule that recognizes multiple variants or by a drug "cocktail"--a small collection of drug molecules that collectively binds all desired variants. Ideally, one wants the smallest cocktail possible due to the potential for increased toxicity with each additional drug. Therefore, the task of designing a regimen for multiple target variants can be framed as an optimization problem--find the smallest collection of molecules that together "covers" the relevant target variants. In this work, we formulate and apply this optimization framework to theoretical model target ensembles. These results are analyzed to develop an understanding of how the physical properties of a target ensemble relate to the properties of the optimal cocktail. We focus on electrostatic variation within target ensembles, as it is one important mechanism by which drug resistance is achieved. Using integer programming, we systematically designed optimal cocktails to cover model target ensembles. We found that certain drug molecules covered much larger regions of target space than others, a phenomenon explained by theory grounded in continuum electrostatics. Molecules within optimal cocktails were often dissimilar, such that each drug was responsible for binding variants with a certain electrostatic property in common. On average, the number of molecules in the optimal cocktails correlated with the number of variants, the differences in the variants' electrostatic properties at the binding interface, and the level of binding affinity

  12. Design of block-copolymer-based micelles for active and passive targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebouille, Jérôme G.J.L.; Leermakers, Frans A.M.; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Tuinier, Remco

    2016-01-01

    A self-consistent field study is presented on the design of active and passive targeting block-copolymeric micelles. These micelles form in water by self-assembly of triblock copolymers with a hydrophilic middle block and two hydrophobic outer blocks. A minority amount of diblock copolymers with the

  13. Pharmacological Targeting of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Opportunities for Computer-Aided Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglianico, Marie; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Neumann, Dietbert

    2016-04-14

    As a central regulator of metabolism, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an established therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. Beyond the metabolic area, the number of medical fields that involve AMPK grows continuously, expanding the potential applications for AMPK modulators. Even though indirect AMPK activators are used in the clinics for their beneficial metabolic outcome, the few described direct agonists all failed to reach the market to date, which leaves options open for novel targeting methods. As AMPK is not actually a single molecule and has different roles depending on its isoform composition, the opportunity for isoform-specific targeting has notably come forward, but the currently available modulators fall short of expectations. In this review, we argue that with the amount of available structural and ligand data, computer-based drug design offers a number of opportunities to undertake novel and isoform-specific targeting of AMPK.

  14. Shock ignition: a brief overview and progress in the design of robust targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzeni, S.; Marocchino, A.; Schiavi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Shock ignition is a laser direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) scheme in which the stages of compression and hot spot formation are partly separated. The fuel is first imploded at a lower velocity than in conventional ICF, reducing the threats due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Close to stagnation, an intense laser spike drives a strong converging shock, which contributes to hot spot formation. This paper starts with a brief overview of the theoretical studies, target design and experimental results on shock ignition. The second part of the paper illustrates original work aiming at the design of robust targets and computation of the relevant gain curves. Following Chang et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 135002) a safety factor for high gain, ITF* (analogous to the ignition threshold factor ITF introduced by Clark et al (2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 056305)), is evaluated by means of parametric 1D simulations with artificially reduced reactivity. SI designs scaled as in Atzeni et al (2013 New J. Phys. 15 045004) are found to have nearly the same ITF*. For a given target, such ITF* increases with implosion velocity and laser spike power. A gain curve with a prescribed ITF* can then be simply generated by upscaling a reference target with that value of ITF*. An interesting option is scaling in size by reducing the implosion velocity to keep the ratio of implosion velocity to self-ignition velocity constant. At a given total laser energy, targets with higher ITF* are driven to higher implosion velocity and achieve a somewhat lower gain. However, a 1D gain higher than 100 is achieved at an (incident) energy below 1 MJ, an implosion velocity below 300 km s-1 and a peak incident power below 400 TW. 2D simulations of mispositioned targets show that targets with a higher ITF* indeed tolerate larger displacements.

  15. Antiproton-Decelerator (AD)

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    When the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was stopped in 1996, because of its costly operation, a cheaper way of continuing low-energy antiproton physics was sought. The Antiproton-Collector (AC), added in 1987 to the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) to provide a tenfold intensity increase, was converted into the Antiproton-Decelerator (AD). Antiprotons from the target at 3.5 GeV/c are decelerated to 100 MeV/c, and fast-ejected to the experiments. Major changes were necessary. Above all, the conversion from a constant-field machine to one with a magnetic cycle, modulating the field by an impressive factor 35. New systems for stochastic and electron cooling had to be added. Beam diagnostics at an intensity of only 2E7 antiprotons was a challenge. In 2000, the AD began delivery of antiprotons to the experiments.

  16. A New 3He-Target Design for Compton Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalchick, S.; Gao, H.; Laskaris, G.; Weir, W.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q. J.

    2011-10-01

    The neutron spin polarizabilities describe the stiffness of the neutron spin to external electric and magnetic fields. A double-polarized elastic Compton Scattering experiment will try to determine the neutron spin polarizabilities using a new polarized 3He target and the circularly polarized γ-beam of HI γS facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL). To polarize the 3He target, a newly constructed solenoid is being used which can provide a very uniform magnetic field around the target area and allows to place High Intensity Gamma Source NaI Detector Arrays (HINDA) closer to the target. The ideal target polarization is 40-60% and will be measured using the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. A prototype of the polarized 3He target is being constructed in the Medium Energy Physics Group laboratories at Duke and is currently being tested. The experiment is expected to take place in 2013 after the DFELL upgrade. I will be presenting details of the construction process, including design specifications and data from the magnetic field mapping, as well as preliminary target polarization results. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, under contract number DE-FG02-03ER41231, and by the National Science Foundation, grant number NSF-PHY-08-51813.

  17. Rationale and design of the AdRem study : Evaluating the effects of blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control on vascular retinal disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Ronald P.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy; Hughes, Alun D.; Stanton, Alice; Lu Juming, [No Value; Patel, Anushka; Thom, Simon A. McG.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Lu, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The ADVANCE Retinal Measurements (AdRem) Study is a large intervention study evaluating the effects of target driven intensive glucose control and placebo controlled blood pressure lowering on retinal vascular changes. AdRem is a sub-study of the ADVANCE Study (Action in Diabetes and Vascular diseas

  18. 基于AD7745的数字式油品检测传感器设计%Design of digital sensor for oil quality detection based on AD7745

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海仓; 滕召胜; 刘静波; 熊海涛; 罗彬

    2011-01-01

    植物油掺伪后难以检测,根据不同油品具有不同介电常数的特性,设计了通过电容值进行检测的数字式油品传感器,建立了传感器等效电路,分析了传感器结构对电容检测的影响.传感器为插杆状结构,平板电容极板为敏感元件,检测时不同油品介质引起的电容量变化经AD7745转换成相应的数字量通过I2C串行总线口输出.实验结果表明:数字式油品传感器能够对掺伪3%以上的植物油进行快速有效鉴别,重复性优于0.2%.%It's difficult to detect whether the edible vegetable oil is adulteration. According to the characteristics that one kind of oil's permittivity is different from others,a capacitive sensor is designed for oil quality detection. The equivalent circuit of the sensor is established to analyze the impact of sensor structure on capacitance detection. The sensor is rod-shaped, and the probe of plate capacitor is sensing unit. The AD7745 chip is used to detect the capacitance change due to different oil quality acting as medium. The detecting result of the sensor is displayed digitally,and is output through the I2C serial bus port. Experiment shows that the sensor can distinguish quickly whether the oil contain adulteration or not to above 3 % edible vegetable oil,and its repeatability is prior to 0.2%.

  19. Design and modeling of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.M.; Lindl, J.D.; Suter, L.J.; Berger, R.L.; Powers, L.V.; Alley, W.E.; Amendt, P.A.; Futterman, J.A.; Levedahl, W.K.; Rosen, M.D.; Rowley, D.P.; Sacks, R.A.; Shestakov, A.I.; Strobel, G.L.; Tabak, M.; Weber, S.V.; Zimmerman, G.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Krauser, W.J.; Wilson, D.C.; Coggeshall, S.V.; Harris, D.B.; Hoffman, N.M.; Wilde, B.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Several targets are described that in simulations give yields of 1--30 MJ when indirectly driven by 0.9--2 MJ of 0.35 {mu}m laser light. The article describes the targets, the modeling that was used to design them, and the modeling done to set specifications for the laser system in the proposed National Ignition Facility. Capsules with beryllium or polystyrene ablators are enclosed in gold hohlraums. All the designs utilize a cryogenic fuel layer; it is very difficult to achieve ignition at this scale with a noncryogenic capsule. It is necessary to use multiple bands of illumination in the hohlraum to achieve sufficiently uniform x-ray irradiation, and to use a low-{ital Z} gas fill in the hohlraum to reduce filling of the hohlraum with gold plasma. Critical issues are hohlraum design and optimization, Rayleigh--Taylor instability modeling, and laser--plasma interactions.

  20. Statistical inference on censored data for targeted clinical trials under enrichment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Fang; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liu, Jen-Pei

    2013-01-01

    For the traditional clinical trials, inclusion and exclusion criteria are usually based on some clinical endpoints; the genetic or genomic variability of the trial participants are not totally utilized in the criteria. After completion of the human genome project, the disease targets at the molecular level can be identified and can be utilized for the treatment of diseases. However, the accuracy of diagnostic devices for identification of such molecular targets is usually not perfect. Some of the patients enrolled in targeted clinical trials with a positive result for the molecular target might not have the specific molecular targets. As a result, the treatment effect may be underestimated in the patient population truly with the molecular target. To resolve this issue, under the exponential distribution, we develop inferential procedures for the treatment effects of the targeted drug based on the censored endpoints in the patients truly with the molecular targets. Under an enrichment design, we propose using the expectation-maximization algorithm in conjunction with the bootstrap technique to incorporate the inaccuracy of the diagnostic device for detection of the molecular targets on the inference of the treatment effects. A simulation study was conducted to empirically investigate the performance of the proposed methods. Simulation results demonstrate that under the exponential distribution, the proposed estimator is nearly unbiased with adequate precision, and the confidence interval can provide adequate coverage probability. In addition, the proposed testing procedure can adequately control the size with sufficient power. On the other hand, when the proportional hazard assumption is violated, additional simulation studies show that the type I error rate is not controlled at the nominal level and is an increasing function of the positive predictive value. A numerical example illustrates the proposed procedures.

  1. Adding a strategic edge to human factors/ergonomics: principles for the management of uncertainty as cornerstones for system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Gudela

    2014-01-01

    It is frequently lamented that human factors and ergonomics knowledge does not receive the attention and consideration that it deserves. In this paper I argue that in order to change this situation human factors/ergonomics based system design needs to be positioned as a strategic task within a conceptual framework that incorporates both business and design concerns. The management of uncertainty is presented as a viable candidate for such a framework. A case is described where human factors/ergonomics experts in a railway company have used the management of uncertainty perspective to address strategic concerns at firm level. Furthermore, system design is discussed in view of the relationship between organization and technology more broadly. System designers need to be supported in better understanding this relationship in order to cope with the uncertainties this relationship brings to the design process itself. Finally, the emphasis on uncertainty embedded in the recent surge of introducing risk management across all business sectors is suggested as another opportunity for bringing human factors and ergonomics expertise to the fore.

  2. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M

    2016-05-05

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared - non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents.

  3. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared - non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents.

  4. A novel target detection approach based on adaptive radar waveform design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haitao; Shi Lei; Wang Youlin; Ben De

    2013-01-01

    To resolve problems of complicated clutter,fast-varying scenes,and low signal-clutterratio (SCR) in application of target detection on sea for space-based radar (SBR),a target detection approach based on adaptive waveform design is proposed in this paper.Firstly,complicated sea clutter is modeled as compound Gaussian process,and a target is modeled as some scatterers with Gaussian reflectivity.Secondly,every dwell duration of radar is divided into several sub-dwells.Regular linear frequency modulated pulses are transmitted at Sub-dwell 1,and the received signal at this sub-dwell is used to estimate clutter covariance matrices and pre-detection.Estimated matrices are updated at every following sub-dwell by multiple particle filtering to cope with fast-varying clutter scenes of SBR.Furthermore,waveform of every following sub-dwell is designed adaptively according to mean square optimization technique.Finally,principal component analysis and generalized likelihood ratio test is used for mitigation of colored interference and property of constant false alarm rate,respectively.Simulation results show that,considering configuration of SBR and condition of complicated clutter,9 dB is reduced for SCR which reliable detection requires by this target detection approach.Therefore,the work in this paper can markedly improve radar detection performance for weak targets.

  5. Design and development of a tantalum foil target for the production of high intensity radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Densham, Cristopher John

    2000-01-01

    The design and development of a high power target and ion source for the production of Radioactive Beams at intensities approaching two orders of magnitude greater than currently possible is presented. This was a key aim of the RIST experiment, designed to utilise the proton synchrotron of the ISIS facility at Rutherford Appleton laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire, where an 800 MeV proton beam is available at currents of up to 200 mu A. A number of different target designs were considered and analysed, and high temperature power dissipation tests were conducted. This culminated in the manufacture of a diffusion bonded structure comprising 6000 separate tantalum foil discs and spacer washers. The target was installed in the RIST facility, and thermal tests using electron beam heating demonstrated that the target was capable of dissipating 24 kW by thermal radiation, at the desired temperature of 2000 deg C. This is equivalent to running with the 800 MeV ISIS proton beam at a current of 100 mu A. A smaller diamet...

  6. A Combination Regimen Design Program Based on Pharmacodynamic Target Setting for Childhood Tuberculosis: Design Rules for the Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shashikant; Deshpande, Devyani; Pasipanodya, Jotam G.; Thomas, Tania; Swaminathan, Soumya; Nuermberger, Eric; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-01-01

    Children with tuberculosis are treated with drug regimens copied from adults despite significant differences in antibiotic pharmacokinetics, pathology, and the microbial burden between childhood and adult tuberculosis. We sought to develop a new and effective oral treatment regimen specific to children of different ages. We investigated and validated the concept that target drug concentrations associated with therapy failure and death in children are different from those of adults. On that basis, we proposed a 4-step program to rapidly develop treatment regimens for children. First, target drug concentrations for optimal efficacy are derived from preclinical models of disseminated tuberculosis that recapitulate pediatric pharmacokinetics, starting with monotherapy. Second, 2-drug combinations were examined for zones of synergy, antagonism, and additivity based on a whole exposure–response surface. Exposures associated with additivity or synergy were then combined and the regimen was compared to standard therapy. Third, several exposures of the third drug were added, and a 3-drug regimen was identified based on kill slopes in comparison to standard therapy. Fourth, computer-aided clinical trial simulations are used to identify clinical doses that achieve these kill rates in children in different age groups. The proposed program led to the development of a 3-drug combination regimen for children from scratch, independent of adult regimens, in <2 years. The regimens and doses can be tested in animal models and in clinical trials. PMID:27742637

  7. Design of the Fifth-Generation Target-Moderator-Reflector-Shield Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, Suzanne Florence [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-16

    The facilities at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center are described first. The target is being redesigned so that the Flight Paths (FP) in the upper tier provide a higher intensity in the epithermal and medium energy range. It is found that a 3-piece design looks promising: intensity in epithermal and medium energy range in upper tier is an order of magnitude higher than current Mark III, and intensity in the thermal energy range is higher in the lower tier than current Mark III. Time emission spectra show a bump due to the scattering of fast neutrons. Other investigations such as the addition of wings around the upper target will be conducted.

  8. Progress in antiandrogen design targeting hormone binding pocket to circumvent mutation based resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong eTian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor (AR plays a critical role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa. Current clinically used antiandrogens such as flutamide, bicalutamide, and newly approved enzalutamide mainly target the hormone binding pocket (HBP of AR. However, over time, drug resistance invariably develops and switches these antiandrogens from antagonist to agonist of the AR. Accumulated evidence indicates that AR mutation is an important cause for the drug resistance. This review will give an overview of the mutation based resistance of the current clinically used antiandrogens and the rational drug design to overcome the resistance, provides a promising strategy for the development of the new generation of antiandrogens targeting HBP.

  9. Validation of a New Design of Tellurium Dioxide-Irradiated Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Fllaoui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of iodine-131 by neutron activation of tellurium in tellurium dioxide (TeO2 material requires a target that meets the safety requirements. In a radiopharmaceutical production unit, a new lid for a can was designed, which permits tight sealing of the target by using tungsten inert gas welding. The leakage rate of all prepared targets was assessed using a helium mass spectrometer. The accepted leakage rate is ≤ 10−4 mbr.L/s, according to the approved safety report related to iodine-131 production in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor (TRIGA: Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics. To confirm the resistance of the new design to the irradiation conditions in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor's central thimble, a study of heat effect on the sealed targets for 7 hours in an oven was conducted and the leakage rates were evaluated. The results show that the tightness of the targets is ensured up to 600°C with the appearance of deformations on lids beyond 450°C. The study of heat transfer through the target was conducted by adopting a one-dimensional approximation, under consideration of the three transfer modes—convection, conduction, and radiation. The quantities of heat generated by gamma and neutron heating were calculated by a validated computational model for the neutronic simulation of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code. Using the heat transfer equations according to the three modes of heat transfer, the thermal study of I-131 production by irradiation of the target in the central thimble showed that the temperatures of materials do not exceed the corresponding melting points. To validate this new design, several targets have been irradiated in the central thimble according to a preplanned irradiation program, going from 4 hours of irradiation at a power level of 0.5 MW up to 35 hours (7 h/d for 5 days a week at 1.5 MW. The results show that the irradiated targets are

  10. Validation of a new design of tellurium dioide-irradiated target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fllaoui, Aziz; Ghamad, Younes; Zoubir, Brahim; Ayaz, Zinel Abidine; El Morabiti, Aissam; Amayoud, Hafid [Centre National de l' Energie des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires, Rabat (Morocco); Chakir, El Mahjoub [Nuclear Physics Department, University Ibn Toufail, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2016-10-15

    Production of iodine-131 by neutron activation of tellurium in tellurium dioxide (TeO{sub 2}) material requires a target that meets the safety requirements. In a radiopharmaceutical production unit, a new lid for a can was designed, which permits tight sealing of the target by using tungsten inert gas welding. The leakage rate of all prepared targets was assessed using a helium mass spectrometer. The accepted leakage rate is ≤ 10 - 4 mbr.L/s, according to the approved safety report related to iodine-131 production in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor (TRIGA: Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics). To confirm the resistance of the new design to the irradiation conditions in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor's central thimble, a study of heat effect on the sealed targets for 7 hours in an oven was conducted and the leakage rates were evaluated. The results show that the tightness of the targets is ensured up to 600 .deg. C with the appearance of deformations on lids beyond 450 .deg. C. The study of heat transfer through the target was conducted by adopting a one-dimensional approximation, under consideration of the three transfer modes-convection, conduction, and radiation. The quantities of heat generated by gamma and neutron heating were calculated by a validated computational model for the neutronic simulation of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code. Using the heat transfer equations according to the three modes of heat transfer, the thermal study of I-131 production by irradiation of the target in the central thimble showed that the temperatures of materials do not exceed the corresponding melting points. To validate this new design, several targets have been irradiated in the central thimble according to a preplanned irradiation program, going from 4 hours of irradiation at a power level of 0.5 MW up to 35 hours (7 h/d for 5 days a week) at 1.5 MW. The results show that the irradiated targets are

  11. Design of a bioactive small molecule that targets r(AUUCU) repeats in spinocerebellar ataxia 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang-Yong; Gao, Rui; Southern, Mark; Sarkar, Partha S; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    RNA is an important target for chemical probes of function and lead therapeutics; however, it is difficult to target with small molecules. One approach to tackle this problem is to identify compounds that target RNA structures and utilize them to multivalently target RNA. Here we show that small molecules can be identified to selectively bind RNA base pairs by probing a library of RNA-focused small molecules. A small molecule that selectively binds AU base pairs informed design of a dimeric compound (2AU-2) that targets the pathogenic RNA, expanded r(AUUCU) repeats, that causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) in patient-derived cells. Indeed, 2AU-2 (50 nM) ameliorates various aspects of SCA10 pathology including improvement of mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced activation of caspase 3, and reduction of nuclear foci. These studies provide a first-in-class chemical probe to study SCA10 RNA toxicity and potentially define broadly applicable compounds targeting RNA AU base pairs in cells.

  12. The Role of Analogical Thinking in Designing Tasks for Mathematics Teacher Education: An Example of a Pedagogical Ad Hoc Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Irit

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the design of tasks for teacher education. It focuses on tasks that are used in a university course for pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers. Special attention is given to tasks that use analogical thinking in their construction or implementation. These tasks are categorized by type of teacher education goal and…

  13. Optimization and Design of a Low Power Switched Current A/D Sigma-Delta-Modulator for Voice Band Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a third order switched current sigma delta-modulator. The modulator is optimized at the system level for minimum power consumption by careful design of the noise transfer function. A thorough noise analysis of the cascode type current copiers used to implement the modulator......, together with a new methodology for evaluating the nonlinear settling behavior is presented. This leads to a new optimization methodology that minimize the power consumption in switched current circuits for given design parameters. The optimization methodology takes process variations into account...... to internal clamping in the integrators and proper scaling the modulator shows excellent stability properties. In order to compare the performance of the modulator presented in this paper to other sigma delta-modulators two figure-of-merits (FOMs) are proposed. From these figure-of-merits it is found...

  14. EFFECT OF CLUSTERING IN DESIGNING A FUZZY BASED HYBRID INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vydeki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS provides additional security for the most vulnerable Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET. Use of Fuzzy Inference System (FIS in the design of IDS is proven to be efficient in detecting routing attacks in MANETs. Clustering is a vital means in the detection process of FIS based hybrid IDS. This study describes the design of such a system to detect black hole attack in MANET that uses Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol. It analyses the effect of two clustering algorithms and also prescribes the suitable clustering algorithm for the above-mentioned IDS. MANETs with various traffic scenarios were simulated and the data set required for the IDS is extracted. A hybrid IDS is designed using Sugeno type-2 FIS to detect black hole attack. From the experimental results, it is derived that the subtractive clustering algorithm produces 97% efficient detection while FCM offers 91%. It has been found that the subtractive clustering algorithm is more fit and efficient than the Fuzzy C-Means clustering (FCM for the FIS based detection system.

  15. Critical Density Target Design for Ion Acceleration on the T-Cubed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordell, Peter; Campbell, Paul; Maksimchuk, Anatoly; Willingale, Louise; Krushelnick, Karl

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of an intense laser pulse with a critical density target can form a high Mach number electrostatic shock. Recent experiments on CO2 lasers have demonstrated that such shocks can be used to produce directional, quasi-monoenergetic proton beams. PIC simulations indicate that the our single pulse system, the T-Cubed laser (1.053 μm, 6J in 400fs), is both capable of both producing these shocks and accelerating protons to MeV energies. Shock formation and propagation with our system has challenging target peak density and density gradient requirements. We present our target design, an interferometric characterization of its density profile and preliminary experiments on T-Cubed.

  16. Design, manufacture and testing of the IFMIF lithium target bayonet concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micciche, G. [ENEA CR Brasimone, via bacino del Brasimone, I-40035 Camugnano, Bo (Italy)]. E-mail: gioacchino.micciche@brasimone.enea.it; Riccardi, B. [Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    In the frame of the IFMIF R and D activities program a prototype of a replaceable backplate, based on the so called ' bayonet concept', has been developed, manufactured and tested. This concept allows the backplate replacement inside the target assembly while working laterally to the target, using a set of dedicated devices. The prototype design utilises an innovative closing and tightening system. The feasibility of the bayonet concept has been assessed and the remote handling trials carried out during 2003 have successfully demonstrated the maintainability requirements and procedures specification. This paper focuses on the design and manufacturing of the bayonet concept prototype and on the related remote handling trials carried out. The overall results of the activities are also reported.

  17. Computational and Pharmacological Target of Neurovascular Unit for Drug Design and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Mirazul; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic and highly selective permeable interface between central nervous system (CNS) and periphery that regulates the brain homeostasis. Increasing evidences of neurological disorders and restricted drug delivery process in brain make BBB as special target for further study. At present, neurovascular unit (NVU) is a great interest and highlighted topic of pharmaceutical companies for CNS drug design and delivery approaches. Some recent advancement of pharmacology and computational biology makes it convenient to develop drugs within limited time and affordable cost. In this review, we briefly introduce current understanding of the NVU, including molecular and cellular composition, physiology, and regulatory function. We also discuss the recent technology and interaction of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics for drug design and step towards personalized medicine. Additionally, we develop gene network due to understand NVU associated transporter proteins interactions that might be effective for understanding aetiology of neurological disorders and new target base protective therapies development and delivery.

  18. Computational and Pharmacological Target of Neurovascular Unit for Drug Design and Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mirazul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a dynamic and highly selective permeable interface between central nervous system (CNS and periphery that regulates the brain homeostasis. Increasing evidences of neurological disorders and restricted drug delivery process in brain make BBB as special target for further study. At present, neurovascular unit (NVU is a great interest and highlighted topic of pharmaceutical companies for CNS drug design and delivery approaches. Some recent advancement of pharmacology and computational biology makes it convenient to develop drugs within limited time and affordable cost. In this review, we briefly introduce current understanding of the NVU, including molecular and cellular composition, physiology, and regulatory function. We also discuss the recent technology and interaction of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics for drug design and step towards personalized medicine. Additionally, we develop gene network due to understand NVU associated transporter proteins interactions that might be effective for understanding aetiology of neurological disorders and new target base protective therapies development and delivery.

  19. Rational Design of an Epstein-Barr Virus Vaccine Targeting the Receptor-Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekiyo, Masaru; Bu, Wei; Joyce, M Gordon; Meng, Geng; Whittle, James R R; Baxa, Ulrich; Yamamoto, Takuya; Narpala, Sandeep; Todd, John-Paul; Rao, Srinivas S; McDermott, Adrian B; Koup, Richard A; Rossmann, Michael G; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Nabel, Gary J

    2015-08-27

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) represents a major global health problem. Though it is associated with infectious mononucleosis and ∼200,000 cancers annually worldwide, a vaccine is not available. The major target of immunity is EBV glycoprotein 350/220 (gp350) that mediates attachment to B cells through complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21). Here, we created self-assembling nanoparticles that displayed different domains of gp350 in a symmetric array. By focusing presentation of the CR2-binding domain on nanoparticles, potent neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice and non-human primates. The structurally designed nanoparticle vaccine increased neutralization 10- to 100-fold compared to soluble gp350 by targeting a functionally conserved site of vulnerability, improving vaccine-induced protection in a mouse model. This rational approach to EBV vaccine design elicited potent neutralizing antibody responses by arrayed presentation of a conserved viral entry domain, a strategy that can be applied to other viruses.

  20. Recent Developments in the VISRAD 3-D Target Design and Radiation Simulation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Joseph; Woodruff, P.; Golovkin, I.

    2011-10-01

    The 3-D view factor code VISRAD is widely used in designing HEDP experiments at major laser and pulsed-power facilities, including NIF, OMEGA, OMEGA-EP, ORION, Z, and PLX. It simulates target designs by generating a 3-D grid of surface elements, utilizing a variety of 3-D primitives and surface removal algorithms, and can be used to compute the radiation flux throughout the surface element grid by computing element-to-element view factors and solving power balance equations. Target set-up and beam pointing are facilitated by allowing users to specify positions and angular orientations using a variety of coordinates systems (e . g . , that of any laser beam, target component, or diagnostic port). Analytic modeling for laser beam spatial profiles for OMEGA DPPs and NIF CPPs is used to compute laser intensity profiles throughout the grid of surface elements. VISRAD includes a variety of user-friendly graphics for setting up targets and displaying results, can readily display views from any point in space, and can be used to generate image sequences for animations. We will discuss recent improvements to the software package and plans for future developments.

  1. Generalization of a targeted library design protocol: application to 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordling, Erik; Homan, Evert

    2004-01-01

    Herein a general concept for the design of targeted libraries for proteins with binding sites that are divided into subsites is laid out, including several practical aspects and their solutions. The design is based on a chemogenomic classification of the subsites followed by collection of bioactive molecular fragments and virtual library generation. The general process is outlined and applied to the assembly of a library of 500 molecules targeting the serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptor, a class A G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR). Utilizing commercially available building blocks of similar size and composition, a reference library was created. Control sets of known ligands for the 5-HT7 receptor, other GPCRs, and nuclear receptors were collected from literature sources. Principal component analysis of molecular descriptors for the two libraries and the literature sets, displayed a focusing of the targeted library to the region in the chemical space defined by the literature actives, suggesting a denser coverage of the bioactive region than for the more diverse reference library. Additional computational validations, including PCA class predictions, 3D pharmacophore modeling, and docking calculations all indicated an enrichment factor of 5-HT7 ligand-like molecules in the range of 2-4 for the targeted library compared to the reference library.

  2. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  3. New tuberculostatic agents targeting nucleic acid biosynthesis: drug design using QSAR approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Renata V; Braga, Rodolpho C; Segretti, Natanael D; Ferreira, Elizabeth I; Trossini, Gustavo H G; Andrade, Carolina H

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among curable infectious diseases. The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB is a growing global health concern and there is an urgent need for new anti-TB drugs. Enzymes involved in DNA and ATP biosynthesis are potential targets for tuberculostatic drug design, since these enzymes are essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. This review presents the current progress and applications of structure-activity relationship analysis for the discovery of innovative tuberculostatic agents as inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase, DNA gyrase, ATP synthase, and thymidylate kinase enzymes, highlighting present challenges and new opportunities in TB drug design.

  4. Design of Student Information Management Database Application System for Office and Departmental Target Responsibility System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui

    It is the inevitable outcome of higher education reform to carry out office and departmental target responsibility system, in which statistical processing of student's information is an important part of student's performance review. On the basis of the analysis of the student's evaluation, the student information management database application system is designed by using relational database management system software in this paper. In order to implement the function of student information management, the functional requirement, overall structure, data sheets and fields, data sheet Association and software codes are designed in details.

  5. Optimal marker-strategy clinical trial design to detect predictive markers for targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yong; Liu, Suyu; Yuan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In developing targeted therapy, the marker-strategy design (MSD) provides an important approach to evaluate the predictive marker effect. This design first randomizes patients into non-marker-based or marker-based strategies. Patients allocated to the non-marker-based strategy are then further randomized to receive either the standard or targeted treatments, while patients allocated to the marker-based strategy receive treatments based on their marker statuses. Little research has been done on the statistical properties of the MSD, which has led to some widespread misconceptions and placed clinical researchers at high risk of using inefficient designs. In this article, we show that the commonly used between-strategy comparison has low power to detect the predictive effect and is valid only under a restrictive condition that the randomization ratio within the non-marker-based strategy matches the marker prevalence. We propose a Wald test that is generally valid and also uniformly more powerful than the between-strategy comparison. Based on that, we derive an optimal MSD that maximizes the power to detect the predictive marker effect by choosing the optimal randomization ratios between the two strategies and treatments. Our numerical study shows that using the proposed optimal designs can substantially improve the power of the MSD to detect the predictive marker effect. We use a lung cancer trial to illustrate the proposed optimal designs.

  6. Rationally designed BCL6 inhibitors target activated B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Mariano G; Yu, Wenbo; Beguelin, Wendy; Teater, Matthew R; Geng, Huimin; Goldstein, Rebecca L; Oswald, Erin; Hatzi, Katerina; Yang, Shao-Ning; Cohen, Joanna; Shaknovich, Rita; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Cheng, Huimin; Liang, Dongdong; Cho, Hyo Je; Abbott, Joshua; Tam, Wayne; Du, Wei; Leonard, John P; Elemento, Olivier; Cerchietti, Leandro; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Xue, Fengtian; MacKerell, Alexander D; Melnick, Ari M

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) arise from proliferating B cells transiting different stages of the germinal center reaction. In activated B cell DLBCLs (ABC-DLBCLs), a class of DLBCLs that respond poorly to current therapies, chromosomal translocations and amplification lead to constitutive expression of the B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) oncogene. The role of BCL6 in maintaining these lymphomas has not been investigated. Here, we designed small-molecule inhibitors that display higher affinity for BCL6 than its endogenous corepressor ligands to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy for targeting ABC-DLBCL. We used an in silico drug design functional-group mapping approach called SILCS to create a specific BCL6 inhibitor called FX1 that has 10-fold greater potency than endogenous corepressors and binds an essential region of the BCL6 lateral groove. FX1 disrupted formation of the BCL6 repression complex, reactivated BCL6 target genes, and mimicked the phenotype of mice engineered to express BCL6 with corepressor binding site mutations. Low doses of FX1 induced regression of established tumors in mice bearing DLBCL xenografts. Furthermore, FX1 suppressed ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as primary human ABC-DLBCL specimens ex vivo. These findings indicate that ABC-DLBCL is a BCL6-dependent disease that can be targeted by rationally designed inhibitors that exceed the binding affinity of natural BCL6 ligands.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Fibre Channel Target Driver Supporting SCSI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; SHU Jiwu; WEN Dongchan; ZHENG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    Fibre channel storage area networks (FC-SAN) are effective solutions to address storage management problems caused by very large volumes of data. But the expense of fibre channel devices limits FC-SAN applications. The use of IP networks instead of fibre channel networks will reduce SAN cost, but will also reduce the performance. Therefore, small computer system interface (SCSI) devices were considered to replace FC disks to reduce the SAN cost. A driver for the FC network adapter and the FC target, designed and implemented to support this structure, obeys the SCSI protocol and works in target mode with 200 MB/s bandwidth. The FC target architecture and implementation were compared with the FC initiator. The SCSI command transfer process in the FC layer was described. The performance test results show that the maximum I/O throughput reachs 167 MB/s for read requests and 196 MB/s for write requests (FC bandwidth is 200 MB/s), verifying that the FC target is very efficient. The modularization, efficiency, and low cost of the FC target will enable SAN and fibre channel to be more widely used in applications.

  8. Design of the EURISOL multi-MW target assembly radiation and safety issues

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, Marta; Kadi, Yacine; Otto, Thomas; Tecchio, L

    2006-01-01

    The multi-MW target proposed for the EURISOL facility will be based on fission of uranium (or thorium) compounds to produce rare isotopes far from stability. A two-step process is used for the isotope production. First, neutrons are generated in a liquid mercury target, irradiated by the 1 GeV proton or deuteron beam, provided by the EURISOL linac driver. Then, the neutrons induce fission in a surrounding assembly of uranium carbide. R&D projects on several aspects of the target assembly are ongoing. Key criteria for the target design are a maximum beam power capability of 4 MW, a remote handling system with minimum downtime and maximum reliability, as well as radiation safety, minimization of hazards and the classification of the facility. In the framework of the ongoing radiation characterization and safety studies, radiation transport simulations have been performed to calculate the prompt radiation dose in the target and surrounding materials, as well as to determine shielding material and angle-depen...

  9. Design of the EURISOL multi-MW target assembly: radiation and safety issues

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, M; Kadi, Y; Otto, T; Tecchio, L; Otto, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The multi-MW target proposed for the EURISOL facility will be based on fission of uranium (or thorium) compounds to produce rare isotopes far from stability. A two-step process is used for the isotope production. First, neutrons are generated in a liquid mercury target, irradiated by the 1 GeV proton or deuteron beam, provided by the EURISOL linac driver. Then, the neutrons induce fission in a surrounding assembly of uranium carbide. R&D projects on several aspects of the target assembly are ongoing. Key criteria for the target design are a maximum beam power capability of 4 MW, a remote handling system with minimum downtime and maximum reliability, as well as radiation safety, minimization of hazards and the classification of the facility. In the framework of the ongoing radiation characterization and safety studies, radiation transport simulations have been performed to calculate the prompt radiation dose in the target and surrounding materials, as well as to determine shielding material and angle-depen...

  10. Intellectual mobile Ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sova, Oleg; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Bunin, Sergey; Zhuk, Pavlo

    2012-01-01

    In this article intellectualization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks resources management is offered. It was proposed decomposition of the primary goal of MANET functioning into easy subgoals, and fragment of the MANET node target structure is presented.

  11. Rationally designed small molecules targeting the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 are potently bioactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Hoskins, Jason; Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-05-18

    RNA is an important drug target, but it is difficult to design or discover small molecules that modulate RNA function. In the present study, we report that rationally designed, modularly assembled small molecules that bind the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) are potently bioactive in cell culture models. DM1 is caused when an expansion of r(CUG) repeats, or r(CUG)(exp), is present in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) mRNA. r(CUG)(exp) folds into a hairpin with regularly repeating 5'CUG/3'GUC motifs and sequesters muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1). A variety of defects are associated with DM1, including (i) formation of nuclear foci, (ii) decreased translation of DMPK mRNA due to its nuclear retention, and (iii) pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1, which controls the alternative splicing of various pre-mRNAs. Previously, modularly assembled ligands targeting r(CUG)(exp) were designed using information in an RNA motif-ligand database. These studies showed that a bis-benzimidazole (H) binds the 5'CUG/3'GUC motif in r(CUG)(exp.) Therefore, we designed multivalent ligands to bind simultaneously multiple copies of this motif in r(CUG)(exp). Herein, we report that the designed compounds improve DM1-associated defects including improvement of translational and pre-mRNA splicing defects and the disruption of nuclear foci. These studies may establish a foundation to exploit other RNA targets in genomic sequence.

  12. 基于ADS高效率微波功率放大器设计%Design of high effective microwave power amplifier based on ADS software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小军

    2012-01-01

    基于ADS软件,选取合适的静态直流工作点,采用负载牵引法得到LDMOS晶体管BLF7G22L130的输出和输入阻抗特性,并通过设计和优化得到最佳的共轭匹配网络,设计出高效率功率放大器。ADS设计仿真表明该功率放大器在中心频率2 160 MHz处的效率达到70%,稳定性好、增益平坦度小等优点。%Based on ADS software,the high effective and power amplifier can be designed after learning the output and input impedance characteristic of the LDMOS transistor BLF7G22L130 by Load-pulling method under an appropriate static DC point and realizing the best conjugate match network through design and optimizing.ADS simulation indicates that the effectiveness of this kind of amplifier reaches 70% at the center frequency of 2 160 MHz,with the advantages of high stability and low gain flatness.

  13. C-LOAD POWER CONTROL PROTOCOL-CROSS-LAYER DESIGN OF A NETWORK LAYER LOAD POWER CONTROL PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arivoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc network scenario, Cross-layer design is emerging, important in wireless ad hoc network and the power control methods. Power control is the intelligent selection of transmit power in a communication to achieve the better performance within the system. Cross-layer is used to sharing the information between the layers. Physical to Transport layer information are shared in this protocol, due to this cross-layering is designed to optimize the power control. CLD using LOADPOWER (LOADPOW control protocol is reduce the overall end-end delay and the energy consumption using transmission power. The novelty of this work deals with both low and high transmission power control methodologies. So many power control schemes are dealt in MAC layer but this work, Power control protocol was done in network layer and it plays a vital role. A MAC approach to power control only does a local optimization whereas network layer is capable of global optimization. Simulation was done in NS-2 simulator with the performance metrics as improved throughput, energy consumption and end-end delay. The key concept is to improve the throughput, saves energy by sending all the packets with optimal transmission power according to the network load. A comparison of few protocols with Load Power Control Protocol (LPCP was implemented and got the better performances using NS-2 simulator.

  14. Design and characterization of ebolavirus GP prehairpin intermediate mimics as drug targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Tracy R; Weinstock, Matthew T; Jacobsen, Michael T; Szabo-Fresnais, Nicolas; Pandya, Maya J; Whitby, Frank G; Herbert, Andrew S; Prugar, Laura I; McKinnon, Rena; Hill, Christopher P; Welch, Brett D; Dye, John M; Eckert, Debra M; Kay, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly lethal filoviruses that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. With no approved treatments or preventatives, the development of an anti-ebolavirus therapy to protect against natural infections and potential weaponization is an urgent global health need. Here, we describe the design, biophysical characterization, and validation of peptide mimics of the ebolavirus N-trimer, a highly conserved region of the GP2 fusion protein, to be used as targets to develop broad-spectrum inhibitors of ebolavirus entry. The N-trimer region of GP2 is 90% identical across all ebolavirus species and forms a critical part of the prehairpin intermediate that is exposed during viral entry. Specifically, we fused designed coiled coils to the N-trimer to present it as a soluble trimeric coiled coil as it appears during membrane fusion. Circular dichroism, sedimentation equilibrium, and X-ray crystallography analyses reveal the helical, trimeric structure of the designed N-trimer mimic targets. Surface plasmon resonance studies validate that the N-trimer mimic binds its native ligand, the C-peptide region of GP2. The longest N-trimer mimic also inhibits virus entry, thereby confirming binding of the C-peptide region during viral entry and the presence of a vulnerable prehairpin intermediate. Using phage display as a model system, we validate the suitability of the N-trimer mimics as drug screening targets. Finally, we describe the foundational work to use the N-trimer mimics as targets in mirror-image phage display, which will be used to identify d-peptide inhibitors of ebolavirus entry. PMID:25287718

  15. One-megajoule, wetted-foam target-design performance for the National Ignition Facilitya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.; Betti, R.; Harding, D. R.; McKenty, P. W.; Radha, P. B.; Skupsky, S.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; McCrory, R. L.

    2007-05-01

    Wetted-foam, direct-drive target designs are a path to high-gain experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. Wetted-foam designs [S. Skupsky et al., in Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001, edited by K. Tanaka, D. D. Meyerhofer, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn (Elsevier, Paris, 2002)] take advantage of the increased laser absorption provided by the higher-atomic-number elements in a target ablator composed of plastic foam saturated with deuterium-tritium (DT). The increased laser coupling allows more fuel to be driven with the same incident laser energy, resulting in increased hydrodynamic stability and target gain. A stability analysis of a 1-MJ design was performed using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)]. Simulations examining the effect of the expected levels of laser nonuniformities (single-beam and multiple-beam) and target nonuniformities (surface and ice roughness) have been performed. A nonuniformity-budget analysis has been constructed and suggests that two-dimensional (2D) smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) [S. Skupsky et al., J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456 (1989)] is needed to reduce single-beam nonuniformities to levels sufficient for ignition to proceed. Two integrated 2D simulations with 0.75-μm initial ice roughness, multiple-beam nonuniformity, surface roughness, and imprint were completed, one with 2D SSD smoothing and one with 1D SSD. The former ignited and produced a gain of 32, while the latter failed to ignite. A third integrated 2D simulation with 1-μm initial ice roughness and an ice power-law spectral index of 1 was also completed and produced a gain of 27.

  16. Metabolic engineering of an industrial polyoxin producer for the targeted overproduction of designer nucleoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianzhao; Liu, Jin; Wan, Dan; Cai, You-Sheng; Wang, Yinghu; Li, Shunying; Wu, Pan; Feng, Xuan; Qiu, Guofu; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Chen, Wenqing; Deng, Zixin

    2015-09-01

    Polyoxin and nikkomycin are naturally occurring peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics with potent antifungal bioactivity. Both exhibit similar structural features, having a nucleoside skeleton and one or two peptidyl moieties. Combining the refactoring of the polyoxin producer Streptomyces aureochromogenes with import of the hydroxypyridylhomothreonine pathway of nikkomycin allows the targeted production of three designer nucleoside antibiotics designated as nikkoxin E, F, and G. These structures were determined by NMR and/or high resolution mass spectrometry. Remarkably, the introduction of an extra copy of the nikS gene encoding an ATP-dependent ligase significantly enhanced the production of the designer antibiotics. Moreover, all three nikkoxins displayed improved bioactivity against several pathogenic fungi as compared with the naturally-occurring antibiotics. These data provide a feasible model for high efficiency generation of nucleoside antibiotics related to polyoxins and nikkomycins in a polyoxin cell factory via synthetic biology strategy.

  17. Preconceptual engineering design for the APT {sup 3}He target/blanket concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensink, D.L. [Babcock & Wilcox Co., Naval Nuclear Fuel Division, P.O. Box 785, Mt. Athos Rd., Lynchburg, Virginia 24505-0785 (United States); Rose, S.C. Jr. [Reactor Design and Analysis, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    1995-01-20

    A preconceptual engineering design has been developed for the {sup 3}He Target/Blanket (T/B) System for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. This concept uses an array of pressure tubes containing tungsten rods for the neutron spallation source and {sup 3}He gas contained in a metal tank and blanket tubes as the tritium production material. The engineering design is based on a physics model optimized for efficient tritium production. Principle engineering consideration were: provisions for cooling all materials including the {sup 3}He gas; containment of the gas and radionuclides; remote handling; material compatibility; minimization of {sup 3}He, D{sub 2}O, and activated waste; modularity; and manufacturability. The design provides a basis for estimating the cost to implement the system.

  18. A Rapid Python-Based Methodology for Target-Focused Combinatorial Library Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiliang; Song, Yuwei; Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The chemical space is so vast that only a small portion of it has been examined. As a complementary approach to systematically probe the chemical space, virtual combinatorial library design has extended enormous impacts on generating novel and diverse structures for drug discovery. Despite the favorable contributions, high attrition rates in drug development that mainly resulted from lack of efficacy and side effects make it increasingly challenging to discover good chemical starting points. In most cases, focused libraries, which are restricted to particular regions of the chemical space, are deftly exploited to maximize hit rate and improve efficiency at the beginning of the drug discovery and drug development pipeline. This paper presented a valid methodology for fast target-focused combinatorial library design in both reaction-based and production-based ways with the library creating rates of approximately 70,000 molecules per second. Simple, quick and convenient operating procedures are the specific features of the method. SHAFTS, a hybrid 3D similarity calculation software, was embedded to help refine the size of the libraries and improve hit rates. Two target-focused (p38-focused and COX2-focused) libraries were constructed efficiently in this study. This rapid library enumeration method is portable and applicable to any other targets for good chemical starting points identification collaborated with either structure-based or ligand-based virtual screening.

  19. Design Optimisation of a High Intensity Beam Facility and Feasibility Experiment of a Solid Fragmented Target

    CERN Document Server

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Rivkin, Leonid

    2014-06-13

    The present PhD thesis describes the design, execution and results of the HRMT-10 experiment performed at the HiRadMat facility of the CERN/SPS complex. The first part of the thesis covers the design optimization studies of the HiRadMat facility, focusing in particular on the radiation protection issues. A detailed Monte-Carlo model of the facility has been developed and validated through comparison with measurements. A very satisfactory agreement between the simulation and the experimental data is observed. In the second part of this thesis, a novel feasibility experiment of a fragmented solid target for a future Neutrino Factory or a Super Beam facility, able to support high beam powers ( 1 MW) is presented in detail. A solid granular target has been proposed as an interesting alternative to an open Hg jet target, presently considered as the baseline for such facilities, but posing considerable technical challenges. The HRMT-10 experiment seeks to address the lack of experimental data of the feasibility of...

  20. The Design and Synthesis of a New Class of RTK/HDAC Dual-Targeted Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the development of targeted medicines has made significant achievements. As a typical example, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK inhibitors have become important chemotherapy drugs for a variety of cancers. However, the effectiveness of these agents is always hindered by poor response rates and acquired drug resistance. In order to overcome these limitations, several dual-targeted inhibitors with quinazoline core were designed and synthesized. Though these compounds can simultaneously inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC as well as RTK, the structure-activity relationship (SAR is still not clear enough. To further explore this type of dual-targeted inhibitors, a new class of quinazoline derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their activity evaluations include in vitro inhibitory activity of HDAC, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The SAR study indicated that the introduction of polar group such as hydroxamate on the 4-position of the quinazoline core is more likely to provide a potent HDACi/HER2i hybrid rather than HDACi/EGFRi molecule.

  1. Rationally designed small molecules that target both the DNA and RNA causing myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lien; Luu, Long M; Peng, Shaohong; Serrano, Julio F; Chan, H Y Edwin; Zimmerman, Steven C

    2015-11-11

    Single-agent, single-target therapeutic approaches are often limited by a complex disease pathobiology. We report rationally designed, multi-target agents for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). DM1 originates in an abnormal expansion of CTG repeats (CTG(exp)) in the DMPK gene. The resultant expanded CUG transcript (CUG(exp)) identified as a toxic agent sequesters important proteins, such as muscleblind-like proteins (MBNL), undergoes repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, and potentially causes microRNA dysregulation. We report rationally designed small molecules that target the DM1 pathobiology in vitro in three distinct ways by acting simultaneously as transcription inhibitors, by inhibiting aberrant protein binding to the toxic RNA, and by acting as RNase mimics to degrade the toxic RNA. In vitro, the agents are shown to (1) bind CTG(exp) and inhibit formation of the CUG(exp) transcript, (2) bind CUG(exp) and inhibit sequestration of MBNL1, and (3) cleave CUG(exp) in an RNase-like manner. The most potent compounds are capable of reducing the levels of CUG(exp) in DM1 model cells, and one reverses two separate CUG(exp)-induced phenotypes in a DM1 Drosophila model.

  2. Development of TMTP-1 targeted designer biopolymers for gene delivery to prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John W; Massey, Ashley S; McCaffrey, J; McCrudden, Cian M; Coulter, Jonathan A; Dunne, Nicholas J; Robson, Tracy; McCarthy, Helen O

    2016-03-16

    Designer biopolymers (DBPs) represent state of the art genetically engineered biomacromolecules designed to condense plasmid DNA, and overcome intra- and extra- cellular barriers to gene delivery. Three DBPs were synthesized, each with the tumor molecular targeting peptide-1 (TMTP-1) motif to specifically target metastases. Each DBP was complexed with a pEGFP-N1 reporter plasmid to permit physiochemical and biological assay analysis. Results indicated that two of the biopolymers (RMHT and RM3GT) effectively condensed pEGFP-N1 into cationic nanoparticles prostate cancer cells. Conversely the anionic RMGT DBP nanoparticles could not transfect PC-3 cells. RMHT and RM3GT nanoparticles were stable in the presence of serum and protected the cargo from degradation. Additionally it was concluded that cell viability could recover post-transfection with these DBPs, which were less toxic than the commercially available transfection reagent Lipofectamine(®) 2000. With both DBPs, a higher transfection efficacy was observed in PC-3 cells than in the moderately metastatic, DU145, and normal, PNT2-C2, cell lines. Blocking of the TMTP-1 receptors inhibited gene transfer indicating internalization via this receptor. In conclusion RMHT and RM3GT are fully functional DBPs that address major obstacles to gene delivery and target metastatic cells expressing the TMTP-1 receptor.

  3. Conceptual design of the beryllium rotating target for the ESS-Bilbao facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrón, S., E-mail: santiago.terron@essbilbao.org [ESS-Bilbao, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja. 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sordo, F.; Magán, M.; Ghiglino, A.; Martínez, F.; Vicente, P.J. de; Vivanco, R. [ESS-Bilbao, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja. 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomsen, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, F.J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); ESS-Bilbao, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja. 48160 Derio (Spain); Abánades, A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    The ESS-Bilbao facility, hosted by the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), envisages the operation of a high-current proton accelerator delivering beams with energies up to 50 MeV. The time-averaged proton current will be 2.25 mA, delivered by 1.5 ms proton pulses with a repetition rate of 20 Hz. This beam will feed a neutron source based upon the Be (p,n) reaction, which will enable the provision of relevant neutron experimentation capabilities. The neutron source baseline concept consists in a rotating beryllium target cooled by water. The target structure will comprise a rotatable disk made of 6061-T6 aluminium alloy holding 20 beryllium plates. Heat dissipation from the target relies upon a distribution of coolant-flow channels. The practical implementation of such a concept is here described with emphasis put on the beryllium plates thermo-mechanical optimization, the chosen coolant distribution system as well as the mechanical behavior of the assembly. -- Highlights: • The conceptual design of ESS-Bilbao neutron production target has been carried out. • This device is a rotating disk holding Be elements cooled by water. • Thermo-mechanical and lifespan behavior of the Be elements have been analyzed. • Disk structure ensures coolability and a proper mechanical behavior of the assembly.

  4. [siRNAs with high specificity to the target: a systematic design by CRM algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsheddi, T; Vasin, L; Meduri, R; Randhawa, M; Glazko, G; Baranova, A

    2008-01-01

    'Off-target' silencing effect hinders the development of siRNA-based therapeutic and research applications. Common solution to this problem is an employment of the BLAST that may miss significant alignments or an exhaustive Smith-Waterman algorithm that is very time-consuming. We have developed a Comprehensive Redundancy Minimizer (CRM) approach for mapping all unique sequences ("targets") 9-to-15 nt in size within large sets of sequences (e.g. transcriptomes). CRM outputs a list of potential siRNA candidates for every transcript of the particular species. These candidates could be further analyzed by traditional "set-of-rules" types of siRNA designing tools. For human, 91% of transcripts are covered by candidate siRNAs with kernel targets of N = 15. We tested our approach on the collection of previously described experimentally assessed siRNAs and found that the correlation between efficacy and presence in CRM-approved set is significant (r = 0.215, p-value = 0.0001). An interactive database that contains a precompiled set of all human siRNA candidates with minimized redundancy is available at http://129.174.194.243. Application of the CRM-based filtering minimizes potential "off-target" silencing effects and could improve routine siRNA applications.

  5. Feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheb, Fatma; Benamara, Salem

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design. First, the mixture design was applied to optimize the cosmetic formula. The responses (dependent variables) were the spreadability (YSp) and viscosity (YVis), the factors (independent variables) being the weight proportions of the fatty phase (X1), the aqueous date seed extract (X2), and the beeswax (X3). Second, the cosmetic stability study was conducted by applying a full factorial design. Here, three responses were considered [spreadability (Sp), viscosity (Vis), and peroxide index (PI)], the independent variables being the concentration of the date seed oil (DSO) (x1), storage temperature (x2), and storage time (x3). Results showed that in the case of mixture design, the second-order polynomial equations correctly described experimental data. Globally, results show that there is a relatively wide composition range to ensure a suitable cosmetic cream from the point of view of Sp and Vis. Regarding the cosmetic stability, the storage time was found to be the most influential factor on both Vis and PI, which are considered here as indicators of physical and chemical stability of the emulsion, respectively. Finally, the elaborated and commercial cosmetics were compared in terms of pH, Sp, and centrifugation test (Ct).

  6. 一种用于Ad-Hoc网络的精简路由协议设计与实现%Design and Implementation of a Brief Routing Protocol for Ad-Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    矣昕宝; 全海燕; 董会升

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种用于Ad-Hoc网络的精简路由协议.对Ad-Hoc网络及其路由协议做了简单介绍.从路径发现和路径维护两方面阐述了协议的工作原理.给出了协议的编程实现模型.通过搭建实验环境测试表明,此路由协议能够快速发现路径,中间节点能过顺利的完成数据的转发,可用于移动Ad-Hoc网络.%A brief routing protocol is put forward for Ad-Hoc networks. A brief introduction of Ad-Hoc networks and routing protocol is given, the principle of the protocol is described in two aspects, which are route discover and route maintain. What' s more, the programming model is also given. By building the test circumstance, the results show that this routing protocol can find routes quickly; the forward node can forward data successfully. So, this routing protocol can be used in mobile Ad-Hoc networks

  7. Design of functional small interfering RNAs targeting amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated mutant alleles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Chang-ming; DING Hong-liu

    2011-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a potential cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by dominant,gain-of-function superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations. The success of such therapy relies on the functional small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that can effectively deliver RNAi. This study aimed to design the functional siRNAs targeting ALS-associated mutant alleles.Methods A modified dual luciferase system containing human SOD1 mRNA target was established to quantify siRNA efficacy. Coupled with validated siRNAs identified in the literature, we analyzed the rationale of siRNA design and subsequently developed an asymmetry rule-based strategy for designing siRNA. We then further tested the effectiveness of this design strategy in converting a naturally symmetric siRNA into functional siRNAs with favorable asymmetry for gene silencing of SOD1 alleles.Results The efficacies of siRNAs could vary tremendously by one base-pair position change. Functional siRNAs could target the whole span of SOD1 mRNA coding sequence as well as non-coding region. While there is no distinguishable pattern of the distribution of nucleobases in these validated siRNAs, the high percent of GC count at the last two positions of siRNAs (P18 and P19) indicated a strong effect of asymmetry rule. Introducing a mismatch at position 1 of the 5' of antisense strand of siRNA successfully converted the inactive siRNA into functional siRNAs that silence SOD1 with desired efficacy.Conclusions Asymmetry rule-based strategy that incorporates a mismatch into siRNA most consistently enhances RNAi efficacy and guarantees producing functional siRNAs that successfully silence ALS-associated SOD1 mutant alleles regardless target positions. This strategy could also be useful to design siRNAs for silencing other disease-associated dominant, gain-of-function mutant genes.

  8. Design of miniature hybrid target recognition system with combination of FPGA+DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shishang; Li, Xiujian; Jia, Hui; Hu, Wenhua; Nie, Yongming; Chang, Shengli

    2010-10-01

    With advantages of flexibility, high bandwidth, high spatial resolution and high-speed parallel operation, the opto-electronic hybrid target recognition system can be applied in many civil and military areas, such as video surveillance, intelligent navigation and robot vision. A miniature opto-electronic hybrid target recognition system based on FPGA+DSP is designed, which only employs single Fourier lens and with a focal length. With the precise timing control of the FPGA and images pretreatment of the DSP, the system performs both Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform with all optical process, which can improve recognition speed and reduce the system volume remarkably. We analyzed the system performance, and a method to achieve scale invariant pattern recognition was proposed on the basis of lots of experiments.

  9. Design of a modular protein-based MRI contrast agent for targeted application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grum

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI offers a non-radioactive alternative for the non-invasive detection of tumours. Low molecular weight MRI contrast agents currently in clinical use suffer either from a lack of specificity for tumour tissue or from low relaxivity and thus low contrast amplification. In this study, we present the newly designed two domain fusion protein Zarvin, which is able to bind to therapeutic IgG antibodies suitable for targeting, while facilitating contrast enhancement through high affinity binding sites for Gd(3+. We show that the Zarvin fold is stable under serum conditions, specifically targets a cancer cell-line when bound to the Cetuximab IgG, and allows for imaging with high relaxivity, a property that would be advantageous for the detection of small tumours and metastases at 1.5 or 3 T.

  10. Target Channel Visiting Order Design Using Particle Swarm Optimization for Spectrum Handoff in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilian Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic spectrum access network, when a primary user (licensed user reappears on the current channel, cognitive radios (CRs need to vacate the channel and reestablish a communications link on some other channel to avoid interference to primary users, resulting in spectrum handoff. This paper studies the problem of designing target channel visiting order for spectrum handoff to minimize expected spectrum handoff delay. A particle swarm optimization (PSO based algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs far better than random target channel visiting scheme. The solutions obtained by PSO are very close to the optimal solution which further validates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Towards an optimal design of target for tsetse control: comparisons of novel targets for the control of Palpalis group tsetse in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Rayaisse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies of the Palpalis group are the main vectors of sleeping sickness in Africa. Insecticide impregnated targets are one of the most effective tools for control. However, the cost of these devices still represents a constraint to their wider use. The objective was therefore to improve the cost effectiveness of currently used devices. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments were performed on three tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides in Burkina Faso and G. p. palpalis in Côte d'Ivoire. The 1 × 1 m(2 black blue black target commonly used in W. Africa was used as the standard, and effects of changes in target size, shape, and the use of netting instead of black cloth were measured. Regarding overall target shape, we observed that horizontal targets (i.e. wider than they were high killed 1.6-5x more G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides than vertical ones (i.e. higher than they were wide (P < 0.001. For the three tsetse species including G. p. palpalis, catches were highly correlated with the size of the target. However, beyond the size of 0.75 m, there was no increase in catches. Replacing the black cloth of the target by netting was the most cost efficient for all three species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Reducing the size of the current 1*1 m black-blue-black target to horizontal designs of around 50 cm and replacing black cloth by netting will improve cost effectiveness six-fold for both G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides. Studying the visual responses of tsetse to different designs of target has allowed us to design more cost-effective devices for the effective control of sleeping sickness and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa.

  12. Design of vehicular multimedia AD player based on embedded Linux%基于嵌入式Linux的车载多媒体广告机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑继亭; 王润民; 张楠

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the limitation of traditional vehicular multimedia AD player, a design method of vehicular multimedia AD player based on embedded Linux and Qt/Embedded is proposed. S3C6410 is adopted as the central processor in the hardware and the software platform uses Embedded Linux operating system. Additionally, the interface is developed by Qt, which is a type of open source graphical user interface library. The system adopts MPlayer as its media player. After experimental veriifcation, the AD player has the characteristic of low cost, user-friendly, quick reaction, and has a signiifcant improvement in cross-platform and scalability.%针对传统车载多媒体广告机的局限性,提出了一种基于嵌入式Liunx与Qt/Embedded的车载多媒体广告机的设计方案。该方案采用以ARM处理器S3C6410为核心的硬件平台和以嵌入式Linux系统为核心的软件平台,并在此基础上采用开放源代码的图形界面库Qt开发广告机界面,同时利用开源播放软件MPlayer作为播放器。经实验验证,该多媒体广告机具有成本较低、界面友好、反应灵敏等特点,并在跨平台性、可扩展性等方面比传统方案有显著改善。

  13. The Modifying of Folding Circuit in High-Speed A/D Converter Chip Design%高速ADC中折叠电路的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳忠明; 邵志标; 姚剑峰; 张国光

    2011-01-01

    In the 8bit 125MHz Sample/s folding and interpolating A/D converter chip design,one new method of folding wave's production is put forward,which economize the voltage assignment in low-voltage analog design.The wide-swing Cascode topology is used in the tail currents design,which makes the tail currents of differential pairs match better,so DNL and INL of A/D convert system is reduced.A trans-resistance amplifier is used in the output nodes of folding circuit,which increase the analog bandwidth.The CMFB topology makes the common-mode level of output voltage more stable,which decreases zero-crossing distortion.In this project,VDD is 2.5V.The whole A/D system is simulated and validated in Hspice,and the simulation environment is 0.25μm CMOS process of UMC.%针对8bit 125Ms/s折叠插值A/D转换器芯片设计,文中提出了一种新的折叠波产生算法,在低压设计中节省了电压设计余度.折叠电路的尾电流源采用低压宽摆幅的共源共栅结构,使差分对的尾电流源更匹配,改善了整个A/D转换器的非线性;折叠电路输出端采用跨阻放大器输出,提高了折叠电路输出端的带宽;采用共模反馈电路,使折叠输出的共模点更稳定,减小了折叠波的过零点失真.整个电路采用2.5V低电压设计,UMC 0.25μm的工艺模型参数,用Hspice对A/D电路进行模拟验证.结果表明,此电路取得了预期结果.

  14. Discussion on Added Function of Packaging Design for Children Products%儿童产品包装设计的附加功能之探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳宁; 谭一

    2012-01-01

    从儿童产品包装的角度出发,探索包装附加功能的设计方法。首先从分析儿童的心理和需求特点入手,进而探讨儿童的消费特点。结合以上分析,提出了儿童产品包装设计的拓展思路和方式方法,并将创意性思维与包装设计结合,力求设计出适合儿童的安全、方便、趣味、环保的包装。最后总结分析了研究包装附加功能的社会及经济价值,并希望借设计之臂推动包装的可持续发展。%It discussed the design methodology of added function of product package from the perspective of children product packaging. Starting from children' s psychological and essential requirement, then it further discussed about children product consuming characteristics. Based on above analysis, it proposed the way of children's product packaging design developing ideas and methods, and integrated creative thinking and packaging design, and strived to design children' s product package with safety, convenience, interest and environmental friendly feature. In the end, it summarized the social and economic value of research on additional function of product packaging design, and hope to push forward the sustainable development of package via design.

  15. Image-based overlay (IBO) target segment design on self-aligned patterning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Hu, Huayong; He, Weiming

    2016-03-01

    Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) is widely applied in advanced sub-4X patterning technology, especially for the 1D resolution shrinkage of memory technology. As the application of SADP makes lithography minimum pitch down to half of design pitch with the remaining spacer aside core, its alignment mark and overlay (OVL) mark have to be well-segmented to ensure enough mark contrast. In this paper, we designed two types of image-based overlay (IBO) bar in bar (BIB) OVL target: bar-segmentation and background-segmentation with different duty ratio. Based on these two designed types of marks, we focus on the OVL of 2nd photo layer to 1st SADP layer with the core removed (which means spacer grating structure remained). We studied the effect of the overlay target segmentation on the precision and robustness of wafer-level overlay performance. Different lithography processes were also studied, including single layer lithography and tri-layer lithography with planarized spacer grating structures. We found there are strong correlations between overlay measurement accuracy and background segmentation rules. The results of our study will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Multiplex Degenerate Primer Design for Targeted Whole Genome Amplification of Many Viral Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea N. Gardner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Targeted enrichment improves coverage of highly mutable viruses at low concentration in complex samples. Degenerate primers that anneal to conserved regions can facilitate amplification of divergent, low concentration variants, even when the strain present is unknown. Results. A tool for designing multiplex sets of degenerate sequencing primers to tile overlapping amplicons across multiple whole genomes is described. The new script, run_tiled_primers, is part of the PriMux software. Primers were designed for each segment of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis, Henipaviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. Each group is highly diverse with as little as 5% genome consensus. Primer sets were computationally checked for nontarget cross reactions against the NCBI nucleotide sequence database. Primers for murine hepatitis virus were demonstrated in the lab to specifically amplify selected genes from a laboratory cultured strain that had undergone extensive passage in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions. This software should help researchers design multiplex sets of primers for targeted whole genome enrichment prior to sequencing to obtain better coverage of low titer, divergent viruses. Applications include viral discovery from a complex background and improved sensitivity and coverage of rapidly evolving strains or variants in a gene family.

  17. Size Matters: Developing Design Rules to Engineer Nanoparticles for Solid Tumour Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Edward Alexander

    Nanotechnology enables the design of highly customizable platforms for producing minimally invasive and programmable strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Advances in this field have demonstrated that nanoparticles can enhance specificity of anti-cancer agents, respond to tumour-specific cues, and direct the visualization of biological targets in vivo. . Nanoparticles can be synthesized within the 1 to 100 nm range to achieve different electromagnetic properties and specifically interact with biological tissues by tuning their size, shape, and surface chemistry. However, it remains unclear which physicochemical parameters are critical for delivering nanomaterials to the tumour site. With less than 5% of administered nanoparticles reaching the tumour, engineering of nanoparticles for effective delivery to solid tumours remains a critical challenge to cancer nanomedicine. A more comprehensive understanding of the interplay between the nanomaterial physicochemical properties and biological systems is necessary to enhance the efficacy of nanoparticle tumour targeting. This thesis explores how nanoparticle size and functionalization with cancer cell specific agents impact nanoparticle delivery to tumours. Furthermore, this doctoral work (i) discusses how tumour structure evolves with growth, (ii) elucidates how such changes modulate nanoparticle accumulation, and (iii) identifies how the skin serves as a significant off-target site for nanoparticle uptake. This thesis also demonstrates the utility of empirically-derived parametric models, Monte Carlo simulations, and decision matrices for mechanistically understanding and predicting the impact of nanomaterial features and tumour biology on nanoparticle fate in vivo. These topics establish key design considerations to tailor nanoparticles for enhanced tumour targeting. Collectively, the concepts presented herein form a fundamental framework for the development of personalized nanomedicine and nano

  18. Optimal design and validation of antiviral siRNA for targeting hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie FU; Zhong-ming TANG; Xin GAO; Fan ZHAO; Hui ZHONG; Mao-rong WEN; Xiao SUN; Hai-feng SONG; Xiao-hong QIAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Optimal design of antiviral short-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting highly divergent hepatitis B virus (HBV) was validated by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. Methods: The potency of 23 synthetic siRNAs targeting 23 sites throughout HBV pregenomic RNA were evaluated at 10 nmol/L by determining the inhibition on the expression of S/P/pregenomic mRNA and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) quantitatively in HepG2.2.15 cells. Genotype homology within HBV genomes was identified through plentiful computational analysis and the multiple linear regression analysis was made to validate the relationship between the functional siRNAs and primary characteristics. Based on the preliminary results, relationships between different determined endpoints [S/P mRNA, HBsAg, C/P mRNA, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and viral DNA load] and siRNA efficacy evaluation were investigated. Results: Genotype homology, open reading frame (ORF) S/E X and C had tight correlation with the ability of siRNAs on inhibiting the expression of S/P/Pregenomic mRNA and HBsAg (P<0.01), of which, ORF C was negatively correlated with the siRNA potency (P<0.05). Further study showed that siRNA potency evaluation was influenced by different determined endpoints. P-target siRNAs showed significant inhibition on the S mRNA and HBsAg expression. S-target siRNAs inhibited the expression of S mRNA and HBsAg strongly. X-target siRNAs played active roles in inhibiting all 5 determined endpoints. C-target siRNAs blocked the expression of C mRNA, HBeAg and viral DNA load significantly. Conclusion: The antiviral potency of siRNA was relevant to its primary characteristics and determined endpoints were important for siRNA efficacy evaluation for complex genome with overlapping ORF, which was helpful for siRNA optimal design.

  19. Efficient targeted mutagenesis in medaka using custom-designed transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Satoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Uemura, Norihito; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Masato

    2013-03-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have become powerful tools for targeted genome editing. Here we demonstrate efficient targeted mutagenesis in medaka (Oryzias latipes), which serves as an excellent vertebrate model for genetics and genomics. We designed and constructed a pair of TALENs targeting the medaka DJ-1 gene, a homolog of human DJ-1 (PARK7). These TALENs induced a number of insertions and deletions in the injected embryos with extremely high efficiency. This induction of mutations occurred in a dose-dependent manner. All screened G0 fish injected with the TALENs transmitted the TALEN-induced mutations to the next generation with high efficiency (44-100%). We also confirmed that these TALENs induced site-specific mutations because none of the mutations were found at potential off-target sites. In addition, the DJ-1 protein was lost in DJ-1(Δ7/Δ7) fish that carried a TALEN-induced frameshift mutation in both alleles. We also investigated the effect of the N- and C-terminal regions of the transcription activator-like (TAL) effector domain on the gene-disrupting activity of DJ1-TALENs and found that 287 amino acids at the N terminus and 63 amino acids at the C terminus of the TAL domain exhibited the highest disrupting activity in the injected embryos. Our results suggest that TALENs enable us to rapidly and efficiently establish knockout medaka strains. This is the first report of targeted mutagenesis in medaka using TALENs. The TALEN technology will expand the potential of medaka as a model system for genetics and genomics.

  20. Phase-modulated waveform design for extended target detection in the presence of clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuhua; Meng, Huadong; Wei, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is a phase-modulated waveform design for the detection of extended targets contaminated by signal-dependent noise (clutter) and additive noise in practical radar systems. An optimal waveform design method that leads to the energy spectral density (ESD) of signal under the maximum signal-to-clutter-and-noise ratio (SCNR) criterion is introduced first. In order to make full use of the transmission power, a novel phase-iterative algorithm is then proposed for designing the phase-modulated waveform with a constant envelope, whose ESD matches the optimal one. This method is proven to be able to achieve a small SCNR loss by minimizing the mean-square spectral distance between the optimal waveform and the designed waveform. The results of extensive simulations demonstrate that our approach provides less than 1 dB SCNR loss when the signal duration is greater than 1 μs, and outperforms the stationary phase method and other phase-modulated waveform design methods.

  1. Phase-Modulated Waveform Design for Extended Target Detection in the Presence of Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem to be addressed in this paper is a phase-modulated waveform design for the detection of extended targets contaminated by signal-dependent noise (clutter and additive noise in practical radar systems. An optimal waveform design method that leads to the energy spectral density (ESD of signal under the maximum signal-to-clutter-and-noise ratio (SCNR criterion is introduced first. In order to make full use of the transmission power, a novel phase-iterative algorithm is then proposed for designing the phase-modulated waveform with a constant envelope, whose ESD matches the optimal one. This method is proven to be able to achieve a small SCNR loss by minimizing the mean-square spectral distance between the optimal waveform and the designed waveform. The results of extensive simulations demonstrate that our approach provides less than 1 dB SCNR loss when the signal duration is greater than 1 μs, and outperforms the stationary phase method and other phase-modulated waveform design methods.

  2. Is anti-doping analysis so far from clinical, legal or forensic targets?: The added value of close relationships between related disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Jordi

    2009-11-01

    There are many areas of common interest between anti-doping laboratories and those working in the clinical, legal and forensic fields. In addition to methodological similarities, there are aspects of the findings in sport drug testing that overlap with other fields in such a way that sport drug testing and clinical, legal or forensic work may benefit from mutual interaction. Three recent examples are presented from the author's experience. Case report 1 concerns the clinical relevance of hCG findings in sport drug testing as potential indicators of the presence of a (testicular) tumour in athletes. Case report 2 refers to difficulties that accredited laboratories can encounter due to differences between national legal systems and the administrative regulation systems of sport authorities. The example involves a network of blood collection for further autologous transfusion. Case report 3 relates to additional forensic-type investigations needed to interpret a situation where intoxication of a whole delegation was responsible for apparent doping cases. Clinical, legal and forensic fields must recognize the added value that some results and developments coming from anti-doping laboratories may have. At the same time anti-doping analysts should be aware of new issues, methodologies and problems appearing in related fields.

  3. Case study of the development of the Target Acquisition Designation/Pilot Night Vision System

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis is a case study of the extent to which a series of factors influenced development of the U.S. Army Target Acquisition Designation System/Pilot Night Vision System (TADS/PNVS). This study is one of a series being prepared under an ongoing research effort sponsored by Headquarters U.S. Army Material Command (AMC). These studies will look at various weapon systems that participated in Operation Desert Storm (ODS) and will stu...

  4. Preliminary design studies of a 100 MeV H-/H+ LINAC as injector for SNS synchrotron/ADS LINAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S A Pande; Moonooku Prasad; Nita Kulkarni; P R Hannurkar

    2002-11-01

    It is proposed to construct a spallation neutron source (SNS) at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) based on a 1 GeV proton synchrotron with 100 MeV H- LINAC as injector. Additionally, the LINAC can form the first 100 MeV part of a 1 GeV proton LINAC to be built in future for accelerator driven system (ADS) applications. We are exploring a configuration of the 100 MeV LINAC which will consist of an H- ion source, a 4–6 MeV RFQ followed either by a 20 MeV drift tube LINAC (DTL) and 100 MeV separated function drift tube LINAC (SDTL) or a coupled cavity drift tube LINAC (CCDTL) structure. In this paper, we present the results of our preliminary physics design studies of the RFQ–SDTL, RFQ–CCDTL and RFQ–DTL–SDTL configurations. The design of the 4.5 MeV RFQ is discussed along with the matching sections between the RFQ–SDTL/DTL and RFQ–CCDTL. The choice of the accelerator configuration and that of various parameters of the individual accelerator structures under consideration are discussed. The design objectives are to arrive at a configuration which eases heat removal for CW operation and which is less prone to halo formation in order to reduce the beam loss at higher energies.

  5. Rational Design of Small Molecules Targeting Oncogenic Noncoding RNAs from Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Matthew D; Angelbello, Alicia J

    2016-12-20

    The discovery of RNA catalysis in the 1980s and the dissemination of the human genome sequence at the start of this century inspired investigations of the regulatory roles of noncoding RNAs in biology. In fact, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has shown that only 1-2% of the human genome encodes protein, yet 75% is transcribed into RNA. Functional studies both preceding and following the ENCODE project have shown that these noncoding RNAs have important roles in regulating gene expression, developmental timing, and other critical functions. RNA's diverse roles are often a consequence of the various folds that it adopts. The single-stranded nature of the biopolymer enables it to adopt intramolecular folds with noncanonical pairings to lower its free energy. These folds can be scaffolds to bind proteins or to form frameworks to interact with other RNAs. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of certain noncoding RNAs has been shown to be causative of disease. Given this as the background, it is easy to see why it would be useful to develop methods that target RNA and manipulate its biology in rational and predictable ways. The antisense approach has afforded strategies to target RNAs via Watson-Crick base pairing and has typically focused on targeting partially unstructured regions of RNA. Small molecule strategies to target RNA would be desirable not only because compounds could be lead optimized via medicinal chemistry but also because structured regions within an RNA of interest could be targeted to directly interfere with RNA folds that contribute to disease. Additionally, small molecules have historically been the most successful drug candidates. Until recently, the ability to design small molecules that target non-ribosomal RNAs has been elusive, creating the perception that they are "undruggable". In this Account, approaches to demystify targeting RNA with small molecules are described. Rather than bulk screening for compounds that bind to singular

  6. Designing of Anti Dengue Drug Molecule against Insilico Modeled Target DC-Sign (CD-209

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantha C.N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD209 plays a major role in receptor on human dendritic cells, it binds to several glycoproteins of viruses that facilitate disease progression. In dengue fever, the disease targets of arbovirus infection, show dendritic and reticuloendothelial cells that may affect immune system. The phytochemical extracts of Bosenbergia rotunda (BR have been effectively used as potential small molecular inhibitors to inhibit DC-SIGN (CD209 function. Using rational drug designing the training sets include Panduratin-A and 4-hydroxypanduratin is designed from BR derivatives could be an effective inhibitor of a DC-SIGN (CD209 binding towards the drug discovery/ therapy against dengue fever.

  7. Design on the optical screen target by using the line structured light laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Ni, Jin-ping; Lu, Qian; Lu, Hong-Wei

    2011-06-01

    The velocity and impacting position of a flying projectile is usually measured by optical screen target at the range of shooting range measurement. In order to improve the situation of low sensitivity and the small effective sensor area in available optical screen, a laser screen target is put forward in this paper, which takes the line structured light laser as the transmitter and the silicon PIN photodiode as the receiver. In present paper the performance of the optical screen transmitter and the distribution of light energy in the whole screen are analyzed, and the graph of distribution simulated by MATLAB is given. The sensitivity of the effective sensor area is analyzed and calculated. With the verification on air gun projectile, the design of the optical screen in the effective sensor area within 5m × 5m was able to detect air gun projectile. The result demonstrated that this optical screen woks with high sensitivity, high stability and reliability, and the effective sensor area of the measuring can reach to 10m × 10m for the rifle projectile measurement. The mechanical structure and the signal process circuit can also be used on multiple optical screens target and the large space detection for early warning.

  8. Design upgrade of the ISOLDE target unit for HIE-ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, J.; Giles, T.; Gottberg, A.

    2013-12-01

    The High Intensity and Energy HIE-ISOLDE project is a major upgrade of the existing ISOLDE and REX-ISOLDE facilities with the objective of increasing the energy and the intensity of the delivered radioactive ion beams (RIB) [1]. In order to accommodate the future increase of primary beam intensity delivered by the new LINAC4 H- driver to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) [2] and from this to ISOLDE, a major study is being carried out to upgrade the existing designs of the ISOLDE target and its supporting infrastructure. In particular, the extraction optics plays an important role in the initial beam transport and the quality of the beam supplied to the mass separators. Important factors include the emittance of the beam and the beam profile to avoid beam losses. A new double electrode extraction system has been developed for simplifying and improving the interface between the target unit and the frontend (target coupling table). Numerical and experimental studies have been performed in order to define the new extraction geometry, and the coupling table has been adapted to keep the compatibility. An alternative heating system is under study. An electron bombardment heating system is being developed as an option for avoiding the employment of big cross section cables. The results of these studies and the mechanical models developed are presented and discussed.

  9. Tools for the rational design of bivalent microtubule-targeting drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Jacopo; Christodoulou, Michael S; Casagrande, Fancesca V M; Tiana, Guido; Dalla Via, Lisa; Aliverti, Alessandro; Passarella, Daniele; Cappelletti, Graziella; Ricagno, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Microtubule (MT) dynamic behaviour is an attractive drug target for chemotherapy, whose regulation by MT-stabilizing and destabilizing agents has been fruitfully applied in treating several types of cancers. MT-stabilizing agents are also emerging as potential remedies for neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, although single-target drugs are not expected to fully cure these complex pathologies. Drug combination often displays enhanced efficacy with respect to mono-therapies. In particular, MT-targeting bivalent compounds (MTBCs) represent a promising class of molecules; however, surprisingly, the majority of MTBCs reported so far exhibit equal if not less efficacy than their building monomers. In order to shed light on MTBCs poor performance, we characterised through a set of complementary approaches thiocolchine (TH) and two bivalent TH-homodimers as prototype molecules. First, the binding affinities of these three molecules were assessed, then we obtained the crystallographic structure of a tubulin-TH complex. The binding affinities were interpreted in light of structural data and of molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, their effects on MT cytoskeleton and cell survival were validated on HeLa cells. The ensemble of these data provides chemical and structural considerations on how a successful rational design of MTBCs should be conceived.

  10. Design upgrade of the ISOLDE target unit for HIE-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Montano, J; Gottberg, A

    2013-01-01

    The High Intensity and Energy HIE-ISOLDE project is a major upgrade of the existing ISOLDE and REX-ISOLDE facilities with the objective of increasing the energy and the intensity of the delivered radioactive ion beams (RIB) {[}1]. In order to accommodate the future increase of primary beam intensity delivered by the new LINAC4 H- driver to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) {[}2] and from this to ISOLDE, a major study is being carried out to upgrade the existing designs of the ISOLDE target and its supporting infrastructure. In particular, the extraction optics plays an important role in the initial beam transport and the quality of the beam supplied to the mass separators. Important factors include the emittance of the beam and the beam profile to avoid beam losses. A new double electrode extraction system has been developed for simplifying and improving the interface between the target unit and the frontend (target coupling table). Numerical and experimental studies have been performed in order to define ...

  11. Modularly assembled designer TAL effector nucleases for targeted gene knockout and gene replacement in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xuefeng; Wright, David A; Carpenter, Susan; Spalding, Martin H; Weeks, Donald P; Yang, Bing

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that the DNA recognition domain of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors can be combined with the nuclease domain of FokI restriction enzyme to produce TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) that, in pairs, bind adjacent DNA target sites and produce double-strand breaks between the target sequences, stimulating non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here, we exploit the four prevalent TAL repeats and their DNA recognition cipher to develop a 'modular assembly' method for rapid production of designer TALENs (dTALENs) that recognize unique DNA sequence up to 23 bases in any gene. We have used this approach to engineer 10 dTALENs to target specific loci in native yeast chromosomal genes. All dTALENs produced high rates of site-specific gene disruptions and created strains with expected mutant phenotypes. Moreover, dTALENs stimulated high rates (up to 34%) of gene replacement by homologous recombination. Finally, dTALENs caused no detectable cytotoxicity and minimal levels of undesired genetic mutations in the treated yeast strains. These studies expand the realm of verified TALEN activity from cultured human cells to an intact eukaryotic organism and suggest that low-cost, highly dependable dTALENs can assume a significant role for gene modifications of value in human and animal health, agriculture and industry.

  12. Modularly assembled designer TAL effector nucleases for targeted gene knockout and gene replacement in eukaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T; Huang, S; Zhao, XF; Wright, DA; Carpenter, S; Spalding, MH; Weeks, DP; Yang, B

    2011-08-08

    Recent studies indicate that the DNA recognition domain of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors can be combined with the nuclease domain of FokI restriction enzyme to produce TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) that, in pairs, bind adjacent DNA target sites and produce double-strand breaks between the target sequences, stimulating non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here, we exploit the four prevalent TAL repeats and their DNA recognition cipher to develop a 'modular assembly' method for rapid production of designer TALENs (dTALENs) that recognize unique DNA sequence up to 23 bases in any gene. We have used this approach to engineer 10 dTALENs to target specific loci in native yeast chromosomal genes. All dTALENs produced high rates of site-specific gene disruptions and created strains with expected mutant phenotypes. Moreover, dTALENs stimulated high rates (up to 34%) of gene replacement by homologous recombination. Finally, dTALENs caused no detectable cytotoxicity and minimal levels of undesired genetic mutations in the treated yeast strains. These studies expand the realm of verified TALEN activity from cultured human cells to an intact eukaryotic organism and suggest that low-cost, highly dependable dTALENs can assume a significant role for gene modifications of value in human and animal health, agriculture and industry.

  13. AD HOC TEAMWORK BEHAVIORS FOR INFLUENCING A FLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Genter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock. We introduce three algorithms which the ad hoc agents can use to influence the flock, and we examine the relative importance of coordinating the ad hoc agents versus planning farther ahead when given fixed computational resources. We present detailed experimental results for each of these algorithms, concluding that in this setting, inter-agent coordination and deeper lookahead planning are no more beneficial than short-term lookahead planning.

  14. Molecular design and nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery of functional proteins to target cellular pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhiral Ashwin

    Intracellular delivery of specific proteins and peptides represents a novel method to influence stem cells for gain-of-function and loss-of-function. Signaling control is vital in stem cells, wherein intricate control of and interplay among critical pathways directs the fate of these cells into either self-renewal or differentiation. The most common route to manipulate cellular function involves the introduction of genetic material such as full-length genes and shRNA into the cell to generate (or prevent formation of) the target protein, and thereby ultimately alter cell function. However, viral-mediated gene delivery may result in relatively slow expression of proteins and prevalence of oncogene insertion into the cell, which can alter cell function in an unpredictable fashion, and non-viral delivery may lead to low efficiency of genetic delivery. For example, the latter case plagues the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and hinders their use for in vivo applications. Alternatively, introducing proteins into cells that specifically recognize and influence target proteins, can result in immediate deactivation or activation of key signaling pathways within the cell. In this work, we demonstrate the cellular delivery of functional proteins attached to hydrophobically modified silica (SiNP) nanoparticles to manipulate specifically targeted cell signaling proteins. In the Wnt signaling pathway, we have targeted the phosphorylation activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) by designing a chimeric protein and delivering it in neural stem cells. Confocal imaging indicates that the SiNP-chimeric protein conjugates were efficiently delivered to the cytosol of human embryonic kidney cells and rat neural stem cells, presumably via endocytosis. This uptake impacted the Wnt signaling cascade, indicated by the elevation of beta-catenin levels, and increased transcription of Wnt target genes, such as c-MYC. The results presented here suggest that

  15. Computer-aided Molecular Design of Compounds Targeting Histone Modifying Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Federico; Del Rio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidences show that epigenetic mechanisms play crucial roles in the genesis and progression of many physiopathological processes. As a result, research in epigenetic grew at a fast pace in the last decade. In particular, the study of histone post-translational modifications encountered an extraordinary progression and many modifications have been characterized and associated to fundamental biological processes and pathological conditions. Histone modifications are the catalytic result of a large set of enzyme families that operate covalent modifications on specific residues at the histone tails. Taken together, these modifications elicit a complex and concerted processing that greatly contribute to the chromatin remodeling and may drive different pathological conditions, especially cancer. For this reason, several epigenetic targets are currently under validation for drug discovery purposes and different academic and industrial programs have been already launched to produce the first pre-clinical and clinical outcomes. In this scenario, computer-aided molecular design techniques are offering important tools, mainly as a consequence of the increasing structural information available for these targets. In this mini-review we will briefly discuss the most common types of known histone modifications and the corresponding operating enzymes by emphasizing the computer-aided molecular design approaches that can be of use to speed-up the efforts to generate new pharmaceutically relevant compounds.

  16. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Andalib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Materials and Methods: The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol, lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. Results: The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of −25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. Conclusions: The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  17. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Torkashvand

    Full Text Available Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44 cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  18. Thermo-structural analysis and design consideration of the replaceable backwall in IFMIF liquid lithium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakamura.hiroo@jaea.go.jp; Ida, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chida, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Hyogo 652-8585 (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    The IFMIF is an accelerator-based intense neutron source for testing candidate materials for fusion reactors. Intense neutrons are emitted inside the Li flow through a backwall. The backwall made of 316L stainless steel or RAFM is attached to the target assembly with a lip seal welded by a YAG laser. Since the backwall is operating under a severe neutron irradiation of 50 dpa/year and a maximum nuclear heating rate of 25 W/cm{sup 3}, thermo-structural design is one of critical issues in a target design. Thermal stress was calculated using the ABAQUS code. As a permissible stress, yield strength at 300 {sup o}C was used. In the case of the 316 stainless steel backwall, the maximum thermal stress was more than the permissible stress (164 MPa). On the other hand, in case of the F82H backwall, a maximum thermal stress was below the permissible stress (455 MPa). Therefore, F82H is recommended as the backwall material.

  19. An Enhanced Analytical Target Cascading and Kriging Model Combined Approach for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO has been applied widely in the design of complex engineering systems. To ease MDO problems, analytical target cascading (ATC organizes MDO process into multilevels according to the components of engineering systems, which provides a promising way to deal with MDO problems. ATC adopts a coordination strategy to coordinate the couplings between two adjacent levels in the design optimization process; however, existing coordination strategies in ATC face the obstacles of complicated coordination process and heavy computation cost. In order to conquer this problem, a quadratic exterior penalty function (QEPF based ATC (QEPF-ATC approach is proposed, where QEPF is adopted as the coordination strategy. Moreover, approximate models are adopted widely to replace the expensive simulation models in MDO; a QEPF-ATC and Kriging model combined approach is further proposed to deal with MDO problems, owing to the comprehensive performance, high approximation accuracy, and robustness of Kriging model. Finally, the geometric programming and reducer design cases are given to validate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  20. Analysis of variance of designed chromatographic data sets: The analysis of variance-target projection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Federico; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Walczak, Beata

    2015-07-31

    Direct application of popular approaches, e.g., Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Partial Least Squares (PLS) to chromatographic data originating from a well-designed experimental study including more than one factor is not recommended. In the case of a well-designed experiment involving two or more factors (crossed or nested), data are usually decomposed into the contributions associated with the studied factors (and with their interactions), and the individual effect matrices are then analyzed using, e.g., PCA, as in the case of ASCA (analysis of variance combined with simultaneous component analysis). As an alternative to the ASCA method, we propose the application of PLS followed by target projection (TP), which allows a one-factor representation of the model for each column in the design dummy matrix. PLS application follows after proper deflation of the experimental matrix, i.e., to what are called the residuals under the reduced ANOVA model. The proposed approach (ANOVA-TP) is well suited for the study of designed chromatographic data of complex samples. It allows testing of statistical significance of the studied effects, 'biomarker' identification, and enables straightforward visualization and accurate estimation of between- and within-class variance. The proposed approach has been successfully applied to a case study aimed at evaluating the effect of pasteurization on the concentrations of various phenolic constituents of rooibos tea of different quality grades and its outcomes have been compared to those of ASCA.

  1. Targeted repression of AXIN2 and MYC gene expression using designer TALEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Scott, Samantha A.; Yochum, Gregory S., E-mail: gsy3@psu.edu

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We designed TALE–SID fusion proteins to target AXIN2 and MYC. • TALE–SIDs bound the chromosomal AXIN2 and MYC genes and repressed their expression. • TALE–SIDs repress β-catenin{sup S45F}-dependent AXIN2 and MYC transcription. - Abstract: Designer TALEs (dTALEs) are chimeric transcription factors that can be engineered to regulate gene expression in mammalian cells. Whether dTALEs can block gene transcription downstream of signal transduction cascades, however, has yet to be fully explored. Here we tested whether dTALEs can be used to target genes whose expression is controlled by Wnt/β-catenin signaling. TALE DNA binding domains were engineered to recognize sequences adjacent to Wnt responsive enhancer elements (WREs) that control expression of axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) and c-MYC (MYC). These custom DNA binding domains were linked to the mSin3A interaction domain (SID) to generate TALE–SID chimeric repressors. The TALE–SIDs repressed luciferase reporter activity, bound their genomic target sites, and repressed AXIN2 and MYC expression in HEK293 cells. We generated a novel HEK293 cell line to determine whether the TALE–SIDs could function downstream of oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Treating these cells with doxycycline and tamoxifen stimulates nuclear accumulation of a stabilized form of β-catenin found in a subset of colorectal cancers. The TALE–SIDs repressed AXIN2 and MYC expression in these cells, which suggests that dTALEs could offer an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  2. Challenges in the design of clinically useful brain-targeted drug nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, L; Boraschi, D; Eaton, M

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the delivery of drugs by means of intravenously administered nanosized drug carriers - polymerdrug conjugates, liposomes and micelles, is technically possible. These delivery systems are mainly designed for tumour therapy, and accumulate passively into tumours by means of the well known EPR effect. Targeted nanocarriers, that additionally contain ligands for receptors expressed on cell surfaces, are also widely studied but products of this kind are not marketed, and only a few are in clinical trial. Polymeric nanoparticles (Np) able to deliver drugs to the CNS were pioneered in 1995; a number of papers have been published dealing with brain-targeted drug delivery using polymeric Np able to cross the BBB, mainly for the treatment of brain tumours. At present, however, the translation potential of these Np seems to have been exceeded by targeted liposomes, a platform based on a proven technology. This drug delivery system entered clinical trials soon after its discovery, while the challenges in formulation, characterization and manufacturing of brain-targeted polymeric Np and the cost/benefit ratio could be the factors that have prevented their development. A key issue is that it is virtually impossible to define the in vivo fate of polymers, especially in the brain, which is a regulatory requirement; perhaps this is why no progress has been made. The most advanced Np for brain tumours treatment will be compared here with the published data available for those in clinical trial for tumours outside the CNS, to highlight the knowledge gaps that still penalise these delivery systems. At present, new approaches for brain tumours are emerging, such as lipid Np or the use of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-drug conjugates, which avoid polymers. The success or failure in the approval of the polymeric Np currently in clinical trials will certainly affect the field. At present, the chances of their approval appear to be very low.

  3. LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-centre (LSS-GAC): target selection and the first release of value-added catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Haibo; Huo, Zhiying; Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu; Zhang, Huihua; Sun, Ningchen; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Huawei; Zhao, Yongheng; Luo, Ali; Shi, Jianrong; Li, Guoping; Yuan, Hailong; Dong, Yiqiao; Li, Guangwei; Hou, Yonghui; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    As a major component of the LAMOST Galactic surveys, the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-centre (LSS-GAC) aims to survey a significant volume of the Galactic thin/thick discs and halo for a contiguous sky area of over 3,400 deg$^2$ centred on the Galactic anti-centre ($|b| \\leq 30^{\\circ}$, $150 \\leq l \\leq 210^{\\circ}$), and obtain $\\lambda\\lambda$3700 -- 9000 low resolution ($R \\sim 1,800$) spectra for a statistically complete sample of $\\sim 3$\\,M stars of all colours down to a limiting magnitued of $r$ $\\sim$ 17.8\\,mag (to 18.5\\,mag for limited fields). Together with Gaia, the LSS-GAC will yield a unique dataset to advance our understanding of the structure and assemblage history of the Galaxy, in particular its disk(s). In addition to the main survey, the LSS-GAC will also target hundreds of thousands objects in the vicinity fields of M\\,31 and M\\,33 and survey a significant fraction (over a million) of randomly selected very bright stars (VB; $r \\le 14$ mag) in the northern hemisphere. ...

  4. 基于AD8302的高精度幅相检测系统的设计%Design of Magnitude and Phase Measuring System with High Precision Based on AD8302

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 马彦恒

    2011-01-01

    In order to raise the accuracy of the magnitude and phase measuring, predigest the circuit, enlarge the range of the frequence, the paper introduces the chip of AD8302, which is used to measure the RF/IF gain/ loss and phase.Then compose the magnitude and phase measuring system with high precision based on AD8302 and MCU, to realize the measurement of the magnitude and phase of the two simulated input signals, and compose the judgement circuit of phase polarity with Schmitt trigger and D trigger, enlarge the range of the frequence test to 0- 360°.The system can measure the magnitude and phase accurately of the input signal.The results shows that magnitude and phase measuring system based on AD8302 has the advantages of precision and strong anti-jamming.%为了提高幅相测量精度、简化电路,扩展频率范围,介绍了一种用于RF/IF幅度和相位测量的AD8302芯片;并利用此芯片和单片机组成高精度幅相检测系统,主要是以实现两路模拟输入信号的相位差和幅度比测量为目的;并利用分频器、施密特触发器和D触发器组成相位极性判断电路,扩展相位测量范围为0~360°;该系统能精确测量两输入信号的幅度比和相位差,测试结果表明基于AD8302的幅相检测系统具有精度高、抗干扰能力强等优点.

  5. Design, development and characterization of multi-functionalized gold nanoparticles for biodetection and targeted boron delivery in BNCT applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandal, S.; Bakeine, G.J.; Krol, S.; Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Zonta, C.; Cansolino, L.; Ballarini, F.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Protti, N.; Bruschi, P.; Altieri, S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to optimize targeted boron delivery to cancer cells and its tracking down to the cellular level. To this end, we describe the design and synthesis of novel nanovectors that double as targeted boron delivery agents and fluorescent imaging probes. Gold nanoparticles were coate

  6. An integrated in silico approach to design specific inhibitors targeting human poly(a-specific ribonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Vlachakis

    Full Text Available Poly(A-specific ribonuclease (PARN is an exoribonuclease/deadenylase that degrades 3'-end poly(A tails in almost all eukaryotic organisms. Much of the biochemical and structural information on PARN comes from the human enzyme. However, the existence of PARN all along the eukaryotic evolutionary ladder requires further and thorough investigation. Although the complete structure of the full-length human PARN, as well as several aspects of the catalytic mechanism still remain elusive, many previous studies indicate that PARN can be used as potent and promising anti-cancer target. In the present study, we attempt to complement the existing structural information on PARN with in-depth bioinformatics analyses, in order to get a hologram of the molecular evolution of PARNs active site. In an effort to draw an outline, which allows specific drug design targeting PARN, an unequivocally specific platform was designed for the development of selective modulators focusing on the unique structural and catalytic features of the enzyme. Extensive phylogenetic analysis based on all the publicly available genomes indicated a broad distribution for PARN across eukaryotic species and revealed structurally important amino acids which could be assigned as potentially strong contributors to the regulation of the catalytic mechanism of PARN. Based on the above, we propose a comprehensive in silico model for the PARN's catalytic mechanism and moreover, we developed a 3D pharmacophore model, which was subsequently used for the introduction of DNP-poly(A amphipathic substrate analog as a potential inhibitor of PARN. Indeed, biochemical analysis revealed that DNP-poly(A inhibits PARN competitively. Our approach provides an efficient integrated platform for the rational design of pharmacophore models as well as novel modulators of PARN with therapeutic potential.

  7. Capabilities, Design, Construction and Commissioning of New Vibration, Acoustic, and Electromagnetic Capabilities Added to the World's Largest Thermal Vacuum Chamber at NASA's Space Power Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Susan M.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.; Carek, Gerald A.; Sorge, Richard N.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    NASA s human space exploration plans developed under the Exploration System Architecture Studies in 2005 included a Crew Exploration Vehicle launched on an Ares I launch vehicle. The mass of the Crew Exploration Vehicle and trajectory of the Ares I coupled with the need to be able to abort across a large percentage of the trajectory generated unprecedented testing requirements. A future lunar lander added to projected test requirements. In 2006, the basic test plan for Orion was developed. It included several types of environment tests typical of spacecraft development programs. These included thermal-vacuum, electromagnetic interference, mechanical vibration, and acoustic tests. Because of the size of the vehicle and unprecedented acoustics, NASA conducted an extensive assessment of options for testing, and as result, chose to augment the Space Power Facility at NASA Plum Brook Station, of the John H. Glenn Research Center to provide the needed test capabilities. The augmentation included designing and building the World s highest mass capable vibration table, the highest power large acoustic chamber, and adaptation of the existing World s largest thermal vacuum chamber as a reverberant electromagnetic interference test chamber. These augmentations were accomplished from 2007 through early 2011. Acceptance testing began in Spring 2011 and will be completed in the Fall of 2011. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, design, construction and acceptance of this extraordinary facility.

  8. Note on classical string dynamics on AdS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañados, Máximo; Ritz, Adam

    1999-12-01

    We consider bosonic strings propagating on Euclidean anti-de Sitter space (AdS3), and study in particular the realization of various worldsheet symmetries. We give a proper definition for the Brown-Henneaux asymptotic target space symmetry, when acting on the string action, and derive the Giveon-Kutasov-Seiberg worldsheet contour integral representation simply by using Noether's theorem. We show that making identifications in the target space is equivalent to the insertion of an (exponentiated) graviton vertex operator carrying the corresponding charge. Finally, we point out an interesting relation between 3D gravity and the dynamics of the worldsheet on AdS3. Both theories are described by an SL(2,C)/SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) model, and we prove that the reduction conditions determined on one hand by worldsheet diffeomorphism invariance, and on the other by the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions, are the same.

  9. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  10. A cross-layer design and ant-colony optimization based load-balancing routing protocol for ad-hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiangquan; GUO Wei; GE Lijia; LIU Renting

    2007-01-01

    In order to periodically reassess the status of the alternate path route (APR) set and to improve the efficiency of alternate path construction existing in most current alternate path routing protocols,we present a cross-layer design and ant-colony optimization based load-balancing routing protocol for ad-hoc networks (CALRA) in this paper.In CALRA,the APR set maintained in nodes is aged and reassessed by the inherent mechanism of pheromone evaporation of ant-colony optimization algorithm,and load balance of network is achieved by ant-colony optimization combining with cross-layer synthetic optimization.The efficiency of APR set construction is improved by bidirectional and hop-by-hop routing update during routing discovery and routing maintenance process.Moreover,ants in CALRA deposit simulated pheromones as a function of multiple parameters corresponding to the information collected by each layer of each node visited,such as the distance from their source node,the congestion degree of the visited nodes,the current pheromones the nodes possess,the velocity of the nodes,and so on,and provide the information to the visiting nodes to update their pheromone tables by endowing the different parameters corresponding to different information and different weight values,which provides a new method to improve the congestion problem,the shortcut problem,the convergence rate and the heavy overheads commonly existed in existing ant-based routing protocols for ad-hoc networks.The performance of the algorithm is measured by the packet delivery rate,good-put ratio (routing overhead),and end-to-end delay.Simulation results show that CALRA performs well in decreasing the route overheads,balancing traffic load,as well as increasing the packet delivery rate,etc.

  11. Design and Implementation of A/D Converter Module in Industry%工业通用A/D采集模块的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建敏; 李琦

    2012-01-01

    Analog signal acquisition and convertion is an essential part of industry process control system. Based on μCOS - Ⅱ realtime operation system and Modbus protocol, the design of AD converter module using STM32 was presented. The analog signal from sensor was converted to digital using the ADC of STM32. The data is then sent to RS - 485 bus to the master. The module works on Modbus RTU mode and can be expediently added to any data acquisition system based on Modbus protocol. It has been u-sing in heat net control system and fulfils the requirements.%模拟量参数的采集及转换是工业过程控制的重要组成.文中采用STM32单片机,设计了基于μCOS-Ⅱ实时操作系统、支持Modbus通讯协议的通用ADC模块.传感器模拟信号通过输入通道送入STM32的ADC端口进行AD转换,转换结果通过RS-485发送到RS485总线.模块支持Modbus通讯协议,工作在RTU模式,可方便地应用于采用Mod-bus协议构建的工业数据采集系统中.该模块已经在某市热网监控系统中使用,完全符合控制要求.

  12. AGS SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM FACILITY ACCELERATOR AND TARGET SYSTEM DESIGN (NEUTRINO WORKING GROUP REPORT-II).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIWAN,M.; MARCIANO,W.; WENG,W.; RAPARIA,D.

    2003-04-21

    This document describes the design of the accelerator and target systems for the AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility. Under the direction of the Associate Laboratory Director Tom Kirk, BNL has established a Neutrino Working Group to explore the scientific case and facility requirements for a very long baseline neutrino experiment. Results of a study of the physics merit and detector performance was published in BNL-69395 in October 2002, where it was shown that a wide-band neutrino beam generated by a 1 MW proton beam from the AGS, coupled with a half megaton water Cerenkov detector located deep underground in the former Homestake mine in South Dakota would be able to measure the complete set of neutrino oscillation parameters: (1) precise determination of the oscillation parameters {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 32}; (2) detection of the oscillation of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub e} and measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13}; (3) measurement of {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} sin 2{theta}{sub 12} in a {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance mode, independent of the value of {theta}{sub 13}; (4) verification of matter enhancement and the sign of {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}; and (5) determination of the CP-violation parameter {delta}{sub CP} in the neutrino sector. This report details the performance requirements and conceptual design of the accelerator and the target systems for the production of a neutrino beam by a 1.0 MW proton beam from the AGS. The major components of this facility include a new 1.2 GeV superconducting linac, ramping the AGS at 2.5 Hz, and the new target station for 1.0 MW beam. It also calls for moderate increase, about 30%, of the AGS intensity per pulse. Special care is taken to account for all sources of proton beam loss plus shielding and collimation of stray beam halo particles to ensure equipment reliability and personal safety. A preliminary cost estimate and schedule for the accelerator upgrade and target system are also

  13. The Impact of Verification Area Design on Tropical Cyclone Targeted Observations Based on the CNOP Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feifan; MU Mu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of different verification-area designs on the sensitive areas identified using the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) method for tropical cyclone targeted observations.The sensitive areas identified using the first singular vector (FSV) method,which is the linear approximation of CNOP,were also investigated for comparison.By analyzing the validity of the sensitive areas,the proper design of a verification area was developed.Tropical cyclone Rananim,which occurred in August 2004 in the northwest Pacific Ocean,was studied.Two sets of verification areas were designed; one changed position,and the other changed both size and position.The CNOP and its identified sensitive areas were found to be less sensitive to small variations of the verification areas than those of the FSV and its sensitive areas.With larger variations of the verification area,the CNOP and the FSV as well as their identified sensitive areas changed substantially.In terms of reducing forecast errors in the verification area,the CNOP-identified sensitive areas were more beneficial than those identified using FSV.The design of the verification area is important for cyclone prediction.The verification area should be designed with a proper size according to the possible locations of the cyclone obtained from the ensemble forecast results.In addition,the development trend of the cyclone analyzed from its dynamic mechanisms was another reference.When the general position of the verification area was determined,a small variation in size or position had little influence on the results of CNOP.

  14. A real-time brain-machine interface combining motor target and trajectory intent using an optimal feedback control design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanechi, Maryam M; Williams, Ziv M; Wornell, Gregory W; Hu, Rollin C; Powers, Marissa; Brown, Emery N

    2013-01-01

    Real-time brain-machine interfaces (BMI) have focused on either estimating the continuous movement trajectory or target intent. However, natural movement often incorporates both. Additionally, BMIs can be modeled as a feedback control system in which the subject modulates the neural activity to move the prosthetic device towards a desired target while receiving real-time sensory feedback of the state of the movement. We develop a novel real-time BMI using an optimal feedback control design that jointly estimates the movement target and trajectory of monkeys in two stages. First, the target is decoded from neural spiking activity before movement initiation. Second, the trajectory is decoded by combining the decoded target with the peri-movement spiking activity using an optimal feedback control design. This design exploits a recursive Bayesian decoder that uses an optimal feedback control model of the sensorimotor system to take into account the intended target location and the sensory feedback in its trajectory estimation from spiking activity. The real-time BMI processes the spiking activity directly using point process modeling. We implement the BMI in experiments consisting of an instructed-delay center-out task in which monkeys are presented with a target location on the screen during a delay period and then have to move a cursor to it without touching the incorrect targets. We show that the two-stage BMI performs more accurately than either stage alone. Correct target prediction can compensate for inaccurate trajectory estimation and vice versa. The optimal feedback control design also results in trajectories that are smoother and have lower estimation error. The two-stage decoder also performs better than linear regression approaches in offline cross-validation analyses. Our results demonstrate the advantage of a BMI design that jointly estimates the target and trajectory of movement and more closely mimics the sensorimotor control system.

  15. A real-time brain-machine interface combining motor target and trajectory intent using an optimal feedback control design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam M Shanechi

    Full Text Available Real-time brain-machine interfaces (BMI have focused on either estimating the continuous movement trajectory or target intent. However, natural movement often incorporates both. Additionally, BMIs can be modeled as a feedback control system in which the subject modulates the neural activity to move the prosthetic device towards a desired target while receiving real-time sensory feedback of the state of the movement. We develop a novel real-time BMI using an optimal feedback control design that jointly estimates the movement target and trajectory of monkeys in two stages. First, the target is decoded from neural spiking activity before movement initiation. Second, the trajectory is decoded by combining the decoded target with the peri-movement spiking activity using an optimal feedback control design. This design exploits a recursive Bayesian decoder that uses an optimal feedback control model of the sensorimotor system to take into account the intended target location and the sensory feedback in its trajectory estimation from spiking activity. The real-time BMI processes the spiking activity directly using point process modeling. We implement the BMI in experiments consisting of an instructed-delay center-out task in which monkeys are presented with a target location on the screen during a delay period and then have to move a cursor to it without touching the incorrect targets. We show that the two-stage BMI performs more accurately than either stage alone. Correct target prediction can compensate for inaccurate trajectory estimation and vice versa. The optimal feedback control design also results in trajectories that are smoother and have lower estimation error. The two-stage decoder also performs better than linear regression approaches in offline cross-validation analyses. Our results demonstrate the advantage of a BMI design that jointly estimates the target and trajectory of movement and more closely mimics the sensorimotor control system.

  16. N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We construct the most general N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-model in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is shown to be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field. A remarkable property of the sigma-model constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations is closed off the mass shell.

  17. Design of a ribozyme targeting human telomerase reverse transcriptase and cloning of it's gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Ming Hap; Jin-Yan Luo; Jin Cheng; Quan-Yin Wang; Guang-Xiao Yang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To design a hammerhead ribozyme targeting humantelomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and clone it's genefor future use in the study of tumor gene therapy.METHODS: Using the software RNAstructure, the secondarystructure of hTERT mRNA was predicted and the cleavagesite of ribozyme was selected. A hammerhead ribozymetargeting this site was designed and bimolecular fold betweenthe ribozyme and hTERT was predicted. The DNA encodingthe ribozyme was synthesized and cloned into pGEMEX-1and the sequence of the ribozyme gene was confirmed byDNA sequencing.RESULTS: Triplet GUC at 1742 of hTERT mRNA was chosenas the cleavage site of the ribozyme. The designed ribozymewas comprised of 22nt catalytic core and 17nt flankingsequence. Computer-aided prediction suggested that theribozyme and hTERT mRNA could cofold into a properconformation. Endonuclease restriction and DNA sequencingconfirmed the correct insertion of the ribozyme gene intothe vector pGEMEX-1.CONCLUSION: This fundamental work of successfuldesigning and cloning of an anti-hTERT hammerheadribozyme has paved the way for further study of inhibitingtumor cell growth by cleaving hTERT mRNA with ribozyme.

  18. Analysis and Algorithm Design of Wormhole Attacking Mobile Ad Hoc Networks%移动Ad Hoc网络中"虫洞"攻击分析及算法设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景劼; 田军舰

    2010-01-01

    阐述了"虫洞"攻击原理,建立了攻击模型和流程图,针对典型路由协议进行了"虫洞"攻击分析及算法设计,并用OPNET软件对"虫洞"攻击进行仿真.仿真结果初步验证了"虫洞"攻击对Ad Hoc网络的危害性.

  19. Design and realization of HART protocol telecommunication module based on A5191HRT and AD421%基于A5191HRT和AD421的HART协议通信模块的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾伟; 费元春; 周建明

    2004-01-01

    首先叙述HART通信协议的发展和协议的层次结构,针对某现场仪表的HART协议远程通信模块的设计与实现的要求,完成了基于HART调制解调器A5191HRT和电流环数模转换器AD421的HART协议通信模块的软硬件设计.

  20. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  1. 基于AD7655的鱼雷声靶数据采集系统设计分析%Analysis for the Design of the Data Acquisition System of Torpedo Acoustics-Drone Based on AD7655

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2010-01-01

    为了保证鱼雷声靶工作时的可靠性和稳定性,数据采集系统必须具有多通道和高采样频率的特点,以满足高精度的试验要求.本文在分析鱼雷声靶数据采集系统的总体构成的基础上,介绍了运用高性能模数转换芯片AD7655实现数据采集系统的模数转换过程,说明了利用FPGA产生控制信号实现AD7655模数转换功能,以及AD7655与数字处理器传送数据的接口设计.在实际应用过程中证明,该系统的设计是合理的.

  2. Soft computing model for optimized siRNA design by identifying off target possibilities using artificial neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Reena; John, Philips George; Peter S, David

    2015-05-15

    The ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to do posttranscriptional gene regulation by knocking down targeted genes is an important research topic in functional genomics, biomedical research and in cancer therapeutics. Many tools had been developed to design exogenous siRNA with high experimental inhibition. Even though considerable amount of work has been done in designing exogenous siRNA, design of effective siRNA sequences is still a challenging work because the target mRNAs must be selected such that their corresponding siRNAs are likely to be efficient against that target and unlikely to accidentally silence other transcripts due to sequence similarity. In some cases, siRNAs may tolerate mismatches with the target mRNA, but knockdown of genes other than the intended target could make serious consequences. Hence to design siRNAs, two important concepts must be considered: the ability in knocking down target genes and the off target possibility on any nontarget genes. So before doing gene silencing by siRNAs, it is essential to analyze their off target effects in addition to their inhibition efficacy against a particular target. Only a few methods have been developed by considering both efficacy and off target possibility of siRNA against a gene. In this paper we present a new design of neural network model with whole stacking energy (ΔG) that enables to identify the efficacy and off target effect of siRNAs against target genes. The tool lists all siRNAs against a particular target with their inhibition efficacy and number of matches or sequence similarity with other genes in the database. We could achieve an excellent performance of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R=0. 74) and Area Under Curve (AUC=0.906) when the threshold of whole stacking energy is ≥-34.6 kcal/mol. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is one of the best score while considering the "combined efficacy and off target possibility" of siRNA for silencing a gene. The proposed model

  3. Engineering design and construction of a function Hg – loop & Contribution of IPUL in windowless Hg-target feasibility studies

    CERN Document Server

    J. Freibergs, E. Platacis, K. Kravalis, A. Ziks&I.Platnieks

    Within EURISOL – DS, a liquid metal /LM/ spallation target with a power of several Megawatt is designed to provide neutrons to a fission target. The target station that allows the full intensity of a 4 MW proton beam to be used for RIB production will require new advanced technology. It is a critical component of EURISOL.For a power density above 103 MW/m3 the windowless, free-surface, molten LM-jet is proposed as a target since it avoids the very serious lifetime – shortening damage caused by the power proton beam in any system

  4. ADS design and simulation of radio receiver front-end%射频接收前端的ADS设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾锋; 杨瑞民

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of the Radio Front(RF)signal analyzer, the RF receiver front-end plays a decisive role in the measurement of the RF signal. This paper builds one kind of 860~960 MHz RF receiver front-end system simulation platform of RF signal analyzer using the Advanced Design System(ADS)software. The pre-LNA is used to reduce system noise, and AGC is used to achieve a large dynamic range of the RF receiver front-end in the design. The gain, noise figure, sensitivity, dynamic range and other indicators of RF front-end of the design are calculated, and simulated by the software simulation tools. The simulations show that the RF front-end designed in the paper meets the requirements of the design.%射频接收前端作为射频信号分析仪的重要组成部分,对射频(RF)信号的测量起着决定性的作用。使用ADS软件,构建了一种860~960 MHz的射频信号分析仪射频接收前端系统仿真平台。在设计中采用了前置低噪声放大器(LNA)来降低系统噪声,利用自动增益控制(AGC)来实现接收前端的大动态范围。对设计的射频接收前端的增益、噪声系数、灵敏度、动态范围等指标进行了分析计算,并通过仿真工具进行了仿真验证。仿真结果表明,所设计的射频接收前端各项指标均达到了设计要求。

  5. Design and generation of DVD-Ig™ molecules for dual-specific targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiammarino, Enrico; Ghayur, Tariq; Liu, Junjian

    2012-01-01

    The dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig™) protein is a new type of dual-specific IgG. As a novel therapeutic class, the great potential of the DVD-Ig protein is to simultaneously target two mediators of disease by a single pharmaceutical entity. The molecule contains an Fc region and constant regions in a configuration similar to a conventional IgG; however, the DVD-Ig protein is unique in that each arm of the molecule contains two variable domains (VDs). The VDs within an arm are linked in tandem and can possess different binding specificities. Here, we discuss critical design features of the DVD-Ig protein and describe a methodology for cloning, expressing, and purifying the molecules.

  6. Preliminary shielding analysis in support of the CSNS target station shutter neutron beam stop design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; CHEN Yi-Xue; WANG Wei-Jin; YANG Shou-Hai; WU Jun; YIN Wen; LIANG Tian-Jiao; JIA Xue-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The construction of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been initiated in Dongguan,Guangdong, China.Thus a detailed radiation transport analysis of the shutter neutron beam stop is of vital importance. The analyses are performed using the coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates method. The target of calculations is to optimize the neutron beamline shielding design to guarantee personal safety and minimize cost. Successful elimination of the primary ray effects via the two-dimensional uncollided flux and the first collision source methodology is also illustrated. Two-dimensional dose distribution is calculated. The dose at the end of the neutron beam line is less than 2.5μSv/h. The models have ensured that the doses received by the hall staff members are below the standard limit required.

  7. Progress in the Design of the Stabilized Liner Compressor for MTF/MIF Plasma Target Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Sherry; Frese, Michael; Turchi, Peter; Gale, Don

    2016-10-01

    The Stabilized Liner Compressor (SLC) seeks to extend concepts for repetitive, rotationally stabilized, liquid-metal liners driven by free-pistons to much higher drive pressures (25 vs 5 kpsi) and faster implosion speeds (2000 vs 100 m/s) than previously demonstrated. Such extension is needed to enable experiments with magnetized-plasma targets presently offering sizes and lifetimes of 10's cm diam and 10's microsec. SLC represents the confluence of several difficult technologies, including pulsed high pressures, high-speed rotating machinery and alkali-metal (Na, NaK) handling. Solution of the two-dimensional, unsteady, compressible flow of a rotating liquid-metal liner requires advanced numerical techniques. We report the use of the 2-1/2 dimensional MHD code MACH2 to explore flow options, including magnetic flux compression, and to provide pulsed pressure distributions for mechanical design. Supported by ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  8. Rational design of small molecule inhibitors targeting the Ras GEF, SOS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Duan, Xin; Biesiada, Jacek; Seibel, William L.; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ras GTPases regulate intracellular signaling involved in cell proliferation. Elevated Ras signaling activity has been associated with human cancers. Ras activation is catalyzed by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), of which SOS1 is a major member that transduces receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Ras. We have developed a rational approach coupling virtual screening with experimental screening in identifying small-molecule inhibitors targeting the catalytic site of SOS1 and SOS1-regulated Ras activity. A lead inhibitor, NSC-658497, is found to bind to SOS1, competitively suppresses SOS1-Ras interaction, and dose-dependently inhibits SOS1 GEF activity. Mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship studies map the NSC-658497 site of action to the SOS1 catalytic site, and define the chemical moieties in the inhibitor essential for the activity. NSC-658497 showed dose-dependent efficacy in inhibiting Ras, downstream signaling activities, and associated cell proliferation. These studies establish a proof of principle for rational design of small-molecule inhibitors targeting Ras GEF enzymatic activity. PMID:25455859

  9. Rational design of small molecule inhibitors targeting the Ras GEF, SOS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn, Chris R; Duan, Xin; Biesiada, Jacek; Seibel, William L; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2014-12-18

    Ras GTPases regulate intracellular signaling involved in cell proliferation. Elevated Ras signaling activity has been associated with human cancers. Ras activation is catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), of which SOS1 is a major member that transduces receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Ras. We have developed a rational approach coupling virtual screening with experimental screening in identifying small-molecule inhibitors targeting the catalytic site of SOS1 and SOS1-regulated Ras activity. A lead inhibitor, NSC-658497, was found to bind to SOS1, competitively suppress SOS1-Ras interaction, and dose-dependently inhibit SOS1 GEF activity. Mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship studies map the NSC-658497 site of action to the SOS1 catalytic site, and define the chemical moieties in the inhibitor essential for the activity. NSC-658497 showed dose-dependent efficacy in inhibiting Ras, downstream signaling activities, and associated cell proliferation. These studies establish a proof of principle for rational design of small-molecule inhibitors targeting Ras GEF enzymatic activity.

  10. Design and preparation of a novel colon-targeted tablet of hydrocortisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachao Ren

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to design a new colon-targeted drug delivery system based on chitosan. The properties of the films were studied to obtain useful information about the possible applications of composite films. The composite films were used in a bilayer system to investigate their feasibility as coating materials. Tensile strength, swelling degree, solubility, biodegradation degree, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Scanning electron microscope (SEM investigations showed that the composite film was formed when chitosan and gelatin were jointly reacted jointly. The results showed that a 6:4 blend ratio was the optimal chitosan/gelatin blend ratio. In vitro drug release results indicated that the Eudragit- and chitosan/gelatin-bilayer coating system prevented drug release in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF and simulated gastric fluid (SGF. However, the drug release from a bilayer-coated tablet in SCF increased over time, and the drug was almost completely released after 24 h. Overall, colon-targeted drug delivery was achieved by using a chitosan/gelatin complex film and a multilayer coating system.

  11. Structural Insights into the Molecular Design of Flutolanil Derivatives Targeted for Fumarate Respiration of Parasite Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ken Inaoka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the respiratory chain of Ascaris suum showed that the mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of adult A. suum. The system is the major pathway of energy metabolism for adaptation to a hypoxic environment not only in parasitic organisms, but also in some types of human cancer cells. Thus, enzymes of the pathway are potential targets for chemotherapy. We found that flutolanil is an excellent inhibitor for A. suum complex II (IC50 = 0.058 μM but less effectively inhibits homologous porcine complex II (IC50 = 45.9 μM. In order to account for the specificity of flutolanil to A. suum complex II from the standpoint of structural biology, we determined the crystal structures of A. suum and porcine complex IIs binding flutolanil and its derivative compounds. The structures clearly demonstrated key interactions responsible for its high specificity to A. suum complex II and enabled us to find analogue compounds, which surpass flutolanil in both potency and specificity to A. suum complex II. Structures of complex IIs binding these compounds will be helpful to accelerate structure-based drug design targeted for complex IIs.

  12. Optical system design of solar-blind UV target receiver with large FOV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

    2014-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation of 200nm-300nm waveband from the sun is absorbed by atmosphere, which is often referred to the solar-blind region of the solar spectrum. Solar-blind characteristics of this waveband have important application value in forest-fire prevention, UV security communication, UV corona detection and other aspects. Especially in military fields such as missile warning, the application of solar-blind waveband has developed very rapidly, which is receiving more and more attention recently. In this paper, ZEMAX software is used to design an optical system of solar-blind UV target receiver with waveband 240nm-280nm, with which UV target signal can be detected. The optional materials are very few for UV optical systems to choose from, in which only CaF2 and JGS1 are commonly used. Various aberrations are not easy to be corrected. So it is very difficult to design a good UV system. Besides, doublet or triplet cannot be used in UV optical system considering possible cracking for different thermal expansion coefficients of different materials. So the doublet in initial structure is separated for this reason. During the optimization process, an aspheric surface is used to correct the aberrations. But this surface is removed before the design is finished to save production cost and enhance the precision of fabrication and test, which still keeps the image quality meeting the usage requirements. What we care for is the converging condition for different field of view from the far object on image plane. So this is an energy system. Spot diagram is taken as the evaluation criterion of image quality. The system is composed of 6 lenses with field of view (FOV) 31 degrees. In the final design results, the root mean square (RMS) radius for marginal FOV is less than 6.3 microns, while the value is only 4 microns for zero FOV. Point Spread Function and diffraction encircled energy diagram within the maximum FOV confirms the good performance of system further.

  13. Design of single-chip broad band phase bias measure system based on AD8302%基于AD8302的单片宽频带相位差测量系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙占友; 刘阿芳; 王科

    2006-01-01

    在移动通信系统中,经常需要精确测量相位差.详细阐述了利用AD8302构成的宽频带相位差及频率测量系统.该系统可精确测量从低频到射频范围内0°~360°的相位差(测量误差小于0.5°),-60dBm~0dBm范围内的功率电平以及10MHz以下的频率.

  14. Adding energy minimization strategy to peptide-design algorithm enables better search for RNA-binding peptides: Redesigned λ N peptide binds boxB RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xingqing; Hung, Michelle E; Leonard, Joshua N; Hall, Carol K

    2016-10-15

    Our previously developed peptide-design algorithm was improved by adding an energy minimization strategy which allows the amino acid sidechains to move in a broad configuration space during sequence evolution. In this work, the new algorithm was used to generate a library of 21-mer peptides which could substitute for λ N peptide in binding to boxB RNA. Six potential peptides were obtained from the algorithm, all of which exhibited good binding capability with boxB RNA. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were then conducted to examine the ability of the λ N peptide and three best evolved peptides, viz. Pept01, Pept26, and Pept28, to bind to boxB RNA. Simulation results demonstrated that our evolved peptides are better at binding to boxB RNA than the λ N peptide. Sequence searches using the old (without energy minimization strategy) and new (with energy minimization strategy) algorithms confirm that the new algorithm is more effective at finding good RNA-binding peptides than the old algorithm. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Application-Level and User-Level QoS Assessment of Audio-Video IP Transmission over Cross-Layer Designed Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunome, Toshiro; Tasaka, Shuji; Nakaoka, Ken

    This paper performs application-level QoS and user-level QoS assessment of audio-video streaming in cross-layer designed wireless ad hoc networks. In order to achieve high QoS at the user-level, we employ link quality-based routing in the network layer and media synchronization control in the application layer. We adopt three link quality-based routing protocols: OLSR-SS (Signal Strength), AODV-SS, and LQHR (Link Quality-Based Hybrid Routing). OLSR-SS is a proactive routing protocol, while AODV-SS is a reactive one. LQHR is a hybrid protocol, which is a combination of proactive and reactive routing protocols. For applicationlevel QoS assessment, we performed computer simulation with ns-2 where an IEEE 802.11b mesh topology network with 24 nodes was assumed. We also assessed user-level QoS by a subjective experiment with 30 assessors. From the assessment results, we find AODV-SS the best for networks with long inter-node distances, while LQHR outperforms AODV-SS for short inter-node distances. In addition, we also examine characteristics of the three schemes with respect to the application-level QoS in random topology networks.

  16. Structural investigation of inhibitor designs targeting 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase from the shikimate pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Marcio V.B.; Snee, William C.; Bromfield, Karen M.; Payne, Richard J.; Palaninathan, Satheesh K.; Ciulli, Alessio; Howard, Nigel I.; Abell, Chris; Sacchettini, James C.; Blundell, Tom L. (TAM); (Cambridge)

    2011-09-06

    The shikimate pathway is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its absence from humans makes the enzymes of this pathway potential drug targets. In the present paper, we provide structural insights into ligand and inhibitor binding to 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (dehydroquinase) from M. tuberculosis (MtDHQase), the third enzyme of the shikimate pathway. The enzyme has been crystallized in complex with its reaction product, 3-dehydroshikimate, and with six different competitive inhibitors. The inhibitor 2,3-anhydroquinate mimics the flattened enol/enolate reaction intermediate and serves as an anchor molecule for four of the inhibitors investigated. MtDHQase also forms a complex with citrazinic acid, a planar analogue of the reaction product. The structure of MtDHQase in complex with a 2,3-anhydroquinate moiety attached to a biaryl group shows that this group extends to an active-site subpocket inducing significant structural rearrangement. The flexible extensions of inhibitors designed to form {pi}-stacking interactions with the catalytic Tyr{sup 24} have been investigated. The high-resolution crystal structures of the MtDHQase complexes provide structural evidence for the role of the loop residues 19-24 in MtDHQase ligand binding and catalytic mechanism and provide a rationale for the design and efficacy of inhibitors.

  17. The Design Reference Asteroid for the OSIRIS-REx Mission Target (101955) Bennu

    CERN Document Server

    Hergenrother, Carl W; Barnouin, Olivier; Bierhaus, Beau; Binzel, Richard P; Bottke, William F; Chesley, Steve; Clark, Ben C; Clark, Beth E; Cloutis, Ed; d'Aubigny, Christian Drouet; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Josh; Gaskell, Bob; Howell, Ellen; Keller, Lindsay; Kelley, Michael; Marshall, John; Michel, Patrick; Nolan, Michael; Rizk, Bashar; Scheeres, Dan; Takir, Driss; Vokrouhlický, David D; Beshore, Ed; Lauretta, Dante S

    2014-01-01

    The Design Reference Asteroid (DRA) is a compilation of all that is known about the OSIRIS-REx mission target, asteroid (101955) Bennu. It contains our best knowledge of the properties of Bennu based on an extensive observational campaign that began shortly after its discovery, and has been used to inform mission plan development and flight system design. The DRA will also be compared with post-encounter science results to determine the accuracy of our Earth-based characterization efforts. The extensive observations of Bennu in 1999 has made it one of the best-characterized near-Earth asteroids. Many physical parameters are well determined, and span a number of categories: Orbital, Bulk, Rotational, Radar, Photometric, Spectroscopic, Thermal, Surface Analog, and Environment Properties. Some results described in the DRA have been published in peer-reviewed journals while others have been reviewed by OSIRIS-REx Science Team members and/or external reviewers. Some data, such as Surface Analog Properties, are bas...

  18. Cultural Marker Identification for Web Application Design Targeted for Malaysian Multicultural Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Saidin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of technology result in two contradictory phenomenon, the global world becomes smaller while the internet users increase drastically. This diversity of users becomes the main attention toward the study of human computer interaction due to the influential of users’ background toward the usability of web application whereby combination of color strongly determine user’s preference and engagement level.  Hence, determination of color based cultural marker is crucial to the interface design process in order to fulfill the need of diverse users. Most of the empirical study so far has been carried in western contextual. As a result, suggested marker are not applicable in eastern perspective, particularly Malaysia which consist of multicultural society. This article provides content analysis of the website application targeted to multicultural audience to determine the prominent color based cultural markers. More importantly, identifications of the markers could assist the interface designers towards creating web based application that reflected the multicultural audience preferences.

  19. Design and realization of IFM system based AD8302 in X-band%基于AD8302的X波段瞬时频率测量系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何源

    2011-01-01

    Introduces some technique of instantaneous frequency measurement,give the system of IFM in X-band based the chip of phase detector AD8302 with the low noise amplifier, mixer, MCU and so on. Then test the overall performance, the result showed that, this sysetem can effectively measure the frequency of the signal in X-band,and the accuracy is better than 10 MHz.%介绍了几种瞬时频率测量技术,为了测量某系统接收到的瞬时信号频率,给出了基于相位检测芯片AD8302配合低噪声放大器、混频器、单片机等设计制作的X波段瞬时频率测量系统.依照方案设计了实物,并对系统整体性能进行了测试,测试结果表明,该系统可以有效的测量X波段信号的频率,测频精度优于10 MHz.

  20. 基于STM32和AD5933的多通道阻抗测量仪的设计与实现%Design of Multichannel Impedance Meter Based on AD5933 and STM32

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 朱璐闻; 艾颖梅; 伍群芳

    2014-01-01

    针对目前传统使用的阻抗测量仪通道少、精度低、操作复杂等诸多缺点,研制了一款测量阻抗范围0~10MΩ、支持USB总线的全自动多通道阻抗测量仪;系统采用STM32F103C8T6处理器为控制核心,高精度阻抗转换芯片AD5933为测量核心,通过上位机设置AD5933配置参数即可完成多通道的单频、多频自动化测量,阻抗数据经USB总线传输至上位机存储及图形方式显示;结果表明该测量仪电路集成度高,操作简单,而且测量相对误差小于1%,性能稳定可靠.

  1. Design and Demonstration of a Material-Plasma Exposure Target Station for Neutron Irradiated Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Juergen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, A. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, Gary L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burgess, Thomas W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ellis, Ronald James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giuliano, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans, James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lessard, Timothy L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ohriner, Evan Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perkins, Dale E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Varma, Venugopal Koikal [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Fusion energy is the most promising energy source for the future, and one of the most important problems to be solved progressing to a commercial fusion reactor is the identification of plasma-facing materials compatible with the extreme conditions in the fusion reactor environment. The development of plasma–material interaction (PMI) science and the technology of plasma-facing components are key elements in the development of the next step fusion device in the United States, the so-called Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). All of these PMI issues and the uncertain impact of the 14-MeV neutron irradiation have been identified in numerous expert panel reports to the fusion community. The 2007 Greenwald report classifies reactor plasma-facing materials (PFCs) and materials as the only Tier 1 issues, requiring a “. . . major extrapolation from the current state of knowledge, need for qualitative improvements and substantial development for both the short and long term.” The Greenwald report goes on to list 19 gaps in understanding and performance related to the plasma–material interface for the technology facilities needed for DEMO-oriented R&D and DEMO itself. Of the 15 major gaps, six (G7, G9, G10, G12, G13) can possibly be addressed with ORNL’s proposal of an advanced Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. Establishing this mid-scale plasma materials test facility at ORNL is a key element in ORNL’s strategy to secure a leadership role for decades of fusion R&D. That is to say, our end goal is to bring the “signature facility” FNSF home to ORNL. This project is related to the pre-conceptual design of an innovative target station for a future Material–Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). The target station will be designed to expose candidate fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and components (PFMs and PFCs) to conditions anticipated in fusion reactors, where PFCs will be exposed to dense high-temperature hydrogen plasmas providing steady

  2. Design and Demonstration of a Material-Plasma Exposure Target Station for Neutron Irradiated Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Juergen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, A. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, Gary L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burgess, Thomas W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ellis, Ronald James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giuliano, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans, James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lessard, Timothy L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ohriner, Evan Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perkins, Dale E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Varma, Venugopal Koikal [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Fusion energy is the most promising energy source for the future, and one of the most important problems to be solved progressing to a commercial fusion reactor is the identification of plasma-facing materials compatible with the extreme conditions in the fusion reactor environment. The development of plasma–material interaction (PMI) science and the technology of plasma-facing components are key elements in the development of the next step fusion device in the United States, the so-called Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). All of these PMI issues and the uncertain impact of the 14-MeV neutron irradiation have been identified in numerous expert panel reports to the fusion community. The 2007 Greenwald report classifies reactor plasma-facing materials (PFCs) and materials as the only Tier 1 issues, requiring a “. . . major extrapolation from the current state of knowledge, need for qualitative improvements and substantial development for both the short and long term.” The Greenwald report goes on to list 19 gaps in understanding and performance related to the plasma–material interface for the technology facilities needed for DEMO-oriented R&D and DEMO itself. Of the 15 major gaps, six (G7, G9, G10, G12, G13) can possibly be addressed with ORNL’s proposal of an advanced Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. Establishing this mid-scale plasma materials test facility at ORNL is a key element in ORNL’s strategy to secure a leadership role for decades of fusion R&D. That is to say, our end goal is to bring the “signature facility” FNSF home to ORNL. This project is related to the pre-conceptual design of an innovative target station for a future Material–Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). The target station will be designed to expose candidate fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and components (PFMs and PFCs) to conditions anticipated in fusion reactors, where PFCs will be exposed to dense high-temperature hydrogen plasmas providing steady

  3. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    minimal costs, emissions or consumption, while maintaining the quality of the supply and, where specified, achieving the targeted annual solar ratio. Two optimization algorithms, the global bounded Nelder Mead and the Exhaustive search are implemented. Simulation and optimization performance has been evaluated using building and weather data for four cities situated in four different climates. Finally a tool, entitled PROBA, has been proposed by adding a user interface to the mod-els. The major characteristic of the interface is its suitability for non-expert users. This is achieved by, firstly, reducing amount of input data by implementing preset values and, secondly, providing information support. Making this tool available to the architects repre-sents an effective way to consider the primary HVAC during the preliminary design, with-out causing additional cost. Although such a tool can never replace an HVAC engineer, its use can heighten the awareness of architects regarding the significance of building energy consumption and inspire further education in this field.

  4. 高速A/D转换系统的设计与实现%The Design and Implementation of High Speed A/D Conversion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利平; 桑会平

    2016-01-01

    软件无线电技术在无线通信系统的发展中具有重要的历史地位,其使得无线电通信系统具有很好的通用性和灵活性。高速模数转换( ADC)芯片是模拟信号与数字信号转换的桥梁, ADC在软件无线电系统中占据着重要地位,实现软件无线电的关键之一是解决模数转换问题。 EV10AQ190A是E2V公司推出的新型、高速和高性能ADC。基于软线无线电思想,利用高速ADC与FPGA构建的硬件平台,实现了具有广阔应用前景的高速A/D转换系统,给出了软硬件设计原理及程序运行结果。实测结果表明,系统指标达到设计要求,灵活、可靠,具有一定的通用性。%Software defined radio ( SDR) is praised as a revolution in the development of wireless communication which can make wireless communication system have good commonality and flexibility.The ADC chip is the conversion bridge between the analog signals and digital signals.The high speed ADC plays an important role in the wireless communication system of SDR,one of the key problems to realize SDR is to solve A/D conversion problem.EV10AQ190A is a new type,high speed and high performance ADC device intro⁃duced by E2V Company. Based on the idea of SDR, a high speed A/D conversion system based on the hardware platform using high speed ADC and FPGA is implemented,which has a broad application prospects,the principle of hardware and software and some results of program are introduced.The practice proves that the system parameters meet the design requirements.The system is reliable and flexi⁃ble,and has certain universality.

  5. Influence of molecular design on biodistribution and targeting properties of an Affibody-fused HER2-recognising anticancer toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altai, Mohamed; Liu, Hao; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Gräslund, Torbjörn

    2016-09-01

    Targeted delivery of toxins is a promising way to treat disseminated cancer. The use of monoclonal antibodies as targeting moiety has provided proof-of-principle for this approach. However, extravasation and tissue penetration rates of antibody-based immunotoxins are limited due to antibody bulkiness. The use of a novel class of targeting probes, Affibody molecules, provides smaller toxin-conjugated constructs, which may improve targeting. Earlier, we have demonstrated that affitoxins containing a HER2-targeting Affibody moiety and a deimmunized and truncated exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PE38X8, provide highly selective toxicity to HER2-expressing cancer cells. To evaluate the influence of molecular design on targeting and biodistribution properties, a series of novel affitoxins were labelled with the residualizing radionuclide 111In. In this study, we have shown that the novel conjugates are more rapidly internalized compared with the parental affitoxin. The use of a (HE)3 purification tag instead of a hexahistidine tag enabled significant (pmolecular design of scaffold protein based anticancer targeted toxins can appreciably improve their biodistribution and targeting properties.

  6. A review on two previous divertor target concepts for DEMO: mutual impact between structural design requirements and materials performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong-Ha

    2015-09-01

    Development of a diverter target with a sufficient capability of power exhaust is a crucial prerequisite for the realization of a fusion power plant. While the design and technology for divertor target has been successfully developed for ITER, the applicability of this concept is not necessarily assured yet for DEMO mainly because the neutron irradiation dose expected for the DEMO divertor will be an order of magnitude higher than that of the ITER divertor. The possible embrittlement of structural heat sink materials due to irradiation is likely to restrict the structural performance and the operational flexibility of a target component to a considerable extent. For judgment of design feasibility of a target concept a quantitative evaluation of the thermal and structure mechanical performance is needed. In this article, a review on two representative target design concepts considered for the DEMO divertor is presented. Emphasis is put on the mutual impact between the design requirements and the performance of structural materials. Water-cooled and helium-cooled concepts are discussed considering two baseline heat sink materials, CuCrZr alloy and tungsten, respectively. Conclusions are derived from the critical features of the heat sink performance in terms of structural reliability, design/material interface and further R&D needs.

  7. Polarised black holes in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  8. Segmented Strings in $AdS_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Callebaut, Nele; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in $AdS_3$. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In $AdS_3$, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an $AdS_2$ subspace of $AdS_3$. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in $AdS_3$ and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in $AdS_3$ and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  9. Design and Improvement of Phase Bias Measure System Based on AD8302%基于AD8302的相位差测量系统的改进和设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文豹; 彭浩

    2014-01-01

    介绍了AD8302幅相检测芯片的功能和应用局限性,提出一种电路结构,引入90°电桥和功分器电路,使该芯片的检测相位差的范围从0°~180°扩大到0°~360°。并软件设计了PCB版图和腔体,并进行了加工和测试。证明该电路结构可以精确地测试两路信号的相位差,测试范围为0°~360°,工作范围为500~2700MHz。本文网络版地址:http://www.eepw. com.cn/article/203222.htm

  10. Logical design of an anti-cancer agent targeting the plant homeodomain in Pygopus2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ferdausi; Yamaguchi, Keiichi; Fukuoka, Mayuko; Elhelaly, Abdelazim Elsayed; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    Pygopus2 (Pygo2) is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway, which is required for β-catenin mediated transcription. Plant homeodomain (PHD) finger in Pygo2 intercalates the methylated histone 3 (H3K4me) tail and HD1 domain of BCL9 that binds to β-catenin. Thus, PHD finger may be a potential target for the logical design of an anti-cancer drug. Here, we found that Spiro[2H-naphthol[1,2-b]pyran-2,4'-piperidine]-1'ethanol,3,4-dihydro-4-hydroxy-α-(6-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)) termed JBC117 interacts with D339, A348, R356, V376 and A378 in PHD corresponding to the binding sites with H3K4me and/or HD1, and has strong anti-cancer effects. For colon (HCT116) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines, IC50 values were 2.6 ± 0.16 and 3.3 ± 0.14 μM, respectively, while 33.80 ± 0.15 μM for the normal human fibroblast cells. JBC117 potently antagonized the cellular effects of β-catenin-dependent activity and also inhibited the migration and invasion of cancer cells. In vivo studies showed that the survival time of mice was significantly prolonged by the subcutaneous injection of JBC117 (10 mg/kg/day). In conclusion, JBC117 is a novel anti-cancer lead compound targeting the PHD finger of Pygo2 and has a therapeutic effect against colon and lung cancer.

  11. Development of a LIDAR for integration with the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) system

    OpenAIRE

    Regush, Murray Michael

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A lidar was designed and manufactured at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, to provide range information to atmospheric features, such as clouds. It is further planned to integrate the lidar with the NPS-IRSTD system at some future date. The NPS-IRSTD uses two vertical linear focal plane arrays for target detection and target direction can be determined very accurately but the system does not provide any useful range informa...

  12. Material Developing for ADS Beam Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYong-li; XUYuan-chao; LIHua-qing; NINGGuang-sheng; WANFa-rong; ZHAOFei

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation damage and the chemical interaction with the coolant for the ADS target and the structure materials are the key issues in ADS engineering. The developing of the materials that are irradiation and corrosion resistance is the important topic in ADS program in many countries. In this case,a topic of the material developing for the beam window has been proposed in our ADS program.

  13. 用MCNPX计算ADS金属靶散裂中子产额及散裂源中子效率%A MCNPX Caculation of the spallation neutron yields from various metal targets and the neutron source efficiency in ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景桂芬; 时磊

    2011-01-01

    为了分析加速器驱动系统(ADS)中质子束能量对金属靶散裂产生的中子产额及靶内中子能谱、靶表面的泄漏谱的影响,利用MCNPX对ADS的重金属铅靶、钨靶在不同能量的质子束轰击下的中子产额、中子能谱及靶表面的中子泄漏谱进行了模拟计算,与国际上其他研究机构的模拟结果进行了比较,结果相近.并对铅靶、钨靶的中子产额及泄漏谱进行比较,模拟结果是钨靶的中子产额较铅靶的中子产额大但中子泄漏谱计数较铅的小.结合MCNP5还对一个次临界基准体系中散裂源中子相对于裂变中子的效率进行了计算.%In order to analyze the effect of the proton energy on the number of neutrons produced per source proton and the neutron yield spectra and values of neutron leakage distributions per proton over the cylindrical metal target surface in Accelerator Driven System (ADS),MCNPX are used to calculate them under different proton beam energy,and the results are compared with the results of the international organization institutions.The number of neutrons produced per source proton of tungsten target is larger but the tally of neutron leakage is smaller than lead target.Combining the MCNPX with MCNP5,the efficiency of the spallation neutions relative to fission neutrons for a subcritical benchmark system was calculated.

  14. Rational design of micro-RNA-like bifunctional siRNAs targeting HIV and the HIV coreceptor CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Ali; Saetrom, Pål; Zhang, Jane; Alluin, Jessica; Li, Haitang; Snøve, Ola; Aagaard, Lars; Rossi, John J

    2010-04-01

    Small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are distinguished by their modes of action. SiRNAs serve as guides for sequence-specific cleavage of complementary mRNAs and the targets can be in coding or noncoding regions of the target transcripts. MiRNAs inhibit translation via partially complementary base-pairing to 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and are generally ineffective when targeting coding regions of a transcript. In this study, we deliberately designed siRNAs that simultaneously direct cleavage and translational suppression of HIV RNAs, or cleavage of the mRNA encoding the HIV coreceptor CCR5 and suppression of translation of HIV. These bifunctional siRNAs trigger inhibition of HIV infection and replication in cell culture. The design principles have wide applications throughout the genome, as about 90% of genes harbor sites that make the design of bifunctional siRNAs possible.

  15. Predicting AD conversion: comparison between prodromal AD guidelines and computer assisted PredictAD tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawu Liu

    Full Text Available To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA on MRI and CSF biomarkers.Altogether 391 MCI cases (158 AD converters were selected from the ADNI cohort. All the cases had baseline cognitive tests, MRI and/or CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and Tau. Using baseline data, the status of MCI patients (AD or MCI three years later was predicted using current diagnostic research guidelines and the PredictAD software tool designed for supporting clinical diagnostics. The data used were 1 clinical criteria for episodic memory loss of the hippocampal type, 2 visual MTA, 3 positive CSF markers, 4 their combinations, and 5 when the PredictAD tool was applied, automatically computed MRI measures were used instead of the visual MTA results. The accuracies of diagnosis were evaluated with the diagnosis made 3 years later.The PredictAD tool achieved the overall accuracy of 72% (sensitivity 73%, specificity 71% in predicting the AD diagnosis. The corresponding number for a clinician's prediction with the assistance of the PredictAD tool was 71% (sensitivity 75%, specificity 68%. Diagnosis with the PredictAD tool was significantly better than diagnosis by biomarkers alone or the combinations of clinical diagnosis of hippocampal pattern for the memory loss and biomarkers (p≤0.037.With the assistance of PredictAD tool, the clinician can predict AD conversion more accurately than the current diagnostic criteria.

  16. Proportional navigation law design of plane-symmetrical vehicle with terminal attack angle constraint for over target flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Ji, Denggao; Guo, Zhenxi; Shen, Haibin; Zhang, Jianfei

    2016-11-01

    This article proposes a type of proportional navigation law design of plane-symmetrical vehicle with terminal attack angle constraint for over target flight. Firstly, the line of sight rotating rate and the velocity rotating rate model of the vehicle are expressed. Then, the attitude of the vehicle is constructed by the acceleration vector requirement of proportional navigation law. Accordingly, the guidance command uncertain issue can be avoided for plane-symmetrical vehicle over target flight. It guarantees high precision to hit the target. The effect and efficiency of the guidance law are shown by simulations of characteristic trajectories.

  17. Rational Design of Micro-RNA-like Bifunctional siRNAs Targeting HIV and the HIV Coreceptor CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are distinguished by their modes of action. SiRNAs serve as guides for sequence-specific cleavage of complementary mRNAs and the targets can be in coding or noncoding regions of the target transcripts. MiRNAs inhibit translation via partially complementary base-pairing to 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) and are generally ineffective when targeting coding regions of a transcript. In this study, we deliberately designed siRNAs that simultan...

  18. Recent developments in the design of anti-depressive therapies: targeting the serotonin transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S G; Meegan, M J

    2008-01-01

    The serotonin transporter protein (SERT) has been the target for the development of several modern antidepressants with an objective of achieving selectivity over other monoamine transporters, thereby minimising side effects observed in the older generation of tricyclic antidepressants. The clinical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to be among the most effective therapies in the treatment of depression. However they have clinical disadvantages over other classes of antidepressant drugs such as slow onset of action nausea and sleep disruption. The negative feedback loop attributed to the presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors has been implicated in the "time lag" observed in many patients between the administration of the SSRI and its observed therapeutic action. In recent years the focus has been on developing compounds with dual affinity for serotonergic auto-receptors along with an inhibitory activity at SERT. These structurally diverse products promise to be the next generation of anti-depressant medicines. This review presents an analysis of the recently reported structural classes with SSRI activity and rationalises the unique relationship between their molecular properties and biological activities. Specific emphasis is placed on the development of molecular structures with dual serotonergic activity. Recent advances in the design and synthesis of single molecular entities possessing 5-HT reuptake inhibition together with 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(2A), DAT, NET, alpha (2)-adrenoceptor and acetylcholinesterase antagonism are reviewed. The structural studies to identify proposed SERT binding sites together with the role of structure and ligand based design in the development of more effective SSRIs are summarised.

  19. Cyclophilin A inhibition: targeting transition-state-bound enzyme conformations for structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Mulpuri; McGowan, Lauren C; Hamelberg, Donald

    2013-02-25

    Human Cyclophilin A (CypA) catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of the prolyl peptide ω-bond in proteins and is involved in many subcellular processes. CypA has, therefore, been identified as a potential drug target in many diseases, and the development of potent inhibitors with high selectivity is a key objective. In computer-aided drug design, selectivity is improved by taking into account the inherent flexibility of the receptor. However, the relevant receptor conformations to focus on in order to develop highly selective inhibitors are not always obvious from available X-ray crystal structures or ensemble of conformations generated using molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we show that the conformation of the active site of CypA varies as the substrate configuration changes during catalytic turnover. We have analyzed the principal modes of the active site dynamics of CypA from molecular dynamics simulations to show that similar ensembles of enzyme conformations recognize diverse inhibitors and bind the different configurations of the peptide substrate. Small nonpeptidomimetic inhibitors with varying activity are recognized by enzyme ensembles that are similar to those that tightly bind the transition state and cis configurations of the substrate. Our results suggest that enzyme-substrate ensembles are more relevant in structure-based drug design for CypA than free enzyme. Of the vast conformational space of the free enzyme, the enzyme conformations of the tightly bound enzyme-substrate complexes are the most important for catalysis. Therefore, functionalizing lead compounds to optimize their interactions with the enzyme's conformational ensemble bound to the substrate in the cis or the transition state could lead to more potent inhibitors.

  20. A New Era for Cancer Target Therapies: Applying Systems Biology and Computer-Aided Drug Design to Cancer Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yung-Hao; Chiu, Chia-Chiun; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Ting-Shou; Jheng, Bo-Ren; Lee, Yu-Ching; Chen, Jeremy; Chen, Bor-Sen

    In recent years, many systems biology approaches have been used with various cancers. The materials described here can be used to build bases to discover novel cancer therapy targets in connection with computer-aided drug design (CADD). A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cancer will provide more choices and correct strategies in the development of multiple target drug therapies, which is quite different from the traditional cancer single target therapy. Targeted therapy is one of the most powerful strategies against cancer and can also be applied to other diseases. Due to the large amount of progress in computer hardware and the theories of computational chemistry and physics, CADD has been the main strategy for developing novel drugs for cancer therapy. In contrast to traditional single target therapies, in this review we will emphasize the future direction of the field, i.e., multiple target therapies. Structure-based and ligand-based drug designs are the two main topics of CADD. The former needs both 3D protein structures and ligand structures, while the latter only needs ligand structures. Ordinarily it is estimated to take more than 14 years and 800 million dollars to develop a new drug. Many new CADD software programs and techniques have been developed in recent decades. We conclude with an example where we combined and applied systems biology and CADD to the core networks of four cancers and successfully developed a novel cocktail for drug therapy that treats multiple targets.

  1. FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurh, P.G.; Tang, Z.

    2001-06-22

    The AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens is a pulsed device which focuses anti-protons just downstream of the Target. Since the angles at which the anti-protons depart the Target can be quite large, a very high focusing strength is required to maximize anti-proton capture into the downstream Debuncher Ring. The current design of the Collection Lens was designed to operate with a focusing gradient of 1,000 T/m. However, multiple failures of early devices resulted in lowering the normal operating gradient to about 750 T/m. At this gradient, the Lens design fares much better, lasting several million pulses, but ultimately still fails. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been performed on this Collection Lens design to help determine the cause and/or nature of the failures. The Collection Lens magnetic field is created by passing high current through a central conductor cylinder. A uniform current distribution through the cylinder will create a tangential or azimuthal magnetic field that varies linearly from zero at the center of the cylinder to a maximum at the outer surface of the cylinder. Anti-proton particles passing through this cylinder (along the longitudinal direction) will see an inward focusing kick back toward the center of the cylinder proportional to the magnetic field strength. For the current Lens design a gradient of 1,000 T/m requires a current of about 580,000 amps. Since the DC power and cooling requirements would be prohibitive, the Lens is operated in a pulsed mode. Each pulse is half sine wave in shape with a pulse duration of about 350 microseconds. Because of the skin effect, the most uniform current density actually occurs about two-thirds of the way through the pulse. This means that the maximum current of the pulse is actually higher than that required in the DC case (about 670,000 amps). Since the beam must pass through the central conductor cylinder it must be made of a conducting material that is also very 'transparent' to the beam

  2. 2-Deoxyglucose conjugated platinum (II) complexes for targeted therapy: design, synthesis, and antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Qian; Ma, Yuru; Gao, Xiangqian; Liu, Ran; Liu, Pengxing; Mi, Yi; Fu, Xuegang; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-11-01

    Malignant neoplasms exhibit an elevated rate of glycolysis over normal cells. To target the Warburg effect, we designed a new series of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) conjugated platinum (II) complexes for glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)-mediated anticancer drug delivery. The potential GLUT1 transportability of the complexes was investigated through a comparative molecular docking analysis utilizing the latest GLUT1 protein crystal structure. The key binding site for 2-DG as GLUT1's substrate was identified with molecular dynamics simulation, and the docking study demonstrated that the 2-DG conjugated platinum (II) complexes can be recognized by the same binding site as potential GLUT1 substrate. The conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity study with seven human cancer cell lines. The results of this study revealed that 2-DG conjugated platinum (II) complexes are GLUT1 transportable substrates and exhibit improved cytotoxicities in cancer cell lines that over express GLUT1 when compared to the clinical drug, Oxaliplatin. The correlation between GLUT1 expression and antitumor effects are also confirmed. The study provides fundamental information supporting the potential of the 2-DG conjugated platinum (II) complexes as lead compounds for further pharmaceutical R&D.

  3. Drug Design Targeting the CXCR4/CXCR7/CXCL12 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongsheng; Li, Rongshi; Wu, Jianguo; Jiang, Li; Zhong, Haizhen A

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, CXCL12 modulates cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and migration mainly through CXCR4. Interestingly, the newly discovered receptor CXCR7 for CXCL12 is highly expressed in many tumor cells as well as tumor-associated blood vessels, although the level of CXCR7 in normal blood cells is low. Recently, many studies have suggested that CXCR7 promotes cell growth and metastasis in various cancers, including lymphoma and leukemia, hepatocecullar, ovarian, colorectal, breast and lung cancer. Compared to CXCR4, CXCR7 is a non-classical GPCR that is unable to activate G proteins. The function of CXCR7 is generally considered to be mediated by: (a) recruiting β-arrestin-2; (b) heterodimerizing with CXCR4; and (c) acting as a "scavenger" of CXCL12, thus lowering the level of CXCL12 to weaken the activity of CXCR4. However, the crosstalk between CXCL12/CXCR7/CXCR4 and other signaling pathways (such as the p38 MAPK pathway, the PI3K/mTOR pathway, the STAT3 signaling, and metalloproteinases MMP-9 and MMP-2) is more complicated. The function of CXCR7 is also involved in modulating tumor microenvironment, tumor cell migration and apoptosis. Understanding these complex interactions will provide insight in drug design targeting the CXCR7 as potential anticancer therapy.

  4. Designing Efficient Double RNA trans-Splicing Molecules for Targeted RNA Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttner, Clemens; Murauer, Eva M.; Hainzl, Stefan; Kocher, Thomas; Neumayer, Anna; Reichelt, Julia; Bauer, Johann W.; Koller, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    RNA trans-splicing is a promising tool for mRNA modification in a diversity of genetic disorders. In particular, the substitution of internal exons of a gene by combining 3′ and 5′ RNA trans-splicing seems to be an elegant way to modify especially large pre-mRNAs. Here we discuss a robust method for designing double RNA trans-splicing molecules (dRTM). We demonstrate how the technique can be implemented in an endogenous setting, using COL7A1, the gene encoding type VII collagen, as a target. An RTM screening system was developed with the aim of testing the replacement of two internal COL7A1 exons, harbouring a homozygous mutation, with the wild-type version. The most efficient RTMs from a pool of randomly generated variants were selected via our fluorescence-based screening system and adapted for use in an in vitro disease model system. Transduction of type VII collagen-deficient keratinocytes with the selected dRTM led to accurate replacement of two internal COL7A1 exons resulting in a restored wild-type RNA sequence. This is the first study demonstrating specific exon replacement by double RNA trans-splicing within an endogenous transcript in cultured cells, corroborating the utility of this technology for mRNA repair in a variety of genetic disorders. PMID:27669223

  5. The genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--Novel targets for designing treatment options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Felix; Fauser, Sascha; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease of the central retina and the main cause of legal blindness in industrialized countries. Risk to develop the disease is conferred by both individual as well as genetic factors with the latter being increasingly deciphered over the last decade. Therapeutically, striking advances have been made for the treatment of the neovascular form of late stage AMD while for the late stage atrophic form of the disease, which accounts for almost half of the visually impaired, there is currently no effective therapy on the market. This review highlights our current knowledge on the genetic architecture of early and late stage AMD and explores its potential for the discovery of novel, target-guided treatment options. We reflect on current clinical and experimental therapies for all forms of AMD and specifically note a persisting lack of efficacy for treatment in atrophic AMD. We further explore the current insight in AMD-associated genes and pathways and critically question whether this knowledge is suited to design novel treatment options. Specifically, we point out that known genetic factors associated with AMD govern the risk to develop disease and thus may not play a role in its severity or progression. Treatments based on such knowledge appear appropriate rather for prevention than treatment of manifest disease. As a consequence, future research in AMD needs to be greatly focused on approaches relevant to the patients and their medical needs.

  6. Designed hybrid TPR peptide targeting Hsp90 as a novel anticancer agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohara Koji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an ever-improving understanding of the molecular biology of cancer, the treatment of most cancers has not changed dramatically in the past three decades and drugs that do not discriminate between tumor cells and normal tissues remain the mainstays of anticancer therapy. Since Hsp90 is typically involved in cell proliferation and survival, this is thought to play a key role in cancer, and Hsp90 has attracted considerable interest in recent years as a potential therapeutic target. Methods We focused on the interaction of Hsp90 with its cofactor protein p60/Hop, and engineered a cell-permeable peptidomimetic, termed "hybrid Antp-TPR peptide", modeled on the binding interface between the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and the TPR2A domain of Hop. Results It was demonstrated that this designed hybrid Antp-TPR peptide inhibited the interaction of Hsp90 with the TPR2A domain, inducing cell death of breast, pancreatic, renal, lung, prostate, and gastric cancer cell lines in vitro. In contrast, Antp-TPR peptide did not affect the viability of normal cells. Moreover, analysis in vivo revealed that Antp-TPR peptide displayed a significant antitumor activity in a xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer in mice. Conclusion These results indicate that Antp-TPR peptide would provide a potent and selective anticancer therapy to cancer patients.

  7. Mucoadhesive microemulsion of ibuprofen: design and evaluation for brain targeting efficiency through intranasal route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjyanarayan Mandal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at designing mucoadhesive microemulsion gel to enhance the brain uptake of Ibuprofen through intranasal route. Ibuprofen loaded mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMEI was developed by incorporating polycarbophil as mucoadhesive polymer into Capmul MCM based optimal microemulsion (MEI and was subjected to characterization, stability, mucoadhesion and naso-ciliotoxicity study. Brain uptake of ibuprofen via nasal route was studied by performing biodistribution study in Swiss albino rats. MEI was found to be transparent, stable and non ciliotoxic with 66.29 ± 4.15 nm, -20.9 ± 3.98 mV and 98.66 ± 1.01% as average globule size, zeta potential and drug content respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM study revealed the narrow globule size distribution of MEI. Following single intranasal administration of MMEI and MEI at a dose of 2.86 mg/kg, uptake of ibuprofen in the olfactory bulb was around 3.0 and 1.7 folds compared with intravenous injection of ibuprofen solution (IDS. The ratios of AUC in brain tissues to that in plasma obtained after nasal administration of MMEI were significantly higher than those after intravenous administration of IDS. Findings of the present investigation revealed that the developed mucoadhesive microemulsion gel could be a promising approach for brain targeting of ibuprofen through intranasal route.

  8. Design of an Intense Muon Source with a Carbon and Mercury Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven; Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven; Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Ding, Xiaoping [UCLA

    2015-06-01

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  9. Design of an intense muon source with a carbon and mercury target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, D.; Berg, J. S.; Neuffer, D.; Ding, X.

    2015-05-03

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  10. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  11. OptMAVEn--a new framework for the de novo design of antibody variable region models targeting specific antigen epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    Full Text Available Antibody-based therapeutics provides novel and efficacious treatments for a number of diseases. Traditional experimental approaches for designing therapeutic antibodies rely on raising antibodies against a target antigen in an immunized animal or directed evolution of antibodies with low affinity for the desired antigen. However, these methods remain time consuming, cannot target a specific epitope and do not lead to broad design principles informing other studies. Computational design methods can overcome some of these limitations by using biophysics models to rationally select antibody parts that maximize affinity for a target antigen epitope. This has been addressed to some extend by OptCDR for the design of complementary determining regions. Here, we extend this earlier contribution by addressing the de novo design of a model of the entire antibody variable region against a given antigen epitope while safeguarding for immunogenicity (Optimal Method for Antibody Variable region Engineering, OptMAVEn. OptMAVEn simulates in silico the in vivo steps of antibody generation and evolution, and is capable of capturing the critical structural features responsible for affinity maturation of antibodies. In addition, a humanization procedure was developed and incorporated into OptMAVEn to minimize the potential immunogenicity of the designed antibody models. As case studies, OptMAVEn was applied to design models of neutralizing antibodies targeting influenza hemagglutinin and HIV gp120. For both HA and gp120, novel computational antibody models with numerous interactions with their target epitopes were generated. The observed rates of mutations and types of amino acid changes during in silico affinity maturation are consistent with what has been observed during in vivo affinity maturation. The results demonstrate that OptMAVEn can efficiently generate diverse computational antibody models with both optimized binding affinity to antigens and reduced

  12. Constructing Lifshitz solutions from AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Under general assumptions, we show that a gravitational theory in d+1 dimensions admitting an AdS solution can be reduced to a d-dimensional theory containing a Lifshitz solution with dynamical exponent z=2. Working in a d=4, N=2 supergravity setup, we prove that if the AdS background is N=2 supersymmetric, then the Lifshitz geometry preserves 1/4 of the supercharges, and we construct the corresponding Killing spinors. We illustrate these results in examples from supersymmetric consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity, enhancing the class of known 4-dimensional Lifshitz solutions of string theory. As a byproduct, we find a new AdS4 x S1 x T(1,1) solution of type IIB.

  13. In Silico Design and Experimental Validation of siRNAs Targeting Conserved Regions of Multiple Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ElHefnawi

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that mediates the sequence-specific degradation of targeted RNA and thus provides a tremendous opportunity for development of oligonucleotide-based drugs. Here, we report on the design and validation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV genome. To aim for therapeutic applications by optimizing the RNAi efficacy and reducing potential side effects, we considered different factors such as target RNA variations, thermodynamics and accessibility of the siRNA and target RNA, and off-target effects. This aim was achieved using an in silico design and selection protocol complemented by an automated MysiRNA-Designer pipeline. The protocol included the design and filtration of siRNAs targeting highly conserved and accessible regions within the HCV internal ribosome entry site, and adjacent core sequences of the viral genome with high-ranking efficacy scores. Off-target analysis excluded siRNAs with potential binding to human mRNAs. Under this strict selection process, two siRNAs (HCV353 and HCV258 were selected based on their predicted high specificity and potency. These siRNAs were tested for antiviral efficacy in HCV genotype 1 and 2 replicon cell lines. Both in silico-designed siRNAs efficiently inhibited HCV RNA replication, even at low concentrations and for short exposure times (24h; they also exceeded the antiviral potencies of reference siRNAs targeting HCV. Furthermore, HCV353 and HCV258 siRNAs also inhibited replication of patient-derived HCV genotype 4 isolates in infected Huh-7 cells. Prolonged treatment of HCV replicon cells with HCV353 did not result in the appearance of escape mutant viruses. Taken together, these results reveal the accuracy and strength of our integrated siRNA design and selection protocols. These protocols could be used to design highly potent and specific RNAi-based therapeutic

  14. Analyzing target user group¡¦s preferences and product form design specification through web-based 2-dimensinoal design decision tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Shyong Lin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern market where consumerism is running higher and the product life span is getting shorter, it is one of the challenges for the marketing and design departments in enterprises to know how to get a thorough grasp of the consumer¡¦s preference and potential target user group. With the wide spread and growth of the internet, a web-based survey is not influenced by time and space factors, making it easier for designers to have an in-depth understanding of the consumer¡¦s preferences towards products. Based upon the 2-dimensional image scale, 120 college students from Taiwan and Japan were invited to evaluate 27 pencil sharpener samples in terms of their preferences and intention of purchase. From the survey, competitive portable pencil sharpeners were identified for the references of new product design and development. The results indicated that such a web-based 2-dimensional image survey system could offer real time help in product segmentation and the selection of competition products as well as the target user group with the output systematic diagrams and tables. Furthermore, morphological analysis for product form elements and quantification type I analysis could help designers and marketing managers set up proper policies for product form design for the target user groups in the design and marketing of new product development.

  15. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  16. Avoiding Design Fixation: Transformation and Abstraction in Mapping from Source to Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Designers try to "enlist" whatever they can to help themselves arrive at high quality, novel and original designs. When stimuli are used for this purpose, usually provided at the onset of the design process, these stimuli, or sources, may have one of two effects: they may enhance the design search and contribute to a high-quality, creative design,…

  17. Optimized concept design of the target station of Chinese spallation neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. W.; Yin, W.; Yu, B. L.

    2005-08-01

    CSNS (Chinese spallation neutron source) target station, with proton beam power of 100 kW, consists of Tungsten rectangular target surrounded by a beryllium/steel reflector, three wing-moderators and the shield having 18 beam tubes. The leakage neutron intensity from the target (with reflector) and heat deposition on the target, reflector and shield were calculated using Monte Carlo code NMTC/JAM respectively. It is reported that the target having rectangular section will produce more leakage neutron intensity than a square one for the same proton power. The temperature and thermal stress distribution in the target disks were calculated by the finite element method. The performances of moderators were calculated using MCNP-4A code.

  18. High Bandwidth, Multi-Purpose Passive Radar Receiver Design For Aerospace and Geoscience Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertatschitsch, Laura

    Passive radar permits inexpensive and stealthy detection and tracking of aerospace and geoscience targets. Transmitters of opportunity such as commercial FM broadcast, DTV broadcast, and cell phone towers are already illuminating many populated areas with continuous power. Passive radar receivers can be located at a distance from the transmitter, and can sense this direct transmission as well as any reflections from ground clutter, aircraft, ionospheric turbulence and meteor trails. The 100% duty cycle allows for long coherent integration, increasing the sensitivity of these instruments greatly. Traditional radar receivers employ analog front end downconverters to translate the radio frequency spectrum to an intermediate frequency (IF) for sampling and signal processing. Such downconverters limit the spectrum available for study, and can introduce nonlinearities which limit the detectability of weak signals in the presence of strong signals. With suitably fast digitizers one can bypass the downconversion stage completely. Very fast digitizers may have relatively few bits, but precision is recovered in subsequent signal processing. We present a new passive radar receiver designed to utilize a broad spectrum of commercial transmitters without the use of a front end analog downconverter. The receiver centers around a Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) group. Fast sampling rates (8-bit samples as fast as 3 GSps) combined with 640 multiply/addition operations on the Virtex-5 FPGA centered on the ROACH allows for coherent processing of broad spectrum and dynamic decision-making on one device all while sharing a single front end, putting this device on the cutting edge of wideband receiver technology. The radar is also designed to support mobile operation. It fits within a 19'' rack, it is equipped with solid state hard drives, and can run off an

  19. Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase, a novel target for antifungal agents. Molecular modelling studies in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Marek; Milewski, Sławomir; Mazerski, Jan; Borowski, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Fungal infections are a growing problem in contemporary medicine, yet only a few antifungal agents are used in clinical practice. In our laboratory we proposed the enzyme L-glutamine: D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (EC 2.6.1.16) as a new target for antifungals. The structure of this enzyme consists of two domains, N-terminal and C-terminal ones, catalysing glutamine hydrolysis and sugar-phosphate isomerisation, respectively. In our laboratory a series of potent selective inhibitors of GlcN-6-P synthase have been designed and synthesised. One group of these compounds, including the most studied N3-(4-methoxyfumaroyl)-l-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (FMDP), behave like glutamine analogs acting as active-site-directed inactivators, blocking the N-terminal, glutamine-binding domain of the enzyme. The second group of GlcN-6-P synthase inhibitors mimic the transition state of the reaction taking place in the C-terminal sugar isomerising domain. Surprisingly, in spite of the fact that glutamine is the source of nitrogen for a number of enzymes it turned out that the glutamine analogue FMDP and its derivatives are selective against GlcN-6-P synthase and they do not block other enzymes, even belonging to the same family of glutamine amidotransferases. Our molecular modelling studies of this phenomenon revealed that even within the family of related enzymes substantial differences may exist in the geometry of the active site. In the case of the glutamine amidotransferase family the glutamine binding site of GlcN-6-P synthase fits a different region of the glutamine conformational space than other amidotransferases. Detailed analysis of the interaction pattern for the best known, so far, inhibitor of the sugar isomerising domain, namely 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucitol-6-phosphate (ADGP), allowed us to suggest changes in the structure of the inhibitor that should improve the interaction pattern. The novel ligand was designed and synthesised. Biological experiments confirmed

  20. Design, synthesis and evaluation of seleno-dihydropyrimidinones as potential multi-targeted therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Rômulo F S; Barbosa, Flavio A R; Nascimento, Vanessa; de Oliveira, Aldo S; Brighente, Inês M C; Braga, Antonio Luiz

    2014-06-07

    In this paper we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of seleno-dihydropyrimidinones as potential multi-targeted therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. The compounds show excellent results as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, being as active as the standard drug. All these compounds also show very good antioxidant activity through different mechanisms of action.

  1. A phage-targeting strategy for the design of spatiotemporal drug delivery from grafted matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Ritsuko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural response to injury is dynamic and normally consists of complex temporal and spatial cellular changes in gene expression, which, when acting in synchrony, result in patent tissue repair and, in some instances, regeneration. However, current therapeutic regiments are static and most rely on matrices, gels and engineered skin tissue. Accordingly, there is a need to design next-generation grafting materials to enable biotherapeutic spatiotemporal targeting from clinically approved matrices. To this end, rather then focus on developing completely new grafting materials, we investigated whether phage display could be deployed onto clinically approved synthetic grafts to identify peptide motifs capable of linking pharmaceutical drugs with differential affinities and eventually, control drug delivery from matrices over both space and time. Methods To test this hypothesis, we biopanned combinatorial peptide libraries onto different formulations of a wound-healing matrix (Integra® and eluted the bound peptides with 1 high salt, 2 collagen and glycosaminoglycan or 3 low pH. After three to six rounds of biopanning, phage recovery and phage amplification of the bound particles, any phage that had acquired a capacity to bind the matrix was sequenced. Results In this first report, we identify distinct classes of matrix-binding peptides which elute differently from the screened matrix and demonstrate that they can be applied in a spatially relevant manner. Conclusions We suggest that further applications of these combinatorial techniques to wound-healing matrices may offer a new way to improve the performance of clinically approved matrices so as to introduce temporal and spatial control over drug delivery.

  2. Use of designer nucleases for targeted gene and genome editing in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Donald P; Spalding, Martin H; Yang, Bing

    2016-02-01

    The ability to efficiently inactivate or replace genes in model organisms allowed a rapid expansion of our understanding of many of the genetic, biochemical, molecular and cellular mechanisms that support life. With the advent of new techniques for manipulating genes and genomes that are applicable not only to single-celled organisms, but also to more complex organisms such as animals and plants, the speed with which scientists and biotechnologists can expand fundamental knowledge and apply that knowledge to improvements in medicine, industry and agriculture is set to expand in an exponential fashion. At the heart of these advancements will be the use of gene editing tools such as zinc finger nucleases, modified meganucleases, hybrid DNA/RNA oligonucleotides, TAL effector nucleases and modified CRISPR/Cas9. Each of these tools has the ability to precisely target one specific DNA sequence within a genome and (except for DNA/RNA oligonucleotides) to create a double-stranded DNA break. DNA repair to such breaks sometimes leads to gene knockouts or gene replacement by homologous recombination if exogenously supplied homologous DNA fragments are made available. Genome rearrangements are also possible to engineer. Creation and use of such genome rearrangements, gene knockouts and gene replacements by the plant science community is gaining significant momentum. To document some of this progress and to explore the technology's longer term potential, this review highlights present and future uses of designer nucleases to greatly expedite research with model plant systems and to engineer genes and genomes in major and minor crop species for enhanced food production.

  3. Design of RC frames for pre-selected collapse mechanism and target displacement using energy–balance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Onur Merter; Taner Ucar

    2014-06-01

    In earthquake-prone countries, structures may be exposed to several seismic loads in any stage of building’s life. It is expected that the structures designed by engineers will show ductile behaviour under the effect of vertical and lateral loads and remain stable without making a sudden collapse. In consequence of nonlinear behaviour, plastic hinges are expected to form in structural members which are under the effect of external loads. Earthquake input energy is dissipated in plastic hinges, so, structures behave ductile. In this study, total energy of RC frames is calculated and the energy–based base shear force is determined by equating the total internal energy to the work done by external lateral design forces for pre-selected target displacement and collapse mechanism. Sections of RC frames are controlled if they can resist the calculated design lateral loads or not. If the capacity of the sections cannot withstand the external design loads, the design is rearranged and new sections are chosen. Beam and column sections that can resist the design loads securely are accepted as final sections of the energy–based design methodology. Pre-selected target displacement for desired performance level is checked using the results of nonlinear analyses. The results of the presented design methodology in this study are compatible with the results of nonlinear analyses.

  4. Design, synthesis and evaluation of N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG)-PEG-doxorubicin targeted conjugates for anticancer delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Smita K; Badhwar, Archana J; Kharas, Firuza; Khandare, Jayant J; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2012-10-15

    Efficacy of anticancer drug is limited by the severe adverse effects induced by drug; therefore the crux is in designing delivery systems targeted only to cancer cells. Toward this objectives, we propose, synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug conjugates consisting N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) as a targeting moiety. Multicomponent system proposed here is characterized by (1)H NMR, UV spectroscopy, and HPLC. The multicomponent system is evaluated for in vitro cellular kinetics and anticancer activity using MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Molecular modeling study demonstrated sterically stabilized conformations of polymeric conjugates. Interestingly, PEG-DOX conjugate with NAG ligand showed significantly higher cytotoxicity compared to drug conjugate with DOX. In addition, the polymer drug conjugate with NAG and DOX showed enhanced internalization and retention effect in cancer cells, compared to free DOX. Thus, with enhanced internalization and targeting ability of PEG conjugate of NAG-DOX has implication in targeted anticancer therapy.

  5. A rail system for circular synthetic aperture sonar imaging and acoustic target strength measurements: design/operation/preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J L; Marston, T M; Lee, K; Lopes, J L; Lim, R

    2014-01-01

    A 22 m diameter circular rail, outfitted with a mobile sonar tower trolley, was designed, fabricated, instrumented with underwater acoustic transducers, and assembled on a 1.5 m thick sand layer at the bottom of a large freshwater pool to carry out sonar design and target scattering response studies. The mobile sonar tower translates along the rail via a drive motor controlled by customized LabVIEW software. The rail system is modular and assembly consists of separately deploying eight circular arc sections, measuring a nominal center radius of 11 m and 8.64 m arc length each, and having divers connect them together in the underwater environment. The system enables full scale measurements on targets of interest with 0.1° angular resolution over a complete 360° aperture, without disrupting target setup, and affording a level of control over target environment conditions and noise sources unachievable in standard field measurements. In recent use, the mobile cart carrying an instrumented sonar tower was translated along the rail in 720 equal position increments and acoustic backscatter data were acquired at each position. In addition, this system can accommodate both broadband monostatic and bistatic scattering measurements on targets of interest, allowing capture of target signature phenomena under diverse configurations to address current scientific and technical issues encountered in mine countermeasure and unexploded ordnance applications. In the work discussed here, the circular rail apparatus is used for acoustic backscatter testing, but this system also has the capacity to facilitate the acquisition of magnetic and optical sensor data from targets of interest. A brief description of the system design and operation will be presented along with preliminary processed results for data acquired from acoustic measurements conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division Test Pond Facility. [Work Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and

  6. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  7. The impact of applying different metrics in target definitions : lessons for policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of the use of different metrics in the EU renewable energy target definition. The analysis, using a case study of the Dutch renewable energy support for illustration, reveals that a target based on primary energy would have led to a ranking in whi

  8. Designing a Clustering and Prediction-based Protocol for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Hosseini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Target tracking is one of the applications of wireless sensor network which is set up in the areas of field surveillance, habitat monitoring, and intruder tracking. Energy saving is one of the main challenges in target tracking sensor networks. In this paper, we present a Clustering and Prediction-Based Protocol (CPBP for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Also, the Base Station (BS was exploited as a cluster formation manager and target movement predictor. Our protocol uses two parameters, distance and energy, for clustering algorithm. For evaluation, the proposed protocol was compared to a number of protocols in terms of network lifetime, number of transmitted packets and number of target miss during network lifetime. Performance of the proposed protocol was compared with cluster size 5 and 7. The simulation results represented desirable performance of the presented protocol.

  9. Atomic Beam Merging and Suppression of Alkali Contaminants in Multi Body High Power Targets: Design and Test of Target and Ion Source Prototypes at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquerel, Elian J A; Lettry, J; Stora, T

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of high power ISOL-facilities will deliver intense and pure radioactive ion beams. Two key issues of developments mandatory for the forthcoming generation of ISOL target-ion source units are assessed and demonstrated in this thesis. The design and production of target and ion-source prototypes is described and dedicated measurements at ISOLDE-CERN of their radioisotope yields are analyzed. The purity of short lived or rare radioisotopes suffer from isobaric contaminants, notably alkalis which are highly volatile and easily ionized elements. Therefore, relying on their chemical nature, temperature controlled transfer lines were equipped with a tube of quartz that aimed at trapping these unwanted elements before they reached the ion source. The successful application yields high alkali-suppression factors for several elements (ie: 80, 82mRb, 126, 142Cs, 8Li, 46K, 25Na, 114In, 77Ga, 95, 96Sr) for quartz temperatures between 300ºC and 1100ºC. The enthalpies of adsorption on quartz were measu...

  10. Update on design simulations for NIF ignition targets, and the rollup of all specifications into an error budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, S. W.; Herrmann, M. C.; Salmonson, J. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Dittrich, T. R.; Edwards, M. J.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Pollaine, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Suter, L. J.

    2007-08-01

    Targets intended to produce ignition on NIF are being simulated and the simulations are used to set specifications for target fabrication and other program elements. Recent design work has focused on designs that assume only 1.0 MJ of laser energy instead of the previous 1.6 MJ. To perform with less laser energy, the hohlraum has been redesigned to be more efficient than previously, and the capsules are slightly smaller. Three hohlraum designs are being examined: gas fill, SiO2 foam fill, and SiO2 lined. All have a cocktail wall, and shields mounted between the capsule and the laser entrance holes. Two capsule designs are being considered. One has a graded doped Be(Cu) ablator, and the other graded doped CH(Ge). Both can perform acceptably with recently demonstrated ice layer quality, and with recently demonstrated outer surface roughness. Complete tables of specifications are being prepared for both targets, to be completed this fiscal year. All the specifications are being rolled together into an error budget indicating adequate margin for ignition with the new designs. The dominant source of error is hohlraum asymmetry at intermediate modes 4 8, indicating the importance of experimental techniques to measure and control this asymmetry.

  11. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  12. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  13. Reasons for Using English or the Local Language in the Genre of Job Advertisements: Insights From Interviews With Dutch Job Ad Designers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, W.F.J. van; Planken, B.C.; Gerritsen, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research problem: This study provides insight into practitioners' reasons for choosing a particular language (English versus the local language) in the genre of job ads in countries where English is a foreign language (EFL countries). Scholarly publications and public discourse have suggested reason

  14. Physics Design of the ETA-II/Snowtron Double Pulse Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y J; McCarrick, J F; Paul, A C; Sampayan, S E; Wang, L F; Weir, J T; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Ho, Darwin D.-M.; Mccarrick, James F.; Paul, Arthur C.; Sampayan, Stephen; Wang, Li-Fang; Weir, John T.

    2000-01-01

    We have modified the single pulse target experimental facility[ ] on the Experimental Test Accelerator II (ETA-II) to perform the double pulse target experiments to validate the DARHT-II[, ] multi-pulse target concept. The 1.15 MeV, 2 kA Snowtron injector will provide the first electron pulse. The 6 MeV, 2 kA ETA-II beam will be used as the probe beam. Our modeling indicates that the ETA-II/Snowtron experiment is a reasonable scaling experiment.

  15. Design and operation strategies of the system for destroying time-sensitive target based on system effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the effect of destroying time-sensitive target (TST), a method of operational effectiveness evaluation is presented and some influential factors are analyzed based on the combat flow of system for destroying TST. Considering the possible operation modes of the system, a waved operation mode and a continuous operation mode are put forward at first. At the same time, some relative formulas are modified. In examples, the influential factors and operation modes are analyzed based on the system effectiveness. From simulation results, some design and operation strategies of the system for destroying time sensitive targets are concluded, which benefit to the improvement of the system effectiveness.

  16. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  17. Requirements for design of accelerator, beam transport, and target in a study of thermonuclear reaction cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itahashi, T.; Takahisa, K.; Ohsumi, H.; Komori, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Toki, H. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The process of pp-de{sup +}{nu} is the basic fusion reaction for hydrogen burning in the sun and the prime reaction in chain producing photons and neutrinos. There are many works of the theoretical estimation of the reaction rate in the reaction chain in the sun. The precise measurement of the nutrinos from the sun is one of the most important current physics issues. The rate of the pp-de{sup +}{nu} is too small to be measured in laboratories. The construction of a compact ion accelerator facility with high current, low energy transport and plasma target is planned at the underground laboratory in Otoh Cosmo Observatory of Research Center for Nuclear Physics. The plasma target by using the EBIS type synthesized plasma was proposed as a bare {sup 3}He target. The production of helium ions of each charge state was tested by using the present NEOMAFIOS ECR ion source, and the obtained current is shown. For noncontaminated, high current beam transport, the strong focusing system was introduced. The design of windowless gas target, plasma target, the detection of the energetic reaction particles of protons, digital calorimeter, the couple of ECR ion source and plasma target, and the underground laboratory are reported. (K.I.)

  18. A Bombesin-Shepherdin Radioconjugate Designed for Combined Extra- and Intracellular Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane A. Fischer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Radiolabeled peptides which target tumor-specific membrane structures of cancer cells represent a promising class of targeted radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. A potential drawback of a number of reported radiopeptides is the rapid washout of a substantial fraction of the initially delivered radioactivity from cancer cells and tumors. This renders the initial targeting effort in part futile and results in a lower imaging quality and efficacy of the radiotracer than achievable. We are investigating the combination of internalizing radiopeptides with molecular entities specific for an intracellular target. By enabling intracellular interactions of the radioconjugate, we aim at reducing/decelerating the externalization of radioactivity from cancer cells. Using the “click-to-chelate” approach, the 99mTc-tricarbonyl core as a reporter probe for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was combined with the binding sequence of bombesin for extracellular targeting of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r and peptidic inhibitors of the cytosolic heat shock 90 protein (Hsp90 for intracellular targeting. Receptor-specific uptake of the multifunctional radioconjugate could be confirmed, however, the cellular washout of radioactivity was not improved. We assume that either endosomal trapping or lysosomal degradation of the radioconjugate is accountable for these observations.

  19. A role for fragment-based drug design in developing novel lead compounds for central nervous system targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wasko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacologic screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening, which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of virtual screening is fragment-based drug design, an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for growing the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual fragment-based drug design within central nervous system (CNS targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  20. Boson Stars in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We construct boson stars in global Anti de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work \\cite{Bizon:2011gg} arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass-energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT ...

  1. 多通道A/D转换控制模块的设计与实现%Implementation and Design of Multi-channel A/D Conversion Control Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李言武

    2011-01-01

    The implementation and design of Multi-channel A/D Conversion Control module with MC143150 Neuron Chip and ADS7844 is put forward in this paper.The structure and principle of MC143150 Neuron Chip and ADS7844 are also given in detail,including collection,a%提出了利用MC143150 Neuron芯片和Burr-Brown公司生产的12位串行模数转换器ADS7844实现多通道A/D转换控制模块的设计与实现方法。介绍了MC143150 Neuron芯片和12位串行模数转换器ADS7844的硬件结构与工作原理,以及运用Neuron C语言开发多通道A/D转换控制模块,对数据转换结果的采集、分析与处理程序。通过长时间运行测试,该控制模块精度高、性能可靠,给现场自动化控制系统的集成带来较大的灵活性。

  2. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  3. Google Advertising Tools Cashing in with AdSense and AdWords

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how to take full advantage of Google AdWords and AdSense, the sophisticated online advertising tools used by thousands of large and small businesses. This new edition provides a substantially updated guide to advertising on the Web, including how it works in general, and how Google's advertising programs in particular help you make money. You'll find everything you need to work with AdWords, which lets you generate text ads to accompany specific search term results, and AdSense, which automatically delivers precisely targeted text and image ads to your website.

  4. Design and Implementation of a Communication Protocol to Improve Multimedia QoS and QoE in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Santos, Juan Ramón

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This dissertation addresses the problem of multimedia delivery over multi-hop ad hoc wireless networks, and especially over wireless sensor networks. Due to their characteristics of low power consumption, low processing capacity and low memory capacity, they have major difficulties in achieving optimal quality levels demanded by end users in such communications. In the first part of this work, it has been carried out a study to determine the behavior of a variety of multimedia streams...

  5. Chemo-informatic design of antibiotic geldenamycin analogs to target stress proteins HSP90 of pathogenic protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chaya; Atri, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Stress proteins HSP90 (Heat shock proteins) are essential molecular chaperones involved in signal transduction, cell cycle control, stress management, folding and degradation of proteins. HSP90 have been found in a variety of organisms including pathogens suggesting that they are ancient and conserved proteins. Here, using molecular modeling and docking protocols, antibiotic Geldenamycin and its analog are targeted to the HSP90 homolog proteins of pathogenic protozoans Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei and Entamoeba Histolytica. The designed analogs of geldenamycin have shown drug like property with improved binding affinity to their targets. A decrease in insilico affinity of the analogs for the Human HSP90 target indicates that they can be used as potential drug candidates.

  6. Design, development and characterization of multi-functionalized gold nanoparticles for biodetection and targeted boron delivery in BNCT applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Subhra [Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Netherlands); Bakeine, Gerald J., E-mail: Jamesbakeine1@yahoo.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics-Section of Clinical Toxicology, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta 10, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Krol, Silke [Institute of Neurology, Fondazione IRCCS Carlo Besta, Milan (Italy); Ferrari, Cinzia; Clerici, Anna M.; Zonta, Cecilia; Cansolino, Laura [Department of Surgery, Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, University of Pavia (Italy); Ballarini, Francesca [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, Silva [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy)] [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia (Italy); Stella, Subrina; Protti, Nicoletta [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, Piero [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia (Italy); Altieri, Saverio [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy)] [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study is to optimize targeted boron delivery to cancer cells and its tracking down to the cellular level. To this end, we describe the design and synthesis of novel nanovectors that double as targeted boron delivery agents and fluorescent imaging probes. Gold nanoparticles were coated with multilayers of polyelectrolytes functionalized with the fluorescent dye (FITC), boronophenylalanine and folic acid. In vitro confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated significant uptake of the nanoparticles in cancer cells that are known to overexpress folate receptors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of multi-labeled gold nanoparticles for selective boron delivery to tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor selectivity is achieved through folic acid receptor targeting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical fluorescent microscopy allows tracking of cellular uptake of the gold nanoparticle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro tests demonstrate selective nanoparticle up in folate receptor positive tumor cells.

  7. Requirements for design of accelerator, beam transport, and target in a study of thermonuclear reaction cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itahashi, T.; Takahisa, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Toki, H.; Ejiri, H. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Ohsumi, H.; Komori, M.

    1997-03-01

    A compact accelerator with high current ion source, low energy beam transport elements and windowless gas target was designed to investigate the thermonuclear reaction cross section. The idea of this project focused on the cross section measurement of the fusion reaction data {sup 3}He+{sup 3}He-{sup 4}He+p+p at 25keV. The system will be installed in Otoh Cosmo Observatory (1270m.w.e.) to get rid of the huge cosmic and environmental background. It consists of NANOGUN ECR ion source, focusing elements made of permanent magnets window less {sup 3}He gas target and/or He{sup 3} plasma target and detector telescopes with low noise and low background. Requirements for these were discussed technically and various ideas were proposed. (author)

  8. Application Analysis of Ad Lamp-box Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yuan; LU Bin

    2014-01-01

    The ad lamp-box controller is designed in consideration that ordinary urban ad lights usually remain lit through the night and a specially assigned staff needs to be on duty to control their switches. It can be automatically controlled with a photo resistance testing the day and night as well as a CD4060 chip controlling the length of time interval between switching the ad lamp-boxes on and off. In this way, both energy and labor can be saved with the controller. It is matching with the target of“constructing a conservation-minded society”in our country and deserves to be promoted in market with its practical signifi-cance.

  9. Optimizations of siRNA design for the activation of gene transcription by targeting the TATA-box motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Fan

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are widely used to repress gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Some reports reveal that siRNAs can also activate or inhibit gene expression through targeting the gene promoters. Our group has found that microRNAs (miRNAs could activate gene transcription via interaction with the TATA-box motif in gene promoters. To investigate whether siRNA targeting the same region could upregulate the promoter activity, we test the activating efficiency of siRNAs targeting the TATA-box motif of 16 genes and perform a systematic analysis to identify the common features of the functional siRNAs for effective activation of gene promoters. Further, we try various modifications to improve the activating efficiency of siRNAs and find that it is quite useful to design the promoter-targeting activating siRNA by following several rules such as (a complementary to the TATA-box-centered region; (b UA usage at the first two bases of the antisense strand; (c twenty-three nucleotides (nts in length; (d 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe modification at the 3' terminus of the antisense strand; (e avoiding mismatches at the 3' end of the antisense strand. The optimized activating siRNAs potently enhance the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2 gene in human and mouse primary CD4+ T cells with a long-time effect. Taken together, our study provides a guideline for rational design the promoter-targeting siRNA to sequence-specifically enhance gene expression.

  10. Development of whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 1, Planning: Volume 2, Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawley, D.B.; Briggs, R.S.; Jones, J.W.; Seaton, W.W.; Kaufman, J.E.; Deringer, J.J.; Kennett, E.W.

    1987-08-01

    This is the second volume of the Phase 1 report and discusses the 10 tasks performed in Phase 1. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for setting energy design targets to provide voluntary guidelines for the buildings industry. The whole-building energy targets project is being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to encourage the construction of energy-efficient buildings by informing designers and owners about cost-effective goals for energy use in new commercial buildings. The outcome of this research will be a flexible methodology for setting such targets. The tasks are listed and discussed in this report as follows: Task 1 - Develop Detailed Project Goals and Objectives; Task 2 - Establish Buildings-Industry Liaison; Task 3 - Develop Approaches to the Energy Targets Model, Building Operations, and Climate; Task 4 - Develop an Approach for Treating Economic Considerations; Task 5 - Develop an Approach for Treating Energy Sources; Task 6 - Collect Energy-Use Data; Task 7 - Survey Energy Expert Opinion; Task 8 - Evaluation Procedure Specification and Integration; Task 9 - Phase 1 Report Development; and Task 10 - Phase 1 Review Planning.

  11. Detection Parameters Design for Compound Survey Seafloor Targets by Multibeam Sonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swath bathymetry system surveys with wide swath, high location resolution, and is used to detect sea bottom terrain. But the object resolution detected decreases as the depth increasing, its data processing with high mistake, used rarely in sea floor object survey.So GeoSwath, a multibeam sonar does. Although it covers an angular range of -120°to 120 °from the vertical direction, providing high density and high quality bathymetry data along with side scan like amplitude imagery, the data processing is more relied on human intervention to get accurate depth contour and sonar image which prevent its propular use in survey of seafloor targets. The purpose of this article presents survey parameter setting during survey and data processing technique to survey seafloor target by GeoSwath system, which set the proper detect parameters including ping length, ship velocity to increase the points over targets, setting navigation line parallel to the maximum dimension of target during survey, adopting appropriate filter to depth data processing and using TVG control over amplitude data to get accurate depth grid and sonar image of seafloor target. Finally, the way is used to measure the artificial object in harbor and two ship wrecks at sea, compound with the sonar image taken by the forward looking sonar, to search the ship wreck near harbor, to help to recognize the targets and locates its real position. This technology improves GeoSwath survey capability with compound detection and is helpful for make precise map for waterway. Also this work is helpful to achieve detecting seafloor objects fast, accurately, effectively in underwater large scale area during salvation and rescue task.  

  12. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  13. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  14. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  15. Design of High-Neutron-Yield, Polar-drive targets for diagnostic activation experiments on the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenty, P W; Craxton, R S; Marshall, F J; Sangster, T C; Marozas, J A; Cok, A M; Bonino, M J; Harding, D R; Meyerhofer, D D; McCrory, R L [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 E. River Road, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A; Fooks, J; Hoppe, M L [General Atomics Corporation, La Jolla, CA (United States); Edwards, J M; MacKinnon, A J; Munro, D H; Wallace, R J, E-mail: pmck@lle.rochester.ed [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Polar-drive (PD) target implosions have been designed for neutron diagnostic development on the NIF. These experiments use thin, room-temperature glass shells filled with low pressures of DT. Initial target implosions on the NIF will produce DT yields in the range of a few 10{sup 14} neutrons. The predicted yields are consistent with earlier data (10{sup 14} neutrons at 30 kJ) and recent PD scoping experiments performed on OMEGA. The experiments will use existing x-ray-drive phase plates with judicious repointing and defocusing to drive the implosions as uniformly as possible. These implosions have been modeled with three codes: LILAC, to optimize the 1-D design; SAGE, to optimize the pointing uniformity; and DRACO, to predict the yield from 2-D implosion simulations. Current simulation results indicate that the required yields will be obtained using up to 200-kJ UV light formed into a 1500-ps Gaussian pulse. Large-diameter glass shells ({approx}1500-{mu}m OD) are under development and fabrication at General Atomics. As tritium and environmental conditions evolve, similar target designs, with larger diameters and higher laser energies, are expected to produce thermonuclear yields approaching 10{sup 16} neutrons.

  16. Efficient Designer Nuclease-Based Homologous Recombination Enables Direct PCR Screening for Footprintless Targeted Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Merkert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs via customized designer nucleases has been shown to be significantly more efficient than conventional gene targeting, but still typically depends on the introduction of additional genetic selection elements. In our study, we demonstrate the efficient nonviral and selection-independent gene targeting in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. Our high efficiencies of up to 1.6% of gene-targeted hiPSCs, accompanied by a low background of randomly inserted transgenes, eliminated the need for antibiotic or fluorescence-activated cell sorting selection, and allowed the use of short donor oligonucleotides for footprintless gene editing. Gene-targeted hiPSC clones were established simply by direct PCR screening. This optimized approach allows targeted transgene integration into safe harbor sites for more predictable and robust expression and enables the straightforward generation of disease-corrected, patient-derived iPSC lines for research purposes and, ultimately, for future clinical applications.

  17. Targeted transcriptional activation of silent oct4 pluripotency gene by combining designer TALEs and inhibition of epigenetic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultmann, Sebastian; Morbitzer, Robert; Schmidt, Christine S; Thanisch, Katharina; Spada, Fabio; Elsaesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2012-07-01

    Specific control of gene activity is a valuable tool to study and engineer cellular functions. Recent studies uncovered the potential of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins that can be tailored to activate user-defined target genes. It remains however unclear whether and how epigenetic modifications interfere with TALE-mediated transcriptional activation. We studied the activity of five designer TALEs (dTALEs) targeting the oct4 pluripotency gene. In vitro assays showed that the five dTALEs that target distinct sites in the oct4 promoter had the expected DNA specificity and comparable affinities to their corresponding DNA targets. In contrast to their similar in vitro properties, transcriptional activation of oct4 by these distinct dTALEs varied up to 25-fold. While dTALEs efficiently upregulated transcription of the active oct4 promoter in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) they failed to activate the silenced oct4 promoter in ESC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs), indicating that as for endogenous transcription factors also dTALE activity is limited by repressive epigenetic mechanisms. We therefore targeted the activity of epigenetic modulators and found that chemical inhibition of histone deacetylases by valproic acid or DNA methyltransferases by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine facilitated dTALE-mediated activation of the epigenetically silenced oct4 promoter in NSCs. Notably, demethylation of the oct4 promoter occurred only if chemical inhibitors and dTALEs were applied together but not upon treatment with inhibitors or dTALEs only. These results show that dTALEs in combination with chemical manipulation of epigenetic modifiers facilitate targeted transcriptional activation of epigenetically silenced target genes.

  18. The DESI Experiment Part I: Science,Targeting, and Survey Design

    CERN Document Server

    Aghamousa, Amir; Ahlen, Steve; Alam, Shadab; Allen, Lori E; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Annis, James; Bailey, Stephen; Balland, Christophe; Ballester, Otger; Baltay, Charles; Beaufore, Lucas; Bebek, Chris; Beers, Timothy C; Bell, Eric F; Bernal, José Luis; Besuner, Robert; Beutler, Florian; Blake, Chris; Bleuler, Hannes; Blomqvist, Michael; Blum, Robert; Bolton, Adam S; Briceno, Cesar; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Burden, Angela; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolas G; Cahn, Robert N; Cai, Yan-Chuan; Carlberg, Raymond G; Carton, Pierre-Henri; Casas, Ricard; Castander, Francisco J; Claybaugh, Todd M; Close, Madeline; Coker, Carl T; Cole, Shaun; Cooper, Andrew P; Cousinou, M -C; Crocce, Martin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Cunningham, Daniel P; Davis, Tamara; Dawson, Kyle S; de la Macorra, Axel; De Vicente, Juan; Delubac, Timothée; Derwent, Mark; Dey, Arjun; Dhungana, Govinda; Ding, Zhejie; Duan, Yutong T; Ealet, Anne; Edelstein, Jerry; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Elliott, Ann; Escoffier, Stephanie; Evatt, Matthew; Fagrelius, Parker; Fan, Xiaohui; Fanning, Kevin; Farahi, Arya; Favole, Ginevra; Feng, Yu; Fernandez, Enrique; Findlay, Joseph R; Finkbeiner, Douglas P; Fitzpatrick, Michael J; Flaugher, Brenna; Flender, Samuel; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Forero-Romero, Jaime E; Fosalba, Pablo; Frenk, Carlos S; Fumagalli, Michele; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gershkovich, Irina; Gillet, Denis; Gonzalez-de-Rivera, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Gott, Shelby; Graur, Or; Gutierrez, Gaston; Guy, Julien; Habib, Salman; Heetderks, Henry; Heetderks, Ian; Heitmann, Katrin; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Herrera, David A; Ho, Shirley; Honscheid, Klaus; Huff, Eric; Hutchinson, Timothy A; Huterer, Dragan; Hwang, Ho Seong; Laguna, Joseph Maria Illa; Ishikawa, Yuzo; Jacobs, Dianna; Jeffrey, Niall; Jelinsky, Patrick; Jiang, Linhua; Jimenez, Jorge; Johnson, Jennifer; Joyce, Richard; Jullo, Eric; Juneau, Stephanie; Kama, Sami; Karcher, Armin; Karkar, Sonia; Kehoe, Robert; Kennamer, Noble; Kent, Stephen; Kilbinger, Martin; Kim, Alex G; Kirkby, David; Kisner, Theodore; Kitanidis, Ellie; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koposov, Sergey; Kovacs, Eve; Kremin, Anthony; Kron, Richard; Kronig, Luzius; Kueter-Young, Andrea; Lacey, Cedric G; Lafever, Robin; Lahav, Ofer; Lambert, Andrew; Landriau, Martin; Lang, Dustin; Name, Publication; Lauer, Tod R; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Guillou, Laurent Le; Van Suu, Auguste Le; Lee, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Su-Jeong; Leitner, Daniela; Levi, Michael E; L'Huillier, Benjamin; Li, Baojiu; Liang, Ming; Lin, Huan; Linder, Eric; Loebman, Sarah R; Lukić, Zarija; MacCrann, Niall; Magneville, Christophe; Makarem, Laleh; Manera, Marc; Manser, Christopher J; Marshall, Robert; Martini, Paul; Massey, Richard; Matheson, Thomas; McCauley, Jeremy; McDonald, Patrick; McGreer, Ian D; Meisner, Aaron; Metcalfe, Nigel; Miller, Timothy N; Miquel, Ramon; Moustakas, John; Myers, Adam; Naik, Milind; Newman, Jeffrey; Nichol, Robert C; Nicola, Andrina; da Costa, Luiz Nicolati; Niz, Gustavo; Norberg, Peder; Nord, Brian; Norman, Dara; Nugent, Peter; O'Brien, Thomas; Oh, Minji; Olsen, Knut A G; Padilla, Cristobal; Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Palmese, Antonella; Pappalardo, Daniel; Park, Changbom; Patej, Anna; Peacock, John A; Peiris, Hiranya V; Percival, Will J; Perruchot, Sandrine; Pieri, Matthew M; Pogge, Richard; Poppett, Claire; Probst, Ronald G; Rabinowitz, David; Ree, Chang Hee; Refregier, Alexandre; Regal, Xavier; Reid, Beth; Reil, Kevin; Rezaie, Mehdi; Rockosi, Connie; Roe, Natalie; Ronayette, Samuel; Roodman, Aaron; Ross, Ashley J; Ross, Nicholas P; Rossi, Graziano; Rozo, Eduardo; Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina; Rykoff, Eli; Sabiu, Cristiano; Samushia, Lado; Sanchez, Javier; Schlegel, David J; Schneider, Michael; Schubnell, Michael; Secroun, Aurélia; Seljak, Uros; Seo, Hee-Jong; Serrano, Santiago; Shafieloo, Arman; Shan, Huanyuan; Sholl, Michael J; Shourt, William V; Silber, Joseph H; Silva, David R; Sirk, Martin M; Slosar, Anze; Smith, Alex; Smoot, George; Som, Debopam; Song, Yong-Seon; Sprayberry, David; Staten, Ryan; Stefanik, Andy; Tarle, Gregory; Tie, Suk Sien; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Valdes, Francisco; Valenzuela, Octavio; Valluri, Monica; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Verde, Licia; Walker, Alistair R; Wang, Yuting; Weaver, Benjamin A; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Wechsler, Risa; Weinberg, David H; White, Martin; Yang, Qian; Yeche, Christophe; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Yi; Zhu, Yaling; Zou, Hu; Zu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. To trace the underlying dark matter distribution, spectroscopic targets will be selected in four classes from imaging data. We will measure luminous red galaxies up to $z=1.0$. To probe the Universe out to even higher redshift, DESI will target bright [O II] emission line galaxies up to $z=1.7$. Quasars will be targeted both as direct tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution and, at higher redshifts ($ 2.1 < z < 3.5$), for the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest absorption features in their spectra, which will be used to trace the distribution of neutral hydrogen. When moonlight prevents efficient observations of the faint targets of the baseline survey, DESI will conduct a magnitude-limited Bright Galaxy Survey comprising approximately 10 million galaxie...

  19. Proteins with complex architecture as potential targets for drug design: a case study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Mészáros

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lengthy co-evolution of Homo sapiens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main causative agent of tuberculosis, resulted in a dramatically successful pathogen species that presents considerable challenge for modern medicine. The continuous and ever increasing appearance of multi-drug resistant mycobacteria necessitates the identification of novel drug targets and drugs with new mechanisms of action. However, further insights are needed to establish automated protocols for target selection based on the available complete genome sequences. In the present study, we perform complete proteome level comparisons between M. tuberculosis, mycobacteria, other prokaryotes and available eukaryotes based on protein domains, local sequence similarities and protein disorder. We show that the enrichment of certain domains in the genome can indicate an important function specific to M. tuberculosis. We identified two families, termed pkn and PE/PPE that stand out in this respect. The common property of these two protein families is a complex domain organization that combines species-specific regions, commonly occurring domains and disordered segments. Besides highlighting promising novel drug target candidates in M. tuberculosis, the presented analysis can also be viewed as a general protocol to identify proteins involved in species-specific functions in a given organism. We conclude that target selection protocols should be extended to include proteins with complex domain architectures instead of focusing on sequentially unique and essential proteins only.

  20. Design, synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of brain targeting L-ascorbic acid prodrugs of ibuprofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Wu; Xiao-Cen Li; Jie Mi; Jing You; Li Hai

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA,vitamin C) exhibits a high concentration in the brain.The transportation of AA in brain is mainly mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na+-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2.While L-ascorbic acid C6-O conjugation has been investigated as a tool to enhance brain drug delivery,C5-O conjugation and C5-O & C6-O conjugation as brain targeting tools have not been reported.In this letter,ibuprofen was linked directly to C5-O,C6-O and C5-O & C6-O positions of L-ascorbic acid with eater bonds,providing prodrug 1,2 and 3,respectively,to improve their targeting abilities in the brain.Prodrug 1,2 and 3 were synthesized in facile ways with good yields.And the preliminary evaluation in vivo illustrated that prodrug 2 had a better targeting ability than prodrug 1.Moreover,prodrug 3,whose C5-O & C6-O positions were both modified,had good targeting ability for brain which will provide an important evidence for our further study on C5-O-& C6-O-di-derivatives of L-ascorbic acid.

  1. Hohlraum Target Alignment from X-ray Detector Images using Starburst Design Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R R; Conder, A; Edwards, O; Kroll, J; Kozioziemski, B; Mapoles, E; McGuigan, D; Wilhelmsen, K

    2010-12-14

    National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to initiate a fusion reaction. The target container, or hohlraum, must be accurately aligned to an x-ray imaging system to allow careful monitoring of the frozen fuel layer in the target. To achieve alignment, x-ray images are acquired through starburst-shaped windows cut into opposite sides of the hohlraum. When the hohlraum is in alignment, the starburst pattern pairs match nearly exactly and allow a clear view of the ice layer formation on the edge of the target capsule. During the alignment process, x-ray image analysis is applied to determine the direction and magnitude of adjustment required. X-ray detector and source are moved in concert during the alignment process. The automated pointing alignment system described here is both accurate and efficient. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing that enables automation of the starburst pointing alignment.

  2. The DESI Experiment Part I: Science,Targeting, and Survey Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamousa, Amir; et al.

    2016-10-31

    DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. To trace the underlying dark matter distribution, spectroscopic targets will be selected in four classes from imaging data. We will measure luminous red galaxies up to $z=1.0$. To probe the Universe out to even higher redshift, DESI will target bright [O II] emission line galaxies up to $z=1.7$. Quasars will be targeted both as direct tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution and, at higher redshifts ($ 2.1 < z < 3.5$), for the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest absorption features in their spectra, which will be used to trace the distribution of neutral hydrogen. When moonlight prevents efficient observations of the faint targets of the baseline survey, DESI will conduct a magnitude-limited Bright Galaxy Survey comprising approximately 10 million galaxies with a median $z\\approx 0.2$. In total, more than 30 million galaxy and quasar redshifts will be obtained to measure the BAO feature and determine the matter power spectrum, including redshift space distortions.

  3. Optimal de novo design of MRM experiments for rapid assay development in targeted proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, Andreas; Jung, Stephan; Zerck, Alexandra; Pfeifer, Nico; Nahnsen, Sven; Henneges, Carsten; Nordheim, Alfred; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2010-05-07

    Targeted proteomic approaches such as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) overcome problems associated with classical shotgun mass spectrometry experiments. Developing MRM quantitation assays can be time consuming, because relevant peptide representatives of the proteins must be found and their retention time and the product ions must be determined. Given the transitions, hundreds to thousands of them can be scheduled into one experiment run. However, it is difficult to select which of the transitions should be included into a measurement. We present a novel algorithm that allows the construction of MRM assays from the sequence of the targeted proteins alone. This enables the rapid development of targeted MRM experiments without large libraries of transitions or peptide spectra. The approach relies on combinatorial optimization in combination with machine learning techniques to predict proteotypicity, retention time, and fragmentation of peptides. The resulting potential transitions are scheduled optimally by solving an integer linear program. We demonstrate that fully automated construction of MRM experiments from protein sequences alone is possible and over 80% coverage of the targeted proteins can be achieved without further optimization of the assay.

  4. The preparation and composition design of boron-rich lanthanum hexaboride target for sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Defang; Min, Guanghui; Wu, Yan; Yu, Huashun; Zhang, Lin, E-mail: zhanglin2007@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • High-purity LaB{sub 6} powder was prepared due to significant reduction of residual B{sub 4}C and effective purification process. • The effects of raw materials ratio on the size, morphology, phase structure and crystalline size of LaB{sub 6} were studied. • The correlation of component between LaB{sub 6} films and boron-rich targets was established. • The variation of densities of LaB{sub 6} targets with sintering time and sintering temperature was investigated. - Abstract: Lanthanum Hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) nano-film has been proved to be promising transparent thermal insulation material, while its properties are limited on purity and composition. High-purity LaB{sub 6} polycrystalline powder was prepared through boron carbide reduction method in this work. A series of techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser particle analyzer and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer were employed to characterize LaB{sub 6} powder. As raising the content of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} in reactants, more uniform, finer (2.686 μm) and purer (99.5139 wt%) LaB{sub 6} powder is prepared, with only 0.4434 wt% residual B{sub 4}C. The density of targets increases with the rise of sintering temperature and the extension of sintering time, while crystallite size increases simultaneously with the extension of sintering time. The introduction of B powder in target is conductive to sintering process, increasing hardness and flexural strength of targets. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer was used to characterize the composition and microstructure of LaB{sub 6} nano-film which is tentatively considered to be composed of LaB{sub 6} nanocrystalline and amorphous microstructure of La and B atoms. The film LaB{sub 6.0627±0.02} was obtained when the ratio of B and La of sputtering target reached 12.5. The thickness and deposition rate decrease with the increase of B content in targets.

  5. New "persona" concept helps site designers cater to target user segments' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Using the relatively new "persona" design concept, Web strategists create a set of archetypical user characters, each one representing one of their site's primary audiences. Then, as their site is constructed or upgraded, they champion the personas, arguing on their behalf and forcing the design team to take each audience's needs and wants into account.

  6. Designing the nanoparticle-biomolecule interface for "targeting and therapeutic delivery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Eugene; Salvati, Anna; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2012-07-20

    The endogenous transport mechanisms which occur in living organisms have evolved to allow selective transport and processing operate on a scale of tens of nanometers. This presents the possibility of unprecedented access for engineered nanoscale materials to organs and sub-cellular locations, materials which may in principle be targeted to precise locations for diagnostic or therapeutic gain. For this reason, nano-architectures could represent a truly radical departure as delivery agents for drugs, genes and therapies to treat a host of diseases. Thus, for active targeting, unlike the case of small molecular drugs where molecular structure has evolved to promote higher physiochemical affinity to specific sites, one aims to exploit these energy dependant endogenous processes. Many active targeting strategies have been developed, but despite this truly remarkable potential, in applications they have met with mixed success to date. This situation may have more to do with our current understanding and integration of knowledge across disciplines, than any intrinsic limitation on the vision itself. In this review article we suggest that much more fundamental and detailed control of the nanoparticle-biomolecule interface is required for sustained and general success in this field. In the simplest manifestation, pristine nanoparticles in biological fluids act as a scaffold for biomolecules, which adsorb rapidly to the nanoparticles' surface, conferring a new biological identity to the nanoparticles. It is this nanoparticle-biomolecule interface that is 'read' and acted upon by the cellular machinery. Moreover, where targeting moieties are grafted onto nanoparticles, they may not retain their function as a result of poor orientation, and structural or conformational disruption. Further surface adsorption of biomolecules from the surrounding environment i.e. the formation of a biomolecule corona may also obscure specific surface recognition. To transfer the remarkable

  7. Design and Implementation of a Communication Protocol to Improve Multimedia QoS and QoE in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Santos, Juan Ramón

    2016-01-01

    [ES] Esta tesis doctoral aborda el problema de la distribución de contenidos multimedia a través de redes inalámbricas ad hoc multisalto, especialmente las redes inalámbricas de sensores que, debido a sus características de bajo consumo energético, baja capacidad de procesamiento y baja capacidad de memoria, plantean grandes dificultades para alcanzar los niveles de calidad óptimos que exigen los usuarios finales en dicho tipo de comunicaciones. En la primera parte de este trabajo se ha l...

  8. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  9. A Flexible System Level Design Methodology Targeting Run-Time Reconfigurable FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzet Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reconfigurable computing is certainly one of the most important emerging research topics on digital processing architectures over the last few years. The introduction of run-time reconfiguration (RTR on FPGAs requires appropriate design flows and methodologies to fully exploit this new functionality. For that purpose, we present an automatic design generation methodology for heterogeneous architectures based on DSPs and FPGAs that ease and speed RTR implementation. We focus on how to take into account specificities of partially reconfigurable components from a high-level specification during the design generation steps. This method automatically generates designs for both fixed and partially reconfigurable parts of an FPGA with automatic management of the reconfiguration process. Furthermore, this automatic design generation enables a reconfiguration prefetching technique to minimize reconfiguration latency and buffer-merging techniques to minimize memory requirements of the generated design. This concept has been applied to different wireless access schemes, based on a combination of OFDM and CDMA techniques. This implementation example illustrates the benefits of the proposed design methodology.

  10. The Influence of Energy Targets and Economic Concerns in Design Strategies for a Residential Nearly-Zero Energy Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Marie Barthelmes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Finding cost-optimal solutions towards nearly-zero energy buildings in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD is a challenging task. In order to reach the 20-20-20 targets, EU energy policy has introduced new ambitious levels for the large-scale spread of nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs and the concept of the cost-optimal level, defined as the energy performance level, which leads to the lowest cost during the estimated economic lifecycle of the building. Consequently, building design has begun a challenge involving both energy targets and economic concerns. The aim of this research is to analyze an example building of a new single family house, using the cost-optimal methodology, in order to define how energy and economic aspects influence the preliminary design phase of the project and, in particular, the choice of the performance features of some components of the project itself, such as envelope elements and systems. The impact on energy performances of different configurations for the building envelope and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was assessed with the dynamic simulation software EnergyPlus. Finally, the costs of the different design scenarios were estimated, according to the European Standard EN 15459:2007 to establish which of them had the lowest global cost and, consequently, represents the cost-optimal level for the design configurations analyzed. In order to test the stability of the results obtained, different sensitivity analyses were carried out.

  11. Rational Design of Targeted Next-Generation Carriers for Drug and Vaccine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Balaji; Goodman, Jonathan T; Vela Ramirez, Julia E

    2016-07-11

    Pattern recognition receptors on innate immune cells play an important role in guiding how cells interact with the rest of the organism and in determining the direction of the downstream immune response. Recent advances have elucidated the structure and function of these receptors, providing new opportunities for developing targeted drugs and vaccines to treat infections, cancers, and neurological disorders. C-type lectin receptors, Toll-like receptors, and folate receptors have attracted interest for their ability to endocytose their ligands or initiate signaling pathways that influence the immune response. Several novel technologies are being developed to engage these receptors, including recombinant antibodies, adoptive immunotherapy, and chemically modified antigens and drug delivery vehicles. These active targeting technologies will help address current challenges facing drug and vaccine delivery and lead to new tools to treat human diseases.

  12. A design of space robot multi-target capture algorithm based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-na; HU Bing-liang; LIU Xue-bin; LIU Hui; LIU Qian-wen

    2009-01-01

    To correctly capture spatial targets from cluttered and motive celestial background, a new Multi-Target Capture algorithm was proposed, which is a comparative difference algorithm based on the combination of centroid extraction and despun registration of efficient points. Moreover, this algorithm was applied in an image processing system based on the DSP featuring high speed and high performance. The procedures of image processing are as follows: first, label efficient points in the frame and extract their centroids; second, make appropriate despun registration, according to the reference rotation angles provided by Space Robot position system; third, translate and register centroid coordinates of efficient points in reference frames and get the registration points according to the principle that there are the most same centroid coordinates of efficient points when completely registered; finally, eliminate the same background points by using comparative difference method. The result shows that this image processing system can meet the needs of the whole system.

  13. Design and Implementation of a Storage Virtualization System Based on SCSI Target Simulator in SAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bigang; SHU Jiwu; ZHENG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    The ideal storage virtualization system is compatible with all operating systems in storage area networks (SANs). However, current storage systems on clustered hosts and multiple operating systems are not practical. This paper presents a storage virtualization system based on a SCSI target simulator in a SAN to solve these problems. This storage virtualization system runs in the target hosts of the SAN, dynamically stores the physical information, and uses the mapping table method to modify the SCSI command addresses. The system uses the bitmap technique to manage the free space. The storage virtualization system provides various functions, such as logical volume resizing, data mirroring, and snapshots, and is compatible with clustered hosts and multiple operating systems, such as Windows NT and RedHat.

  14. Design of a predictive targeting error simulator for MRI-guided prostate biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Avni, Shachar; Vikal, Siddharth; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Multi-parametric MRI is a new imaging modality superior in quality to Ultrasound (US) which is currently used in standard prostate biopsy procedures. Surface-based registration of the pre-operative and intra-operative prostate volumes is a simple alternative to side-step the challenges involved with deformable registration. However, segmentation errors inevitably introduced during prostate contouring spoil the registration and biopsy targeting accuracies. For the crucial purpose of validating...

  15. The DESI Experiment Part I: Science,Targeting, and Survey Design

    OpenAIRE

    DESI Collaboration; Aghamousa, Amir; Aguilar, Jessica; Ahlen, Steve; Alam, Shadab; Allen, Lori E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Annis, James; Bailey, Stephen; Balland, Christophe; Ballester, Otger; Baltay, Charles; Beaufore, Lucas; Bebek, Chris; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. To trace the underlying dark matter distribution, spectroscopic targets will be selected in four classes from imaging data. We will measure luminous red galaxies up to $z=1.0$. To probe the Universe out to even higher redshift, DESI will...

  16. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  17. Design of the Next Generation Target at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferres, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); National Graduate School of Engineering and Research Center (ENSICAEN), Caen (France)

    2016-08-03

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports scientific research in many diverse fields such as biology, chemistry, and nuclear science. The Laboratory was established in 1943 during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons. Today, LANL is one of the largest laboratories dedicated to nuclear defense and operates an 800 MeV proton linear accelerator for basic and applied research including: production of high- and low-energy neutrons beams, isotope production for medical applications and proton radiography. This accelerator is located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The work performed involved the redesign of the target for the low-energy neutron source at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, which is one of the facilities built around the accelerator. The redesign of the target involves modeling various arrangements of the moderator-reflector-shield for the next generation neutron production target. This is done using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX), and ROOT analysis framework, a C++ based-software, to analyze the results.

  18. GNC architecture for autonomous robotic capture of a non-cooperative target: Preliminary concept design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Marko; Paul, Jan; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies of the space debris population in low Earth orbit (LEO) have concluded that certain regions have already reached a critical density of objects. This will eventually lead to a cascading process called the Kessler syndrome. The time may have come to seriously consider active debris removal (ADR) missions as the only viable way of preserving the space environment for future generations. Among all objects in the current environment, the SL-8 (Kosmos 3M second stages) rocket bodies (R/Bs) are some of the most suitable targets for future robotic ADR missions. However, to date, an autonomous relative navigation to and capture of an non-cooperative target has never been performed. Therefore, there is a need for more advanced, autonomous and modular systems that can cope with uncontrolled, tumbling objects. The guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system is one of the most critical ones. The main objective of this paper is to present a preliminary concept of a modular GNC architecture that should enable a safe and fuel-efficient capture of a known but uncooperative target, such as Kosmos 3M R/B. In particular, the concept was developed having in mind the most critical part of an ADR mission, i.e. close range proximity operations, and state of the art algorithms in the field of autonomous rendezvous and docking. In the end, a brief description of the hardware in the loop (HIL) testing facility is made, foreseen for the practical evaluation of the developed architecture.

  19. Drug design with Cdc7 kinase: a potential novel cancer therapy target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Sawa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Masaaki Sawa1, Hisao Masai21Carna Biosciences, Inc., Kobe, Japan; 2Genome Dynamics Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Identification of novel molecular targets is critical in development of new and efficient cancer therapies. Kinases are one of the most common drug targets with a potential for cancer therapy. Cell cycle progression is regulated by a number of kinases, some of which are being developed to treat cancer. Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase originally discovered in budding yeast, which has been shown to be necessary to initiate the S phase. Inhibition of Cdc7 in cancer cells retards the progression of the S phase, accumulates DNA damage, and induces p53-independent cell death, but the same treatment in normal cells does not significantly affect viability. Low-molecular-weight compounds that inhibit Cdc7 kinase with an IC50 of less than 10 nM have been identified, and shown to be effective in the inhibition of tumor growth in animal models. Thus Cdc7 kinase can be recognized as a novel molecular target for cancer therapy.Keywords: Cdc7 kinase, cell cycle, replication fork, genome stability, DNA damages, ATP-binding pocket, kinase inhibitor

  20. Designing calcium phosphate-based bifunctional nanocapsules with bone-targeting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khung, Yit-Lung; Bastari, Kelsen; Cho, Xing Ling; Yee, Wu Aik; Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-06-15

    Using sodium dodecyl sulphate micelles as template, hollow-cored calcium phosphate nanocapsules were produced. The surfaces of the nanocapsule were subsequently silanised by a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based silane with an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester end groups which permits for further attachment with bisphosphonates (BP). Characterisations of these nanocapsules were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. To further validate the bone-targeting potential, dentine discs were incubated with these functionalised nanocapsules. FESEM analysis showed that these surface-modified nanocapsules would bind strongly to dentine surfaces compared to non-functionalised nanocapsules. We envisage that respective components would give this construct a bifunctional attribute, whereby (1) the shell of the calcium phosphate nanocapsule would serve as biocompatible coating aiding in gradual osteoconduction, while (2) surface BP moieties, acting as targeting ligands, would provide the bone-targeting potential of these calcium phosphate nanocapsules.

  1. Design of a predictive targeting error simulator for MRI-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Shachar; Vikal, Siddharth; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-02-23

    Multi-parametric MRI is a new imaging modality superior in quality to Ultrasound (US) which is currently used in standard prostate biopsy procedures. Surface-based registration of the pre-operative and intra-operative prostate volumes is a simple alternative to side-step the challenges involved with deformable registration. However, segmentation errors inevitably introduced during prostate contouring spoil the registration and biopsy targeting accuracies. For the crucial purpose of validating this procedure, we introduce a fully interactive and customizable simulator which determines the resulting targeting errors of simulated registrations between prostate volumes given user-provided parameters for organ deformation, segmentation, and targeting. We present the workflow executed by the simulator in detail and discuss the parameters involved. We also present a segmentation error introduction algorithm, based on polar curves and natural cubic spline interpolation, which introduces statistically realistic contouring errors. One simulation, including all I/O and preparation for rendering, takes approximately 1 minute and 40 seconds to complete on a system with 3 GB of RAM and four Intel Core 2 Quad CPUs each with a speed of 2.40 GHz. Preliminary results of our simulation suggest the maximum tolerable segmentation error given the presence of a 5.0 mm wide small tumor is between 4-5 mm. We intend to validate these results via clinical trials as part of our ongoing work.

  2. Formulation design for target delivery of iron nanoparticles to TCE zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziheng; Acosta, Edgar

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) are effective reducing agents for some dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, target delivery of iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones in the aquifer remains an elusive feature for NZVI technologies. This work discusses three strategies to deliver iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones. To this end, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleate (OL) ions were used as stable analogs for NZVI. The OL-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are rendered lipophilic via (a) the addition of CaCl2, (b) acidification, or (c) the addition of a cationic surfactant, benzethonium chloride (BC). Mixtures of OL and BC show promise as a target delivery strategy due to the high stability of the nanoparticles in water, and their preferential partition into TCE in batch experiments. Column tests show that while the OL-BC coated iron oxide nanoparticles remain largely mobile in TCE-free columns, a large fraction of these particles are retained in TCE-contaminated columns, confirming the effectiveness of this target delivery strategy.

  3. A Rational Design Strategy for the Selective Activity Enhancement of a Molecular Chaperone toward a Target Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Francesco A; Sormanni, Pietro; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-08-18

    Molecular chaperones facilitate the folding and assembly of proteins and inhibit their aberrant aggregation. They thus offer several opportunities for biomedical and biotechnological applications, as for example they can often prevent protein aggregation more effectively than other therapeutic molecules, including small molecules and antibodies. Here we present a method of designing molecular chaperones with enhanced activity against specific amyloidogenic substrates while leaving unaltered their functions toward other substrates. The method consists of grafting onto a molecular chaperone a peptide designed to bind specifically an epitope in the target substrate. We illustrate this strategy by describing Hsp70 variants with increased affinities for α-synuclein and Aβ42 but otherwise unaltered affinities for other substrates. These designed variants inhibit protein aggregation and disaggregate preformed fibrils significantly more effectively than wild-type Hsp70 indicating that the strategy presented here provides a possible route for tailoring rationally molecular chaperones for specific purposes.

  4. Design of a secondary ionization target for direct production of a C(-) beam from CO2 pulses for online AMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Gary; Ognibene, Ted

    2013-01-01

    We designed and optimized a novel device "target" that directs a CO2 gas pulse onto a Ti surface where a Cs(+) beam generates C(-) from the CO2. This secondary ionization target enables an accelerator mass spectrometer to ionize pulses of CO2 in the negative mode to measure (14)C/(12)C isotopic ratios in real time. The design of the targets were based on computational flow dynamics, ionization mechanism and empirical optimization. As part of the ionization mechanism, the adsorption of CO2 on the Ti surface was fitted with the Jovanovic-Freundlich isotherm model using empirical and simulation data. The inferred adsorption constants were in good agreement with other works. The empirical optimization showed that amount of injected carbon and the flow speed of the helium carrier gas improve the ionization efficiency and the amount of (12)C(-) produced until reaching a saturation point. Linear dynamic range between 150 and 1000 ng of C and optimum carrier gas flow speed of around 0.1 mL/min were shown. It was also shown that the ionization depends on the area of the Ti surface and Cs(+) beam cross-section. A range of ionization efficiency of 1-2.5% was obtained by optimizing the described parameters.

  5. Urokinase-targeted recombinant bacterial protein toxins-a rationally designed and engineered anticancer agent for cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhen LIU; Shi-Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Urokinase-targeted recombinant bacterial protein toxins are a sort of rationally designed and engineered anticancer recombinant fusion proteins representing a novel class of agents for cancer therapy.Bacterial protein toxins have long been known as the primary virulence factor(s) for a variety of pathogenic bacteria and are the most powerful human poisons.On the other hand,it has been well documented that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR),making up the uPA system,are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and tumor cell lines.The expression of uPA system is highly correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis.To exploit these characteristics in the design of tumor cell-selective cytotoxins,two prominent bacterial protein toxins,i.e.,the diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin are deliberately engineered through placing a sequence targeted specifically by the uPA system to form anticancer recombinant fusion proteins.These uPA system-targeted bacterial protein toxins are activated selectively on the surface of uPA systemexpressing tumor cells,thereby killing these cells.This article provides a review on the latest progress in the exploitation of these recombinant fusion proteins as potent tumoricidal agents.It is perceptible that the strategies for cancer therapy are being innovated by this novel therapeutic approach.

  6. AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna

    2011-01-01

    With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...

  7. Design and Characterization of Novel EphA2 Agonists for Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapy to Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bainan; Wang, Si; De, Surya K; Barile, Elisa; Quinn, Bridget A; Zharkikh, Irina; Purves, Angela; Stebbins, John L; Oshima, Robert G; Fisher, Paul B; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2015-07-23

    The development of novel, targeted delivery agents for anti-cancer therapies requires the design and optimization of potent and selective tumor-targeting agents that are stable and amenable to conjugation with chemotherapeutic drugs. While short peptides represent potentially an excellent platform for these purposes, they often get degraded and are eliminated too rapidly in vivo. In this study, we used a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance-guided structure-activity relationships along with biochemical and cellular studies to derive a novel tumor-homing agent, named 123B9, targeting the EphA2 tyrosine kinase receptor ligand-binding domain. Conjugating 123B9 to the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (PTX) via a stable linker results in an agent that is significantly more effective than the unconjugated drug in both a pancreatic cancer xenograft model and a melanoma lung colonization and metastases model. Hence, 123B9 could represent a promising strategy for the development of novel targeted therapies for cancer.

  8. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  9. Crystals’ added value

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    We are becoming used to the many applications that physics transfers to society. They span from vacuum techniques to electronics, and, of course, medicine and biophysics. The EU-supported PICOSEC project, of which CERN is the coordinator, goes beyond the simple spin-off technology and opens the doors of state-of-the-art crystal research to 22 researchers for applications that include calorimetry but also the next generation PET scanners.     Prototypes of crystal matrices developed for medical imaging projects.   The keyword is “multidisciplinary approach”. Developing new detectors for implementation in high-energy physics experiments but also in medical instrumentation requires a very diverse mixture of skills and competencies. Such a mixture does not necessarily come from a specific university faculty but rather from targeted training opportunities that are designed by several stakeholders, each one contributing with its own specificity. The PICOS...

  10. Biological characteristics of dengue virus and potential targets for drug design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-feng Qi; Ling Zhang; Cheng-wu Chi

    2008-01-01

    Dengue infection is a major cause of morbidity in tropical and subtropical regions, bringing nearly 40% of the world population at risk and causing more than 20,000 deaths per year. But there is neither a vaccine for dengue disease nor antiviral drugs to treat the infection. In recent years, dengue infection has been particularly prevalent in India, Southeast Asia, Brazil, and Guangdong Province, China. In this article, we present a brief summary of the biological characteristics of dengue virus and associated flaviviruses, and outline the progress on studies of vaccines and drugs based on potential targets of the dengue virus.

  11. Targeting tuberculosis using structure-guided fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Vitor; Blundell, Tom L

    2016-10-11

    Fragment-based drug discovery is now widely used in academia and industry to obtain small molecule inhibitors for a given target and is established for many fields of research including antimicrobials and oncology. Many molecules derived from fragment-based approaches are already in clinical trials and two - vemurafenib and venetoclax - are on the market, but the approach has been used sparsely in the tuberculosis field. Here, we describe the progress of our group and others, and examine the most recent successes and challenges in developing compounds with antimycobacterial activity.

  12. Design-on-demand or how to create a target-oriented social web-site

    CERN Document Server

    Miszczak, Jarosław Adam

    2010-01-01

    We describe an informal methodology for developing on-line applications, which is, to some extent, complementary to the Web 2.0 aspects of web development. The presented methodology is suitable for developing low-cost and non-cost web sites targeted at medium-sized communities. We present basic building blocks used in the described strategy. To achieve a better understanding of the discussed concepts we comment on their application during the realization of two web projects. We focus on the role of community-driven development, which is crucial for projects of the discussed type.

  13. Topical report on a preconceptual design for the Spallation-Induced Lithium Conversion (SILC) target for the accelerator production of tritium (APT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Cokinos, D.M.; Czajkowski, C.; Franz, E.M.; Kroeger, P.; Todosow, M.; Youngblood, R.; Zucker, M.

    1993-09-30

    The preconceptual design of the APT Li-Al target system, also referred to as the Spallation-Induced Lithium Conversion (SILC), target system, is summarized in this report. The system has been designed to produce a ``3/8 Goal`` quantity of tritium using the 200-mA, 1.0 GeV proton beam emerging from the LANL-designed LINAC. The SILC target system consists of a beam expander, a heavy-water-cooled lead spallation neutron source assembly surrounded by light-water-cooled Li-Al blankets, a target window, heat removal systems, and related safety systems. The preconceptual design of each of these major components is described. Descriptions are also provided for the target fabrication, tritium extraction, and waste-steam processes. Performance characteristics are presented and discussed.

  14. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S Prem

    2015-01-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outw...

  15. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  16. Holography of AdS vacuum bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbon, J.L.F. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    We consider the fate of AdS vacua connected by tunneling events. A precise holographic dual of thin-walled Coleman-de Luccia bounces is proposed in terms of Fubini instantons in an unstable CFT. This proposal is backed by several qualitative and quantitative checks, including the precise calculation of the instanton action appearing in evaluating the decay rate. Big crunches manifest themselves as time dependent processes which reach the boundary of field space in a finite time. The infinite energy difference involved is identified on the boundary and highlights the ill-defined nature of the bulk setup. We propose a qualitative scenario in which the crunch is resolved by stabilizing the CFT, so that all attempts at crunching always end up shielded from the boundary by the formation of black hole horizons. In all these well defined bulk processes the configurations have the same asymptotics and are finite energy excitations.

  17. Challenges of clinical trial design for targeted agents against pediatric leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Jay Mussai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 40 years have seen significant improvements in both event-free and overall survival for children with acute lymphoblastic or acute myeloid leukemia (ALL or AML respectively. Serial national and international clinical trials have optimised the use of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and, along with improvements in supportive care that have enabled the delivery of more intensive regimens, have been responsible for the major improvements in patient outcome seen over the past few decades,. The benefits of dose intensification, however, have likely now been maximised, and over the same period, the identification of new cytotoxic drugs has been limited.As the biology of leukemogenesis has become better understood, key molecules and intracellular pathways have been identified that offer the possibility of targeting directly the leukemia cells whilst sparing normal cells. Consequently, there is now a drive to develop novel leukemia-specific or ‘targeted’ therapies. These new classes of drugs will have mechanisms of action, toxicities and therapeutic indices quite different from conventional cytotoxic drugs previously encountered, thus rendering current clinical trial methodologies inappropriate; clinical trial methods will need to be adapted to accommodate these features of these new classes of drugs. This review will address the challenges and some of the techniques for developing clinical trials for targeted therapies.

  18. Target design for the cylindrical compression of matter driven by heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piriz, A.R. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: roberto.piriz@uclm.es; Temporal, M. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Lopez Cela, J.J. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Grandjouan, N. [LULI, UMR 7605, Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS-CEA-Universite Paris VI, Palaiseau (France); Tahir, N.A. [GSI Darmstadt, Plankstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Serna Moreno, M.C. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Portugues, R.F. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [GSI Darmstadt, Plankstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-05-21

    The compression of a cylindrical sample of hydrogen contained in a hollow shell of Pb or Au has been analyzed in the framework of the experiments to be performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 to be constructed at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt. The target implosion is driven by an intense beam of heavy ions with a ring-shaped focal spot. We report the results of a parametric study of the final state of the compressed hydrogen in terms of the target and beam parameters. We consider the generation of the annular heated region by means of a radio-frequency wobbler that rotates the beam at extremely high frequencies in order to accommodate symmetry constraints. We have also studied the hydrogen conditions that can be achieved with a non-rotating beam with Gaussian focal spot and the possibility to use a beam stopper as an alternative way to avoid the direct heating of the sample. Finally, we report the analysis of the hydrodynamic instabilities that affect the implosion and the mitigating effects of the elastoplastic properties of the shell.

  19. Model-driven robot-software design using template-based target descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Jan F.; Groothuis, Marcel A.; Visser, Peter M.; Bezemer, M.M.; Kubus, D.; Nilsson, K.; Johansson, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about using templates and passing model-specific information between tools via parameterized tokens in the generated, high-level code, to get a better separation of design steps. This allows for better quality of the models and more reuse, thus enhancing the efficiency of model-driven

  20. Analysis of Reverse Phase Protein Array Data: From Experimental Design towards Targeted Biomarker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Astrid; Bernhardt, Stephan; Beissbarth, Tim; Korf, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Mastering the systematic analysis of tumor tissues on a large scale has long been a technical challenge for proteomics. In 2001, reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) were added to the repertoire of existing immunoassays, which, for the first time, allowed a profiling of minute amounts of tumor lysates even after microdissection. A characteristic feature of RPPA is its outstanding sample capacity permitting the analysis of thousands of samples in parallel as a routine task. Until today, the RPPA approach has matured to a robust and highly sensitive high-throughput platform, which is ideally suited for biomarker discovery. Concomitant with technical advancements, new bioinformatic tools were developed for data normalization and data analysis as outlined in detail in this review. Furthermore, biomarker signatures obtained by different RPPA screens were compared with another or with that obtained by other proteomic formats, if possible. Options for overcoming the downside of RPPA, which is the need to steadily validate new antibody batches, will be discussed. Finally, a debate on using RPPA to advance personalized medicine will conclude this article. PMID:27600238