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Sample records for adrenal gland neoplasms

  1. Adrenal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, G.; Dhliwayo, H.; Lomas, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenoma, myelolipoma, phaeochromocytoma, metastases, adrenocortical carcinoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma account for the majority of adrenal neoplasms that are encountered in clinical practice. A variety of imaging methods are available for evaluating adrenal lesions including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine techniques such as meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy and positron-emission tomography (PET). Lipid-sensitive imaging techniques such as unenhanced CT and chemical shift MRI enable detection and characterization of lipid-rich adenomas based on an unenhanced CT attenuation of ≤10 HU and signal loss on opposed-phase compared to in-phase T1-weighted images, respectively. In indeterminate cases, an adrenal CT washout study may differentiate adenomas (both lipid-rich and lipid-poor) from other adrenal neoplasms based on an absolute percentage washout of >60% and/or a relative percentage washout of >40%. This is based on the principle that adenomas show rapid contrast washout while most other adrenal neoplasms including malignant tumours show slow contrast washout instead. 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–PET ( 18 FDG-PET) imaging may differentiate benign from malignant adrenal neoplasms by demonstrating high tracer uptake in malignant neoplasms based on the increased glucose utilization and metabolic activity found in most of these malignancies. In this review, the multi-modality imaging appearances of adrenal neoplasms are discussed and illustrated. Key imaging findings that facilitate lesion characterization and differentiation are emphasized. Awareness of these imaging findings is essential for improving diagnostic confidence and for reducing misinterpretation errors.

  2. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2013-01-01

    . An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  3. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...

  4. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

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    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  5. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  6. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors ...

  7. Chapter 13. Adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, H.; Paulin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of isotopic methods to the functional and morphological exploration of the adrenal glands is shown, with emphasis on the fact that althought the cortico-adrenal responds to these methods the same does not apply to the medullo-adrenal, which expresses its morphological changes by producing deformations on the cortical image. Funtional tests, mainly directed at the cortico-adrenal, are described first: study of exchangeable sodium and potassium; determination of the plasma concentration and metabolic clearance of some steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone); evaluation of the renin activity. These tests are based on competitive analysis and radioimmunological methods. Morphological tests are examined next. Adrenal scintigraphy uses a simple technique (intraveinous administration of 131 I 19-iodocholesterol with no special preliminary preparation) which gives good images and is only limited now by the need to avoid over exposure of the gonads to ionising radiations [fr

  8. Radiologic evaluation of adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.; Bruel, J.M.; Taourel, P.; Garnier, T.; Cyteval, C.; Lamarque, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    When a diagnosis of adrenal disorder is suspected on the basis of clinical manifestations and/or laboratory findings, computed tomography (CT) is generally accepted as the imaging procedure of choice for visualization of adrenal areas and localization of lesions. Sonography keeps an important role in discovering adrenal masses during investigation for other suspected abnormality (incidentaloma). 131 I MIBG scintigraphy provides an efficious mean of pheochromocytoma localization and functional characterization. These non invasive procedures have greatly reduced the need for arteriography and venography; adrenal venous sampling is still an useful method for localizing either a tumor or hyperplasia related to primary aldosteronism. MR imaging and CT are nearly equivalent in the detection of adrenal masses: besides MR imaging has a potential for characterization of adrenal masses which might be useful, especially in distinguishing adrenal adenomas from malignant neoplasms, obviating, in some cases, the need of CT guided adrenal biopsy [fr

  9. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  10. Blood sampling from adrenal gland vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yong; Ni Caifang

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal gland vein sampling is an interventional method to get the blood samples from the adrenal gland vein. The blood is obtained via a catheter which is selectively inserted in the adrenal gland vein. This technique is mainly used to be diagnostic for primary hyperaldosteronism. A full knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the adrenal gland vein, serious preoperative preparation and skilled catheterization manipulation are necessary for obtaining sufficient blood sample and for reducing the occurrence of complications. Providing the physicians with definite diagnostic evidence and being technically feasible, adrenal gland vein sampling should become one of the routine examinations for clarifying the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. (authors)

  11. Radiological diagnosis of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, V.

    2005-01-01

    The adrenal gland is a common site of disease involving hormonal dysfunction as well as benign and malignant masses. Radiology, especially computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR), plays a critical role in detecting and characterizing diseases affecting the adrenal gland. This paper contains a summary of the most important diseases of the adrenal gland and presents criteria for differentiating between benign and malignant masses as well as an algorithm for the diagnostic steps in incidentaloma. (orig.)

  12. Schwannoma of the adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anunayi Jeshtadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral schwannomas are extremely rare and are usually discov-ered incidentally on USG/CT-Scan. Primary schwannomas of the adrenal gland are extremely uncommon. It has been theorized that they originate from Schwann cells that insulate the nerve fi-bers innervating the adrenal medulla. Histopathological examina-tion coupled with immunohistochemistry provides the definitive diagnosis. A 55 year old normotensive female presented with pain in the right loin since 5 months. Her renal parameters were normal. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen showed a well delineated 6.5 x 5cms mass at upper pole of her right kidney. 24-hour urinary metanephrine was slightly elevated (3.07mg/24hrs. A decline in Serum cortisol levels was observed following a dexamethasone suppression test (18.89nmol/l. Histopathological examination revealed a spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed strong and diffuse positive staining for S-100 with negative expression for CD-117, desmin, CD-34, HMB-45, synaptophysin, chromogranin, cytokeratin, and SMA. Ki-67 index was 2%.A diagnosis of cellular schwannoma of adrenal gland was confirmed.

  13. The kidney, adrenal gland, and retroperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demas, B.; Thurnher, S.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    Although its unparalleled tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar imaging capability, and the fact that it does not require exogeneous contrast agents, allow very detailed anatomic delineation of retroperitoneal anatomy in a safe and completely noninvasive fashion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot at this time be used a screening procedure for evaluation of the adrenal glands and kidneys. At present, MRI remains time-consuming and expensive when compared with conventional X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), sonography, and quantitative scintigraphy. It is recommended, rather, that MRI can be reserved for situations in which its particular advantages can be expected to resolve questions raised by other imaging modalities. For example, MRI can be used t characterize an adrenal mass detected by CT, to evaluate extension of renal or adrenal neoplasms into adjacent organs when CT findings are equivocal, to assess vascular patency when intravenous contrast material is contraindicated or CT findings are equivocal, and to evaluate the cause of renal allograft failure when findings with other radiologic modalities are inconclusive and biopsy is medically contraindicated. Evaluation of the cause of ureteral obstruction and detection of calculi or lesional calcification are more reliably achieved with CT

  14. Differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolar, D.H.M.; Unger, B.; Preidler, K.; Ranner, G.; Heinz-Peer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are first line modalities in the evaluation of patients with adrenal gland masses, and have the potential to be very accurate for the localization of adrenal gland masses in patients with diseases associated with hyperfunctioning conditions of the adrenal gland. Both CT and MR imaging allow a specific diagnosis of acute adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal myelolipoma, and adrenal cysts. CT is also helpful in the assessment of patients with Addision's disease, particularly the subacute from secondary to granulomatous diseases. Quantitative evaluation of adrenal masses on unenhanced CT scans and/or qualitative analysis on chemical-shift MR imaging have been shown to be accurate in distinguishing adrenal adenomas from non-adenomas. Attenuation of 11 HE or less on unenhanced CT scans and/or signal loss on opposed phase MR images indicate adenoma with a high specificity and acceptable sensitivity. More recently, delayed-enhanced CT has yielded higher sensitivity and specificity values in distinguishing between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas than both unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MR imaging do. On delayed-enhanced CT scans, adrenal adenomas exhibit a greater washout of contrast material than do adrenal non-adenomas. Therefore, adrenal non-adenomas have significantly higher attenuation than adenomas on delayed-enhanced CT scans obtained at several arbitrarily chosen time points (3-60 min) after the initiation of contrast material administration. (orig.) [de

  15. CT and MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal glands: MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.T.

    1987-01-01

    The normal anatomy of the kidney is clearly demonstrated with MR imaging. The renal cortex can be differentiated from the renal medulla; renal vessels can also be identified. MR imaging can differentiate cystic from solid lesions. The signal intensity of a renal cell carcinoma varies and overlaps with the signal intensities of renal neoplasms of other etiologies. MR imaging is superior to CT in distinguishing vascular from nonvascular structures. It can distinguish collateral vessels from lymph nodes and can disclose tumoral thrombi. MR imaging can also aid in the differentiation of acute rejection from acute tubular necrosis in renal transplant recipients. Both normal and abnormal adrenal glands can be seen on MR imaging. A normal adrenal gland has a signal intensity higher than or equal to that of muscle but lower than that of fat. T1-weighted images offer excellent antomic resolution; T2-weighted images provide additional information about internal characteristics of adrenal neoplasms. Preliminary data indicate that MR imaging is useful in distinguishing nonfunctioning adenomas from adrenal metastases. The role of MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal gland is discussed

  16. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Sheikh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  17. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.; Reiser, U.; Heuck, F.

    1982-01-01

    Whole body CT opens a third dimension - in addition with the advantage of being a non-invasive method with relatively negligible risk. Both, the normal CT findings of the adrenal gland and the normal variants in shape and position are described. With help of morphometry and image processing measurements of the size of the adrenal gland of 20 healthy patients were made and are listed; not only the respective normal variants but also hypo-hyperplasia are pointed out. Some examples are suitable for the illustration of pathologic conditions, such as inflammation and benign and malignant primary and secondary neoplasis. Finally, the value of adrenal gland CT is discussed with reference to the other radiologic methods. (orig.)

  18. Adrenal Oncocytic Neoplasm with Paradoxical Loss of Important Mitochondrial Steroidogenic Protein: The 18 kDA Translocator Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruiz-Cordero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal glands produce a variety of hormones that play a key role in the regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte homeostasis, metabolism, immune system suppression, and the body’s physiologic response to stress. Adrenal neoplasms can be asymptomatic or can overproduce certain hormones that lead to different clinical manifestations. Oncocytic adrenal neoplasms are infrequent tumors that arise from cells in the adrenal cortex and display a characteristic increase in the number of cytoplasmic mitochondria. Since the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis includes the transport of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membranes, in part carried out by the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO, we assessed the expression of TSPO in a case of adrenal oncocytic neoplasm using residual adrenal gland of the patient as internal control. We observed a significant loss of TSPO immunofluorescence expression in the adrenal oncocytic tumor cells when compared to adjacent normal adrenal tissue. We further confirmed this finding by employing Western blot analysis to semiquantify TSPO expression in tumor and normal adrenal cells. Our findings could suggest a potential role of TSPO in the tumorigenesis of this case of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm.

  19. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until the adrenal glands start functioning normally again. Addison's Disease This rare disorder develops when the adrenal glands ... not make enough cortisol. In most cases of Addison's disease, the body also doesn't make enough of ...

  20. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  1. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  2. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands in Addision's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzymski, K.; Sobieszczyk, S.; Kosowicz, J.; Akademia Medyczna, Poznan

    1984-01-01

    In 30 cases of chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) CT of the adrenal glands was performed using a fourth generation scanner and a 2 mm slice thickness. Adrenal glands were visualized in all the cases. In 26 patients the adrenals were atrophied; the adrenal shape was abnormal in 21 patients. In 15 patients CT disclosed calcifications in one or both glands, which were particularly frequent in patients over the age of 50. Atrophy of adrenal glands was of high occurrence in cases of autoimmune origin. (orig.) [de

  3. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.

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    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Ranjan, Kumar Rajiv; Chakrabortty, Debasis; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) typically occurs in long or flat bones, the chest wall, extra-skeletal soft tissue, and rarely in solid organs. Incidence of adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare. Here we report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the right adrenal gland in an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abdominal mass. The huge tumor was managed by preoperative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. She died due to metastasis after five months of surgery.

  4. Adrenal Castleman's disease mimicking other adrenal neoplasms: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Baek; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Han, Ga Jin; Ha, Hong Koo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ahn, Sang Jeong; Lee, Chang Hun [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    We present a rare case of adrenal Castleman's disease with hyaline vascular type mimicking other adrenal neoplasms in a 65-year-old woman. Although rare, the hyaline vascular type of adrenal Castleman's disease should be included in the differential diagnosis if an adrenal mass shows a well-defined, highly enhancing solid adrenal mass with peripheral rim enhancement, multiple satellite lymph nodes, and peritoneal thickening around the dominant mass on computed tomography as shown in this patient.

  5. The evaluation of computed tomography of the normal adrenal glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Yon; Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Cho Hye; Choi, Kyung Hee; Rhee, Chung Sik [Ewha Womens University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    Radiology plays an important role in evaluating patients with suspected adrenal gland pathology. Morphologic delineation of adrenal gland is especially valuable in patients with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of a disturbance in adrenal function. Many diagnostic radiologic methods are available for demonstrating adrenal lesions. Computed tomography overcomes many of the disadvantages of these other radiologic techniques. The high degree of spatial and density resolution allows precise demonstration of the normal adrenal glands as well as detection of both small and large tumors in almost all patients. So CT of adrenal gland is an excellent noninvasive screening method and definitive imaging technique. The anthers have investigated the capability of CT to image the normal size, location and shape of both glands. Knowledge of the range of normal is useful for optimal interpretation of CT scans in patients with suspected adrenal pathology. We reviewed CT scan of 150 cases without evidence of adrenal disease. The following results were obtained; 1. There were 90 male and 60 female patients. 2. Their ages ranged from 20 to 60 years. 3. On CT, both glands were shown in 135 (90.0%), the right in 143 (95.3%), the left in 142 (94.6%). 4. In the shape of adrenal glands, most of right adrenal gland was linear or comet shaped; 68 (47.6%), most of left adrenal gland was inverted-Y shaped; 103 (72.6%). 5. In the length of adrenal glands, the right was 2.5{+-}0.77cm, the left was 2.9{+-}0.75cm. 6. In the width of adrenal glands, the right was 3.2{+-}0.74cm, the left was 2.7{+-}0.57cm. 7. In the thickness of adrenal glands, the right was 0.5{+-}0.14cm, the left was 0.6{+-}0.16cm.

  6. Morphometric study of the avian adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aire, T A

    1980-01-01

    The interrenal and medullary cords as well as the blood vessels and connective tissue proportions in the adrenal glands of the male Nigerian fowl (Gallus domesticus) and guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris) were studied by microstereological techniques. Laying domestic fowl of the Rhode Island Red breed were entirely defeathered and maintained in a hot, humid pen for a period of three months, after which the adrenal glands were also studied microstereologically. Interrenal cord width was also measured in all the birds studied. The interrenal cords of the subscapular zone were consistently wider than those cords in the inner zone of the adrenal glands. This clearly suggested morphological zoning. The proportion of interrenal tissue was significantly greater in the guinea-fowl than in the Nigerian fowl, but the medullary tissue and the blood vessels and connective tissue were not significantly different. Interrenal hypoplasia or medullary hyperplasia occurred in the defeathered Rhode Island Red fowl as compared to the control birds of the same breed and sex. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:7440402

  7. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  9. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... were found. Two out of three studies found a statistically significant increase in adrenal volume in patients compared to controls. Four out of eight studies found a statistically significant increase in pituitary volume in patients compared to controls. Different methodological problems were...

  10. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders.

  11. Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland in young woman: from clinical and radiological to pathological study

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    Brankica Krstevska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid tumors are neoplasms of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male and female genital tracts. Extragenital localization sites such as adrenal glands are rare but have been reported. When found in the adrenals, they represent great clinical, radiological and pathological diagnostic challenge, with wide range of differential diagnoses to be considered. We present a case of a 30 years old female, with incidental ultrasound finding of unilateral tumor in the right adrenal gland. Multi slices CT scan was of value in localizing this tumor, but not in the precise diagnosis. The tumor ranged from 5.6 cm to 6.4 cm in greatest diameter. Clinical and hormonal examinations excluded Sy. Cushing, M. Conn and pheochromocytoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. A large tumor (d: 8×7×3 cm was removed showing no infiltration of the adrenal cortex or medulla, or extra-adrenal extension into the periadrenal adipose tissue. Histological examination showed numerous cystic spaces lined by flattened cubical epithelial cells. The small cystic spaces were separated by edematous fibrovascular stroma with rare epithelial cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining was positive with vimentin (+, S100 (+, MCA mesothelial Ag (+, CD 68 (+ and negative with acitin (-, CK7 (-, CD3 (-. Adenomatoid tumor is a rare benign neoplasm that should be added in the differential diagnosis of any adrenal tumor occurring in adrenal gland. The histological and immunohistochemical profiles of this adrenal adenomatoid tumor are very supportive in reaching the diagnosis of this benign tumor of a mesothelial cell origin, helping to avoid invasive treatment.

  12. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

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    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  13. Percutaneous needle-biopsy of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernecke, K.; Galanski, M.

    1986-01-01

    This account of techniques, range of indications and results of percutaneous adrenal biopsy refers to communications in the literature and to the authors' own experience. Lateral, transhepatic aspiration of adrenal material guided by sonographic control is more easy in the right adrenal gland. Punctation of the left adrenal gland ought to be done from the back and guided by computerized tomography, also in order to leave spleen, kidney, pancreas and stomach as unaffected as possible. The most frequent problem indicating adrenal biopsy still is differentiation between metastases or encretorily non-active adenomas in tumor patients. Experienced examiners will achieve an 80 to 90% sensitivity of adrenal biopsy. Clinically established, suspected phaeochromocytoma is an absolute contra-indication to fine-needle biopsy. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Sonmez, G.; Basekim, C.C.; Kantarci, M.; Gueven, F.; Doganay, S.; Bozkurt, M.

    2009-01-01

    The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series. With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons. Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts. Once a diagnostic dilemma, now adenomas can be accurately diagnosed using unenhanced CT, chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging and CT contrast washout analysis. Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases. In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features. It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions. The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer. Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques. Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion. The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases. (author) [de

  15. Fetal adrenal gland enlargement - prenatal and postnatal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackova, Eliska; Cunderlik, Anton; Ticha, Lubica; Gabor, Maria

    2017-11-01

    The enlargement of suprarenal gland is related to preterm birth and the birth weight. The ultrasound measurement of fetal adrenal gland volume may identify women at risk for impending preterm birth. The aim of our study was to investigate the newborns in the region of western Slovakia followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. To set the ratio of prenatally diagnosed suprarenal gland enlargment, postnatal managment and treatment and interventions. The newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were excluded. We have analyzed 6 years of medical records of all cases from the western Slovakia region of suprarenal gland enlargement encountered to 1st Pediatric Department, Children's University Hospital Bratislava Republic in the time period of January 2010 to Janurary 2016. The diagnosis of suprarenal gland enlargement was set by ultrasound examination performed on the 4th postnatal day as an overall screening test. Newborns with positive laboratory screening on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were excluded from our study. We analyzed the origin of surarenal gland enlargement, gestation week on the due date, the birth weight and other comorbidities and genetic pathologies in newborns with the enlarged suprarenal glands. There were 6 newborns followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. All of the patients had diagnosed the adrenal haemorrhage. Adrenal lesions like adrenal cysts or neuroblastomas were not confirmed. All of the adrenal enlargements were benign with no need of other medical or surgical intervention. None of the newborn patients had other genetic abnormalities, mineral or hormonal imbalances, problems with arterial pressure or haemodynamic instability. All of the patients underwent at least 5 prenatal ultrasound tests and at least 2 postnatal ultrasound measurements. The avarage birth weight was 3030 grams (2700 grams - to 3750 grams). The avarage birth lenght was 50 cm (47 centimeter to 53 cm).The average gestation week (gw) on due date

  16. Failure to visualize adrenal glands in a patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, L.; Mayfield, R.K.; Levine, J.H.; Lopes-Virella, M.F.; Sagel, J.; Buse, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's disease and severe hyperlipidemia underwent an adrenal imaging procedure with NP-59 (6β-[ 131 I]iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol), without visualization of either gland. Correction of the hyperlipidemia followed by repeated adrenal imaging resulted in bilateral visualization. A pituitary tumor was removed at surgery, confirming the diagnosis of Cushing's disease

  17. Normalization of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Enlargement after Treatment for Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Muraoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients and can cause enlargement of the adrenal glands, although the morphologic changes after treatment have not been reported in detail. We report the case of 24-year-old man with fevers, headaches, and impaired consciousness who had been treated with glucocorticoids for a protein-losing gastroenteropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed cryptococcal meningitis. Computed tomography showed bilateral adrenal enlargement. A retrospective analysis revealed that the enlargement had been detected 5 months before admission and gradually increased. The enlargement was improved with antifungal therapy and normalized 6 months later. This is the first report describing morphological changes in the adrenal glands associated with cryptococcal meningitis. Adrenal enlargement by cryptococcosis can be improved without any abnormal findings, including calcifications, which may be a unique characteristic from other diseases, including tuberculosis.

  18. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal gland physiology and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, T V; Jackson, D; Campbell, D C; Clark, A J L; Chan, L F

    2013-04-01

    The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of five G-protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles. MC1R controls pigmentation, MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, MC3R and MC4R have a vital role in energy homeostasis and MC5R is involved in exocrine function. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and its paralogue MRAP2 are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that have been shown to regulate MCR expression and function. In the adrenal gland, MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency, where inactivating MRAP mutations account for ∼20% of cases. MRAP is highly expressed in both the zona fasciculata and the undifferentiated zone. Expression in the undifferentiated zone suggests that MRAP could also be important in adrenal cell differentiation and/or maintenance. In contrast, the role of adrenal MRAP2, which is highly expressed in the foetal gland, is unclear. The expression of MRAPs outside the adrenal gland is suggestive of a wider physiological purpose, beyond MC2R-mediated adrenal steroidogenesis. In vitro, MRAPs have been shown to reduce surface expression and signalling of all the other MCRs (MC1,3,4,5R). MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, a site that also expresses a high level of MC3R and MC4R. This raises the intriguing possibility of a CNS role for the MRAPs.

  19. Rare adrenal gland incidentaloma: an unusual Ewing's sarcoma family of tumor presentation and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Chen, Shuaiqi; Liu, Shukun; Wang, Kaixuan; Liu, Erpeng; Li, Faping; Hou, Yuchuan

    2017-04-04

    Members of the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumor (ESFT) are malignant neoplasms and rarely observed in the adrenal gland. We report an extremely exceptional case of ESFT rising from the adrenal gland in a 57-year-old Chinese man. The patient was hospitalized with abdominal swelling for 2 months. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a nearly-circular mass measuring about 8.1 × 10.6 cm in the right adrenal region. The patient underwent right adrenal resection. Histopathologic examination found the tumor was composed of small round blue cells forming typical Homer-Wright rosettes in focal area. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the case to be ESFT, which was positive for membranous CD99 and nuclear FLI-1. The patient was scheduled for four courses of large doses of chemotherapy and died for cancer metastasis one year later after surgery. Histopathological evidence of Homer-Wright rosettes and immunohistochemical markers positivity, such as CD99 and FLI-1, are valuable factors for ESFT diagnosis, although cytogenetic analysis is considered as the gold standard. Complete surgery is the treatment of choice for ESFT and adjuvant radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy can significantly improve the survival rate of postoperative patients.

  20. Computerized axil tomographic scanning in tumors of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertotti, C.; Figueiredo, M.A.; Clemente Filho, A.S.; Secaf, F.

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography was used for diagnosing primary or recurrent adrenal gland tumors, being positive in all nine cases and later confirmed at surgery. The tumors are adenocarcinoma (6 cases); pheochromocytoma (2); aldostenoma (1) an cyst(u). Comparison of selective arteriography, ultrasonography, scintigraphy and computed tomography has shown the later to be most accurate. (Author) [pt

  1. Genitourinary MR: Kidneys and adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Due to its high tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging capabilites, MRI provides a detailed display of renal and adrenal anatomy. Recent technical developments overcoming the problem of respiration induced motion artifacts and the use of paramagnetic contrast agents have further improved the performance of MRI which has now evolved as an alternative or complementary imaging modality to ultrasound, excretory urography and computed tomography. Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies will usually allow to detect even small enhancing solid areas within the cyst wall. Use of a fast (turbo) spoiled gradient echo sequence allows for assessment of contrast enhancement dynamics in renal and adrenal masses. For tumor staging, the multiplanar imaging capabilities of MRI are advantageous. Perinephric extent is best detected using opposed-phase GRE images resulting in an artifical accentuation of renal contours. Extension into venous structures is best diagnosed by using a GRE sequence allowing for distinction between flowing blood and tumor thrombus. Noninvasive differentiation of adrenal lesions can be performed with an unprecedented accuracy using chemical-shift imaging. (orig.)

  2. Ewing?s Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Ranjan, Kumar Rajiv; Chakrabortty, Debasis; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) or primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) typically occurs in long or flat bones, the chest wall, extra-skeletal soft tissue, and rarely in solid organs. Incidence of adrenal Ewing’s sarcoma is very rare. Here we report a case of Ewing’s sarcoma of the right adrenal gland in an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abdominal mass. The huge tumor was managed by preoperative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. She died due to metastasis after five mon...

  3. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  4. Neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antova, R.; Valcheva, V.; Genova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Paraganglioma is neuroendocrine neoplasm derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. They produce large amounts of catecholamine, usually noradrenaline and adrenaline. In 10% of cases are malignant, the criterion for which is not local tumor invasion, and the presence of distant metastases. What you will learn: We present a case of 17 years old boy with headache in the occipital region. Measured blood pressure is 200/100. Patient was consulted by children cardiologist and Holter examination was conducted and a high arterial hypertension (AH) with maximum values to 217/120 mmHg, was recognized with a pattern corresponding to secondary hypertension. An antihypertensive therapy with two drugs has started. Laboratory indicators showed enhanced levels of catecholamines in the urine, enhanced serum levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, renin, adosteron. Doppler ultrasound of the renal arteries showed evidence of stenosis of the left renal artery. Discussion: The performed CT abdomen with contrast enhancement demonstrated retroperitoneal heterogeneous, well- vascularized with lobular surface tumor formation, located between the left renal artery, as the latter ones are in varying degrees stenosed. It was considered that this was a paraganglioma. The diagnosis was confirmed postoperatively. Conclusion: CT is a diagnostic non-invasive imaging method serving for preoperative evaluation of tumors of the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia

  5. Adipose tissue and adrenal glands: novel pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Atil Y; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or "adipokines" have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of "cross talk" between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  6. Computerized tomography of adrenal glands in the investigation of Cushing's syn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abucham Filho, J.; Albertotti, C.; Kater, C.E.; Vieira, J.G.H.; Chacra, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Computerized tomography of the adrenal glands was performed in 10 patients with Cushing's syndrome using a G.E. 8800 CT/T Body Scanner. The tomographic findings of unilateral adrenal masses in 4 patients were confirmed by surgery. In the remaining 6 patients, computerized tomography did not identify any masses, and both glands were well visualized and showed normal shape. In these patients, measurement of the adrenal glands revealed both normal (n=1) and enlarged glands (n=5). The findings of adrenalectomy (n=4) or transphenoidal surgery and follow-up (n=2) established the diagnosis of adrenal phyperplasia in all patients. (Author) [pt

  7. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of [ 3 H]captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril labeling of ACE. [ 3 H]Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. [ 3 H]Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, [ 3 H]captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor [ 3 H]GEMSA

  8. Release of galanin from isolated perfused porcine adrenal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Messell, T

    1991-01-01

    We found a high concentration of galanin in extracts of porcine adrenal glands (114 pmol/g). By immunohistochemistry, galanin was localized to groups of medullary cells previously shown to produce norepinephrine. To study mechanisms for the release of galanin, we developed the following in vitro...... model: isolated perfused porcine adrenals with intact splanchnic nerve supply. When the nerves were electrically stimulated, epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion increased 276- and 291-fold, respectively, and galanin release increased up to 1,300-fold. Acetylcholine at 10(-6) M stimulated galanin...... release, and hexamethonium almost abolished the response to nerve stimulation. Galanin infusions had no effect on epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion in concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M, but increased both cortisol and aldosterone secretion (P less than 0.05). Splanchnic nerve stimulation...

  9. X-ray diagnostics of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliadis, G.

    1980-01-01

    Basic knowledge is presented which may be of use to the radiologist, i.e. anatomy, pathological anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of the adrenal glands. Radiographic methods of examination are described and judged. Conventional X-ray techniques, although less efficient, are still important for preliminary examinations. Scintiscanning is of interest especially in cortical adenomas. CT and ultrasonic techniques are recommended for screening prior to angiography. Angiographic methods are discussed under technical aspects and with a view to their success. Possible complications of all techniques are mentioned. The specific diagnostic value of sclerotic processes is analyzed. The most common adrenal diseases involving hormonal activity are discussed in detail, and the radiological detection of the primary processes on the basis of knowledge and experience is mentioned. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Anatomy, histology, and ultrasonography of the normal adrenal gland in brown lemur: Eulemur fulvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Bourges Abella, Nathalie; Sautet, Jean; Deviers, Alexandra; Mogicato, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The medical care currently to brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) is limited by a lack of knowledge of their anatomy. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and histology and obtain ultrasonographic measurements of normal adrenal glands in these animals. The adrenal glands of four lemurs cadavers were used for the anatomical and histological studies, and those of 15 anesthetized lemurs were examined by ultrasonography. Anatomically, the adrenal glands of brown lemurs are comparable to those of other species. The histological findings showed that the cortex is organized into three distinct layers, whereas most domestic mammals have an additional zone. The surface area of the adrenal glands increased with body weight, and the area of the right adrenal was slightly larger than the left. We suggest using ultrasonography to aid the etiological diagnosis of behavioral abnormalities that might be due to dysfunctions of the adrenal gland. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Detailed examination of the adrenal glands by angiography and radioimmunologic measurement of hormones in adrenal venous blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugrinov, O.G.; Slavnov, V.N.; Komissarenko, I.V.; Olejnik, V.A.; Benikova, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 222 patients the adrenal glands were examined in detail by arteriography and venography, and if indicated also the ovaries, kidneys, bladder and other organs were checked up. Blood samples were taken from the adrenal glands, renal veins and the vena cava inferior in the bifurcational and subdiaphragmatic region. According to the clinical requirements cortisol, corticotropine, aldosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and renine activity were determined. Comprehensive angiographic and radioimmunologic studies revealed in 54 patients tumors of the adrenal cortex. Tumors of the adrenal medulla were detected in 43 of the cases. In 103 cases a morbus Icenko-Cushing was found. The basic examination of the diagnostic schedule was selective adrenal venography. Adrenal arteriography and measurement of venous hormone levels were complementary investigations and were rarely used as independent methods. (author)

  12. Primary Bilateral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Adrenal Gland: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Amine Bouchikhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary bilateral non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL of the adrenal gland is a very rare entity. Indeed less than 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Hence, we report a case of high-grade lymphoma of both adrenal glands that was found in a young patient of 32 years of age. The patient was admitted in the emergency department of our hospital with a profile of hemorrhagic shock. After stabilization, the imaging investigations demonstrated large bilateral adrenal masses. The CT-scan guided biopsy of both adrenal glands allowed the diagnosis of primary bilateral adrenal NHL. The patient died after the first chemotherapy session. The presence of bilateral adrenal masses associated with a rapid increase of volume should raise the diagnosis of primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  13. The effect of recumbency position on the ultrasound measurement of the canine adrenal gland in non-adrenal gland illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose AM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Marie Rose,1 Thurid Johnstone,1,2 Sue Finch,3 Cathy Beck1 1U-Vet Animal Hospital Werribee, The University of Melbourne, 2TRACTS Translational Research and Clinical Trial Study Group, The University of Melbourne, 3Statistical Consulting Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Abdominal ultrasound is frequently used to assess the canine adrenal gland (AG and subjective and objective features of normal AGs have been described. The effect of the dogs’ recumbency position on the accuracy of AG measurement acquisition is not known. This prospective study, performed in dogs with non-adrenal illness, compared ultrasonographic AG measurements made in dogs placed in dorsal recumbency with those made in left or right lateral recumbency. AG length, height and width measurements made in the longitudinal image plane, and height and width measurements from the transverse image plane were assessed. The level and limits of agreement between the dorsal and lateral recumbency for each of the measurements were determined using the Bland–Altman analysis. The measurement with the best agreement between the dorsal and lateral recumbency was the caudal pole thickness (CPT from the longitudinal image plane. Agreement between lateral and dorsal recumbency was poorer for the measurements derived from the transverse image plane and poorest for measurements of AG length in the longitudinal plane. This study demonstrates that there is some difference in the measurements acquired in dorsal compared with lateral recumbency; however, the difference is small for the CPT from the longitudinal plane. This finding suggests that the CPT from the longitudinal image plane is the most reliable measurement in terms of agreement between dorsal and lateral recumbency in dogs with non-AG illness. Keywords: adrenal glands, ultrasonography, normal, dog, recumbency

  14. Adipose Tissue and Adrenal Glands: Novel Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kargi, Atil Y.; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unkn...

  15. Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tolga Gulpinar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare tumor. We report a case with adrenal leiomyosarcoma. Our case was a 48-year-old man who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed approximately 9 cm solid mass originating from right adrenal gland. He underwent right adrenalectomy. Pathology of the specimen showed histologic and immunohistochemical features of adrenal leiomyosarcoma.

  16. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Department of Abdominal Imaging, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care and Anesthesiology: DAR B, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-10-15

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 cm{sup 3} in control subjects and 13.3 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 3} for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  17. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B.; Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S.

    2010-01-01

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 ± 2.0 cm 3 in control subjects and 13.3 ± 4.7 cm 3 for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  18. Computed tomography morphology of the adrenal glands of patients with Addison's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammini, A.C.; Gupta, R.; Mukopadhyay, C.; Shah, P.; Sandhu, M.S.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Berry, M.

    1996-01-01

    To study the morphology of the adrenal glands of patients with Addison's disease an ultrasound and a computed tomographic scan of the adrenal glands were performed in 28 patients. Thirteen patients had bilateral, asymmetric adrenal enlargement. In six of these patients, areas of necrosis and calcification were also seen. Six patients had atrophic glands with calcification and nine patients had normal/atrophic glands without calcification. After instituting appropriate treatment, computed tomography (CT) was repeated between 6 months and 3 years later in 10 of the 13 patients with adrenal enlargement. A reduction in gland size was noted in all patients and one had functional recovery. It is concluded that the appearance of the adrenal glands on CT depends not only on the nature of the underlying disease but also on the duration of the illness and the type of treatment. The results highlighted the importance of studying adrenal morphology during the initial evaluation of patients with adrenal insufficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  19. A pilot study to assess the feasibility of measurement of adrenal gland volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Lee A.; Dixon, Adrian K. (Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge Univ. Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom)), e-mail: leegrant100@gmail.com; Napolitano, Antonella; McHugh, Simon M. (GlaxoSmithKline RandD, Clinical Unit Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Centre for Clinical Investigation, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Miller, Sam (Analysis Applications Research Group, GSK RandD, Harlow, Essex (United Kingdom)); Stephens, Kimberley (Discovery Statistics, GSK RandD, Harlow, Essex (United Kingdom))

    2010-01-15

    Background: Repeated computed tomography (CT) assessment of the adrenal glands is associated with a significant radiation burden. The increasing capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) volumetric analysis of the adrenals make this a potentially alternative technique in man. Purpose: To determine whether MR imaging could be used to measure adrenal volume, and to determine the intra- and interobserver variation and repeatability of MR volume imaging of adrenals in healthy human subjects. Material and Methods: This was a single-cohort, sequential design, three-part study involving four MRI examinations per subject following ethical approval and informed consent. Information was collected on four healthy subjects (three male and one female). Two different investigators estimated the area of the adrenal gland for each of the 3-mm contiguous slices (and consequently adrenal volume). In order to estimate inter- and intrareader variability, a repeated-measures mixed model was fitted with adrenal volume as the dependent variable. In order to estimate any bias between readers, Bland-Altman methodology was applied. Results: Intraobserver variation for adrenal gland volume is approximately 5% of a 3-cm3 adrenal gland. Interobserver variation is approximately 9% of a 3-cm3 adrenal gland. Potential variation in measurement for adrenal volume from all sources equates to approximately 14% of a 3-cm3 adrenal gland. Verification of image reading by a second investigator (consensus reading) reduces variability. Conclusion: Analysis of adrenal gland volume using MRI is a potentially reliable technique that could be used to assess a pathological change in adrenal size

  20. Butterfly adrenal gland with maldevelopment of the mesonephric duct: A rare association in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hursoy, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal gland disorders can be asymptomatic and detected incidentally via imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Fusion anomaly is a condition that can be attributed to errors in the developmental process and may be detected via these imaging modalities. We present a case of butterfly adrenal gland in a 61-year-old man with CT and magnetic resonance images. In our patient, this anomaly is also accompanied by unilateral renal agenesis and a diaphragmatic defect. Positron emission tomography-CT, contrast-enhanced CT, and magnetic resonance images are presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case in which coexistence of unilateral renal agenesis and butterfly adrenal gland anomaly in an adult patient has been documented. Keywords: Butterfly adrenal gland, Unilateral renal agenesis

  1. Ultrasonographic detection of adrenal gland tumor and ureterolithiasis in a guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschen, L.; Ketz, C.; Lang, J.; Weber, U.; Bacciarini, L.; Kohler, I.

    1998-01-01

    A 5-year-old guinea pig was presented to the University of Berne Small Animal Radiology Department for an ultrasound examination of the abdomen to confirm a suspected diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. The patient had bilateral alopecia, was apathic and obese. Ultrasonographically, a tumor of the left adrenal gland, obstruction of the left ureter by an ureterolith, as well as hydronephrosis of the left kidney were detected. During surgery to relieve the ureteral obstruction the adrenal gland tumor was removed. The guinea pig died post-operatively due to blood loss. The left adrenal gland tumor was found histopathologically to be an adenoma and the right adrenal gland also had multiple small adenomas, but grossly appeared normal. The ureterolith was analyzed and found by x-ray diffraction to consist of calcium carbonate

  2. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography of adrenal glands in healthy adult dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fernandez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To describe the ARFI elastography in the evaluation of the adrenal glands in adult dogs, to evaluate the stiffness of adrenal parenchyma and to determine the qualitative and quantitative standards of the ARFI technique, which have not yet been described in veterinary medicine. Sixty adrenal glands from thirty healthy adult dogs were evaluated by B-mode and qualitative and quantitative ARFI elastography to assess the stiffness of healthy parenchyma and to determine the quality and quantity (shear velocity standards of ARFI technique in body, cranial and caudal adrenal poles. Findings of ultrasonography evaluations were normal. Qualitative elastography showed that adrenal glands were not deformable and presented homogeneous middle-gray areas. The results of shear wave velocity were similar statically (P = 0.3087: 1 left adrenal - 1.42 m/s for cranial polar, 1.31 m/s for body region, and 1.71 m/s for caudal polar; 2 right adrenal - 1.42 m/s for cranial polar, 1.74 m/s for body region and 1.63 m/s for caudal pole. Quantitative and qualitative ARFI elastography of dogs' adrenal glands is feasible, well tolerated, easily implemented and may provide baseline data in the study of this structure to allow the use of ARFI.

  3. Adipose Tissue and Adrenal Glands: Novel Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atil Y. Kargi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or “adipokines” have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of “cross talk” between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  4. Embryology of the adrenal glands and its relevance to diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwick, T.D.; Malhotra, A.; Webb, J.A.W.; Savage, M.O.; Reznek, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of the embryology of the adrenal glands is necessary to appreciate the location of adrenal ectopic, or rest, tissue which can occur anywhere along the course of gonadal descent. This tissue usually has no clinical significance, but may become hyperplastic in patients with primary or secondary adrenal pathology. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hyperplastic rest tissue may present as a soft-tissue mass, particularly in the gonads and retroperitoneum, and may be mistaken for tumour. The adrenal in the neonate is proportionately much larger than in the adult; in renal ectopy or agenesis the ipsilateral adrenal is normally sited and may be mistaken for a kidney because of its size. This review article illustrates the embryology of the adrenal with particular emphasis on the relevance of embryology to pathology

  5. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of 100 normal adrenal gland cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhiguo; Qu Wanying; Yao Zhiming; Zheng Jianguo; Song Renhe; Liu Xiuqin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to obtain the 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake characteristics in normal adrenal gland as the criteria to diagnose abnormal glucose metabolism in ad- renal gland by 18 F-FDG PET or PET/CT imaging. Methods: One hundred healthy persons underwent 18 F- FDG PET/CT imaging in this study. The images were reviewed by visual judgement and measured by stand-ardized uptake value (SUV). With reference to normal liver, the uptake of adrenal gland was scored from 0 to 3, namely, 0=no uptake, 1=less than the uptake of normal liver, 2=equal to the uptake of normal liver, 3=more than the uptake of normal liver. SUV was measured on the trans-axial images. The regions of interest (ROIs) of adrenal glands and livers were manually drawn based on the CT images. Both average SUV (SUV avg ) and maximum SUV(SUV max ) were calculated. Results: (1) By visual judgment, 94% and 91% of left and right normal adrenal glands had uptake intensity less than that of livers. (2) The SUV avg of left and right adrenal glands were 1.39 and 1.65, and the SUV max 1.98 and 2.19, respectively with the up- per limit of 95% confidence interval (Cf). (3)The ratios of left and right adrenal glands SUV avg to livers SUV avg were 0.65 and 0.75 and left and right adrenal glands SUV max to livers SUV max were 0.76 and 0.83 respectively with the upper limit of 95% CI. (4)The uptake of right adrenal gland was higher than that of the left. (5)There was no significant difference of the SUVs between men and women, except that right ad- renal gland SUV max of men was higher than that of women. (6) There was no significant difference in 18 F- FDG uptake between persons younger and elder than 60 years old. Conclusion: The physiological FDG uptake of the adrenal gland in normal healthy individuals is generally lower than that of liver. (authors)

  6. Usefulness of standardized uptake values for distinguishing adrenal glands with pheochromocytoma from normal adrenal glands by use of 6-18F-fluorodopamine PET.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Whatley, M.A.; Eisenhofer, G.; Chen, C.C.; Ling, A.; Linehan, W.M.; Pinto, P.A.; Adams, K.T.; Pacak, K.

    2007-01-01

    6-(18)F-Fluorodopamine ((18)F-FDA) PET is a highly sensitive tool for the localization of pheochromocytoma (PHEO). The aim of this study was to establish cutoff values for pathologic and physiologic adrenal gland tracer uptake. METHODS: (18)F-FDA PET with CT coregistration was performed in 14

  7. Adrenal gland abnormalities detected by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A A; El Desouky, S M; Awadallah, M Y; Megahed, D E

    2017-03-01

    Adrenal infarction is a rare complication of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The purpose of the current study is to detect and study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of adrenal glands in APS patients. In a cross-sectional study, the data of 20 patients with primary or secondary APS were compared to 20 SLE patients without antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) syndrome (controls). MRI of the abdomen showing the adrenal glands was performed. Of the patients, 80% were females with a mean age 32.45 ± 9.93 years, and mean disease duration of 46.65 ± 58.71 months. Adrenal gland abnormalities in the MRI study were detected in 35 % of APS patients vs. no abnormalities detected in the SLE controls. Adrenal gland enlargement was found in all patients (35 %). Capsular enhancement (infarction or hemorrhagic infarction) was found in 5 patients, increased stranding of the surrounding fat planes (inflammatory process) in 4 patients and increased signal on T1WI and T2WI (hemorrhage) in 3 patients. In patients with adrenal gland involvement, 71.4 % had triple aPL positivity compared to 23.1 % in patients with normal adrenal findings (p = 0.04). Adrenal gland abnormalities on MRI were detected in 35 % of the APS patients (whether primary or secondary); thus, increased focus on management is needed. This percentage is not small and needs to be focused on in terms of management.

  8. [Effect of drinking boron on microtructure of adrenal gland in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghe; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Jinxing; Jin, Guangming; Gu, Youfang; Xu, Wanxiang

    2012-09-01

    The effects of drinking boron exposure on the mass, organ indexes and structure of adrenal gland were studied in the paper. Methods 192 Sprague-Dawley rats (28 +/- 2 days) with no bacteria infecting were divided into six groups (n = 32, male = female) randomly. Treated rats drunk the distilled water which supplemented with boron of 0, 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/L, respectively, for 60 days. At the 30th and the 60th day of experiment, 16 rats (n = 8, male = female) of each group were selected and made into narcosis with 10% Chloral Hydrate. The adrenal glands were obtained, weighted and fixed after dissection, then the samples were made into paraffin sections, stained with HE stain and chromaffin, observed and photographed by Olympus CH-30 microphotograph system. Compared with control group, the average mass of adrenal gland of male rats in each experiment group decreased significantly or most significantly at the 30th day of experiment (P boron at 60th day of experiment increased significantly (P boron were better obviously than control group, and the numbers of chromaffin granules in chromaffin cell increased obviously. The histopathological changes of different degree could be observed in the group of 80 to 640 mg/L boron, and they became remarkable with the boron supplementation. By comparative observation, the damage of cells in adrenal medulla appeared ahead of them in adrenal cortex, and the pathological change of adrenal gland in male rats were obvious than female rats. Drinking supplemented with 40 mg/L boron could prompt the structure of adrenal gland in rats, but could cause different degree damage, or even obvious toxic effect when the concentration of boron supplementation in drinking from 80 to 640 mg/L.

  9. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland findings in healthy semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirberger, Robert M; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-05-01

    Cheetahs in captivity are believed to suffer from stress predisposing them to poor health. To date fecal glucocorticoids have been used as a non-invasive indicator of chronic stress. This study examines, the feasibility of transabdominal adrenal gland ultrasonography in cheetahs and determined normal adrenal measurements that can potentially be used as a more reliable indicator of chronic stress and/or adrenal function. Thirty-three adult cheetahs, aged between 2 and 13 years, accommodated in large off-display camps were examined over 9 days under general anesthesia. The adrenals were readily identified, with the right adrenal being more difficult to find and measure than the left, and were smaller than those expected in similar sized dogs. The left adrenal was shorter and slightly more oval shaped than the right with a length and cranial pole width at a 95% prediction interval of 16.3-22.4 and 4.1-8.7 mm. The same measurements for the right adrenal were 16.8-26.2 and 3.4-10.8 mm, respectively. Corticomedullary ratios were larger for the left adrenal. When corrected for body size, females had significantly longer and greater left adrenal corticomedullary ratios than males. Adrenal measurements did not correlate with left renal length, body size measurements, or enclosure size. Measurements that increased with age included the cortical and total adrenal widths. Adrenal ultrasonography offers potential benefits in assessment of individual cheetah adrenal pathology or the evaluation of stress induced adrenomegally especially in combination with other evaluations such as non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid analyses. Zoo Biol. 35:260-268, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Adrenal gland volume, intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Kai G; Schweiger, Ulrich; Pars, Kaweh; Kunikowska, Alicja; Deuschle, Michael; Gutberlet, Marcel; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Bleich, Stefan; Hüper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Increased intra-abdominal (IAT) and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) have been found in depression, and are discussed as potential mediating factors. IAT and PAT are thought to be the result of a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) with subsequent hypercortisolism. Therefore we examined adrenal gland volume as proxy marker for HPAA activation, and IAT and PAT in depressed patients. Twenty-seven depressed patients and 19 comparison subjects were included in this case-control study. Adrenal gland volume, pericardial, intraabdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Further parameters included factors of the metabolic syndrome, fasting cortisol, fasting insulin, and proinflammatory cytokines. Adrenal gland and pericardial adipose tissue volumes, serum concentrations of cortisol and insulin, and serum concentrations tumor-necrosis factor-α were increased in depressed patients. Adrenal gland volume was positively correlated with intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue, but not with subcutaneous adipose tissue. Our findings point to the role of HPAA dysregulation and hypercortisolism as potential mediators of IAT and PAT enlargement. Further studies are warranted to examine whether certain subtypes of depression are more prone to cardio-metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidentally Detected Kaposi Sarcoma of Adrenal Gland with Anaplastic Features in an HIV Negative Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Esin Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi sarcoma (KS, a vascular tumor caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8, is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without visceral involvement. Very few cases of KS, most of which were associated with AIDS, have been reported in the adrenal gland. Anaplastic transformation of KS is a rare clinical presentation known as an aggressive disease with local recurrence and metastatic potential. We report here a 47-year-old HIV negative male presented with extra-adrenal symptoms and had an incidentally detected anaplastic adrenal KS exhibited aggressive clinical course. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of anaplastic primary adrenal KS without mucocutaneous involvement but subsequently developed other side adrenal metastases in an HIV negative patient.

  12. High-fat diet prevents adaptive peripartum-associated adrenal gland plasticity and anxiolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Clara V; Neumann, Inga D; Reber, Stefan O; Slattery, David A

    2015-10-07

    Maternal obesity is associated with lower basal plasma cortisol levels and increased risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Given that both obesity and the peripartum period are characterized by an imbalance between adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, we hypothesized that the adrenal glands undergo peripartum-associated plasticity and that such changes would be prevented by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we demonstrate substantial peripartum adrenal gland plasticity in the pathways involved in cholesterol supply for steroidogenesis in female rats. In detail, the receptors involved in plasma lipid uptake, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1), are elevated, intra-adrenal cholesterol stores are depleted, and a key enzyme in de novo cholesterol synthesis, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), is downregulated; particularly at mid-lactation. HFD prevented the lactation-associated anxiolysis, basal hypercorticism, and exaggerated the corticosterone response to ACTH. Moreover, we show that HFD prevented the downregulation of adrenal cholesterol stores and HMGCR expression, and LDLR upregulation at mid-lactation. These findings show that the adrenal gland is an important regulator of peripartum-associated HPA axis plasticity and that HFD has maladaptive consequences for the mother, partly by preventing these neuroendocrine and also behavioural changes.

  13. Influence of internal exposure on the morphofunctional characteristics of hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derev'yanko, L.P.; Nosov, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    The phase changes in morphofunctional states of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland of rats, which for a long time (9 month) were fed a 137 Cs diary, were determined. At early stages of experiment (7 - 30 days) the enhancing of morphofunctional and secretory activity of cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland cells, were observed (total absorbed doses of 0,3 sGy). After 9 months (total absorbed doses of 3,0 sGy) in cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland the progressions of dystrophic-destructive changes of intracellular structures with the sings of decreasing of morphofunctional and secretory activities were determined. It is necessary to underline, that the sings of intracellular reparative regeneration, were observed in a small part of cells against the background of presence of dystrophic-destructive changes. In spite of the processes of intracellular reparative regeneration which were observed 9 months later after exposure, the completely renewing of morphofunctional and secretory activities in cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland cells were absent

  14. Histology and ultrastructure of the adrenal gland of the greater cane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed variations in the thickness of the zones of the cortex and medulla. Histological detail did not differ significantly from that of other rodents. Ultrastructural features showed typical adrenal gland zonation with capsule, cortical cells and medulla. In the cortex copious lipid droplets and myelin bodies were ...

  15. Quantitative selenium-75-cholesterol imaging and computed tomography of the adrenal glands in Conn's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Six consecutive patients with biochemically proven primary aldosteronism (4 with unilateral aldosteronomas and 2 with bilateral hyperplasia) underwent imaging with 75 Se-selenomethyl-nor-cholesterol (Scintadren; Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, UK) and computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands to aid in lateralizing unilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and to differentiate APA from idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IAH). Scintadren quantitative imaging alone was successful in lateralizing the lesion in all 4 cases of unilateral APA; mean uptake by the affected adrenal gland was 0,47% of the administered dose as against 0,23% in the normal gland (P smaller than 0,01). The mean uptake ratio for the adenomatous as against the normal gland was 2,03 (range 1,75-2,21), which was significantly greater than the uptake ratio of 0,82 in 4 normal individuals (P smaller than 0,01). CT lateralized all the APAs. In the 2 cases of IAH, Scintadren uptake was bilaterally increased in one case in which CT was normal, whereas in the other case Scintadren uptakes were normal while CT showed two abnormal glands. The overall diagnostic yield for Scintadren was 83%; the figure for CT was also 83%. When the results of Scintadren imaging and CT are pooled, the accuracy in lateralizing APAs and differentiating APA from IAH as a cause of Conn's syndrome is 100%

  16. B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography of adrenal glands of healthy dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the vascular indices of adrenal blood flow in healthy dogs (systolic velocity - SV; diastolic velocity - DV; resistance index - RI. Eighteen dogs (thirty six adrenal were studied. Physical examination, biochemical profile and dexamethasone suppression test were performed to determine general health status. Echotexture, size, contours and margins, and overall shape of the adrenal gland (right and left were assessed via ultrasound. By spectral Doppler of the phrenic-abdominal artery, the SV, DV, and RI were acquired. Animals did not show alterations in clinical and laboratory examination and suppression of cortisol. Normal homogeneous and echotexture, regular contours and margins and normal shape and size were verified via B mode. Spectral Doppler of the phrenic-abdominal artery showed monophasic-patterned waves and low vascular resistance and systolic peak evident with means values: left adrenal - SV = 31.34cm/s, DV = 9.54cm/s and RI = 0.69; and right adrenal - SV = 27.83cm/s, DV = 7.71cm/s and RI = 0.68. Doppler evaluation of adrenal was easily implemented and may provide base line data in the study, allowing for the use of this technique as a diagnostic tool for diseases of the dog's adrenal.

  17. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Adrenal Gland Metastases: University of Florence Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casamassima, Franco; Livi, Lorenzo; Masciullo, Stefano; Menichelli, Claudia; Masi, Laura; Meattini, Icro; Bonucci, Ivano; Agresti, Benedetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Doro, Raffaela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43–77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3–63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Conclusion: Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.

  18. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Faa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland.

  19. Carcinoma da glândula supra-renal Adrenal gland carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    varia de 10% a 35%. Após operação curativa varia de 20% a 58%.BACKGROUND: Adrenal gland neoplasm may be originated from diverse histological types. Carcinomas are rare findings, and correspond to only 0,02% of all neoplasms. AIM: To review the latest advances in relation to the treatment of adrenal gland carcinomas. METHODS: A literature review was performed using Medline, text books and authors, as well as references obtained from relevant articles. CONCLUSION: Approximately 79% of adrenal gland carcinomas are functional. The most commonly secreted hormone is cortisol, which causes Cushing´s syndrome. Patients with non-functional lesions may complain about local growth of the lesion. This type of carcinoma is present in a series of other neoplasic syndromes of familiar origen. According to the symptoms, initial diagnostic investigation involves dosage of urinary cortisol, as well as aldosterone and renin serum levels. Abdominal tomography or magnetic ressonance are first class image tests. Fluorodeoxyglucose pet scan is a tool that can be used to differentiate benign and malignant lesions. Fine needle biopsy is not indicated due to the high rate of complications. The choosen treatment is usually surgery with block ressection of adjacent organs if necessary. Aortic and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy should be performed. Local recurrence and metastasis occur in 80% of the cases. Cytoreductive surgical procedures benefit cases of advanced disease. Quimiotherapy using mitotane is indicated to patients who were submitted to cytoreductive surgery, who have had local recurrence and in those with metastasis. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice in the event of bone metastasis and adjuvant treatment is used in a few cases with elevated recurrence risks. In adults, the overall average life span in 5 years varies between 10% to 35%. After curative surgery it varies between 20% to 58%.

  20. Addison's disease due to Histoplasma duboisii infection of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudawi, Hatim M.; Baraka, Omer Z.; El-Hassan, Ahmed M.; El-Amin, Elwaleed M.

    2008-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. In the normal individual, both disseminated histoplasmosis and symptomatic adrenal histoplasmosis are rare. Herein, we describe the case of a 50-year-old gentleman residing in western Sudan who presented with 7-month history of generalized body weakness, easy fatigue and frequent attacks of vomiting and diarrhea. Physical examination and laboratory investigations confirmed the diagnosis of Addison's disease due to histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii infection of the adrenal glands. He was treated with intravenous hydrocortisone, followed by oral prednisolone and itraconazole. (author)

  1. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kanczkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress adrenal gland rapidly respond with increased secretion of glucocorticoids and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of glucocorticoids however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intraadrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced glucocorticoid metabolism and local intraadrenal activation of hormone production mediated by adrenocortical and chromaffin cell interactions, the adrenal vascular system and the immune-adrenal crosstalk play a key role. Consequently, any impairment in function of these systems, can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to present and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment, and its role in regulation of stress-induced hormone secretion.

  2. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  3. Selenium-75-cholesterol imaging and computed tomography of the adrenal glands in differentiating the cause of Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.L.; Smith, J.A.; Mervis, B.; Roman, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of 75 Se-cholesterol (Scintadren) uptake and computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands were compared as a means of differentiating the cause of Cushing's syndrome in 11 patients over a 2-year period. Quantitative Scintadren imaging differentiated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-dependent disease from local adrenocortical lesions as the cause of Cushing's syndrome in all the patients studied. CT of the adrenal glands rapidly and accurately detected the adrenal mass lesions in 2 cases and was effective in documenting bilateral hyperplasia due to ectopic ACTH-dependent disease. However, in entopic ACTH (pituitary)-dependent disease the adrenal glands were of normal thickness in all but 2 patients, who had bilateral hyperplasia. Scintadren imaging and CT are useful non-invasive procedures for differentiating local adrenal disease from ACTH-dependent disease as the cause of Cushing's syndrome and should be the initial investigations once a firm clinical and biochemical diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome has been made

  4. MR imaging of a case of adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Gasque, C.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Dosda, R.; Gonzalez Martinez, A.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of an incidentally found adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland, and to evaluate the utility of MRI in characterizing this type of tumor. The appearance of the tumor was nonspecific on T1-weighted in-phase, opposed-phase, and T2-weighted images, as well as its behavior after paramagnetic contrast administration, outlining the differential diagnosis among carcinoma, metastatic tumors, and pheochromocytoma. After surgery, the pathologic diagnosis was adenomatoid benign tumor of mesothelial origin. Although MRI enables the characterization of most benign lesions of the adrenal gland, the appearance of other lesions is nonspecific. In our case, MRI did not assist in preoperative diagnosis, guiding us towards a diagnosis of malignancy. (orig.)

  5. The importance of angiography in cases of growing and displacing processes in the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the distribution of the individual diagnoses concerning 45 patients angiographed with the diagnosis ''suspected growing and displacing process in the adrenal gland'' to the literature. The investigation also covered the question of whether the angiographic vessel patterns permitted to draw conclusions concerning the type of growing and displacing process. This group of 45 patients had been selected out of a collective of 101 patients who had been examined and whose angiographic diagnosis had been manifested either by an operation or by a resection. Finally, the most favourable diagnostic procedure in the various forms of tumours of the adrenal gland was discussed. The position of angiography in relation to sonography, scintiscanning, and computerized tomography was clarified. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome with hypoplastic adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalp, O; Ozcimen, E E; Yilmaz, Z; Yanik, F; Sahin, F I

    2008-01-01

    We report a family with two consequent sibs with anophthalmia and cleft lip and palate. A 27 year old woman married to her first cousin was counseled for anophthalmia and cleft lip and palate detected during routine fetal ultrasonographic examination on the 23rd week of the pregnancy. Her obstetric history revealed a healthy girl aged 7 years and a boy with anophthalmia and cleft lip and palate who lived for 20 days in the neonatal intensive care unit. The current pregnancy was terminated after the diagnosis, and post mortem examination of the fetus revealed pre-maxilla agenesis, anophthalmia, cerebral ventricular dilatation, adrenal hypoplasia and single umbilical artery. Chromosome analysis resulted in normal karyotypes of the fetus and both parents. The inheritance pattern was regarded as autosomal recessive and the family was informed about the condition and risks during genetic counseling.

  7. Chronic Expanding Hematoma of the Adrenal Gland Mimicking a Hemangioma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwan Seop; Seo, Jin Won [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Seung Gu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We report a rare case of unilateral chronic expanding hematoma in the left adrenal gland, mimicking a hemangioma on multiphase computed tomography (CT). On CT, the mass showed several enhancing foci of irregular and frond-like shape in the periphery at the hepatic arterial phase and gradual fill-in pattern at the portal venous phase, which was similar with the enhancement pattern of hemangioma.

  8. A dual-color luciferase assay system reveals circadian resetting of cultured fibroblasts by co-cultured adrenal glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Noguchi

    Full Text Available In mammals, circadian rhythms of various organs and tissues are synchronized by pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal glands can synchronize circadian rhythms in other tissues. Many hormones show circadian rhythms in their plasma concentrations; however, whether organs outside the SCN can serve as master synchronizers to entrain circadian rhythms in target tissues is not well understood. To further delineate the function of the adrenal glands and the interactions of circadian rhythms in putative master synchronizing organs and their target tissues, here we report a simple co-culture system using a dual-color luciferase assay to monitor circadian rhythms separately in various explanted tissues and fibroblasts. In this system, circadian rhythms of organs and target cells were simultaneously tracked by the green-emitting beetle luciferase from Pyrearinus termitilluminans (ELuc and the red-emitting beetle luciferase from Phrixothrix hirtus (SLR, respectively. We obtained tissues from the adrenal glands, thyroid glands, and lungs of transgenic mice that expressed ELuc under control of the promoter from a canonical clock gene, mBmal1. The tissues were co-cultured with Rat-1 fibroblasts as representative target cells expressing SLR under control of the mBmal1 promoter. Amplitudes of the circadian rhythms of Rat-1 fibroblasts were potentiated when the fibroblasts were co-cultured with adrenal gland tissue, but not when co-cultured with thyroid gland or lung tissue. The phases of Rat-1 fibroblasts were reset by application of adrenal gland tissue, whereas the phases of adrenal gland tissue were not influenced by Rat-1 fibroblasts. Furthermore, the effect of the adrenal gland tissue on the fibroblasts was blocked by application of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids are strong circadian synchronizers for fibroblasts and that

  9. Hidradenocarcinoma: A Rare Sweat Gland Neoplasm Presenting as Small Turban Tumor of the Scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asati, Dinesh P; Brahmachari, Swagata; Kudligi, Chandramohan; Gupta, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  10. Hidradenocarcinoma: A rare sweat gland neoplasm presenting as small turban tumor of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh P Asati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  11. Effect of Vitex agnus castus L. essential oil on stereological architecture of adrenal glands in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    HAMİDİAN, Gholamreza; MAHMOODİ, Razagh

    2014-01-01

    The adrenal gland is of critical importance for a plethora of biological processes and has a pivotal role in different stages of life. The structure and function of adrenal can be affected by steroid hormones. Vitex agnus-castus L. (VAC) is a phytosterogen shrub and has been used in the treatment of many female conditions such as menstrual disorders in traditional medicine. So, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of VAC essential oil on structure of adrenal glands. In this stu...

  12. Oncocytic carcinoma of lip: A rare neoplasm of minor salivary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Chhabra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncocytic carcinoma is an extremely rare neoplasm of the salivary gland, with only a few cases reported in literature till date. We report the occurrence of this rare lesion in lip in a 43-year-old female presenting with a progressively increasing swelling for which excision was done. Fine needle aspiration was done and the smears revealed tumor cells with well-defined cell borders, round to oval, central to eccentrically located moderately pleomorphic nuclei with fine chromatin, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. Microscopic examination of the resected tumor showed solid sheets, nests, islands and cords of oncocytic cells diffusely infiltrating the surrounding tissues. After 5 months, the patient again presented with bilateral submandibular and right axillary lymphadenopathy revealing metastatic deposits from oncocytic carcinoma. We report this case of oncocytic carcinoma because of its unusual location, the minor salivary gland of lip being a rare site for the tumor.

  13. Increased incidence of adrenal gland injury in blunt abdominal trauma: a computed tomography-based study from Pakistan

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    Aziz Muhammad Usman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the frequency of adrenal injuries in patients presenting with blunt abdominal trauma by computed tomography (CT. Methods: During a 6 month period from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2011, 82 emergency CT examinations were performed in the setting of major abdominal trauma and retrospectively reviewed for adrenal gland injuries. Results: A total of 7 patients were identified as having adrenal gland injuries (6 males and 1 female. Two patients had isolated adrenal gland injuries. In the other 5 patients with nonisolated injuries, injuries to the liver (1 case, spleen (1 case, retroperitoneum (2 cases and mesentery (4 cases were identified. Overall 24 cases with liver injuries (29 %, 11 cases with splenic injuries (13%, 54 cases with mesenteric injuries (65%, 14 cases (17% with retroperitoneal injuries and 9 cases with renal injuries were identified. Conclusion: Adrenal gland injury is identified in 7 patients (11.7% out of a total of 82 patients who underwent CT after major abdominal trauma. Most of these cases were nonisolated injuries. Our experience indicates that adrenal injury resulting from trauma is more common than suggested by other reports. The rise in incidence of adrenal injuries could be attributed to the mode of injury.

  14. Aberrant expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands of a patient with Cushing's syndrome and ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

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    Valeria de Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH is a rare cause of Cushing´s syndrome, characterized by bilateral adrenal lesions and excess cortisol production despite ACTH suppression. Cortisol synthesis is produced in response to abnormal activation of G-protein- coupled receptors, such as gastric inhibitory peptide, vasopressin, beta adrenergic agonists, LH/hCG and serotonin receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands from an AIMAH patient. A patient with ACTH-independent Cushing´s syndrome and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia was screened for altered activation of adrenal receptors by physiological (mixed meal and pharmacological (gonadotrophin releasing hormone, ACTH and glucagon tests. The results showed abnormally high levels of serum cortisol after stimulation with glucagon. Hypercortisolism was successfully managed with ketoconazole treatment. Interestingly, a 4-month treatment with a somatostatin analogue (octreotide was also able to reduce cortisol secretion. Finally, Cushing's syndrome was cured after bilateral adrenalectomy. Abnormal mRNA expression for glucagon receptor in the patient´s adrenal glands was observed by Real-Time PCR procedure. These results strongly suggest that the mechanism of AIMAH causing Cushing´s syndrome in this case involves the illicit activation of adrenal glucagon receptors. This is the first case reported of AIMAH associated with ectopic glucagon receptors.

  15. MDCT linear and volumetric analysis of adrenal glands: Normative data and multiparametric assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsin-Vu, Aline; Mule, Sebastien; Janvier, Annaelle; Hoeffel, Christine; Oubaya, Nadia; Delemer, Brigitte; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    To study linear and volumetric adrenal measurements, their reproducibility, and correlations between total adrenal volume (TAV) and adrenal micronodularity, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), visceral (VAAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAAT), presence of diabetes, chronic alcoholic abuse and chronic inflammatory disease (CID). We included 154 patients (M/F, 65/89; mean age, 57 years) undergoing abdominal multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). Two radiologists prospectively independently performed adrenal linear and volumetric measurements with semi-automatic software. Inter-observer reliability was studied using inter-observer correlation coefficient (ICC). Relationships between TAV and associated factors were studied using bivariate and multivariable analysis. Mean TAV was 8.4 ± 2.7 cm 3 (3.3-18.7 cm 3 ). ICC was excellent for TAV (0.97; 95 % CI: 0.96-0.98) and moderate to good for linear measurements. TAV was significantly greater in men (p < 0.0001), alcoholics (p = 0.04), diabetics (p = 0.0003) and those with micronodular glands (p = 0.001). TAV was lower in CID patients (p = 0.0001). TAV correlated positively with VAAT (r = 0.53, p < 0.0001), BMI (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001), SAAT (r = 0.29, p = 0.0003) and age (r = 0.23, p = 0.005). Multivariable analysis revealed gender, micronodularity, diabetes, age and BMI as independent factors influencing TAV. Adrenal gland MDCT-based volumetric measurements are more reproducible than linear measurements. Gender, micronodularity, age, BMI and diabetes independently influence TAV. (orig.)

  16. Adrenal glands in beta-thalassemia major: magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and correlation with iron stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakonaki, Eleni; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Maris, Thomas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Vasiliadou, Artemis; Papadakis, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at describing the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of the adrenal glands in beta-thalassemic patients and at investigating the relation between adrenal and hepatic siderosis. Adrenal signal intensity (SI) was retrospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 35 patients with beta-thalassemia major undergoing quantification of hepatic siderosis and 12 healthy controls, using T1- (120/4/90), intermediate - (120/4/20), and T2*- (120/15/20) weighted GRE sequences. Adrenal SI was graded as grade 0 (normal SI on all sequences), grade 1 (hypointensity on T2* alone), or grade 2 (hypointensity on at least T2*). Adrenal size was measured in the thalassemic patients and compared with normative data. Liver-to-muscle (L/M) SI ratios, expressing hepatic siderosis, were estimated on each sequence. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Adrenal hypointensity (grades 1 and 2) was noted in 24/35 (68.6%) patients. L/M ratios correlated significantly with adrenal SI in all sequences. Patients with grade 1 and grade 2 adrenal SI had significantly decreased L/M ratios compared with grade 0. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with L/M values but not with adrenal SI. Adrenal size was within normal limits. Diffuse hypointensity in normal-sized adrenals is a common MR finding in beta-thalassemic patients and correlates with the degree of hepatic siderosis. (orig.)

  17. Adrenal glands in beta-thalassemia major: magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and correlation with iron stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakonaki, Eleni; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Maris, Thomas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece); Vasiliadou, Artemis [Aghios Georgios Hospital of Chania, Thalassemia Unit, Chania (Greece); Papadakis, Alex [Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion, Thalassemia Unit, Heraklion (Greece)

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed at describing the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of the adrenal glands in beta-thalassemic patients and at investigating the relation between adrenal and hepatic siderosis. Adrenal signal intensity (SI) was retrospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 35 patients with beta-thalassemia major undergoing quantification of hepatic siderosis and 12 healthy controls, using T1- (120/4/90), intermediate - (120/4/20), and T2*- (120/15/20) weighted GRE sequences. Adrenal SI was graded as grade 0 (normal SI on all sequences), grade 1 (hypointensity on T2* alone), or grade 2 (hypointensity on at least T2*). Adrenal size was measured in the thalassemic patients and compared with normative data. Liver-to-muscle (L/M) SI ratios, expressing hepatic siderosis, were estimated on each sequence. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Adrenal hypointensity (grades 1 and 2) was noted in 24/35 (68.6%) patients. L/M ratios correlated significantly with adrenal SI in all sequences. Patients with grade 1 and grade 2 adrenal SI had significantly decreased L/M ratios compared with grade 0. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with L/M values but not with adrenal SI. Adrenal size was within normal limits. Diffuse hypointensity in normal-sized adrenals is a common MR finding in beta-thalassemic patients and correlates with the degree of hepatic siderosis. (orig.)

  18. Differentiation between tuberculosis and primary tumors in the adrenal gland: evaluation with contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Ying-Kun; Li, Yuan; Min, Peng-Qiu; Yu, Jian-Qun; Ma, En-Sen

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine imaging criteria for differentiating tuberculosis from primary tumors in the adrenal gland on contrast-enhanced CT. Non-contrast and contrast-enhanced CT features in 108 patients with adrenal tuberculosis (n=34) and primary tumor (n=74) were retrospectively assessed for the location, size, calcification and enhancement patterns. The primary tumors included 41 adenomas, 11 pheochromocytomas, 4 carcinomas, 3 lymphomas, 6 myelolipomas, 6 ganglioneuromas, 2 neurilemmomas and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma. Biochemical investigation was performed for all patients. Of the tuberculosis cases, 31 (91%) invaded with bilateral involvement, while 7 (9%) of the primary tumors invaded with bilateral involvement (P<0.001). Tuberculosis often showed calcification (20 of 34; 59%), whereas primary tumors infrequently showed calcification (6 of 74; 8%; P<0.001). Low attenuation in the center with peripheral rim enhancement was more commonly seen in tuberculosis (16 of 34; 47%) than in primary tumors (7 of 74; 9%; P<0.001). In the determination of tuberculosis, the highest sensitivity (91%) and accuracy (91%) were obtained with bilateral involvement, and the highest specificity (99%) was obtained with the contour preserved. In the determination of primary tumors using a combination of having unilateral involvement and being mass-like, the outcome was a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 94% and accuracy of 92%. CT findings can differentiate tuberculosis from a primary tumor of the adrenal glands with high sensitivity and an acceptable specificity when combined with the endocrinological examination. (orig.)

  19. Effect of different types of stress on adrenal gland parameters and adrenal hormones in the blood serum of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex and medulla in mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different stress types: acute, chronic, and combined, i.e., chronic followed by acute stress. These parameters were correlated with adrenal activity as judged from serum levels of corticosterone and catecholamine, respectively, as well as with serum levels of ACTH and glucose. Under all three conditions, we observed bilaterally asymmetric and stress-type-independent hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as adrenal cortices and medullas. Under acute and combined stress, adrenal hypertrophy was followed by increase of adrenal hormones in the blood serum. However, under chronic stress, both cortical and medullar activities as judged from low or unaltered levels of the respective hormones and glucose were compromised and disconnected from the input signal of ACTH. Since all of the studied adrenal activities could be restored by subsequent acute stress, it is concluded that chronic isolation can be viewed as partly maladaptive stress with characteristics resembling stress resistance rather than the stress exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

  20. Imaging the adrenal glands with radiolabeled inhibitors of enzymes: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Wieland, D.M.; Mosley, S.T.; Swanson, D.P.; Sarkar, S.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Thrall, J.H.; Herwig, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    Although radioiodinated cholesterols furnished the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal glands, it would be desirable to decrease the time for imaging and decrease the radiation dose. The relative tissue distributions of two radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors [ 3 H] metyrapol and 1-125-SKF-12185 were studied in dogs and man. Their percentage uptakes and target-to-nontarget ratios were similar. The adrenals of three dogs were imaged sharply at 2 hr after injection with 4-6 mCi of I-131-SKF-12185, confirmed by subsequent imaging with 1 mCi of I-131-6-beta-19-nor cholesterol at 5 days after injection. The use of 1 mCi of I-123-SKF will pemit imaging of the adrenals in 1-2 hr and will decrease the radiation dose in the human to 0.76 rads to the adrenal, 0.18 rads to the ovaries and 1.7 rads to the liver

  1. Ectopic ACTH syndrome complicated by multiple opportunistic infections treated with percutaneous ablation of the adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chrystal; Roberts, James Mark

    2017-11-14

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-related Cushing's syndrome can lead to multiple complications including severe immunosuppression. If the ACTH-secreting tumour cannot be found, definitive treatment is surgical adrenalectomy, typically followed by glucocorticoid replacement. Here, we present a case of fulminant respiratory failure secondary to coinfection with Pneumocystis jirovecii and cytomegalovirus in a patient with ectopic ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome with occult primary. Due to significant deconditioning, she was unable to undergo definitive adrenalectomy and instead underwent percutaneous microwave ablation of the adrenal glands. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Acth e enzimas na supra-renal ACTH and enzymes in adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Povoa Junior

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a atividade da ceruloplasmina, adenosina desaminase (AD e transaminases glutâmico oxalacética (TGO e glutâmico pirúvica (TGP na supra-renal de ratos normais e injetados previamente (24 horas antes com uma injeção única, por via intraperitoneal, de ACTH em doses de 0,5 e 1,2 un. internacionais. observou-se uma elevação estatisticamente significativa das TGO e ceruloplasmina enquanto a AD sofria diminuição sensível em sua atividade.Activities of several enzymes have been studied in rat adrenal glands after ACTH injection. Activity of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase increases significantly after ACTH. The same was observed with ceruloplasmin. Adrenosine desaminase inthe same gland was decreased after administration of this hormone.

  3. Cholesterol delivery to the adrenal glands estimated by adrenal venous sampling: An in vivo model to determine the contribution of circulating lipoproteins to steroidogenesis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenwerf, Edward; Dullaart, Robin P F; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Links, Thera P; Sluiter, Wim J; Connelly, Margery A; Kerstens, Michiel N

    Cholesterol, required for adrenal steroid hormone synthesis, is at least in part derived from circulating lipoproteins. The contribution of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to adrenal steroidogenesis in humans is unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which HDL and LDL are taken up by the adrenal glands using samples obtained during adrenal venous sampling (AVS). AVS was successfully performed in 23 patients with primary aldosteronism. Samples were drawn from both adrenal veins and inferior vena cava (IVC). HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and lipoprotein particle profiles were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB were assayed by immunoturbidimetry. Plasma HDL-C and HDL and LDL particle concentrations (HDL-P and LDL-P) were not lower in samples obtained from the adrenal veins compared with the IVC (HDL-C, P = .59; HDL-P, P = .06; LDL-P, P = .93). ApoB was lower in adrenal venous plasma than in IVC (P = .026; P lipoproteins and steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsdóttir Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

  5. Value and limitations of CT scan in adulthood non-secreting adrenal gland disorders. Report of sixty-seven cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laissy, J.P.; Roussel, F.; Genevois, A.; Benozio, M.; Fournier, L.; Denizet, D.; Clement, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of CT scan in 67 adults with non-secreting adrenal gland disorders are studied. Whereas corticoadrenal carcinomas are readily recognized, diagnosis of non-secreting adrenal masses in patients with evidence of cancer or in symptom-free subjects is more difficult. According to the results, the only sign that specifically indicates malignancy is heterogeneity following intravenous injection of the contrast medium. This criterion is often inconclusive, making other diagnostic procedures necessary [fr

  6. Value and limitations of CT scan in adulthood non-secreting adrenal gland disorders. Report of sixty-seven cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Roussel, F.; Genevois, A.; Benozio, M.; Fournier, L.; Denizet, D.; Clement, J.F.

    1989-04-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of CT scan in 67 adults with non-secreting adrenal gland disorders are studied. Whereas corticoadrenal carcinomas are readily recognized, diagnosis of non-secreting adrenal masses in patients with evidence of cancer or in symptom-free subjects is more difficult. According to the results, the only sign that specifically indicates malignancy is heterogeneity following intravenous injection of the contrast medium. This criterion is often inconclusive, making other diagnostic procedures necessary.

  7. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, T; Hulya Uz, Y; Karabacak, R; Karaboga, I; Demirtas, S; Cagatay Cicek, A

    2015-11-26

    This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg) before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0) was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

  8. CT screening for lung cancer: Frequency of enlarged adrenal glands identified in baseline and annual repeat rounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Minxia [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Capital Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); Yip, Rowena; Yankelevitz, David Y.; Henschke, Claudia I. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To determine the frequency of adrenal enlargement of participants in a CT-screening program for lung cancer and demonstrate the progression during follow-up, separately for baseline and annual repeat rounds. HIPAA-compliant informed consent was obtained in 4,776 participants. The adrenal gland was defined as enlarged if it measured ≥6 mm at its largest diameter. Logistic regression analyses were performed. At baseline, 202 (4 %) of 4,776 participants had adrenal enlargement. Significant factors were age (OR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.2-1.7) and current smoker (OR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.4). Follow-up 7-18 months after baseline for 133 cases with adrenal enlargement <40 mm showed it decreased or was stable in 85 (64 %), and increased by <10 mm in 48 (36 %). Five (0.04 %) cases of adrenal enlargement were newly identified, none increased beyond 40 mm on follow-up. Adrenal enlargement was a significant predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer (OR = 2.0, 95 % CI: 1.2-3.4). Participants with adrenal enlargement <40 mm identified at baseline and on repeat screening could be reasonably assessed on subsequent annual screening. Adrenal enlargement increased with increasing pack-years of smoking. Adrenal enlargement was an independent predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative alterations in the liver and adrenal gland in pregnant rats induced by Pyralene 3000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreci, M.; Sek, S.; Lorger, J.; Bavdek, S. [Univ. of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva (Slovenia); Pogacnik, A.

    1995-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most widespread environmental pollutants known in the world. The half-life of PCBs is very long and, therefore, once released into the environment, they accumulate in food chains and tissues of various mammals, including man. Their presence can cause numerous toxic effects, e.g., hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, dermatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and disorders of the reproductive system, among others. These effects depend on the distribution route in the organism, the rate of metabolism and excretion. Their characteristics are closely associated with the number and position of the chlorine atoms in the molecule. Previous studies of trichlorobiphenyl distributions in various tissues demonstrated that low chlorinated trichlorobiphenyls do no accumulate in endocrine organs, whereas higher chlorinated biphenyls, such as hexa- and octachlorobiphenyl, are deposited and retained in the adrenal gland. A selective distribution of radioabelled tetrachlorobiphenyl to the zona fasciculata, accompanied by morphometric evidence of the hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata, was also noted. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the tissue structure of the pregnant rat liver and adrenal gland induced experimentally by Pyralene 3000 administration. We chose this commercial low chlorinated PCB because it was in use in Slovenia and, discharged from the electroindustrial plants, caused a serious incidence of environmental pollution in the region of Bela Krajina. Our further aim was to research the transplacental influences of Pyralene 3000 in rats. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Impact of Acute Deltamethrin Poisoning on Rat Adrenal Glands: Biochemical and Pathomorphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene A. Chigrinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deltamethrin is known all over the world as an effective preparation for the control of insects. In connection with this, its role as a chemical stressor increases. The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning and structure of AG after a single administration of synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin in experimental animals at a dose of 17.4 mg/kg (1/5 LD50. Material and Methods: For the experiment, 88 male Wistar rats with a body weight of 240±10 g were divided into 8 groups of 10–12 animals each. Groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 were control groups, which were administered physiological solution intragastrically. The animals in Groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 received a single dose (17.4mg/kg of deltamethrin, which corresponds to 1/5 LD50. In the serum of rats, the content of ACTH, progesterone, DHEA-sulfate, corticosterone and aldosterone was determined by EIA. Histological preparations of adrenal glands were stained with H&E, picrofuxin according to Van Gieson, and with Bismarck brown according to Shubich. On frozen sections, lipids were detected by Sudan Black B.\tResults: One day after intoxication, we identified an increase in adrenal mass, edema of the parenchyma and blood capillary overflow, and a large number of lipids in corticocytes. In the blood serum, the concentration of ACTH and corticosteroids increased, but their level decreased in the adrenal cortex. After 3 days, the concentration of corticosterone in the blood serum of the experimental animals remained above the control value, but the content of other hormones decreased. At the border of the cortex and the medulla of the adrenal glands, there were mast cells in a state of degranulation; the amount of lipids decreased with time. In the subsequent terms of the study, a decrease in the weight of AG with a decrease in the concentration of hormones in the blood serum and adrenal tissue was detected. Conclusion: The intoxication of rats with deltamethrin causes

  11. The inhibiting effect of intravenous anesthesia on adrenal gland functions under the sepsis condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Te; Liu, Changdong; Wei, Pihong; Lv, Lili; Yang, Zaiqi

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of intravenous anesthesia on the adrenal gland functions of rats with sepsis as well as on their lungs and adrenal gland tissues in order to provide a theoretical reference for the cure of sepsis. Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were taken as the research objects in this study. Venous channels of rats were constructed by catheterization through the external jugular vein, and the cecal ligation and puncture technique was adopted to duplicate the sepsis rat models. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and necrocytosis was observed by the fluorescent staining method. The results showed that the survival rates of groups A, B, C, and D were 100%, 60%, 60%, and 50%, respectively, while their concentrations of TNF-α in serum were101.26 ± 43.38, 1398.68 ± 178.56, 451.16 ± 78.68, and 649.83 ± 98.56 pg/mL, respectively. Results of fluorescent staining showed that the number of living cells per unit view in group A was 1428 ± 166 and those of groups B, C and D were 175 ± 56, 618 ± 76, and 468 ± 55, respectively. Besides, it was found that changes of inflammatory pathology of lung tissues of each group were significant. In conclusion, etomidate does not affect the survival of sepsis rats and does not exacerbate lung tissue inflammation in sepsis rats. Instead, it can inhibit TNF-α in serum of sepsis rats, as well as the apoptosis of adrenal cells in sepsis rats.

  12. Uncommon primary hydatid cyst occupying the adrenal gland space, treated with laparoscopic surgical approach in an old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprea Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease (HD is caused by Echinococcus Granulosus (EG, which is a larva endemic in many undeveloped areas. The most common target is the liver (59%–75%. The retroperitoneal space is considered as a rare localization. We report an uncommon case of HD located in the adrenal gland space.

  13. Adrenal neoplasms: Effectiveness and safety of CT-guided ablation of 23 tumors in 22 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Farrah J.; Dupuy, Damian E.; Machan, Jason T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and the Office of Research Administration, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Mayo-Smith, William W., E-mail: wmayo-smith@lifespan.org [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and the Office of Research Administration, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of image-guided ablation of adrenal tumors. Materials and methods: : This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved and informed consent was waived. From 5/1999-6/2008, 20 consecutive adrenal metastases (mean diameter 4.2 cm; range, 2-8) and 3 hormonally active primary adrenal tumors (mean diameter 2.3 cm; range, 1-4), including an aldosteronoma and 2 pheochromocytomas in 22 patients (14 men, 8 women; mean age 61 years; range 40-84) were ablated in 23 sessions. Bilateral metastases were treated in a single patient. Radiofrequency ablation was used to treat 16 adrenal metastases and the 3 hyperfunctioning tumors. Microwave ablation was used to treat 4 metastases. Successful treatment was defined as a lack of both enhancement on follow-up contrast enhanced CT and/or up-take on FDG PET-CT and for functioning tumors, resolution of biochemical abnormalities. Results: Technical success was achieved in all sessions. Mean follow-up was 45.1 months (range, 1-91) Local tumor progression (focal enhancement at ablation site {>=}1 cm in short axis) was detected in 4 of 23 tumors, two of which were identified bilaterally in a single patient prompting re-treatment. Of 19 patients with metastatic disease, 16 had fatal extra-adrenal disease progression, and 3 remain alive. Two of the 3 patients who underwent ablation of hyperfunctioning tumors remain alive, including the patient with an aldosteronoma who had recurrent symptoms 91 months post ablation. Intra-ablative hypertension occurred in 9% (2/23) of sessions and was successfully treated pharmacologically. Conclusion: Ablation of metastatic and hyperfunctioning adrenal tumors is safe and may provide local control and treatment of pathologic biochemical activity.

  14. Adrenal neoplasms: Effectiveness and safety of CT-guided ablation of 23 tumors in 22 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Farrah J.; Dupuy, Damian E.; Machan, Jason T.; Mayo-Smith, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of image-guided ablation of adrenal tumors. Materials and methods: : This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved and informed consent was waived. From 5/1999-6/2008, 20 consecutive adrenal metastases (mean diameter 4.2 cm; range, 2–8) and 3 hormonally active primary adrenal tumors (mean diameter 2.3 cm; range, 1–4), including an aldosteronoma and 2 pheochromocytomas in 22 patients (14 men, 8 women; mean age 61 years; range 40–84) were ablated in 23 sessions. Bilateral metastases were treated in a single patient. Radiofrequency ablation was used to treat 16 adrenal metastases and the 3 hyperfunctioning tumors. Microwave ablation was used to treat 4 metastases. Successful treatment was defined as a lack of both enhancement on follow-up contrast enhanced CT and/or up-take on FDG PET-CT and for functioning tumors, resolution of biochemical abnormalities. Results: Technical success was achieved in all sessions. Mean follow-up was 45.1 months (range, 1–91) Local tumor progression (focal enhancement at ablation site ≥1 cm in short axis) was detected in 4 of 23 tumors, two of which were identified bilaterally in a single patient prompting re-treatment. Of 19 patients with metastatic disease, 16 had fatal extra-adrenal disease progression, and 3 remain alive. Two of the 3 patients who underwent ablation of hyperfunctioning tumors remain alive, including the patient with an aldosteronoma who had recurrent symptoms 91 months post ablation. Intra-ablative hypertension occurred in 9% (2/23) of sessions and was successfully treated pharmacologically. Conclusion: Ablation of metastatic and hyperfunctioning adrenal tumors is safe and may provide local control and treatment of pathologic biochemical activity.

  15. Amidated joining peptide in the human pituitary, gut, adrenal gland and bronchial carcinoids. Immunocytochemical and immunochemical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjartell, A; Fenger, M; Ekman, R

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of the proopiomelanocortin-derivated amidated joining peptide (JP-N) was examined in the human pituitary gland, adrenal gland, gut and in three bronchial carcinoids. Double immunostaining showed coexistence of immunoreactive JP-N and other proopiomelanocortin derivatives, e......-N, respectively, but under reduced conditions most of the immunoreactive material appeared as of low molecular weight in both extracts. In conclusion, immunoreactive JP-N is a major product from the processing of proopiomelanocortin in human extrapituitary tissues. The molecular forms of immunoreactive JP......-N correspond to previous findings in the human pituitary gland....

  16. The adrenal gland and the patient with pulmonary tuberculosis infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifedayo Adeola Odeniyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adrenal gland is not spared from the involvement by tuberculosis. One of the recognized causes of adrenal insufficiency (AI is tuberculosis. AI, mostly at the subclinical level, is common in persons with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB infection, occurring in about 23% of patients. Coinfection with PTB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV may compromise adrenocortical function and produce significant adrenocortical insufficiency. Objective: To determine if coinfection with tuberculosis and HIV have a compound effect on adrenocortical function in persons with HIV and PTB coinfection. Materials and Methods: Persons with sputum-positive PTB, treatment naive, who met our inclusion criteria, were selected. All the recruited patients were screened for HIV and those positive for HIV infection had confirmatory test. A baseline blood samples for cortisol, fasting plasma glucose, full blood count, and electrolytes were collected between 8.00 h and 9.00 h immediately before administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH. The persons received an intravenous bolus injection of 1 μg ACTH (Alliance Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Chippenham, Wiltshire SN15 2BB and blood sample was drawn for cortisol level at 30 min. Results: Forty-four people with PTB infection and forty people with PTB and HIV coinfection met the inclusion criteria of the study. The adrenal response to 1 μg ACTH stimulation in participants with PTB and PTB and HIV coinfection showed that the mean basal cortisol level in the 2 groups was not statistically significant; however, 30-min post-ACTH stimulation cortisol level was 630.84 ± 372.17 and 980.36 ± 344.82 nmol/L (P < 0.001 and increment was 367.79 ± 334.87 and 740.77 ± 317.97 nmol/L (P < 0.001, respectively. Fourteen persons (31.8% with PTB has subnormal adrenal response to ACTH stimulation while only 2 (5% persons with PTB and HIV coinfection has subnormal response. Conclusion: AI, at subclinical level, was less frequent in

  17. The Effects of Insulin-Induced Hypoglycaemia on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Phosphorylation in Rat Brain and Adrenal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Manjula; Johnson, Michaela E; Bobrovskaya, Larisa

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation in the adrenal gland, C1 cell group, locus coeruleus (LC) and midbrain dopaminergic cell groups that are thought to play a role in response to hypoglycaemia and compared the effects of different concentrations of insulin in rats. Insulin (1 and 10 U/kg) treatment caused similar reductions in blood glucose concentration (from 7.5-9 to 2-3 mmol/L); however, plasma adrenaline concentration was increased 20-30 fold in response to 10 U/kg insulin and only 14 fold following 1 U/kg. Time course studies (at 10 U/kg insulin) revealed that in the adrenal gland, Ser31 phosphorylation was increased between 30 and 90 min (4-5 fold), implying that TH was activated to increase catecholamine synthesis in adrenal medulla to replenish the stores. In the brain, Ser19 phosphorylation was limited to certain dopaminergic groups in the midbrain, while Ser31 phosphorylation was increased in most catecholaminergic regions at 60 min (1.3-2 fold), suggesting that Ser31 phosphorylation may be an important mechanism to maintain catecholamine synthesis in the brain. Comparing the effects of 1 and 10 U/kg insulin revealed that Ser31 phosphorylation was increased to similar extent in the adrenal gland and C1 cell group in response to both doses whereas Ser31 and Ser19 phosphorylation were only increased in response to 1 U/kg insulin in LC and in response to 10 U/kg insulin in most midbrain regions. Thus, the adrenal gland and some catecholaminergic brain regions become activated in response to insulin administration and brain catecholamines may be important for initiation of physiological defences against insulin-induced hypoglycaemia.

  18. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karaca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0 was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. 

  19. Study of morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the neoplastic cachexia
    Estudo das alterações morfológicas da glândula adrenal na caquexia neoplásica

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Longo Mazzuco; Karina Garcia Cotrim; Alexandre Yukio Saito; Marcelo Abbá Macioszek; Eveline Aparecida Isquierdo Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculati...

  20. The effects of the first two rises of adrenal gland activity on survival of rats after whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffigny, Herve; Pasquier, Christian.

    1980-04-01

    Lethal irradiation of rats results in two rises of adrenal gland activity around the 3rd hour and the 3rd day following exposure respectively. The effects of each rise on survival of rats were studied during either reaction, 1) by inhibition of corticosterone synthesis by metopirone 2) by corticosterone injection to adrenalectomized rats. The first rise seemed deleterious to survival, whereas the second one was without effect. The specificity of adrenal reaction following exposure might explain the significance of the succession of other stresses for survival in the particular case of combined stresses [fr

  1. Effect of single x-irradiation on glucocorticoid function of adrenal glands of adult and old rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorban', Je.M.; Topol'nyikova, N.V.

    2001-01-01

    The peculiarities of short-term (1 h, 1 day) adrenal glucocorticoid function in adult and old rats after single x-irradiation at different doses was studied. changes in the glucocorticoid function of the adrenal glands at studied terms after single x-irradiation at used doses were observed in adult but not in old animals. This testifies to an age-related decrease in the range of adaptive possibilities of this link of the organism adaptive system to x-irradiation effects

  2. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabayegit Ozlem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

  3. The content of catecholamines in the adrenal glands and sections of the brain under hypokinesia and injection of some neurotropic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, B. E.; Paladiy, E. S.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of catecholamine content were studied in the adrenal glands and in various region of the brain of white rats under hypokinesia and injections of neurotropic agents. Profound changes in body catecholamine balance occured as a result of prolonged acute restriction of motor activity. Adrenalin retention increased and noradrenanalin retention decreased in the adrenal glands, hypothalamus, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Observed alterations in catecholamine retention varied depending upon the type of neurotropic substance utilized. Mellipramine increased catecholamine retention in the tissues under observation while spasmolytin brought about an increase in adrenalin concentration in the adrenals and a decrease in the brain.

  4. Acute adrenal crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adrenal gland is damaged due to, for example, Addison disease or other adrenal gland disease, and surgery The ... Call your health care provider if you have Addison disease and are unable to take your glucocorticoid medicine ...

  5. CYP2W1 is highly expressed in adrenal glands and is positively associated with the response to mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina L Ronchi

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical tumors comprise frequent adenomas (ACA and rare carcinomas (ACC. Human cytochrome P450 2W1 (CYP2W1 is highly expressed in some cancers holding the potential to activate certain drugs into tumor cytotoxins.To investigate the CYP2W1 expression in adrenal samples and its relationship with clinical outcome in ACC.CYP2W1 expression was investigated by qRT-PCR in 13 normal adrenal glands, 32 ACA, 25 ACC, and 9 different non-adrenal normal tissue samples and by immunohistochemistry in 352 specimens (23 normal adrenal glands, 33 ACA, 239 ACC, 67 non-adrenal normal or neoplastic samples.CYP2W1 mRNA expression was absent/low in normal non-adrenal tissues, but high in normal and neoplastic adrenal glands (all P<0.01 vs non-adrenal normal tissues. Accordingly, CYP2W1 immunoreactivity was absent/low (H-score 0-1 in 72% of non-adrenal normal tissues, but high (H-score 2-3 in 44% of non-adrenal cancers, in 65% of normal adrenal glands, in 62% of ACAs and in 50% of ACCs (all P<0.001 vs non-adrenal normal tissues, being significantly increased in steroid-secreting compared to non-secreting tumors. In ACC patients treated with mitotane only, high CYP2W1 immunoreactivity adjusted for ENSAT stage was associated with longer overall survival and time to progression (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively, and with a better response to therapy both as palliative (response/stable disease in 42% vs 6%, P<0.01 or adjuvant option (absence of disease recurrence in 69% vs 45%, P<0.01.CYP2W1 is highly expressed in both normal and neoplastic adrenal glands making it a promising tool for targeted therapy in ACC. Furthermore, CYP2W1 may represent a new predictive marker for the response to mitotane treatment.

  6. Consumption of sucrose from infancy increases the visceral fat accumulation, concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin, and generates abnormalities in the adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aguila, Yadira; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Zambrano, Elena; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Muñoz, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2016-03-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. One factor related to the appearance of MetS components is the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. In fact, the experimental generation of hyperglycemia has been associated with morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal glands of rats. We hypothesized that high sucrose consumption from infancy promotes histological disruption of the adrenal glands associated with the appearance of metabolic syndrome indicators. Male Wistar rats were separated at weaning (21 days old) into two groups: free access to tap water (control group, C) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (sugar-fed group). After 12 weeks, high sucrose consumption promoted an increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipose cell number, and insulin resistance. Also, a rise in the concentration of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, insulin and leptin was observed. In control rats, a histomorphometric asymmetry between the right and left adrenal glands was found. In the sugar-fed group, sucrose consumption produced a major change in adrenal gland asymmetry. No changes in corticosterone serum level were observed in either group. Our results suggest that a high sucrose liquid-diet from early life alters the morphology of adrenocortical zones, leading to MetS indicators.

  7. Adrenal gland hypofunction in active polymyalgia rheumatica. effect of glucocorticoid treatment on adrenal hormones and interleukin 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Straub, Rainer H; Foppiani, Luca; Prete, Camilla; Pulsatelli, Lia; Sulli, Alberto; Boiardi, Luigi; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Giusti, Massimo; Pizzorni, Carmen; Seriolo, Bruno; Salvarani, Carlo

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in patients with recent onset polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) not previously treated with glucocorticoids; and to detect possible correlations between adrenal hormone levels, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and other acute phase reactants at baseline and during 12 months of glucocorticoid treatment. Forty-one PMR patients of both sexes with recent onset disease and healthy sex and age matched controls were enrolled into a longitudinal study. Patients were monitored for serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (ASD), and clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity such as C-reactive protein and IL-6 concentrations at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of glucocorticoid treatment. To assess dynamic HPA axis function, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were evaluated in another 8 patients with recent onset PMR not treated with glucocorticoid in comparison to controls after challenge with ovine corticotropin releasing hormone (oCRH) test. In addition, serum cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels were evaluated after stimulation with low dose (1 microg) intravenous ACTH. Serum cortisol and ASD levels of all PMR patients at baseline did not differ from controls. During followup, cortisol levels dipped at one and 3 months. Serum DHEAS levels in all patients were significantly lower than in controls at baseline. In female PMR patients a significant correlation was found at baseline between cortisol levels and duration of disease. Serum concentrations of IL-6 at baseline were significantly higher in PMR patients than in controls. During 12 months of glucocorticoid treatment IL-6 levels dropped significantly at one month; thereafter they remained stable and did not increase again despite tapering of the glucocorticoid dose. After oCRH stimulation, a similar cortisol response was found in patients and controls. After ACTH

  8. Single-Session CT-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Hyperplasia Due to Ectopic ACTH Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Asha; Shyn, Paul B.; Vivian, Mark A.; Ng, Ju-Mei; Tuncali, Kemal; Lorch, Jorchen H.; Zaheer, Sarah N.; Gordon, Michael S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral adrenalectomy is currently the only available treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (ectopic ACTH syndrome) that is refractory to pharmacologic therapy. We describe two patients with refractory ectopic ACTH syndrome who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of both hyperplastic adrenal glands in a single session: One was not a surgical candidate, and the other had undergone unsuccessful surgery. Following the procedure, both patients achieved substantial decreases in serum cortisol, symptomatic improvement, and decreased anti-hypertensive medication requirements

  9. Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney and adrenal gland of rats following repeated exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin

    OpenAIRE

    Hassina Khaldoun Oularbi

    2014-01-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide widely used in pest management. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effects of LCT on the kidneys and adrenal glands of rats after subacute exposure. Twenty-eight 6-week-old male albino Rattus norvegicus rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, which received distilled water. The experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 received 20.4, 30.6 and 61.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of LCT, administ...

  10. Single-Session CT-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Hyperplasia Due to Ectopic ACTH Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Asha, E-mail: ashasarma@gmail.com; Shyn, Paul B., E-mail: pshyn@partners.org [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Vivian, Mark A. [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology (Canada); Ng, Ju-Mei [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology (United States); Tuncali, Kemal [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Lorch, Jorchen H. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine (United States); Zaheer, Sarah N.; Gordon, Michael S. [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Endocrinology (United States); Silverman, Stuart G. [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Bilateral adrenalectomy is currently the only available treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (ectopic ACTH syndrome) that is refractory to pharmacologic therapy. We describe two patients with refractory ectopic ACTH syndrome who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of both hyperplastic adrenal glands in a single session: One was not a surgical candidate, and the other had undergone unsuccessful surgery. Following the procedure, both patients achieved substantial decreases in serum cortisol, symptomatic improvement, and decreased anti-hypertensive medication requirements.

  11. Study of morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the neoplastic cachexia Estudo das alterações morfológicas da glândula adrenal na caquexia neoplásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Longo Mazzuco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional parameters, cachexia index and adrenal glands weight, were evaluated. Animals with tumor presented cachexia index of 16,6 ± 4%. Adrenal glands average weight was significantly higher in the tumor group (40 mg ± 10 than in the control group (25 mg ± 3. Adrenal cortex of animals with cachexia showed hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata and reticular layer, with voluminous spongiocytes; vascular congestion and stasis were observed in the medullar region. Results were similar in the pair and ad libitum-fed groups. Animals with cancer cachexia showed compromised morphology of the adrenal glands which showed alterations related to stress response, suggesting increased cathecolamine secretion and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.   Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional

  12. DDT (2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl) 1,1,1-trichloroethane) induced structural changes in adrenal glands of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, A.R.; Gautam, A.K.; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H. (National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad (India))

    1990-08-01

    Oldest chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, DDT was used widely to control pest and vector borne diseases in developing countries. Malaria and vector borne diseases can be econometrically controlled by DDT. Chronic and acute exposures to DDT result in systemic disorders in human as well as this confirmed in animals. Experimental study revealed that DDT caused the structural and functional changes in thyroid and reproductive system. The effects of DDT on adrenal glands are not well documented. Therefore this experimental investigation was undertaken to evaluate the histomorphological changes of adrenal gland after the treatment with DDT in rats.

  13. Metabolism of progesterone-4-14C in organ cultures of fetal adrenal glands in the human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.

    1979-01-01

    1. In 72 hours of incubation in two subsequent cultures, progesterone-4- 14 C was converted into different corticosteroids and androgenes by using explants of the adrenal glands in organ cultures, which were taken from a male fetus with a crown-to-rump length of 8.5 cm. In the most cases the water-dilutable metabolites are steroidsulfates. 2. The following individual progesterone metabolites were found: 17α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, 16α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, corticosterone-4- 14 C, cortisole-4- 14 C, cortisone-4- 14 C, androstendione-4- 14 C, and 11β-hydroxyandrostendione-4- 14 C. 3. These steroides let appear possible the presence and efficacy of the following enzyme systems: 17α-hydroxylase, 16α-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxysteroide-dehydrogenase, and Csub(17-20) desmolase. 4. Calculations of our dates by the analogue computer, which are present by now, apparently seem to render possible the kinetic of the corticosteroide biosynthesis in the tissue of fetal adrenal glands by organ cultures, because under the present conditions incubations can be carried out for considerably longer periods than by cell fractions, cell homogenates, and organ sections. (orig.) [de

  14. Expression and Role of the BDNF Receptor-TrkB in Rat Adrenal Gland under Acute Immobilization Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yusuke; Saruta, Juri; To, Masahiro; Shiiki, Naoto; Sato, Chikatoshi; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported that plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was maximally elevated following a 60-min period of acute immobilization stress and that salivary glands were the main source of plasma BDNF under this stress condition. However, the expression pattern of the BDNF receptor, Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), under this condition has yet to be determined. We therefore investigated the effect of this stress on the expression level of TrkB in various rat organs using real-time PCR. No significant differences were found between controls and 60 min-stressed rats with respect to TrkB level in various organs. Only adrenal glands showed significantly increased TrkB mRNA levels after 60 min of stress. TrkB mRNA and protein were observed to localize in chromaffin cells. In addition, we investigated whether BDNF-TrkB interaction influences the release of stress hormones from PC12 cells, derived from chromaffin cells. Truncated receptor, TrkB-T1, was identified in PC12 cells using RT-PCR. Exposure of PC12 cells to BDNF induced the release of catecholamine. This BDNF-evoked release was totally blocked by administration of the K252a in which an inhibitor of Trk receptors. Thus, BDNF-TrkB interactions may modulate catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells under acute stress conditions

  15. Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney and adrenal gland of rats following repeated exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassina Khaldoun Oularbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT is a type II pyrethroid insecticide widely used in pest management. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effects of LCT on the kidneys and adrenal glands of rats after subacute exposure. Twenty-eight 6-week-old male albino Rattus norvegicus rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, which received distilled water. The experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 received 20.4, 30.6 and 61.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of LCT, administered orally over 28 days. The effects of the insecticide on various biochemical parameters were evaluated at 14 and 28 days. Histopathological studies were carried out in the kidneys and adrenal glands at the end of the experiment. Lambda-cyhalothrin, as a pyrethroid insecticide, induced significant increases (P≤0.05 in plasma urea, creatinine, uric acid and glucose concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities after 14 and 28 days. In the rat plasma samples after 28 days, residual concentrations of LCT 1R, cis,

  16. Fibroadenoma in an ectopic vulvar breast gland: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Khadhar, A; Mlika, M; Braham, E; Ismail, O; Zegal, D; El Mezni, F

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. It can be found anywhere along the milk line extending from the axilla to the groin, and can occur in the vulva. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign or malignant pathologic processes. Less than 40 cases of fibroadenoma in the vulva have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman presenting a solitary vulvar mass. The mass was excised completely, and histology demonstrated an ectopic breast fibroadenoma. This is one of the few reports on the benign pathologies of vulvar mammary glands.

  17. An Evaluation on the Importance of Phosphotungstic Acid Haematoxyiin (PTAH Staining in Differential Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Yazdi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland neoplasm, microscopically, and two other common salivary gland neoplasms, meaning adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, is difficut.The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma regarding the staining intensity with PTAH and H&E and also to investigate the relationship between staining intensity with PTAH and malignancy grade in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. 72 paraffin embeded samples including 24 pleomorphic adenoma, 24 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 24 mucoepidermoid carcinoma were selected and stained with PTAH. The staining intensity in total, in nucleus and cytoplasm of tumoral cells were evaluated and compared with H&E staining, statistically. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests (P<0.05.The logistic model was presented to predict the degree of malignancies through the assessment of nucleus and cytoplasm staining intensity in tumoral cells, and the patient's age. In this study, a statistically significant relationship was observed between staining intensity by PTAH and H& E in nucleus of tumoral cells in pleomorphic adenoma. Moreover, statistically significant relation between staining intensity by PTAH and H & E in cytoplasm of tumoral cells in adenoid cystic carcinoma was found. But there was no relation in other cases. On the other hand, a statistically significant relation between intensity of staining in total, in nucleus and cytoplasm of tumoral cells and the type of tumor was found. No relation was obtained between malignancy grade of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and staining intensity in total, in nucleus and cytoplasm of tumoral cells. The presented logistic model indicated a direct relation between tumor malignancy with patient's age and staining intensity in nucleus of tumoral cells, but a

  18. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    The following items are discussed:anatomy and physiology of adrenal glands, clinical indications of scintigraphy, radiobiology and radiochemistry, scintigraphic imaging, adrenocortical hyperfunction, aldosteronism and hypertension associated with low renin level, excess of androgen, adrenocortical hyperfunction and future perspectives of adrenal scintigraphy. (M.A.) [pt

  19. Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two kinds of AI: • Primary AI, also called Addison’s disease. In this rare condition, the adrenal glands do ... org (search for adrenal) • Information about AI and Addison’s disease from the National Institutes of Health: www. endocrine. ...

  20. Radioablation of adrenal gland malignomas with interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Efficacy and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnike, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Magdeburg (Germany); DTZ am Frankfurter Tor, Berlin (Germany); Neumann, K.; Seidensticker, M.; Seidensticker, R.; Pech, M.; Streitparth, T.; Ricke, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Magdeburg (Germany); Hass, P.; Gademann, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Magdeburg (Germany); Klose, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Nieren- und Hochdruckkrankheiten, Diabetologie und Endokrinologie, Magdeburg (Germany); Garlipp, B.; Benckert, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Gefaesschirurgie, Magdeburg (Germany); Wendler, J.J.; Liehr, U.B.; Schostak, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Urologie und Kinderurologie, Magdeburg (Germany); Goeppner, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    To assess the efficacy, safety, and outcome of image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in patients with adrenal gland metastases (AGM). From January 2007 to April 2014, 37 patients (7 female, 30 male; mean age 66.8 years, range 41.5-82.5 years) with AGM from different primary tumors were treated with CT-guided HDR interstitial brachytherapy (iBT). Primary endpoint was local tumor control (LTC). Secondary endpoints were time to untreatable progression (TTUP), time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and safety. In a secondary analysis, risk factors with an influence on survival were identified. The median biological equivalent dose (BED) was 37.4 Gy. Mean LTC after 12 months was 88%; after 24 months this was 74%. According to CTCAE criteria, one grade 3 adverse event occurred. Median OS after first diagnosis of AGM was 18.3 months. Median OS, TTUP, and TTP after iBT treatment were 11.4, 6.6, and 3.5 months, respectively. Uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed significant influences of synchronous disease, tumor diameter, and the total number of lesions on OS or TTUP or both. Image-guided HDR-iBT is safe and effective. Treatment- and primary tumor-independent features influenced survival of patients with AGM after HDR-iBR treatment. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung der Effektivitaet, Sicherheit und Ergebnisse nach bildgefuehrter High-dose-rate-(HDR-)Brachytherapie bei Patienten mit Nebennierenmetastasen. Von Januar 2007 bis April 2014 wurden 37 Patienten (7 weiblich, 30 maennlich; mittleres Alter 66,8 Jahre, Spanne 41,5-82,5 Jahre) mit Nebennierenmetastasen verschiedener Primarien mit CT-gesteuerter interstitieller HDR-Brachytherapie (iBT) behandelt. Der primaere Endpunkt war die lokale Tumorkontrolle (LTC). Sekundaere Endpunkte umfassten die Zeit bis zum nicht mehr behandelbaren Progress (TTUP), die Zeit bis zum Progress (TTP), das Gesamtueberleben (OS) und die Sicherheit der Methode. In einer sekundaeren Analyse wurden Risikofaktoren

  1. Characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Francine; Sanchez, Rocio; Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Labrie, Yvan; Laudet, Vincent; Simard, Jacques

    2005-11-01

    The guinea pig adrenal gland, analogous to the human, possesses the capacity to synthesize C(19) steroids. In order to further understand the control of guinea pig adrenal steroidogenesis we undertook the characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4)-isomerase (3beta-HSD) expressed in the adrenal gland. A cDNA clone encoding guinea pig 3beta-HSD isolated from a guinea pig adrenal library is predicted to encode a protein of 373 amino acid residues and 41,475Da. Ribonuclease protection assay suggests that this cDNA corresponds to the predominant, if not the sole, mRNA species detectable in total RNA from the guinea pig adrenal gland, ovary and testis. The guinea pig 3beta-HSD shows a similar affinity for both pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and in addition, a 17beta-HSD type II-like activity was also observed. A phylogenetical analysis of the 3beta-HSD gene family demonstrates that the guinea pig is in a parallel branch to the myomorpha group supporting the hypothesis that the guinea pig lineage has branched off after the divergence among primates, artiodactyls and rodents, suggesting the paraphyly of the order rodentia.

  2. The diagnostic hurdle of an elderly male with bone pain: how 18F-FDG-PET led to diagnosis of a leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Vinken, Maarten; Mus, Roel; Flucke, Uta; Oyen, Wim J. G.; van der Graaf, Winette T.

    2009-01-01

    It is uncommon for patients to present with bone metastases while the primary tumor is still unknown. The case of a patient with bone metastases as primary presentation of leiomyosarcoma, who was diagnosed after a 18F-FDG PET-CT and a CT-guided biopsy of the adrenal gland is described. If after

  3. Large cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland: Laparoscopic treatment. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Agrusa

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment in case of diagnosis of benign lesions. In this case report we discussed a large adrenal cavernous hemangioma treated with laparoscopic approach. Fundamental is the study of preoperative endocrine disorders and radiologic findings to exclude signs of malignancy.

  4. Incidence of malignant neoplasm in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligerman, J.; Braz, J.M.; Cabas Neto, J. (Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1982-12-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultrasound results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients.

  5. Radioiodine labelling of tyramin derivatives of some digitalis glycosides and their aglyka for the scintiscanning of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focken, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    The first part of the present work deals with the synthesis and radio-iodination of tyramine derivatives of digitoxigenin, digoxigenin, gitoxigenin and their glycosides. In the second part, animal experiments on rats and dogs for organ-specific enrichment of the synthesized compounds are described. The regioselective reductive amination of cardenolide ketones and glycoside dialdehydes with tyramin is successful with sodium cyano-boron hydride as reducing agent. Monotyraminyl genins are produced from the aglyka whilst glycosides convert to mono- and dityraminyl glycosides. A known radio-iodination method is modified to meet the requirements of the present problem. The radio-iodination is carried out with the nuclides 123 I, 125 I and 131 I. Scintiscanning of the adrenal glands of rats and dogs is possible within a few hours with 131 I-3-tyraminyl-3-desoxi-digitoxigenin. (orig./AJ) [de

  6. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of adrenal gland cortex of sheep grazing on pastures with the ground of electrofilter ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juntes, P.; Pestevsek, U.; Pogacnik, M. [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-07-01

    Electrofilter ash is a side product of power plants using coal as a fuel. Trials for transforming ash covered areas into cultivated landscape are ongoing e.g., efforts to form grasslands that would be usable for animal breeding and production. However the question of how safe grazing is on such surfaces in relation to animal health and the use of animal products, produced on such surfaces, for human consumption has not been truly resolved yet. The main goal of our work is a systematic search for the possible negative effects on animals grazing on such surfaces. In this work we present the results of morphologic and morphometric analyses that were made to evaluate the potential toxic or some other impact of electrofilter ash constituents on the adrenal gland cortex. No conclusive evidence of such effects was determined in this study.

  7. Robotic assisted versus pure laparoscopic surgery of the adrenal glands: a case-control study comparing surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luca; Tartaglia, Dario; Bronzoni, Jessica; Palmeri, Matteo; Guadagni, Simone; Di Franco, Gregorio; Gennai, Andrea; Bianchini, Matteo; Bastiani, Luca; Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Fommei, Enza; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco

    2016-11-01

    The role of the da Vinci Robotic System ® in adrenal gland surgery is not yet well defined. The goal of this study was to compare robotic-assisted surgery with pure laparoscopic surgery in a single center. One hundred and 16 patients underwent minimally invasive adrenalectomies in our department between June 1994 and December 2014, 41 of whom were treated with a robotic-assisted approach (robotic adrenalectomy, RA). Patients who underwent RA were matched according to BMI, age, gender, and nodule dimensions, and compared with 41 patients who had undergone laparoscopic adrenalectomies (LA). Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test for independent samples, and the relationship between the operative time and other covariates were evaluated with a multivariable linear regression model. P surgery (p surgery.

  8. Irradiation with X-rays phase-advances the molecular clockwork in liver, adrenal gland and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mareike Hildegard; Rödel, Franz; Rüb, Udo; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-02-01

    The circadian clock of man and mammals shows a hierarchic organization. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), controls peripheral oscillators distributed throughout the body. Rhythm generation depends on molecular clockworks based on transcriptional/translational interaction of clock genes. Numerous studies have shown that the clockwork in peripheral oscillators is capable to maintain circadian rhythms for several cycles in vitro, i.e. in the absence of signals from the SCN. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of irradiation with X-rays on the clockwork of liver, adrenal and pancreas. To this end organotypic slice cultures of liver (OLSC) and organotypic explant cultures of adrenal glands (OAEC) and pancreas (OPEC) were prepared from transgenic mPer2(luc) mice which express luciferase under the control of the promoter of an important clock gene, Per2, and allow to study the dynamics of the molecular clockwork by bioluminometry. The preparations were cultured in a membrane-based liquid-air interface culturing system and irradiated with X-rays at doses of 10 Gy and 50 Gy or left untreated. Bioluminometric real-time recordings show a stable oscillation of all OLSC, OAEC and OPEC for up to 12 days in vitro. Oscillations persist after irradiation with X-rays. However, a dose of 50 Gy caused a phase advance in the rhythm of the OLSC by 5 h, in the OPEC by 7 h and in the OAEC by 6 h. Our study shows that X-rays affect the molecular clockwork in liver, pancreas and adrenal leading to phase advances. Our results confirm and extend previous studies showing a phase-advancing effect of X-rays at the level of the whole animal and single cells.

  9. Evaluation of steroid laboratory tests and adrenal gland imaging with radiocholesterol in the aetiological diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarino, A.; De Marinis, L.; Liberale, I.; Menini, E.

    1979-01-01

    Basal values of the urinary excretion of 17-oxogenic steroids and serum levels of cortisol were not satisfactory in the differentiation of 'suspected' subjects from patients with true Cushing's syndrome. With a RIA method for serum cortisol determination, the overnight dexamethasone suppression test provided the most reliable single test in establishing adrenocortical hyperfunction. Thirty-five normal subjects, fifty-nine obese patients, thirteen 'suspected' patients and thirteen patients with disease states other than Cushing's syndrome had suppressed values below 4.0 μg/100 ml. None of the ten patients with Cushing's syndrome had a cortisol concentration less than 16.3 μg/100ml. Adrenal gland scintigraphy after radiocholesterol injection is a more valuable tool than the metyrapone test and the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test in the localization and differential diagnosis of adrenocortical lesions causing Cushing's syndrome. It obviates the need for angiographic procedure in the localization of adenomas. It is a reliable technique for identifying functioning adrenal remnants. Therefore a schedule is proposed for studying patients with suspected adrenocortical hyperfunction. (author)

  10. Ewing's sarcoma arising from the adrenal gland in a young male: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Muhammad Nauman; Ansari, Tayyaba Zehra; Moatter, Tariq; Memon, Wasim; Pervez, Shahid

    2013-12-13

    Ewing's sarcoma uncommonly arises from extraosseous soft tissue or parenchymal organs. Primary adrenal Ewing's Sarcoma, although very rare, is extremely aggressive and commonly fatal. A 17 year old Pakistani male was referred to the outpatient oncology clinic at our center with a three month history of concomitant pain, swelling and dragging sensation in the right hypochondrium. Abdominal examination revealed a large, firm mass in the right hypochondrium extending into the right lumbar region and epigastrium. His genital exam was unremarkable and there were no stigmata of hepatic or adrenal disease.Computed tomography scans revealed a large peripherally enhancing mass in the hepatorenal area, biopsy of which showed a neoplastic lesion composed of small round blue cells which exhibited abundance of glycogen and stained diffusely positive for CD99 (MIC2 antigen). Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated gene rearrangement at chromosome 22q12 which confirmed the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. Staging scans revealed pulmonary metastasis and hence he was commenced on systemic chemotherapy. This case report highlights the importance of keeping Ewing's sarcoma in mind when a young patient presents with a large non-functional adrenal mass.

  11. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Latypov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  12. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Latypov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  13. Assessment of diagnostic methods in adrenal gland hemorrhage in neonates on the basis of own material from the years 2007-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postek, G.; Streich, H.; Narebski, K.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed a group of nine neonates diagnosed with adrenal gland hemorrhage in the years 2007-2011, to evaluate diagnostic methods. We assessed risk factors and factors predisposing to hemorrhage. Severe and moderate perinatal hypoxia was found in 5 cases, while sepsis in 4 cases. Three patients had bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. All patients underwent ultrasound examination and color Doppler US. Their levels of vanillyl-mandelic acid in 24-h urine collection were normal. A complete regression of changes without evidence of adrenal hemorrhage or vascular flow on color Doppler US was found in the period from the 20 th to the 165 th day of life. Conclusions: 1. Color Doppler ultrasound findings, observation of the evolution of changes and a lack of vascular flow in adrenal glands, are suggestive of bleeding. Color Doppler ultrasound seems to be the most important diagnostic method. 2. The level of urinary catecholamine metabolites (vanillyl-mandelic acid) does not fulfill the role of screening test for neuroblastoma. However, increased levels of these metabolites may suggest a diagnosis other than the adrenal hemorrhage. (authors)

  14. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Tadashi; Naka, Sadahiro; Ikeda, Hayato; Horitsugi, Genki; Kanai, Yasukazu; Isohashi, Kayako; Ishibashi, Mana; Kato, Hiroki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11)C-Donepezil (DNP) and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. The distribution of (11)C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g). A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11)C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq). The whole-body distribution of the (11)C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume) by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11)C-DNP in the body (following the liver) (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3), respectively), indicating that the distribution of (11)C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach) (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively), indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11)C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11)C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  15. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Watabe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11C-Donepezil (DNP and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. METHODS: The distribution of (11C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g. A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq. The whole-body distribution of the (11C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. RESULTS: The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11C-DNP in the body (following the liver (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3, respectively, indicating that the distribution of (11C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively, indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  16. Circadian expression of steroidogenic cytochromes P450 in the mouse adrenal gland--involvement of cAMP-responsive element modulator in epigenetic regulation of Cyp17a1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košir, Rok; Zmrzljak, Ursula Prosenc; Bele, Tanja; Acimovic, Jure; Perse, Martina; Majdic, Gregor; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Rozman, Damjana

    2012-05-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes Cyp51, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Cyb11b1, Cyp11b2 and Cyp21a1 are involved in the adrenal production of corticosteroids, whose circulating levels are circadian. cAMP signaling plays an important role in adrenal steroidogenesis. By using cAMP responsive element modulator (Crem) knockout mice, we show that CREM isoforms contribute to circadian expression of steroidogenic CYPs in the mouse adrenal gland. Most striking was the CREM-dependent hypomethylation of the Cyp17a1 promoter at zeitgeber time 12, which resulted in higher Cyp17a1 mRNA and protein expression in the knockout adrenal glands. The data indicate that products of the Crem gene control the epigenetic repression of Cyp17 in mouse adrenal glands. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  17. Ewing sarcoma of the adrenal gland: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddaoualline, Hanane; Mazouz, Khadija; Rafiq, Bouchra; El Mghari Tabib, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal; Belbaraka, Rhizlane; El Omrani, Abdelhamid; Khouchani, Mouna

    2018-03-16

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a family of highly malignant proliferation of neuroectodermal origin, most often skeletal, adrenal localization is extremely rare. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. Classical management includes radical surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or both. This case report is the only one where recurrence was surgically removed, and it confirms the importance of adjuvant treatment, and the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We report the case of a 23-year-old Moroccan woman presenting with flank pain. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a large and enhancing left suprarenal mass. After radical nephrectomy, histologic examination revealed a small round cell proliferation. The diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma was confirmed by molecular analysis; time to final diagnosis was 5 months due to financial and coordination issues. Computed tomography (on an asymptomatic patient) revealed a locoregional recurrence, our patient received 12 cycles of the vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide/ifosfamide and etoposide protocol used in an alternating schedule, with partial radiologic response (62%) and pathologic complete response, then underwent adjuvant radiotherapy of 45 Gy. The young women is still in remission after 36 months of follow-up. Our patient had an early recurrence due to absence of adjuvant treatment, but did respond well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with a pathologic complete response. Management of adrenal Ewing sarcoma could be extrapolated from skeletal one with good outcomes even in locoregional recurrence.

  18. Gallium-68 DOTA-TATE Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Scintigraphic Changes of Adrenal Glands Following Management of Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome by Steroidogenesis Inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Aziz, Shaikh Irfan; Kumar, Aravind S. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    In the era of emerging functional imaging techniques, an understanding of the effects of hormonal therapies on the scintigraphic appearance of endocrine organs is desirable to minimize the erroneous scan interpretation. The mechanisms by which changes in the scintigraphic appearance of endocrine organs occur however sometimes remain ambiguous. This case demonstrates the gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) appearance of adrenal glands following management with steroidogenesis inhibitors. The potential mechanisms underlying this change are discussed. A 17-year-old boy with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion underwent pre- and post-metyrapone and dexamethasone treatment Ga-68 DOTA-TATE scans 4 months apart. Pretreatment, both adrenals demonstrated normal symmetrical prominent Ga-68 DOTA-TATE uptake and normal CT appearance. The posttherapy scan revealed marked symmetrical suppression of Ga-68 DOTA-TATE uptake, but with bilateral adrenal hypertrophy on CT

  19. The hormonal and radiological evaluation of adrenal glands, and the determination of the usefulness of low dose ACTH test in patients with renal amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Z; Keleştimur, F; Durak, A C; Utaş, C; Büyükberber, M; Düşünsel, R; Kurtoğlu, S; Poyrazoglu, M H

    2001-03-01

    Amyloidosis is a multisystem disease which may cause organ loss. Renal involvement is the most common clinical problem in amyloidosis, however involvement of endocrin organs is possible. In this study to assess adrenocortical function and to evaluate the usefulness of low dose ACTH test in patients with renal amyloidosis, we determined cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesteron (17-OHP) and 11-deoxycortisol (11-DOC) responses to both 1 microg and 250 microg Synacthen. We also determined the size of adrenal glands radiologically by using computerized tomography. Twenty one patients with renal amyloidosis and 16 healthy subjects for hormonal evaluation, and 20 patients with renal amyloidosis and 22 healthy subjects for radiologic evaluation were included in the study. In four patients (19%) peak serum cortisol levels following stimulation with the low dose of Synacthen were less than 20 microg/dL (550 nmol/L). Two of them had also subnormal cortisol response to the 250 microg Synacthen stimulation test. Basal and stimulated levels of 11-DOC were lower than those of control values (p=0.000 and p<0.01 respectively). The mean 11-DOC responses to stimulation with 1 microg Synacthen were also significantly lower than the values obtained after the simulation with 250 microg Synacthen (p<0.01 and p=0.000). Cortisol responses to the stimulation with 250 microg Synacthen were also lower than the control responses (p<0.05). 17-OHP responses were similar to the control values in both tests. In the radiological evaluation the mean maximum width of right adrenal glands and the mean anterior and maximum width of left adrenal glands were significantly greater in the patient group (p<0.01). In conclusion, adrenal involvement and adrenal insufficiency is common in amyloidosis. Low 11-DOC levels in amyloidosis is a new finding and further detailed studies is required to explain its cause.

  20. Irradiated diets and its effect on testes and adrenal gland of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the feeding effects of irradiated normal diet (consisting of equal parts of gram and wheat) and irradiated low protein diet (consisting one part of normal diet and three parts of wheat) on male rats for various periods starting from weaning time. Rats maintained on irradiated low protein diets showed decrease in the activity of androgen sensitive enzymes i.e., alkaline and acid phosphatase while an increase in the cholesterol content of the testes compared with irradiated normal controls. Diminution in androgen sensitive enzymes and accumulation of cholesterol in the rat testes suggest non-conversion of cholesterol into steriod hormones after feeding of irradiated low protein. Besides, rats fed on irradiated low protein diet showed increased cellular activity in the adrenal cortex and medulla as compared to rats fed on the irradiated normal diet. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Role of ascorbic acid on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the adrenal gland of guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y; Sanada, H; Suzue, R; Kawada, S [National Inst. of Nutrition, Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    The decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenal homogenate in scurvy was recovered after the administration of ascorbic acid. The causes of the increase in the enzyme activity after the administration of ascorbic acid have been studied. 1. No significant elevation in the enzyme activity was observed after the administration of reserpine to the scorbutic guinea pig. 2. A dose of metal chelating agent, ..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..'-dipyridyl, prevented the ascorbic acid-induced or reserpine-induced increase in enzyme activity in the scorbutic and the nonscorbutic guinea pigs, respectively. 3. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was partially recovered by the administration of FeSO/sub 4/ to the scorbutic guinea pig. From these results, it became clear that the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase which was not observed in scurvy was due to the deficiency of Fe/sup 2 +/. These results suggested that ascorbic acid affected the induction of this enzyme via Fe/sup 2 +/.

  2. Role of ascorbic acid on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the adrenal gland of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Yoko; Sanada, Hiroo; Suzue, Ryokuero; Kawada, Shoji

    1976-01-01

    The decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenal homogenate in scurvy was recovered after the administration of ascorbic acid. The causes of the increase in the enzyme activity after the administration of ascorbic acid have been studied. 1. No significant elevation in the enzyme activity was observed after the administration of reserpine to the scorbutic guinea pig. 2. A dose of metal chelating agent, α, α'-dipyridyl, prevented the ascorbic acid-induced or reserpine-induced increase in enzyme activity in the scorbutic and the nonscorbutic guinea pigs, respectively. 3. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was partially recovered by the administration of FeSO 4 to the scorbutic guinea pig. From these results, it became clear that the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase which was not observed in scurvy was due to the deficiency of Fe 2+ . These results suggested that ascorbic acid affected the induction of this enzyme via Fe 2+ . (auth.)

  3. Dynamics of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript containing cell changes in the adrenal glands of two kidney, one clip rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Janiuk, Izabela; Zbucki, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Taking into consideration the homeostatic disorders resulting from renal hypertension and the essential role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in maintaining homeostasis by regulating many functions of the body, the question arises as to what extent the renovascular hypertension affects the morphology and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution, morphology, and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands of "two kidney, one clip" (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the adrenal glands of rats after 3, 14, 28, 42, and 91 days from the renal artery clipping procedure. To identify neuroendocrine cells, immunohistochemical reaction was performed with the use of a specific antibody against CART. It was revealed that renovascular hypertension causes changes in the endocrine cells containing CART in the adrenal glands of rats. The changes observed in the endocrine cells depend on the time when the rats with experimentally induced hypertension were examined. In the first period of hypertension, the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells were decreased, while from the 28-day test, it significantly increased, as compared to the control rats. CART is relevant to the regulation of homeostasis in the cardiovascular system and seems to be involved in renovascular hypertension. The results of the present work open the possibility of new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of arterial hypertension, since CART function is involved in their pathophysiology. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  4. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Ceccanti; Sara De Nicolò; Rosanna Mancinelli; George Chaldakov; Valentina Carito; Marco Ceccanti; Giovanni Laviola; Paola Tirassa; Marco Fiore

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA an...

  5. Inflammation and oxidative stress are elevated in the brain, blood, and adrenal glands during the progression of post-traumatic stress disorder in a predator exposure animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Brad; McLaughlin, Leslie D; Nair, Anand; Ebenezer, Philip J; Dange, Rahul; Francis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to analyze specific pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the progression of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by utilizing an animal model. To examine PTSD pathophysiology, we measured damaging reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines to determine if oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, adrenal glands, and systemic circulation were upregulated in response to constant stress. Pre-clinical PTSD was induced in naïve, male Sprague-Dawley rats via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress regimen. PTSD group rats were secured in Plexiglas cylinders and placed in a cage with a cat for one hour on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day stress regimen. In addition, PTSD group rats were subjected to psychosocial stress whereby their cage cohort was changed daily. This model has been shown to cause heightened anxiety, exaggerated startle response, impaired cognition, and increased cardiovascular reactivity, all of which are common symptoms seen in humans with PTSD. At the conclusion of the predator exposure/psychosocial stress regimen, the rats were euthanized and their brains were dissected to remove the hippocampus, amygdala, and pre-frontal cortex (PFC), the three areas commonly associated with PTSD development. The adrenal glands and whole blood were also collected to assess systemic oxidative stress. Analysis of the whole blood, adrenal glands, and brain regions revealed oxidative stress increased during PTSD progression. In addition, examination of pro-inflammatory cytokine (PIC) mRNA and protein demonstrated neurological inflammatory molecules were significantly upregulated in the PTSD group vs. controls. These results indicate oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, adrenal glands, and systemic circulation may play a critical role in the development and further exacerbation of PTSD. Thus, PTSD may not be solely a neurological pathology but may progress as a systemic condition involving multiple organ systems.

  6. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  7. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; De Nicolò, Sara; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Chaldakov, George; Carito, Valentina; Ceccanti, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Tirassa, Paola; Fiore, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  8. Aberrant expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands of a patient with Cushing's syndrome and ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia Expresion aberrante de receptores de glucagón en tejido adrenal de un paciente con síndrome de Cushing e hiperplasia adrenal macronodular indedependiente de ACTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria de Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH is a rare cause of Cushing´s syndrome, characterized by bilateral adrenal lesions and excess cortisol production despite ACTH suppression. Cortisol synthesis is produced in response to abnormal activation of G-protein- coupled receptors, such as gastric inhibitory peptide, vasopressin, beta adrenergic agonists, LH/hCG and serotonin receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands from an AIMAH patient. A patient with ACTH-independent Cushing´s syndrome and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia was screened for altered activation of adrenal receptors by physiological (mixed meal and pharmacological (gonadotrophin releasing hormone, ACTH and glucagon tests. The results showed abnormally high levels of serum cortisol after stimulation with glucagon. Hypercortisolism was successfully managed with ketoconazole treatment. Interestingly, a 4-month treatment with a somatostatin analogue (octreotide was also able to reduce cortisol secretion. Finally, Cushing's syndrome was cured after bilateral adrenalectomy. Abnormal mRNA expression for glucagon receptor in the patient´s adrenal glands was observed by Real-Time PCR procedure. These results strongly suggest that the mechanism of AIMAH causing Cushing´s syndrome in this case involves the illicit activation of adrenal glucagon receptors. This is the first case reported of AIMAH associated with ectopic glucagon receptors.La hiperplasia adrenal macronodular bilateral independiente de ACTH (HAMIA es una causa infrecuente de Síndrome de Cushing, caracterizada por lesiones adrenales bilaterales, hipercortisolismo y ACTH plasmática suprimida. La síntesis de cortisol estaría regulada a través de ligandos de receptores asociados a proteína G que se expresan en forma aberrante en la corteza de las glándulas adrenales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar

  9. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español NICHD Theme Browse AZTopics Browse A-Z Adrenal Gland Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Down Syndrome Endometriosis Learning ... Funding Opportunities & Notices Health A to Z List Adrenal Gland Disorders About NICHD Research Information Find a Study More ...

  10. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM cetacean unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay, Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003 and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003. In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths.

  11. Impact of chronic hypoxemia on blood flow to the brain, heart, and adrenal gland in the late-gestation IUGR sheep fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Rajan; McMillen, I Caroline; Dunn, Stacey L; Zhang, Song; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-02-01

    In the fetus, there is a redistribution of cardiac output in response to acute hypoxemia, to maintain perfusion of key organs, including the brain, heart, and adrenal glands. There may be a similar redistribution of cardiac output in the chronically hypoxemic, intrauterine growth-restricted fetus. Surgical removal of uterine caruncles in nonpregnant ewe results in the restriction of placental growth (PR) and intrauterine growth. Vascular catheters were implanted in seven control and six PR fetal sheep, and blood flow to organs was determined using microspheres. Placental and fetal weight was significantly reduced in the PR group. Despite an increase in the relative brain weight in the PR group, there was no difference in blood flow to the brain between the groups, although PR fetuses had higher blood flow to the temporal lobe. Adrenal blood flow was significantly higher in PR fetuses, and there was a direct relationship between mean gestational PaO2 and blood flow to the adrenal gland. There was no change in blood flow, but a decrease in oxygen and glucose delivery to the heart in the PR fetuses. In another group, there was a decrease in femoral artery blood flow in the PR compared with the Control group, and this may support blood flow changes to the adrenal and temporal lobe. In contrast to the response to acute hypoxemia, these data show that there is a redistribution of blood flow to the adrenals and temporal lobe, but not the heart or whole brain, in chronically hypoxemic PR fetuses in late gestation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Neurotrophins and their receptors in the rat pituitary gland: regulation of BDNF and trkB mRNA levels by adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononen, J; Soinila, S; Persson, H; Honkaniemi, J; Hökfelt, T; Pelto-Huikko, M

    1994-12-01

    We studied the expression of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in the rat pituitary gland and examined the influence of adrenal hormones on their mRNA levels, using in situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis. The only neurotrophin present at detectable levels in the pituitary was brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which was observed in the anterior and intermediate lobes. Several transcripts of the putative receptor for BDNF, trkB, were present in the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. A low amount of trkC mRNA was found in both the anterior and the intermediate lobe. Dexamethasone treatment decreased both BDNF and trkB mRNA levels in the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Adrenalectomy had no effect on trkB expression, but it decreased BDNF mRNA levels in comparison to the control animals. This effect could not be reversed by dexamethasone substitution, suggesting that BDNF, mRNA levels may be regulated not only by glucocorticoids but also by other adrenal hormones. These results demonstrate that BDNF, trkB and trkC are expressed in the pituitary gland and that glucocorticoids and possibly other adrenal hormones may modulate pituitary functions by regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. Whether BDNF acts as a secreted hormone, a trophic factor, or has autocrine/paracrine functions within the pituitary through its receptor, trkB, remains to be studied.

  13. Dynamics and distribution of /sup 3/H-dopamine in serum and tissues of heart, brain and adrenal glands of rats with endotoxic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainov, A; Boschkov, B; Nikolov, N [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1980-04-01

    The dynamics and the distribution of /sup 3/H-dopamine in the serum and tissues of the heart, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and adrenal glands were studied in 60 Wistar rats. The rats received intravenously 7.4 MBq /sup 3/H-dopamine/kg body weight 10 minutes before they were killed. The experimental animals were subjected to endotoxic shock by injecting them with 2 mg endotoxin of E. coli O 111:B/sub 4//kg body weight, and killed after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min, respectively. Maximum increase of the tritium activity in the organs investigated was observed 20 min after the shock.

  14. Relationship of serum lipids to adrenal-gland uptake of 6β-[131I] iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol in Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valk, T.W.; Gross, M.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.P.; Schteingart, D.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    An alteration in serum cholesterol levels has been suggested as a possible modifier of adrenal uptake of the cholesterol analog, 6β-[ 131 I]iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59). To assess the effect of hypercholesterolemia upon NP-59 adrenal uptake, patients with Cushing's syndrome (eight with pituitary-dependent, four with ACTH-independent, and two with ectopic-ACTH syndrome) were selected for retrospective analysis based on the availability of serum cholesterol (n = 14) and triglyceride (n = 10) concentrations obtained at the time of adrenal scintigraphy. A negative correlation (r = -0.78, p < 0.01) was found between NP-59 uptake and serum cholesterol levels in patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. Compared with pituitary-dependent disease, the ectopic-ACTH syndrome and ACTH-independent states demonstrated equal or greater adrenal uptake of NP-59 at similar serum cholesterol concentrations. Serum triglyceride concentrations did not correlate with total adrenal uptake of NP-59 in any of the patient groups studied. Increased serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with diminished adrenal uptake of NP-59, and in some cases may limit the diagnoic efficacy of adrenal scintigraphy in Cushing's syndrome

  15. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... view of the patient’s internal organs on a television screen. Other cannulas are inserted which allow your ... clearly Bleeding problems during the operation Certain tumor characteristics such as large size or invasion into adjacent ...

  16. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  17. Clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial neoplasms: Focus on tumors with a gastric mucin phenotype (pyloric gland-type tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Mitsuishi

    Full Text Available Epithelial tumors less commonly occur in the duodenum than in the stomach or large intestine. The clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial tumors remain a matter of debate. We therefore studied resected specimens to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial tumors.Among duodenal epithelial tumors resected endoscopically or surgically in our hospital, we studied the clinicopathological characteristics of 110 adenomas or intramucosal carcinomas. The grade of atypia of all tumors was classified into 3 groups according to the World Health Organization (WHO 2010 classification. The tumors were immunohistochemically evaluated to determine the frequency of differentiation toward fundic glands.As for patient characteristics, there were 76 men (75.2% and 25 women (24.8%, with a median age of 65 years (range, 34 to 84. The tumors most commonly arose in the first to second part of the duodenum. Many lesions were flat, and the median tumor diameter was 8.0 mm. The lesions were classified into 2 types according to mucin phenotype: intestinal-type tumors (98 lesions, 89.1% and gastric-type tumors (12 lesions, 10.9%. Intestinal-type tumors were subdivided into 2 groups: tubular-type tumors (91 lesions, 82.7% and tubulovillous-type tumors (7 lesions, 6.4%. Gastric-type tumors were classified into 2 types: foveolar type (3 lesions, 2.7% and pyloric gland-type (PG tumors (9 lesions, 8.2%. The grade of atypia was significantly higher in gastric-type tumors (p<0.01. PG tumors were gastric-type tumors characterized by pyloric glands and findings suggesting differentiation toward fundic glands.About 10% of the duodenal tumors had a gastric-type mucin phenotype. Gastric-type tumors showed high-grade atypia. In particular, PG tumors showed similarities to PG tumors of the stomach, such as differentiation toward fundic glands.

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS AND PATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS IN ADRENAL SWELLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saju P. R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The adrenal gland neoplasms include primary and metastatic malignant tumours. They can be functional or non-functional and also detected as incidentaloma lesions. Advanced imaging often reveals adrenal tumours and tumour-like conditions in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Even with the functional study and advanced imaging, preoperative diagnosis is always challenging. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of adrenal tumours performed during July 2014-April 2016 was done. Total 7 cases were included. Case records and histopathology reports were reviewed to collect data. RESULTS Majority were females (85% with mean age of 50 years. 71% patients presented symptomatically and incidentaloma was noticed in 29%. Functional tumours were found in 71%. 42% discrepancy were noted between the radiological and final histopathological findings. 28% noted in benign lesions and 14% in malignant conditions. CONCLUSION In the current era, even though imaging can aid in diagnosis, histopathology still remains as gold standard investigation in adrenal tumours.

  19. Imaging findings of neonatal adrenal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bo Kyung; Lee, Min Hee

    1999-01-01

    In newborn infants, normal adrenal glands are characterized by a relatively thin echogenic center surrounded by a thick, hypoechoic cortical rim as seen on ultrasound (US). Various disorders involving the neonatal adrenal gland include adrenal hemorrhage, hyperplasia, cyst, Wolman's disease, and congenital neuroblastoma. Adrenal hemorrhage is the most common cause of an adrenal mass in the neonate, though differentiation between adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma is in many cases difficult. We describe characteristic US, CT and MR imaging findings in neonates with various adrenal disorders

  20. Imaging findings of neonatal adrenal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bo Kyung; Lee, Min Hee [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    In newborn infants, normal adrenal glands are characterized by a relatively thin echogenic center surrounded by a thick, hypoechoic cortical rim as seen on ultrasound (US). Various disorders involving the neonatal adrenal gland include adrenal hemorrhage, hyperplasia, cyst, Wolman's disease, and congenital neuroblastoma. Adrenal hemorrhage is the most common cause of an adrenal mass in the neonate, though differentiation between adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma is in many cases difficult. We describe characteristic US, CT and MR imaging findings in neonates with various adrenal disorders.

  1. Mismatch repair protein deficient endometrioid adenocarcinomas, metastasizing to adrenal gland and lymph nodes: Unusual cases with diagnostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Rekhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, certain endometrial carcinomas have been found to be associated with mismatch repair (MMR protein defects/deficiency. A 39-year-old female presented with cough, decreased appetite and significant weight loss since 2 months. Earlier, she had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Imaging disclosed an 8 cm-sized adrenal mass that was surgically excised. Histopathology of the adrenal tumor, endocervical tumor, and endometrial biopsy revealed Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO Grade II to III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, PAX8, MLH1 and PMS2 while negative for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A 34-year-old lady presented with vaginal bleeding since 9 months. She underwent TAH-BSO, reported as FIGO Grade III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were negative for ER, PR, MLH1, and PMS2 while positive for MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, she developed multiple nodal and pericardial metastases and succumbed to the disease within a year post-diagnosis. Certain high-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas occurring in younger women are MMR protein deficient and display an aggressive clinical course. Adrenal metastasis in endometrial carcinomas is rare.

  2. Application of a protocol for magnetic resonance spectroscopy of adrenal glands: an experiment with over 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Homero José de Farias E; Goldman, Suzan M; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Faria, Juliano F; Huayllas, Martha K P; Andreoni, Cássio; Kater, Cláudio E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a protocol for two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (Siemens Medical Systems; Erlangen, Germany) in the detection of adrenal nodules and differentiation between benign and malignant masses (adenomas, pheochromocytomas, carcinomas and metastases). A total of 118 patients (36 men; 82 women) (mean age: 57.3 ± 13.3 years) presenting with 138 adrenal nodules/masses were prospectively assessed. A multivoxel system was utilized with a 2D point-resolved spectroscopy/chemical shift imaging sequence. The following ratios were calculated: choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr), 4.0-4.3/Cr, lipid (Lip)/Cr, Cho/Lip and lactate (Lac)/Cr. 2D-1H-MRS was successful in 123 (89.13%) lesions. Sensitivity and specificity values observed for the ratios and cutoff points were the following: Cho/Cr ≥ 1.2, 100% sensitivity, 98.2% specificity (differences between adenomas/pheochromocytomas and carcinomas/ metastases); 4.0-4.3 ppm/Cr ≥ 1.5, 92.3% sensitivity, 96.9% specificity (differences between carcinomas/pheochromocytomas and adenomas/metastases); Lac/Cr ≤ -7.449, 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity (differences between pheochromocytomas and carcinomas/adenomas). Information provided by 2D-1H-MRS were effective and allowed for the differentiation between adrenal masses and nodules in most cases of lesions with > 1.0 cm in diameter.

  3. Effects of grafts of single anterior pituitary glands on the incidence and type of mammary neoplasm in neutron- or γ-irradiated Fischer female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Douple, E.B.; Sridharan, B.N.

    1976-01-01

    Three batches comprised of 48 young adult Fischer female rats each were subjected to total-body irradiation with 50 rads modified fission neutrons, or were given 600 rads 137 Cs γ-rays, or served as unirradiated controls. On the day following exposure, one-half of each batch was grafted with a single anterior pituitary gland beneath the left kidney capsule. The animals were observed for mammary neoplasia and all those that died during the experiment were autopsied. The experiment was terminated 538 +- 13 days after irradiation when all neutron-irradiated, pituitary-grafted animals had one or more mammary tumors. Only 2 of the 23 untreated rats that survived until termination of the experiment developed mammary fibroadenomas, and none had mammary carcinomas. The incidence of fibroadenomas was increased, and a single carcinoma was found in unirradiated rats with pituitary grafts. Irradiation alone caused an increase in the incidence of mammary fibroadenomas and the appearance of carcinomas. Fibroadenomas were markedly increased by the addition of pituitary grafts to irradiation. Carcinoma incidence was less markedly affected. The neutron dose of 50 rads was slightly more effective in inducing mammary neoplasms than the 600-rad dose of γ-rays

  4. Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland with Synchronous Benign and Malignant Follicular Cell-Derived Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is the most common origin for metastasis in the thyroid. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a subcarinal lesion. Ten years before, the patient had undergone a nephrectomy for CCRCC. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed elevated values in the thyroid gland, while the mediastinum was normal. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass was consistent with CCRCC, and this was confirmed after resection. The thyroidectomy specimen also revealed lymphocytic thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia, one follicular adenoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and six foci of metastatic CCRCC involving both thyroid lobes. Curiously two of the six metastatic foci were located inside two adenomatoid nodules (tumor-in-tumor. The metastatic cells were positive for cytokeratins, CD10, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. No BRAF gene mutations were found in any of the primary and metastatic lesions. The patient was treated with sunitinib and finally died due to CCRCC distant metastases 6 years after the thyroidectomy. In CCRCC patients, a particularly prolonged survival rate may be achieved with the appropriate therapy, in contrast to the ominous prognosis typically found in patients with thyroid metastases from other origins.

  5. [Addison's disease : Primary adrenal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulzer, A; Burger-Stritt, S; Hahner, S

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal insufficiency, a rare disorder which is characterized by the inadequate production or absence of adrenal hormones, may be classified as primary adrenal insufficiency in case of direct affection of the adrenal glands or secondary adrenal insufficiency, which is mostly due to pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Primary adrenal insufficiency affects 11 of 100,000 individuals. Clinical symptoms are mainly nonspecific and include fatigue, weight loss, and hypotension. The diagnostic test of choice is dynamic testing with synthetic ACTH. Patients suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency require lifelong hormone supplementation. Education in dose adaption during physical and mental stress or emergency situations is essential to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises. Patients with adrenal insufficiency should carry an emergency card and emergency kit with them.

  6. A case report of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the right adrenal gland successfully treated with chemotherapy and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Toshiya; Komiyama, Sosuke; Ikoma, Hisashi; Kubota, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Shojiro; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Sakakura, Chohei; Kokuba, Yukihito; Sonoyama, Teruhisa; Otsuji, Eigo

    2010-08-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma has a poor prognosis, especially when associated with distant metastasis. A 60-year-old man was admitted to a private hospital because of dyspnea at work in 2007. Computed tomography revealed lung infarction and a right adrenal tumor sized 12 cm in diameter that was tightly compressed against the inferior vena cava (IVC). Moreover, multiple lymph node metastases around the celiac axis and a solitary liver metastasis at the lateral segment were observed. Thus, we planned chemotherapy without surgery. We selected a combination therapy of irinotecan (CPT-11) and cisplatin (CDDP) (i.e., IP therapy): administration of CDDP [60 mg/m(2) body surface area (BSA)] on day 1 plus CPT-11 (80 mg/m(2)) BSA on days 1 and 8. Thereafter, this protocol was repeated at 3-week intervals. After 15 months of this chemotherapy strategy, the whole lesions showed a partial response by RECIST. The primary tumor had shrunk to 4.2 cm in diameter. In November 2008, we planned surgery to perform resection of the whole lesions. Histological diagnosis of the specimen was a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma based on the immunostaining features, i.e., synaptophysin- and chromogranin positive. There were no viable tumor cells at the dissected lymph nodes or at the liver tumor. After surgery, CPT-11 administration was continued. The patient has remained well for 9 months without recurrence.

  7. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3- 125 I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci

  8. Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab S. Shaikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas are extremely rare tumors presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Patients succumb to metastases within a couple of months. As a result, very few cases are reported in the literature until now. We present a case of a 62-year old female with non-functional sarcomatoid carcinoma of the right adrenal gland. There was no radiological evidence of locoregional metastases. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Follow up after 3 months showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy and similar left adrenal mass on computed tomography. Patient refused further treatment and succumbed to the disease. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  9. Differential diagnosis in the sonographic evaluation of adrenal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, F.; Fagioli Zucchi, A.; Saloni, E.; Terrosi Vagnoli, P.; Disanto, A.

    1989-01-01

    The sonographic detection of adrenal masses in patients with neoplasms, especially neoplasms of the lung, can be related to the presence of both metastases and adenomas. In order to assess the benign/malignant nature of the such lesions, the adrenal glands of 43 patients with neoplasms (36 of them lung cancers) were studied with sonography (US) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB): in all, 58 masses were seen (28 monolateral and 15 bilateral). Six lesions (13%) presented with cytological features of benignancy, and on US they appeared as hypoechoic (as compared to the liver), round masses, with regular margins, ranging in size from 1.2 cm to 3.4 cm (average: 2.6 cm). In the remaining 34 patients (80%), cellular material with features of malignancy was obtained with FNAB. The US appearence of these metastases was heterogenous, with the same echogenicity as the liver, and average size >3 cm. On the basis of data obtained, the limit of 3 cm (if we consider the average dimension), corresponds to the threshold of benignancy, as well as the monolateral and hypoechoic appearence of the lesion. To sum up, the use of FNAB should be limited to those lesions which present with typical adenomatous features and for borderline lesions, while the diagnosis of metastases is sufficiently accurate (p 3 cm

  10. Differential diagnosis in the sonographic evaluation of adrenal metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, F; Fagioli Zucchi, A; Saloni, E; Terrosi Vagnoli, P [Siena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Eidologiche e Radiologiche; Disanto, A [Siena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Anatomia Patologica

    1989-01-01

    The sonographic detection of adrenal masses in patients with neoplasms, especially neoplasms of the lung, can be related to the presence of both metastases and adenomas. In order to assess the benign/malignant nature of the such lesions, the adrenal glands of 43 patients with neoplasms (36 of them lung cancers) were studied with sonography (US) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB): in all, 58 masses were seen (28 monolateral and 15 bilateral). Six lesions (13%) presented with cytological features of benignancy, and on US they appeared as hypoechoic (as compared to the liver), round masses, with regular margins, ranging in size from 1.2 cm to 3.4 cm (average: 2.6 cm). In the remaining 34 patients (80%), cellular material with features of malignancy was obtained with FNAB. The US appearence of these metastases was heterogenous, with the same echogenicity as the liver, and average size >3 cm. On the basis of data obtained, the limit of 3 cm (if we consider the average dimension), corresponds to the threshold of benignancy, as well as the monolateral and hypoechoic appearence of the lesion. To sum up, the use of FNAB should be limited to those lesions which present with typical adenomatous features and for borderline lesions, while the diagnosis of metastases is sufficiently accurate (p<0.001) in case of bilateral or isoechoic lesions >3 cm.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The addition

  12. Clinical Characteristics for 348 Patients with Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal neoplasm frequently encountered in clinical practice for which detection rates have recently increased. We describe here the clinical characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas.MethodsA retrospective study was performed examining the age, sex, location, size, function, and the histological findings for 348 patients with an adrenal mass discovered incidentally on computed tomography (CT undertaken for health examination or nonadrenal disease from August 2005 to May 2012.ResultsPatients consisted of 156 males (44.8% and 192 females (55.2%, aged between 20 and 86. Adrenal masses were most commonly found in patients in their sixth decade (32.5%. Regarding the location of the masses, 62.0% were found in the left adrenal gland, 30.2% were found in the right, and 7.8% were found bilaterally. Of all of the masses analyzed, 87.1% were 1 to 4 cm in size, and an adenoma-like appearance was the most common finding (75.3% seen on CT scans. Hormonal analysis showed that 82.2% of the masses were nonfunctioning, 6.0% were diagnosed as subclinical Cushing's syndrome, 4.6% were aldosterone-producing adenomas, and 7.2% were pheochromocytomas. Adrenalectomy was performed in a total of 69 patients having adenoma (50.7%, pheochromocytoma (24.6%, and carcinoma (4.3%.ConclusionThe characteristics of benign, malignant, nonfunctional, and functional adrenal masses that were incidentally found at our hospital were similar to those presented in other studies.

  13. Isolated adrenal paracoccidioidomycosis: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe Castro, Jorge Ricardo; Quintana, Humberto; Puentes, Alix Sofia and others

    2011-01-01

    Even though paracoccidioidomycosis has a relatively high prevalence in Latin America in a systemic form, isolated cases, especially compromising the adrenal glands, are uncommon, with only two reported cases. In this article, we report the case of a 55 year-old male with clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency. The only imaging finding was the presence of bilateral adrenal masses. The biopsy showed Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

  14. Aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism in alimentary obesity, metabolic syndrome components, some secondary forms of arterial hypertension, pathology of the adrenals glands core (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Koval

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal factors of adrenal origin belong to the pathophysiological mechanisms of the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH and should be consi­dered while developing differentiated approaches to the treatment and prevention of hypertensive states, their primary, secondary and resistant forms. The first thing we should point up is aldosterone (AL, enzyme aldosterone synthase (AS, which takes a direct part in the formation of this hormone, as well as gene polymorphisms of AS, which have not only molecular genetic, but also differential diagnostic and therapeutic significance for secondary forms of arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity (AO, metabolic syndrome (MS, adrenal pathology and other endocrine disorders. AL is a steroid (mineralocorticoid hormone of the adrenal cortex, which is synthesized from cholesterol (CH, mainly in the glomerular zone of the adrenal glands, is released under the action of angiotensin II (A II and potassium ions (K+. AL acti­vity is mediated through the corresponding mineralocorticoid receptors (MKR. The particular importance in AH and MS development belongs to AL activation and MKR density in adipocytes, this phenomenon is accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leptin, an adipogenic effect, and the inhibition of MCR activity is accompanied by increased production of adiponectin, which is more pronounced in patients with AH. Aldosterone synthase, a mitochondrial human enzyme encoded by the CYP11B2 gene (cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 is located on the 8th chromosome. AS belongs to the superfamily of cytochrome P450 and regulates the synthesis of AL hormone. The CYP11B2 gene encodes the key enzyme for the synthesis of AL 18-hydroxylase. In scientific papers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of AS gene is often studied, such as 5312T, Intron 2, Lys-173/Arg; T-344C, 3097 C/A. 227 SNP of the AS gene were identified in different

  15. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome presenting multiple concurrent cutaneous and parotid gland neoplasms: cytologic findings on fine-needle sample and description of a novel mutation of the CYLD gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Longo, Francesco; Perri, Francesco; Caponigro, Francesco; Schiavone, Concetta; Ionna, Franco; Maiello, Francesco; Martinuzzi, Claudia; Nasti, Sabina; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple dermal cylindromas and membranous basal cell adenoma of parotid gland in a 67-year-old woman with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS) were examined by fine-needle cytology. Histology, immunochemistry, and CYLD germline mutation testing were also performed. Cytomorphology and immunochemistry of the two lesions showed basaloid neoplasms, remarkably similar, composed by proliferating epithelial cells of basal type accompanied by a smaller proportion of myoepithelial cells. CYLD gene showed a novel germline splice acceptor site mutation (c.2042-1G>C) with skipping of the entire exon 15. The occurrence of analogous tumors, dermal cylindromas, and membranous basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland, in the same patient may result from the action of a single gene on ontogenetically similar stem cells. Therefore, patients with BSS should be offered a genetic counselling for an early and correct diagnosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  17. Principles and management of adrenal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadpour, N.

    1987-01-01

    Principles and Management of Adrenal Cancer is a comprehensive presentation of the medical and surgical management of neoplastic diseases of the adrenal glands. It consists of two parts. The first provides an overview of the embryology, anatomy, physiology, pathology, and advances in methods of diagnosis and imaging techniques. The second deals with specific diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla. (orig./MG)

  18. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z.; Tang, Edith; Benson, Heather A. E.; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R.; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)2D2, 1,20(OH)2D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)2D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)2D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)2D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity. PMID:24382416

  19. Adrenal pseudocyst. Radiological finds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, E.; Lopez Rasines, G.; Bustos, A.; Otero, M.; Rodriguez, M.I.; Pagola, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are infrequent, the pseudocysts being those that most often produce clinical symptoms. A case of pseudocyst in right suprarenal gland is presented in a young woman with no clinical history, who was studied by means of ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT). (author)

  20. Adrenal Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Featured Resource New Mobile App DOWNLOAD Adrenal Fatigue October 2017 Download PDFs English Editors Irina Bancos, MD Additional Resources Mayo Clinic What is adrenal fatigue? The term “adrenal fatigue” has been used to ...

  1. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors (TARTS With Unusual Histological Features in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Marianovsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH patients with testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs with testicular enlargement present a serious diagnostic challenge. According to the data TARTs are usually benign. They are rare, resulting in paucity in the medical literature regarding their pathological features. We report a case of bilateral synchronous mass-forming TARTs with marked cytological and nuclear atypia misinterpreted as malignant testicular tumors in a 40-years-old man with CAH and CT and MRI data for pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland and paraaortal and paracaval lymphadenomegaly. He was previously diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma of the left adrenal gland.

  2. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  3. A rare adrenal incidentaloma: adrenal schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adas, Mine; Ozulker, Filiz; Adas, Gokhan; Koc, Bora; Ozulker, Tamer; Sahin, Ilknur Mansuroglu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely uncommon cause of incidentaloma. It originates from neural sheath Schwann cells of the adrenal gland. We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 32-year-old woman during examination of bloated feeling and stomach ache. The patient was incidentally found to have a left adrenal mass of 9 cm on abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) were also performed. Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable. Due to the large size of the tumor, left adrenalectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination established the diagnosis of schwannoma. This diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry of S-100 and vimentin positivity. In conclusion, adrenal schwannoma is an extremely rare entity and can grow considerably in size. The present case report emphasizes that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of retroperitoneal schwannoma. Total excision of benign schwannoma is associated with a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, there are case reports of schwannoma with CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the literature, although this is the first schwannoma case with PET-CT imaging.

  4. [Adrenal tumours in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Moreno, G A; Pozo-Román, J; Argente, J

    2013-09-01

    This special article aims to summarise the current knowledge regarding the two groups of tumours with their origin in the adrenal gland: 1) adrenocortical tumours, derived from the cortex of the adrenal gland and 2) phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, neuroendocrine tumours derived from nodes of neural crest derived cells symmetrically distributed at both sides of the entire spine (paragangliomas [PG]). These PGs can be functioning tumors that secrete catecholamines, which confers their typical dark colour after staining with chromium salts (chromaffin tumors). Among these, the term phaeochromocytoma (PC) is restricted to those PGs derived from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (intra-adrenal PGs), whereas the term PG is used for those sympathetic or parasympathetic ones in an extra-adrenal location. We analyse the state of the art of their pathogenic and genetic bases, as well as their clinical signs and symptoms, the tests currently available for performing their diagnosis (biochemical, hormonal, imaging and molecular studies) and management (surgery, pre- and post-surgical medical treatment), considering the current and developing strategies in chemo- and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. How Do I Find an Experienced Adrenal Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List Adrenal Gland Disorders About NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Amenorrhea About NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ...

  6. Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands: a series of 13 neoplasms in 12 cases, including mammary-type juvenile fibroadenoma, fibroadenoma with lactation changes, and neurofibromatosis-associated pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Dmitry V; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Stewart, Colin J; Thompson, Jane; Agaimy, Abbas; Magro, Gaetano; Bisceglia, Michele; Vazmitel, Marina; Kacerovska, Denisa; Kutzner, Heinz; Mukensnabl, Petr; Michal, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a series of 13 fibroepithelial neoplasms involving anogenital mammary-like glands, all occurring in 12 female patients, whose age at diagnosis ranged from 30 to 51 years (mean, 38 y; median, 42 y). All women presented with a solitary asymptomatic nodule in the vulva (n=8), perineum (n=2), or near the anus (n=2) ranging in size from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. Microscopically, 8 lesions were classified as fibroadenoma, and 5, including 1 recurrent tumor, as phyllodes tumor, of which 1 was benign and 4 low-grade malignant. In addition to conventional findings, we describe several hitherto unreported features including juvenile fibroadenoma-like proliferation, fibroadenoma with lactation change, and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated stromal giant cells in a patient with neurofibromatosis, type 1 all constituting potential diagnostic pitfalls, which are best averted by using the same approach to diagnosis as for their analogous mammary counterparts.

  7. Severe bilateral adrenal hemorrhages in a newborn complicated by persistent adrenal insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Zessis, Nicholas R; Nicholas, Jennifer L; Stone, Stephen I

    2018-01-01

    Summary Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with a...

  8. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  9. Extra-adrenal myelolipoma presenting in the spleen: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Aguilera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myelolipoma is a rare neoplasm composed of mature fat and bone marrow occurring most frequently in the adrenal gland with rare occurrences in extra adrenal locations including lung, liver, retroperitoneum, mediastinum and testes. Splenic myelolipomas are seen most commonly in non-human species including cat and dog. Only rare cases of splenic myelolipoma in humans have been reported previously. We present two cases of myelolipoma in the spleen. The first is a 62 year old female presenting with abdominal pain and a splenic mass. The second is a 44 year old male presenting with hematuria and a mass in the spleen. Both cases showed trilineage bone marrow elements with mature fat. These cases demonstrate that myelolipoma do rarely occur in human spleen and we highlight the distinction from extramedullary hematopoiesis, mature extramedullary myeloid tumor (myeloid sarcoma, lipoma and well differentiated liposarcoma.

  10. MR imaging in adrenal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliani, G.; Avateneo, T.; Potenzoni, F.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients affected by adrenal glands pathology underwent CT and MRI: 6 nonfuctioning adenomas, 2 Cushing's adenomas, 2 Conn's adenomas, 6 metastases, 3 cystis, 2 carcinomas (Cushing's syndrome), 1 Lymphoma and 3 pheochromocytomas. Diagnosis was subsequently confirmed either at surgery, or autopsy, or with needle biopsy. In all cases normal adrenal glands and pathological lesions were showed by MRI. T1 signal intensity and mass diameter were compared with T2 signal intensity, represented by the intensity ratio between the adrenal mass vs normal hepatic parenchyma. MRI signal intensity, usually high in case of malignancy and low in adenomas, shows a mean value which is much wider than that referred to mass diameter evaluation (carcinoma is larger than adenoma); for this reason those findings have proved to be insufficiently accurate for adrenal tissue characterization, even for the evaluation of cysts and pheochromocytomas. In the same cases CT showed higher accuracy

  11. The utility of periodic acid schiff with diastase and alcian blue stains on fine needle aspirates of breast and salivary gland neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Panicker

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion : Intracytoplasmic PAS-D-positive globules may be useful in differentiating benign and malignant lesions of breast. The presence of PAS-D positive granules are useful in differentiating various lesions of salivary glands. AB staining of stromal fragments in pleomorphic adenoma is useful in differentiating it from basal cell adenoma.

  12. Clinical significance of adrenal computed tomography in Addison's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhong-Hua; Nomura, Kaoru; Toraya, Shohzoh; Ujihara, Makoto; Horiba, Nobuo; Suda, Toshihiro; Tsushima, Toshio; Demura, Hiroshi; Kono, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    Adrenal computed tomographic (CT) scanning was conducted in twelve patients with Addison's disease during the clinical course. In tuberculous Addison's disease (n=8), three of four patients examined during the first two years after disease onset had bilaterally enlarged adrenals, while one of four had a unilaterally enlarged one. At least one adrenal gland was enlarged after onset in all six patients examined during the first four years. Thereafter, the adrenal glands was atrophied bilaterally, in contrast to adrenal glands in idiopathic Addison's disease which was atrophied bilaterally from disease onset (n=2). Adrenal calcification was a less sensitive clue in tracing pathogenesis, i.e., adrenal calcification was observed in five of eight patients with tuberculous Addison's disease, but not idiopathic patients. Thus, adrenal CT scanning could show the etiology of Addison's disease (infection or autoimmunity) and the phase of Addison's disease secondary to tuberculosis, which may be clinically important for initiating antituberculous treatment. (author)

  13. Adrenal failure due to bilateral adrenal metastasis of rectal cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Ogawa, Yoshiteru; Okuda, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    It is rare for a patient to present with adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral adrenal metastases from a malignant colorectal tumor. An 82-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with high fever and malaise. He was receiving oral chemotherapy for the treatment of rectal cancer with multiple metastases. Computed tomography showed new bilateral adrenal gland metastases. A rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test showed adrenal insufficiency. Treatment with hydrocortisone provided immediate symptom improvement. Adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral adrenal metastases from rectal cancer is rare. A rapid ACTH test is useful to diagnose adrenal insufficiency. The incidence of adrenal insufficiency may be underestimated in patients with multiple metastasis. Appropriate therapy with adrenal corticosteroid hormone supplementation may lead to a significant improvement in the patient's symptoms and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine adrenal medulla localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L.; Chambon, C.; Valat, C.; Baulieu, F.; Itti, R.; Pourcelot, L.; Besnard, J.C.; Huguet, F.; Narcisse, G.; Viel, C.

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of uptake of meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) by the adrenal glands, autoradiographic and pharmacologic studies were performed in mice and dogs receiving radioiodinated mIBG. In mice, on macroautoradiography of whole body section 48 h after 125 I-mIBG, most of the radioactivity was focused in the adrenal glands. On microautoradiography, silver grains were exclusively located in the adrenal medulla. Time counting after phenoxybenzamine, cocaine, and desipramine treatment resulted in 45%, 35%, and 0% inhibition of mIBG uptake, respectively. Tissue counting and scintigraphic studies demonstrated a more than 50% mIBG release from the adrenal glands. These data indicate the high affinity of mIBG for adrenal medulla and suggest that the mIBG and catecholamine uptake mechanisms are onlt partially the same. (orig.)

  15. Surgery for adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamah, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the presentation, localization, pathology, surgical management and outcome of surgery for adrenal gland tumors. Design: Prospective clinico epidemiological study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery, University Unit, Riyadh medical Complex Kingdom of Saudi Rabia from June, 1991 to may, 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 21 cases with adrenal tumors were studied for demographic data, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, localization, surgical management, pathology and outcome. The outcome of these patients was followed prospectively. Results: The study included 12 female and 9 male patients. The mean age at surgery was 36.7 years. Hypertension (69.%) was the commonest presentation in hypersecretory functional tumors. The localization accuracy for ultrasonography, computerized tomography, MRI and MIBG scan was 95.2%, 98.3% 87.8% and 83.6% respectively. Pheochromocytoma was the most common adrenal pathology observed in 14 (66.6%) cases. The overall morbidity was 19% with no hospital mortality. Complete follow-up of available 19 patients (90.5 %) revealed no tumor recurrence and persistent hypertension in 14.3% cases. Conclusion: surgery on adrenal glands is safe in experienced hands and is recommended in institutes with all backup facilities. (author)

  16. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  17. Rare primary retroperitoneal teratoma masquerading as adrenal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Ratkal

    Abstract. Objectives: To present a rare case of Primary mature cystic teratoma of right adrenal gland in adult female with an aim to review the published literature. Materials and Methods: The case details of a lady presenting with vague upper abdominal pain and on investigation was found to have a right adrenal mass were ...

  18. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage mimicking an acute scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorisio, O; Mattei, R; Ciardini, E; Centonze, N; Noccioli, B

    2007-02-01

    Twenty-two cases of scrotal hematoma caused by neonatal adrenal hemorrhage are reported in the literature and unnecessary surgical exploration was performed in nine (41%), suspecting testicular torsion. In this paper, we present a newborn male with right adrenal gland hemorrhage causing right scrotal swelling and discoloration of groin managed conservatively.

  19. Hypoadrenia following adrenal venography in Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goth, M.; Szilagy, G.; Irsy, G.; Szabolcs, I.; Berentey, E.; Molnar, F.; Magyar, E.

    1984-01-01

    Three patients with Cushing's disease are reported. In two patients the hyperfunction of the adrenal glands creased following selective adrenal venography, moreover hypoadrenia has developed. In the third case necrosis following venography was proved by surgery and confirmed by histology. Regarding the therapeutic possibilities of Cushing's diesease the use of this diagnostic procedure is taken into consideration but not recommended. (orig.)

  20. [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, A; Pfeiffer, H; Führer, D; Liatsikos, E; Schwalenberg, T; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2010-05-01

    Adrenal masses are very heterogeneous and comprise benign or malignant tumors, unilateral or bilateral masses and variable endocrine activity. Because of these attributes adrenal gland masses are a clinical challenge. This article gives a summary of diagnostic steps and indications for adrenal surgery including perioperative management.

  1. Aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism in alimentary obesity, metabolic syndrome components, some secondary forms of arterial hypertension, pathology of the adrenals glands core (literature review)

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, S.N.; Miloslavsky, D.K.; Snegurskaya, I.A.; Mysnichenko, O.V.; Penkova, M.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Hormonal factors of adrenal origin belong to the pathophysiological mechanisms of the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH) and should be consi­dered while developing differentiated approaches to the treatment and prevention of hypertensive states, their primary, secondary and resistant forms. The first thing we should point up is aldosterone (AL), enzyme aldosterone synthase (AS), which takes a direct part in the formation of this hormone, as well as gene polymorphisms of A...

  2. Clinical application of SPECT in adrenal imaging with iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimura, J.; Kawanaka, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-one patients with or without adrenocortical disorders were studied to evaluate the clinical usefulness of SPECT in adrenal imaging with I-131 Adosterol. In the SPECT images from this study, all glands with either normally functioning or hyperfunctioning adrenal cortices could be detected, while those glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices could not be detected. Particularly in transaxial and sagittal slices, the adrenal gland was identified posteriorly and was clearly distinguished from the gallbladder. In preliminary results using SPECT by a standard method, uptake in 68 detectable glands ranged from 1.7% to 4.9% in four glands with Cushing's syndrome, from 1.1% to 1.3% in seven glands with primary aldosteronism, and were distributed below 1.0% in the remaining glands with normally functioning adrenal cortices. These data show that it is possible to evaluate the adrenocortical functioning status simply by analyzing the SPECT images of the adrenal

  3. Clinical application of SPECT in adrenal imaging with iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimura, J.; Kawanaka, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1989-04-01

    Forty-one patients with or without adrenocortical disorders were studied to evaluate the clinical usefulness of SPECT in adrenal imaging with I-131 Adosterol. In the SPECT images from this study, all glands with either normally functioning or hyperfunctioning adrenal cortices could be detected, while those glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices could not be detected. Particularly in transaxial and sagittal slices, the adrenal gland was identified posteriorly and was clearly distinguished from the gallbladder. In preliminary results using SPECT by a standard method, uptake in 68 detectable glands ranged from 1.7% to 4.9% in four glands with Cushing's syndrome, from 1.1% to 1.3% in seven glands with primary aldosteronism, and were distributed below 1.0% in the remaining glands with normally functioning adrenal cortices. These data show that it is possible to evaluate the adrenocortical functioning status simply by analyzing the SPECT images of the adrenal.

  4. Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M.; Williams, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful

  5. Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, T.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M. Williams, D.M.

    1985-08-01

    Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful.

  6. Virilization caused by an ectopic adrenal tumor located behind the iliopsoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Konstantinos; Aloumanis, Kyriakos; Papapetrou, Peter D; Voros, Dionisios; Spanos, Iraklis

    2007-06-01

    Virilization due to androgen-secreting neoplasms in women is a result of androgen overproduction from benign or malignant tumors that are found in the ovaries or rarely in the adrenal glands. Virilizing tumors that arise from ectopic adrenal tissue are extremely rare. We describe a very rare case of an ectopic androgen-producing adrenal tumor. Case report study. Endocrinology outpatient department of university-affiliated teaching hospital. A 45-year-old woman with symptoms of virilization of abrupt onset and rapid progression, with high serum androgen hormone levels and normal glucocorticoid secretion. Basal hormonal levels, stimulation and suppression tests, imaging techniques, and selective venous sampling. Localization and surgical removal of the source of androgen production. An ectopic mass was detected behind the left iliopsoas muscle. The patient was operated on and an oblong-shaped lesion, weighing 6 g, was removed. Histologically, the tissue was identified to be of adrenal origin. Postoperatively the androgen levels decreased to normal levels. This case illustrates difficulties in detecting and localizing the rare contingence of an ectopic adrenocortical androgen-secreting tumor.

  7. Adrenal medullary hyperplasia. Hyperplasia-pheochromocytoma sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Kondo, T; Ohoka, H; Mannami, M; Kawai, K

    1990-09-01

    We present a case of unilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia in a 63-year-old woman with clinical signs and symptoms of pheochromocytoma unassociated with multiple endocrine neoplasia. The surgically removed adrenal gland revealed diffuse medullary hyperplasia with multiple micronodules measuring up to 2 mm. The micronodules were composed of enlarged chromaffin cells with atypia, histologically similar to those of pheochromocytoma, forming small solid alveolar patterns separated by a fibrovascular stroma. Removal of the hyperplastic adrenal gland resulted in disappearance of paroxysmal nocturnal hypertension and palpitation. These results suggest that diffuse and nodular medullary hyperplasia is the precursor of pheochromocytoma.

  8. Asymptomatic myelolipoma of the adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjigeorgi, C; Lafoyianni, S; Pontikis, Y; Van Vliet-Constantinidou, C

    1992-01-01

    Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is a rare benign tumour which seldom produces symptoms unless it attains considerable size or hemorrhages into itself. Histologically the tumor is composed of varying proportions of fat and bone marrow elements. We present a case of a male child, with homozygous beta thalassemia and asymptomatic myelolipoma.

  9. Myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roaldsnes, Christina; Holst, René; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and myelofibrosis (MF) are clonal disorders collectively named as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Published data on epidemiology of MPN after the discovery of the JAK2 mutation and the 2008 WHO classifications are scarce. We...

  10. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Iturrospe, C.; Quilez, I.J.; Echevarria, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is an uncommon entity that is difficult to diagnose given the ambiquity of the clinical signs. Computerized tomography plays a major role in the diagnosis, disclosing enlarged adrenal glands presenting the hyperdense aspect that characterizes this disorders. We present a case of bilateral adrenal hemoorrhage in a patient diagnosed as having primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, which is a less common cause of adrenal hemorrhage than those classically reported, such as anticoagulant therapy, sepsis, shock and abdominal injury. (Author) 8 refs

  11. Adrenal incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldi G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidentally discovered adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, have become a common clinical problem owing to wide application of radiologic imaging techniques. This definition encompasses a heterogeneous spectrum of pathologic entities, including primary adrenocortical and medullary tumors, benign or malignant lesions, hormonally active or inactive lesions, metastases, and infections. Once an adrenal mass is detected, the clinician needs to address two crucial questions: is the mass malignant, and is it hormonally active? This article provides an overview of the diagnostic clinical approach and management of the adrenal incidentaloma. Mass size is the most reliable variable to distinguish benign and malignant adrenal masses. Adrenalectomy should be recommended for masses greater than 4.0 cm because of the increased risk of malignancy. Adrenal scintigraphy has proved useful in discriminating between benign and malignant lesions. Finally, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an important tool in the evaluation of oncological patients and it may be useful in establishing the presence of metastatic disease. The majority of adrenal incidentalomas are non-hypersecretory cortical adenomas but an endocrine evaluation can lead to the identification of a significant number of cases with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (5-15%, pheochromocytoma (1.5-13% and aldosteronoma (0-7%. The first step of hormonal screening should include an overnight low dose dexamethasone suppression test, the measure of urinary catecholamines or metanephrines, serum potassium and, in hypertensive patients, upright plasma aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate measurement may show evidence of adrenal androgen excess.

  12. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, E.A. van der.

    1978-01-01

    The visualization of functioning adrenocortical tissue by scintigraphy became possible with the introduction of radioiodinated cholesterol derivatives. According to the literature, there is evidence that one of these iodinated cholesterols, 6-β-iodomethyl-nor-cholesterol, concentrates in the adrenal cortex to a much greater extent than 131 I-19-odocholesterol. Results comparing both radiopharmaceuticals are described. The authors investigated the possibility of increasing the uptake of iodinated cholesterol using simultaneous ACTH and the 'cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzymeblocker': aminoglutethimide. The results of adrenal scintigraphy performed in 37 patients are described. Finally, the literature on adrenal scintigraphy is reviewed, and results reported in various studies are compared. (Auth.)

  13. Incidental findings of the kidneys, adrenal glands, adnexa uteri, gastrointestinal tract, mesentery and lymph nodes. Assessment and management recommendations; Zufallsbefunde von Niere, Nebenniere, Adnexen, Gastrointestinaltrakt, Mesenterium und Lymphknoten. Bewertung und Managementempfehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharitzer, M.; Tamandl, D.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    Besides the upper abdominal parenchymal organs, the increasing application of cross-sectional imaging has also led to a rising number of incidental findings in the kidneys, adrenal glands, adnexa uteri, the gastrointestinal tract, mesentery and abdominal lymph nodes. Abdominal computed tomography investigations often show unexpected findings without any correlating symptoms. The growing clinical relevance is due to the large number of incidental findings as well as an increasing awareness of ethical and socioeconomic factors. When interpreting radiological findings not only morphological criteria but also individual risk factors of the patient and the clinical context are of great importance. The aims of this article are the description and evaluation of frequent incidental findings detected by computed tomography and to provide information about management recommendations. (orig.) [German] Neben den parenchymatoesen Oberbauchorganen hat der zunehmende Einsatz von Schnittbildverfahren zu einer vermehrten Anzahl von Zufallsbefunden der Nieren, Nebennieren, Adnexe, des Gastrointestinaltrakts, Mesenteriums und der intraabdominellen Lymphknoten gefuehrt. Abdominelle CT-Untersuchungen zeigen haeufig unerwartete Befunde ohne korrelierende Symptomatik. Die steigende klinische Relevanz ist einerseits auf die Zunahme inzidenteller Pathologien und andererseits auf ein wachsendes Bewusstsein ethischer und soziooekonomischer Faktoren zurueckzufuehren. Bei der radiologischen Interpretation sind neben morphologischen Kriterien sowohl die Einbeziehung der individuellen Risikofaktoren des Patienten als auch der klinische Gesamtkontext von grosser Bedeutung. Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist eine Beschreibung und Bewertung der in der Computertomographie detektierten genannten Zufallsbefunde sowie weiterer Managementempfehlungen. (orig.)

  14. Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  15. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  16. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  17. Severe bilateral adrenal hemorrhages in  a  newborn complicated by persistent adrenal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Zessis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency based on characteristic electrolyte changes and a low cortisol (4.2 μg/dL. On follow-up testing, this patient was unable to be weaned off of hydrocortisone or fludrocortisone despite resolution of hemorrhages on ultrasound. Providers should consider bilateral adrenal hemorrhage when evaluating critically ill neonates after a traumatic delivery. In extreme cases, this may be a persistent process.

  18. Coexistence of Cushing syndrome from functional adrenal adenoma and Addison disease from immune-mediated adrenalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Randall; Jimenez, Rafael E; Farrar, William; Malgor, Ramiro; Kohn, Leonard; Schwartz, Frank L

    2012-06-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with an incidental adrenal adenoma and physical examination findings that included moderate obesity, a slight cervicothoracic fat pad ("buffalo hump"), increased supraclavicular fat pads, and white abdominal striae. Biochemical workup revealed elevated levels of 24-hour urinary free cortisol but normal serum morning cortisol and suppressed levels of corticotropin, suggestive of adrenal-dependent Cushing syndrome. The resected adrenal gland revealed macronodular cortical hyperplasia with a dominant nodule. Other findings included an absent cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation, presence of serum anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies, and mononuclear cell infiltration--consistent with adrenalitis. The findings represent, to the authors' knowledge, the first known case of a patient with coexistent functional cortisol-secreting macronodular adrenal tumor resulting in Cushing syndrome and immune-mediated adrenalitis resulting in Addison disease.

  19. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  20. Adrenal Ewing's Sarcoma in an Elderly Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kazuyoshi; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Yasuoka, Hidetoshi; Nishioka, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Tomaru, Takuya; Ozawa, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Tetsurou; Koshi, Hiromi; Segawa, Atsuki; Shimizu, Shin-Ichi; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yamada, Masanobu

    2018-02-15

    Ewing's sarcoma usually arises in the bones of children and adolescents. We herein report a 74-year-old man with Ewing's sarcoma in the adrenal gland. The diagnosis was confirmed by a genetic test, pathological studies, and several imaging studies. He already had multiple liver metastases when he was transferred to our hospital and died on the 37th day. The diagnosis was further confirmed by autopsy studies. Adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare, and our patient was older than other reported cases. Ewing's sarcoma should be considered even in elderly patients with adrenal tumors.

  1. Giant adrenal cyst - a case report and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitaki, Sergio Augusto Munhoz; Louveira, Maria Helena

    1999-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland are relatively rare, but they must be considering in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses. The authors report a case of a giant adrenal cyst assessed by ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and outline their features and classification. (author)

  2. Giant adrenal incidentaloma in young patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cristiano Feijo; Espirito Santo, Paulo Rogerio Quieregatto do; Teixeira, Antonio Roberto Franchi

    2000-01-01

    Incidental adrenal tumors are lesions occasionally observed during abdominal US or CT scans. These tumors have been observed in patients without clinical or laboratorial signs of adrenal disease. The authors report a case of a 18 - years - old young man who was admitted to the Franco da Rocha Hospital, Sao Paulo, with abdominal pain and a palpated mass in the epigastrium which began one month ago. These findings were preceded by a blunt trauma at the epigastrium three months earlier. First clinical hypothesis was of a traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst. However, investigation and laparotomy showed a large left adrenal solid mass, weighting 700 g. The mass was removed and histology was performed. There was no evidence of malignant neoplasm, then the diagnostic of incidental adenoma of adrenal was confirmed. The authors hope to stimulate surgeons for early detection of these lesions in order to prevent the complications and improve the prognosis. (author)

  3. A comparative estimation of the adrenal function in surgical and combined treatment of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, I.A.; Berntstejn, M.I.; Evtyukhin, A.I.; Shul'ga, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The functional state of the adrenal glands during surgical and combinated treatment was examined in 38 radically operated patients with pulmonary cancer. Irradiation of lung cancer patients was found to stimulate the adrenal glands activity followed by reduction of their potentialities, manifested in a less marked increase of the catecholamines level and decreased 11-OCS level in blood during surgical treatment

  4. Mechanisms of blood pressure changes following renal irradiation of intact, adrenalectomized and adrenal regenerating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the differences in changes in systolic arterial blood pressure following renal x-irradiation (1100 R) in adrenal-intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal-regenerating rats and the roles of the kidneys and of the adrenal glands in the blood pressure changes

  5. A Rare Case Report of Bilateral Complex Macrocystic Adrenal Hemorrhage Mimicking Fetal Neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sindhwani, Geetika; Patel, Viral; Jain, Abhinav

    2018-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal adrenal glands are large vascular organs, which make them vulnerable to frequent bleeding. Although neonatal adrenal hemorrhage is commonly reported, it is rarely diagnosed on antenatal sonography. We present a rare case of prenatally diagnosed bilateral adrenal hemorrhage, which mimicked antenatal neuroblastoma.

  6. Bases fisiológicas para una interacción entre las células cromafines y las endoteliales de la glándula adrenal Physiological bases for an interaction between chromaffin and endothelial cells from the adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO LUXORO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo tratamos de investigar las posibles interacciones entre las células endoteliales de la glándula adrenal y aquellas sustancias relacionadas con la secreción de las células cromafines. Para lo anterior, estudiamos el efecto de acetilcolina (ACh, o de catecolaminas (CA tanto en el nivel de Ca2+ citoplasmático ([Ca2+]i, como en el potencial de membrana de las células endoteliales. Nuestros resultados muestran que tanto la ACh como la nicotina, pero no la muscarina, son capaces de inducir un aumento del [Ca2+]i y una despolarización de la membrana plasmática de las células endoteliales. El antagonista nicotínico, hexametonium, bloquea tanto el efecto de la ACh como de la nicotina lo que sugiere la presencia de receptores nicotínicos. Por otra parte, las CA (tanto adrenalina como noradrenalina o agonistas a1-adrenérgicos también producen un aumento del [Ca2+]i en las células endoteliales aunque no despolarización evidente. En este caso, el aumento es bifásico siendo la primera fase de un pico rápido e independiente del Ca2+ extracelular en tanto que la segunda se presenta con oscilaciones y depende tanto de que los canales de Ca2+ no estén bloqueados como de la presencia de ese ión en el medio externo. Dado que se ha demostrado que el aumento del [Ca2+]i en las células endoteliales desencadena la secreción de sustancias vasodilatadoras (prostaciclina y óxido nítrico, proponemos que éste sería un mecanismo compensatorio del sistema para contrarestar el enorme efecto vasoconstrictor de las CA secretadas por las células cromafinesIn this work we investigated the possible interactions between the endothelial cells from the adrenal gland and the substances related with the secretion from the chromaffin cells. In order to do so, we studied the effect of acetyl-choline (ACh or of catecholamines (CA on the level of the membrane potential and the cytoplasmic concentration of free calcium ([Ca2+]i in the endothelial

  7. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Leslie B.; Wells, Randall S.; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lamb, Stephen V.; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adren...

  8. Patient-specific workup of adrenal incidentalomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy R. de Haan

    Full Text Available Purpose: : To develop a clinical prediction model to predict a clinically relevant adrenal disorder for patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Materials and methods: : This retrospective study is approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Natural language processing is used for filtering of adrenal incidentaloma cases in all thoracic and abdominal CT reports from 2010 till 2012. A total of 635 patients are identified. Stepwise logistic regression is used to construct the prediction model. The model predicts if a patient is at risk for malignancy or hormonal hyperfunction of the adrenal gland at the moment of initial presentation, thus generates a predicted probability for every individual patient. The prediction model is evaluated on its usefulness in clinical practice using decision curve analysis (DCA based on different threshold probabilities. For patients whose predicted probability is lower than the predetermined threshold probability, further workup could be omitted. Results: : A prediction model is successfully developed, with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.78. Results of the DCA indicate that up to 11% of patients with an adrenal incidentaloma can be avoided from unnecessary workup, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 11%. Conclusion: : A prediction model can accurately predict if an adrenal incidentaloma patient is at risk for malignancy or hormonal hyperfunction of the adrenal gland based on initial imaging features and patient demographics. However, with most adrenal incidentalomas labeled as nonfunctional adrenocortical adenomas requiring no further treatment, it is likely that more patients could be omitting from unnecessary diagnostics. Keywords: Adrenal incidentaloma, Patient-specific workup, Prediction model

  9. MDCT Findings of Traumatic Adrenal Injury in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; Ryu, Il; Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Hye Young

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the MDCT findings and concomitant injuries of traumatic adrenal injury in children. Among 375 children who had undergone a MDCT scan for abdominal trauma during the recent five years at our institution, 27 children who had revealed adrenal injury on their CT scan were included in the study. We retrospectively evaluated the causes of the trauma, the patterns of adrenal injury, the associated CT findings and the concomitant injuries of the other organs in the abdomen. We identified 27 children (7.5%) (17 boys and 10 girls, mean age: 9.9 years, range: 2-18 years) with adrenal injury. The causes of adrenal injury were a traffic accident for 20 patients (74%), falls for four patients (15%) and blunt trauma for three patients (11%). The right adrenal gland was injured in 20 patients (74%), while the left adrenal gland was injured in three patients and bilateral involvement was noted in four patients. The patterns of adrenal injury were round or oval shaped hematoma in 23 lesions (74%), irregular hemorrhage with obliterating the gland in six lesions (19%) and active extravasation of contrast material from the adrenal region in two lesions (7%). Concomitant injuries were noted in 22 patients (81%), including 15 patients with liver laceration (56%), 11 patients with lung contusion (41%) and nine patients with renal injury (33%). The frequency of adrenal injury was 7.5%. The right adrenal gland was more frequently involved. Concomitant organ injury was noted 81% of the patients and the most frequently involved organ was the liver (56%)

  10. A Rare Case of Metastasis to the Thyroid Gland from Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma 11 Years after Nephrectomy and Concurrent Primary Esophageal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saud Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is known to cause metastasis to unusual sites, which can be both synchronous or metachronous. Thyroid gland is a rare site for metastasis, but when it occurs, renal cell carcinoma is the most common primary neoplasm. We report the case of a 81-year-old female patient who had a significant medical history of right clear cell renal carcinoma with adrenal metastasis. She underwent right radical nephrectomy and adrenalectomy followed by radiofrequency ablation of left adrenal metastasis and systemic chemotherapy with sunitinib. Eleven years later, she presented with dysphagia and was found to have distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. On imaging, there was incidental detection of a left renal mass lesion and a right thyroid nodule, which on histopathology and immunohistochemistry were confirmed to be clear cell carcinoma of renal origin.

  11. Adrenal Steroids: Biphasic Effects on Neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joels, M.; Karst, H.; Squire, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    Corticosteroid hormones are released from the adrenal gland after stress. They enter the brain and bind to high-affinity mineralocorticoid and lower affinity glucocorticoid receptors. Through these nuclear receptors, corticosteroids exert long-lasting effects on essential properties of neurons, such

  12. Imaging features of benign adrenal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Yildirim, Duzgun; Bulakbasi, Nail; Guvenc, Inanc; Tayfun, Cem; Ucoz, Taner

    2006-01-01

    Benign adrenal gland cysts (BACs) are rare lesions with a variable histological spectrum and may mimic not only each other but also malignant ones. We aimed to review imaging features of BACs which can be helpful in distinguishing each entity and determining the subsequent appropriate management

  13. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging

  14. Uncommon adrenal masses: CT and MRI features with histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yingkun; Yang Zhigang; Li Yuan; Deng Yuping; Ma Ensen; Min Pengqiu; Zhang Xiaochun

    2007-01-01

    Adrenal glands are common sites of diseases. With dramatically increased use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, more and more uncommon adrenal masses have been detected incidentally at abdominal examinations performed for other purposes. In this article, uncommon adrenal masses are classified as cystic masses (endothelial cysts, epithelial cysts, parasitic cysts, and pseudocysts), solid masses (ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), neurilemmoma, and lymphoma), fat-containing masses (myelolipoma, teratoma), and infectious masses (tuberculoma), and the imaging features of these uncommon masses are demonstrated. Although most of these lesions do not have specific imaging features, some fat-containing masses and cystic lesions present with characteristic appearances, such as myelolipoma, teratoma, and hydatid. Combination with histopathologic characteristic of these uncommon masses of adrenal gland, radiological features of these lesions on CT and MR imaging can be accurately understood with more confidences. Moreover, CT and MRI are highly accurate in localization of uncommon adrenal masses, and useful to guide surgical treatments

  15. Adrenal scintiscanning with NP-59: a new radioiodinated cholesterol agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.M.; Wahner, H.W.; Carpenter, P.C.; Salassa, R.M.; Northcutt, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Adrenal imaging in the past has been limited in its clinical application by the long interval between administration of dose and visualization of adrenal glands. We review our experience with the use of a newer labeling agent, NP-59, in 29 patients with various adrenal disorders and in 4 normal subjects. With this agent, identification of adrenal lesions is possible with a high degree of accuracy, and diagnostic information is usually available within 48 hrs. NP-59 is particularly useful in evaluating primary aldosteronism and selected cases of Cushing's syndrome

  16. Adrenal scintigraphy with Scintadren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabasi, G.; Irto, I.; Hernady, T.; Balint, I.

    1983-01-01

    68 patients with various adrenal disorders have been examined using Scintadren /TRC Amersham, England/. The parameters of adrenal imaging under Dexamethason suppression and after its discontinuance were established

  17. Ação da Betametasona em Ratas Prenhes: Impacto sobre os Níveis de Corticosterona e Glândulas Adrenais Maternas e Fetais Effect of Betamethasone on Pregnant Rats: Impact on Corticosterone Level and Maternal and Fetal Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a utilização repetitiva do corticóide antenatal objetivando acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal tem sido muito empregada no risco de parto prematuro, o que nos motivou a estudar a dosagem de corticosterona no termo e aspectos morfológicos das glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais de ratas albinas submetidas à ação da betametasona na segunda metade da prenhez, para verificar conseqüências dessa terapêutica. Métodos: utilizamos 30 ratas prenhes, distribuídas em 3 grupos numericamente iguais. As do Grupo I receberam betametasona nos dias 11, 12, 18 e 19 da prenhez. As do Grupo II receberam água destilada nesses dias (grupo controle, e as do Grupo III não receberam qualquer medicamento, constituindo grupo controle de estresse. Foram todas sacrificadas no 20º dia de prenhez, quando dosamos a corticosterona no sangue das matrizes e extirpamos as glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais para exame de microscopia óptica. Resultados: a dosagem de corticosterona plasmática foi significantemente menor no grupo tratado com betametasona (4,8 mg/dL, quando comparada aos grupos controles (17,7 e 26,8 mg/dL. À microscopia óptica observou-se intensa vacuolização citoplasmática na zona fasciculada das adrenais maternas e fetais no grupo que utilizou a betametasona, indicando intensa supressão adrenal secundária ao uso do medicamento. Conclusões: o uso repetitivo e prolongado de corticóides, em ratas prenhes, para acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal determina supressão adrenal materna e fetal.Purpose: the repetitive use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for acceleration of fetal lung maturation has been common in cases at risk of preterm delivery. We studied the corticosterone levels at term and the morphologic aspects in the maternal and fetal adrenal glands submitted to the effect of betamethasone in the second half of rat pregnancy in order to verify its consequences. Methods: thirty female pregnant rats were divided into

  18. Plasma ACTH concentration and pituitary gland histo-pathology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and histology of the pituitary gland and paraventricular nucleus in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly ... symptoms and signs including motor, psychiatric and sensory disorders and .... tuitary and cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Circulating.

  19. Adrenal disorders: Is there Any role for vitamin D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Salvio, Gianmaria; Altieri, Barbara; Ronchi, Cristina L; Della Casa, Silvia; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2017-09-01

    An emerging branch of research is examining the linkage between Vitamin D and nonskeletal disorders, including endocrine diseases. In this regard, a still little studied aspect concerns the involvement of vitamin D in adrenal gland disorders. Adrenal gland disorders, which might be theoretically affected by vitamin D unbalance, include adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, adrenocortical tumors and hyperaldosteronism. In this review, we provide an updated document, which tries to collect and discuss the limited evidence to be found in the literature about the relationship between vitamin D and adrenal disorders. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence proving a causal relationship between vitamin D levels and adrenal disorders. Evidence coming from cross-sectional clinical studies can hardly clarify what comes first between vitamin D unbalance and adrenal disease. On the other hand, longitudinal studies monitoring the levels of vitamin D in patients with adrenal disorders or, conversely, the possible development of adrenal pathologies in subjects affected by impaired vitamin D levels would be able to elucidate this still unclear issue.

  20. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Brook, Charles G D; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from deficiency of one of the five enzymes required for synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex. The most common form of the disease is classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased synthesis of glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids, adrenal hyperandrogenism and impaired development and function of the adrenal medulla. The clinical management of classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency is often suboptimal, and patients are at risk of developing in tandem iatrogenic hypercortisolism and/or hyperandogenism. Limitations of current medical therapy include the inability to control hyperandrogenism without employing supraphysiologic doses of glucocorticoid, hyperresponsiveness of the hypertrophied adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and difficulty in suppressing ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary. Puberty imposes increased difficulty in attaining adrenocortical suppression despite optimal substitution therapy and adherence to medical treatment. Alterations in the endocrine milieu at puberty may influence cortisol pharmacokinetics and, consequently, the handling of hydrocortisone used as replacement therapy. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in cortisol clearance at puberty and a shorter half-life of free cortisol in pubertal females compared with males. Furthermore, children with classic CAH have elevated fasting serum insulin concentrations and insulin resistance. The latter may further enhance adrenal and/or ovarian androgen secretion, decrease the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids and contribute to later development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  1. Bilateral Primary Adrenal Lymphoma in a 59- year-old Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ahmadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally, lymphoma involves the adrenal glands; however, primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL is rare and only few cases have been reported. We report a case of a 59-year-old female with primary adrenal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL manifested by weakness, fatigue, anorexia, and hyper pigmentation of skin. The patient initially responded to intravenous hydrocortisone in large doses by total remission of the symptoms. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a hypodense mass in the right subdiaphragmatic space, which was suggestive of an adrenal gland tumor with adjacent liver involvement. Additionally, a smaller lesion with similar characteristics was found in the left adrenal gland. The results obtained from adrenal gland needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of DLBCL. Moreover, primary laboratory findings demonstrated hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, fasting blood sugar level of 153 mg/dl, and alkaline phosphatase level of 663 U/L. The mentioned symptoms and laboratory findings were indicative of adrenal insufficiency. After about 2 months, her level of consciousness decreased and urinary and fecal incontinence occurred. Therefore, brain involvement was suspected, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed heterogeneous enhancement (24.8 mm in the posterior aspect of the left temporal lobe together with patchy foci of enhancement in around the ventricular areas of the brain that showed metastatic lesions of PAL. This case should remind clinicians that PAL may be a cause of adrenal incidentaloma, especially when the patient presents with the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency.

  2. Leydig Cell Tumor Associated with Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Charfi, Nadia; Kamoun, Mahdi; Feki Mnif, Mouna; Mseddi, Neila; Mnif, Fatma; Kallel, Nozha; Ben Naceur, Basma; Rekik, Nabila; Fourati, Hela; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zainab; Hadj Sliman, Mourad; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Abid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in the steroidogenic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Chronic excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation may result in hyperplasia of ACTH-sensitive tissues in adrenal glands and other sites such as the testes, causing testicular masses known as testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). Leydig cell tumors (...

  3. The prevalence of incidentally detected adrenal enlargement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.Z.; Bharwani, N.; Micco, M.; Akker, S.; Rockall, A.G.; Sahdev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and the department's detection rate of adrenocortical hyperplasia. Materials and methods: All computed tomography (CT) examinations of the adrenal glands between February and April 2011 were reviewed. The study excluded patients with known underlying cancer, abdominal trauma, or endocrine disease. The adrenal gland was deemed enlarged if its body was greater than 10 mm diameter, or a limb greater than 5 mm. Results: There were a total of 564 eligible CT studies during this period. A total of 64 cases of incidental adrenal enlargement were found giving a prevalence of 11.3%. Only nine cases were reported in the contemporaneous CT report. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that incidental adrenal enlargement has a significant prevalence. It is often dismissed during reporting, and awareness needs to be raised in the radiological community. Equally, the clinical and biochemical significance needs to be assessed with endocrine correlation

  4. Relative adrenal insufficiency in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinclair R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is treated with rapid decrement of immunosuppressive therapy. This cannot be achieved with ease in patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy, as chronically suppressed adrenal glands may not be capable of mounting adequate response to stress. A 52-year-old Caucasian male presented with fever, orthostatic hypotension, lymphadenopathy and hyponatraemia. Serum cortisol levels were within normal levels with a sub optimal response to stimulation by ACTH. Hyponatraemia and orthostasis responded poorly to fluid restriction, saline and salt repletion but corrected after increasing the steroid dose. The normal baseline cortisol levels represented a stimulated adrenal gland, however, the ACTH stimulation had inadequate response. This sub optimal stimulation and a good response to increased steroids suggest the presence of relative or occult adrenal insufficiency. Relative adrenal insufficiency must be considered in patients who have received prolonged glucocorticoid therapy and have symptoms such as hypotension and/or hyponatraemia.

  5. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  6. Pituitary and adrenal involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with recovery of their function after chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Abe, Ichiro; Matsuda, Yayoi; Miyata, Noriyuki; Ohno, Hirofumi; Ikeda, Motohiko; Matsushima, Takamitsu; Nomura, Masatoshi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma sometimes involves the endocrine organs, but involvement of both the pituitary and adrenal glands is extremely rare. Involvement of these structures can lead to hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency, and subsequent recovery of their function is rarely seen. The present report describes an extremely rare case of pituitary and adrenal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency with subsequent recovery of p...

  7. Imaging of unilateral adrenal hemorrhages in patients after blunt abdominal trauma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Tanrivermis Sayit

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal hemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma is extremely rare. Most of the lesions are unilateral and right sided. Although often asymptomatic, life-threatening adrenal insufficiency may develop in the bilateral adrenal gland hemorrhage. Isolated adrenal injuries are very rare. They are often associated with other organ injuries. The mortality rates of patients range from 7% to 32%. In this report, we present the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of unilateral adrenal hemorrhages in two patients with a history of fall from a height.

  8. Adrenal extramedullary hematopoiesis associated with β-thalassemia major

    OpenAIRE

    Bijan Keikhaei; Ahmad Soltani Shirazi; Mahboob Mohammad Pour

    2012-01-01

    The presence of apparently normal hematopoietic tissue outside of bone marrow cavity is defined as extramedullary hema - topoiesis (EMH). EMH is a rare complication in thalassemia major (TM) and adrenal gland as well. This report describes a case of adrenal EMH in a 26-year-old man with β-TM. He has been transfused with regular blood transfusion since 9 months. During the routine physical examination he was incidentally found to have a hypoechoic mass at his abdominal ultrasonography. Abdomin...

  9. Functional paraganglioma extra-adrenal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo-Martinez, Laura; Alvarez-Pertuz, Humberto; Acuna-Calvo, Jorge; Montoya-Calles, Juan Diego

    2006-01-01

    Functioning paragangliomas are rare tumours that produce catecholamines.They originate from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells. They are frequently malignant and are associated with high incidence of persistent or recurrent disease after their primary treatment. They are known as glomus, chemodectomas, chromaffin paragangliomas and glomerulocytomas. The location is diverse and reflects the paragangliomar distribution in the body from the base of the skull to the pelvic floor. The paragangliomas are found where there are nodes of the autonomous system, however, approximately 90% of these tumours appear in the adrenal glands (and they constitute the pheochromocytomas) and the remaining 10% is a location extra adrenal, but it has been said that its impact can be underestimated, ranging from 18% to 22% in adults and children up to 30%. The extra-adrenal are originated more frequently in the abdomen (85%), other in the chest (12%) and more rarely in the head and neck (3%). Imaging studies and measurement of non-physiological production of catecholamines may aid in the diagnosis of this entity. Surgery is the treatment of choice. It is presented the case of a primigravidas patient aged 32 with HTAIE requiring caesarean section, who had a postpartum torpid and despite to multiple antihypertensive treatments their pathology was difficult to deal, with ophthalmic complications. Some time later, the patient is studied by hyperhidrosis, laboratory tests and images are requested and it is documented incidentally, a left retroperitoneal tumour, the studies are expanded and reach the correct diagnosis. The tumour required surgical resection. The patient had a satisfactory postoperative period and she discharged with control in the external consultation. (author) [es

  10. Angiomyolipoma and Malignant PEComa: Discussion of Two Rare Adrenal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kwazneski II

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyolipoma and PEComa are rare tumors descending from perivascular epithelial cells (PECs, with distinctive IHC, morphological, and ultrastructural features. The kidney is the most frequent site of origin, but not the only one; however, adrenal gland angiomyolipomas are extremely rare. We describe two cases being found in the adrenal glands. Given the paucity of literature on the subject, more information on this disease is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Here, we describe two complete case reports, from presentation to treatment and follow-up, along with imaging and microscopic pathology samples, and provide a comprehensive review as to the history and current literature available regarding these extremely rare tumors.

  11. Laparoscopic surgery in functional and nonfunctional adrenal tumors: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Öz

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that laparoscopic lateral transabdominal adrenalectomy is a safe, effective, and technically feasible procedure in the treatment of both functioning and nonfunctioning benign tumours of the adrenal gland.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difference in gene activation is caused by a phenomenon called genomic imprinting. When genomic imprinting reduces the ... 2 links) Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: Adrenal Gland Disorders National ...

  13. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage during pregnancy: a case with horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Amini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is an acute hemorrhage during pregnancy, which can be tragic for the mother and the baby. We report a unique spontaneous hemorrhage during pregnancy in a case with horseshoe kidney with separated adrenal, presented for the first time in the world. Computed tomography scan showed a horseshoe kidney fused with left normal kidney. Interestingly the adrenal gland was remained in right flank and separated from the horseshoe kidney, which prepares a probable physical stress for the hemorrhage. Diagnosis and surgery were done successfully and the case was fully recovered after several days.

  14. 131I-19-iodocholesterol adrenal scanning in Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnel, B.; Chatal, J.F.; Chupin, M.; Guillon, J.

    1976-01-01

    7 patients were investigated: 2 bilateral hyperplasia due to pituitary ACTH excess showed bilateral adrenal activity. 1 post-surgical remnant with recurrent Cushing's syndrome was detected. 1 adenoma showed unilateral intense activity and absent activity in the controlateral gland, even after ACTH treatment. 2 carcinomas were weakly imaged. In 1 case, hepatic metastasis showed 131 I-19-iodocholesterol uptake. Adrenal imaging with 131 I-19-iodocholesterol is not a good procedure for assessing hormonal function. It is a valuable and safe tool in the localization and diagnosis of adrenal lesions causing Cushing's syndrome, perhaps better than radiologic procedures. Radiation dosimetry is acceptable [fr

  15. Giant primary adrenal hydatid cyst presenting with arterial hypertension: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazi Fadl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A primary hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland is still an exceptional localization. The adrenal gland is an uncommon site even in Morocco, where echinococcal disease is endemic. Case presentation We report the case of a 64-year-old Moroccan man who presented with the unusual symptom of arterial hypertension associated with left flank pain. Computed tomography showed a cystic mass of his left adrenal gland with daughter cysts filing the lesion (Type III. Despite his negative serology tests, the diagnosis of a hydatid cyst was confirmed on surgical examination. Our patient underwent surgical excision of his left adrenal gland with normalization of blood pressure. No recurrence has occurred after 36 months of follow-up. Conclusion There are two remarkable characteristics of this case report; the first is the unusual location of the cyst, the second is the association of an adrenal hydatid cyst with arterial hypertension, which has rarely been reported in the literature.

  16. Adrenal-Derived Hormones Differentially Modulate Intestinal Immunity in Experimental Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Patrícia Reis de; Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angelica; Banquieri, Fernanda; Alves, Vanessa Beatriz Freitas; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Nomizo, Auro; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal glands are able to modulate immune responses through neuroimmunoendocrine interactions and cortisol secretion that could suppress exacerbated inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, here we evaluated the role of these glands in experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice subjected to adrenalectomy, with or without glucocorticoid (GC) replacement. Mice succumbed to colitis without adrenals with a higher clinical score...

  17. Science review: Mechanisms of impaired adrenal function in sepsis and molecular actions of glucocorticoids

    OpenAIRE

    Prigent, Hélène; Maxime, Virginie; Annane, Djillali

    2004-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie glucocorticoid insufficiency in sepsis and the molecular action of glucocorticoids. In patients with severe sepsis, numerous factors predispose to glucocorticoid insufficiency, including drugs, coagulation disorders and inflammatory mediators. These factors may compromise the hypothalamic–pituitary axis (i.e. secondary adrenal insufficiency) or the adrenal glands (i.e. primary adrenal failure), or may impair glucocorticoi...

  18. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of adrenal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Kunihiro

    1980-01-01

    From June 1977 through June 1980, sixty-one patients who were suspected to have adrenal diseases were examined with a CT scanner at Tokyo Women's Medical College. They consist of twenty five primary hyperaldosteronism, eight Cushing's syndrome, twenty pheochromocytoma and eight other adrenal masses. Ten patients were unexpectedly found to have adrenal lesion or mass simulating an adrenal tumor on CT performed for other reasons. CT findings were reviewed and correlated with surgical findings, postmortem studies and with results of other diagnostic modalities. 1. Primary hyperaldosteronism. Fifteen of twenty-five patients underwent surgery. Thirteen were pathologically proved to have aldosteronoma and two hyperplasia. Ten of thirteen patients with aldosteronoma were correctly diagnosed by CT scan. 2. Cushing's syndrome. Unilateral adenoma was correctly diagnosed preoperatively by CT scan on two surgically proved cases. CT showed marked enlargement of the adrenal gland with multiple nodules measuring less than 2 cm in diameter in the patient with nodular hyperplasia. Four patients were found to have normal-appearing adrenals with CT scan. 3. Pheochromocytoma. Three adrenal and one juxta-adrenal pheochromocytomas were detected by CT scan. Pheochromocytoma was considered as very unlikely on the basis of CT scan as well as further clinical investigation in sixteen patients. The value of CT scan for localization of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma remains established. 4. Miscellaneous adrenal disease and extra-adrenal masses simulating adrenal lesions. Two primary carcinoma, two bilateral metastasis, two adrenal neuroblastoma and a cyst were detected by CT scan. In cases with a huge mass, however, the origin and histologic diagnosis could not always be determined by CT scan. (author)

  19. Small intestinal obstruction secondary to direct invasion by recurrent non-hormonal adrenal cortical carcinoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, I.R.; Nolan, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with an adrenal cortical carcinoma is presented in whom the neoplasm recurred with gastrointestinal symptoms from involvement of the proximal small intestine. The appearances as shown on a small bowel enema are described. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first radiological description of this neoplasm invading the small intestine. 8 refs.; 1 figure

  20. MR demonstration of a prostate gland in a female pseudohermaphrodite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Sharma, Raju

    2006-01-01

    We present the rare case of a 14-year-old female pseudohermaphrodite due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). MRI revealed the presence of a hypoplastic uterus, ovaries, clitoromegaly, and prostate gland with its typical zonal anatomy. Transrectal sonography also confirmed the presence of a prostate gland. (orig.)

  1. Protective effect of Brewer's yeast on methimazole-induced-adrenal atrophy (a stereological study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Farzaneh; Zabolizadeh, Jamal; Noorafshan, Ali; Panjehshahin, Mohammad Reza; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2010-04-20

    Induction of hypothyroidism by thioamide drugs will cause adrenal gland atrophy and decrease in its hormones. To prevent side effect on the adrenal gland, brewer's yeast, a natural product rich in vitamins and minerals was used. Serological techniques were applied to measure the volume of adrenal gland. For this purpose, 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into one control and three experimental groups. In group 1, methimazole was administered at the dose of 30 mg/kg/day days, in group 2, 120 mg/kg/day of, brewer's yeast, in group 3, 30 mg/kg/day of methimazole plus 120 mg/kg/day of brewer yeast, and for the control group, an equal volume of saline (0.5 ml/rat/day) was orally given. After 30 days, all the animals were anesthetized and their adrenal glands were removed, fixed, embedded and stained. The volume of different zones of the adrenal glands was estimated by Cavalieri principle and point counting methods. statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Withney test and p Brewer's yeast reduced the methimazole side effects on this zone. In conclusion, it seems that the use of brewer's yeast could prevent methimazole-induced atrophy of the adrenal gland.

  2. Clinicopathological study of salivary gland tumors: an assessment of 303 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Maria de Lourdes Silva de Arruda; Azevedo, Paulo Roberto; Carvalho, Cyntia Helena; Medeiros, Lélia; Lajus, Tirzah; Costa, Antonio de Lisboa Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are remarkable for their histological diversity and several studies point to their varied occurrence in the population. Clinical aspects were histologically assessed to determine possible associations and define parameters to differentiate benign and malignant neoplasms. The case files of patients diagnosed with epithelial salivary gland tumors between 1989 and 2005 were reviewed. A majority (71%) of the 303 salivary gland tumors studied were benign and pleomorphic ad...

  3. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Gomez Hernandez, Karen; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. A case of adrenal tumour in a lion (Panthera leo: tomographic and ultrasonographic findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Longo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal gland tumors are common in humans and in several animal species. Studies concerning this neoplasia in human medicine indicate that clinical signs have a high variability. Adrenal adenomas can be occasionally observed in asymptomatic patients during tomographic studies while estrogen-secreting tumors, known as "feminizing adrenal tumors" (FATs, have been rarely reported. The aim of this study is to describe for the first time the Imaging findings of a captivity lion affected by a neoplastic secreting adrenal tumour. An 8 year-old male lion with progressive lack of secondary sex characteristics, disorexia and weight loss was referred to our Institution. The patient was chemically immobilized to undergo general clinical evaluation, hematologic, serum biochemical and hormonal profile, FIV and FeLV tests. Three months later a total body computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. Liver and left adrenal lesions FNABs were performed. Imaging findings showed the presence of an extended expansive neoplastic lesion on the left adrenal gland (40x39x37 mm with right adrenal gland atrophy. Generalized hepatopathy associated with a suspected intrahepatic cholestasis was confirmed by ultrasonography. Cytological evaluation ruled out the presence of neuroendocrine cells without malignancy evidences compatible with the adenomatous nature of the lesion, associated with moderate degenerative hepatopathy. Blood tests reported an estradiol concentration of 462 ng/dl. To our knowledge, this is the first description of adrenal mass in a lion associated with secondary feminization, inappetence and high values of hematic estradiol, referable to a feminizing adrenal tumor (FAT.

  5. Current concepts in diagnosis of unusual salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon and account for approximately 3-6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck. Tumors mostly involve the major salivary glands, 42.9-90% of which occur in the parotid glands and 8-19.5% in the sub-mandibular glands; tumors in the sub-lingual glands being uncommon. Despite the plethora of different malignant salivary gland tumor presented to pathologists for diagnosis, there is consensus on a limited number of pathologic observations that determine treatment and outcome. There are few absolutes in salivary gland tumor diagnosis given the marked spectrum and overlap of differentiated cell types that participate in the numerous benign and malignant tumors. Thus, there are enumerating antibodies that may be helpful in resolving difficult differential diagnoses when applied with astute morphologic correlation. In general, immunohistochemistry as an ancillary diagnostic tool should be used sparingly and wisely as a morphologic adjunct because of the lack of specificity of many markers for specific histologic tumor types. The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular profiling of salivary gland neoplasms and correlate this with histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms. We have elected to discuss and illustrate some of the unusual salivary gland tumors that the practicing pathologist find difficult to diagnose. These have been selected because they readily simulate each other but have very different clinical therapies and, therefore, should be included routinely in differential diagnosis.

  6. Adrenal scintigraphy using 131I-Adosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Morita, Rikushi; Torizuka, Kanji

    1977-01-01

    131 I-Adosterol (6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-3β-ol) was administered to evaluate adrenal grand in 20 patients including 9 patients with primary aldosteronism, 5 with Cushing's syndrome, one with pheochromocytoma, one with retroperitoneal tumor, 3 with essential hypertension and one with obesity. Standard scintigraphies were performed at 3rd day and again 6th day after administration of 131 I-adosterol (1-1.5 mCi). Suppression scintigraphies were obtained while the patients were taking dexamethasone 2 to 3 mg daily from 3 days prior to injection of the tracer until adrenal imaging. In the cases with essential hypertension and obesity, both adrenal glands were delineated equally by standard scintigraphy, and in one patient, undergone suppression scintigraphy, the uptake of 131 I-adosterol by both glands were completely inhibited by dexamethasone administration. In primary aldosteronism, six of the 9 patients demonstrated the increased radioactivity in one side, and were diagnosed as aldosteronoma. In 3 cases, failed to show the lesions on standard scintigraphy, the lesions could be detected by suppression scintigraphy, and aldosteronomas measuring 1 x 1 x 0.7, 2 x 2 x 1 and 1.7 x 1.5 x 0.8 cm were confirmed by operation. In Cushing's syndrome, standard scintigraphy could easily distinguish between adenoma (one case) and bilateral hyperplasia (4 cases). Adrenal scintigraphy was also a useful method in order to assess the effect of pituitary irradiation therapy in the case of hyperplasia. In pheochromocytoma and retroperitoneal tumor, the side of the lesion was identified by the absence of a functioning gland. Suppression scintigraphy was particularly useful in detecting the localization of the small tumor in primary aldosteronism. (auth.)

  7. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobiletti, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, ( 3 H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines

  8. Chronic ethanol consumption decreases adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, C.J.; Bestervelt, L.L.; Cai, Y.; Maimansomsuk, P.; Coleman, L.; Piper, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Increased alcohol consumption by adolescents and teenagers has heightened awareness of potential endocrine and developmental alterations. The current study was designed to determine whether chronic ethanol intake alters pituitary and adrenal function in the developing rat. One month old male Sprague Dawley rats were administered 6% ethanol in drinking water. After one month of treatment animals were sacrificed and blood, pituitary and adrenal glands collected. Plasma was assayed for ACTH and corticosterone (CS) by radioimmunossay (RIA). Five anterior pituitary glands per group were challenged with 100 μM corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) for 90 min at 37C under 95% air / 5% CO 2 . Media were analyzed for either ACTH (pituitary) or CS (adrenal) by RIA. Plasma ACTH and CS were unaffected by ethanol consumption. Pituitary response to CRF was not altered by ethanol. The lack of difference in ACTH release was not due to differences in pituitary content of ACTH. However, chronic ethanol consumption did decrease adrenal responsiveness to ACTH stimulation. In vitro corticosterone production was 1.21 ± 0.14 μg/adrenal in controls and 0.70 ± 0.06 μg/adrenal in ethanol consuming rats

  9. Endocrine glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  10. Adrenal clocks and the role of adrenal hormones in the regulation of circadian physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliavski, Alexei; Dumbell, Rebecca; Ott, Volker; Oster, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    The mammalian circadian timing system consists of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subordinate clocks that disseminate time information to various central and peripheral tissues. While the function of the SCN in circadian rhythm regulation has been extensively studied, we still have limited understanding of how peripheral tissue clock function contributes to the regulation of physiological processes. The adrenal gland plays a special role in this context as adrenal hormones show strong circadian secretion rhythms affecting downstream physiological processes. At the same time, they have been shown to affect clock gene expression in various other tissues, thus mediating systemic entrainment to external zeitgebers and promoting internal circadian alignment. In this review, we discuss the function of circadian clocks in the adrenal gland, how they are reset by the SCN and may further relay time-of-day information to other tissues. Focusing on glucocorticoids, we conclude by outlining the impact of adrenal rhythm disruption on neuropsychiatric, metabolic, immune, and malignant disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).

  11. Inclusões intracitoplasmáticas hialinas na medular da adrenal de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P Mesquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells have been described in various species including humans. These inclusions are believed to be related to certain infectious, toxic and neurodegenerative diseases. No reports concerning such adrenal inclusions have been described in bovines. Adrenal glands from twenty bovines were evaluated in a retrospective study. Seven of these exhibited inclusions - three cases of rabies, two cases of chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia, one case of chronic suppurative peritonitis, and one case of gangrenous mastitis. The inclusions were present in higher numbers especially in cases of rabies and also in one case of chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia. The inclusions were intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, rounded, single or multiple, of various sizes, strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. The inclusions were negative when subjected to immunohistochemistry for detection of viral antigens in the cases of rabies. Although inclusion bodies were present in adrenal glands devoid of other histological alterations, they were more abundant in cases in which the adrenal gland had other alterations. The correlation between certain diseases and the development of inclusion bodies is not known, which highlights the importance of further studies on these inclusions in adrenal glands of bovines.

  12. Adrenal trauma: Elvis Presley Memorial Trauma Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrazin, Reza; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Kincade, Matthew C; Thomas, Adam C; Gold, Robert; Wake, Robert W

    2007-11-01

    Adrenal gland injury is a potentially devastating event if unrecognized in the treatment course of a trauma patient. We reviewed our single-center experience and outcomes in patients with adrenal gland trauma. We performed a retrospective review of all patients presenting with trauma to the Regional Medical Center at Memphis who had adrenal gland injuries from January 1991 through March 2006. Each chart was reviewed with attention to the demographics, associated injuries, complications, and outcomes. Patients were stratified into two subgroups according to age (35 years or younger and older than 35 years) to allow for an age-based comparison between the two groups. Of 58,000 patients presenting with trauma, 130 (0.22%) were identified with adrenal injuries, of which 8 (6.2%) were isolated and 122 (93.8%) were not. Of these 130 patients, 125 (96.2%) had their injury diagnosed by computed tomography and 5 (3.8%) had their injury diagnosed during exploratory laparotomy. Right-sided injuries predominated (78.5%), with six (4.6%) bilateral. Four patients (3.1%) underwent adrenalectomy. Seven patients (5.4%) with adrenal injuries died. One patient (0.77%) required chronic steroid therapy. Patients older than 35 years were more likely to have complications such as deep venous thrombosis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Patient age of 35 years or younger was associated with a significantly increased incidence of liver lacerations. Adrenal gland injury is uncommon, although mostly associated with greater injury severity. Although adding to morbidity, most are self-limited and do not require intervention.

  13. Adrenal insufficiency in pakistani hiv infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afreen, B.; Khan, K.A.; Riaz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is the most common endocrine complication among patients with AIDS/HIV infection and there are number of causes of AI in HIV patients. Human immunodeficiency virus directly as well as indirectly destroys adrenal glands. The estimates of its prevalence and severity vary. AI is the most life threatening but readily correctable endocrine complication that occurs in persons with HIV infection. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of Adrenal Insufficiency in HIV patients and their clinical features as proper diagnosis and timely treatment have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at HIV clinic and Jinnah Allama Iqbal Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Jinnah Hospital Lahore. Sixty-four HIV positive patients, both male and female, aged above 15 years were included in the study. HIV patients who had recently taken steroids, ketoconazole or rifampicin, determined on history, were excluded from the study. The data was collected on a structured proforma and analysis was performed in SPSS-21.0. Frequency and percentages for adrenal insufficiency and its characteristics were calculated. Chi-square test was used with p<0.05 as statistically significant. Results: In this study, 9 (14.06%) HIV patients were diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency, male to female ratio was 3.5:1 and AI was found statistically significantly associated with fatigue (p<0.008) and weight loss (p<0.001). Conclusion: Adrenal insufficiency was high among the patients with HIV, it was not gender specific but it was found to be associated with fatigue and weight loss. (author)

  14. Diagnostic evaluation of the adrenal scanning using 131I-adosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Seiya; Nakamura, Mamoru; Sawai, Yoshikazu; Fukuchi, Soitsu.

    1978-01-01

    We have performed adrenal scanning in the 30 patients with suspected adrenal disorders eight days after the intravenous administration of about 500 μCi of 131 I-adosterol (NCL-6- 131 I), using 5 inch crystal rectilinear scintiscanner. Successful image of the adrenals was obtained in all the patients. In the 30 patients, 27 were proved to have adrenal disorders by surgical and hormonal findings. In 13 patients with primary aldosteronism, the side of adrenal adenoma was diagnosed correctly in all the cases by adrenal scanning. We could detected a small aldosterone-producing adenoma which measured 11 x 8 x 6 mm in size. In two patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, asymmetrical radio-uptake between the two adrenals was seen on the standard scanning, and it was difficult to differentiate between tumor or hyperplasia. Dexamethazone-modified suppression scanning was very effective in lateralizing adenomas in the patients with primary aldosteronism. Two patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal hyperplasia showed prominent and almost equal radioactivity of both the adrenal glands. Adrenal adenomas in 8 patients with Cushing's syndrome were definitely visualized on adrenal scanning, with no uptake in the contralateral sides. In one patient with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenal carcinoma, adrenal scanning showed significant activity in the area of the carcinoma, and no uptake on the opposite side. In one patient with adrenogenital syndrome due to a virilizing adenoma with focal malignancy, adrenal scanning showed high radioactivity in the region of the tumor, and moderate activity on the opposite side. Also in the case of adrenal carcinoma, we appreciated diagnostic value of the adrenal scanning utilizing 131 I-adosterol. (author)

  15. Clinical discussion of adrenal scan by 131I-adosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Atsushi

    1976-01-01

    131 I-adosterol adrenal scan was conducted to 31 patients. Clear positive images were obtained at the adrenal gland at the side of cortical adenoma on scintigram in all of 5 patients with primary aldosteronism and 5 patients with Cushing's syndrome. It was found that the quantitative measurements of 131 I-adosterol % uptake and of right-to-left uptake ratio do not only make a regional diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor more positive, but also they make the state of adrenocortical function known to an extent. Adrenal scan is easy to be used, and is non-invasive to patients. The obtained results are diagnostically valuable. It is considered that 131 I-Adosterol is an excellent radiopharmaceutical having the sufficient efficacy for adrenal diseases. (Ichikawa, K.)

  16. News about the genetics of congenital primary adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucher-Boulez, Florence; Mallet-Motak, Delphine; Tardy-Guidollet, Véronique; Menassa, Rita; Goursaud, Claire; Plotton, Ingrid; Morel, Yves

    2018-04-13

    Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is characterized by impaired production of steroid hormones due to an adrenal cortex defect. This condition incurs a risk of acute insufficiency which may be life-threatening. Today, 80% of pediatric forms of PAI have a genetic origin but 5% have no clear genetic support. Recently discovered mutations in genes relating to oxidative stress have opened the way to research on genes unrelated to the adrenal gland. Identification of causal mutations in a gene responsible for PAI allows genetic counseling, guidance of follow-up and prevention of complications. This is particularly true for stress oxidative anomalies, as extra-adrenal manifestations may occur due to the sensitivity to oxidative stress of other organs such as the heart, thyroid, liver, kidney and pancreas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Takeichi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

  18. Validity of computerized tomography in adrenal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanski, M.; Cramer, B.M.; Vetter, H.

    1981-01-01

    For diagnosis of adenomas in primary aldosteronism CT proved to be helpful. Although microadenomas have to be ruled out by selective venous sampling from both adrenal glands adenomas down to 8 mm in diameter can be visualized. Scintigraphy does not always permit reliable differentiation of unilateral adenoma from bilateral hyperplasia. - In endogenous Cushing's syndrome adrenal carcinomas are underlying etiologically in about 10% of the cases. Since carcinomas are detected easily by CT it should be performed in the first place. Whereas adenomas and hyperplasia are easily diagnosed by scintigraphy carcinomas may escape scintigraphy. - Pheochromocytomas, if situated in the vicinity of the kidneys, can be localiced safely by CT. Contrary to adenomas, carcinomas and pheochromocytomas may be detected by CT without difficulty because of their size. (orig.) [de

  19. The neoplasms imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.; Pilizzari, CH.

    1996-01-01

    New devices of NMR imaging and computed tomography give three-dimensional images of the human body and automatically interpret the anatomical pictures. These new techniques are useful for the detection and the treatment of neoplasms. They are explained into details. (O.M.)

  20. Adrenal imaging with 131I-adosterol (NCL-6-131I) by diverging and pinhole methods, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, Masayuki

    1981-01-01

    The adrenal diverging and pinhole images with 131 I-Adosterol in 80 subjects with no evidence of adrenal diseases were analyzed to establish the normal adrenal imaging patterns. The results obtained from the analysis of the diverging images were as follows: 1) The right gland was located higher than the left in 69% of the subjects and in 30% both adrenals were located at the same height. In only one subject, the left adrenal was slightly higher than the right. 2) On the posterior view, the right higher asymmetrical uptake was observed in most subjects (62.5%), whereas the symmetrical uptake was most frequently (69%) seen on the anterior view. This discrepancy could be explained by differences in depth, photon attenuation and hepatic overlapping radioactivity between both glands. 3) The adrenal high/low ratio on both views, semiquantitative comparison between both adrenal radioactivities, showed a higher deviation in the right higher group (mean; 1.37, range; 1.01 - 3.15) than in the left higher one, however, its deviation was small (mean; 1.14, range; 1.01 - 1.41). The high deviation values were due to the low uptake of the left glands. The results obtained from the analysis of the pinhole images were as follows: 1) Although the scintigraphic morphology differed essentially between both glands, the left glands were basically divided into oval (64%), triangular (25%), and round (11%) types, whereas the right glands were divided into triangular (64%), oval (25%) and round or sickle (11%) types. 2) The inner radioactive distributions of both glands were characteristic respectively. In 74% of the subjects, the left gland showed higher radioactivity in its upper and/or medial portion, and the radioactivity of the right was higher in its midportion and decreased toward its peripheral region in 76%. According to these results, the important points on interpretation of the adrenal images were discussed. (author)

  1. The postmenopausal ovary as an androgen-producing gland; hypothesis on the etiology of endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, V. H. W. M.; Sluijmer, A. V.; Heineman, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    Postmenopausal estrogens originate from the peripheral conversion of androgens, which are produced by the adrenal glands and the ovaries. Estrogens are considered to contribute to the neoplastic development of endometrium. Hyperplasia of ovarian stroma is associated with an increased androgen

  2. Feminizing adrenal tumors: Our experience about three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chentli Farida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feminizing adrenal tumors (FATs are very rare as they account for less than 2% of all the adrenal neoplasms. Their prognosis is deemed to be very poor. We aimed to present a mono centre (adult and pediatric experience over a long period of time (January 1980 to Jun 2012. During the study period, we observed only three cases in men aged 22 (2 cases and 45 (1 case. They all consulted for a painful gynecomastia, decreased libido and impotency. Estradiol was high in two cases at presentation, and after a relapsing tumor in the third one. All had big adrenal tumors (5.9, 6, and 17 cm, and a mixed secretion composed by high estradiol and cortisol. The pathological study argued for malignancy in two cases. But, only one had diffuse metastasis and died 4 years after diagnosis; the others diagnosed one and three years ago are still alive without any metastasis or relapsing.

  3. Calcified adrenal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chung Kyu; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-10-15

    Calcified hemorrhagic adrenal cysts are rather rare and unusual pathologic entity. Especially, the peripheral curvilinear calcification on roentgenogram is fairly characteristic picture of the cysts. Recently, we have experienced in Severance Hospital one of the classical cases of the benign calcified adrenal cyst in 35 year old white mail patient who has had vague abdominal pain and palpable mass in right abdomen. It has been reviewed several reports for adrenal cysts and hoped that this report may call additional attention of radiological diagnosis on this unusual disease.

  4. Diminished epinephrine response to hypoglycemia despite enlarged adrenal medulla in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Kjaer, M; Mikines, K J

    1990-01-01

    /day or served as controls being either sedentary freely eating (C), food restricted (FR), sham swim trained (ST), or cold stressed (CS). Adrenal glands were weighted and cross sectioned for light microscopic determination of size of the adrenal medulla. Endurance-trained compared with control rats had heavier...... adrenal glands (P less than 0.05), higher catecholamine content in the glands (P less than 0.05), and higher adrenal medulla volumes (P less than 0.05) [males: 2.74 +/- 0.16 (T) vs. 2.05 +/- 0.16 (C), 1.90 +/- 0.10 (ST), and 2.21 +/- 0.08 mm3 (CS)] [females: 2.55 +/- 0.11 (T) vs. 1.92 +/- 0.06 mm3 (C......)]. Cold stress or sham swim training did not increase adrenal weight or volume of adrenal medulla (P greater than 0.05). To stimulate adrenal medulla secretion, rats had an insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Insulin dose needed to suppress plasma glucose below 4.0 mM was four times greater in sedentary...

  5. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  7. Carcinoma ex mixed tumor arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma ex mixed tumor is a mixed tumor in which a second neoplasm develops from the epithelial component that fulfills the criteria for malignancy. This tumor occurs frequently in the parotid glands. Individuals in whom carcinoma ex mixed tumor have a past history of benign mixed tumor. These lesions contain both a benign mixed tumor as well as a malignant neoplasm. We report a case of carcinoma ex mixed tumor which occurred in the parotid gland. A 67-year-old woman presented with movable right mass. She complained pain and facial paralysis. The clinical presentation, several diagnostic images, and histopathologic findings are presented.

  8. Emission tomography for adrenal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.; Shapiro, B.; Hawkins, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPET) of the adrenals was compared to convential gamma camera images. Depths of 19 adrenals were assessed by both the lateral skin-upper kidney pole method and by SPET. Eleven patients with adrenal disorders were also studied. An advantage of using SPET was that the analogue transverse section image showed improvement over the conventional posterior view because the liver activity was well separated from the adrenal. Furthermore, non-adrenal tissue background was virtually eliminated and adrenal depth determination facilitated. (U.K.)

  9. Traumatic rupture of adrenal pseudocyst leading to massive hemorrhage in retroperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favorito Luciano A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient who had a large pseudocyst in the right adrenal gland, which was ruptured following blunt abdominal trauma, leading to a voluminous hemorrhage in retroperitoneum. A 29-year old female patient was admitted in the emergency room following a fall from stairs with trauma in right flank. She underwent a computerized tomography that evidenced a large retroperitoneal collection, with no apparent renal damage. She was submitted to surgery, where a large ruptured cyst was observed, originating from the upper portion of the right adrenal gland. Cystic diseases of adrenal gland are rare. Highly voluminous cysts can be damaged in cases of blunt trauma to the lumbar region leading to large hematomas in retroperitoneum.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support and Research Foundation: Genetic Changes Found in Cushing's Disease, Adrenal Tumors, and Adrenal Hyperplasia MalaCards: acth-independent ... macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 2 Merck Manual (Home Edition): Cushing ... Adrenal Diseases Foundation: Cushing's Syndrome Orphanet: Cushing syndrome due to ...

  11. Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for clinical and subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with bilateral adrenal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Aoife J; Seeliger, Barbara; Alesina, Pier F; Walz, Martin K

    2017-08-01

    The treatment of hypercortisolism for patients with bilateral adrenal disease (BAD) is controversial. Bilateral total adrenalectomy results in permanent hypocortisolaemia requiring lifelong steroid replacement. A more conservative surgical approach, with less than bilateral total adrenalectomy (leaving functional adrenal tissue either unilaterally or bilaterally), represents an alternative option; however, long-term outcome or recurrence data are limited. We report our experience with the surgical management of hypercortisolism caused by BAD. Between 2004 and 2016, 42 patients (12 male, 30 female; mean age 58 ± 10 years) with clinical or subclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS/sCS) caused by BAD underwent adrenal surgery via the posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach. Adrenal surgery was defined as "adrenalectomy" when total gland excision was performed or "resection" when a partial or subtotal adrenal resection was performed. Clinical, radiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Seventy adrenal operations performed in total included unilateral resection (n = 3), unilateral adrenalectomy (n = 15), bilateral resection (n = 9), adrenalectomy and contralateral resection (n = 14) and bilateral total adrenalectomy (n = 3). Median operating time was 47.5 min (30-150) with no difference between unilateral and bilateral (synchronous included) procedures (p = 0.15). Mortality was zero. Clavien-Dindo grade of postoperative complications was I (n = 5) and IV (n = 3). All but one patient with CS and 17/31 patients with sCS received postoperative steroid supplementation for a median duration of 20 (1.5-129) months. After median follow-up of 40 months (3-129), the remission rate was 92%; 11 patients required ongoing steroid supplementation. There were three biochemical recurrences (two underwent contralateral resection); two patients with new/progressive radiological nodularity are biochemically eucortisolaemic. A

  12. Adrenal scintiphotographic study with 131I-adosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tsuneo; Ohno, Akiko; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Ohshima, Motoo; Matsubara, Kazuhito

    1976-01-01

    Adrenal scintiphotography by Nuclear-Chicago Pho Gamma III or Ohio-Nuclear 100 scinticamera was performed on the 7th, 8th and 9th day following the intravenous administration of 1 mCi of 131 I-adosterol. The cases to studied were 10 cases of primary aldosteronism and 10 suspected, 4 cases of Cushings syndrome and 3 suspected, and 2 cases of pheochromocytoma and 11 suspected. The lesions were clearly demonstrated as hot spots, in all operatively verified cases of primary aldosteronism, Cushings syndrome, and pheochromocytoma, respectively. Normal adrenal glands were either normally visualized or not visualized. In primary aldosteronism, the lesions visualized ranged in size from 13 to 27 mm. In Cushings syndrome, the lesions visualized ranged in size from 20 to 38 mm. In pheochromocytoma, the lesions visualized were 40 mm in diameter. Adrenal scintiphotographic study is useful in detecting lesion and/or determining side of a lesion before the angiographic examination. (J.P.N.)

  13. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These conditions can lead to an adrenal crisis. Pregnancy Women with adrenal insufficiency who become pregnant are ... can benefit from following a diet rich in sodium. A health care provider or a dietitian can ...

  14. Gamma camera imaging of bilateral adrenocartical hyperplasia and adrenal tumors in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulnix, J.A.; Van den Brom, W.E.; Lubberink, A.A.; de Bruijne, J.J.; Rijnberk, A.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma camera imaging of the adrenal glands was done in 8 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and 4 normal dogs given intravenous injections of 131I-19-iodocholesterol. In normal dogs, both adrenal glands could be visualized separately, and there was no difficulty in distinguishing among the images of normal glands, hyperplastic glands, and functional adrenal tumors. In addition, gamma camera imaging enabled the correct surgical site to be selected for removal of adrenal tumors. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in 8 dogs by evaluation of urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (OHCS) excretion rates, urinary 17-OHCS and plasma 11 beta-OHCS responses to dexamethasone suppression of endogenous adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion, and plasma 11 beta-OHCS response to intravenous administration of ACTH. Base line 17-OHCS excretion increased in 5 of the 8 dogs. Plasma 11 beta-OHCS concentrations were not decreased by dexamethasone administration in the 4 dogs subsequently found to have adrenal tumors; however, there was an exaggerated increase in plasma 11 beta-OHCS concentration after administration of ACTH in 3 of the 4 dogs which had bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia

  15. Adrenal incidentalomas. Primary hyperaldosteronism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, A.; Dupas, B.; Zenatti, M.; Aupetit-Faisant, B.; Tenenbaum, F.; Tabarin, A.; Barrat, J.L.; Gosse, P.; Olivier-Puel, F.; Leprat, F.; Trouette, H.; Laurent, F.; Roger, P.

    1993-01-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are masses incidentally discovered at X rays, ultrasound or MRI examination of the abdomen. In 100 CT scans, one can expect to find two incidentalomas on average. The article by Murat and Dupas is dealing with the strategy of biological, morphological and scintigraphic examinations to be performed in such patients, to assess whether the tumor is of a benign or a malignant nature. Zenatti et al propose a detailed exploration of the aldosterone pathways, since adrenal carcinoma may be responsible for a specific profile of the serum concentrations of mineralo-steroids, compatible with a blockade of the last step of the aldosterone synthesis. The exploration of primary hyperaldosteronism requires biological and imaging techniques. Tabarin et al summarize the main biological parameters and tests available for the diagnosis of this condition and delineate the indications of imaging techniques, associated to hormonal tests to distinguish between adenoma and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. (author). 104 refs

  16. Fecal Glucocorticoid Analysis: Non-invasive Adrenal Monitoring in Equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Kelly; Purcell, Rebecca S; Walker, Susan L

    2016-04-25

    Adrenal activity can be assessed in the equine species by analysis of feces for corticosterone metabolites. During a potentially aversive situation, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) is released from the hypothalamus in the brain. This stimulates the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland. In horses the glucocorticoid corticosterone is responsible for several adaptations needed to support equine flight behaviour and subsequent removal from the aversive situation. Corticosterone metabolites can be detected in the feces of horses and assessment offers a non-invasive option to evaluate long term patterns of adrenal activity. Fecal assessment offers advantages over other techniques that monitor adrenal activity including blood plasma and saliva analysis. The non-invasive nature of the method avoids sampling stress which can confound results. It also allows the opportunity for repeated sampling over time and is ideal for studies in free ranging horses. This protocol describes the enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) used to assess feces for corticosterone, in addition to the associated biochemical validation.

  17. A review of the anatomy and clinical significance of adrenal veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Du Plessis, Maira; Iannatuono, Mark; Shah, Sameer; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-11-01

    The adrenal veins may present with a multitude of anatomical variants, which surgeons must be aware of when performing adrenalectomies. The adrenal veins originate during the formation of the prerenal inferior vena cava (IVC) and are remnants of the caudal portion of the subcardinal veins, cranial to the subcardinal sinus in the embryo. The many communications between the posterior cardinal, supracardinal, and subcardinal veins of the primordial venous system provide an explanation for the variable anatomy. Most commonly, one central vein drains each adrenal gland. The long left adrenal vein joins the inferior phrenic vein and drains into the left renal vein, while the short right adrenal vein drains immediately into the IVC. Multiple variations exist bilaterally and may pose the risk of surgical complications. Due to the potential for collaterals and accessory adrenal vessels, great caution must be taken during an adrenalectomy. Adrenal venous sampling, the gold standard in diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism, also requires the clinician to have a thorough knowledge of the adrenal vein anatomy to avoid iatrogenic injury. The adrenal vein acts as an important conduit in portosystemic shunts, thus the nature of the anatomy and hypercoagulable states pose the risk of thrombosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Effect of Endurance Swimming Exercise Training on Structural Remodeling and Apoptotic Index of Adrenal Cortex in Pregnant Rats Exposed to Cadmium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dabagh Nikukheslat

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Exercise training in determined intensity increased the structural and morphological complications of cadmium toxicity in the adrenal gland of pregnant rats. So, pregnant mothers are advised to use low-intensity exercises and trainings.

  19. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  20. Laparoscopic adrenal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrolou, A.; Salom, A.; Harguindeguy; Taroco, L.; Ardao, G.; Broli, F. . E mail: andresssss@adinet.com.uy

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the case of a female patient who carried an aldosterone-secreting tumor of adrenal cortex.In the analysis of diagnosis and para clinical examinations there is particular reference to the laparoscopic surgery mode of treatment.Diagnosis should be established on the basis of clinical and laboratory tests (hypopotassemia and hyperaldosteronism).Tumor topography was confirmed through CT scan, MRI and Scintiscan in left adrenal cortex.Resection was consequently made through laparoscopic surgery.The patients evolution was excellent from the surgical viewpoint,with I levels of blood pressure, potassium and aldosterone returned to normal

  1. Imaging of adrenal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, Soitsu

    1982-01-01

    Adrenal scintillation scanning, CT and ultrasonography are compared with the conventional imaging methods. The accuracy of retroperitoneal pneumography and adrenal venography are not high, and they detected only large tumors such as Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma. Scintillation scanning is highly effective for the diagnoses of primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome. However, this technique does not visualize pheochromocytoma or hypopituitarism. CT is noninvasive and of high diagnostic value. It is impossible to diagnose tumors by ultrasonography unless the size is more than 3 cm. (Chiba, N.)

  2. Limitations of intraoperative adrenal remnant volume measurement in patients undergoing subtotal adrenalectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauckhoff, Michael; Stock, Karsten; Stock, Susanne; Lorenz, Kerstin; Sekulla, Carsten; Brauckhoff, Katrin; Thanh, Phuong Nguyen; Gimm, Oliver; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Dralle, Henning

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that a minimum of approximately one-third of one normal adrenal gland is required for sufficient adrenocortical stress capacity. Correlation between intraoperative measurement, determination of remnant size by computed tomography (CT), and adrenocortical stress capacity has not been examined so far. Twenty-two patients with familial pheochromocytoma (n=13), sporadic pheochromocytoma (n=3), and adrenocortical tumors (n=6) who underwent unilateral or bilateral subtotal adrenalectomy (STAE, 28 adrenal remnants) were prospectively studied. Patients were examined in a multi-slice CT to determine residual adrenal tissue and by ACTH test 4 days and 3 months postoperatively. There was a slight significant correlation between intraoperative and CT calculated volumes (r=0.77; pSTAE has limitations. CT gives larger volumes compared with intraoperative determination. For calculation of a volume-function correlation of residual adrenal tissue, in clinical practice, the determination of relative adrenal residual volume is acceptable.

  3. Multimodal Regulation of Circadian Glucocorticoid Rhythm by Central and Adrenal Clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Gi Hoon; Cha, Hyo Kyeong; Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Kyungjin

    2018-05-01

    Adrenal glucocorticoids (GCs) control a wide range of physiological processes, including metabolism, cardiovascular and pulmonary activities, immune and inflammatory responses, and various brain functions. During stress responses, GCs are secreted through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, whereas circulating GC levels in unstressed states follow a robust circadian oscillation with a peak around the onset of the active period of a day. A recent advance in chronobiological research has revealed that multiple regulatory mechanisms, along with classical neuroendocrine regulation, underlie this GC circadian rhythm. The hierarchically organized circadian system, with a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and local oscillators in peripheral tissues, including the adrenal gland, mediates periodicities in physiological processes in mammals. In this review, we primarily focus on our understanding of the circadian regulation of adrenal GC rhythm, with particular attention to the cooperative actions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus central and adrenal local clocks, and the clinical implications of this rhythm in human diseases.

  4. Adrenal failure followed by status epilepticus and hemolytic anemia in primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bures Vladimir

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a 14 year old boy who presented with the symptoms abdominal pain, fever and proteinuria. A hematoma in the region of the right pararenal space was diagnosed. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were positive and serum cortisol was normal. Ten days after admission the boy suddenly suffered generalized seizures due to low serum sodium. As well, the patient developed hemolytic anemia, acute elevated liver enzymes, hematuria and increased proteinuria. At this time a second hemorrhage of the left adrenal gland was documented. Adrenal function tests revealed adrenal insufficiency. We suspected microthromboses in the adrenals and secondary bleeding and treated the boy with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and phenprocoumon. Conclusion Adrenal failure is a rare complication of APS in children with only five cases reported to date. As shown in our patient, this syndrome can manifest in a diverse set of simultaneously occurring symptoms.

  5. I-123(131)-metyrapone for imaging of the adrenal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolle, I.; Bergmann, H.; Hoefer, R.; Robien, W.

    1982-01-01

    Attempts to label metyrapone with radioiodine resulted in the synthesis of 4'-bromometyrapone that is labelled with I-123(131) by halogen exchange before use. The synthesis of I-123(131)-metyrapone involves 4 intermediate compounds. 4'-bromometyrapone serves as a precursor with indefinite shelf-life that is labelled selectively in the 4'-position of ring B. Studies of the biodistribution of I-131-metyrapone indicate the highest concentration in the adrenal gland 10-20 min after injection, peak uptake in the normal adrenal corresponds to 0.2% of the administered dose. In hyperfunctioning adrenals the uptake is higher. In a patient with bilateral modular hyperplasia, 0.8% of the injected radioactivity were measured in the enlarged adrenals at 2 resp. 2.8 hrs after injection of I-123-metyrapone. We have performed the first adrenal scintigram on the same patient with 1.25 mCi of I-123-metyrapone. (Author)

  6. Adrenal imaging with 131I-Adosterol (NCL-6-131I) by diverging and pinhole methods, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, Masayuki

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of the adrenal diverging and pinhole images with 131 I-Adosterol was made to establish adrenal imaging patterns, in 43 patients with various adrenal disorders, 4 with adrenal adjacent tumors and one with arrhenoblastoma of the ovary whose images were also included. From this analysis and review of literature, three principles (1. Accumulation in cortical tumors, 2. Relation to endogenous ACTH and 3. Nonaccumulation in noncortical tumors) and several additional factors to make various adrenal imaging patterns with 131 I-iodocholesterols could be induced. The accuracy of locating the adrenal tumor-bearing glands was 97% (28/29) with pinhole images and 70% (21/30) with diverging images in baseline conditions. Various adrenal high/low ratios could not be used as confidential indicators to locate the tumorbearing glands, especially in primary aldosteronism, although the left higher ratios on both views showed high discrepancy between normal and abnormal subjects. The ''Pinhole method'' is recommended as a simple technique of adrenal imaging, because it provides a high-resolution adrenal image which results in a high diagnostic value. A pinhole collimator is available in any institute which has a gamma camera. (author)

  7. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  8. Salivary gland carcinosarcoma: oligonucleotide array CGH reveals similar genomic profiles in epithelial and mesenchymal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vékony, H.; Leemans, C.R.; Ylstra, B.; Meijer, G.A.; van der Waal, I.; Bloemena, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a case of parotid gland de novo carcinosarcoma. Salivary gland carcinosarcoma (or true malignant mixed tumor) is a rare biphasic neoplasm, composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal components. It is yet unclear whether these two phenotypes occur by

  9. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demas, B.E.; Hricak, H.; Braga, C.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four women with suspected gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were evaluated prospectively to identify imaging algorithms optimal for treatment planning. All underwent chest radiography, chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. Ten also underwent pelvic CT, 13 pelvic US. The most sensitive imaging combination was chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. However, correct assignment to ACOG therapeutic categories was achieved by means of history, physical examination, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin measurements, and chest radiography in 81% of patients. Hepatic and cranial imaging defined the need for radiation therapy. Chest CT was needed only when chest radiographs were negative. Pelvic imaging aided diagnosis but did not assist in treatment planning

  10. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation of sheep fetal adrenal cortex can occur without increased expression of ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Petersen, Y M; Towstoless, M

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, it was hypothesized that the adrenocorticotrophin hormone receptor (ACTH-R) would be up-regulated in the adrenal gland of the sheep fetus following infusion of physiological amounts of ACTH, as shown for adrenal cortical cells in culture. In chronically catheterized sheep...

  11. A retrospective review of Cyberknife Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Adrenal Tumors (Primary and Metastatic: Winthrop University Hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amishi eDesai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal gland is a common site of cancer metastasis. Surgery remains a mainstay of treatment for solitary adrenal metastasis. For patients who cannot undergo surgery, radiation is an alternative option. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT is an ablative treatment option allowing larger doses to be delivered over a shorter period of time. In this study, we report on our experience with the use of SBRT to treat adrenal metastases using Cyberknife technology. We retrospectively reviewed, the Winthrop-University radiation oncology data base to identify 14 patients for whom SBRT was administered to treat malignant adrenal disease. Of the factors examined, the biologic equivalent dose (BED of radiation delivered was found to be the most important predictor of local adrenal tumor control. We conclude that CyberKnife-based SBRT is a safe, non-invasive modality that has broadened the therapeutic options for the treatment of isolated adrenal metastases.

  12. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in routine clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2011-03-10

    The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.

  13. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in routine clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.

  14. Experience with surgical treatment for primary malignant adrenal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Latypov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adrenal tumors occur in 3–10 % of the population and are mostly benign adrenal cortical tumors. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a very rare tumor and has an annual incidence of 1–2 cases per million people. The U.S. National Cancer Data Base registered 4275 patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in 1985 to 2007. It is extremely difficult to assess Russia’s epidemiological data, as reports on adrenocortical carcinoma are not presented separately.Materials and methods. A total of 133 patients (49 men and 84 women (1:1.7 with adrenal tumors were operated on at the clinics of the Siberian State Medical University in the period December 1998 to March 2015. The patients’ mean age was 51.3 (16–80 years (median age 51.0 years. The right and left adrenal glands were affected in 49 (36.9 % and 77 (57.9 % patients, respectively; both adrenal glands were involved in 7 (5.3 %. A group of 21 (15.8 % people with primary malignant adrenal tumors was identified among all the patients. The clinical manifestations of the disease were evaluated from the presence of hormonal activity, gastrointestinal symptoms, pain syndrome, and hypertension. All the patients were operated on under endotracheal anesthesia. The data were statistically processed using the program package Statistica 6.0. Survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method. The Gehan–Wilcoxon test was used to compare the groups.Results. The investigation analyzed treatment results in 21 (15.8 % patients with primary malignant adrenal lesions (Group 1. The most common morphological form was adrenocortical carcinoma in 15 (11.3 % patients (5 men and 10 women (1:2; their mean age was 48.1 years. The right, left, and both adrenal glands were affected in 4, 9, and 2 cases, respectively. In Group 2, other malignant adrenal involvements were identified from 1 case of rare malignant adrenal tumors: malignant pheochromocytoma, sarcoma, melanoma, squamous cell

  15. Parotid gland lipoma: two case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islim, F.; Ors, S.; Salik, A.; Selcuk, H.; Sever, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Lipoma is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the human body but very rarely in the parotid gland. Objective: The aim of this study was to document retrospectively the imaging findings of lipomas with the use of computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Material and methods: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging were performed to the patients after clinical evaluation and physical examination. Both for two patients after fine needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced. Case 1: 14-wear-old woman was applied to the hospital with swelling of the right jaw. In physical examination a palpable mass was detected on the parotid gland. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion was observed. This tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images. Case 2: 65-wear-old man presented with a 10 month history of a painless, slow growing mass in the left preauricular area. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion with hyperechoic areas was observed. Also this tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images with low ADC level. Both for two patients after fine-needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced, superficial parotidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed parotid lipoma. Conclusion: Lipomas are common soft tissue neoplasms but found very rarely in the parotid gland, and so, are after not considered in the initial differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

  16. Candesartan decreases the sympatho-adrenal and hormonal response to isolation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Armando

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A change from group housing to isolation in unfamiliar metabolic cages represents, for rodents, a significant emotional stress. We studied the effect of candesartan, a peripheral and central angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist, on the hormonal and sympathetic response to acute isolation. We pretreated rats with 1 mg/kg/day candesartan for 13 days via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps, followed by 24-hour isolation in individual metabolic cages. We measured brain, pituitary and adrenal angiotensin II (Ang II receptor binding by quantitative autoradiography and adrenal hormones and catecholamines by RIA and HPLC. Isolation increased adrenal catecholamines, aldosterone and corticosterone, AT1-receptor binding in the zona glomerulosa and AT2-receptor binding in the adrenal medulla. Candesartan pretreatment decreased adrenal catecholamines, aldosterone and corticosterone, AT1-receptor binding in adrenal zona glomerulosa and medulla, pituitary gland and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and AT2-receptor binding in adrenal medulla, but increased AT2-receptor binding in zona glomerulosa. We conclude that peripheral and central AT1-receptor blockade with candesartan decreases the sympatho-adrenal and hormonal response to acute stress. Our results indicate that Ang II is an important stress hormone and suggest that blockade of the physiologically active AT 1-receptors could influence stress-related disorders.

  17. Case report of a bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with Cushing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Yoon; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Suh, Kyo-Il; Yoo, Myung Hi; Jin, So Young; Yun, Sumi; Byun, Dong Won

    2017-12-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors, composed of a variable mixture of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic tissue. These tumors are frequently detected incidentally and are usually asymptomatic, and hormonally inactive. During a routine health checkup, a 52-year-old man was found to have a tumor on the bilateral adrenal glands. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a well-defined, heterogeneously enhanced bilateral adrenal mass, suggesting a myelolipoma. The hormonal evaluation revealed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent Cushing syndrome. The patient underwent left adrenalectomy, and transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary mass. The final diagnosis was adrenal myelolipoma associated with Cushing disease. Growth of right adrenal myelolipoma was detected during the 7-year follow-up. There were enhancing pituitary lesions in repeat magnetic resonance imaging of the sellar region, which implies persistent or recurrent pituitary adenoma. This case reinforces relationship between Cushing disease and adrenal myelolipoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported pathologically confirmed bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with Cushing disease. This report supports the idea that ACTH is associated with the development of adrenal myelolipoma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  19. Aquaporins and Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes. This book chapter will focus on summarizing the current knowledge on AQPs expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract , including salivary glands, gastric glands, Duodenal Brunner's gland, liver and gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, exocrine and endocrine pancreas, as well as few other secretory glands including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands and eccrine sweat glands.

  20. Addison's disease due to bilateral post-traumatic adrenal haemorrhage: CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, G.; Tits, J.; Vanstraelen, D.; Marchal, G.; Rigauts, H.; Baert, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    In a patient with Addison's disease, who gave a history of a severe car accident, CT showed bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands. MRI, by demonstrating paramagnetic T1 shortening due to methaemoglobin and haemosiderin on T2-weighted images, confirmed the haemorrhagic nature of the lesions. (orig.)

  1. Pre-receptor Regulation of Cortisol in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning an Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H.J. Dekker (Marieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGlucocorticoids (GCs) are ubiquitous, nuclear hormones, which are essential for life. In man, the main GC is cortisol, produced by the adrenals, endocrine glands that are situated on top of the kidneys. Cortisol exerts its functions in nearly all tissues and is crucial in the

  2. The histology of the adrenal gland of the African elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-22

    Jan 22, 1991 ... cells contain granules of different sizes and structure. Die histologie, veral die .... these cells abut on the zona glomerulosa, small lipid drop- lets are seen in their .... for the typical zona intermedia; thus its classification as a.

  3. What Are the Symptoms of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Cushing Syndrome Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... too much or too little of these hormones. Cushing's Syndrome Common symptoms of Cushing's syndrome (due to an ...

  4. What Are the Treatments for Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Cushing Syndrome Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... stop the excess production of hormones Hormone replacement Cushing's Syndrome The treatment for Cushing's syndrome depends on the ...

  5. Ion channelopathies of the kidney and adrenal gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, B. B.; Wollnik, B.; Koemhoff, M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic kidney diseases represent a significant proportion of kidney diseases manifesting in childhood and adolescence, but are also gaining importance in slowly progressive or late-onset adult diseases. A significant portion of kidney diseases particularly in childhood are associated with end stage

  6. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan may be useful in diagnosing an ...

  7. Approach to the handling of adrenal insufficiency Manejo de la insuficiencia adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The term adrenal insufficiency refers to the hypofunction of this gland. From the etiologic point of view it may be either primary or secondary. This insufficiency manifests as inadequate serum levels of cortisol and adrenal androgens in the secondary form and of these and mineralocorticoids in the primary one. Clinical manifestations are often nonspecific and, consequently, diagnosis may be difficult to establish and treatment may be delayed with increased morbidity and mortality. This article on adrenal insufficiency includes its definition, epidemiology, etiology, physiopathology, classification, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines. Besides, some special situations like critically ill patients and pregnant women are given special consideration. Emphasis is done on a diagnostic algorithm to make it easier for general practitioners the approach to patients with this endocrine disorder. La insuficiencia adrenal (ia se refiere a la hipofunción de dicha glándula debida a causas tanto primarias como secundarias, que resultan en niveles plasmáticos inadecuados de cortisol, andrógenos adrenales y adicionalmente, en la falla primaria de mineralocorticoides. Sus manifestaciones inespecíficas dificultan o retrasan con frecuencia el diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno, lo cual incrementa la morbilidad y eventualmente la mortalidad de estos pacientes. Se incluyen en este artículo: definición, epidemiología, causas, fisiopatología, clasificación, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la IA. Además se consideran algunas situaciones especiales como la IA en el paciente críticamente enfermo y en la mujer gestante. Finalmente se hace especial énfasis en un algoritmo diagnóstico, con la finalidad de facilitarle al médico general un enfoque ágil y oportuno de los pacientes con este problema endocrino.

  8. Mechanisms of blood pressure changes following renal irradiation of intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal regenerating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.

    1977-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in changes in systolic arterial blood pressure following renal x irradiation (1100 R) in adrenal-intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal-regenerating rats and to elucidate the involvement or roles of the kidneys and of the adrenal glands in the blood pressure changes. The parameters studied included the following: systolic blood pressure; body weight; food and fluid consumption; urine output; plasma and urine electrolytes; sodium balance; plasma renin activity; plasma corticosterone; renal vascular volume; renal vascular permeability (using 125 I-polyvinylpyrrolidone extravasation rate as an indicator); renal blood flow (using 42 K extraction); kidney weight; hematocrit; and total vascular, plasma, and red cell volumes. Renal x irradiation of intact rats caused polydipsia, polyuria, and reduced urine concentrations of sodium and potassium without significantly affecting blood pressure during the period of study (80 days); plasma renin activity was significantly lowered and had a positive correlation with blood volume; an abnormal blood volume-plasma renin activity relationship is suggested. Adrenalectomy caused prolonged hypotension in saline-maintained rats even though their sodium balance was more positive than that in adrenal-intact or adrenal-regenerating rats with normal or elevated blood pressure. The blood pressure of renally irrradiated, adrenalectomized rats was greater than non-irradiated adrenalectomized rats, but with only borderline significance; it is concluded that the absence of the adrenal glands does not affect the degree or duration of the effects of renal irradiation on blood pressure

  9. Laparoscopic and robotic adrenal surgery: transperitoneal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Alexis K; Berber, Eren

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in technology and the need to decrease surgical morbidity have led a rapid progress in laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) over the past decade. Robotics is attractive to the surgeon owing to the 3-dimensional image quality, articulating instruments, and stable surgical platform. The safety and efficacy of robotic adrenalectomy (RA) have been demonstrated by several reports. In addition, RA has been shown to provide similar outcomes compared to LA. Development of adrenal surgery has involved the description of several surgical approaches including the anterior transperitoneal, lateral transperitoneal (LT) and posterior retroperitoneal (PR). Among these, the most frequently preferred technique is LT adrenalectomy, primarily due to the surgeon's familiarity of the operative field, wider working space and visibility. The LT technique is suitable for the resection of larger, unilateral tumors and in scenarios where conversion to an open transperitoneal approach is warranted, it offers a lesser burden. Also, the larger view of the entire abdominal cavity and excellent exposure of both adrenal glands and surrounding structures provided by the LT technique render it safe and feasible in pediatric and pregnant individuals.

  10. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2 , CALR , or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Ignacio; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J.; Lin, Lin; Barenco, Martino; Parnaik, Rahul; Shah, Sonia; Hubank, Mike; Gerrelli, Dianne; Achermann, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc), such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control). Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3) and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1), which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2), as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1). We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5), but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders. PMID:28459107

  12. Rifampicin-induced adrenal crisis in a patient with tuberculosis: a therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Nicholas; Raghunath, Sarika; Bhatia, Praveen; Abdelaziz, Muntasir

    2016-11-29

    A 55-year-old Indian man presented with productive cough and a large left pleural effusion. Pleural fluid culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and he was started on antituberculosis therapy. One week later, the patient presented to hospital with drowsiness, dehydration and hypotension. He was transferred to critical care and only improved after starting hydrocortisone and stopping rifampicin. His short synACTHen test subsequently confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency, and a CT of the abdomen showed bilateral adrenal enlargement. Rifampicin is known to accelerate cortisol metabolism. We report the rare case of a rifampicin-induced adrenal crisis as a first presentation of Addison's disease in a patient with tuberculous infiltration of the adrenal glands. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma: A case report with immunohistochemical study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay D Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary adrenal mesenchymal tumors are exceptionally rare. Diagnosis is based entirely on histological and immunohistochemical evaluation which is indispensable not only for determining tumor type but also for predicting biological behavior. We report a rare case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the left adrenal gland, in a 60 year old woman who presented with flank pain. Computed tomography revealed a well defined left adrenal tumor which was surgically resected. Histological examination of the tumor showed malignant spindle cells in interlacing fascicles and whorls. Nuclear pleomorphism, tumor giant cells and abnormal mitotic figures were seen. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells showed reactivity for smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin; and were negative for cytokeratin, S100 protein, CD117 and HMB-45. A diagnosis of primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma was offered. Postoperative recovery of the patient was uneventful and the patient was symptom free with no evidence of tumor metastasis or recurrence 21 months after surgery.

  14. Prolactin induces adrenal hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Silva

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Although adrenocorticotropic hormone is generally considered to play a major role in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, several reports have suggested that other pituitary hormones (e.g., prolactin also play a significant role in the regulation of adrenal function. The aim of the present study was to measure the adrenocortical cell area and to determine the effects of the transition from the prepubertal to the postpubertal period on the hyperprolactinemic state induced by domperidone (4.0 mg kg-1 day-1, sc. In hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats, the adrenals were heavier, as determined at necropsy, than in the respective controls: adults (30 days: 0.16 ± 0.008 and 0.11 ± 0.007; 46 days: 0.17 ± 0.006 and 0.12 ± 0.008, and 61 days: 0.17 ± 0.008 and 0.10 ± 0.004 mg for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05, and young rats (30 days: 0.19 ± 0.003 and 0.16 ± 0.007, and 60 days: 0.16 ± 0.006 and 0.13 ± 0.009 mg; P < 0.05. We selected randomly a circular area in which we counted the nuclei of adrenocortical cells. The area of zona fasciculata cells was increased in hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats compared to controls: adults: (61 days: 524.90 ± 47.85 and 244.84 ± 9.03 µm² for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05, and young rats: (15 days: 462.30 ± 16.24 and 414.28 ± 18.19; 60 days: 640.51 ± 12.91 and 480.24 ± 22.79 µm²; P < 0.05. Based on these data we conclude that the increase in adrenal weight observed in the hyperprolactinemic animals may be due to prolactin-induced adrenocortical cell hypertrophy.

  15. Statistical Data on 2556 Cases of Endocrine Glands Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BAHADORI

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a statistical and analytical review of endocrine glands disorders, seen in the Department of Pathology, Tehran University Medical School, and is based on approximately 40,000 surgical specimens and 2,500 autopsy cases. Of 42,500 combined routine surgical and autopsy cases reviewed, we had 2,556 cases of endocrine disorders of which there: thyroid 1,125 cases, ovary 970, testis 268, adrenal gland 170, pancreas 156, parathyroid 24 and pituitary gland 23. Principal lesions of each gland have been discussed, and in some cases attempt has been made to analyse and compare the clinical symptoms with the pathological findings.

  16. Endoscopic Ultrasound in Endocrinology: Imaging of the Adrenals and the Endocrine Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Peter Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of adrenal glands and its application to diagnostic procedures of adrenal diseases has been reported since 1998. It can be considered a relevant advantage in the field of adrenal diseases. Indeed, EUS allows the detection of adrenal lesions (even very small ones) and their characterization, the assessment of malignancy criteria, the early detection of neoplastic recurrences, the preoperative identification of morphologically healthy parts of the glands, the differentiation of extra-adrenal from adrenal tumors, and of the pathological entities associated with adrenal insufficiency, and the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) of suspicious lesions. At the same time, its clinical relevance depends on the experience of the endosonographer. Moreover, EUS is also by far the best and most sensitive imaging technique to detect and assess the follow-up of pancreatic manifestation of MEN1 disease. It furthermore enables the preoperatively localization of insulinomas and critical structures in their neighborhood, and may be relevant in planning surgical strategy. A positive EUS in a case of insulinoma furthermore confirms the endocrine diagnosis, especially considering the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia factitia by oral antidiabetics. It can be supplemented by EUS-FNA. Again, it has to be considered that EUS may reveal false positive and false negative results, and the quality of the findings largely depends on the endosonographer's skills and experience. The most important technical details together with the advantages and limitations of EUS, and the pathognomonic characteristic of benign and malignant disorders of the adrenals and pancreas are presented here. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Dendritic cell neoplasms: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairouz, Sebastien; Hashash, Jana; Kabbara, Wadih; McHayleh, Wassim; Tabbara, Imad A

    2007-10-01

    Dendritic cell neoplasms are rare tumors that are being recognized with increasing frequency. They were previously classified as lymphomas, sarcomas, or histiocytic neoplasms. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies dendritic cell neoplasms into five groups: Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, Langerhans' cell sarcoma, Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, and Dendritic cell sarcoma, not specified otherwise (Jaffe, World Health Organization classification of tumors 2001; 273-289). Recently, Pileri et al. provided a comprehensive immunohistochemical classification of histiocytic and dendritic cell tumors (Pileri et al., Histopathology 2002;59:161-167). In this article, a concise overview regarding the pathological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of follicular dendritic, interdigitating dendritic, and Langerhans' cell tumors is presented.

  18. [Adrenal insufficiency of the adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jublanc, C; Bruckert, E

    2016-12-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a rare but life-threatening disorder. Clinical manifestations include fatigue, weight loss, gastrointestinal manifestations and skin hyperpigmentation, the latter being specific of primary adrenal failure. Because of non-specific clinical features of this rare disorder, diagnosis can be delayed and adrenal failure be revealed by an acute crisis. Adrenal insufficiency can be primary (Addison disease), most frequently autoimmune, or secondary, resulting from long term administration of exogenous glucocorticoids or more rarely from pituitary disorders. Monitoring of substitutive treatment is now well codified. Patient education is very important in this chronic disease that remains associated with a persistent high risk of adrenal crisis. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A metastatic adrenal tumor from a hepatocellular carcinoma: combination therapy with transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Yun Ku; Ahn, Yong Sik; Kim, Mi Young [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    The adrenal gland is the second most common site of metastasis from a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for these tumors has been reported to be a potentially effective alternative to an adrenalectomy, especially for inoperable patients. However, for intermediate or large adrenal tumors, combination therapy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and RFA can be attempted as it may reduce the heat sink effect. A 74-year-old patient presented with abdominal discomfort. Abdominal CT images revealed a 5.0 cm sized right adrenal mass. A percutaneous biopsy of the adrenal mass revealed a metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. TACE was performed on the adrenal mass. However, a one-month follow-up CT image revealed a residual viable tumor. RFA was performed for the adrenal tumor six weeks after the TACE. No procedure-related major complications were noted. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level had also been normalized after the treatment, and 10-month follow-up CT images showed no definite evidence of viable adrenal tumor.

  20. Partial recovery of adrenal function in a patient with autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smans, L C C J; Zelissen, P M J

    2008-07-01

    To our knowledge, no case of remission in autoimmune Addison's disease has previously been reported. We describe a patient with primary adrenal insufficiency caused by autoimmune adrenalitis in whom partial remission was observed after 7 yr. A 39-yr-old male was referred because of extreme fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, nausea, and bouts of fever. During physical examination hyperpigmentation was seen. Laboratory tests showed a plasma cortisol of 0.02 micromol/l (08:30 h). Cortisol failed to increase during the ACTH stimulation test (0.02 to 0.03 micromol/l) and ACTH was markedly elevated (920 pmol/l). Adrenal auto-antibodies were weakly positive. A CT-scan showed no evidence of calcifications or other abnormalities of the adrenal glands. The diagnosis of autoimmune Addison's disease was made and replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone was started. During the following years the dose of hydrocortisone was gradually decreased. Eventually, the patient decided to stop his medication completely. A repeated ACTH-stimulation test revealed a basal cortisol of 0.25 micromol/l and a peak cortisol of 0.30 micromol/l with a basal ACTH of 178 pmol/l. The patient did not have any complaints. Recovery of adrenal insufficiency, due to causes other than autoimmune adrenalitis, has been reported in the past. If our case of partial recovery of autoimmune adrenalitis is not unique this could have profound effects on treatment and follow-up of Addison's disease.

  1. Cushing syndrome in a young woman due to primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Kathryn L; Davis, Anna L; Curnow, Paul A; Serpell, Jonathan W; McLean, Catriona A; Topliss, Duncan J

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of Cushing syndrome due to apparently sporadic primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease in a young woman. We describe the clinical, biochemical, radiologic, and histologic findings of Cushing syndrome due to the rare condition of primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of worsening itch without rash over her shoulders and arms and weight gain, particularly around the abdomen and face. Careful questioning did not elicit any history of exogenous glucocorticoid use (systemic or topical), including hydrocortisone. On examination, the patient had a slightly rounded and plethoric face, a small buffalo hump, central adiposity, and thin skin with a few small striae on her inner thighs. No features of the Carney complex were observed. Investigations showed hypercortisolism with suppressed corticotropin and normal adrenal imaging despite documentation of enlarged adrenal glands at removal. High-dose dexamethasone administration was followed by a decrease in urinary free cortisol excretion rather than a paradoxical rise as previously reported in primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. No mutations were detected in the PRKAR1A gene. Primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease should be suspected in patients with corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome who have normal adrenal imaging. The role of genetic testing in apparently sporadic cases is not established, but cumulative experience may be helpful in defining the frequency of PRKAR1A mutations.

  2. Adrenal scintigraphy with 131I-19-iodocholesterol in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome associated with adrenal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barliev, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Seven patients with Cushing's syndrome secondary to adrenocortial tumors were studied using 131 I-19-iodocholesterol. The diagnoses of all cases were verified histologically. In three cases with adenoma the uptake of the tracer was in the tumor only, while the two patients with adrenocortical carcinoma failed to show adrenal accumulation of the labelled compound. In two patients there was a hyperplasia-like scintigraphic pattern, while the stimulation and suppression biochemical tests suggested adrenal tumor. One of these cases was verified as a mixed form (adenoma plus hyperplasia), and the tumor bearing gland was significantly larger on the scan which helped the preoperative localization. In the other case, verified as bilateral multiple adrenocortical adenomas, the autonomus function of both adrenals was proved by dexamethasone suppression scanning. It seems reasonable to use the latter as an adjunctive diagnostic procedure in patients where there is a discrepancy between the standard scintiscan and the biochemical indexes of adrenal hyperfunction. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MBE [de

  3. Adrenal extramedullary hematopoiesis associated with β-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Keikhaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of apparently normal hematopoietic tissue outside of bone marrow cavity is defined as extramedullary hema - topoiesis (EMH. EMH is a rare complication in thalassemia major (TM and adrenal gland as well. This report describes a case of adrenal EMH in a 26-year-old man with β-TM. He has been transfused with regular blood transfusion since 9 months. During the routine physical examination he was incidentally found to have a hypoechoic mass at his abdominal ultrasonography. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a right well-defined suprarenal mass 7.7¥7.3¥5.8 cm in size. The diagnosis of EMH was confirmed with ultrasonographic-guided fine needle biopsy. Treatment options which include intensified regular blood transfusion and hydroxyurea have been started.

  4. Adrenal extramedullary hematopoiesis associated with β-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikhaei, Bijan; Shirazi, Ahmad Soltani; Pour, Mahboob Mohammad

    2012-05-10

    The presence of apparently normal hematopoietic tissue outside of bone marrow cavity is defined as extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). EMH is a rare complication in thalassemia major (TM) and adrenal gland as well. This report describes a case of adrenal EMH in a 26-year-old man with β-TM. He has been transfused with regular blood transfusion since 9 months. During the routine physical examination he was incidentally found to have a hypoechoic mass at his abdominal ultrasonography. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a right well-defined suprarenal mass 7.7×7.3×5.8 cm in size. The diagnosis of EMH was confirmed with ultrasonographic-guided fine needle biopsy. Treatment options which include intensified regular blood transfusion and hydroxyurea have been started.

  5. ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun eShen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal gland is one of the prominent sites for steroid hormone synthesis. Lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters delivered via scavenger receptor, class B type 1 (SR-B1 constitute the dominant source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, particularly in rodents. ACTH stimulates steroidogenesis through downstream actions on multiple components involved in steroidogenesis. Both acute and chronic ACTH treatment can modulate SR-B1 function including its transcription, its post transcriptional stability, its phosphorylation and dimerization status, as well as its interaction with other protein partners; all of which result in changes in the ability of SR-B1 to mediate HDL-cholesterol ester uptake and the supply of cholesterol for conversion to steroids. Here we provide a review of the recent findings on the regulation of adrenal SR-B1 function by ACTH.

  6. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  7. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langabeer, S. E.; Andrikovics, H.; Asp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been...

  9. Treadmill exercise does not change gene expression of adrenal catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJUBICA GAVRILOVIC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chronic isolation of adult animals represents a form of psychological stress that produces sympatho-adrenomedullar activation. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenomedullary system. This study aimed to investigate physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-ß-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB in the adrenal medulla, concentrations of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT in the plasma and the weight of adrenal glands of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20 min treadmill running for 12 weeks. Also, we examined how additional acute immobilization stress changes the mentioned parameters. Treadmill running did not result in modulation of gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes and it decreased the level of CREB mRNA in the adrenal medulla of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats. The potentially negative physiological adaptations after treadmill running were recorded as increased concentrations of catecholamines and decreased morning CORT concentration in the plasma, as well as the adrenal gland hypertrophy of chronically psychosocially stressed rats. The additional acute immobilization stress increases gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla, as well as catecholamines and CORT levels in the plasma. Treadmill exercise does not change the activity of sympatho-adrenomedullary system of chronically psychosocially stressed rats.

  10. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups. Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7–15 days rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  11. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaleem, Shereen Abdelhakim; Hassan, Osama A; Ahmed, Rasha F; Zenhom, Nagwa M; Rifaai, Rehab A; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups). Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7-15 days) rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  12. Valve spindle gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Z.; Harazim, A.; Kerlin, K.

    1979-01-01

    A gland is proposed of the valve spindle designed for radioactive or otherwise harmful media, such as in nuclear power plant primary circuits. The gland is installed in the valve cover and consists of a primary and a secondary part and of a gland case partitioning the gland space into two chambers. The bottom face of the gland case is provided with a double-sided collar for controlling the elements of the bottom primary gland while the top face is provided with a removable flange. (M.S.)

  13. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-09-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated.

  14. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-01-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated. (orig.) [de

  15. Adrenal vein catheterization. Anatomic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherief, M.A. (Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1982-01-01

    Twenty post-mortem specimens and 93 phlebographies (56 right side, 37 left side) from 44 patients were investigated with respect to the adrenal venous anatomy. At autopsy, the venous orifices displayed in the area of adrenal drainage were injected bilaterally to identify the adrenal vein(s), the surrounding channels and the presence of interconnections. The findings were correlated with those at clinical phlebography, and the different sources of error were elicited. These were mainly found on the right side. Some guidelines are suggested in the hope that these will contribute to eliminate misconceptions.

  16. A case of adrenal Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Wun; Hwu, Chii-Min; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Chu, Chia-Huei; Lin, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A functional lesion in corticotrophin (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome is difficult to distinguish from lesions of bilateral adrenal masses. Methods for distinguishing these lesions include adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) scintigraphy. We present a case of a 29-year-old Han Chinese female patient with a history of hypercholesterolaemia and polycystic ovary syndrome. She presented with a 6month history of an 8kg body weight gain and gradual rounding of the face. Serial examinations revealed loss of circadian rhythm of cortisol, elevated urinary free-cortisol level and undetectable ACTH level (Cushing's syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses. The clinical presentation of Cushing' syndrome includes symptoms and signs of fat redistribution and protein-wasting features.The diagnosis of patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses is challenging for localisation of the lesion.Both adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good methods to use in these patients with Cushing's syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses.

  17. Leydig Cell Tumor Associated with Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Charfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH describes a group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in the steroidogenic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Chronic excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH stimulation may result in hyperplasia of ACTH-sensitive tissues in adrenal glands and other sites such as the testes, causing testicular masses known as testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs. Leydig cell tumors (LCTs are make up a very small number of all testicular tumors and can be difficult to distinguish from TARTs. This distinction is interesting because LCTs and TARTs require different therapeutic approaches. Hereby, we present an unusual case of a 19-year-old patient with CAH due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, who presented with TARTs and an epididymal Leydig cell tumor.

  18. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis induces cellular oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jereme G. Spiers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal gland in response to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis induce activity in the cellular reduction-oxidation (redox system. The redox system is a ubiquitous chemical mechanism allowing the transfer of electrons between donor/acceptors and target molecules during oxidative phosphorylation while simultaneously maintaining the overall cellular environment in a reduced state. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the current literature discussing the link between HPA axis-derived glucocorticoids and increased oxidative stress, particularly focussing on the redox changes observed in the hippocampus following glucocorticoid exposure.

  19. Transthoracic Adrenal Biopsy Procedure Using Artificial Carbon Dioxide Pneumothorax as Outpatient Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favelier, Sylvain [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology (France); Guiu, Severine [Georges-Francois Leclerc Cancer Center, Department of Oncology (France); Cherblanc, Violaine; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Krause, Denis; Guiu, Boris, E-mail: boris.guiu@chu-dijon.fr [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology (France)

    2013-08-01

    Many routes have been described for percutaneous adrenal gland biopsy. They require either a complex non-axial path or a long hydrodissection or even pass through an organ thereby increasing complications. We describe here an approach using an artificially-induced carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) pneumothorax, performed as an outpatient procedure in a 57-year-old woman. Under local anaesthesia, 200 ml of CO{sub 2} was injected in the pleural space through a Veress needle under computed tomography fluoroscopy, to clear the lung parenchyma from the biopsy route. Using this technique, transthoracic adrenal biopsy can be performed under simple local anaesthesia as an safely outpatient procedure.

  20. Current concepts of salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Badam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of salivary glands is a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The development is an example of branching morphogenesis, recent research found to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility, and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, but local gene regulation and morphological changes appear to play particularly notable roles. Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare groups of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to the heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. Frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms makes us sometimes even to differentiate benign and malignant lesions leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and summarize the current concepts regarding the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  1. Hedgehog signaling: endocrine gland development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-01-01

    The role of hedgehog signaling is analyzed in relation to the developing endocrine glands: pituitary, ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, pancreas, prostate, and epiphyseal growth. Experimental and pathological correlates of these organs are also discussed. The second section addresses a number of topics. First, the pituitary gland, no matter how hypoplastic, is present in most cases of human holoprosencephaly, unlike animals in which it is always said to be absent. The difference appears to be that animal mutations and teratogenic models involve both copies of the gene in question, whereas in humans the condition is most commonly heterozygous. Second, tests of endocrine function are not reported with great frequency, and an early demise in severe cases of holoprosencephaly accounts for this trend. Reported tests of endocrine function are reviewed. Third, diabetes insipidus has been recorded in a number of cases of holoprosencephaly. Its frequency is unknown because it could be masked by adrenal insufficiency in some cases and may not be recognized in others. Because of the abnormal hypothalamic-infundibular region in holoprosencephaly, diabetes insipidus could be caused by a defect in the supra-optic or paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei or in release of ADH via the infundibulum and posterior pituitary.

  2. CT findings of adrenal schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.-M.; Lei, P.-F.; Chen, M.-N.; Lv, X.-F.; Ling, Y.-H.; Cai, P.-Q.; Gao, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the computed tomography (CT) imaging features of patients with adrenal schwannoma. Materials and methods: Eight cases of adrenal schwannoma confirmed by histopathology were included in this study. All eight patients had undergone multiphase CT examinations. The features of the adrenal schwannoma in the CT images were analysed retrospectively in detail, including size, shape, margin, radiodensity, calcification, and enhancement pattern. Results: There were six male and two female patients, with a median age of 44.5 years (range, 25–52 years). Two patients complained of right flank pain, and two with left upper abdominal discomfort, while the remaining patients were diagnosed by routine ultrasound examinations. On unenhanced CT images, all cases of adrenal schwannoma were well circumscribed, rounded or oval, heterogeneous masses with cystic components, with two cases exhibiting calcification, and three cases with septa. On enhanced CT images, all cases displayed mild heterogeneous enhancement of the tumour during the arterial phase, and progressive enhancement during the portal venous phase and equilibrium phase. Conclusion: Adrenal schwannoma commonly presents as a well-defined unilateral mass with cystic degeneration, septa, and a characteristic progressive contrast-enhancement pattern on multiphase enhanced scans. - Highlights: • Adrenal schwannomas were extremely rare, and eight cases' medical data of this disease were collected in this study. • They usually presented a well-defined unilateral mass with cystic degeneration and sepations. • They manifested characteristic progressive contrast enhancement pattern on enhanced CT images.

  3. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, I.

    1982-01-01

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility

  4. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references

  5. RAT HIPPOCAMPAL LACTATE EFFLUX DURING ELECTROCONVULSIVE SHOCK OR STRESS IS DIFFERENTLY DEPENDENT ON ENTORHINAL CORTEX AND ADRENAL INTEGRITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUGERS, HJ; JAARSMA, D; KORF, J

    The role of the entorhinal cortex and the adrenal gland in rat hippocampal lactate formation was assessed during and after a short-lasting immobilization stress and electroconvulsive shock (ECS). Extracellular lactate was measured on-line using microdialysis and enzyme reactions (a technique named

  6. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.; Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A.

    2001-01-01

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  7. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  8. Long-term effects of external radiation on the pituitary and thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, Z.; Glatstein, E.; Marsa, G.W.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Chronic damage following external irradiation of the normal pituitary and thyroid glands, delivered incidentally during radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck may be more common than has been appreciated in the past. A case of a child who developed pituitary dwarfism 5 1 / 2 years after radiation therapy had been delivered for an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx is described. A review of similar cases from the literature is presented. Likewise, external irradiation of the normal thyroid gland produces a spectrum of radiation-induced syndromes. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands is usually manifested months to years after treatment and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. A careful exclusion of these glands from radiation treatment fields is recommended whenever possible. An early detection of endocrine function abnormalities in patients receiving radiation to these glands is desirable, since appropriate treatment may prevent the late deleterious effects of external irradiation of the pituitary and thyroid glands

  9. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-β-[ 75 Se] selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor

  10. Adrenal disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Labrini; Fountoulakis, Stelios; Vatalas, Ioannis-Anastasios

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the developed world and its pathogenesis is complex and multifactorial. It is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is the leading cause of hepatic cirrhosis. This review aims to present current knowledge on the involvement of the adrenal glands in the development of NAFLD. Clinical and animal studies have shown that excess glucocorticoids (GC) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD seem to have a subtle chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis leading to a state of subclinical hypercortisolism. Regulators of GC such as 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), an enzyme that regenerates cortisol from inactive cortisone, and 5α/5β-reductases, enzymes that increase cortisol clearance, are implicated in the development of NAFLD by amplifying local GC action. Adrenal androgen (dehydroepiandrosterone) abnormalities and increased aldosterone levels may also have a role in the development of NAFLD whereas the contribution of adrenergic signaling in NAFLD pathogenesis remains unclear.

  11. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  12. Pheochromocytoma and Adrenocortical Adenoma in the Same Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ren Hwang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A right adrenal tumor was found incidentally during abdominal computed tomography exam in a 51-year-old female patient, who had had diabetes and hypertension for more than 10 years. The computed tomography scan was arranged for possible pancreatic lesion by a neurologist. Norepinephrine level was high in the plasma and urine. Vanillylmandelic acid level was elevated in the urine. Diurnal cortisol rhythm, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and urine free cortisol were all normal, but the plasma cortisol concentration could not be suppressed after a standard low-dose dexamethasone suppression test. Therefore, adrenal cortical adenoma with subclinical Cushing's syndrome was highly suspected; however, further imaging studies, including magnetic resonance image and 131I-6β-iodomethylnorcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy failed to discriminate an additional tumor. After right adrenalectomy, a small adrenal cortical adenoma and a large pheochromocytoma were noted. This is an extremely rare case of an adrenal incidentaloma consisting of both medullary and cortical tumors in the same gland.

  13. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Okusa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yumi; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD), which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1), which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2), which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX), an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog's pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing's disease.

  14. Reporte de un caso de coexistencia de feocromocitoma y adenoma cortical adrenal en un paciente con hipertensión severa Report of a case of coexistence of pheochromocytoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a patient with severe hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Restrepo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de una paciente con hipertensión paroxística asociada a síntomas adrenérgicos, en quien se encontraron niveles elevados de metanefrinas totales en orina de 24 horas, hipopotasemia persistente y nódulo en la glándula suprarrenal. Fue llevada a cirugía en la que se identificaron dos masas suprarrenales, una con características histológicas de feocromocitoma y otra de adenoma suprarrenal.We report the case of a female patient with paroxysmal hypertension associated with adrenergic symptoms. Elevated levels of total metanephrines in 24 hour urine were found, as well as persistent hypokalemia and a nodule in the adrenal gland. She was taken to surgery, and two adrenal masses were identified, one with histological characteristics of pheochromocytoma and another one of adrenal adenoma.

  15. Giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) infection mimicking retroperitoneal neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Turnbull, A; Lieberman, P H; Sternberg, S S

    1986-07-01

    A 50-year-old Chinese man was found by ultrasound and computed tomography to have a retroperitoneal mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. At operation, a hemorrhagic cyst was detected at the upper pole of the right kidney adjacent to the adrenal gland. Microscopic examination revealed that the cyst wall was composed of granulomatous tissue loaded with eggs and cross-sections of parasites, identified as Dioctophyma renale. The eggs were characterized by a birefringent striated double wall. The presence of cross sections of adult worms of D. renale in human tissue has not been previously described. Another unique feature of this case was that the right kidney was intact, as examined grossly at laparotomy and by intravenous pyelography. Eggs were not detected in the urine.

  16. High grade primary adrenal intravascular large B-cell lymphoma manifesting as Addison disease Linfoma intravascular de alto grado de células B grandes y origen suprarrenal que se manifiesta en forma de enfermedad de Addison

    OpenAIRE

    J. Venizelos; D. Tamiolakis; M. Lambropoulou; G. Alexiadis; G. Petrakis; N. Papadopoulos

    2007-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 68 aged male who presented with adrenal failure and was diagnosed of high grade large B-cell lymphoma primarily arising in the adrenal glands. The patient was administrated with additional chemotherapy but he passed away 7 months later due to infection in the lungs. Intravascular lymphoma should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal masses who present with rapidly progressive adrenal insufficiency.Publicamos el caso poco frecuente de un varón de 68 años de...

  17. [Hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, G; Buffone, A; Cicciarella, G; di Mari, P; Cirino, E

    2004-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are usually asymptomatic; they are usually identified occasionally during ultrasound or C.T. scans (incidentaloma). Among adrenal cysts the most common types are epithelial cysts and pseudocysts. Intracystic haemorrhage is one of the possible complications of adrenal pseudocysts. We report a case of a young woman with right superior abdominal pain, fever and acute anemia. A C.T. scan showed a 10 cm. mass between the liver and the right kidney. To be sure of the nature of this mass also M.R., urography and C.T.-guided biopsy were carried out. This latter only let us make the final diagnosis of hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst. Thereafter, a laparotomic right adrenalectomy was performed, with full recovery of the patient. Adrenal cysts may cause differential diagnostic problems with masses of contiguous organs like kidney, liver and gallbladder. For this reason, ultrasound and C.T. scans may not be sufficient and must be completed by M.R., urography and/or C.T.-guided biopsy. Intracystic hamorrhage, spontaneous or post-traumatic, may cause to the patient acute anemia which, as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, indicates surgery. The operation usually is a laparotomic adrenalectomy, since the laparoscopic approach is not sufficient to control large masses with active bleeding inside.

  18. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  19. ACTION OF CHEMICALLY DIFFERENT PROSTAGLANDIN BLOCKERS ON THE ADRENAL HORMONES IN PIGEONS DURING STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S; Ghosh, S; Sengupta, S; Dasadhikari, S; Ghosh, A

    1999-01-01

    The effect of prostaglandin (PG) inhibitors differing in their chemical nature, viz. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), Mefenamic acid (fenamates), Diclofenac (phenylacetic acid derivative) and Piroxicam (oxicam derivative) on the adrenal hormones was studied in acutely stressed pigeons. None of these PG blockers exerted any significant effect on the catecholamine and corticosterone content of the control, i.e. unstressed pigeon adrenal gland excepting mefenamic acid which caused a release of epinephrine. Aspirin, diclofenac and piroxicam did not modulate the catecholamine or corticosterone secretion whereas mefenamic acid caused a released of both epinephrine and norepinephrine and increased the adrenal corticosterone content in the acutely stressed pigeons. These results were compared with those obtained from studies on the effects of other chemically different PG blockers, indomethacin (a methylated indole derivative) and ibuprofen (a propionic acid derivative). It is suggested that chemically and structurally different PG inhibitors show diverse action in the same species under similar stress conditions.

  20. Nitric oxide inhibits the bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated adrenomedullary catecholamine release but has no effect on adrenal blood flow response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallegue, Ali; Yamaguchi, Nobuharu

    2005-06-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in bradykinin (BK)-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion still remains obscure. The present study was to investigate whether an inhibition of NO synthase with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) would modulate BK-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion (ACS) and adrenal vasodilating response (AVR) in anesthetized dogs. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined with an HPLC coupled with an electrochemical detector. All drugs were locally administered to the left adrenal gland via intra-arterial infusion. BK dose-dependently increased both ACS and AVR. Hoe-140, a selective B(2) antagonist, significantly blocked the BK-induced increases in both ACS and AVR. In the presence of L-NAME, the BK-induced ACS was significantly enhanced, while the simultaneous AVR remained unaffected. These results suggest that the both BK-induced ACS and AVR are primarily mediated by B(2) receptors in the canine adrenal gland. Our results also suggest that the enhanced ACS in response to BK in the presence of L-NAME may have resulted from a specific inhibition of NO formation in the adrenal gland. It is concluded that the BK-induced NO may play an inhibitory role in the B(2)-receptor-mediated mechanisms regulating ACS, while it may not be implicated in the B(2)-receptor-mediated AVR under in vivo conditions.

  1. Polycystic ovarian disease: the adrenal connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouliss, George B; Triantafillidis, Ioannis K

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is characterized by hyperandrogenemia, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovaries (PCO). The increased androgen production in PCOD comes primarily from the ovaries. However, in about 40% of patients there is excessive adrenal androgen production (DHEA, DHEA-Sulfate, Androstenedione, Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone). The contribution of the adrenal in the PCOD is suggested by the presence of adrenal androgen excess in PCO, the presence of PCO in women with enzymatic adrenal hyperplasia as well as in women with adrenal tumors. However, the cause of adrenal androgen hypersecretion is not yet fully understood but it may include endogenous hypersecretion of the zona reticularis of unclear cause, hypersecretion of cortical-androgen-stimulating hormone (CASH), stress, hyperprolactinemia, adrenal enzymatic defects etc. This short review covers the aspects of adrenal androgen hypersecretion in PCOD.

  2. Management algorithm for images of hepatic incidentalomas, renal and adrenal detected by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Gonzalez, Allan

    2012-01-01

    A literature review has been carried out in the diagnostic and monitoring algorithms for image of incidentalomas of solid abdominal organs (liver, kidney and adrenal glands) detected by computed tomography (CT). The criteria have been unified and updated for a effective diagnosis. Posed algorithms have been made in simplified form. The imaging techniques have been specified for each pathology, showing the advantages and disadvantages of using it and justifying the application in daily practice [es

  3. Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Løtvedt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl. Gene expression was measured both at baseline and after 45 min of restraint stress. Most of the changes in gene expression related to stress were similar to mammals, with an upregulation of genes such as FKBP5, C-FOS and EGR1 in hippocampus and hypothalamus and StAR, MC2R and TH in adrenal glands. We also found a decrease in the expression of CRHR1 in the pituitary of chickens after stress, which could be involved in negative feedback regulation of the stress response. Furthermore, we observed a downregulation of EGR1 and C-FOS in the pituitary following stress, which could be a potential link between stress and its effects on reproduction and growth in chickens.We also found changes in the expression of important genes between breeds such as GR in the hypothalamus, POMC and PC1 in the pituitary and CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in the adrenal glands. These results suggest that the domesticated White Leghorn may have a higher capacity for negative feedback of the HPA axis, a lower capacity for synthesis of ACTH in the pituitary and a reduced synthesis rate of corticosterone in the adrenal glands compared to Red Junglefowl. All of these findings could explain the attenuated stress response in the domesticated birds. Keywords: Animal domestication, Stress response, HPA axis, Glucocorticoid receptor, Gene expression, Chicken

  4. Adrenomyeloneuropathy as a cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and spastic paraparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Spurek, Monika; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina; Van Uum, Stan; Khandwala, Hasnain M.

    2004-01-01

    ADRENOMYELONEUROPATHY IS A VARIENT OF ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY, both of which are rare inherited disorders of peroxisomes characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids in plasma, the central and peripheral nervous systems, adrenal glands and testes, which leads to dysfunction of these organs and systems. In this article, we describe an illustrative case of adrenomyeloneuropathy and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the 2 disorders.

  5. Functional activity of symphathetic-adrenal system under chronic and fractionated irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musagalieva, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of rats at 5 R twice a week (total dose 400 R) significantly increased adrenaline concentration in the brain, liver and kidney and dophamine and DOPA concentration in liver tissue, adrenal glands and thymus. Fractionated irradiation (chronic irradiation at 400 R plus acute single irradiation at 400 R) increased the adrenaline level in the brain and heart muscle and led to a higher concentration of dophamine and DOPA in the liver, thymus and heart muscle [ru

  6. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, J.G.; Levinsky, R.; Ohel, G.

    1984-01-01

    The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

  7. Bone Health in Adrenal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Jun Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary osteoporosis resulting from specific clinical disorders may be potentially reversible, and thus continuous efforts to find and adequately treat the secondary causes of skeletal fragility are critical to ameliorate fracture risk and to avoid unnecessary treatment with anti-osteoporotic drugs. Among the hyperfunctional adrenal masses, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, and primary aldosteronism are receiving particularly great attention due to their high morbidity and mortality mainly by increasing cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, there is accumulating experimental and clinical evidence that adrenal hormones may have direct detrimental effects on bone metabolism as well. Thus, the present review discusses the possibility of adrenal disorders, especially focusing on pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism, as secondary causes of osteoporosis.

  8. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  9. Refractory hypoglycemia in a patient with functional adrenal cortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Regina Marchetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adrenacarcinomas are rare, and hypoglycemic syndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II by these tumors have been described infrequently. This study describes the case of a young woman with severe persistent hypoglycemia and a large adrenal tumor and discusses the physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypoglycemia. The case is described as a 21-year-old woman who presented with 8 months of general symptoms and, in the preceding 3 months, with episodes of mental confusion and visual blurring secondary to hypoglycemia. A functional assessment of the adrenal cortex revealed ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism. Hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, low C-peptide and no ketones were also detected. An evaluation of the GH–IGF axis revealed GH blockade (0.03; reference: up to 4.4 ng/mL, greatly reduced IGF-I levels (9.0 ng/mL; reference: 180–780 ng/mL, slightly reduced IGF-II levels (197 ng/mL; reference: 267–616 ng/mL and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio (21.9; reference: ~3. CT scan revealed a large expansive mass in the right adrenal gland and pulmonary and liver metastases. During hospitalization, the patient experienced frequent difficult-to-control hypoglycemia and hypokalemia episodes. Octreotide was ineffective in controlling hypoglycemia. Due to unresectability, chemotherapy was tried, but after 3 months, the patient’s condition worsened and progressed to death. In conclusion, our patient presented with a functional adrenal cortical carcinoma, with hyperandrogenism associated with hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and blockage of the GH–IGF-I axis. Patient’s data suggested a diagnosis of hypoglycemia induced by an IGF-II or a large IGF-II-producing tumor (low levels of GH, greatly decreased IGF-I, slightly decreased IGF-II and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio.

  10. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12% were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on mitochondria isolated from homogenized tissues. Large tumors had the lowest steroidogenic activities per weight, whereas small tumors had more moderately depressed enzyme activities relative to cells from normal glands. In incubations with pregnenolone as substrate, 1 mM metyrapone blocked the synthesis of corticosterone and cortisol and also the formation of aldosterone. Metyrapone inhibition was associated with a concomitant increase in the formation of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone from pregnenolone. Administration of metyrapone in vivo before surgery in one patient resulted in a similar increase in plasma androstenedione, though plasma testosterone levels were not significantly affected. In cultures of two of four tumors examined, dibutyryl cAMP stimulated 11ß-hydroxylase activity modestly; ACTH also had a significant stimulatory effect in one of these tumors. Unlike results obtained with normal or adenomatous adrenal cortical tissues, mitochondria from carcinomatous cells showed a lack of support of either cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme complex or steroid 11ß-hydroxylase activity by Krebs cycle intermediates (10 mM isocitrate, succinate or malate. This finding is consistent with the concept that these carcinomas may tend to function predominantly in an anaerobic manner, rather than through the oxidation of Krebs cycle intermediates.

  11. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings

  12. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology.

  13. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. In newborns, adrenal hemorrhage is not an uncommon event. The large size of the adrenal cortex contributes to an increased vulnerability to trauma during a difficult delivery [1]. However, the neonatal adrenal hemorrhage may rarely present as inguinoscrotal swelling [2,3]. This condition can simulate torsion of ...

  14. Bilateral primary adrenal lymphoma presenting with adrenal insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob; Breum, Leif; Stenfeldt, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    surgery was performed. A new computerized tomography scan showed rapid progression of disease with further enlargement of the adrenal masses and both pulmonary and hepatic metastasis. Needle biopsy was performed but the patient refused further treatment and died before a diagnosis was obtained...

  15. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessment of the role of transcript for GATA-4 as a marker of unfavorable outcome in human adrenocortical neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Regina M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant neoplasia of the adrenal cortex is usually associated with very poor prognosis. When adrenocortical neoplasms are diagnosed in the early stages, distinction between carcinoma and adenoma can be very difficult to accomplish, since there is yet no reliable marker to predict tumor recurrence or dissemination. GATA transcription factors play an essential role in the developmental control of cell fate, cell proliferation and differentiation, organ morphogenesis, and tissue-specific gene expression. Normal mouse adrenal cortex expresses GATA-6 while its malignant counterpart only expresses GATA-4. The goal of the present study was to assess whether this reciprocal change in the expression of GATA factors might be relevant for predicting the prognosis of human adrenocortical neoplasms. Since human adrenal cortices express luteinizing hormone (LH/hCG receptor and the gonadotropins are known to up-regulate GATA-4 in gonadal tumor cell lines, we also studied the expression of LH/hCG receptor. Methods We conducted a study on 13 non-metastasizing (NM and 10 metastasizing/recurrent (MR tumors obtained from a group of twenty-two adult and pediatric patients. The expression of GATA-4, GATA-6, and LH/hCG receptor (LHR in normal and tumoral human adrenal cortices was analysed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR complemented by dot blot hybridization. Results Messenger RNA for GATA-6 was detected in normal adrenal tissue, as well as in the totality of NM and MR tumors. GATA-4, by its turn, was detected in normal adrenal tissue, in 11 out of 13 NM tumors, and in 9 of the 10 MR tumors, with larger amounts of mRNA found among those presenting aggressive clinical behavior. Transcripts for LH receptor were observed both in normal tissue and neoplasms. A more intense LHR transcript accumulation was observed on those tumors with better clinical outcome. Conclusion Our data suggest that the expression of GATA-6 in

  17. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Purohit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the major salivary glands, accounting for 15.5% of all cases, benign and malignant. The aim of this article is to report a case of MEC in a 73-years-old male patient who presented with a painless firm fluctuant swelling in left preauricular area. The lesion was thoroughly examined preoperatively, and investigations were carried out. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was done for the lesion and report suggested tumor of the parotid gland. Superficial parotidectomy procedure was done, taking care not to injure the lower division of the facial nerve. Post recovery was uneventful with no defect of facial nerve functions. The histologic picture confirmed that the tumor was MEC of parotid gland. Through the literature reviews of MEC the discussions on prevalence, origin, diagnosis, histological finding, investigation and the modes of treatment are made.

  18. Anal channel neoplasm: a neoplasm radio chemo curable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Lopez, M.; Avondet, I.; Vazquez, J.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1997-01-01

    Presently work is made an exhaustive revision of the anatomy of the region, the history of the treatments and of the current treatments of channel cancer anal. It makes emphasis in the importance of the conservative treatment with radiochemotherapy (RQT). The present is a prospective study,longitudinal and descriptive. Material and method: between January of 1989 and December of 1994 20 patients attended with cancer of anal channel with an illness metastasis. An average age it was of 62.4 years.The sex, 16 men and 4 women. The performance status 0,1 or 2 of the scale of the ECOQ. In the pathological anatomy: 15 patient epidermic neoplasm, 5 patient basal neoplasm. State I: 2 patients, II: 12 patients, III: 6 patients, IV: 0 patients.Treatment: the radiotherapy one carries out with cobalt 60 and it irradiates the primary tumour and the ganglion structures region, pelvic and inguinal. It surrendered to Gy/dia from Monday to Friday up to 50 Gy. The chemotherapy one carries out with mitomicine C 10 mg/ previous day to the radiotherapy and 5-UGH 1 intravenous g/my in infusion the days from 1 to 4 and from 29 to 32 after the radiotherapy.Results: to) control locorregional patient RC-16 (80%) ,RP 2 patients (10%) , without answer or with progression lesional a patient (5%) .b) State vital: living 15 patients, died 5 patients(continuation 12 to 60 months) .e)Tolerance: there were not deaths for the gastrointestinal treatment and haematological with toxicity moderate.To conclude:1) The radiochemotherapy is the treatment of elect.2)A feasible treatment of being carried out in our environment.3)Required of a good relationship predictable interdisciplinary.4)Toxicity and tolerable.5)Results of conservation of the sphincter in 80%(AU) [es

  19. Cell-to-cell communication in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing hypercortisolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herve eLefebvre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events which cause the disease favor abnormal adrenal differenciation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept.

  20. From Appearance of Adrenal Autoantibodies to Clinical Symptoms of Addison's Disease: Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betterle, Corrado; Garelli, Silvia; Presotto, Fabio; Furmaniak, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the immunopathology field has greatly improved our understanding of the natural history of autoimmune diseases, particularly of Addison's disease. Addison's disease is known to be a chronic illness characterized by adrenocortical gland insufficiency that develops following a long and mainly asymptomatic period, characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies directed to adrenal cortex antigens. In this chapter we describe the groups of subjects at risk of developing Addison's disease, together with the diagnostic tests considered the most appropriate for evaluating adrenal function: determination of basal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and cortisol levels, and cortisol levels after intravenous stimulation with ACTH (ACTH test). The employment of specific clinical, immunological and functional criteria in the subjects with autoantibodies to the adrenal cortex allows identifying those at risk of developing overt disease. The independent risk factors for the progression to adrenal failure have also been identified and they contribute to different risks of developing clinical Addison's disease. Based on the risk level, the subjects should be monitored over time to observe early signs of adrenal dysfunction, and start substitutive treatment as soon as possible. For patients presenting with high risk, prevention strategies and trials might be available. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Addison's disease due to adrenal tuberculosis: Contrast-enhanced CT features and clinical duration correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yingkun; Yang Zhigang; Li Yuan; Ma Ensen; Deng Yuping; Min Pengqiu; Yin Longlin; Hu Jian; Zhang Xiaochun; Chen Tianwu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe CT morphology of untreated adrenal tuberculosis during the different stages of the natural history of the disease and to evaluate the diagnostic implications of CT features. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated CT features in 42 patients with documented adrenal tuberculosis for the location, size, morphology, and enhancement patterns shown on CT images. The clinical duration were correlated with the CT features. Results: Of the 42 patients with untreated adrenal tuberculosis, bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands were revealed in 38 cases (91%), unilaterally enlarged in 3 cases (7%), and normal size in 1 case (2%). Of the 41 cases (98%) with enlargement, mass-like enlargement was seen in 20 cases (49%) and enlargement with preserved contours in 21 cases (51%). Peripheral rim enhancement presented in 22 cases (52%) on contrast-enhanced CT. Non-enhanced CT scan revealed calcification in 21 cases (50%). As the duration of Addison's disease increased, the presence of calcification and contour preservation increased concomitantly (p < 0.001), whereas peripheral rim enhancement and mass-like enlargement decreased concomitantly on CT images (p < 0.001). Conclusion: CT may be helpful in diagnosing adrenal tuberculosis when clinically suspected, and CT features are correlated to the clinical duration of Addison's disease

  2. Targeted Molecular Imaging in Adrenal Disease—An Emerging Role for Metomidate PET-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif A. Mendichovszky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal lesions present a significant diagnostic burden for both radiologists and endocrinologists, especially with the increasing number of adrenal ‘incidentalomas’ detected on modern computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. A key objective is the reliable distinction of benign disease from either primary adrenal malignancy (e.g., adrenocortical carcinoma or malignant forms of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL or metastases (e.g., bronchial, renal. Benign lesions may still be associated with adverse sequelae through autonomous hormone hypersecretion (e.g., primary aldosteronism, Cushing’s syndrome, phaeochromocytoma. Here, identifying a causative lesion, or lateralising the disease to a single adrenal gland, is key to effective management, as unilateral adrenalectomy may offer the potential for curing conditions that are typically associated with significant excess morbidity and mortality. This review considers the evolving role of positron emission tomography (PET imaging in addressing the limitations of traditional cross-sectional imaging and adjunctive techniques, such as venous sampling, in the management of adrenal disorders. We review the development of targeted molecular imaging to the adrenocortical enzymes CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 with different radiolabeled metomidate compounds. Particular consideration is given to iodo-metomidate PET tracers for the diagnosis and management of adrenocortical carcinoma, and the increasingly recognized utility of 11C-metomidate PET-CT in primary aldosteronism.

  3. Right adrenal vein: comparison between adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Y; Goshima, S; Nagata, S; Miyoshi, T; Kawada, H; Kawai, N; Tanahashi, Y; Matsuo, M

    2018-06-01

    To compare right adrenal vein (RAV) visualisation and contrast enhancement degree on adrenal venous phase images reconstructed using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) techniques. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was waived. Fifty-seven consecutive patients who underwent adrenal venous phase imaging were enrolled. The same raw data were reconstructed using ASiR 40% and MBIR. The expert and beginner independently reviewed computed tomography (CT) images. RAV visualisation rates, background noise, and CT attenuation of the RAV, right adrenal gland, inferior vena cava (IVC), hepatic vein, and bilateral renal veins were compared between the two reconstruction techniques. RAV visualisation rates were higher with MBIR than with ASiR (95% versus 88%, p=0.13 in expert and 93% versus 75%, p=0.002 in beginner, respectively). RAV visualisation confidence ratings with MBIR were significantly greater than with ASiR (pASiR (pASiR (p=0.0013 and 0.02). Reconstruction of adrenal venous phase images using MBIR significantly reduces background noise, leading to an improvement in the RAV visualisation compared with ASiR. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Environmental Pollutant Tributyltin Chloride Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis at Different Levels in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L; Sena, Gabriela C; de Araújo, Julia F P; Lima, Leandro C F; Alves, Izabela S S; Gama-de-Souza, Letícia N; Pelição, Renan; Rodrigues, Lívia C M; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Pires, Rita G W; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Alarcon, Tamara A; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-08-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an environmental contaminant that is used as a biocide in antifouling paints. TBT has been shown to induce endocrine-disrupting effects. However, studies evaluating the effects of TBT on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are especially rare. The current study demonstrates that exposure to TBT is critically responsible for the improper function of the mammalian HPA axis as well as the development of abnormal morphophysiology in the pituitary and adrenal glands. Female rats were treated with TBT, and their HPA axis morphophysiology was assessed. High CRH and low ACTH expression and high plasma corticosterone levels were detected in TBT rats. In addition, TBT leads to an increased in the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in the hypothalamus of TBT rats. Morphophysiological abnormalities, including increases in inflammation, a disrupted cellular redox balance, apoptosis, and collagen deposition in the pituitary and adrenal glands, were observed in TBT rats. Increases in adiposity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ protein expression in the adrenal gland were observed in TBT rats. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that TBT leads to functional dissociation between CRH, ACTH, and costicosterone, which could be associated an inflammation and increased of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in hypothalamus. Thus, TBT exerts toxic effects at different levels on the HPA axis function.

  5. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  7. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of adrenal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.; Fishman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Because of their special physical and chemical properties, the adrenal secretory products were among the first hormonal substances to be measured by methods other than bioassay. Over the past several years, the development of sensitive and specific methods of hormone assay dependent on the use of radionuclides has revolutionized investigative and clinical endocrinology. While the capacity of defining most abnormalities of adrenal function antedates hormone measurement and adrenal imaging utilizing radioisotopes, the availability of such methods has greatly facilitated and made more precise the diagnostic approach to patients with suspected adrenal dysfunction. As an example of how clinical and laboratory considerations can be integrated into a rational approach to the diagnosis of adrenal disease, the problem of suspected adrenal hyperfunction is analyzed in light of current understanding of its pathophysiology. Reflection demonstrates that suspected primary aldosteronism and adrenal insufficiency are equally amenable to such an approach

  8. Acute adrenal failure as the presenting feature of primary antiphospholipid syndrome in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Improda Nicola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs. This syndrome may be associated with connective tissue disorders, or with malignancies, but it may also appear in isolated form (primary APS. We report on a pediatric patient presenting with acute adrenal failure as the first manifestation of primary APS. Case report A previously healthy 11-year-old boy developed fever, abdominal pain, and vomiting. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed nodular lesions in the adrenal glands. He was referred to our Department and a diagnosis of APS and acute adrenal failure was considered, based on positive aPLs (IgG and IgM, elevated ACTH levels and low cortisol levels. Other features were anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated inflammatory parameters, hypergammaglobulinemia, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, positive antinuclear, anticardiolipin, anti-platelet antibodies, with negative double-stranded DNA antibodies. Lupus anticoagulant and Coomb’s tests were positive. MRI revealed a bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. A treatment with intravenous metylprednisolone, followed by oral prednisone and anticoagulant, was started, resulting in a progressive improvement. After 2 months he also showed hyponatremia and elevated renine levels, indicating a mineralcocorticoid deficiency, requiring fludrocortisones therapy. Conclusion The development of acute adrenal failure from bilateral adrenal haemorrhage in the context of APS is a rare but life-threatening event that should be promptly recognized and treated. Moreover, this case emphasizes the importance of the assessment of aPLs in patients with acute adrenal failure in the context of an autoreaction.

  9. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  10. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subashchandrabose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed.

  11. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Priya; Esakkai, Muthuvel; Venugopal, Palani; Kannaiyan, Ilavarasan; Srinivasan, Chitra; Reddy, Punuru Tejashwini; Ebenezer, Evelyn Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed.

  12. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the parotid gland associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, P; Ben Slama, L; Goudot, P; Schouman, T

    2017-02-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign inflammatory lesion involving most frequently the minor salivary gland of the hard palate. Involvement of the parotid gland is rare, involvement of the parotid gland associated with facial palsy is exceptional. A 56-year-old male patient with Marfan syndrome presented with swelling and inflammation of the left parotid gland associated with progressively complete facial nerve paralysis. CT scan and MRI showed a parotid collection with hyper signal of the nearest tissues associated with erosion of the styloid process. A malignant tumor was suspected. The histological examination of a biopsy showed a lobulocentric process with necrosis, squamous metaplasia, and inflammation. The immunohistochemical examination supported a final diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the parotid gland associated with facial nerve paralysis presents like a malignant neoplasm, both clinically and histologically. Only advanced immunohistochemical examination can really confirm the diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Adrenal scintigraphy with 131I-19 iodocholesterol. Interest in Cushing syndrome investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuidard, Claudine.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the physico-chemical properties of 131 I-19-iodocholesterol is followed by a study of its metabolism in both animals and man, giving for the latter the doses delivered to different organs and especially to the gonads. The exploration technique is then described. Scintigraphic examinations are performed on the 3rd day, the 8th day and sometimes the 15th day after injection. However the uptake rate at the adrenal gland depends essentially on the causes of the illness affecting the suprarenal. In Cushing's syndrome the uptake rate is relatively fast and the 1st scintigraphic examination must therefore be carried out earlier (48 hours after injection). The value of isotopic exploration in the etiological evaluation of hypercortisolism is shown to be chiefly morphological, the scintigraphic image serving as a guide to etiological diagnosis. If too adrenal glands are visible this is a sign of bilateral suprerenal hyperplasia. Only one gland clearly visible indicates an adenoma, with functional hypoplasia of the contralateral gland. On the other hand an absence of fixation in the presence of a certain Cushing syndrome would point to malignant cortical carcinoma [fr

  14. Adrenal carcinoma and adenoma in children: A review of 17 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneman, A.; Martin, J.; Toronto Univ., Ontario; Chan, H.S.L.; Toronto Univ., Ontario

    1983-01-01

    Seventeen children with adrenocortical neoplasms (13 carcinomas: four adenomas) are reviewed and attention is focused on the value of the newer imaging modalities in the management of these children. All the lesions were functioning tumors. CT is the single most important modality in assessing primary and metastatic disease at diagnosis and during follow-up. In children suspected of having an adrenal lesion, high resolution CT will promptly localize the lesion to an adrenal. Since the only curative treatment is complete surgical removal CT plays an important role in defining the extent of the primary lesion pre-operatively. Large carcinomas have an inhomogeneous density on CT and a complex echo pattern on ultrasound reflecting the areas of hemorrhage nd necrosis seen macroscopically in these lesions. Smaller lesions have a more homogeneous density on CT but benign and malignant disease could not be differentiated by this modality. Ultrasound is usefull in screening the adrenal area in those patients in whom there is a low clinical index of suspicion for an adrenal tumor and also in the post-operative period. (orig.)

  15. A prenatally detected adrenal cyst treated by adrenal-sparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmet Dursun and Munevver Ho ¸sgo¨ r. A neonatal case of left adrenal cyst detected in utero and ... Correspondence to Munevver Ho ¸sgör, MD, PhD, Department II of Pediatric. Surgery, Dr Behcet Uz Children's Hospital, Koruturk Mh. ..... Radiology 1986; 161:631–633. 13 Erbil Y, Salmasliog˘lu A, Barbaros U, Bozbora A, ...

  16. Zonal corticosteroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex in rats exposed to emotional stress combined with salt loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'ga, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the pattern of biosynthesis of corticosteroid hormones in the zona glomerulosa and the combined zona fasciculata + zona reticularis of the adrenals, which are responsible for the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid function of the glands, during simultaneous exposure of animals to salt loading and emotional stress. Experiments were carried out on rats. The adrenals were divided into parts and samples were incubated in vitro with the addition of 3 H-progesterone to each sample. The specific activity of the 3 H-labeled corticosteroids decreased significantly in rats with a normal salt intake exposed to emotional stress

  17. Stability analysis of a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis model with inclusion of glucocorticoid receptor and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslik, Eva; Navolan, Dan Bogdan; Neamţu, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes a four-dimensional model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that includes the influence of the glucocorticoid receptor in the pituitary. Due to the spatial separation between the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands, distributed time delays are introduced in the mathematical model. The existence of the positive equilibrium point is proved and a local stability and bifurcation analysis is provided, considering several types of delay kernels. The fractional-order model with discrete time delays is also taken into account. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical findings.

  18. Pannexin 1 channels: new actors in the regulation of catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny eMomboisse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland medulla synthesize and store hormones and peptides, which are released into the blood circulation in response to stress. Among them, adrenaline is critical for the fight-or-flight response. This neurosecretory process is highly regulated and depends on cytosolic [Ca2+]. By forming channels at the plasma membrane, pannexin-1 (Panx1 is a protein involved in many physiological and pathological processes amplifying ATP release and/or Ca2+ signals. Here, we show that Panx1 is expressed in the adrenal gland where it plays a role by regulating the release of catecholamines. In fact, inhibitors of Panx1 channels, such as carbenoxolone (Cbx and probenecid, reduced the secretory activity induced with the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP, 50 µM in whole adrenal glands. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in single chromaffin cells using Cbx or 10Panx1 peptide, another Panx1 channel inhibitors. Given that the secretory response depends on cytosolic [Ca2+] and Panx1 channels are permeable to Ca2+, we studied the possible implication of Panx1 channels in the Ca2+ signaling occurring during the secretory process. In support of this possibility, Panx1 channel inhibitors significantly reduced the Ca2+ signals evoked by DMPP in single chromaffin cells. However, the Ca2+ signals induced by caffeine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was not affected by Panx1 channel inhibitors, suggesting that this mechanism does not involve Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Conversely, Panx1 inhibitors significantly blocked the DMPP-induce dye uptake, supporting the idea that Panx1 forms functional channels at the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that Panx1 channels participate in the control the Ca2+ signal that triggers the secretory response of adrenal chromaffin cells. This mechanism could have physiological implications during the response to stress.

  19. Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gómez J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grade of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6% cross-breed (13.3% and Schnauzer (10% were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%, followed by adenoma (8.1%, and other types (10.8%. The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively. Five out of 30 bitches (16.6% had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80% were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

  20. Role of Stress-Related Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the Rat Submandibular Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Saruta, Juri

    2012-01-01

    The nerve growth factor (NGF) family comprises NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophins (NTs)-3, -4/5, -6 and -7, all of which are collectively referred to as neurotrophins. However, the expression of neurotrophins other than NGF in the salivary gland has not been described in detail. Through interaction with the TrkB receptor, BDNF plays an important role in long-term potentiation. We found that BDNF expression increased within submandibular gland tissue in response to stress, suggesting that the salivary glands are sensitive to stress. In addition, stress caused increases in plasma BDNF derived from the submandibular gland and in TrkB receptor mRNA in the adrenal medulla. Plasma BDNF might activate TrkB receptors in the adrenal medulla during acute stress. The salivary glands are likely to influence not only oral health, but also systemic organs. This review addressed the relationship between hormone-like effects and stress-related BDNF expression in the rat submandibular gland

  1. Recovery of adrenal function in a patient with confirmed Addison's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, M; Gorick, S; Swords, F M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Addison's disease is a condition characterised by immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal glands leading to a requirement of lifelong replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid. We present a case of a 53-year-old man who presented at the age of 37 years with nausea, fatigue and dizziness. He was found to have postural hypotension and buccal pigmentation. His presenting cortisol level was 43 nmol/l with no response to Synacthen testing. He made an excellent response to conventional replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone and then remained well for 16 years. On registering with a new endocrinologist, his hydrocortisone dose was revised downwards and pre- and post-dose serum cortisol levels were assessed. His pre-dose cortisol was surprisingly elevated, and so his dose was further reduced. Subsequent Synacthen testing was normal and has remained so for further 12 months. He is now asymptomatic without glucocorticoid therapy, although he continues on fludrocortisone 50 μg daily. His adrenal antibodies are positive, although his ACTH and renin levels remain elevated after treatment. Addison's disease is generally deemed to lead to irreversible cell-mediated immune destruction of the adrenal glands. For this reason, patients receive detailed counselling and education on the need for lifelong replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of spontaneous recovery of the adrenal axis in Addison's disease. Recovery may therefore be more common than previously appreciated, which may have major implications for the treatment and monitoring of this condition, and for the education given to patients at diagnosis. Learning points Partial recovery from Addison's disease is possible although uncommon.Patients with long-term endocrine conditions on replacement therapy still benefit from regular clinical and biochemical assessment, to revisit optimal management.As further reports of adrenal axis recovery

  2. Recovery of adrenal function in a patient with confirmed Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, M; Gorick, S; Swords, F M

    2013-01-01

    Addison's disease is a condition characterised by immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal glands leading to a requirement of lifelong replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid. We present a case of a 53-year-old man who presented at the age of 37 years with nausea, fatigue and dizziness. He was found to have postural hypotension and buccal pigmentation. His presenting cortisol level was 43 nmol/l with no response to Synacthen testing. He made an excellent response to conventional replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone and then remained well for 16 years. On registering with a new endocrinologist, his hydrocortisone dose was revised downwards and pre- and post-dose serum cortisol levels were assessed. His pre-dose cortisol was surprisingly elevated, and so his dose was further reduced. Subsequent Synacthen testing was normal and has remained so for further 12 months. He is now asymptomatic without glucocorticoid therapy, although he continues on fludrocortisone 50 μg daily. His adrenal antibodies are positive, although his ACTH and renin levels remain elevated after treatment. Addison's disease is generally deemed to lead to irreversible cell-mediated immune destruction of the adrenal glands. For this reason, patients receive detailed counselling and education on the need for lifelong replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of spontaneous recovery of the adrenal axis in Addison's disease. Recovery may therefore be more common than previously appreciated, which may have major implications for the treatment and monitoring of this condition, and for the education given to patients at diagnosis. Partial recovery from Addison's disease is possible although uncommon.Patients with long-term endocrine conditions on replacement therapy still benefit from regular clinical and biochemical assessment, to revisit optimal management.As further reports of adrenal axis recovery emerge, this may

  3. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Avaria E.; María José Vargas F.; Loreto Triviño F.; Andrea Gleisner E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease whose main cause is the deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone. There are two forms of CAH, a classical and nonclassical form, being the first objective of analysis in the clinical case. Its clinical manifestations vary in severity, depending on the level of hormone deficiency. Within the classic is described the salt-wasting form, whose consequences are ...

  4. Effect of large doses of 131I-19-iodocholesterol on metapyralone-induced adrenal cortical hyperplasia in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.G.; Beierwaltes, W.H.; Nishiyama, R.H.; Ice, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The potential use of 131 I-19-iodocholesterol to treat ACTH excess Cushing's disease was evaluated in the dog. Three normal female dogs were given LD 50 radiation doses of 131 I-19-iodocholesterol without producing gross or histopathologically demonstrable change of the adrenals at autopsy 3 months later. The adrenal cortices of three dogs were made hyperplastic (to simulate the adrenal cortex in Cushing's disease) with ACTH and three with Metapyralone. In addition these six dogs were given LD 50 doses of 131 I-19-iodocholesterol. Three months after treatment, the adrenal glands of the ACTH-treated dogs were not enlarged, the cortex was thicker than normal, and there were no changes attributable to irradiation. At 3 months, the Metapyralone-treated dogs had enlarged adrenals, widening of the adrenal cortex, and no necrosis or other changes attributable to irradiation. It is concluded that a therapeutic trial of 131 I-19-iodocholesterol in the treatment of Cushing's disease is not indicated. (auth)

  5. Adrenal failure due to bilateral adrenal metastasis of rectal cancer: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Imaoka

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of adrenal insufficiency may be underestimated in patients with multiple metastasis. Appropriate therapy with adrenal corticosteroid hormone supplementation may lead to a significant improvement in the patient’s symptoms and quality of life.

  6. Optimal glucocorticoid replacement in adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øksnes, Marianne; Ross, Richard; Løvås, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (glucocorticoid deficiency) comprises a group of rare diseases, including primary adrenal insufficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Lifesaving glucocorticoid therapy was introduced over 60 years ago, but since then a number of advances in treatment have taken place. Specifically, little is known about short- and long-term treatment effects, and morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, systematic cohort and registry studies have described reduced health-related quality of life, an unfavourable metabolic profile and increased mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency, which may relate to unphysiological glucocorticoid replacement. This has led to the development of new modes of replacement that aim to mimic normal glucocorticoid physiology. Here, evidence for the inadequacy of conventional glucocorticoid therapy and recent developments in treatment are reviewed, with an emphasis on primary adrenal insufficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  8. Brain and spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Bragg, D.G.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional means of detecting CNS neoplasms include plain film studies, isotope brain scans, angiography, pneumoencephalography, and myelography. Computed tomography (CT) scanning has replaced nearly all of these studies in both the initial detection and follow-up of brain tumors. Air studies (pneumoencephalography and ventriculography) have been virtually eliminated, except in certain unusual circumstances when two positions need to be checked, or hydrocephalus followed. The nuclear brain scan has a very limited role at present, being useful primarily for detecting skull or meningeal metastases. Myelography, however, remains a valuable imaging tool for the assessment of tumors of the spinal canal. CT scanning has not only improved our ability to detect smaller brain tumors, but also CT guided stereotactic biopsy techniques provide a safer means of obtaining tissue from these smaller lesions, regardless of location. Surgical techniques, guided by CT sterotactic techniques, show promise as well, but the impact of these therapeutic techniques on survival statistics remains to be defined. CT has revolutionized the approach to the detection and diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in the brain. Tumors can be detected at a smaller site

  9. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  11. Spontaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma rupture complicated by intraperitoneal hemorrhage and shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasnik Edward

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MEN2A is a hereditary syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma. Classically patients with a pheochromocytoma initially present with the triad of paroxysmal headaches, palpitations, and diaphoresis accompanied by marked hypertension. However, although reported as a rare presentation, spontaneous hemorrhage within a pheochromocytoma can present as an abdominal catastrophe. Unrecognized, this transformation can rapidly result in death. We report the only documented case of a thirty eight year old gentleman with MEN2A who presented to a community hospital with hemorrhagic shock and peritonitis secondary to an unrecognized hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma. The clinical course is notable for an inability to localize the source of hemorrhage during an initial damage control laparotomy that stabilized the patient sufficiently to allow emergent transfer to our facility, re-exploration for continued hemorrhage and abdominal compartment syndrome, and ultimately angiographic embolization of the left adrenal artery for control of the bleeding. Following recovery from his critical illness and appropriate medical management for pheochromocytoma, he returned for interval bilateral adrenal gland resection, from which his recovery was unremarkable. Our review of the literature highlights the high mortality associated with the undertaking of an operative intervention in the face of an unrecognized functional pheochromocytoma. This reinforces the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for pheochromocytoma in similar cases. Our case also demonstrates the need for a mutimodal treatment approach that will often be required in these cases.

  12. Insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria por adrenalitis autoimnume

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzo B,Santiago; Izquierdo C,Gianina; Verbeke P,Sandra

    2002-01-01

    We report a 10 years old boy, admitted with a history of asthenia, anorexia and weight loss of 4 kg. Initial laboratory work up showed metabolic acidosis and hyponatremia. The patient had no circadian rhythm of serum cortisol and an adrenal stimulation test confirmed the presence of adrenal insufficiency. Anti-adrenal antibodies were positive. Treatment with cortisol and fluorocortisone resulted in a complete remission of symptoms (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 901-6).

  13. Ultrasonographi assessment of congenital adrenal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro Velilla, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Alberto, C.; Lopez, A., Benlloch, C.

    1996-01-01

    The demonstrate the utility of ultrasound (US) in the initial assessment and follow-up of newborns with adrenal masses. A series of 21 newborns presenting adrenal mass studied on the basis of US findings, clinical assessment and biochemical data. Seven patients had congenital neuroblastoma, two had a benign tumor and twelve presented adrenal hemorrhage. Postnatal US study of the course of these patients is essential for the differential diagnosis of their lesions when not diagnosed prenatally. (Author) 20 refs

  14. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary and seromucous glands of the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, I; Soares, J

    1996-05-01

    Basal cell adenocarcinoma of salivary glands is an uncommon and recently described entity occurring almost exclusively at the major salivary glands. This report provides an overview of the clinicopathologic profile of this neoplasm by including the personal experience on the clinical features, microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics, proliferation activity, and DNA tumor patterns of 12 lesions occurring at the minor salivary glands of the head and neck region, where basal cell adenocarcinoma is probably an underecognized entity, previously reported under different designations. Basal cell adenocarcinoma predominates at the seventh decade without sex preference. The tumors affecting the minor salivary glands occur most frequently at the oral cavity (jugal mucosa, palate) and the upper respiratory tract. The prevalent histologic tumor pattern is represented by solid neoplastic aggregates with a peripheral cell palisading arrangement frequently delineated by basement membrane-like material. The neoplastic clusters are formed by two cell populations: the small dark cell type (that predominates) and a large cell type. Necrosis, either of the comedo or the apoptotic type, is a frequent finding. Perineural growth occurs in 50% of the cases and vascular permeation in 25%. Immunohistochemistry identifies a dual differentiation with a reactivity pattern indicative of ductal epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation, which can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The differential diagnosis of the neoplasm includes its benign counterpart, the basal cell adenoma, solid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and basaloid squamous carcinoma. The tumors recur more frequently than lesions originating in major salivary glands. Mortality is associated with the anatomic site of the lesion, advanced stage, residual neoplasia at surgery, and tumor recurrence. The importance of recognizing basal cell adenocarcinoma outside major salivary glands is

  15. Bone morbidity in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms including essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis often suffer from comorbidities, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and thrombotic events. Apparently, there is also...

  16. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  17. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  18. An Unusual Case of Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Tasliyurt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal incidentalomas are masses accidentally discovered while conducting radiological examinations for other purposes. A major part of adrenal incidentalomas are non-functional adenomas. Silently developing Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma can be observed in adrenal incidentalomas. However, coexistence of Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma at the same time in the same case is quite rare. In the present study, an atypical adrenal incidentaloma case is presented, whose laboratory examinations were compatible with Subclinical Cushing's syndrome, urinary catecholamine metabolites were normal, but who histopathologically had pheochromocytoma diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(3.000: 160-163

  19. A prenatally detected adrenal cyst treated by adrenal-sparing surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A neonatal case of left adrenal cyst detected in utero and successfully treated by adrenal-sparing surgery is presented and discussed with review of the literature. Incidentally discovered prenatal adrenal masses present a diagnostic dilemma. Benign and malignant conditions can present as a fetal suprarenal mass. There is ...

  20. Adrenal scan in 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency: false indication of adrenal adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Newman, T.J.; Friedman, A.; Bargman, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    A patient who was thought to have testicular feminization syndrome and primary aldosteronism had an adrenal scan that suggested an adrenal adenoma. After later diagnosis of 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, she was treated with glucocorticoids rather than surgery. Her clinical course and a repeat adrenal scan confirmed she did not have a tumor

  1. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  2. Adrenal hormones and circulating leukocyte subtypes in stroke patients treated with reperfusion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Mur, Francesc; Laredo, Carlos; Renú, Arturo; Rudilosso, Salvatore; Zhao, Yashu; Amaro, Sergio; Llull, Laura; Urra, Xabier; Planas, Anna M; Chamorro, Ángel

    2018-03-13

    Ischemic stroke sets in motion a dialogue between the central nervous and the immune systems that includes the sympathetic/adrenal system. We investigated the course of immune cells and adrenocortical and adrenomedullary effectors in a cohort of 51 patients with acute stroke receiving reperfusion therapy (intravenous alteplase or mechanical thrombectomy) and its correlation with stroke outcomes and infarct growth. Cortisol increased rapidly and fleetingly after stroke, but 39% of patients who had larger infarctions on admission showed a positive delta cortisol at day 1. It was associated with enhanced infarct growth (p = 0.002) and poor outcome [OR (95% CI) 5.30 (1.30-21.69)], and correlated with less lymphocytes and T cells at follow up. Likewise, fewer circulating lymphocytes, T cells, and Tregs were associated with infarct growth. By contrast, metanephrines did not increase at clinical onset, and decreased over time. Higher levels of NMN correlated with more Treg and B cells. Eventually, complete reperfusion at the end of therapy headed the identification of more circulating Tregs at day 1. Then activation of cortical or medullar compartments of the adrenal gland result in specific signatures on leukocyte subpopulations. Manipulation of the adrenal gland hormone levels warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del Valle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc, such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control. Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3 and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1, which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2, as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1. We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5, but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders.

  4. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development [version 2; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del Valle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc, such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control. Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3 and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1, which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2, as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1. We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5, but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders.

  5. Clinico-roentgenological characteristic of early stomach neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Peculiarities of clinic and roentgenosemiotics of early stomach neoplasms in patients were analyzed. Roentgenological picture of early stomach neoplasms depends on anatomic growth shape and size of neoplasms, its localization and on manifestation of inflammatory and functional chages accompanying the neoplasm. Application of complex of gastrological examination including roentgenological diagnostic method, gastrofibroscopy and morphological examination of the tissue permits to diagnose early stomach neoplasm in 95,4 % of patients. 8 refs

  6. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Lavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.

  7. Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls. Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls). Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59). While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required. There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological and functional manifestations of rat adrenal-cortex response to sodium bromide administration under hypodynamic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichek, L. T.; Zholudeva, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    Functional and morphological manifestations of adrenal cortex response to hypodynamia (2-hr immobilization on an operating table) under the influence of bromine preparations were studied. The sodium bromide was administered intraperitoneally in 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses once and repeatedly during ten days. The adrenal gland was evaluated functionally by ascorbic acid and cholesterol content and morphologically by coloring it with hematoxylin-eosin and Sudans for lipid revealing at freezing. Results are displayed in two tables and microphotographs. They are summarized as follows: the bromine weakens the functional state of the adrenal cortex in intact rats, causing changes similar to those under stress. During immobilization combined with preliminary bromine administration, a less pronounced stress reaction is noticeable.

  9. Zonal differences in the distribution and morphology of lipid droplets using 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine to lower cholesterol level in the rat adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, D; Somogyi, J; Acs, Z; Mihály, K

    1980-01-01

    The effect of reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels on adrenocortical lipid droplets have been examined by treating adult rats with 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine (4-APP), a drug that inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins. Lowering the blood cholesterol level and the cholesterol content of the adrenals was associated with a marked reduction in the lipid droplets and with a simultaneous increase in their electron density in the inner cortical zones. In the zona glomerulosa cells, no perceptible differences were found in the quantity and morphology of lipid droplets. These data suggest that reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels do not affect lipids located in the zona glomerulosa and in the inner cortical zones in the same way, probably due to differences in their intracellular lipid dynamism. Noteworthy, that in spite of the marked lipid depletion, the adrenal glands retained their responsiveness to ACTH stimulation.

  10. THE STUDY OF VITAMINS B1, B6, AND B12 EFFECTS ON ADRENAL CORTEX ADAPTATION BY MONITORING SOME ENZYME SYSTEMS IN RATS TRAINED BY SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Veličković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal hormones play a central role in response to environmental stimuli, both internal and external. We analyzed enzymes activities (LDH- lactate dehydrogenase, GLDHglutamate dehydrogenase and AcPh – acid phosphatase in adrenal cortex through swimming exercises and under the influence of B-group vitamins. The analyzed cases in the experiment revealed significant increase of enzyme activities, namely in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex. Physical exertion is a form of stress and causes steroidogenesis process expression. The vitamins used take part as co-ferments in production of a lot of enzymes and in their activities as well. Improvement of the enzyme system in adrenal glands in animals through swimming training with addition of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 leads to faster and long-term production of hormones necessary for stress response known as General Adaptation Syndrome

  11. Image characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya

    1994-01-01

    The image characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma observed in various types of imaging were examined. The subjects of the study were 6 cases of adrenal ganglioneuroma which had been histologically confirmed: the ages of the subjects ranged from 25 to 54 (mean age 41), and the maximum diameter of the tumors were 4 to 7 cm. The diagnostic methods employed in their detection were ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in all 6 cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 5 cases, and arteriography in 3 cases. On US and CT images, all 6 tumors had clear and smooth boundaries, and were homogeneous. They were hypoechoic on US images and low density on CT images. Of the 5 cases for which contrast CT images had been obtained, one showed a slightly heterogeneous staining. On MRI, the tumors were of lower intensity in comparison to the liver in 4 of 5 cases on the T 1 -weighted images, and the internal structure was homogeneous in 3 cases and heterogeneous in one case. The remaining one case was of isointensity and homogeneous. On the T 2 -weighted images, all 5 cases were of high intensity and heterogeneous. The blood flow distribution in the 3 tumors which were examined by Gd-DTPA dynamic MRI was low and of isointensity to the liver: 2 were heterogeneous and one was homogeneous. T 1 -enhanced images were obtained in 4 cases: 2 were of high intensity and heterogeneous, one was of isointensity and homogeneous, and one was of heterogeneously isointensity. Arteriography indicated that all 3 cases were hypovascular and no vascularization or ruptures were evident. It appeared that the imaging characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma were as follows: (1) homogeneous on US and CT images; (2) hypoechoic on US images, low density on CT images and little enhancement on contrast CT images; (3) of low intensity homogeneous on T 1 -weighted images and of high intensity heterogeneous on T 2 -weighted images and little blood flow distribution on dynamic MRI. (author)

  12. Diabetic fetopathy associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantbirojn Patou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many fetal malformations can occur because of maternal diabetes. However, ambiguous genital organs have never been reported as an associated finding in the literature. This is the first report of associated ambiguous genital organ and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in a case of diabetic fetopathy. Case presentation A 19-year-old Thai primigravida with familial history of diabetes mellitus (DM was diagnosed as having gestational DM type 2, based on 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, and was poorly controlled with insulin injections. Delayed targeted ultrasonography at 28 weeks gestation revealed multiple fetal anomalies. The woman underwent low transverse cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation due to preterm labor and transverse lie. The newborn with ambiguous genitalia was delivered but expired after birth. Autopsy findings revealed alobar holoprosencephaly, a prominent forehead, hypotelorism, an absent nose, absent bilateral ears, median cleft lip and palate, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand, accessory spleens, single umbilical artery, markedly enlarged adrenal glands and ambiguous external genitalia The subsequent fetal chromosomal study revealed 46,XX. Conclusion We describe a case of diabetic fetopathy with classic facial malformation and preaxial hallucal polydactyly which has been proposed as a marker of diabetic embryopathy. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia, an uncommon associated anomaly, was also identified. It is controversial whether adrenal hyperplasia can be a novel feature of diabetic fetopathy or just a coincidental finding. Further observation and adequate investigation are needed in such cases.

  13. Dopamine receptors on adrenal chromaffin cells modulate calcium uptake and catecholamine release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigornia, L; Suozzo, M; Ryan, K A; Napp, D; Schneider, A S

    1988-10-01

    The presence of dopamine-containing cells in sympathetic ganglia, i.e., small, intensely fluorescent cells, has been known for some time. However, the role of dopamine as a peripheral neurotransmitter and its mechanism of action are not well understood. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of D2 dopamine receptors on the surface of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using radioligand binding methods and dopamine receptor inhibition of catecholamine release from perfused adrenal glands. In the present study, we provide evidence confirming a role of dopamine receptors as inhibitory modulators of adrenal catecholamine release from bovine chromaffin cell cultures and further show that the mechanism of modulation involves inhibition of stimulated calcium uptake. Apomorphine gave a dose-dependent inhibition (IC50 = 1 microM) of 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by either nicotine (10 microM) or membrane depolarization with an elevated K+ level (60 mM). This inhibition was reversed by a series of specific (including stereospecific) dopamine receptor antagonists: haloperidol, spiperone, sulpiride, and (+)-butaclamol, but not (-)-butaclamol. In addition, the calcium channel agonist Bay K 8644 was used to stimulate uptake of 45Ca2+ into chromaffin cells, and this uptake was also inhibited by the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. The combined results suggest that dopamine receptors on adrenal chromaffin cells alter Ca2+ channel conductance, which, in turn, modulates catecholamine release.

  14. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandali, Danny; Heilingoetter, Ashley; Ghai, Ritu; Jeffe, Jill; Al-Khudari, Samer

    2018-01-01

    Lipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager. A 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence. This is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  15. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Jandali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager.Case presentationA 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence.ConclusionThis is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  16. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianta, M.; Varma, D. K.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  17. [Neonatal adrenal hematoma: various modes of presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadil, F-Z; Lehlimi, M; Chemsi, M; Habzi, A; Benomar, S

    2014-09-01

    Neonatal adrenal hematoma is a rare condition, most frequently caused by trauma. We report three cases of adrenal hematoma admitted to the Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the A. Harouchi Children's Hospital, the Ibn Rushd University Hospital in Casablanca, Morocco, over a 2-year period from January 2011 to December 2012. The average age of these patients was 5 days. The clinical presentations were diverse; the most common manifestations were intense jaundice in one case, acute adrenal insufficiency in one case, and severe anemia in the other case. Abdominal ultrasonography was used to confirm the diagnosis and monitor adrenal hemorrhage in all the patients. Analysis of clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonography data showed a favorable prognosis in all the patients. Based on these observations, we discuss the risk factors, clinical presentations, progression and management of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Adrenal stress hormones, amygdala activation, and memory for emotionally arousing experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; Barsegyan, Areg; Lee, Sangkwan

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that stress hormones released from the adrenal glands are critically involved in memory consolidation of emotionally arousing experiences. Epinephrine or glucocorticoids administered after exposure to emotionally arousing experiences enhance the consolidation of long-term memories of these experiences. Our findings indicate that adrenal stress hormones influence memory consolidation via interactions with arousal-induced activation of noradrenergic mechanisms within the amygdala. In turn, the amygdala regulates memory consolidation via its efferent projections to many other brain regions. In contrast to the enhancing effects on consolidation, high circulating levels of stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects also require noradrenergic activation of the amygdala and interactions with other brain regions.

  19. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Darlene Y

    2015-11-01

    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Unresolved Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; Poppas, Dix; Ghizzoni, Lucia; New, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production. The treatment of patients affected with nonclassical CAH, particularly males, remains controversial. Variable synthetic glucocorticoids are used and new modes of glucocorticoid delivery are under investigation. To improve height, growth hormone and other adjuvant therapies are employed. Long-term outcomes of genital surgery using modern techniques in females affected with classical CAH continue to be investigated. Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone is available to avoid ambiguous genitalia in these females. Although studies have shown its safety to mother and fetus, prenatal treatment is still regarded as experimental. Currently, prenatal diagnosis of CAH can only be obtained through invasive methods. Recently, the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has made it possible to make this diagnosis earlier and noninvasively. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Lacrimal gland ductal carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Grauslund, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    and xerophtalmia; case 2: A 53-year-old man, presented with headache, proptosis and chemosis and case 3: A 73-year-old man, presenting with chemosis and a corneal abscess. All three cases were characterized morphologically including immunohistochemistry and genetically with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH...... HER2 amplification was found in cases 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: This study identified a spectrum of genetic events and pattern of protein expression in DC of the lacrimal gland similar to a subset of carcinomas of the breast and ductal carcinomas of the salivary glands. For therapeutic purposes...

  2. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in salivary gland diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frank Cheau-Feng; Chen, Pei-Liang; Tsao, Tang-Yi; Li, Chia-Ru; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Tsai, Stella Chin-Shaw

    2014-10-01

    The roles of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in head and neck neoplasms have been well reported, but little is known about their relationship with salivary gland tumours. This study investigated the presence of HPV and EBV in salivary gland diseases. The presence of HPV 16/18 and EBV was analysed in archival pathological specimens collected from patients who had undergone surgery for salivary gland diseases. HPV 16/18 DNA was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further confirmed with immunohistochemistry. EBV DNA was detected using real-time PCR. A total of 61 pathological specimens were examined: 39.5% (15/38) of pleomorphic adenomas, 33.3% (3/9) of Warthin's tumours, 33.3% (one of 3) of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 25.0% (one of 4) of benign lymphoepithelial lesions were positive for high-risk HPV 16/18. Only two Warthin's tumours were positive for EBV. The infectious nature of salivary gland neoplasms was revealed by the high prevalence of HPV infection, and the specific presence of EBV in Warthin's tumours, suggesting a potential role for HPV and EBV in salivary gland diseases. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Nutritional survey of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinli; Zhu Shengtao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In order to know the nutriture of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy and give nutritional guidance properly, the authors make the following survey. Methods: A dietary survey of twenty-four-hour retrospective method was used; The patients' activity was recorded and their twenty-four hours caloric consumption was calculated. Results: Of all the patients, the intake of protein is more than recommended, percentage of calorific proportion is about 15%-19% of gross caloric. A larger portion of patients' caloric intake, especially female patients, is lower than caloric consumption. Among all the patients, the intake of vegetables is not enough; The consumption of milk and milky products is lower; it is common and serious that neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy have vitamine and mineral's scarcity. Conclusions: Nutriture of neoplasm patients is not optimistic, it is imperative to improve their nutriture

  4. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  5. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  6. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  7. Catecholamine levels in sheep hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenals following whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.

    1985-01-01

    Changes were studied in the levels of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the control system of the reproduction cycle (hypothalamus, hypophysis) and in the adrenal glands of sheep after whole-body irradiation with 60 Co at a total dose of 6.7 Gy for seven days. The output of the radiation source was 0.039 Gy/h. The catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and adrenaline) and L-DOPA were determined after separation from the tissues by the method of spectral fluorometry. After whole-body exposure to gamma radiation, noradrenaline dropped in the hypothalamus in comparison with the control group, most significantly in the rostral (by 74.2%) and caudal (by 40%) parts. A similar drop was also observed in dopamine, the concentrations of which decreased in the rostral hypothalamus by 60%. Adrenaline showed a drop in the hypothalamus, most significant in the caudal region (by 62%). Consequently, the level of the precursor of the synthesis of catecholamines and L-DOPA changed and showed in the studied regions of the hypothalamus significantly lower levels than in the control group. As regards the hypophysis, after irradiation no significant changes in the levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline were recorded, however, dopamine and L-DOPA dropped significantly (P<0.01). The exposure to gamma radiation also causes a decrease in the concentrations of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the adrenal glands of sheep, most significantly in noradrenaline (by 61%). It was thus found that whole-body irradiation of sheep with a dose of 6.7 Gy results in a significant decrease in the level of catecholamines in the hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenal glands, which is probably in relation to the failure of synthesis and degradation of catecholamines and to the total organism injury

  8. [The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Khidirov, B N; Saĭdalieva, M; Khasanov, A A; Musaeva, Sh N; Saatov, T S

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used

  9. Radiology of pancreatic neoplasms: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Santa, Luis Gijón; Retortillo, José Antonio Pérez; Miguel, Ainhoa Camarero; Klein, Lea Marie

    2014-09-15

    Diagnostic imaging is an important tool to evaluate pancreatic neoplasms. We describe the imaging features of pancreatic malignancies and their benign mimics. Accurate detection and staging are essential for ensuring appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from surgery and for preventing unnecessary surgeries in patients with unresectable disease. Ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging can help to do a correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of the wide variety of anatomic variants and pathologic conditions that may mimic pancreatic neoplasms. The knowledge of the most important characteristic key findings may facilitate the right diagnosis.

  10. Major salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with two important features of treatment of malignant tumors of the parotid and submandibular gland: the lack of a satisfactory means of staging these lesions, and the all-important treatment considerations relative to the facial nerve in parotid gland malignancies. The imaging physician and the clinician should also consider that many suspected parotid mass lesions turn out to arise from structures extrinsic to the gland. The authors discuss in detail the sources of such mass lesions as well as how CT can be used to differentiate these from intrinsic lesions in the parotid and submandibular glands. Computed tomography and, perhaps in the near future, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will provide us with a means to diagnose these tumors earlier. This is especially true when studies are used in situations such as unexplained peripheral seventh nerve paralysis or in the early screening of patients with parotid or periparotid masses. Unfortunately, it is usually patient delay that leads to late diagnosis of palpable mass lesions in this region, and there is little that any imaging study can do to reduce this factor

  11. Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as late onset neonatal jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Umar Amin; Ahmad, Nisar; Rasool, Akhter; Choh, Suhail

    2009-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of adrenal hemorrhage vary depending on the degree and rate of hemorrhage, as well as the amount of adrenal cortex compromised by hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage that presented with late onset neonatal jaundice. The cause of adrenal hemorrhage was birth asphyxia.

  13. Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Man With β-Thalassemia: An Uncommon Cause of an Adrenal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeighami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH commonly occurs in the spleen, liver and lymph nodes. Rare cases of EMH in the adrenal gland have been reported. Case Presentation We report the case of a 33-year-old man from the South of Iran suffering from major β-thalassemia, who underwent open left adrenalectomy and the histopathology revealed EMH. Conclusions In patients in which a history of hematologic disorders exists, careful imaging and hormonal assay should be done to certify a diagnosis of EMH. However, the surgical management becomes inevitable in certain cases.

  14. Comparative study on the effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on structural changes and hormonal output of the adrenal cortex in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahi-Moghaddam Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin function, or both. Causing dysfunction in the body general metabolism, diabetes-induced chronic hyperglycemia leads to alterations in those endocrine glands involved in regulating the body metabolism. In this line, the present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the structural changes and hormonal output of the adrenal cortex in male Wistar rat. Methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups including control, experimental type 1 diabetes (subcutaneous injection of 135 mg/kg alloxan and experimental type 2 diabetes (8 weeks treatment with drinking water containing 10% fructose. Two months after the induction of both types of diabetes, the level of blood biochemical factors (glucose, insulin, cortisol, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were measured. Structural changes of the adrenal cortex were then evaluated, using stereological techniques. Results Serum biochemical analysis showed significant difference in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, insulin and cortisol in experimental groups, compared to the control. The results of structural alterations were also indicative of increase in adrenal cortex volume in both types of diabetes. Conclusion Probably through increasing HPA axis activity, type1 diabetes-induced hyperglycemia leads to adrenal hypertrophy and increase the hormonal output of adrenal gland.

  15. Cryptochrome 2 expression level is critical for adrenocorticotropin stimulation of cortisol production in the capuchin monkey adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Farfan, C; Abarzua-Catalan, L; Valenzuela, F J; Mendez, N; Richter, H G; Valenzuela, G J; Serón-Ferré, M

    2009-06-01

    Timely production of glucocorticoid hormones in response to ACTH is essential for survival by coordinating energy intake and expenditure and acting as homeostatic regulators against stress. Adrenal cortisol response to ACTH is clock time dependent, suggesting that an intrinsic circadian oscillator in the adrenal cortex contributes to modulate the response to ACTH. Circadian clock gene expression has been reported in the adrenal cortex of several species. However, there are no reports accounting for potential involvement of adrenal clock proteins on cortisol response to ACTH. Here we explored whether the clock protein cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) knockdown modifies the adrenal response to ACTH in a primate. Adrenal gland explants from adult capuchin monkey (n = 5) were preincubated for 6 h with transfection vehicle (control) or with two different Cry2 antisense and sense probes followed by 48 h incubation in medium alone (no ACTH) or with 100 nm ACTH. Under control and sense conditions, ACTH increased cortisol production, whereas CRY2 suppression inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol production. Expression of the steroidogenic enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase at 48 h of incubation was increased by ACTH in control explants and suppressed by Cry2 knockdown. Additionally, we found that Cry2 knockdown decreased the expression of the clock gene brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (Bmal1) at the mRNA and protein levels. Altogether these results strongly support that the clock protein CRY2 is involved in the mechanism by which ACTH increases the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Thus, adequate expression levels of components of the adrenal circadian clock are required for an appropriate cortisol response to ACTH.

  16. Role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in adrenal lesions: analysis of 32 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC is a precise and safe technique that provides both radiological and pathological diagnosis with a better diagnostic yield and minimal adverse events. EUS-FNAC led to the remarkable increase in the detection rate of incidentaloma found during radiologic staging or follow-up in various malignancy or unrelated conditions. Aims: We did this preliminary study with an aim to evaluate the role of EUS-FNA in diagnosing and classifying adrenal lesions, clinical impact, and compare the outcome with the previously published literature. Materials and Methods: We included 32 consecutive cases (both retrospective and prospective of EUS-guided adrenal aspirate performed over a period of 3.3 years. The indications for the aspirate in decreasing order were metastasis (most common carcinoma gall bladder > primary adrenal mass > disseminated tuberculosis > pyrexia of unknown origin. On EUS, 28 cases revealed space occupying lesion or mass (two cases bilateral and four cases revealed diffuse enlargement (two cases bilateral with a mean size of 21 mm. Results: The cytology reports were benign adrenal aspirate (43.8%, metastatic adenocarcinoma (15.6%, histoplasmosis (9.4%, tuberculosis (9.4%, round cell tumor (6.2%, adrenocortical carcinoma (3.1%, and descriptive (3.1%. Three cases (9.4% yielded inadequate sample. The TNM staging was altered in 22.23% of the cases by result of adrenal aspirate. Conclusions: EUS-FNA of the adrenal gland is a safe, quick, and sensitive and real-time diagnostic technique, which requires an integrated approach of clinician, endoscopist, and cytopathologist for high precision in diagnosis. Although the role of EUS-FNA for right adrenal is not much described, we found adequate sample yield in all the four patients that underwent the procedure.

  17. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Pituitary Gland Mimicking a Pituitary Adenoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Da Mi; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han Kyu [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with diplopia. The patient had a relatively well-defined pituitary mass with high cellularity as well as weaker enhancement on imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), than a typical pituitary adenoma. The distinction between a pseudotumor and an invasive neoplasm is very difficult before biopsy. In this case report, we discuss the characteristic imaging features of a fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor of the pituitary gland

  18. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Balanzá

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The presence of t(12;15 (p13;q25 translocation which results in the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion or positive immunochemical studies for STAT5, mammoglobin and S100 protein, are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of MASC. MASC treatment should mimic the management of other low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasms. The inhibition of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion could be used as treatment in the future.

  19. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  20. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord