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Sample records for adrenal cortex function tests

  1. [Effect of alpha-tocopherol on adrenal cortex functions under stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Vinogradov, V V

    1991-01-01

    alpha-Tocopherol has been studied for its effect on lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortices of rat and rabbit under stress. The vitamin is shown to exert an inhibitory effect on the lipid peroxidation developing under chronic stress. A biphasic pattern of the alpha-tocopherol effect on the steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex is established: a decrease in the release of the steroids under the acute stress and maintaining of their levels under the chronic stress. A conclusion is drawn about a potential alpha-tocopherol application to correct the adrenal cortex function under stress.

  2. [Lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex during exhausting stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Naumov, A V; Vinogradov, V V

    1990-05-01

    Under prolonged stress which is connected with exhaustion of functional resources of adrenal cortex the activation of lipid peroxidation processes in this gland was found. It is possible that the reason for such lipid peroxidation activation is the decrease in the content of adrenal cortex ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.

  3. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  4. [Content of biological antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex in experimental circulatory insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Nadol'nik, L I; Naumov, A V; Beluga, V B; Vinogradov, V V

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen-week experimental insufficiency in rats causes exhaustion of adrenal cortex function. The number of diene conjugates in the adrenals increased, the alpha-tocopherol level decreased. It is suggested that reduced level of antioxidant protection and the associated activation of lipid peroxidation processes underlie the disorders of adrenal cortex function.

  5. The adrenal cortex and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Gavin P

    2009-03-05

    The template for our understanding of the physiological role of the adrenal cortex was set by Hans Selye, who demonstrated its key involvement in the response to stress, of whatever origin, and who also introduced the terms glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid. Despite this, from the late 1940s on there was certainly general awareness of the multiple actions of glucocorticoids, including effects on the thymus and immune system, cardiovascular system, water balance, and the CNS. For these reasons, and perhaps because in the early studies of the actions of individual steroids there was less clear-cut difference between them, there was some initial resistance to the use of these terms. Today they are universal and unchallenged. It can be argued that, with respect to the glucocorticoids, this term colours our perception of their physiological importance, and may be misleading. By taking evidence from disease states, emphasis is placed on extreme conditions that do not necessarily reveal normal physiology. In particular, evidence for the role of glucocorticoid regulation of gluconeogenesis and blood glucose in the normal subject or animal is inconclusive. Similarly, while highly plausible theories explaining glucocorticoid actions on inflammation or the immune system as part of normal physiology have been presented, direct evidence to support them is hard to find. Under extreme conditions of chronic stress, the cumulative actions of glucocorticoids on insulin resistance or immunocompromise may indeed seem to be actually damaging. Two well-documented and long recognized situations create huge variation in glucocorticoid secretion. These are the circadian rhythm, and the acute response to mild stress, such as handling, in the rat. Neither of these can be adequately explained by the need for glucocorticoid action, as we currently understand it, particularly on carbohydrate metabolism or on the immune system. Perhaps we should re-examine other targets at the physiological

  6. [Corticosterone level in testes of rats in varying adrenal functional activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokha, A M; Doroshkevich, N A; Voronov, P P; Antsulevich, S N; Kashko, M F

    1992-01-01

    The presence of corticosterone in rat testes was demonstrated by combining HPLC and RIA techniques. The presence of the hormone was also taken into account. The testicular corticosterone content was shown to depend upon the functional activity of the adrenals and to diminish acutely after adrenalectomy. Analysis of correlation between the concentration of the hormones in the plasma and testes has shown corticosterone to be formed by testicular cells.

  7. Acupuncture Relieves the Excessive Excitation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis Function and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It had been indicated in the previous studies that acupuncture relieved the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA function induced by stress stimulation. But the changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR induced by acupuncture have not been detected clearly. The objective of the study was to observe the impacts of acupuncture on the protein expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH, adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR, and GR under the physiological and stress states. The results showed that under the stress state, acupuncture upregulated the protein expression of GR in the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and pituitary gland, downregulated the protein expression of GR in the adrenal cortex, and obviously reduced the protein expressions of CRH and ACTHR. Under the physiological state, acupuncture promoted GR protein expression in the hippocampus and CRH protein expression in the hippocampus and PVN. The results explained that acupuncture regulated the stress reaction via promoting the combination of glucocorticoids (GC with GR, and GR protein expression. The increase of GR protein expression induced feedback inhibition on the overexpression of CRH and ACTHR, likely decreased GC level, and caused the reduction of GR protein expression in the adrenal cortex.

  8. Acupuncture Relieves the Excessive Excitation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis Function and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Qie, Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    It had been indicated in the previous studies that acupuncture relieved the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA) function induced by stress stimulation. But the changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) induced by acupuncture have not been detected clearly. The objective of the study was to observe the impacts of acupuncture on the protein expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR), and GR under the physiological and stress states. The results showed that under the stress state, acupuncture upregulated the protein expression of GR in the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and pituitary gland, downregulated the protein expression of GR in the adrenal cortex, and obviously reduced the protein expressions of CRH and ACTHR. Under the physiological state, acupuncture promoted GR protein expression in the hippocampus and CRH protein expression in the hippocampus and PVN. The results explained that acupuncture regulated the stress reaction via promoting the combination of glucocorticoids (GC) with GR, and GR protein expression. The increase of GR protein expression induced feedback inhibition on the overexpression of CRH and ACTHR, likely decreased GC level, and caused the reduction of GR protein expression in the adrenal cortex.

  9. Differential expression of somatostatin receptor subtype-related genes and proteins in non-functioning and functioning adrenal cortex adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarek, Hanna; Krupiński, Roman; Kubiak, Robert; Borkowska, Edyta; Pawlikowski, Marek; Winczyk, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Adrenocortical adenomas display highly variable expressions of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes, whose expression is mandatory (although not always sufficient) to achieve the positive effects of somatostatin (SST) analog therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the main method used to investigate receptor protein expression. The molecular biology method - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - is also often used to investigate receptor expression. Nevertheless, the expression of receptor mRNA and the respective receptor protein is not always synchronized. The aim of this study was to investigate SSTR expression by IHC in adrenal adenomas, to compare the results to data obtained by real-time PCR and to determine whether hormonally functioning and non-functioning adenomas differ in this respect. Adrenocortical adenomas were removed surgically from 13 females and 2 males. The tissues were obtained from 9 non-functioning and 6 functioning adenomas. The intensity of IHC reaction was scored semiquantitatively by two independent observers. Real-time PCR was performed using pairs of primers in a reaction amplified along a gradient of temperatures. Amplified DNA was measured by monitoring SYBR-Green fluorescence. In non-functioning tumors, compatibility between IHC and PCR results was observed for SSTR 1 and 2 in 62.5% of the samples. Fifty percent of patients demonstrated compatibility for SSTR 4 and 5 and 37.5% for SSTR 3. In hormonally active adenomas, total compatibility of both methods was noted for SSTR 2 (100%). The compatibility obtained for SSTR 5 was 66.6%. We conclude that receptor gene and respective receptor protein expression are not always synchronized. Messenger RNA detection alone is not sufficient to predict the presence of the receptor protein acting as a target for SST and its analogs.

  10. Effects of phenylbutazone and anabolic steroids on adrenal and thyroid gland function tests in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D D; Garcia, M C

    1985-02-01

    Adrenal and/or thyroid gland function tests were evaluated in horses at various times during short-term therapy with phenylbutazone, stanozolol, and boldenone undecylenate. There were no significant treatment or time effects on mean basal plasma cortisol concentrations in horses during treatment with the following: phenylbutazone, given twice daily (4 to 5 mg/kg, IV) for 5 days; stanozolol, given twice weekly (0.55 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; boldenone undecylenate, given twice weekly (1.1 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; or nothing. There was no significant effect of phenylbutazone treatment on the changes in plasma cortisol concentration during the combined dexamethasone-suppression adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulation test. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly decreased from base line at 3 hours after dexamethasone administration and was significantly increased from base line at 2 hours after ACTH in all horses (P less than 0.05). Likewise, the stimulation of basal plasma cortisol concentrations at 2 hours after administration of ACTH (P less than 0.05) was not affected by treatment with stanozolol or boldenone undecylenate. There were no significant treatment effects on mean basal plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) among horses during the following treatments: stanozolol, given twice weekly (0.55 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; boldenone undecylenate, given twice weekly (1.1 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; or nothing. There was a significant time effect on overall mean basal plasma T4 and T3 concentrations (P less than 0.05): plasma T4 was lower on day 8 than on days 1, 10, and 12; plasma T3 was higher on day 8 than on days 4 and 12.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. $sup 3$H-metyrapol as a tool for studies of interactions of deoxycorticosterone with adrenal cortex mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satre, M.; Lunardi, J.; Vignais, P.V.

    1972-05-01

    From international conference on mechanism in bioenergetica; Bari, Italy (1 May 1972). /sup 3/H-metyrapol was prepared by reduction of metyrapone with tritiated sodium borohydride. Metyrapol behaves like metyrapone as an inhibitor of the 11 BETA -hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone in adrenal cortex mitochondria and competes with metyrapone in binding tests. These results, and the ease of preparation of highly labeled /sup 3/H-metyrapol, recommend /sup 3/ Hmetyrapol as a probe of deoxycorticosterone interactions with adrenal cortex mitochondria. (auth)

  12. The effects of acute heat stress on proliferative and apoptotic processes in the rat adrenal cortex

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    Petrović-Kosanović Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia can cause significant structural and functional reorganization of tissues and organs. The proliferative and apoptotic processes of rat adrenal cortex were analyzed by light and electron microscopy after an acute exposure to high ambient temperature. Animals were divided in two groups. The first group consisted of intact controls. The rats from the second group were exposed to a high ambient temperature of 38°C for 60 min. Mitotic chromosomes and the largest number of immunoreactive nuclei for the Ki-67 were observed in the zona reticularis (ZR of the control animals. The relative number of mitoses after heat stress showed a significant decrease in the zona glomerulosa (ZG; 66.8%, zona fasciculata (ZF; 27.8% and ZR (86.7% (for all zones p<0.05, while in the whole adrenal cortex the after-treatment decrease was 61.9% (p<0.05 compared to the controls. Under heat stress numerous apoptotic nuclei were seen at the light and ultrastructural levels in all the zones of the adrenal cortex. Such dynamics of mitosis/apoptosis events seriously affect adrenal cortex morphology. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173023 i br. 173009

  13. Quantification of the adrenal cortex hormones with radioimmunoassay

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    Badillo A, V.; Carrera D, A. A.; Ibarra M, C. M., E-mail: vbadillocren@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The pathologies of the adrenal cortex -adrenal insufficiency and Cushing syndrome- have their origin on the deficit or hypersecretion of some of the hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex, which is divided in three zones anatomically defined: the external zone, also called the zona glomerulosa, which is the main production site of aldosterone and mineralocorticoids; the internal zone, or zona reticularis, that produces androgens; and the external zone, or zone 1 orticotrop, which is responsible for producing glucocorticoids. In this work, a quantitative analysis of those hormones and their pathologic trigger was made; the quantification was made in the laboratory by means of highly sensitive and specific techniques, in this case, the radioimmunoassay, in which a radioisotope I-125 is used. This technique is based on the biochemical bond-type reaction, because it requires of a substance called the linker, which bonds to another called ligand. This reaction is also known as antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab), where the results of the reaction will depend on the quantity of antigen in the sample and on its affinity for the antibody. In this work, a 56 patients (of which 13 were men and 43 women) study was made. The cortisol, the ACTH, the androsterone and the DHEA values were very elevated in the majority of the cases corresponding to women, predominating cortisol; while in men, a notorious elevation of the 17 {alpha}-OH-PRG and of the DHEA-SO{sub 4} was observed. Based on that, we can conclude that 51 of them did not have mayor complications, because they just went to the laboratory once, while the remaining 5 had a medical monitoring, and they visited the laboratory more than one occasion, tell about a difficulty on their improvement. According to the results, an approximate relation of 8:2 women:men, respectively, becomes clear to the hormonal pathologies of the adrenal cortex. (Author)

  14. Primary bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with normal adrenal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Ding, Qiang; Xia, Guowei; Fang, Zujun; Fang, Jie; Jiang, Haowen; Yao, Mengshu

    2009-04-01

    Primary bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare. Adrenal insufficiency or adrenal failure as a result of tumor destruction is the main pathophysiological change of most cases. Normal adrenal function despite bulky bilateral adrenal masses is extremely rare. We present a case of primary bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with normal adrenal function. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography is helpful to the diagnosis.

  15. Aldo-Keto Reductases 1B in Adrenal Cortex Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Emilie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Martinez, Antoine; Lefrançois-Martinez, A Marie

    2016-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AKR1B) proteins are monomeric enzymes, belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. They perform oxidoreduction of carbonyl groups from a wide variety of substrates, such as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes or ketones. Due to the involvement of human aldose reductases in pathologies, such as diabetic complications and cancer, AKR1B subgroup enzymatic properties have been extensively characterized. However, the issue of AKR1B function in non-pathologic conditions remains poorly resolved. Adrenal activities generated large amount of harmful aldehydes from lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis, including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and isocaproaldehyde (4-methylpentanal), which can both be reduced by AKR1B proteins. More recently, some AKR1B isoforms have been shown to be endowed with prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) activity, suggesting that, in addition to possible scavenger function, they could instigate paracrine signals. Interestingly, the adrenal gland is one of the major sites for human and murine AKR1B expression, suggesting that their detoxifying/signaling activity could be specifically required for the correct handling of adrenal function. Moreover, chronic effects of ACTH result in a coordinated regulation of genes encoding the steroidogenic enzymes and some AKR1B isoforms. This review presents the molecular mechanisms accounting for the adrenal-specific expression of some AKR1B genes. Using data from recent mouse genetic models, we will try to connect their enzymatic properties and regulation with adrenal functions.

  16. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  17. [Dynamics of lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis in adrenal cortex during stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Vinogradov, V V

    1990-01-01

    The phase character of lipid peroxidation has been found in the rabbit adrenal cortex in the process of adaptation to extreme loads. Under acute stress the activation of lipid peroxidation is directly dependent on the hormonal synthesis processes. Under conditions of the prolonged stress factor an enhancement of the lipid peroxidation intensity in the adrenal cortex coincides with a decrease in the steroidogenesis rate.

  18. Aldo-keto reductases 1B in adrenal cortex physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie PASTEL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aldose reductase proteins are cytosolic monomeric enzymes, belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR superfamily. They perform oxidoreduction of carbonyl groups from a wide variety of substrates such as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes or ketones. The Aldose reductase subgroup (AKR1B is one of the most characterized because of its involvement in human diseases such as diabetic complications resulting from the ability of its human archetype AKR1B1 to reduce glucose into sorbitol. However the issue of AKR1B function in non pathologic condition remains poorly resolved. Adrenal steroidogenesis is strongly associated with high production of endogenous harmful lipid aldehyde by-products including isocaproaldehyde (4-methylpentanal derived from cholesterol side chain cleavage (the first step of steroid synthesis and 4-hydroxynonenal (4- HNE that can both be reduced by AKR1B proteins. More recently, some AKR1B isoforms have been shown to be endowed with prostaglandin F synthase activity, suggesting that in addition to possible scavenger function, they could instigate paracrine signals. Interestingly, previous studies have established that the adrenal gland is one of the major site for human and murine AKR1B expression suggesting that their detoxifying/signaling activity could be specifically required for the correct handling of adrenal function. Moreover chronic effects of ACTH result in a coordinated regulation of genes encoding the steroidogenic enzymes and some AKR1B isoforms.This review presents the molecular mechanisms accounting for the adrenal specific expression of some AKR1B genes. Using data from recent mouse genetic models, we will try to connect their enzymatic properties and regulation with adrenal functions.

  19. Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, Egill

    2002-01-01

    The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size...... a reduced blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increase and a greater asymmetry in the visual cortex, compared with controls. The volume of visual cortical activation was significantly correlated to the result of the contrast sensitivity test. The BOLD signal increase correlated significantly...... of the activated area and the signal change following ON, and compared the results with results of neuroophthalmological testing. We studied nine patients with previous acute ON and 10 healthy persons served as controls using fMRI with visual stimulation. In addition to a reduced activated volume, patients showed...

  20. Placental Estrogen Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression in the Nonhuman Primate Fetal Adrenal Cortex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Adina; Aberdeen, Graham W.; Pepe, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that estrogen selectively suppresses growth of the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex, which produces the C19-steroid precursors, eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are aromatized to estrogen within the placenta. In the present study, we determined whether fetal adrenal expression of cell cycle regulators are altered by estrogen and thus provide a mechanism by which estrogen regulates fetal adrenocortical development. Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in the whole fetal adrenal were increased 50% (P < .05), and the number of cells in the fetal adrenal definitive zone expressing cyclin D1 protein was increased 2.5-fold (P < .05), whereas the total number of cells in the fetal zone and fetal serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were elevated 2-fold (P < .05) near term in baboons in which fetal serum estradiol levels were decreased by 95% (P < .05) after maternal administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and restored to normal by concomitant administration of letrozole plus estradiol throughout second half of gestation. However, fetal adrenocortical expression of cyclin D2, the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, and Cdk regulatory proteins p27Kip1 and p57Kip2 were not changed by letrozole or letrozole plus estradiol administration. We suggest that estrogen controls the growth of the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal by down-regulating cyclin D1 expression and thus proliferation of progenitor cells within the definitive zone that migrate to the fetal zone. We propose that estrogen restrains growth and function of the fetal zone via cyclin D1 to maintain estrogen levels in a physiological range during primate pregnancy. PMID:25247468

  1. Placental estrogen suppresses cyclin D1 expression in the nonhuman primate fetal adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Adina; Aberdeen, Graham W; Pepe, Gerald J; Albrecht, Eugene D

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that estrogen selectively suppresses growth of the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex, which produces the C19-steroid precursors, eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are aromatized to estrogen within the placenta. In the present study, we determined whether fetal adrenal expression of cell cycle regulators are altered by estrogen and thus provide a mechanism by which estrogen regulates fetal adrenocortical development. Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in the whole fetal adrenal were increased 50% (P < .05), and the number of cells in the fetal adrenal definitive zone expressing cyclin D1 protein was increased 2.5-fold (P < .05), whereas the total number of cells in the fetal zone and fetal serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were elevated 2-fold (P < .05) near term in baboons in which fetal serum estradiol levels were decreased by 95% (P < .05) after maternal administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and restored to normal by concomitant administration of letrozole plus estradiol throughout second half of gestation. However, fetal adrenocortical expression of cyclin D2, the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, and Cdk regulatory proteins p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) were not changed by letrozole or letrozole plus estradiol administration. We suggest that estrogen controls the growth of the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal by down-regulating cyclin D1 expression and thus proliferation of progenitor cells within the definitive zone that migrate to the fetal zone. We propose that estrogen restrains growth and function of the fetal zone via cyclin D1 to maintain estrogen levels in a physiological range during primate pregnancy.

  2. Evaluation of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic and pituitary disorders : comparison of serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone test with the insulin tolerance test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; Pasterkamp, SH; Beentjes, JAM; Sluiter, WJ

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the performance of screening tests (serum cortisol and 24-h urinary free cortisol) and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone (h-CRH) test in the assessment of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. DESIGN Summary receiver opera

  3. [Reaction of the animal adrenal cortex to the action of a strong, constant magnetic field and to a hypomagnetic environment].

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    Shust, I V; Kostinik, I M

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on male albino rats; a study was made of the functional condition of the adrenal cortex following a single 30-minute (decapitation of the animals in 1, 8, 16, and 24 hours, and in 4, 8, 16, and 30 days) and repeated (for 30 minutes every day) prolonged (for 1 month) action of CMF (decapitation in 2, 4, 8, 16, and 30 days) and hypomagnetic field (for 8 and 30 days). Changes in the lipid content and in the alkaline phosphatase activity served as a morpho-histochemical criterion. A single brief CMF action proved to stimulate the adrenal function the first hours of the after-action; later the changes were oscillating in character. Prolonged repeated action of CMF depressed the functional activity of the adrenal cortex. Both in the first and in the second cases functional activity of the organism was almost completely restored by the end of the month, after the cessation of the CMF action. An 8-day stay of the animals in the hypomagnetic medium led to activation of the adrenal gland function, and a 30-day stay--to its reduction.

  4. Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, Egill;

    2002-01-01

    The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size...

  5. Down-regulation of the beacon gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Tyczewska, Marianna; Belloni, Anna Sandra; Nowak, Magdalena; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2006-12-01

    Beacon, a hypothalamic peptide involved in the regulation of food intake, has been recently shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex, and to inhibit its secretion and growth. To further characterize the role of beacon in the control of adrenal growth, we investigated the level of beacon gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex. Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry demonstrated the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the adrenals at both days 5 and 8 of regeneration after enucleation and contralateral adrenalectomy. Semiquantitative real time-PCR revealed a net down-regulation of beacon mRNA in the regenerating glands, as compared to the intact adrenal cortex of sham-operated animals. Beacon gene expression was higher at day 8 than at day 5 of regeneration. Mitotic index, as assayed by the stachmokinetic method with vincristin, was negligible in the intact adrenal, but greatly elevated in regenerating gland, with a higher index found at day 5 than at day 8 after surgery. Taken together our findings indicate that the level of beacon gene expression is inversely correlated with the proliferative activity of adrenocortical cells, and suggest that beacon might act as an endogenous inhibitor of adrenocortical growth in the rat.

  6. [Quantitative histoenzymatic analysis of the adenohypophysis and adrenal cortex during the early stages of involution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochukhanov, R A; Rostovtseva, T I

    1977-11-01

    A method of quantitative histenzymatic analysis was applied for determination of the involution changes of the neuroendocrine system. The activity of NAD- and NADP-reductases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, glucose-6-phosphoric dehydrogenase, 3-OH-steroid-dehydrogenase, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases was investigated in the adenohypophysis and in the adrenal cortex of rats aged 4 and 12 months. There were revealed peculiarities attending the structural-metabolic provision of physiological reconstructions of the neuro-endocrine system under conditions of the estral cycle at the early involution stages. An initial reduction of the cell ular-vascular transport with the retention of the functional activity of the intracellular organoids was demonstrated in ageing animals.

  7. 依托咪酯复合骶管麻醉对小儿皮质醇的影响%Effects of Etomidate on Pedo-adrenal Cortex Function in General Anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱平增; 焦岩; 韩雪萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of Etomidate on pedo-adrenal cortex function.Metheods:60 children scheduled for hypospadia-neoplasty,aged 5~6, ASA I ~ II, randomly arranged into etomidate group(group A),propofol group (group B) with 30 exaples in either group. After intravenous injiection ketamine 2 mg/kg ,all children were did caudal anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with etomidate (22~25) μ g/kg·min injection in group A orpropofol (8~10) mg/kg·h in Group B. Blood sample were taken before induction ( I ), immediately after 30 minutes pump-injected of Etomidate/Propofol(II) immediately, after operation(III) , 12hr (IV),24hr(V) and 48 hr(VI) after operation to measure plasma concentration of cortisol.Results:The concentration of cortisol of group B was significant higher than group B(P<0.05) at II ~-V, and restored to preoperative level in both groups at VI. Conclusion: Etomidate has some certain inhabit effects to adrenal cortex,it can be restored to baseline level at 48 hr after operation. Continuous infusion of etomidate was effective and safefor pedo-hypospadia neoplasty.%目的:观察持续输注依托咪酯复合骶管麻醉对小儿血清皮质醇浓度的影响.方法:60例择期行尿道下裂修补术患儿,年龄5~6岁,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级,随机分为依托咪酯组(A组),丙泊酚组(B组),各30例.入室后均静脉注射氯胺酮2 mg/kg,入睡后常规骶管阻滞,术中麻醉维持:A组泵注依托咪酯脂肪乳(22~25)μg/kg·min,B组泵注丙泊酚(8~10)mg/kg·h.分别在麻醉前(Ⅰ)、泵注依托咪酯脂肪乳/丙泊酚30min(Ⅱ)、术后即刻(Ⅲ)、术后12h(Ⅳ)、术后24h(Ⅴ)、术后48h(Ⅵ)抽静脉血,测量血清皮质醇水平.结果:Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ时点A组血清皮质醇浓度低于B组(P<0.05),两组血清皮质醇浓度于Ⅵ时点均恢复至麻醉前水平.结论:依托咪酯脂肪乳对小儿肾上腺皮质功能的抑制作用短暂,术后48h恢复至麻醉前水平,可以应用于小儿静脉麻醉维持.

  8. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jim A.; Lee, Maris S.; Nicholson, Matthew E.; Justin, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25183891

  9. Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Leonardo; Paul, Alex; Laufer, Ed; King, Peter

    2011-04-10

    Sonic hedgehog signaling was recently demonstrated to play an important role in murine adrenal cortex development. The organization of the rat adrenal differs from that of the mouse, with the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata separated by an undifferentiated zone in the rat, but not in the mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the mRNA expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog and the hedgehog signaling pathway components Patched-1 and Gli1 in the developing and adult rat adrenal. Sonic hedgehog expression was detected at the periphery of the cortex in cells lacking CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression, while signal-receiving cells were localized in the overlying capsule mesenchyme. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that the cells expressing Sonic hedgehog lie between the CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 layers, and thus Sonic hedgehog expression defines one cell population of the undifferentiated zone.

  10. Refractory hypoglycemia in a patient with functional adrenal cortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Regina Marchetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adrenacarcinomas are rare, and hypoglycemic syndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II by these tumors have been described infrequently. This study describes the case of a young woman with severe persistent hypoglycemia and a large adrenal tumor and discusses the physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypoglycemia. The case is described as a 21-year-old woman who presented with 8 months of general symptoms and, in the preceding 3 months, with episodes of mental confusion and visual blurring secondary to hypoglycemia. A functional assessment of the adrenal cortex revealed ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism. Hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, low C-peptide and no ketones were also detected. An evaluation of the GH–IGF axis revealed GH blockade (0.03; reference: up to 4.4 ng/mL, greatly reduced IGF-I levels (9.0 ng/mL; reference: 180–780 ng/mL, slightly reduced IGF-II levels (197 ng/mL; reference: 267–616 ng/mL and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio (21.9; reference: ~3. CT scan revealed a large expansive mass in the right adrenal gland and pulmonary and liver metastases. During hospitalization, the patient experienced frequent difficult-to-control hypoglycemia and hypokalemia episodes. Octreotide was ineffective in controlling hypoglycemia. Due to unresectability, chemotherapy was tried, but after 3 months, the patient’s condition worsened and progressed to death. In conclusion, our patient presented with a functional adrenal cortical carcinoma, with hyperandrogenism associated with hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and blockage of the GH–IGF-I axis. Patient’s data suggested a diagnosis of hypoglycemia induced by an IGF-II or a large IGF-II-producing tumor (low levels of GH, greatly decreased IGF-I, slightly decreased IGF-II and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio.

  11. Complexity of steroid hydroxylase gent expression in the adrenal cortex A microcosm of regulated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, M R; Lund, J; Simpson, E R

    1989-01-01

    Regulation of the expression of steroid hydroxylase genes in the adrenal cortex involves mechanisms required for maintenance of optimal steroidogenesis, tissue specificity, and ontogeny of the steroidogenic pathway. Evaluation of the molecular basis of this complexity promises to unfold new aspects of regulated eukaryotic gene expression.

  12. Lycopene ameliorates atrazine-induced oxidative damage in adrenal cortex of male rats by activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Marwa Ahmed; Elkhateeb, Shereen Ahmed; Abd El-Baset, Samia Adel; Kattaia, Asmaa Alhosiny; Mohamed, Eman Mosallam; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2016-08-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most commonly used herbicides contaminating plants, soil and water resources. Several strategies have been used to counteract ATZ toxicity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that lycopene could ameliorate ATZ-induced toxicity in the adrenal cortex. For this purpose, 35 adult male albino rats were randomized into five equal groups: untreated control, vehicle control (received 0.5 mL corn oil/day), lycopene (treated with lycopene dissolved in 0.5 mL corn oil, 10 mg/kg b.w./day), ATZ (received ATZ dissolved in 0.5 mL corn oil 300 mg/kg b.w./day), and ATZ + lycopene (treated with ATZ and lycopene at the same previously mentioned doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 4 weeks. We found that ATZ exposure significantly increased relative adrenal weight, plasma ACTH levels, and adrenal oxidative stress as manifested by elevated malondialdehyde levels, decreased reduced glutathione content and depressed antioxidant enzyme activities in adrenal cortex tissues with respect to control groups. Furthermore, the transcription of adrenal cortex nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor kappa B, and caspase-3 genes was increased significantly compared with the control groups. This was accompanied with DNA fragmentation and structural and ultrastructural changes in zona glomerulosa and zona fasiculata of the adrenal cortex. Notably, all these changes were partially ameliorated in rats treated concomitantly with ATZ and lycopene. Our results showed that lycopene exerts protective effects against ATZ-induced toxicity in rat adrenal cortex. These effects may be attributed to the antioxidative property of lycopene and its ability to activate the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  13. Cushing's syndrome and fetal features resurgence in adrenal cortex-specific Prkar1a knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sahut-Barnola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Carney complex (CNC is an inherited neoplasia syndrome with endocrine overactivity. Its most frequent endocrine manifestation is primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, a bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia causing pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome. Inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, a gene encoding the type 1 alpha-regulatory subunit (R1alpha of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA have been found in 80% of CNC patients with Cushing's syndrome. To demonstrate the implication of R1alpha loss in the initiation and development of PPNAD, we generated mice lacking Prkar1a specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO. AdKO mice develop pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome with increased PKA activity. This leads to autonomous steroidogenic genes expression and deregulated adreno-cortical cells differentiation, increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Unexpectedly, R1alpha loss results in improper maintenance and centrifugal expansion of cortisol-producing fetal adrenocortical cells with concomitant regression of adult cortex. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that loss of R1alpha is sufficient to induce autonomous adrenal hyper-activity and bilateral hyperplasia, both observed in human PPNAD. Furthermore, this model demonstrates that deregulated PKA activity favors the emergence of a new cell population potentially arising from the fetal adrenal, giving new insight into the mechanisms leading to PPNAD.

  14. A specific binding site recognizing a fragment of angiotensin II in bovine adrenal cortex membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, S G; Fournier, A; Guillemette, G

    1994-12-12

    We have characterized a specific binding site for angiotensin IV in bovine adrenal cortex membranes. Pseudo-equilibrium studies at 37 degrees C for 2 h have shown that this binding site recognizes angiotensin IV with a high affinity (Kd = 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM). The binding site is saturable and relatively abundant (maximal binding capacity around 0.5 pmol/mg protein). Non-equilibrium kinetic analyses at 37 degrees C revealed a calculated kinetic Kd of 47 pM. The binding site is pharmacologically distinct from the classic angiotensin receptors AT1 or AT2. Competitive binding studies with bovine adrenal cortex membranes demonstrated the following rank order of effectiveness: angiotensin IV (Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) = angiotensin II-(3-7) (Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro) > angiotensin III (Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) > or = angiotensin II-(4-7) (Tyr-Ile-His-Pro) > angiotensin II (Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) > angiotensin II-(1-6) (Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His) > angiotensin II-(4-8) (Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) > > > angiotensin II-(3-6) (Val-Tyr-Ile-His), angiotensin II-(4-6) (Tyr-Ile-His), L-158,809 (5,7-dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-[(2'(1-H-tetrazol-5-yl)[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-y l) methyl]-3-H-imidazo[4,5-beta]pyridine H2O) and PD 123319 (1-[4-(dimethylamino)3-methylphenyl]methyl-5-(diphenylacetyl)4,5,6 ,7- tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid). The divalent cations Mg2+ and Ca2+ were shown to diminish the binding of 125I-angiotensioffn IV to bovine adrenal cortex membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. [Activation of lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex by metal ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Vinogradov, V V

    1988-01-01

    The processes of lipid peroxidation have been studied in bovine adrenal cortex in vitro. The lipid peroxidation rate in this tissue is shown to be dependent on the content of metal ions. EDTA, deferroxamine and penicyllamine inhibit spontaneous lipid peroxidation by 25, 50 and 42%, respectively. The ability to activate the process permits arranging metal ions in the following sequence: Fe2+ greater than Fe3+ greater than Cu2+ greater than Mg2+ greater than Mn2+. The maximum activation of lipid peroxidation is observed at Fe2+ and Fe3+ concentrations within the range of 5 x 10(-6) x 10(-4) M.

  16. Spectrum of Adrenal Dysfunction in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Evaluation of Adrenal and Pituitary Reserve with ACTH and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, P U; Papadopoulos, A D; Wardlaw, S L; Goland, R S

    1997-07-01

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported to develop abnormalities of the endocrine system and in particular of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To define the abnormalities of HPA function in AIDS patients better, we performed ACTH and ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH) testing in a group of AIDS patients and oCRH testing in a group of healthy subjects. Our study found that in AIDS patients with normal ACTH testing, oCRH testing revealed a variety of subclinical abnormalities of ACTH and cortisol responses. Although we did not find frank adrenal insufficiency in any of these AIDS patients, it remains to be determined if any of the subclinical abnormalities we identified are predictive of clinically significant adrenal insufficiency; it may be that as AIDS patients live longer, the subclinical abnormalities will progress to adrenal insufficiency. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:173-180). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  17. [Comparative determination of the potential for activating lipid peroxidation of the adrenal cortex, liver and heart in various animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Vinogradov, V V

    1989-01-01

    Studies have been made on the rate of spontaneous, ascorbate- and NADP.H-dependent lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex, liver heart of rats, rabbits and cattle. It was shown that in spite of some species differences in predisposition of tissues to lipid peroxidation. The highest rate of this process is characteristic of the liver of all the animals investigated.

  18. Adrenal Function Status in Patients with Paracoccidioidomycosis after Prolonged Post-Therapy Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Angela M.; Agudelo, Carlos A.; Restrepo, Carlos A.; Villa, Carlos A.; Quiceno, William; Estrada, Santiago; Restrepo, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed adrenal function in patients with paracoccididioidomycosis who had been treated to determine a possible connection between high antibody titers and adrenal dysfunction attributable to persistence of the fungus in adrenal gland. Adrenal gland function was studied in 28 previously treated patients, 2 (7.1%) of whom were shown to have adrenal insufficiency and 7 (259%) who showed a below normal response to stimuli by adrenocorticotropic hormone. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was detected in the adrenal gland from one of the patients with adrenal insufficiency. Although the study failed to demonstrate a significant difference between high antibody titers and low cortisol levels, the proportion of adrenal insufficiency detected and the subnormal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone confirmed that adrenal damage is an important sequela of paracoccidioidomycosis. Studies with a larger number of patients should be conducted to confirm the hypothesis of persistence of P. brasiliensis in adrenal gland after therapy. PMID:20595488

  19. Influence of Adrenal Cortex Function of Respiratory Failure Patients on Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Treatment ;Outcome%呼吸衰竭患者肾上腺皮质功能对无创机械通气治疗效果的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖卫平; 朱丽阳; 周立新; 傅艳妮

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of adrenal cortex function of respiratory failure patients on noninvasive mechanical ventilation treatment outcome. Methods From February 2010 to August 2015,120 respiratory failure patients in intensive care units( ICU)of the 4th People's Hospital of Foshan City were selected in this study. The selected patients were divided into the normal adrenal cortex function group〔plasma cortisol( COR) ﹥3. 0 μg/dl,n =80〕and the adrenocortical insufficiency group(plasma COR≤3. 0 μg/dl,n=40)according to functional status of adrenal cortex of them at admission. 14 days after treatment,patients' rehabilitation condition,and plasma COR level,pulmonary function test index, heart rate and mean arterial pressure pre and posttreatment were also compared. Results There was no significant difference in gender,average age,BMI,acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ score( APACHEⅡ),and protopathy between the two groups(P﹥0. 05). The standard time of weaning for the first time,duration of mechanical ventilation and time of ICU stay of the adrenocortical insufficiency group were significantly longer than those in normal group(P﹤0. 05). The plasma COR level of the adrenocortical insufficiency group pre and posttreatment was significantly lower than that of normal group(P﹤0. 05);the plasma COR level of the two groups posttreatment was significantly higher than that of pretreatment(P﹤0. 05). The forced vital capacity( FVC)and the ratio of forced expiratory volume to FVC( FEV1/FVC)between two groups pretreatment showed no significant differences ( P ﹥ 0. 05 );FVC and FEV1/FVC of the adrenocortical insufficiency group posttreatment were significantly lower than those of normal group ( P ﹤ 0. 05 );FVC and FEV1/FVC between two groups posttreatment were significantly higher than those of pretreatment(P﹤0. 05). The heart rate and average arterial pressure of the two groups pre and posttreatment showed no significant

  20. 60 YEARS OF POMC: Adrenal and extra-adrenal functions of ACTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    The pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plays a pivotal role in homeostasis and stress response and is thus the major component of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. After a brief summary of ACTH production from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and on ACTH receptor properties, the first part of the review covers the role of ACTH in steroidogenesis and steroid secretion. We highlight the mechanisms explaining the differential acute vs chronic effects of ACTH on aldosterone and glucocorticoid secretion. The second part summarizes the effects of ACTH on adrenal growth, addressing its role as either a mitogenic or a differentiating factor. We then review the mechanisms involved in steroid secretion, from the classical Cyclic adenosine monophosphate second messenger system to various signaling cascades. We also consider how the interaction between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton may trigger activation of signaling platforms potentially stimulating or repressing the steroidogenic potency of ACTH. Finally, we consider the extra-adrenal actions of ACTH, in particular its role in differentiation in a variety of cell types, in addition to its known lipolytic effects on adipocytes. In each section, we endeavor to correlate basic mechanisms of ACTH function with the pathological consequences of ACTH signaling deficiency and of overproduction of ACTH.

  1. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  2. Role of DAX-1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1) in human adrenal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khairi, Ranna; Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Achermann, John C

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear receptor transcription factors DAX-1 (NR0B1) and SF-1 (NR5A1) regulate many aspects of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Disruption of the genes encoding these factors can be associated with pediatric adrenal disease. DAX-1 mutations are classically associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and impaired spermatogenesis. However, other phenotypes are also being reported, such as isolated mineralocorticoid insufficiency, premature sexual development, primary adrenal insufficiency in a 46, XX patient and late-onset X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. SF-1 mutations have also been associated with primary adrenal insufficiency, together with 46, XY disorders of sex development. However it is emerging that SF-1 changes are a relatively rare cause of primary adrenal failure in humans, and most individuals with SF-1 mutations have a spectrum of 46, XY disorders of sex development phenotypes. These conditions range from 46, XY females with streak gonads and müllerian structures, through children with ambiguous genitalia and inguinal testes, to severe penoscrotal hypospadias with undescended testes. Therefore, the human gonad appears to be more sensitive than the adrenal gland to loss of SF-1 function. This review will focus on the expanding range of phenotypes associated with DAX-1 and SF-1 mutations.

  3. Testicular adrenal rest tumors in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: evaluation of pituitary-gonadal function before and after successful testis-sparing surgery in eight patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Otten, B.J.; Takahashi, S.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) are frequently present. These tumors can interfere with testicular function. Intensifying glucocorticoid therapy does not always lead to tumor regression and improvement of testicular function.

  4. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  5. Adrenal morpho-functional alterations in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaroni, C; Selice, R; Benedini, S; De Menis, E; Arosio, M; Ronchi, C; Gasperi, M; Manetti, L; Arnaldi, G; Polenta, B; Boscaro, M; Albiger, N; Martino, E; Mantero, F

    2008-07-01

    Acromegaly is associated with a greater morbidity and higher incidence of tumors, possibly due to the permissive role of elevated GH and IGF-I levels. In the general population, adrenal masses are frequently discovered (prevalence 1-5%) at computed tomography (CT). We evaluated the prevalence of adrenal lesions in patients with acromegaly. We studied 94 acromegalic patients, 54 females (mean age 55.0+/-16.0 yr) and 40 males (mean age 50+/-14 yr) referred to 5 Endocrinology Units between 2001-2003; 49 had active disease and 45 had been treated with surgery and/or were controlled with medical therapy. Abdominal CT showed adrenal lesions in 27 patients; 9 of them had unilateral masses (10%) with benign features (diameter 0.5-3 cm) and 18 had hyperplasia (14 monolateral and 4 bilateral), with no significant differences between patients with active vs controlled disease, and with no correlation between prevalence of masses and duration of disease, GH and IGF-I levels. Hormone study (urinary free cortisol, catecholamines/metanephrines, upright plasma renin activity and aldosterone, morning plasma ACTH and low-dose dexamethasone suppression test) disclosed no major endocrine alterations. During a 1-yr follow-up, the adrenal masses increased in size in 3 cases and 1 patient also developed subclinical Cushing's syndrome. Adrenal lesions seem more frequent in acromegaly than in the general population, but no single factor (GH/IGF-I levels or disease duration) predicts them. The masses appear to be benign and nonhypersecreting, but a longer follow-up is recommended to disclose any changes in their morphofunctional state.

  6. Exploration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function as a tool to evaluate animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormède, Pierre; Andanson, Stéphane; Aupérin, Benoit; Beerda, Bonne; Guémené, Daniel; Malmkvist, Jens; Manteca, Xavier; Manteuffel, Gerhard; Prunet, Patrick; van Reenen, Cornelis G; Richard, Sabine; Veissier, Isabelle

    2007-10-22

    Measuring HPA axis activity is the standard approach to the study of stress and welfare in farm animals. Although the reference technique is the use of blood plasma to measure glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol or corticosterone), several alternative methods such as the measurement of corticosteroids in saliva, urine or faeces have been developed to overcome the stress induced by blood sampling itself. In chronic stress situations, as is frequently the case in studies about farm animal welfare, hormonal secretions are usually unchanged but dynamic testing allows the demonstration of functional changes at several levels of the system, including the sensitization of the adrenal cortex to ACTH and the resistance of the axis to feedback inhibition by corticosteroids (dexamethasone suppression test). Beyond these procedural aspects, the main pitfall in the use of HPA axis activity is in the interpretation of experimental data. The large variability of the system has to be taken into consideration, since corticosteroid hormone secretion is usually pulsatile, follows diurnal and seasonal rhythms, is influenced by feed intake and environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, age and physiological state, just to cite the main sources of variation. The corresponding changes reflect the important role of glucocorticoid hormones in a number of basic physiological processes such as energy metabolism and central nervous system functioning. Furthermore, large differences have been found across species, breeds and individuals, which reflect the contribution of genetic factors and environmental influences, especially during development, in HPA axis functioning. Usually, these results will be integrated with data from behavioral observation, production and pathology records in a comprehensive approach of farm animal welfare.

  7. Adrenal function in asthmatic children treated with inhaled budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Damkjaer Nielsen, M;

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the inhaled topical steroid budesonide on adrenal function was evaluated in 33 children (aged 7-15 years) with moderate bronchial asthma. The trial was designed as a prospective single-blind study of the effect of budesonide in daily doses of 200 microgram through 400 microgram to 800...... significantly during treatment with 800 microgram budesonide as compared to treatment with 200 microgram budesonide (95% confidence interval: 74%-112%). It is concluded, that budesonide is a topical steroid with a favourable ratio between topical and systemic effects in asthmatic children....

  8. [Oxidation of different substrates in mitochondria of bovine and rat adrenal cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, K A; Doroshkevich, N A; Vinogradov, V V

    1982-01-01

    The rate of oxygen uptake by mitochondria of bovine and rat adrenals was determined during oxidation of the Krebs cycle substrates. Succinate is established to be oxidized most actively under in vitro conditions.

  9. Executive functioning in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, A Monica; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria Teresa; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Vanderburg, Nancy; Sarafoglou, Kyriakie

    2017-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis leading to excessive production of adrenal androgens. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to excess androgens may increase neural vulnerability to insult and affect cognitive functions, particularly dopamine-dependent neural circuits responsible for executive functioning (EF). Our study aimed to investigate relationship between more pronounced androgen exposure and EF-related behaviors in children with CAH, as well as sex differences in these associations. Parents of patients with CAH (n=41, boys=17, girls=24; age: M=8.41, SD=4.43) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), a measure assessing behavioral manifestations of EF. Assessments of bone age advancement, a proxy of cumulative androgen exposure, were analyzed. Advanced bone age predicted more inhibition difficulties in boys but not in girls, and more difficulties in all other BRIEF domains in the total sample. Excessive androgen production affected EF such that more advanced bone age led to more EF-related difficulties. Sex differences in inhibition may result from estrogen exposure moderating the impact of androgens in girls but not in boys. Future interventions may include targeting EF in patients with CAH to enhance quality of life and reduce cognitive consequences associated with this disease.

  10. 脓毒症早期大鼠肾上腺皮质功能变化及地塞米松的干预作用%Changes in adrenal cortex function and protective effect of dexamethasone in septic rats during early phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振杰; 田惠玉; 王澜涛; 田慧艳

    2009-01-01

    phases of sepsis and its probable mechanisms,and to study the optimal time for glucocorticoid replacement therapy.Methods A total of 260 healthy male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups(each group n=52),including normal control group,sham operation group,cecal ligation and puncture(CLP)group,dexamethasone prevention group(with 10 mg/kg dexamethasone injection into the abdominal cavity before CLP) and dexamethasone treatment group(with 10 mg/kg dexamethasone injection into the abdominal cavity 7 hours after CLP).Each group was subdivided into five subgroups according to five time points:2,4,6,8 and 12 hours. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone(ACTH)test was conducted at 8 hours and 12 hours,and before and after 30 minutes of ACTH administration。the cortisol content in serum was determined with radioimmunoassay(RIA)and the expressions of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA in adrenal glands were detected with semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).UItrastructure of adrenal cortex was observed with transmission electron microscope.The survival rats was recorded in all groups.Results ① The levels of cortisol in CLP group,dexamethasone prevention group and dexamethasone treatment group were respectively higher than those of normal control and sham operation groups(all P<0.05).But there was no marked change in the levels of eortisol between pre-and post-ACTH in rats with sepsis in the early phases. ② The expressions of TLR4,TNF-α mRNA in adrenal both were significantly increased in CLP group,and they were higher than those in sham operation group(P<0.05 or P<0.01).The expressions of TLR4,TNF-α mRNA in dexamethasone prevention group and treatment group were significantly lower than those in CLP group,and those in the dexamethasone prevention group were lower than those in sham operation group. ③ In the groups of CLP,dexamethasone prevention and treatment,ultrastructure changes were observed in the

  11. Relationship between adrenal function and prognosis in patients with severe sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yi; LIU Ling; ZHAO Bo; LI Mao-qin; WU Bin; YAN Zheng; GU Qin; SUN Hua; QIU Hai-bo

    2007-01-01

    Background It is known that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is highlighted by stimulation, such as sepsis,trauma, etc, when corticortropin increases and plasma cortisol levels enhance. Relative adrenal insufficiency is not uncommon in critically ill patients and may occur in severe sepsis patients with high plasma cortisol levels. It has been demonstrated that a short corticotropin test has a good prognostic value and is helpful in identifying patients with septic shock at high risk for death, but it has not been established for all severe sepsis patients, especially in China. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between adrenal function and prognosis in patients with severe sepsis.Methods This prospective study was conducted between July and December 2004 in 6 teaching hospitals. Two hundred and forty patients with severe sepsis were enrolled in this study. A short corticotropin stimulation test was performed in all patients by intravenous injection of 250 μg of corticotropin. Blood samples were taken immediately before the test (T0), 30 (T30) and 60 (T60) minutes afterward, and the plasma cortisol concentration was measured by radio-immunoassay. At the onset of severe sepsis, the following parameters were recorded: age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), peripheral blood of hemoglobin, platelets and leukocyte concentration and the number of organ failure. Patients were designated into two groups (survival and non-survival groups) according to the 28-day mortality. Relative adrenal insufficiency was defined as the difference between T0 and the highest value of T30 or T60 (△Tmax) ≤9 μg/dl.Results (1) Two hundred and forty patients with severe sepsis were included in this study, with 134 patients in the survival group and 106 in the non-survival group. The 28-day mortality was 44

  12. Carcinoma of the Adrenal Cortex in Children%小儿肾上腺皮质癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄澄如; 贺荣友

    1982-01-01

    @@ 婴幼儿肾上腺皮质功能性病变,表现为使皮质醇症时,多系肾上腺皮质癌.我院1960~1979年共收治4例,均经手术切除.近期2例随访已超过2年,情况良好;1例术后死亡;1例未随访.今简要报导及讨论如下.%Adrenal carcinoma is often responsible for Cushing's syndrome complicated with virilization or isosexual precocity in a male.Usually the carcinoma is large enough to be palpable on examination and can be demonstrated by routine pyelography.Increased level of urinary 17-ketosteroids or 17-hydroxycorticoids and the failure to respond to the dexamethasone suppresion test strongly support the diagnosis of carcinoma.Four patients,two males and two females,with adrenal carcinoma were admitted to this hospital from 1960 to 19799 with the age ranging from 2 to 4 years.

  13. Sex-related gene expression profiles in the adrenal cortex in the mature rat: microarray analysis with emphasis on genes involved in steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejter, Marcin; Hochol, Anna; Tyczewska, Marianna; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Jopek, Karol; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Rucinski, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Notable sex-related differences exist in mammalian adrenal cortex structure and function. In adult rats, the adrenal weight and the average volume of zona fasciculata cells of females are larger and secrete greater amounts of corticosterone than those of males. The molecular bases of these sex-related differences are poorly understood. In this study, to explore the molecular background of these differences, we defined zone- and sex-specific transcripts in adult male and female (estrous cycle phase) rats. Twelve-week-old rats of both genders were used and samples were taken from the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata/reticularis (ZF/R) zones. Transcriptome identification was carried out using the Affymetrix(®) Rat Gene 1.1 ST Array. The microarray data were compared by fold change with significance according to moderated t-statistics. Subsequently, we performed functional annotation clustering using the Gene Ontology (GO) and Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). In the first step, we explored differentially expressed transcripts in the adrenal ZG and ZF/R. The number of differentially expressed transcripts was notably higher in the female than in the male rats (702 vs. 571). The differentially expressed genes which were significantly enriched included genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism, and their expression levels in the ZF/R of adult female rats were significantly higher compared with those in the male rats. In the female ZF/R, when compared with that of the males, prevailing numbers of genes linked to cell fraction, oxidation/reduction processes, response to nutrients and to extracellular stimuli or steroid hormone stimuli were downregulated. The microarray data for key genes involved directly in steroidogenesis were confirmed by qPCR. Thus, when compared with that of the males, in the female ZF/R, higher expression levels of genes involved directly in steroid hormone synthesis were accompanied by lower

  14. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) as a male infertility factor. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, Marek; Joanna, Talarczyk; Piotr, JedrzejczaK

    2012-09-01

    Since testes and adrenal cortex derive from the same urogenital ridge, adrenal tissue with descending gonads may migrate in early embryonic period. Although most often ectopic tissue undergoes atrophy in some cases, when adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) overstimulation occurs, the adrenal remnants in the testes may become hypertrophic and form testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). The growth of TARTs in the testes leads to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules which can mechanically impair the function of the gonads and cause irreversible azoospermia. We describe a patient suffering since neonatal period from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), disorder with defected pathway of cortisol production, which leads to increased ACTH production and to overstimulation of adrenal cortex. He had very poor disease control and therefore in late puberty he was diagnosed with TARTs. At the age of 19.5 he was diagnosed with azoospermia, most likely caused by TARTs. It is the first evidence of TARTs in Polish literature. Although not many cases have been published so far the incidence of TARTs seems to be highly underdiagnosed, so it seems reasonable to consider the disease in differential diagnosis of male infertility.

  15. LCAT deficiency in mice is associated with a diminished adrenal glucocorticoid function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Menno; Korporaal, Suzanne J. A.; van der Sluis, Ronald J.; Hirsch-Reinshagen, Veronica; Bochem, Andrea E.; Wellington, Cheryl L.; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Van Eck, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    containing lipoproteins can provide cholesterol for synthesis of glucocorticoids. Here we assessed adrenal glucocorticoid function in LCAT knockout (KO) mice to determine the specific contribution of HDL-cholesteryl esters to adrenal glucocorticoid output in vivo. LCAT KO mice exhibit an 8-fold high

  16. Cumene hydroperoxide supported demethylation of N,N-dimethylaniline by cytochrome P-450 from adrenal cortex mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhrem, A A; Khatyleva SYu; Shkumatov, V M; Chashchin, V L; Kiselev, P A

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of highly purified cytochrome P-450 from bovine adrenal cortex mitochondria (cytochrome P-450scc) with N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), aniline, N-dimethylcyclohexylamine and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been investigated. The formation of complexes between cytochrome P-450scc and the above listed compounds could be demonstrated. The reaction of oxidative demethylation of DMA by cumene hydroperoxide involving cytochrome P-450scc has been carried out at 37 degrees C; the mechanism of this process is discussed. Incubation of cytochrome P-450scc with negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinosite (PI) exerts an inhibiting effect on the reaction of oxidative demethylation. The interaction of cytochrome P-450scc with CHP is accompanied by hemoprotein destruction in a complex biphasic way. The process of oxidative demethylation of DMA in the system of cytochrome P-450scc-CHP has been concluded to have a predominantly radical character.

  17. Zonal variation in the distribution of an alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform receptor in human adrenal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1999-01-01

    Using a histochemical technique with three different alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform one glycoform specific receptor has been identified in human adrenal cortex. The receptor is associated to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform B and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform C. The glycoform specific...... specific receptor. The binding of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform B and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform C to the glycoform specific receptor is inhibited by the steroid hormones cortisone, aldosterone, estradiol and progesterone but not by testosterone. The pronounced changes in the distribution....... The binding activity was dependent on the presence of calcium ions and not on thiol reagents. Thus the lectin-like receptor may belong to the C-type lectin family. Using an antibody to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein the presence of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was observed in the same location as the glycoform...

  18. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of adrenal gland cortex of sheep grazing on pastures with the ground of electrofilter ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juntes, P.; Pestevsek, U.; Pogacnik, M. [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-07-01

    Electrofilter ash is a side product of power plants using coal as a fuel. Trials for transforming ash covered areas into cultivated landscape are ongoing e.g., efforts to form grasslands that would be usable for animal breeding and production. However the question of how safe grazing is on such surfaces in relation to animal health and the use of animal products, produced on such surfaces, for human consumption has not been truly resolved yet. The main goal of our work is a systematic search for the possible negative effects on animals grazing on such surfaces. In this work we present the results of morphologic and morphometric analyses that were made to evaluate the potential toxic or some other impact of electrofilter ash constituents on the adrenal gland cortex. No conclusive evidence of such effects was determined in this study.

  19. Emotional exhaustion and overcommitment to work are differentially associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a low-dose ACTH1-24 (Synacthen) and dexamethasone-CRH test in healthy school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for a detrimental impact of chronic work stress on health has accumulated in epidemiological research. Recent studies indicate altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation as a possible biological pathway underlying the link between stress and disease. However, the direction of dysregulation remains unclear, with reported HPA hyper- or hyporeactivity. To disentangle potential effects on different functional levels in the HPA axis, we examined responses using two pharmacological stimulation tests in 53 healthy teachers (31 females, 22 males; mean age: 49.3 years; age range: 30-64 years): a low-dose adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH(1-24), Synacthen) test was used to assess adrenal cortex sensitivity and the combined dexamethasone-corticotropin releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test to examine pituitary and adrenal cortex reactivity. Blood and saliva samples were collected at - 1,+15,+30,+45,+60,+90,+120 min. Emotional exhaustion (EE), the core dimension of burnout, was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Overcommitment (OC) was assessed according to Siegrist's effort-reward-imbalance model. We found a significant association between EE and higher plasma cortisol profiles after Synacthen (p = 0.045). By contrast, OC was significantly associated with attenuated ACTH (p = 0.045), plasma cortisol (p = 0.005), and salivary cortisol (p = 0.023) concentrations following DEX-CRH. Results support the notion of altered HPA axis regulation in chronically work-stressed teachers, with differential patterns of hyper- and hyporeactivity depending on individual stress condition and the tested functional level of the HPA axis.

  20. Synthesis of a new adrenal cortex imaging agent 6. beta. -/sup 131/I-iodomethyl-19-nor cholest-5(10)-en-3. beta. -ol (NP-59)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmadjian, G.P.; Hetzel, K.R.; Ice, R.D.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1975-04-10

    A new adrenal cortex imaging agent, 6..beta..-/sup 131/I-iodomethyl-19-nor-cholest-5(10)-en-3..beta..-ol (NP-59) (I) was synthesized by the homallylic rearrangement of 19-iodocholesterol or directly from cholest-5-ene-3..beta.., 19-diol-19-toluene-p-sulfonate via homoallylic rearrangement with the iodide ion as a nucleophile and subsequent exchange with Na/sup 131/I. NP-59 appears to concentrate 5 times better than 19-iodocholesterol in the rat adrenal and is currently being evaluated as a possible diagnostic agent in man.

  1. Effect of day-to-day variations in adrenal cortex hormone levels on abdominal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura Hideki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is known to be related to abdominal symptoms, and the relationship between abdominal pain and cortisol secretory patterns has been previously investigated using a cross-sectional approach. Here, we investigated the effect of day-to-day variations in salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels on abdominal symptoms in healthy individuals. Methods Eleven college students (4 males and 7 females participated in this study. The participants were asked to collect their saliva immediately after awakening and before bedtime for eight consecutive days. They also completed a questionnaire about abdominal symptoms before bedtime. The linear mixed model was applied to analyze the effects of the day-by-day variability or the 8-day average adrenal hormone level (at awakening, before bedtime, slope from awakening to bedtime on abdominal symptoms. Results The day-to-day variability of cortisol levels before bedtime was negatively related with loose stool, while the day-to-day variability of the cortisol slope was positively correlated with loose stool. A low 8-day average dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate level at awakening was positively related with frequent bowel movements, loose stool, and long bouts of severe abdominal pain. Likewise, a low 8-day average dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate slope was positively related with long bouts of abdominal pain. Conclusions Low cortisol levels before bedtime and a steeper diurnal cortisol slope during the day may be related to bouts of diarrhea during the day.

  2. Adrenal insufficiency: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munver, Ravi; Volfson, Ilya A

    2006-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a disorder characterized by hypoactive adrenal glands resulting in insufficient production of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. This disorder may develop as a primary failure of the adrenal cortex or be secondary to an abnormality of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Patients with adrenal insufficiency often are asymptomatic or they may present with fatigue, muscle weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure, and sometimes darkening of the skin. The presentation of adrenal insufficiency varies dramatically and poses a major diagnostic dilemma. This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone substitution in female adrenal failure: no impact on endothelial function and cardiovascular parameters despite normalization of androgen status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens Juel; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Sørensen, Keld E;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female adrenal insufficiency implicates reduced production of the adrenal androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and low androgen levels. Oral DHEA restores androgen deficit but the clinical implications and safety of substitution therapy is uncertain. A putative DHEA receptor...... androgen levels using 6 months of DHEA replacement in this pilot study did not affect cardiovascular parameters and endothelial function in female adrenal insufficiency...

  4. Clinical features of congenital adrenal insufficiency including growth patterns and significance of ACTH stimulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ji Won; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Yu, Jeesuk

    2013-11-01

    Congenital adrenal insufficiency is caused by specific genetic mutations. Early suspicion and definite diagnosis are crucial because the disease can precipitate a life-threatening hypovolemic shock without prompt treatment. This study was designed to understand the clinical manifestations including growth patterns and to find the usefulness of ACTH stimulation test. Sixteen patients with confirmed genotyping were subdivided into three groups according to the genetic study results: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH, n=11), congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (n=3) and X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (n=2). Bone age advancement was prominent in patients with CAH especially after 60 months of chronologic age (n=6, 67%). They were diagnosed in older ages in group with bone age advancement (Pcongenital adrenal insufficiency. ACTH stimulation test played an important role to support the diagnosis and serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were significantly elevated in all of the CAH patients. The test will be important for monitoring growth and puberty during follow up of patients with congenital adrenal insufficiency.

  5. The role of impairment of adrenal mineraloglucocorticoid function in the development of infertility in varicocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo, E B; Koryakin, M V; Kudryavtsev JuV; Evseev, L P; Akopyan, A S

    1989-01-01

    The study was aimed at the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of the impairment of spermatogenesis in varicocele patients. The crucial role of tension increase in the venous plexus of the spermatic cord in spermatogenesis damage in the testis on the varicocele side and absence of any effect of haemodynamic abnormalities on spermatogenesis in the complementary testis has been determined. Retrograde blood flow through the central vein of the left adrenal gland in varicocele has been evidenced by X-ray examination. The role of this phenomenon in the changes of functional activity of the adrenal gland is discussed. Results of the study of functional status of adrenal glands revealed their tendency to provide hyperactivity in synthesis of mineraloglucocorticoids. Correlation between cortisol level in peripheral blood and percentage of abnormal sperm in ejaculate was shown. This fact supported the idea about the existence of a causal interrelationship between abnormalities in the functional status of adrenal glands and development of infertility in varicocele patients.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha affect hydrocortisone expression in mice adrenal cortex cells mainly through tumor necrosis factor alpha-receptor 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Hai-ming; FANG Yuan; HUANG Pei-lin

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is important in promoting relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).We identified the TNF-α receptor involved in the inhibition of adrenal corticotrophin (ACTH)-stimulated hydrocortisone release by studying the expression of TNF-α receptors in adrenal cortex Y1 cells and the effect of downregulating TNF receptors on ACTH-stimulated hydrocortisone release.Methods We used real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry to evaluate the expression of TNF receptors on Y1 cells.TNF-receptor 1 (TNF-R1) DNA fragments corresponding to the short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-sequences were synthesized and cloned into pcDNATM 6.2-GW/EmGFP expression vector.Knockdown efficiency of TNF-R1 expression was evaluated in miRNA transfected and mock-miRNA transfected Y1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR).Hydrocortisone expression levels were determined in TNF-R1-knockdown and control Y1 cells treated with TNF-α and ACTH.Results Mouse adrenal cortex Y1 cells were positive for type I TNF-R1,but not type Ⅱ TNF-receptor (TNF-R2).Blocking TNF-R1 expression resulted in loss of TNF-α-mediated inhibition of ACTH-stimulated hydrocortisone expression,suggesting a role for the TNF-R1 related signaling pathway in ACTH-stimulated hydrocortisone synthesis.Conclusion The inhibitory effect of TNF-α on ACTH-stimulated hydrocortisone synthesis was mediated via TNF-R1 in adrenal cortex.

  7. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run test

  8. Orbitofrontal cortex function and structure in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevets, Wayne C

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression by evidence obtained using neuroimaging, neuropathologic, and lesion analysis techniques. The abnormalities revealed by these techniques show a regional specificity, and suggest that some OFC regions which appear cytoarchitectonically distinct also are functionally distinct with respect to mood regulation. For example, the severity of depression correlates inversely with physiological activity in parts of the posterior lateral and medial OFC, consistent with evidence that dysfunction of the OFC associated with cerebrovascular lesions increases the vulnerability for developing the major depressive syndrome. The posterior lateral and medial OFC function may also be impaired in individuals who develop primary mood disorders, as these patients show grey-matter volumetric reductions, histopathologic abnormalities, and altered hemodynamic responses to emotionally valenced stimuli, probabilistic reversal learning, and reward processing. In contrast, physiological activity in the anteromedial OFC situated in the ventromedial frontal polar cortex increases during the depressed versus the remitted phases of major depressive disorder to an extent that is positively correlated with the severity of depression. Effective antidepressant treatment is associated with a reduction in activity in this region. Taken together these data are compatible with evidence from studies in experimental animals indicating that some orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex regions function to inhibit, while others function to enhance, emotional expression. Alterations in the functional balance between these regions and the circuits they form with anatomically related areas of the temporal lobe, striatum, thalamus, and brain stem thus may underlie the pathophysiology of mood disorders, such as major depression.

  9. Adrenal function in preterm infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Khuffash, Afif

    2013-01-01

    Targeted milrinone treatment for low left ventricular output (LVO) reduces the incidence of acute cardiorespiratory instability following ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. Despite this, some infants continue to experience postoperative deterioration. Adrenal insufficiency related to prematurity has been postulated as a possible mechanism.

  10. Short-term effects of ACTH on protein synthesis in adrenal cortex cells of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, M C; Magalhães, M M; Cimbra, A

    1975-11-19

    Two units of ACTH were administered intraperitoneally to young 20 gm-rats which received an intravenous injection of L-leucine-3H thirteen min later. ACTH-injected rats, and control rats which received the isotope alone, were killed at 2-, 10-, 30- and 60-min intervals. Electron microscope autoradiographs in control animals showed strong amino-acid uptake at pulse time (2-min) in the cytoplasm of adrenal zona fasciculata cells. Label was shared between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and a lower but still considerable uptake was seen in nucleoli. At first chase time interval (10-min) cytoplasmic labelling declined, while nuclear and nucleolar labelling increased, both changing little thereafter, and there was a 10-30 min Golgi peak. ACTH administration provoked an overall increase in amino-acid incorporation into cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus at pulse time, with no changes in the distribution of the reactions among organelles. Intensification of labelling was most evident over nucleoli, the grain density of which was four-times as high as in controls. The short-term increase in ER and mitochondrial protein synthesis observed after ACTH injections was considered to be consistent with the hypothesis that most newly-formed proteins in these cells may be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis. The marked increase in nucleolar labelling suggested the presence of proteins involved in RNA synthesis.

  11. The Functions of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2004-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex contains the secondary taste cortex, in which the reward value of taste is represented. It also contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas, in which information about the identity and also about the reward value of odours is represented. The orbitofrontal cortex also receives information about the sight…

  12. Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women after hormone replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shu-lan; Yu Shan-shan; Cao Zuan-sun

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women; and the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and thyroid and adrenal function. Methods:The levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol were measured in 60 postmenopausal women (30 cases in HRT group; 30 cases in control group) before and 12 months after HRT.Results:The serum levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol had no significant difference before and 12 months after HRT in postmenopausal women. The values of them were all in normal ranges.Conclusion:Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function was not as significant as that of gonads in postmenopausal women and the impact of HRT on it was not so significantly evident.

  13. Functioning of Circuits Connecting Thalamus and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, S Murray

    2017-03-16

    Glutamatergic pathways in thalamus and cortex are divided into two distinct classes: driver, which carries the main information between cells, and modulator, which modifies how driver inputs function. Identifying driver inputs helps to reveal functional computational circuits, and one set of such circuits identified by this approach are cortico-thalamo-cortical (or transthalamic corticocortical) circuits. This, in turn, leads to the conclusion that there are two types of thalamic relay: first order nuclei (such as the lateral geniculate nucleus) that relay driver input from a subcortical source (i.e., retina), and higher order nuclei (such as the pulvinar) which are involved in these transthalamic pathways by relaying driver input from layer 5 of one cortical area to another. This thalamic division is also seen in other sensory pathways and beyond these so that most of thalamus by volume consists of higher-order relays. Many, and perhaps all, direct driver connections between cortical areas are paralleled by an indirect cortico-thalamo-cortical (transthalamic) driver route involving higher order thalamic relays. Such thalamic relays represent a heretofore unappreciated role in cortical functioning, and this assessment challenges and extends conventional views regarding both the role of thalamus and mechanisms of corticocortical communication. Finally, many and perhaps the vast majority of driver inputs relayed through thalamus arrive via branching axons, with extrathalamic targets often being subcortical motor centers. This raises the possibility that inputs relayed by thalamus to cortex also serve as efference copies, and this may represent an important feature of information relayed up the cortical hierarchy via transthalamic circuits. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:713-739, 2017.

  14. Adrenal function evaluation using ACTH stimulation test in children with sepsis and septic shock%促肾上腺皮质激素刺激对脓毒症及脓毒性休克患儿肾上腺功能评估的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育才; 章赛吉; 滕国良; 田国力; 徐梁; 曹瑞芬; 张宇鸣

    2008-01-01

    .73m2) ACTH stimulation at 30 mins in children during the first 24 hours in patients with sepsis or septic shock admitted to our PICU.Adrenal insufficiency was defined as a response≤90 μg/L Absolute adrenal insufficiency (AAI) was further defined as baseline cortisol(TO)0.05).②The proportion of patients with adrenal insufficiency in the study population was 40.3% as defined by a response ≤90μg/L post test. The proportion of patients with adrenal insufficiency in sepsis and septic shock were 39.6% and 44.4%,respectively (x2=0.073,P>0.05).③The serum T0 and T1 levels were(320.5±223.9)μg/L,(462.3±212.0)μg/L and(384.3±258.3)μg/L,(500.7±470.6)μg/L,respectively,and the proportion of patients with adrenal insufficiency were 37.8% and 47.1% in the survivors and the dead(P>0.05).The levels of T0 and T1 were related to the PCIS(P0.05).Conclusions Adrenal insufficiency may occur in patients with sepsis and septic shock in children. ACTH stimulation test may be helpful to determine whether corticostemid therapy has a survival benefit in patients with relative adrenal insufficiency.A low-dose ACTH stimulation test can be used to evaluate the adrenal function status of severe sepsis and septic shock in children.

  15. New insights into the controversy of adrenal function during critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Bornstein, Stefan R; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-10-01

    Critical illness represents a life-threatening disorder necessitating recruitment of defence mechanisms for survival. Herein, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is essential. However, the relevance of a relative insufficiency of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness, which is diagnosed by a suppressed cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) irrespective of the plasma cortisol concentration, is controversial. Findings from several studies have provided insights that clarify at least part of this controversy. Rather than an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ACTH-independent regulators have been reported to contribute to increased cortisol availability during critical illness. One of these regulators is reduced cortisol breakdown, mediated by suppressed expression and activity of cortisol metabolising enzymes in the liver and kidneys. This downstream mechanism increases concentrations of plasma cortisol, but the ensuing feedback-inhibited ACTH release, when sustained for more than 1 week, has been shown to negatively affect adrenocortical integrity and function. Reduced adrenocortical ACTH signalling could explain reduced cortisol responses to exogenous ACTH. Whether such reduced cortisol responses in the presence of raised plasma (free) cortisol identifies adrenal failure needing treatment is unlikely. Additionally, reduced cortisol breakdown affects the optimum dose of hydrocortisone treatment during critical illness. Identification of patients with an insufficient hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and the optimum treatment for this disorder clearly need more well designed preclinical and clinical studies.

  16. Noninvasive screening for pheochromocytoma in patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. Usefulness of provocative test with metoclopramide and {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yuji [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    Pheochromocytoma accounts for approximately 25% of incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Certain diagnostic procedures (e.g., adrenal arteriography, needle biopsy of an adrenal mass), anesthesia and abdominal surgery may cause a sudden release of catecholamines from a pheochromocytoma and induce paroxysmal attacks of hypertension. In addition, pheochromocytoma is well known to cause unsuspected operating room deaths. Therefore, we must carefully separate this functioning neoplasm from other types of adrenal masses. In this study, we compared the results of noninvasive tests including assay of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites, a provocative pharmacologic test using metoclopramide (MCP test), and {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MlBG) scintigraphy to screen for pheochromocytoma in 10 consecutive patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass (6 pheochromocytomas and 4 non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas). We measured the 24-hour urinary excretion of catecholamines, metanephrines and vanillyl mandelic acid in all 10 patients; 5 were positive, 4 were negative and 1 was false-negative (sensitivity=83%, specificity=100%). The MCP test was performed in 7 patients; 3 were positive, 3 were negative and 1 was false-negative (sensitivity=75%, specificity=100%). MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 7 patients; 4 were positive, 1 was negative and 2 were false-negative (sensitivity=67%, specificity=100%). According to these results, all patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass should undergo a determination of the 24-hour urinary excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites, including metanephrines. If this urine assay is negative, other noninvasive tests including the MCP test and MIBG scintigraphy should be considered in selected patients with radiographic characteristics of pheochromocytoma. (author)

  17. Immunohistochemical evidence for the presence of a Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Neuropeptide Y, and Substance P, in rat adrenal cortex after acute heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Kosanović Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP, Neuropeptide Y (NPY, and the absence of Substance P (SP immunoreactivity in the rat adrenal cortex. VIP- and NPY-immunoreactivity were detected in nerve fibers around the small blood vessels projecting into the capsule and cortical zones surrounding blood vessels and cortical cells. After acute heat stress, VIP- and NPY-immunoreactivities in the nerve fibers were reduced, probably as a result of the release of these peptides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173023

  18. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Its Association with Adrenal Insufficiency: Assessment with the Low-Dose ACTH Stimulation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Rendon, Adrian; Barrera-Sánchez, Maximiliano; Carlos-Reyna, Kevin Erick Gabriel; Álvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; González-Saldivar, Gloria; González-González, José Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health care concern that affects the life of millions of people around the world. The association of tuberculosis and adrenal insufficiency is well known; however, it is thought to be less prevalent every time. A spike in TB incidence and a lack of evidence of this association in patients with MDR-TB call for reassessment of an illness (adrenal dysfunction) that if not diagnosed could seriously jeopardize patients' health. Objective. To determine the prevalence of adrenocortical insufficiency in patients with MDR-TB using the low-dose (1 μg) ACTH stimulation test at baseline and at 6–12 months of follow-up after antituberculosis treatment and culture conversion. Methods. A total of 48 men or women, aged ≥18 years (HIV-negative patients diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB) were included in this prospective observational study. Blood samples for serum cortisol were taken at baseline and 30 and 60 minutes after 1 μg ACTH stimulation at our tertiary level university hospital before and after antituberculosis treatment. Results. Forty-seven percent of subjects had primary MDR-TB; 43.8% had type 2 diabetes; none were HIV-positive. We found at enrollment 2 cases (4.2%) of adrenal insufficiency taking 500 nmol/L as the standard cutoff point value and 4 cases (8.3%) alternatively, using 550 nmol/L. After antituberculosis intensive phase drug-treatment and a negative mycobacterial culture (10.2 ± 3.6 months) adrenocortical function was restored in all cases. Conclusions. In patients with MDR-TB, using the low-dose ACTH stimulation test, a low prevalence of mild adrenal insufficiency was observed. After antituberculosis treatment adrenal function was restored in all cases. Given the increasing and worrying epidemic of MDR-TB these findings have important clinical implications that may help clinicians and patients make better decisions when deciding to test for adrenocortical dysfunction or

  19. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Its Association with Adrenal Insufficiency: Assessment with the Low-Dose ACTH Stimulation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health care concern that affects the life of millions of people around the world. The association of tuberculosis and adrenal insufficiency is well known; however, it is thought to be less prevalent every time. A spike in TB incidence and a lack of evidence of this association in patients with MDR-TB call for reassessment of an illness (adrenal dysfunction that if not diagnosed could seriously jeopardize patients’ health. Objective. To determine the prevalence of adrenocortical insufficiency in patients with MDR-TB using the low-dose (1 μg ACTH stimulation test at baseline and at 6–12 months of follow-up after antituberculosis treatment and culture conversion. Methods. A total of 48 men or women, aged ≥18 years (HIV-negative patients diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB were included in this prospective observational study. Blood samples for serum cortisol were taken at baseline and 30 and 60 minutes after 1 μg ACTH stimulation at our tertiary level university hospital before and after antituberculosis treatment. Results. Forty-seven percent of subjects had primary MDR-TB; 43.8% had type 2 diabetes; none were HIV-positive. We found at enrollment 2 cases (4.2% of adrenal insufficiency taking 500 nmol/L as the standard cutoff point value and 4 cases (8.3% alternatively, using 550 nmol/L. After antituberculosis intensive phase drug-treatment and a negative mycobacterial culture (10.2±3.6 months adrenocortical function was restored in all cases. Conclusions. In patients with MDR-TB, using the low-dose ACTH stimulation test, a low prevalence of mild adrenal insufficiency was observed. After antituberculosis treatment adrenal function was restored in all cases. Given the increasing and worrying epidemic of MDR-TB these findings have important clinical implications that may help clinicians and patients make better decisions when deciding to test for adrenocortical

  20. Pre-receptor Regulation of Cortisol in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning an Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H.J. Dekker (Marieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGlucocorticoids (GCs) are ubiquitous, nuclear hormones, which are essential for life. In man, the main GC is cortisol, produced by the adrenals, endocrine glands that are situated on top of the kidneys. Cortisol exerts its functions in nearly all tissues and is crucial in the mediation o

  1. Adrenal Function in Females with Low Plasma HDL-C Due to Mutations in ABCA1 and LCAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, Andrea E.; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Hoekstra, Menno; Dallinga, Geesje M.; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Stroes, Erik S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adrenal steroidogenesis is essential for human survival and depends on the availability of the precursor cholesterol. Male subjects with low plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are characterized by decreased adrenal function. Whether this is also the case in fem

  2. Ação da melatonina sobre a apoptose e fator de crescimento endotelial vascular no córtex da adrenal de ratas pinealectomizadas Melatonin action in apoptosis and vascular endothelial growth factor in adrenal cortex of pinealectomized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Portugal Fuchs

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos da melatonina na apoptose e atividade celular no córtex da adrenal de ratas pinealectomizadas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 40 ratas adultas, divididas randomicamente em 4 grupos com 10 animais cada: GCont - sem intervenção cirúrgica e com ministração do veículo; GSham - sem retirar a pineal com ministração do veículo; GExpV - pinealectomizado e tratado com veículo; GExpM - pinealectomizado e tratado com melatonina (10 µg/animal, por dia durante a noite. Após 60 dias de tratamento, todos os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia, as adrenais retiradas, fixadas em formol a 10% e processadas para inclusão em parafina. Nos cortes histológicos com 5 µm de espessura, foram realizados métodos imunoistoquímicos para detecção da apoptose (Caspase-3-clivada e da atividade celular (fator de crescimento endotelial vascular, VEGF-A. Para avaliar a percentagem de apoptose foram contadas as células reativas em 1.000 células de cada zona da região cortical da adrenal em cada animal; já o VEGF-A foi expresso em escores. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados pela análise de variância (ANOVA e pelo teste de comparações múltiplas de Tukey-Kramer (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the reactivity of VEGF-A and cleaved caspase-3 in the adrenal gland cortex of female pinealectomized rats treated with melatonin. METHODS: forty adult female rats were divided into 4 groups (G of 10 animals: GI - no surgical intervention, with vehicle administration; GII - sham pinealectomized with vehicle administration; GIII - pinealectomized with vehicle administration; GIV - pinealectomized with melatonin administration (10 µg/animal during the night. After 60 days of treatment, all animals were anesthetized, and the adrenal glands were removed and fixed in 10% formaldehyde (phosphate buffered for histological processing and paraffin embedding. Sections (5 µm thick were collected on silanized slides and submitted to imunnohistochemical

  3. Adrenocorticotropin receptors: Functional expression from rat adrenal mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, L.M.; Catt, K.J. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) receptor, which binds corticotropin and stimulates adenylate cyclase and steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells, was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with rat adrenal poly(A){sup +} RNA. Expression of the ACTH receptor in individual stage 5 and 6 oocytes was monitored by radioimmunoassay of ligand-stimulated cAMP production. Injection of 5-40 ng of adrenal mRNA caused dose-dependent increases in ACTH-responsive cAMP production. Size fractionation of rat adrenal poly(A){sup +}RNA by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation revealed that mRNA encoding the ACTH receptor was present in the 1.1-to 2.0-kilobase fraction. These data indicate that ACTH receptors can be expressed from adrenal mRNA in Xenopus oocytes and are fully functional in terms of ligand specificity and signal generation. The extracellular cAMP response to ACTH is a sensitive and convenient index of receptor expression. This system should permit more complete characterization and expression cloning of the ACTH receptor.

  4. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on adrenal gland function and morphology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkapulu, Nezih; Tirnaksiz, Mehmet Bulent; Kulac, Ibrahim; Tezel, Gaye Guler; Hayran, Mutlu; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Cetinkaya, Erdinc; Yorganci, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome (IAH/ACS) are life-threatening conditions and caused by several clinical status. Although there is insufficient data regarding its effects on adrenal glands. This study aimed to identify whether elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) caused any alteration on the morphology and function of adrenal glands in a rat model. Twenty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were included in the study. Animals were allocated into 4 groups. IAP was elevated to 15 mmHg for one hour and four hours in group 2 and 4. Group 1 and 3 were sham groups. Blood samples were taken for the assessment of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and corticosterone levels and adrenalectomies were performed to evaluate apoptosis. Blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the sham groups. However, there were no significant changes in apoptotic index scores in the study groups as compared to sham groups. These results support that increased IAH leads to discharge of catecholamine and corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Failure to demonstrate similar changes in apoptotic index score may be concluded as apoptosis is not a leading pathway for impairment of adrenal glands during IAH period.

  5. Altered functional connectivity of prefrontal cortex in chronic heroin abusers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinbao Qi; Xianming Fu; Ruobing Qian; Chaoshi Niu; Xiangpin Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated alterations in the resting-state functional connectivity of the pre-frontal cortex in chronic heroin abusers using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that, compared with normal controls, in heroin abusers the left prefrontal cortex showed decreased functional connectivity with the left hippocampus, right anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and right precuneus. However, the right prefrontal cortex showed decreased functional connectivity with the left orbital frontal cortex and the left middle frontal gyrus in chronic heroin abusers. These alterations of resting-state functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortices of heroin abusers suggest that their frontal executive neural network may be impaired, and that this may contribute to their continued heroin abuse and relapse after withdrawal.

  6. Função adrenal na sepse e choque séptico Adrenal function in sepsis and septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Freitas Pizarro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rever os critérios diagnósticos e o tratamento de insuficiência adrenal, em pacientes da faixa etária pediátrica, com sepse grave e choque séptico. FONTES DOS DADOS: Os artigos foram selecionados através das bases de dados MEDLINE (1966-junho 2007, Embase (1994-2007 e Cochrane Library (2000-2007. As seguintes palavras-chave foram utilizadas: choque séptico, sepse, corticosteróides, insuficiência adrenal e crianças. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Não existe um critério bem estabelecido e aceito para definir insuficiência adrenal em pacientes criticamente enfermos. A incidência de insuficiência adrenal varia de acordo com o critério utilizado, podendo alcançar desde valores inferiores a 15% até superiores a 61%. O teste rápido de estímulo com hormônio adrenocorticotrófico (ACTH é largamente utilizado como um teste simples para a identificação de não responsividade adrenocortical, mas existe muita discussão quanto à dose de corticotropina a ser utilizada. A dose de 250 µg é a dose padrão. Recentemente, baixas doses de corticotropina (1 µg têm sido propostas, com a sugestão de que elas possam ter uma maior sensibilidade. Dúvidas ainda persistem quanto à eficácia da reposição com baixas doses de corticosteróides em crianças com choque refratário às catecolaminas. Mais estudos são necessários para determinar se o tratamento de tais pacientes alteraria morbidade e/ou mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: Insuficiência adrenal é comum em crianças com sepse grave e choque séptico e pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento de choque refratário às catecolaminas. Contudo, dúvidas ainda persistem em relação à eficácia da terapêutica com baixas doses de corticosteróides.OBJECTIVE:To review diagnostic criteria and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in pediatric patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. SOURCES: Articles were selected using MEDLINE (1966-June 2007, Embase (1994-2007 and Cochrane Library (2000

  7. 结直肠癌化疗对肾上腺皮质功能影响的研究%The Influence of Chemotherapy on Adrenal Cortex of Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓峰; 李曙光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of chemotherapy on adrenal cortex among colorectal cancer patients. Methods 27 patients were involved into the study. Levels of serous cortisol and aldosterone were detected and compared before and after chemotherapy. Results There was significant decrease in serous cortisol and aldosterone after chemotherapy ( P 0. 05 ) . There was no significant decrease in serous cortisol and aldosterone between male group and female group ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Chemotherapy can reduce the level of serous cortisol and aldosterone in colorectal cancer patients, and can inhibit the function of adrenal cortex.%目的 探讨结直肠癌化疗对肾上腺皮质功能的影响.方法 选取结直肠癌患者27例,检测化疗前后血清皮质醇、醛固酮水平,对比检测结果.结果 化疗后血清皮质醇、醛固酮水平较化疗前均显著降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).Folfox4方案化疗组与mFolfox6化疗方案组皮质醇与醛固酮差值比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).男性与女性皮质醇与醛固酮差值比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 化疗使结直肠癌患者血清皮质醇、醛固酮水平下降,能抑制肾上腺皮质功能.

  8. [A test for evaluation of pituitary-adrenal axis disregulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybnikova, E A; Mironova, V I; Pivina, S G

    2010-01-01

    In rat models, a modification of the fast feedback paradigm for the pituitary adrenocortical system applied to detect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was developed. Both standard and modified methods were used. In contrast to the standard method (injection of exogenous cortisol), the new modification suggested measuring blood corticosterone, rather than adrenocorticotropic hormone, at the early stages of development of the stress reaction (3, 10, 30, and 60 min of the exposure to stress factors). With the suggested modification, the fast feedback phenomenon was studied in reliable rat models of PTSD (stress-restress) and depression (learned helplessness). Fast pathological inhibition of the pituitary adrenocortical system by the fast feedback mechanism was revealed only during the simulated PTSD but not in the depressive-like state, which supported the specificity and validity of the developed modification of the test. Thus, the proposed methodological modification is a valid tool for diagnostics of the PTSD-specific fast feedback inhibition of the pituitary adrenocortical system in the animal models of this psychopathology.

  9. NCI-H295R, a human adrenal cortex-derived cell line, expresses purinergic receptors linked to Ca²⁺-mobilization/influx and cortisol secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhisa Nishi

    Full Text Available Purinergic receptor expression and involvement in steroidogenesis were examined in NCI-H295R (H295R, a human adrenal cortex cell line which expresses all the key enzymes necessary for steroidogenesis. mRNA/protein for multiple P1 (A(2A and A(2B, P2X (P2X₅ and P2X₇, and P2Y (P2Y₁, P2Y₂, P2Y₆, P2Y₁₂, P2Y₁₃, and P2Y₁₄ purinergic receptors were detected in H295R. 2MeS-ATP (10-1000 µM, a P2Y₁ agonist, induced glucocorticoid (GC secretion in a dose-dependent manner, while other extracellular purine/pyrimidine agonists (1-1000 µM had no distinct effect on GC secretion. Extracellular purines, even non-steroidogenic ones, induced Ca²⁺-mobilization in the cells, independently of the extracellular Ca²⁺ concentration. Increases in intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration induced by extracellular purine agonists were transient, except when induced by ATP or 2MeS-ATP. Angiotensin II (AngII: 100 nM and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (db-cAMP: 500 µM induced both GC secretion and Ca²⁺-mobilization in the presence of extracellular Ca²⁺ (1.2 mM. GC secretion by AngII was reduced by nifedipine (10-100 µM; whereas the Ca²⁺ channel blocker did not inhibit GC secretion by 2MeS-ATP. Thapsigargin followed by extracellular Ca²⁺ exposure induced Ca²⁺-influx in H295R, and the cells expressed mRNA/protein of the component molecules for store-operated calcium entry (SOCE: transient receptor C (TRPC channels, calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai-1, and the stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1. In P2Y₁-knockdown, 2MeS-ATP-induced GC secretion was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that H295R expresses a functional P2Y₁ purinergic receptor for intracellular Ca²⁺-mobilization, and that P2Y₁ is linked to SOCE-activation, leading to Ca²⁺-influx which might be necessary for glucocorticoid secretion.

  10. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, C.J.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    IntroductionThe main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multipl

  11. Disorders of adrenal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Achermann, John C

    2008-01-01

    Human adrenal development is a complex and relatively poorly understood process. However, significant insight into some of the mechanisms regulating adrenal development and function is being obtained through the analysis of individuals and families with adrenal hypoplasia. Adrenal hypoplasia can occur: (1) secondary to defects in pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) synthesis, processing and release (secondary adrenal hypoplasia; e.g. HESX1, LHX4, SOX3, TPIT, pituitary POMC, PC1); (2) as part of several ACTH resistance syndromes (e.g. MC2R/ACTHR, MRAP, Alacrima, Achalasia, Addison disease), or as (3) a primary defect in the development of the adrenal gland itself (primary adrenal hypoplasia; e.g. DAX1/NR0B1 - dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome 1). Indeed, the X-linked form of primary adrenal hypoplasia due to deletions or mutations in the orphan nuclear receptor DAX1 occurs in around half of male infants presenting with a salt-losing adrenal crisis, where no obvious steroidogenic defect (e.g. 21-hydroxylase deficiency), metabolic abnormality (e.g. neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy) or physical cause (e.g. adrenal haemorrhage) is found. Establishing the underlying basis of adrenal failure can have important implications for investigating associated features, the likely long-term approach to treatment, and for counselling families about the risk of other children being affected.

  12. Effect of placental factors on growth and function of the human fetal adrenal in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riopel, L.; Branchaud, C.L.; Goodyer, C.G.; Zweig, M.; Lipowski, L.; Adkar, V.; Lefebvre, Y. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-11-01

    Conditioned medium from human placental monolayer cultures (PM) had a marked stimulatory effect on proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) of human fetal zone adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture, even in the absence of serum. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) also significantly stimulated fetal adrenal cell growth. However, the effects of PM differed from those of EGF and FGF in several respects: (1) maximal response to PM was 2-5 times greater; (2) mitogenic effects of EGF and FGF were suppressed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas that of 50% PM was not; (3) PM inhibited ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol), but EGF and FGF did not. Preliminary characterization studies have indicated that approximately half of the placental growth-promoting activity is heat resistant and sensitive to bacterial proteases, and that 50-60% of the activity is lost after dialysis with membranes having a molecular weight cutoff of 3500. These findings suggest a role for the placenta in the growth and differentiated function of the human fetal adrenal gland.

  13. Aberrant functional connectivity differentiates retrosplenial cortex from posterior cingulate cortex in prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, Kim N H; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Kukolja, Juraj; von Reutern, Boris; Richter, Nils; Onur, Özgür A; Dronse, Julian; Langen, Karl-Josef; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-08-01

    The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a key hub of the default mode network, a resting-state network involved in episodic memory, showing functional connectivity (FC) changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, PCC is a cytoarchitectonically heterogeneous region. Specifically, the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), often subsumed under the PCC, is an area functionally and microanatomically distinct from PCC. To investigate FC patterns of RSC and PCC separately, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy aging participants, patients with subjective cognitive impairment, and prodromal AD. Compared to the other 2 groups, we found higher FC from RSC to frontal cortex in subjective cognitive impairment but higher FC to occipital cortex in prodromal AD. Conversely, FC from PCC to the lingual gyrus was higher in prodromal AD. Furthermore, data indicate that RSC and PCC are characterized by differential FC patterns represented by hub-specific interactions with memory and attentions scores in prodromal AD compared to cognitively normal individuals, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms for RSC and neurodegenerative processes for PCC. Data thus confirm and extend previous studies suggesting that the RSC is functionally distinct from PCC.

  14. Prefrontal cortex and neural mechanisms of executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Shintaro; Andreau, Jorge Mario

    2013-12-01

    Executive function is a product of the coordinated operation of multiple neural systems and an essential prerequisite for a variety of cognitive functions. The prefrontal cortex is known to be a key structure for the performance of executive functions. To accomplish the coordinated operations of multiple neural systems, the prefrontal cortex must monitor the activities in other cortical and subcortical structures and control and supervise their operations by sending command signals, which is called top-down signaling. Although neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that the prefrontal cortex sends top-down signals to the posterior cortices to control information processing, the neural correlate of these top-down signals is not yet known. Through use of the paired association task, it has been demonstrated that top-down signals are used to retrieve specific information stored in long-term memory. Therefore, we used a paired association task to examine the neural correlates of top-down signals in the prefrontal cortex. The preliminary results indicate that 32% of visual neurons exhibit pair-selectivity, which is similar to the characteristics of pair-coding activities in temporal neurons. The latency of visual responses in prefrontal neurons was longer than bottom-up signals but faster than top-down signals in inferior temporal neurons. These results suggest that pair-selective visual responses may be top-down signals that the prefrontal cortex provides to the temporal cortex, although further studies are needed to elucidate the neural correlates of top-down signals and their characteristics to understand the neural mechanism of executive control by the prefrontal cortex.

  15. The multisensory function of the human primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Micah M; Thelen, Antonia; Thut, Gregor; Romei, Vincenzo; Martuzzi, Roberto; Matusz, Pawel J

    2016-03-01

    It has been nearly 10 years since Ghazanfar and Schroeder (2006) proposed that the neocortex is essentially multisensory in nature. However, it is only recently that sufficient and hard evidence that supports this proposal has accrued. We review evidence that activity within the human primary visual cortex plays an active role in multisensory processes and directly impacts behavioural outcome. This evidence emerges from a full pallet of human brain imaging and brain mapping methods with which multisensory processes are quantitatively assessed by taking advantage of particular strengths of each technique as well as advances in signal analyses. Several general conclusions about multisensory processes in primary visual cortex of humans are supported relatively solidly. First, haemodynamic methods (fMRI/PET) show that there is both convergence and integration occurring within primary visual cortex. Second, primary visual cortex is involved in multisensory processes during early post-stimulus stages (as revealed by EEG/ERP/ERFs as well as TMS). Third, multisensory effects in primary visual cortex directly impact behaviour and perception, as revealed by correlational (EEG/ERPs/ERFs) as well as more causal measures (TMS/tACS). While the provocative claim of Ghazanfar and Schroeder (2006) that the whole of neocortex is multisensory in function has yet to be demonstrated, this can now be considered established in the case of the human primary visual cortex.

  16. Adrenal function in children with bronchial asthma treated with beclomethasone dipropionate or budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Damkjaer Nielsen, M; Andersen, B;

    1988-01-01

    The effect of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate and budesonide on the adrenal function was studied in 30 children (aged 7 to 15 years) with mild bronchial asthma. The trial was designed as a prospective double-blind parallel study of the effect of stepwise increase of either beclomethasone...... difference was found between the two topical steroids (probability value 5.3%), and yet the suppression was apparent in the group of children treated with beclomethasone dipropionate but not in the group of children treated with budesonide. Further studies are desirable in order to ascertain whether...

  17. Steroidogenesis in the testes and the adrenals of adult male rats after. gamma. -irradiation in utero at late pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Inano, Hiroshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    Pregnant rats were irradiated with 2.1Gy {gamma}-ray of {sup 60}Co at day 20 of gestation. Seventy days after birth, the body weight of the fetally irradiated male pups was significantly lower than the control. The testes, ventral prostates and seminal vesicles were atrophied by irradiation, whereas no decreased weight of the adrenals was observed. Histological examination of the testes of the irradiated rats revealed a complete disappearance of germinal cells. Sertoli cells and Leydig cells appeared normal, and no apparent histological difference was observed in the adrenals between the control and the irradiated rats. Examination of steroidgenesis in testes and adrenals led to the conclusion that irreversible damage was induced in spermatogenesis and androgen production by the fetal irradiation, whereas corticoidogenesis was not affected. (author).

  18. Adrenal function in children with bronchial asthma treated with beclomethasone dipropionate or budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Damkjaer Nielsen, M; Andersen, B;

    1988-01-01

    dipropionate or budesonide from 200 micrograms through 400 micrograms, to 800 micrograms daily in three consecutive periods of 4 weeks. At the end of each period, the adrenal stress response was evaluated by measurements of serum cortisol and androstenedione during a short adrenocorticotropic hormone test....... The unstimulated diurnal production of glucocorticosteroids was assessed by measurements of free cortisol in 24-hour urine samples. Free cortisol in urine was found a valid measure of the total diurnal excretion of cortisol metabolites, since it exhibited a good correlation to the fractional cortisol metabolites...

  19. Cross-Modal Functional Reorganization of Visual and Auditory Cortex in Adult Cochlear Implant Users Identified with fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Chia; Sandmann, Pascale; Thorne, Jeremy D; Bleichner, Martin G; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users show higher auditory-evoked activations in visual cortex and higher visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex compared to normal hearing (NH) controls, reflecting functional reorganization of both visual and auditory modalities. Visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex is a maladaptive functional reorganization whereas auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex is beneficial for speech recognition in CI users. We investigated their joint influence on CI users' speech recognition, by testing 20 postlingually deafened CI users and 20 NH controls with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Optodes were placed over occipital and temporal areas to measure visual and auditory responses when presenting visual checkerboard and auditory word stimuli. Higher cross-modal activations were confirmed in both auditory and visual cortex for CI users compared to NH controls, demonstrating that functional reorganization of both auditory and visual cortex can be identified with fNIRS. Additionally, the combined reorganization of auditory and visual cortex was found to be associated with speech recognition performance. Speech performance was good as long as the beneficial auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex was higher than the visual-evoked activation in the auditory cortex. These results indicate the importance of considering cross-modal activations in both visual and auditory cortex for potential clinical outcome estimation.

  20. Cross-Modal Functional Reorganization of Visual and Auditory Cortex in Adult Cochlear Implant Users Identified with fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Chia Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant (CI users show higher auditory-evoked activations in visual cortex and higher visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex compared to normal hearing (NH controls, reflecting functional reorganization of both visual and auditory modalities. Visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex is a maladaptive functional reorganization whereas auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex is beneficial for speech recognition in CI users. We investigated their joint influence on CI users’ speech recognition, by testing 20 postlingually deafened CI users and 20 NH controls with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Optodes were placed over occipital and temporal areas to measure visual and auditory responses when presenting visual checkerboard and auditory word stimuli. Higher cross-modal activations were confirmed in both auditory and visual cortex for CI users compared to NH controls, demonstrating that functional reorganization of both auditory and visual cortex can be identified with fNIRS. Additionally, the combined reorganization of auditory and visual cortex was found to be associated with speech recognition performance. Speech performance was good as long as the beneficial auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex was higher than the visual-evoked activation in the auditory cortex. These results indicate the importance of considering cross-modal activations in both visual and auditory cortex for potential clinical outcome estimation.

  1. A case of adrenal Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wun Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A functional lesion in corticotrophin (ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome is difficult to distinguish from lesions of bilateral adrenal masses. Methods for distinguishing these lesions include adrenal venous sampling and 131I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (131I-NP-59 scintigraphy. We present a case of a 29-year-old Han Chinese female patient with a history of hypercholesterolaemia and polycystic ovary syndrome. She presented with a 6month history of an 8kg body weight gain and gradual rounding of the face. Serial examinations revealed loss of circadian rhythm of cortisol, elevated urinary free-cortisol level and undetectable ACTH level (<5pg/mL. No suppression was observed in both the low- and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests. Adrenal computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenal masses. Adrenal venous sampling was performed, and the right-to-left lateralisation ratio was 14.29. The finding from adrenal scintigraphy with NP-59 was consistent with right adrenal adenoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and the pathology report showed adrenocortical adenoma. Her postoperative cortisol level was 3.2μg/dL, and her Cushingoid appearance improved. In sum, both adrenal venous sampling and 131I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good diagnostic methods for Cushing’s syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses.

  2. Principles and management of adrenal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadpour, N. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Principles and Management of Adrenal Cancer is a comprehensive presentation of the medical and surgical management of neoplastic diseases of the adrenal glands. It consists of two parts. The first provides an overview of the embryology, anatomy, physiology, pathology, and advances in methods of diagnosis and imaging techniques. The second deals with specific diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla. With 121 figs.

  3. Ontogeny of innervation of rat and ovine fetal adrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, W C; Wotus, C; Rose, J C

    1998-01-01

    The formation of adrenocortical zonation occurs in rats during late gestation. Since adult cortical function is modulated by neural mediators, it is possible that the development of differentiated function is dependent on cortical innervation. The goal of this study was to compare the pattern and timing of rodent and ovine adrenal innervation during late organogenesis by staining with antibodies directed against the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH). Rat adrenals were collected from fetal days 17-21 (term=21 days) and ovine adrenals from fetal days 101-136 (term=145 days). Adrenals were fixed, cryosectioned at 100 microns and immunostained using Cy3-conjugated secondary antibodies. In both species, staining of VIP, CGRP, NPY and TOH fibers was observed in the capsule and subcapsular layers of the cortex during gestation. In late gestation, VIP- and NPY-positive ganglions cells were observed near the medulla extending processes toward the outer cortex; in ovine adrenals, fibers from ganglion cells appeared to surround nests of outer cortical (presumably, zona glomerulosa) cells. These data show that phenotypically distinct neural elements appear at different stages of adrenocortical development. The presence of neural elements in contact with adrenal cortical cells supports the possibility for neural control of adrenocortical development.

  4. Acute Exercise Improves Prefrontal Cortex but not Hippocampal Function in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Julia C; Shang, Andrea; Elman, Meredith; Karmouta, Ryan; Suzuki, Wendy A

    2015-11-01

    The effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive functions in humans have been the subject of much investigation; however, these studies are limited by several factors, including a lack of randomized controlled designs, focus on only a single cognitive function, and testing during or shortly after exercise. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study asked how a single bout of aerobic exercise affects a range of frontal- and medial temporal lobe-dependent cognitive functions and how long these effects last. We randomly assigned 85 subjects to either a vigorous intensity acute aerobic exercise group or a video watching control group. All subjects completed a battery of cognitive tasks both before and 30, 60, 90, or 120 min after the intervention. This battery included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Modified Benton Visual Retention Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Digit Span Test, the Trail Making Test, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Based on these measures, composite scores were formed to independently assess prefrontal cortex- and hippocampal-dependent cognition. A three-way mixed Analysis of Variance was used to determine whether differences existed between groups in the change in cognitive function from pre- to post-intervention testing. Acute exercise improved prefrontal cortex- but not hippocampal-dependent functioning, with no differences found between delay groups. Vigorous acute aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on prefrontal cortex-dependent cognition and these effects can last for up to 2 hr after exercise.

  5. THE ASSESSMENT OF THE FUNCTIONAL-CAPACITY OF THE HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS BY MEASUREMENT OF BASAL PLASMA AND URINARY CORTISOL IN COMPARISON WITH INSULIN-INDUCED HYPOGLYCEMIA AND METYRAPONE TESTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELANGE, WE; SLUITER, WJ

    1993-01-01

    In 58 patients with a pituitary adenoma or hypothalamic-pituitary disease an insulin-induced hypoglycaemia test and a metyrapone test were performed. The results of these tests were compared with morning plasma cortisol levels and daily urinary cortisol excretion as indicators of insufficiency of th

  6. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and blood pressure in mature male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjanin, Sonja; Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2004-07-01

    Pregnant guinea pigs were treated with dexamethasone (1 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle on days 40-41, 50-51 and 60-61 of gestation, after which animals delivered normally. Adult male offspring were catheterized at 145 days of age and subjected to tests of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in basal and activated states. Animals exposed to dexamethasone in utero (mat-dex) exhibited increased hippocampus-to-brain weight ratio, increased adrenal-to-body weight ratio and increased mean arterial pressure. There were no effects on gestation length, birth weight and postnatal growth. There were no overall differences in diurnal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol profiles, though there were subtle differences during the subjective afternoon between control and mat-dex offspring. A significant decrease in initial ACTH suppression was observed following dexamethasone injection in mat-dex offspring compared to control offspring. Molecular analysis revealed significantly increased MR mRNA expression in the limbic system and particularly in the dentate gyrus in mat-dex offspring. In the anterior pituitary, both pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels were significantly elevated in mat-dex offspring. In conclusion, (1) repeated prenatal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) permanently programmes organ growth, blood pressure and HPA regulation in mature male offspring and these changes involve modification of corticosteroid receptor expression in the brain and pituitary; (2) the effects of prenatal sGC exposure on HPA function appear to change as a function of age, indicating the importance of investigating HPA and cardiovascular outcome at multiple time points throughout life.

  7. GATA transcription factors in adrenal development and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Helka; Kiiveri, Sanne; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Rahman, Nafis; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wilson, David B; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2007-02-01

    Of the six GATA transcription factors, GATA-4 and GATA-6 are expressed in the mouse and human adrenal with distinct developmental profiles. GATA-4 is confined to the fetal cortex, i.e. to the less differentiated proliferating cells, while GATA-6 is expressed both in the fetal and adult adrenal. In vitro, GATA-4 regulates inhibin-alpha and steroidogenic factor-1 implicated in normal adrenal function. GATA-6 probably has roles in the development and differentiation of adrenocortical cells, and in the regulation of steroidogenesis. GATA-4 expression is dramatically upregulated and GATA-6 downregulated in gonadotropin dependent mouse adrenocortical tumors. This is accompanied by the appearance of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). In vitro, GATA-4 transactivates LHR promoter, and gonadotropins upregulate GATA-4 levels. Human adrenal tumors occasionally express GATA-4, whereas GATA-6 levels are usually lower than normal.

  8. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Platelet Function Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... their patients by ordering one or more platelet function tests. Platelet function testing may include one or more of ...

  9. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  10. Predicting mental disorders from hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning : a 3-year follow-up in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, E.; van Oort, F. V. A.; Bouma, E. M. C.; Laceulle, O. M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Ormel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, with cortisol as its major output hormone, has been presumed to play a key role in the development of psychopathology. Predicting affective disorders from diurnal cortisol levels has been inconclusive, whereas the predictive value of stres

  11. Identification of prefrontal cortex (BA10) activation while performing Stroop test using diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sabin; Chityala, Srujan R.; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2011-03-01

    Stroop test is commonly used as a behavior-testing tool for psychological examinations that are related to attention and cognitive control of the human brain. Studies have shown activations in Broadmann area 10 (BA10) of prefrontal cortex (PFC) during attention and cognitive process. The use of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for human brain mapping is becoming more prevalent. In this study we expect to find neural correlates between the performed cognitive tasks and hemodynamic signals detected by a DOT system. Our initial observation showed activation of oxy-hemoglobin concentration in BA 10, which is consistent with some results seen by positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our study demonstrates the possibility of combining DOT with Stroop test to quantitatively investigate cognitive functions of the human brain at the prefrontal cortex.

  12. [Hyperprogesteronism due to bilateral adrenal carcinomas in a cat with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quante, S; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N; Wilhelm, S; Favrot, C; Dennler, M; Reusch, C

    2009-09-01

    An 8 year old male castrated Russian Blue cat with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, abdominal enlargement, unkempt and easily epilated hair coat and abdominal alopecia is described. As a first step diabetes mellitus was diagnosed. Further work-up by ultrasonography revealed severe bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands. Hypercortisolism was suspected and therefore ACTH stimulation test and dexamethasone suppression test were performed. In all samples cortisol concentrations were below the detection limit of the assay used. Various precursor hormones were measured and high progesterone concentrations were found. Histologically, the adrenal masses were characterised as bilateral adrenal carcinomas of the adrenal cortex. The case report demonstrates that adrenal gland tumors are also capable to secrete sex hormones instead of cortisol. Clinical signs of hyperprogesteronism are identical to those of hypercortisolism.

  13. Functional connectivity of parietal cortex during temporal selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Sarah C; Dasgupta, Samhita; Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D

    2015-04-01

    Perception of natural experiences requires allocation of attention towards features, objects, and events that are moving and changing over time. This allocation of attention is controlled by large-scale brain networks that, when damaged, cause widespread cognitive deficits. In particular, damage to ventral parietal cortex (right lateralized TPJ, STS, supramarginal and angular gyri) is associated with failures to selectively attend to and isolate features embedded within rapidly changing visual sequences (Battelli, Pascual-Leone, & Cavanagh, 2007; Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997). In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity of intact parietal cortex while typical subjects judged the relative onsets and offsets of rapidly flickering tokens (a phase discrimination task in which right parietal patients are impaired). We found two regions in parietal cortex correlated with task performance: a bilateral posterior TPJ (pTPJ) and an anterior right-lateralized TPJ (R aTPJ). Both regions were deactivated when subjects engaged in the task but showed different patterns of functional connectivity. The bilateral pTPJ was strongly connected to nodes within the default mode network (DMN) and the R aTPJ was connected to the attention network. Accurate phase discriminations were associated with increased functional correlations between sensory cortex (hMT+) and the bilateral pTPJ, whereas accuracy on a control task was associated with yoked activity in the hMT+ and the R aTPJ. We conclude that temporal selective attention is particularly sensitive for revealing information pathways between sensory and core cognitive control networks that, when damaged, can lead to nonspatial attention impairments in right parietal stroke patients.

  14. Expression and localization of pChAT as a novel method to study cholinergic innervation of rat adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasharty, Mohamed A; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed

    2014-10-01

    Cholinergic innervation of the rat adrenal gland has been analyzed previously using cholinergic markers including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). In the present study, we demonstrate putative cholinergic neurons in the rat adrenal gland using an antibody to pChAT, which is the product of a splice variant of ChAT mRNA that is preferentially localized in peripheral cholinergic nerves. Most of the ganglionic neurons as well as small single sporadic neurons in the adrenal gland were stained intensely for pChAT. The density of pChAT-immunoreactive (IR) fibers was distinct in the adrenal cortex and medulla. AChE-, cChAT- and VAChT-immunoreactivities were also observed in some cells and fibers of the adrenal medulla, while the cortex had few positive nerve fibers. These results indicate that ganglionic neurons of the adrenal medulla and nerve fibers heterogeneously express cholinergic markers, especially pChAT. Furthermore, the innervation of the adrenal gland, cortex and medulla, by some cholinergic fibers provides additional morphological evidence for a significant role of cholinergic mechanisms in adrenal gland functions.

  15. 丙泊酚Wada试验在脑功能区病变术前评估中的应用%Propofol Wada test in the application of preoperative evaluation in patients with functional cortex lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建东; 谭启富; 姚一; 王逢鹏; 林志红; 张小斌; 黄德志; 刘小伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨丙泊酚Wada试验在脑功能区病变术前评估中的应用价值.方法 25例涉及脑功能区病变的患者在术前评估中采用丙泊酚进行Wada试验.23例癫(痫)患者采用颈内动脉注射,在半球注药麻醉期间对对侧半球进行语言、记忆和运动功能评估,并观察不良反应情况.2例功能区脑动静脉畸形患者采用畸形血管团供血动脉超选择性丙泊酚注射,观察注药后是否出现偏瘫,以决定是否进行供血动脉栓塞.结果 23例癫(痫)患者均完成语言优势半球和运动功能测试,其中17例完成患侧半球记忆功能测试,13例完成记忆优势半球测试.2例脑功能区动静脉畸形患者在介入治疗前共进行7次畸形血管供血动脉超选择性注射,在运动功能评估正常后进行栓塞治疗,术后肢体运动功能正常.在颈内动脉注射中,出现了以眼球刺激症状为主的不良反应,部分病例出现一过性意识错乱和肢体肌张力升高,虽不影响语言和运动功能测试,但对记忆功能测试造成了影响.结论 丙泊酚Wada试验虽然存在一定程度的不良反应,但是在脑功能区病变术前评估中仍有较高的应用价值.%Objective To investigate the application value of propofol Wada test in the application of preoperative evaluation in patients with functional cortex lesions.Methods Twenty-five patients involving the lesions in the eloquent areas underwent preoperative evaluation with propofol wada test.Twenty-three patients with epilepsy were injected via internal carotid artery.The language,memory,and motor function of the 23 patients on the contralateral hemispheres were evaluate during the hemisphere injection of anesthesia using internal carotid artery injection,and their adverse effect reactions were observed.Two patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations in the eloquent areas were super-selectively injected propofol using nidus feeding artery.Whether they had hemiplegia or

  16. 去势雄性大鼠肾上腺皮质束状带和网状带的变化及低雄激素对COX-2信号通路的影响%Changes in zona fasciculata and reticularis of adrenal cortex in castrated male rats and effect of low androgen on signal iathway of COX-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施超; 陆颖理; 李艳香; 翟华玲; 姜博仁; 李影; 夏芳珍; 徐慧; 乔洁; 林东平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in structure and function of zona fasciculata and reticularis of adrenal cortex in castrated male rats, and explore the effect of low androgen on the signal pathway of cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2). Methods Thirty male SD rats aged 10 weeks were randomly divided into control group (n =8), castration group (n = 11) and replacement group ( n = 11). Rats in control group received sham castration, those in castration group underwent castration, and those in replacement group were managed with testosterone undecanoate (SO rag/kg per month) after castration. Ten weeks later, serum samples were collected for determination of serum concentrations of testosterone (T), corticosterone ( F) , adrenocorticotrophic hormone ( ACTH) , luteinizing hormone ( LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by radioimmunoassay, adrenal cortex tissues were obtained for observation of morphological changes in zona fasciculata and reticularis of adrenal cortex with HE staining by light microscopy and ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy, and the expression of COX-2 mRNA in tissues of adrenal cortex and thoracoabdominal aorta was detected by RT-PCR. Results Serum T concentration in castration group was significantly lower than those in control group and replacement group (F<0.01), and serum concentrations of F, ACTH, LH and FSH in castration group were significantly higher than those in control group and replacement group (P<0.05). Cells in zona fasciculate and reticularis of adrenal cortex in castration group were larger, with bigger nuclei, more mitochondrion, better-developed smoothendoplasmic reticula and less lipid droplets. However, the morphology and infrastructure of cells in zona fasciculata and reticularis of adrenal cortex in replacement group were similar to those in control group. The expression of COX-2 mRNA in adrenal cortex tissues in castration group was significantly lower than that in control group and replacement group

  17. TMS investigations into the task-dependent functional interplay between human posterior parietal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Giacomo; Rothwell, John C

    2009-09-14

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used in two different ways to investigate the contribution of cortical areas involved in grasp/reach movements in humans. It can produce "virtual lesions" that interfere with activity in particular cortical areas at specific times during a task, or it can be used in a twin coil design to test the excitability of cortical projections to M1 at different times during a task. The former method has described how cortical structures such as the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) are important for specific aspects of reaching, grasping and lifting objects. In the latter method, a conditioning stimulus (CS) is first used to activate putative pathways to the motor cortex from, for example, posterior parietal cortex (PPC) or PMd, while a second, test stimulus (TS), delivered over the primary motor cortex a few ms later probes any changes in excitability that are produced by the input. Thus changes in the effectiveness of the conditioning pulse give an indication of how the excitability of the connection changes over time and during a specific task. Here we review studies describing the time course of operation of parallel intracortical circuits and cortico-cortical connections between the PMd, PMv, PPC and M1, thus demonstrating that functional interplay between these areas and the primary motor cortices is not fixed, but can change in a highly task-, condition- and time-dependent manner.

  18. A comparison of adrenal gland function in lactating dairy cows with or without ovarian follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, William J; McGinnis, Angela S; Hatler, T Ben

    2005-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if adrenal secretion of steroids differed between cows that formed ovarian follicular cysts and normal cycling cows. In experiment 1, lactating Jersey and Holstein cows were diagnosed as having ovarian follicular cysts (follicle diameter >or=20 mm) by rectal palpation. Following diagnosis, ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasonography three times weekly to detect subsequent ovulation (n=8) or new cyst formation (n=9). Venous blood samples were collected daily to quantify circulating concentrations of cortisol and progesterone. The average concentration of cortisol during the 10-day period prior to ovulation was not different from the concentration prior to the formation of a new cyst. In experiment 2, secretion of cortisol and progesterone was examined in cows with ovarian follicular cysts (n=4) and cyclic, control cows in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (n=4). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was administered to cystic cows 4-7 days after new cyst formation and to cyclic cows in the follicular phase of the cycle (36 h after induction of luteolysis). Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -60, -30, 0, +10, +20, +30, +60, +90, +120, +180, +240, +300 and +360 minutes relative to ACTH administration. A rapid increase in both cortisol and progesterone was observed immediately following administration of ACTH in each treatment group. Peak concentrations of both steroids were achieved within 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Concentrations of cortisol and progesterone did not differ between cystic and cyclic cows. In summary, no differences in adrenal function were detected between normal cycling cows and cows with ovarian follicular cysts.

  19. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  20. Adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ng, Melissa; Kennedy, Laurence

    2012-10-01

    Adrenocortical insufficiency may arise through primary failure of the adrenal glands or due to lack of ACTH stimulation as a result of pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction. Prolonged administration of exogenous steroids will suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and hence cortisol secretion. We review briefly the causes, investigation, and treatment of adrenal insufficiency, and highlight aspects of particular relevance to patients with adrenal tumors.

  1. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation of sheep fetal adrenal cortex can occur without increased expression of ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Petersen, Y M; Towstoless, M;

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, it was hypothesized that the adrenocorticotrophin hormone receptor (ACTH-R) would be up-regulated in the adrenal gland of the sheep fetus following infusion of physiological amounts of ACTH, as shown for adrenal cortical cells in culture. In chronically catheterized sheep, a...

  2. Functional Plasticity in Somatosensory Cortex Supports Motor Learning by Observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Cashaback, Joshua G A; Gribble, Paul L

    2016-04-04

    An influential idea in neuroscience is that the sensory-motor system is activated when observing the actions of others [1, 2]. This idea has recently been extended to motor learning, in which observation results in sensory-motor plasticity and behavioral changes in both motor and somatosensory domains [3-9]. However, it is unclear how the brain maps visual information onto motor circuits for learning. Here we test the idea that the somatosensory system, and specifically primary somatosensory cortex (S1), plays a role in motor learning by observing. In experiment 1, we applied stimulation to the median nerve to occupy the somatosensory system with unrelated inputs while participants observed a tutor learning to reach in a force field. Stimulation disrupted motor learning by observing in a limb-specific manner. Stimulation delivered to the right arm (the same arm used by the tutor) disrupted learning, whereas left arm stimulation did not. This is consistent with the idea that a somatosensory representation of the observed effector must be available during observation for learning to occur. In experiment 2, we assessed S1 cortical processing before and after observation by measuring somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) associated with median nerve stimulation. SEP amplitudes increased only for participants who observed learning. Moreover, SEPs increased more for participants who exhibited greater motor learning following observation. Taken together, these findings support the idea that motor learning by observing relies on functional plasticity in S1. We propose that visual signals about the movements of others are mapped onto motor circuits for learning via the somatosensory system.

  3. Adrenal gland and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  4. Imaging of Adrenal Masses with Emphasis on Adrenocortical Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Sundin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the more widespread and frequent use of cross-sectional techniques, mainly computed tomography (CT, an increasing number of adrenal tumors are detected as incidental findings (“incidentalomas”. These incidentaloma patients are much more frequent than those undergoing imaging because of symptoms related to adrenal disease. CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are in most patients sufficient for characterization and follow-up of the incidentaloma. In a minor portion of patients, biochemical screening reveals a functional tumor and further diagnostic work-up and therapy need to be performed according to the type of hormonal overproduction. In oncological patients, especially when the morphological imaging criteria indicate an adrenal metastasis, biopsy of the lesion should be considered after pheochromocytoma is ruled out biochemically. In the minority of patients in whom CT and MRI fail to characterize the tumor and when time is of essence, functional imaging mainly by positron emission tomography (PET is available using various tracers. The most used PET tracer, [18F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18FDG, is able to differentiate benign from malignant adrenal tumors in many patients. 11C-metomidate (11C-MTO is a more specialized PET tracer that binds to the 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme in the adrenal cortex and thus makes it possible to differ adrenal tumors (benign adrenocortical adenoma and adrenocortical cancer from those of non-adrenocortical origin.

  5. Evidence of adrenal failure in aging Dax1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheys, Joshua O; Heaton, Joanne H; Hammer, Gary D

    2011-09-01

    Dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (Dax1) is an orphan nuclear receptor essential for development and function of the mammalian adrenal cortex and gonads. DAX1 was cloned as the gene responsible for X-linked AHC, which is characterized by adrenocortical failure necessitating glucocorticoid replacement. Contrary to these human data, young mice with genetic Dax1 knockout (Dax1(-/Y)) exhibit adrenocortical hyperfunction, consistent with the historic description of Dax1 as a transcriptional repressor that inhibits steroidogenic factor 1-dependent steroidogenesis. This paradox of molecular function and two apparently opposite phenotypes associated with Dax1 deficiency in mice and humans is compounded by the recent observations that under certain circumstances, Dax1 can serve as a transcriptional activator of steroidogenic factor 1. The recently revealed role of Dax1 in embryonic stem cell pluripotency, together with the observation that its expression in the adult adrenal is restricted to the subcapsular cortex, where presumptive undifferentiated progenitor cells reside, has led us to reexamine the phenotype of Dax1(-/Y) mice in order to reconcile the conflicting mouse and human data. In this report, we demonstrate that although young Dax1(-/Y) mice have enhanced steroidogenesis and subcapsular adrenocortical proliferation, as these mice age, they exhibit declining adrenal growth, decreasing adrenal steroidogenic capacity, and a reversal of their initial enhanced hormonal sensitivity. Together with a marked adrenal dysplasia in aging mice, these data reveal that both Dax1(-/Y) mice and patients with X-linked AHC exhibit adrenal failure that is consistent with adrenocortical subcapsular progenitor cell depletion and argue for a significant role of Dax1 in maintenance of these cells.

  6. Translational relevance of rodent models of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and stressors in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl M. McCormick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Elevations in glucocorticoids that result from environmental stressors can have programming effects on brain structure and function when the exposure occurs during sensitive periods that involve heightened neural development. In recent years, adolescence has gained increasing attention as another sensitive period of development, a period in which pubertal transitions may increase the vulnerability to stressors. There are similarities in physical and behavioural development between humans and rats, and rats have been used effectively as an animal model of adolescence and the unique plasticity of this period of ontogeny. This review focuses on benefits and challenges of rats as a model for translational research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA function and stressors in adolescence, highlighting important parallels and contrasts between adolescent rats and humans, and we review the main stress procedures that are used in investigating HPA stress responses and their consequences in adolescence in rats. We conclude that a greater focus on timing of puberty as a factor in research in adolescent rats may increase the translational relevance of the findings.

  7. Functional changes in the human auditory cortex in ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Profant

    Full Text Available Hearing loss, presbycusis, is one of the most common sensory declines in the ageing population. Presbycusis is characterised by a deterioration in the processing of temporal sound features as well as a decline in speech perception, thus indicating a possible central component. With the aim to explore the central component of presbycusis, we studied the function of the auditory cortex by functional MRI in two groups of elderly subjects (>65 years and compared the results with young subjects (cortex. The fMRI showed only minimal activation in response to the 8 kHz stimulation, despite the fact that all subjects heard the stimulus. Both elderly groups showed greater activation in response to acoustical stimuli in the temporal lobes in comparison with young subjects. In addition, activation in the right temporal lobe was more expressed than in the left temporal lobe in both elderly groups, whereas in the young control subjects (YC leftward lateralization was present. No statistically significant differences in activation of the auditory cortex were found between the MP and EP groups. The greater extent of cortical activation in elderly subjects in comparison with young subjects, with an asymmetry towards the right side, may serve as a compensatory mechanism for the impaired processing of auditory information appearing as a consequence of ageing.

  8. Functional Connectivity Between Superior Parietal Lobule and Primary Visual Cortex "at Rest" Predicts Visual Search Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueichekú, Elisenda; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Miró-Padilla, Anna; Parcet, María-Antonia; Ávila, César

    2015-10-01

    Spatiotemporal activity that emerges spontaneously "at rest" has been proposed to reflect individual a priori biases in cognitive processing. This research focused on testing neurocognitive models of visual attention by studying the functional connectivity (FC) of the superior parietal lobule (SPL), given its central role in establishing priority maps during visual search tasks. Twenty-three human participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session that featured a resting-state scan, followed by a visual search task based on the alphanumeric category effect. As expected, the behavioral results showed longer reaction times and more errors for the within-category (i.e., searching a target letter among letters) than the between-category search (i.e., searching a target letter among numbers). The within-category condition was related to greater activation of the superior and inferior parietal lobules, occipital cortex, inferior frontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the superior colliculus than the between-category search. The resting-state FC analysis of the SPL revealed a broad network that included connections with the inferotemporal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal frontal areas like the supplementary motor area and frontal eye field. Noteworthy, the regression analysis revealed that the more efficient participants in the visual search showed stronger FC between the SPL and areas of primary visual cortex (V1) related to the search task. We shed some light on how the SPL establishes a priority map of the environment during visual attention tasks and how FC is a valuable tool for assessing individual differences while performing cognitive tasks.

  9. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of visual cortex activation in patients with anterior visual pathway lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufeng Song; Guohua Wang; Tong Zhang; Lei Feng; Peng An; Yueli Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the secondary visual cortex functional disorder in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to determine the correlation between visual field defect and primary visual cortex activation. Results showed that single eye stimulation resulted in bilateral visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma or large pituitary adenoma. Compared with the normal control group, the extent and intensity of visual cortex activation was decreased after left and right eye stimulation, and functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a correlation between visual field defects and visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma. These functional magnetic resonance imaging data suggest that anterior optic pathway lesions can cause secondary functional disorder of the visual cortex, and that visual defects are correlated with visual cortex activation.

  10. Impaired executive function following ischemic stroke in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Chris A; Jackson, Danielle; Langdon, Kristopher D; Hewlett, Krista A; Corbett, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Small (lacunar) infarcts frequently arise in frontal and midline thalamic regions in the absence of major stroke. Damage to these areas often leads to impairment of executive function likely as a result of interrupting connections of the prefrontal cortex. Thus, patients experience frontal-like symptoms such as impaired ability to shift ongoing behavior and attention. In contrast, executive dysfunction has not been demonstrated in rodent models of stroke, thereby limiting the development of potential therapies for human executive dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) underwent either sham surgery or bilateral endothelin-1 injections in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus or in the medial prefrontal cortex. Executive function was assessed using a rodent attention set shifting test that requires animals to shift attention to stimuli in different stimulus dimensions. Medial prefrontal cortex ischemia impaired attention shift performance between different stimulus dimensions while sparing stimulus discrimination and attention shifts within a stimulus dimension, indicating a selective attention set-shift deficit. Rats with mediodorsal thalamic lacunar damage did not exhibit a cognitive impairment relative to sham controls. The selective attention set shift impairment observed in this study is consistent with clinical data demonstrating selective executive disorders following stroke within specific sub-regions of frontal cortex. These data contribute to the development and validation of a preclinical animal model of executive dysfunction, that can be employed to identify potential therapies for ameliorating cognitive deficits following stroke.

  11. Comparison of the effect of high-dose inhaled budesonide and fluticasone on adrenal function in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Ahmed Fahim

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Inhaled budesonide and fluticasone have no significantly different effect on adrenal function in moderate to severe COPD. The adverse event profile of high-dose inhaled steroids should not influence the choice of medication.

  12. Adrenal function of neonates with respiratory failure%呼吸衰竭新生儿肾上腺皮质功能状态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈云琳; 黄绮薇; 张宇鸣; 张育才; 田国力

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究呼吸衰竭新生儿(新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征、肺炎和重症湿肺)肾上腺皮质功能变化、肾上腺皮质功能不全(AI)的发生率及其与病情的关系.方法 研究对象为人住我院的呼吸衰竭新生儿55例(其中早产儿33例,足月儿22例),分别检测清晨血清基础皮质醇和促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)浓度,及小剂量ACTH刺激试验30 min后血清皮质醇峰值.血清皮质醇峰值浓度<200 μg/L为合并AI.结果 呼吸衰竭早产儿基础皮质醇浓度较足月儿高[(139.2±85.4)μg/L vs(92.1±75.0)μg/L,P=0.040 7],而小剂量ACTH刺激试验前后皮质醇差值及ACTH浓度则较足月儿低[(122.3±56.4)μg/L vs(198.2±77.9)μg/L,P=0.000 1;(5.22±2.40)ng/L vs(8.66±5.41)ng/L.P=0.008 4].呼吸衰竭新生儿合并AJ的发生率为20.0%(11/55),其中早产儿组为21.2%(7/33),足月儿组为18.2%(4/22).需机械通气呼吸衰竭新生儿AI的发生率(29.4%)高于非机械通气新生儿(4.8%).AI新生儿中无死亡病例.结论 呼吸衰竭早产儿肾上腺皮质和垂体功能较足月儿差.呼吸衰竭新生儿合并AJ的发生率较高.需机械通气的呼吸衰竭新生儿AJ的发生率高于机械通气者.未发现AJ与病死率相关.小剂量ACTH刺激试验可较好地评估新生儿肾上腺皮质功能.%Objective To observe the adrenal function in neonates with respiratory failure(neonatal respiratory distress syndrome,pneumonia and severe wet lung),the incidence of adrenal insufficiency,and the relationships between adrenal function and lung diseases.Methods Fifty-five cases of neonates(the preterm group of 33 cases,the term group of 22 cases)were enrolled the study.Serum cortisol values and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)concentration were detected in the morning.Peak serum cortisol values were detected after 30 minutes low-dose(1 μg/1.73 m2)ACTH stimulation test.Adrenal insufficiency was defined as the peak serum cortisol values < 200 μg/L.Results The mean

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jai Y; Ahn, Ryun S

    2012-09-01

    An exaggerated inflammatory process is considered an important pathophysiological feature of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis serves as a negative feedback mechanism for inflammatory processes. The present study examined the HPA axis function in patients with CRPS-1 by a determination of cortisol concentrations in saliva. Three sets of saliva samples were sequentially collected from 24 patients with CRPS-1 during medication (on-Med), 72 h after stopping medication (off-Med) and 8h after the oral administration of 1mg dexamethasone. One set of saliva samples was collected from healthy controls. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol decline (DCD) were used as indices for HPA axis function. Cortisol levels during the post-awakening period in patients were increased following withdrawal of medications. The CAR during the off-Med condition was disappeared after administration of dexamethasone. Among the examined CRPS-related numerical variables, the frequency of spontaneous pain attacks showed relationships with the indices of HPA axis function. After classifying the patients into two subgroups, we observed that the CAR and DCD in patient who had a relatively high frequency of spontaneous pain attacks (subgroup 5 ≤) were lower and less steep than those in patient who had a relatively low frequency of spontaneous pain attacks (subgroup 0-4) for the on- and off-Med conditions. The CAR and DCD in subgroup 5 ≤ during their off-Med condition were comparable to those in controls. These results suggest that the increase in frequency of spontaneous pain attacks is associated with a reduced CAR and flattened DCD in patients CRPS-1.

  14. Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma

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    Aftab S. Shaikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas are extremely rare tumors presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Patients succumb to metastases within a couple of months. As a result, very few cases are reported in the literature until now. We present a case of a 62-year old female with non-functional sarcomatoid carcinoma of the right adrenal gland. There was no radiological evidence of locoregional metastases. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Follow up after 3 months showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy and similar left adrenal mass on computed tomography. Patient refused further treatment and succumbed to the disease. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  15. Functional Connectivity Patterns of Visual Cortex Reflect its Anatomical Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Erhan; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Bergmann, Johanna; Singer, Wolf; Kohler, Axel

    2016-09-01

    The brain is continuously active, even without external input or task demands. This so-called resting-state activity exhibits a highly specific spatio-temporal organization. However, how exactly these activity patterns map onto the anatomical and functional architecture of the brain is still unclear. We addressed this question in the human visual cortex. We determined the representation of the visual field in visual cortical areas of 44 subjects using fMRI and examined resting-state correlations between these areas along the visual hierarchy, their dorsal and ventral segments, and between subregions representing foveal versus peripheral parts of the visual field. We found that retinotopically corresponding regions, particularly those representing peripheral visual fields, exhibit strong correlations. V1 displayed strong internal correlations between its dorsal and ventral segments and the highest correlation with LGN compared with other visual areas. In contrast, V2 and V3 showed weaker correlations with LGN and stronger between-area correlations, as well as with V4 and hMT+. Interhemispheric correlations between homologous areas were especially strong. These correlation patterns were robust over time and only marginally altered under task conditions. These results indicate that resting-state fMRI activity closely reflects the anatomical organization of the visual cortex both with respect to retinotopy and hierarchy.

  16. Adrenal incidentaloma in thalassemia: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Rita; Prandini, Napoleone; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Farneti, Carlotta; Garani, Maria Chiara

    2011-03-01

    In the last 30 years the development and widespread use of modern imaging techniques has caused a 20-time increase in the diagnosis of adrenal incidentaloma (AI). Among AIs myelolipoma (ML) is reported with a frequency up to 10%. In the literature 8 patients with adrenal masses in thalassaemia or chronic haemolytic anaemia have been reported: five cases were shown to have extramedullary haematopoiesis (EH) and 3 ML. We describe here a case of an adult male affected by beta thalassaemia intermedia and large bilateral lipomatous adrenal masses. The patient was referred to our ward at the age of 55 and underwent hormonal testing, MRI, and SPECT/CT scans. Adrenal masses were hormonally inactive, and fat-containing on MRI and CT scans. SPECT/CT examination with 99mTccolloid demonstrated the presence of marrow tissue. ML and EH are the only two tumours with marrow tissue among lipomatous adrenal masses. In our patient a brown nodular mass was resected and histologically classified as ML. In benign adrenal masses, radiological follow-up is indicated; in case of large bilateral masses adrenal function tests are suggested periodically in order to detect possible adrenal hypofunction.

  17. Role of voltage-gated calcium channels in the regulation of aldosterone production from zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paula Q; Guagliardo, Nick A; Klein, Peter M; Hu, Changlong; Breault, David T; Beenhakker, Mark P

    2016-10-15

    Zona glomerulosa cells (ZG) of the adrenal gland constantly integrate fluctuating ionic, hormonal and paracrine signals to control the synthesis and secretion of aldosterone. These signals modulate Ca(2+) levels, which provide the critical second messenger to drive steroid hormone production. Angiotensin II is a hormone known to modulate the activity of voltage-dependent L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels that are expressed on the plasma membrane of ZG cells in many species. Because the ZG cell maintains a resting membrane voltage of approximately -85 mV and has been considered electrically silent, low voltage-activated T-type Ca(2+) channels are assumed to provide the primary Ca(2+) signal that drives aldosterone production. However, this view has recently been challenged by human genetic studies identifying somatic gain-of-function mutations in L-type CaV 1.3 channels in aldosterone-producing adenomas of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. We provide a review of these assumptions and challenges, and update our understanding of the state of the ZG cell in a layer in which native cellular associations are preserved. This updated view of Ca(2+) signalling in ZG cells provides a unifying mechanism that explains how transiently activating CaV 3.2 channels can generate a significant and recurring Ca(2+) signal, and how CaV 1.3 channels may contribute to the Ca(2+) signal that drives aldosterone production.

  18. Resting State Functional Connectivity within the Cingulate Cortex Jointly Predicts Agreeableness and Stressor-Evoked Cardiovascular Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, John P.; Sheu, Lei K.; Peter J Gianaros

    2010-01-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stress confers risk for cardiovascular disease. Further, individual differences in stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity covary with the functionality of cortical and limbic brain areas, particularly within the cingulate cortex. What remains unclear, however, is how individual differences in personality traits interact with cingulate functionality in the prediction of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity. Accordingly, we tested the association...

  19. Dual functions of perirhinal cortex in fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brianne A; Brown, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The present review examines the role of perirhinal cortex (PRC) in Pavlovian fear conditioning. The focus is on rats, partly because so much is known, behaviorally and neurobiologically, about fear conditioning in these animals. In addition, the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of rat PRC have been described in considerable detail at the cellular and systems levels. The evidence suggests that PRC can serve at least two types of mnemonic functions in Pavlovian fear conditioning. The first function, termed "stimulus unitization," refers to the ability to treat two or more separate items or stimulus elements as a single entity. Supporting evidence for this perceptual function comes from studies of context conditioning as well as delay conditioning to discontinuous auditory cues. In a delay paradigm, the conditional stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) overlap temporally and co-terminate. The second PRC function entails a type of "transient memory." Supporting evidence comes from studies of trace cue conditioning, where there is a temporal gap or trace interval between the CS offset and the US onset. For learning to occur, there must be a transient CS representation during the trace interval. We advance a novel neurophysiological mechanism for this transient representation. These two hypothesized functions of PRC are consistent with inferences based on non-aversive forms of learning.

  20. The value of identity: olfactory notes on orbitofrontal cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jay A; Zelano, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Neuroscientific research has emphatically promoted the idea that the key function of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is to encode value. Associative learning studies indicate that OFC representations of stimulus cues reflect the predictive value of expected outcomes. Neuroeconomic studies suggest that the OFC distills abstract representations of value from discrete commodities to optimize choice. Although value-based models provide good explanatory power for many different findings, these models are typically disconnected from the very stimuli and commodities giving rise to those value representations. Little provision is made, either theoretically or empirically, for the necessary cooperative role of object identity, without which value becomes orphaned from its source. As a step toward remediating the value of identity, this review provides a focused olfactory survey of OFC research, including new work from our lab, to highlight the elemental involvement of this region in stimulus-specific predictive coding of both perceptual outcomes and expected values.

  1. Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Wai Yiu Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

  2. PET neuroimaging of extrastriatal dopamine receptors and prefrontal cortex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-12-01

    The role of prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions, including working memory, is widely investigated. However, human (healthy volunteers and schizophrenia patients) positron emission tomography (PET) studies about the relationship between prefrontal D1 receptors and PFC functions are somewhat inconsistent. We argued that several factors including an inverted U-shaped relationship between prefrontal D1 receptors and PFC functions might be responsible for these inconsistencies. In contrast to D1 receptors, relatively less attention has been paid to the role of D2 receptors in PFC functions. Several animal and human pharmacological studies have reported that the systemic administration of D2 receptor agonist/antagonist modulates PFC functions, although those studies do not tell us which region(s) is responsible for the effect. Furthermore, while prefrontal D1 receptors are primarily involved in working memory, other PFC functions such as set-shifting seem to be differentially modulated by dopamine. PET studies of extrastriatal D2 receptors including ours suggested that orchestration of prefrontal dopamine transmission and hippocampal dopamine transmission might be necessary for a broad range of normal PFC functions. In order to understand the complex effects of dopamine signaling on PFC functions, measuring a single index related to basic dopamine tone is not sufficient. For a better understanding of the meanings of PET indices related to neurotransmitters, comprehensive information (presynaptic, postsynaptic, and beyond receptor signaling) will be required. Still, an interdisciplinary approach combining molecular imaging techniques with cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychiatry will provide new perspectives for understanding the neurobiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and their innovative drug developments.

  3. Physical, social and societal functioning of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH and their parents, in a Dutch population

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    Sanches Sarita A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research concerning congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH and related conditions caused by primary adrenal insufficiency, such as Addison's or Cushing's disease, has focused on medical aspects rather than on patients' quality of life. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the physical, social and societal functioning of children with CAH and their parents in a Dutch population. Methods The study is descriptive and cross-sectional. Self-designed questionnaires, based on questionnaires developed in the Netherlands for different patient groups, were sent to parents of children with CAH between 0 and 18 years old. Participants were recruited through the Dutch patient group for Adrenal Disease (NVACP and six hospitals in the Netherlands. Three different questionnaires were designed for parents: for children aged 0 - 4, aged 4 - 12 and aged 12 - 18. Additionally, a fourth questionnaire was sent to adolescents with CAH aged 12 - 18. Main outcome measures were experienced burden of the condition, self-management and participation in several areas, such as school and leisure time. Results A total of 106 parents returned the questionnaire, 12 regarding pre-school children (0-4 years, 63 regarding primary school children (4-12 years, and 32 regarding secondary school children (12-18 years, combined response rate 69.7%. Also, 24 adolescents returned the questionnaire. Children and adolescents with CAH appear to be capable of self-management at a young age. Experienced burden of the condition is low, although children experience several health related problems on a daily basis. Children participate well in school and leisure time. Few children carry a crisis card or emergency injection with them. Conclusions Overall, our research shows that, according to their parents, children with CAH experience few negative effects of the condition and that they participate well in several areas such as school and leisure time. However

  4. Radiological findings of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Shin, Joo Yong; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Jin Hee; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Keimyung Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the marked accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the adrenal cortex, and the failure of adrenal steroids to synthesise. We report the ultrasound (US), computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a four-day-old female neonate with CLAH.

  5. Pulmonary Function Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ranu, H; Wilde, M.; Madden, B

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications.

  6. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  7. Influence of fetal growth velocity and smallness at birth on adrenal function in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jensen, Rikke; vielwerth, Signe; Larsen, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is susceptible to programming during fetal development and may be linked to risk of disease later in life. In a former prospective study the cohort was divided into those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA; birth...

  8. Development of Adrenal Burnout Syndrom Questionnaire and testing the basis of reciprocal burnout model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Pšeničny

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the new Adrenal Burnout Syndrome Questionnaire (ABS Questionnaire. The questionnaire is based on the Reciprocal Burnout Model, combining the existing academic findings with the research efforts of the Inštitut za razvoj človeških virov (Institute for Human Resources Development, Ljubljana. The questionnaire distinguishes among separate stages of burnout and correlates them with their characteristic symptoms. The survey has been conducted on 225 participants, employing the ABS Questionnary and the Questionnaire on the Basic Needs Fulfilment. The objectives of the survey were: (i to investigate the burnout level in different demographic groups; (ii to examine the presence of the symptoms of both increased and decreased cortisol levels in different burnout classes; (iii to explore whether personal values, personality traits and the self-concept change in the period of the adrenal burnout following the break of the HPA axis, and (iv to examine whether the burnout is related to the fulfilment of basic needs. The results indicated that the burnout syndrome may affect all demographic groups (including the unemployed equally. In the last stage (the adrenal burnout after the break of the HPA axis the change in values and personality may occur. Various facets of self-concept change during the burnout. Strong inverted correlation between the level of burnout and the rating of the level of the needs satisfaction is in accordance with the key assumption of the Reciprocal Model of Burnout.

  9. Plasticity-Related Gene 1 Affects Mouse Barrel Cortex Function via Strengthening of Glutamatergic Thalamocortical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unichenko, Petr; Kirischuk, Sergei; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Baumgart, Jan; Roskoden, Thomas; Schneider, Patrick; Sommer, Angela; Horta, Guilherme; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Nitsch, Robert; Vogt, Johannes; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-07-01

    Plasticity-related gene-1 (PRG-1) is a brain-specific protein that modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Here we investigated the functional role of PRG-1 in adolescent and adult mouse barrel cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with wild-type (WT) animals, PRG-1-deficient (KO) mice showed specific behavioral deficits in tests assessing sensorimotor integration and whisker-based sensory discrimination as shown in the beam balance/walking test and sandpaper tactile discrimination test, respectively. At P25-31, spontaneous network activity in the barrel cortex in vivo was higher in KO mice compared with WT littermates, but not at P16-19. At P16-19, sensory evoked cortical responses in vivo elicited by single whisker stimulation were comparable in KO and WT mice. In contrast, at P25-31 evoked responses were smaller in amplitude and longer in duration in WT animals, whereas KO mice revealed no such developmental changes. In thalamocortical slices from KO mice, spontaneous activity was increased already at P16-19, and glutamatergic thalamocortical inputs to Layer 4 spiny stellate neurons were potentiated. We conclude that genetic ablation of PRG-1 modulates already at P16-19 spontaneous and evoked excitability of the barrel cortex, including enhancement of thalamocortical glutamatergic inputs to Layer 4, which distorts sensory processing in adulthood.

  10. Amygdala perfusion is predicted by its functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and negative affect.

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    Garth Coombs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect. It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1 amygdala over-activity and 2 reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. METHODS: Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal of one subregion of the amygdala with strong connections with the prefrontal cortex, the basolateral nucleus (BLA, and subsyndromal anxiety levels in 38 healthy subjects. RESULTS: BLA rCBF was strongly correlated with anxiety levels. Moreover, both BLA rCBF and anxiety were inversely correlated with the strength of the functional coupling of the BLA with the caudal ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Lastly, BLA perfusion was found to be a mediator of the relationship between BLA-prefrontal connectivity and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that both perfusion of the BLA and a measure of its functional coupling with the prefrontal cortex directly index anxiety levels in healthy subjects, and that low BLA-prefrontal connectivity may lead to increased BLA activity and resulting anxiety. Thus, these data provide key evidence for an often-cited circuitry model of negative affect, using a novel, multi-modal imaging approach.

  11. Sperm function test

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    Pankaj Talwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.

  12. Posterior cingulated cortex functional connectivity in deficit schizophrenia: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the discrepancies of the network of resting brain functional connectivity related to posterior cingulated cortex(PCC)between deficit schizophrenia patients and normal control.Methods Thirty male patients of deficit schizophrenia,nondeficit schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls were enrolled,and the age,education level and sex were matched between three

  13. Merging functional and structural properties of the monkey auditory cortex

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    Olivier eJoly

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in primates aim to define the functional properties of auditory cortical areas, especially areas beyond A1, in order to further our understanding of the auditory cortical organization. Precise mapping of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI results and interpretation of their localizations among all the small auditory subfields remains challenging. To facilitate this mapping, we combined here information from cortical folding, micro-anatomy, surface-based atlas and tonotopic mapping. We used for the first time, phase-encoded fMRI design for mapping the monkey tonotopic organization. From posterior to anterior, we found a high-low-high progression of frequency preference on the superior temporal plane. We show a faithful representation of the fMRI results on a locally flattened surface of the superior temporal plane. In a tentative scheme to delineate core versus belt regions which share similar tonotopic organizations we used the ratio of T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR images as a measure of cortical myelination. Our results, presented along a co-registered surface-based atlas, can be interpreted in terms of a current model of the monkey auditory cortex.

  14. Functional implications of orientation maps in primary visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Erin; Jin, Jianzhong; Alonso, Jose M.; Zaidi, Qasim

    2016-11-01

    Stimulus orientation in the primary visual cortex of primates and carnivores is mapped as iso-orientation domains radiating from pinwheel centres, where orientation preferences of neighbouring cells change circularly. Whether this orientation map has a function is currently debated, because many mammals, such as rodents, do not have such maps. Here we show that two fundamental properties of visual cortical responses, contrast saturation and cross-orientation suppression, are stronger within cat iso-orientation domains than at pinwheel centres. These differences develop when excitation (not normalization) from neighbouring oriented neurons is applied to different cortical orientation domains and then balanced by inhibition from un-oriented neurons. The functions of the pinwheel mosaic emerge from these local intra-cortical computations: Narrower tuning, greater cross-orientation suppression and higher contrast gain of iso-orientation cells facilitate extraction of object contours from images, whereas broader tuning, greater linearity and less suppression of pinwheel cells generate selectivity for surface patterns and textures.

  15. Functional integration of human neural precursor cells in mouse cortex.

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    Fu-Wen Zhou

    Full Text Available This study investigates the electrophysiological properties and functional integration of different phenotypes of transplanted human neural precursor cells (hNPCs in immunodeficient NSG mice. Postnatal day 2 mice received unilateral injections of 100,000 GFP+ hNPCs into the right parietal cortex. Eight weeks after transplantation, 1.21% of transplanted hNPCs survived. In these hNPCs, parvalbumin (PV-, calretinin (CR-, somatostatin (SS-positive inhibitory interneurons and excitatory pyramidal neurons were confirmed electrophysiologically and histologically. All GFP+ hNPCs were immunoreactive with anti-human specific nuclear protein. The proportions of PV-, CR-, and SS-positive cells among GFP+ cells were 35.5%, 15.7%, and 17.1%, respectively; around 15% of GFP+ cells were identified as pyramidal neurons. Those electrophysiologically and histological identified GFP+ hNPCs were shown to fire action potentials with the appropriate firing patterns for different classes of neurons and to display spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs. The amplitude, frequency and kinetic properties of sEPSCs and sIPSCs in different types of hNPCs were comparable to host cells of the same type. In conclusion, GFP+ hNPCs produce neurons that are competent to integrate functionally into host neocortical neuronal networks. This provides promising data on the potential for hNPCs to serve as therapeutic agents in neurological diseases with abnormal neuronal circuitry such as epilepsy.

  16. Cyclooxygenase I and II inhibitors distinctly enhance hippocampal- and cortex-dependent cognitive functions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Huma; Ikram, Muhammad Faisal; Yaqinuddin, Ahmed; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2015-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes are expressed in the brain; however, their role in hippocampus-dependent and cortex-dependent cognitive functions remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of piroxicam, a selective COX-I inhibitor, and celecoxib, a selective COX‑II inhibitor, on cognitive functions in an AlCl3‑induced neurotoxicity mouse model to understand the specific role of each COX enzyme in the hippocampus and cortex. The AlCl3 (250 mg/kg) was administered to the mice in drinking water and the drugs were administered in feed for 30 days. Assessments of memory, including a Morris water maze, social behavior and nesting behavior were performed in control and treated mice. The RNA expression of the COX enzymes were analyzed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. An ex‑vivo 2,2‑Diphenyl‑1‑picrylhydrazyl assay was performed in the hippocampus and cortex. Following 30 days of treatment with thedrugs, the mice in the celecoxib‑ and piroxicam‑treated groups exhibited enhanced learning (6.84 ± 0.76 and 9.20 ± 1.08, respectively), compared with the AlCl3‑induced neurotoxicity group (21.14 ± 0.76) on the fifth day of the Morris water maze test. Celecoxib treatment improved social affiliation in the AlCl3‑induced neurotoxicity group, the results of which were superior to piroxicam. Piroxicam led to better improvement in nesting score in the AlCl3‑induced neurotoxicity group. Both drugs decreased the expression levels of COX‑I and COX‑II in the hippocampus and cortex, and rescued oxidative stress levels. These findings suggested that each drug distinctly affected cognitive functions, highlighting the distinctive roles of COX-I and COX-II in learning and memory.

  17. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a dual neuropsychological screening test: An fMRI approach

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    Tachibana Atsumichi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT, which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out and continuous (reading dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to evaluate changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal in young healthy adults during performance of a computerized KPT dual task (comprised of reading comprehension and picking out vowels and compared it to its single task components (reading or vowel pick-out alone. Results Behavioral performance of the KPT degraded compared to its single task components. Performance of the KPT markedly increased BOLD signal intensity in the PFC, and also activated sensorimotor, parietal association, and visual cortex areas. In conjunction analyses, bilateral BOLD signal in the dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann's areas 45, 46 was present only in the KPT. Conclusions Our results support the central bottleneck theory and suggest that the dorsolateral PFC is an important mediator of neural activity for both short-term storage and executive processes. Quantitative evaluation of the KPT with fMRI in healthy adults is the first step towards understanding the effects of aging or cognitive impairment on KPT performance.

  18. Functional balance tests

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    Parvin Raji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: All activities of daily living need to balance control in static and dynamic movements. In recent years, a numerous increase can be seen in the functional balance assessment tools. Functional balance tests emphasize on static and dynamic balance, balance in weight transfer, the equilibrium response to the imbalances, and functional mobility. These standardized and available tests assess performance and require minimal or no equipment and short time to run. Functional balance is prerequisite for the most static and dynamic activities in daily life and needs sufficient interaction between sensory and motor systems. According to the critical role of balance in everyday life, and wide application of functional balance tests in the diagnosis and assessment of patients, a review of the functional balance tests was performed.Methods: The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Iran Medex, and IranDoc databases were reviewed and the reliable and valid tests which were mostly used by Iranian researchers were assessed.Conclusion: It seems that Berg balance scale (BBS have been studied by Iranian and foreign researches more than the other tests. This test has high reliability and validity in elderly and in the most neurological disorders.

  19. [The effect of loading tests on the activity and reactivity of the sympathetic-adrenal system in subjects with arterial hypertension and overweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartvelishvili, H Iu

    1997-01-01

    Regulatory potentialities were studied of the sympathetic-adrenal system that reveal themselves in response to psychoemotional testing and acute peroral salt loading. In the group of over-weight (OW) patients presenting with hypertensive disease (HD), 1-h excretion of catecholamines following the psychoemotional testing was not different from that during the testing itself, which fact suggests more prolonged reaction of the sympathetic-adrenal system to stress in these examinees. An acute peroral salt loading causes increase in activity of the hormonal and mediator links of the sympathetic-adrenal system in HD patients both overweight and in the normal range body weight (BW). It was only those persons presenting with normal BW that were retaining sodium after the test.

  20. Structured Connectivity Shapes Microcircuit Function in the Prefrontal Cortex.

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    Stefanos Stefanou - Stamatiadis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of new experimental techniques in vivo has shed light on the wiring diagram of cortical networks, revealing the highly non-random connectivity of pyramidal neurons. This structured connectivity is characterized by distance-dependent formation of neuronal clusters and over-represented structural ‘motifs’ (Perin 2011, Ko 2013. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC in particular, pyramidal neurons were shown to form hyper-clusters, compared to other sensory regions. Yet, very little is known about the functional properties of these microcircuits and their role in Persistent Activity (PA, a well known function of the PFC. PA is the spiking activity that persists beyond the stimulus presentation and is considered to be the cellular correlate of working memory. Although, PA was traditionally assumed to emerge in large scale networks, recent in vivo data in the PFC suggest that small microcircuits mediate its functional output (Durstwitz, 2010. Motivated by the above findings this work probes the role of realistic connectivity constraints in shaping the functional output of PFC, through simulations of biophysically and morphologically detailed PFC circuits. Towards this goal, we used a compartmental modeling approach, whereby layer 5 PFC pyramidal neurons are modeled with detailed morphological and biophysical properties. Three different types of interneurons were also implemented; the Fast-spiking (FS, Regular-spiking (RS, and Irregular-spiking (IS. These were biophysically detailed, yet morphologically simplified. Microcircuits consisted of 75 pyramidal neurons, 13 FS, 6 RS and 6 IS. Properties (location /number /amplitude /kinetics of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses were extensively validated against experimental data. The network model was used to investigate the effect of connectivity on the emergence of persistent activity. Two different connectivity profiles of pyramidal cells were implemented: one highly non

  1. Radioimmunoassay of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone in patients with adrenal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Yakovlev, A.A.; Yugrinov, O.G.; Gandzha, T.I. (Kievskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehndokrinologii i Obmena Veshchestv (Ukrainian SSR))

    1983-02-01

    The results are presented of a study of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in 89 patients with aldosteronoma, corticosteroma, pheochromocytoma and hypertension. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure aldosterone concentration and renin activity in the peripheral blood and blood from vena cava inferior, the renal and adrenal veins, the circadian cycle of their content and the responsiveness of the glomerular zone of the adrenal cortex and the juxtaglomerular renal system under the influence of lasix intake and the change over from a horizontal into vertical position. Patients with adrenal tumors have shown disorders of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone function. Radioimmunoassay of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system promotes early detection of adrenal tumors in the general population of patients with hypertension and can be used for control over therapeutic efficacy.

  2. Comparative effect of ACTH and related peptides on proliferation and growth of rat adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudimara Ferini Pacicco Lotfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC is a polypeptide precursor known to yield biologically active peptides related to a range of functions. These active peptides include the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, which is essential for maintenance of adrenal growth and steroidogenesis, and the alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone, which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. However, the role of the highly conserved N-terminal region of POMC peptide fragments has begun to be unraveled only recently. Here we review the cascade of events involved in regulation of proliferation and growth of murine adrenal cortex triggered by ACTH and other POMC-derived peptides. Key findings regarding signaling pathways and modulation of genes and proteins required for the regulation of adrenal growth are summarized. We have outlined the known mechanisms as well as future challenges for research on the regulation of adrenal proliferation and growth triggered by these peptides.

  3. Automate functional testing

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    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  4. Clinical insights into the safety and utility of the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in the assessment of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finucane, Francis M

    2008-10-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for assessing GH and cortisol production in pituitary disease. However, areas of uncertainty remain regarding its safety in older people, the optimal duration of the test and its performance in insulin resistant states. Whether basal cortisol concentration can reliably predict an adequate adrenal response to hypoglycaemia remains to be determined.

  5. Reduction of sympathetic activity via adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene deletion attenuates heart failure progression and improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Rengo, Giuseppe; Gao, Erhe; Ebert, Steven N; Dorn, Gerald W; Koch, Walter J

    2010-05-21

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is characterized by sympathetic overactivity and enhanced circulating catecholamines (CAs), which significantly increase HF morbidity and mortality. We recently reported that adrenal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is up-regulated in chronic HF, leading to enhanced CA release via desensitization/down-regulation of the chromaffin cell alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors that normally inhibit CA secretion. We also showed that adrenal GRK2 inhibition decreases circulating CAs and improves cardiac inotropic reserve and function. Herein, we hypothesized that adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene deletion before the onset of HF might be beneficial by reducing sympathetic activation. To specifically delete GRK2 in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland, we crossed PNMTCre mice, expressing Cre recombinase under the chromaffin cell-specific phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) gene promoter, with floxedGRK2 mice. After confirming a significant ( approximately 50%) reduction of adrenal GRK2 mRNA and protein levels, the PNMT-driven GRK2 knock-out (KO) offspring underwent myocardial infarction (MI) to induce HF. At 4 weeks post-MI, plasma levels of both norepinephrine and epinephrine were reduced in PNMT-driven GRK2 KO, compared with control mice, suggesting markedly reduced post-MI sympathetic activation. This translated in PNMT-driven GRK2 KO mice into improved cardiac function and dimensions as well as amelioration of abnormal cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor signaling at 4 weeks post-MI. Thus, adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene KO decreases circulating CAs, leading to improved cardiac function and beta-adrenergic reserve in post-MI HF. GRK2 inhibition in the adrenal gland might represent a novel sympatholytic strategy that can aid in blocking HF progression.

  6. Functions of the orbitofrontal and pregenual cingulate cortex in taste, olfaction, appetite and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, E T

    2008-06-01

    Complementary neurophysiological recordings in macaques and functional neuroimaging in humans show that the primary taste cortex in the rostral insula and adjoining frontal operculum provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture (including viscosity and fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are for some neurons combined by learning with olfactory and visual inputs. Different neurons respond to different combinations, providing a rich representation of the sensory properties of food. The representation of taste and other food-related stimuli in the orbitofrontal cortex of macaques is found from its lateral border throughout area 13 to within 7 mm of the midline, and in humans the representation of food-related and other pleasant stimuli is found particularly in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. In the orbitofrontal cortex, feeding to satiety with one food decreases the responses of these neurons to that food, but not to other foods, showing that sensory-specific satiety is computed in the primate (including human) orbitofrontal cortex. Consistently, activation of parts of the human orbitofrontal cortex correlates with subjective ratings of the pleasantness of the taste and smell of food. Cognitive factors, such as a word label presented with an odour, influence the pleasantness of the odour, and the activation produced by the odour in the orbitofrontal cortex. Food intake is thus controlled by building a multimodal representation of the sensory properties of food in the orbitofrontal cortex, and gating this representation by satiety signals to produce a representation of the pleasantness or reward value of food which drives food intake. A neuronal representation of taste is also found in the pregenual cingulate cortex, which receives inputs from the orbitofrontal cortex, and in humans many pleasant

  7. The perceptual-mnemonic/feature conjunction model of perirhinal cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2005-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex was once thought to be "silent cortex", virtually ignored by researchers interested in the neurobiology of learning and memory. Following studies of brain damage associated with cases of amnesia, perirhinal cortex is now widely regarded as part of a "medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system". This system is thought to be more or less functionally homogeneous, having a special role in declarative memory, and making little or no contribution to other functions such as perception. In the present article, we summarize an alternative view. First, we propose that components of the putative MTL system such as the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex have distinct and dissociable functions. Second, we provide evidence that the perirhinal cortex has a role in visual discrimination. In addition, we propose a specific role for perirhinal cortex in visual discrimination: the contribution of complex conjunctive representations to the solution of visual discrimination problems with a high degree of "feature ambiguity". These proposals constitute a new view of perirhinal cortex function, one that does not assume strict modularity of function in the occipito-temporal visual stream, but replaces this idea with the notion of a hierarchical representational continuum.

  8. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a bas

  9. The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringelbach, Morten L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2004-04-01

    The human orbitofrontal cortex is an important brain region for the processing of rewards and punishments, which is a prerequisite for the complex and flexible emotional and social behaviour which contributes to the evolutionary success of humans. Yet much remains to be discovered about the functions of this key brain region, and new evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology is affording new insights into the different functions of the human orbitofrontal cortex. We review the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature on the human orbitofrontal cortex, and propose two distinct trends of neural activity based on a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. One is a mediolateral distinction, whereby medial orbitofrontal cortex activity is related to monitoring the reward value of many different reinforcers, whereas lateral orbitofrontal cortex activity is related to the evaluation of punishers which may lead to a change in ongoing behaviour. The second is a posterior-anterior distinction with more complex or abstract reinforcers (such as monetary gain and loss) represented more anteriorly in the orbitofrontal cortex than simpler reinforcers such as taste or pain. Finally, we propose new neuroimaging methods for obtaining further evidence on the localisation of function in the human orbitofrontal cortex.

  10. Vestibular function testing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lang, E E

    2010-06-01

    Vestibular symptoms of vertigo, dizziness and dysequilibrium are common complaints which can be disabling both physically and psychologically. Routine examination of the ear nose and throat and neurological system are often normal in these patients. An accurate history and thorough clinical examination can provide a diagnosis in the majority of patients. However, in a subgroup of patients, vestibular function testing may be invaluable in arriving at a correct diagnosis and ultimately in the optimal treatment of these patients.

  11. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps you respond to stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's ... too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. ...

  12. [Adrenal mass and adrenal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Albaladejo, M; García López, B; Serrano Corredor, S; Alguacil García, G

    1996-12-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is a non frequent disease, that is declared in young adults and in the most of the cases is produced from an autoimmune mechanism or a tuberculous disease. The incidence of these forms in the different geographic areas is dependent of degree of irradication of the tuberculosis. We report the case of a patient with latent chronic adrenal insufficiency of tuberculous origin who was affected for an addisonian crisis during an intercurrent infectious disease, which permitted the diagnosis of the addisonian crisis, and Mal of Pott was moreover detected. Evolution with corticosteroid and specific treatment was very favorable.

  13. LSD alters eyes-closed functional connectivity within the early visual cortex in a retinotopic fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Leor; Sereno, Martin I; Leech, Robert; Kaelen, Mendel; Orban, Csaba; McGonigle, John; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-08-01

    The question of how spatially organized activity in the visual cortex behaves during eyes-closed, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced "psychedelic imagery" (e.g., visions of geometric patterns and more complex phenomena) has never been empirically addressed, although it has been proposed that under psychedelics, with eyes-closed, the brain may function "as if" there is visual input when there is none. In this work, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) data was analyzed from 10 healthy subjects under the influence of LSD and, separately, placebo. It was suspected that eyes-closed psychedelic imagery might involve transient local retinotopic activation, of the sort typically associated with visual stimulation. To test this, it was hypothesized that, under LSD, patches of the visual cortex with congruent retinotopic representations would show greater RSFC than incongruent patches. Using a retinotopic localizer performed during a nondrug baseline condition, nonadjacent patches of V1 and V3 that represent the vertical or the horizontal meridians of the visual field were identified. Subsequently, RSFC between V1 and V3 was measured with respect to these a priori identified patches. Consistent with our prior hypothesis, the difference between RSFC of patches with congruent retinotopic specificity (horizontal-horizontal and vertical-vertical) and those with incongruent specificity (horizontal-vertical and vertical-horizontal) increased significantly under LSD relative to placebo, suggesting that activity within the visual cortex becomes more dependent on its intrinsic retinotopic organization in the drug condition. This result may indicate that under LSD, with eyes-closed, the early visual system behaves as if it were seeing spatially localized visual inputs. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3031-3040, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The angiotensin hexapeptide 3-8 fragment potently inhibits [125I]angiotensin II binding to non-AT1 or -AT2 recognition sites in bovine adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M F; Gessner, G W; Ly, C Q

    1992-08-25

    In the present studies, ligand competition experiments were conducted to examine the ability of angiotensin II peptide agonists and nonpeptide AT1- and AT2-selective receptor antagonists to inhibit the binding of [125I]angiotensin II to bovine adrenal cortical membranes. Angiotensin II, angiotensin III, the All-(3-8) hexapeptide fragment of angiotensin II, and the AT1-selective receptor antagonist L-158,809, inhibited [125I]angiotensin II binding in a biphasic fashion indicative of a ligand interaction at more than one recognition site. Approximately 20% of low affinity [125I]angiotensin II binding was inhibited only by high micromolar concentrations of L-158,809. RG 13647 (1(-1,4-benzodioxan-2-methyl)-5-diphenylacetyl-4,5,6,7-tetra hydro-1H-imidazo- [4,5,c]-pyridine-6-carboxylic acid) represents a potent and AT2-selective analog of PD 123177 and showed weak activity in competing for [125I]angiotensin II binding with an IC50 value of 100 microM. When subsequent competition studies were conducted in the presence of 1 microM L-158,809 to block [125I]angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor subtype, the angiotensin II agonists produced monophasic inhibition curves with AII-(3-8) showing the greatest activity (IC50 = 6 nM) followed by angiotensin III (IC50 = 15 nM) much greater than angiotensin II (IC50 = 110 nM). RG 13647 was not found to significantly inhibit this portion of [125I]angiotensin II binding. These data demonstrate that bovine adrenal cortex contains both the AT1 receptor subtype, as well as, a novel class of [125I]angiotensin II recognition sites which may be analogous to the recently described angiotensin IV (AT4) receptor.

  15. Anterior cingulate cortex mediates the relationship between O3PUFAs and executive functions in APOE e4 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although diet has a substantial influence on the aging brain, the relationship between biomarkers of diet and aspects of brain health remains unclear. This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3PUFAs and executive functions in at-risk (APOE e4 carriers, cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher levels of O3PUFAs are associated with better performance in a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter volume of a specific region thought to be important for cognitive flexibility, the anterior cingulate cortex. Methods: We examined 40 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 with the APOE e4 polymorphism to investigate the relationship between biomarkers of O3PUFAs, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test, and gray matter volume within regions of the prefrontal cortex. Results: A mediation analysis revealed that gray matter volume within the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex partially mediates the relationship between O3PUFA biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between O3PUFAs and cognitive flexibility in cognitively intact adults thought to be at risk for cognitive decline. Through their link to executive functions and neuronal measures of prefrontal cortex volume, O3PUFAs show potential as a nutritional therapy to prevent dysfunction in the aging brain.

  16. Distribution of neurons in functional areas of the mouse cerebral cortex reveals quantitatively different cortical zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2013-01-01

    How are neurons distributed along the cortical surface and across functional areas? Here we use the isotropic fractionator (Herculano-Houzel and Lent, 2005) to analyze the distribution of neurons across the entire isocortex of the mouse, divided into 18 functional areas defined anatomically. We find that the number of neurons underneath a surface area (the N/A ratio) varies 4.5-fold across functional areas and neuronal density varies 3.2-fold. The face area of S1 contains the most neurons, followed by motor cortex and the primary visual cortex. Remarkably, while the distribution of neurons across functional areas does not accompany the distribution of surface area, it mirrors closely the distribution of cortical volumes-with the exception of the visual areas, which hold more neurons than expected for their volume. Across the non-visual cortex, the volume of individual functional areas is a shared linear function of their number of neurons, while in the visual areas, neuronal densities are much higher than in all other areas. In contrast, the 18 functional areas cluster into three different zones according to the relationship between the N/A ratio and cortical thickness and neuronal density: these three clusters can be called visual, sensory, and, possibly, associative. These findings are remarkably similar to those in the human cerebral cortex (Ribeiro et al., 2013) and suggest that, like the human cerebral cortex, the mouse cerebral cortex comprises two zones that differ in how neurons form the cortical volume, and three zones that differ in how neurons are distributed underneath the cortical surface, possibly in relation to local differences in connectivity through the white matter. Our results suggest that beyond the developmental divide into visual and non-visual cortex, functional areas initially share a common distribution of neurons along the parenchyma that become delimited into functional areas according to the pattern of connectivity established later.

  17. Evidence for chronic stress in captive but not free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) based on adrenal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie; Munson, Linda

    2004-04-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is highly endangered because of loss of habitat in the wild and failure to thrive in captivity. Cheetahs in zoos reproduce poorly and have high prevalences of unusual diseases that cause morbidity and mortality. These diseases are rarely observed in free-ranging cheetahs but have been documented in cheetahs that have been captured and held in captive settings either temporarily or permanently. Because captivity may be stressful for this species and stress is suspected as contributing to poor health and reproduction, this study aimed to measure chronic stress by comparing baseline concentrations of fecal corticoid metabolites and adrenal gland morphology between captive and free-ranging cheetahs. Additionally, concentrations of estradiol and testosterone metabolites were quantified to determine whether concentrations of gonadal steroids correlated with corticoid concentration and to assure that corticosteroids in the free-ranging samples were not altered by environmental conditions. Concetntrations of fecal corticoids, estradiol, and testosterone were quantified by radioimmunoassay in 20 free-ranging and 20 captive cheetahs from samples collected between 1994 and 1999. Concentrations of baseline fecal corticoids were significantly higher (p = 0.005) in captive cheetahs (196.08 +/- 36.20 ng/g dry feces) than free-ranging cheetahs (71.40 +/- 14.35 ng/g dry feces). Testosterone concentrations were lower in captive male cheetahs (9.09 +/- 2.84 ng/g dry feces) than in free-ranging cheetahs (34.52 +/- 12.11 ng/g dry feces), which suggests suppression by elevated corticoids in the captive males. Evidence for similar sulppression of estradiol concentrations in females was not present. Adrenal corticomedullary ratios were determined on midsagittal sections of adrenal glands from 13 free-ranging and 13 captive cheetahs obtained between 1991 and 2002. The degree of vacuolation of cortical cells in the zona fasciculata was graded for each animal

  18. Giant Adrenal Myelolipoma Masquerading as Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parijat S. Joy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors of the adrenal cortex composed of adipose and hematopoietic cells. They have been postulated to arise from repeated stimulation by stress, inflammation and ACTH oversecretion. Myelolipomas are usually detected incidentally on imaging and do not require any active intervention besides regular follow-up by imaging. However, myelolipomas may insidiously grow to large sizes and cause mass effects and hemorrhage. Timely diagnosis and surgical resection are curative and lifesaving.

  19. Giant adrenal myelolipoma masquerading as heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Parijat S; Marak, Creticus P; Nashed, Nadia S; Guddati, Achuta K

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors of the adrenal cortex composed of adipose and hematopoietic cells. They have been postulated to arise from repeated stimulation by stress, inflammation and ACTH oversecretion. Myelolipomas are usually detected incidentally on imaging and do not require any active intervention besides regular follow-up by imaging. However, myelolipomas may insidiously grow to large sizes and cause mass effects and hemorrhage. Timely diagnosis and surgical resection are curative and lifesaving.

  20. Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    Lesion studies link the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to executive functions. However, the evidence from in vivo investigations in healthy people is mixed, and there are no quantitative estimates of the association strength. To examine the relationship between PFC volume and cortical thickness with executive cognition in healthy adults, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that assessed executive functions and PFC volume (31 samples,) and PFC thickness (10 samples) in vivo, N=3272 participants. We found that larger PFC volume and greater PFC thickness were associated with better executive performance. Stronger associations between executive functions and PFC volume were linked to greater variance in the sample age but was unrelated to the mean age of a sample. Strength of association between cognitive and neuroanatomical indices depended on the executive task used in the study. PFC volume correlated stronger with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test than with digit backwards span, Trail Making Test and verbal fluency. Significant effect size was observed in lateral and medial but not orbital PFC. The results support the “bigger is better” hypothesis of brain-behavior relation in healthy adults and suggest different neural correlates across the neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functions. PMID:24568942

  1. Physical, social and societal functioning of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and their parents, in a Dutch population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, S.A.; Wiegers, T.A.; Otten, B.J.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research concerning congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and related conditions caused by primary adrenal insufficiency, such as Addison's or Cushing's disease, has focused on medical aspects rather than on patients' quality of life. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the p

  2. Psoriasis severity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function: results from the CALIPSO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Brunoni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that significantly impacts life quality, being associated with stress and mental disorders. We investigated whether the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis was associated with psoriasis severity, daily life stress and anxiety, and depressive symptoms. In this ancillary study, which was part of the CALIPSO (coronary artery calcium in psoriasis study, saliva was collected from 102 patients with psoriasis immediately upon awakening, 30, and 60 min after awakening, at 2:00 pm and at bedtime (five time points to determine salivary cortisol levels. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient to evaluate the association of clinical and psychopathological variables with HPA activity. We found a direct correlation between bedtime cortisol and psoriasis severity evaluated by the psoriasis area severity index (PASI; r=0.39, P<0.001. No correlations between other clinical and psychopathological variables or with other cortisol assessments were observed. The findings indicated that HPA dysfunction may be present in psoriasis, as bedtime cortisol was correlated with psoriasis severity. Our study is limited by the lack of a control group; therefore, we were not able to explore whether these cortisol values were different compared with a concurrent, healthy sample.

  3. Gender development in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a function of disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Dolezal, Curtis; Baker, Susan W; Ehrhardt, Anke A; New, Maria I

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal-onset classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in 46,XX individuals is associated with variable masculinization/defeminization of the genitalia and of behavior, presumably both due to excess prenatal androgen production. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to extend the gender-behavioral investigation to the mildest subtype of 46,XX CAH, the non-classical (NC) variant, (2) to replicate previous findings on moderate and severe variants of 46,XX CAH using a battery of diversely constructed assessment instruments, and (3) to evaluate the utility of the chosen assessment instruments for this area of work. We studied 63 women with classical CAH (42 with the salt wasting [SW] and 21 with the simple virilizing [SV] variant), 82 women with the NC variant, and 24 related non-CAH sisters and female cousins as controls (COS). NC women showed a few signs of gender shifts in the expected direction, SV women were intermediate, and SW women most severely affected. In terms of gender identity, two SW women were gender-dysphoric, and a third had changed to male in adulthood. All others identified as women. We conclude that behavioral masculinization/defeminization is pronounced in SW-CAH women, slight but still clearly demonstrable in SV women, and probable, but still in need of replication in NC women. There continues a need for improved instruments for gender assessment.

  4. Functional Organization of Human Sensorimotor Cortex for Speech Articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Mesgarani, Nima; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex actions we perform, yet nearly all of us learn to do it effortlessly. Production of fluent speech requires the precise, coordinated movement of multiple articulators (e.g., lips, jaw, tongue, larynx) over rapid time scales. Here, we used high-resolution, multi-electrode cortical recordings during the production of consonant-vowel syllables to determine the organization of speech sensorimotor cortex in humans. We found speech articulator representations that were somatotopically arranged on ventral pre- and post-central gyri and partially overlapping at individual electrodes. These representations were temporally coordinated as sequences during syllable production. Spatial patterns of cortical activity revealed an emergent, population-level representation, which was organized by phonetic features. Over tens of milliseconds, the spatial patterns transitioned between distinct representations for different consonants and vowels. These results reveal the dynamic organization of speech sensorimotor cortex during the generation of multi-articulator movements underlying our ability to speak. PMID:23426266

  5. The prefrontal cortex and variants of sequential behaviour: indications of functional differentiation between subdivisions of the rat's prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Holm, Søren

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, sekventiel adfærd, rotte, adfærdsprogrammering, informationsbearbejdning......Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, sekventiel adfærd, rotte, adfærdsprogrammering, informationsbearbejdning...

  6. Adrenal Cortical and Medullar Hyperplasia-A Retrospective Analysis of 6 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 鲁功成; 张齐均

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The features of the symptoms, laboratory tests and pathological characteristics of a-drenal cortical and medullary hyperplasia were studied. In 6 cases of hypercatecholaminenia, plas-ma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), catecholamine (CA) and 24-h urinary vanillylmandelicacid (VMA), 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (OHCS) and 17-ketosteroid (KS) were determined. A-drenal glands were examined by CT scan and 131I-MIBG imaging. Pathological examination wasperformed after operation. The results showed that in 6 cases of hypercatecholaminenia (3 menand 3 women) aged from 34-50 years, the clinical features were just like "pheochromocytoma",for example, episodic headache, perspiration, palpitation, pallor, apprehension, nausea, tremor,anxiety and so on. Plasma levels of CA, NE and E were elevated in all 6 cases. 24-h urinary sam-ples obtained at the onset revealed elevated VMA in 1 case. 24-h urinary cortisol was obviously el-evated in all 6 cases. 24-h urinary 17-OHCS, 17-KS was normal. B-type ultrasound, CT, MRIand 13I-MIBG revealed 9 lateral adrenal gland diffuse or nodular enlargement in 6 cases. Patholog-ic examination showed adrenal cortical and medullary hyperplasia. Clinically, adrenal cortical andmedullary hyperplasia resembled "pheochromocytoma". The most significant feature of this dis-ease was both elevated plasma CA and 24-h urinary cortisol obviously. Pathologic examinationshowed adrenal cortex nodular hyperplasia and medullar diffuse or limit hyperplasia. Whether it isan independent disease or symptoms of the other disease has not final conclusion up till now

  7. A Case of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Mimicking Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Kang, Mira; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Min, Yong-Ki; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by decreased adrenal hormone production due to enzymatic defects and subsequent rise of adrenocorticotrophic hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to become hyperplastic, and sometimes tumorous. As the pathophysiology is basically a defect in the biosynthesis of cortisol, one may not consider CAH in patients with hypercortisolism. We report a case of a 41-yr-old man with a 4 cm-sized left adrenal tumorous lesion mimicking Cushing's syndrome who was diagnosed with CAH. He had central obesity and acanthosis nigricans involving the axillae together with elevated 24-hr urine cortisol level, supporting the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. However, the 24-hr urine cortisol was suppressed by 95% with the low dose dexamethasone suppression test. CAH was suspected based on the history of precocious puberty, short stature and a profound suppression of cortisol production by dexamethasone. CAH was confirmed by a remarkably increased level of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone level. Gene mutation analysis revealed a compound heterozygote mutation of CYP21A2 (I173N and R357W). PMID:23166432

  8. Perirhinal cortex lesions impair tests of object recognition memory but spare novelty detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte-Sánchez, Cristian M; Amin, Eman; Warburton, E Clea; Aggleton, John P

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined why perirhinal cortex lesions in rats impair the spontaneous ability to select novel objects in preference to familiar objects, when both classes of object are presented simultaneously. The study began by repeating this standard finding, using a test of delayed object recognition memory. As expected, the perirhinal cortex lesions reduced the difference in exploration times for novel vs. familiar stimuli. In contrast, the same rats with perirhinal cortex lesions appeared to perform normally when the preferential exploration of novel vs. familiar objects was tested sequentially, i.e. when each trial consisted of only novel or only familiar objects. In addition, there was no indication that the perirhinal cortex lesions reduced total levels of object exploration for novel objects, as would be predicted if the lesions caused novel stimuli to appear familiar. Together, the results show that, in the absence of perirhinal cortex tissue, rats still receive signals of object novelty, although they may fail to link that information to the appropriate object. Consequently, these rats are impaired in discriminating the source of object novelty signals, leading to deficits on simultaneous choice tests of recognition.

  9. Inflammatory airway features and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis function in asthmatic rats combined with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Cui; CAO Yu-xue; ZHANG Hong-ying; LE Jing-jing; DONG Jing-cheng; CUI Yan; XU Chang-qing; LIU Bao-jun; WU Jin-feng; DUAN Xiao-hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Bronchial asthma (BA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both inflammatory airway diseases with different characteristics. However, there are many patients who suffer from both BA and COPD. This study was to evaluate changes of inflammatory airway features and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in asthmatic rats combined with COPD.Methods Brown Norway (BN) rats were used to model the inflammatory airway diseases of BA, COPD and COPD+BA.These three models were compared and evaluated with respect to clinical symptoms, pulmonary histopathology, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cytokines and HPA axis function.Results The inflammatory airway features and HPA axis function in rats in the COPD+BA model group were greatly influenced. Rats in this model group showed features of the inflammatory diseases BA and COPD. The expression of inflammatory cytokines in this model group might be up or downregulated when both disease processes are present. The levels of corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA and corticosterone in this model group were both significantly decreased than those in the control group (P <0.05).Conclusions BN rat can be used as an animal model of COPD+BA. By evaluating this animal model we found that the features of inflammation in rats in this model group seem to be exaggerated. The HPA axis functions in rats in this model group have been disturbed or impaired, which is prominent at the hypothalamic level.

  10. Intraoperative identification of adrenal-renal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Griffin; Rattan, Rishi; Yilmaz, Osman; Tarnoff, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal - renal fusion is a rare entity defined as incomplete encapsulation of the adrenal gland and kidney with histologically adjacent functional tissue. This report describes the first published intraoperative identification of this anomaly during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The patient was a 59-year-old man with chronic hypertension refractory to multiple antihypertensives found to be caused by a right-sided aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in the setting of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. During laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the normal avascular plane between the kidney and adrenal gland was absent. Pathologic evaluation confirmed adrenal - renal fusion without adrenal heterotopia. Identified intraoperatively, this may be misdiagnosed as invasive malignancy, and thus awareness of this anomaly may help prevent unnecessarily morbid resection. PMID:26195881

  11. Effects of ACTH on RNA synthesis and migration in the adrenal cortex cells of the young rat, as shown by radioautography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, M.C.; Vitor, A.B.; Magalhaes, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ACTH on the RNA synthesis in adrenal zona fasciculata cells of the young rat were studied by light and electron microscope radioautography. Two units of ACTH were administered sc to animals and immediately followed by an iv injection of (/sup 3/)uridine. ACTH-injected and control rats, which received the isotope alone, were sacrificed at various time intervals. Labelling over extranucleolar areas was higher in the ACTH-treated animals at 20 min, then becoming lower than in the controls at 60 min and 24 h. Nucleolar radioactivity, however, was consistently decreased by ACTH at all experimental times. Apart from these changes in the rate of synthesis, the over-all curves of labelling were similar to those in the control animals with a striking peak at 1 h. The short-term increase in extranucleolar RNA synthesis observed after ACTH injection was considered to be consistent with the hypothesis that an enhanced extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA takes place early in stimulated animals and is associated with the synthesis of steroidogenic proteins. On the other hand, the relatively decreased uridine uptake of the label by the nucleolus in ACTH-treated animals, suggests an inhibition of nucleolar transcription with diminished pre-rRNA formation in treated animals.

  12. Adrenal failure followed by status epilepticus and hemolytic anemia in primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bures Vladimir

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a 14 year old boy who presented with the symptoms abdominal pain, fever and proteinuria. A hematoma in the region of the right pararenal space was diagnosed. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were positive and serum cortisol was normal. Ten days after admission the boy suddenly suffered generalized seizures due to low serum sodium. As well, the patient developed hemolytic anemia, acute elevated liver enzymes, hematuria and increased proteinuria. At this time a second hemorrhage of the left adrenal gland was documented. Adrenal function tests revealed adrenal insufficiency. We suspected microthromboses in the adrenals and secondary bleeding and treated the boy with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and phenprocoumon. Conclusion Adrenal failure is a rare complication of APS in children with only five cases reported to date. As shown in our patient, this syndrome can manifest in a diverse set of simultaneously occurring symptoms.

  13. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fujii, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Mizushima, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Hasuo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Tobimatsu, S. [Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Inst., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  14. Adrenal cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ture cysts of the adrenal gland are lined with endothelium or epithe lium.Most lesions are asympomatic and are discovered incidentally.They may produce s ymptoms because of hemorrhage.CT findings of cysts include(Fig 1): ① Cyst are well-marginated, nonenhancing, homogeneous, fluid-cont aining masses; ② The wall may have thin peripheral calcification if previous hemor rhage has occurred.③ Cyst contents have characteristics of simple fluids(<20 HU)unle ss hemorrhage has occurred.

  15. Adrenal Disorders and the Paediatric Brain: Pathophysiological Considerations and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Salpietro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH, a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by

  16. Extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis: immune regulation and aspects on local organ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talabér, Gergely; Jondal, Mikael; Okret, Sam

    2013-11-05

    Systemic glucocorticoids (GCs) mainly originate from de novo synthesis in the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. However, research during the last 1-2 decades has revealed that additional organs express the necessary enzymes and have the capacity for de novo synthesis of biologically active GCs. This includes the thymus, intestine, skin and the brain. Recent research has also revealed that locally synthesized GCs most likely act in a paracrine or autocrine manner and have significant physiological roles in local homeostasis, cell development and immune cell activation. In this review, we summarize the nature, regulation and known physiological roles of extra-adrenal GC synthesis. We specifically focus on the thymus in which GC production (by both developing thymocytes and epithelial cells) has a role in the maintenance of proper immunological function.

  17. Differential effects of hunger and satiety on insular cortex and hypothalamic functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Crookall, Rebecca; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-05-01

    The insula cortex and hypothalamus are implicated in eating behaviour, and contain receptor sites for peptides and hormones controlling energy balance. The insula encompasses multi-functional subregions, which display differential anatomical and functional connectivities with the rest of the brain. This study aimed to analyse the effect of fasting and satiation on the functional connectivity profiles of left and right anterior, middle, and posterior insula, and left and right hypothalamus. It was hypothesized that the profiles would be altered alongside changes in homeostatic energy balance. Nineteen healthy participants underwent two 7-min resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, one when fasted and one when satiated. Functional connectivity between the left posterior insula and cerebellum/superior frontal gyrus, and between left hypothalamus and inferior frontal gyrus was stronger during fasting. Functional connectivity between the right middle insula and default mode structures (left and right posterior parietal cortex, cingulate cortex), and between right hypothalamus and superior parietal cortex was stronger during satiation. Differences in blood glucose levels between the scans accounted for several of the altered functional connectivities. The insula and hypothalamus appear to form a homeostatic energy balance network related to cognitive control of eating; prompting eating and preventing overeating when energy is depleted, and ending feeding or transferring attention away from food upon satiation. This study provides evidence of a lateralized dissociation of neural responses to energy modulations.

  18. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency: functional consequences of four CYP11B1 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menabò, Soara; Polat, Seher; Baldazzi, Lilia; Kulle, Alexandra E; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Grötzinger, Joachim; Fanelli, Flaminia; Balsamo, Antonio; Riepe, Felix G

    2014-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common autosomal recessive inherited endocrine disease. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is the second most common form of CAH. The aim of the study was to study the functional consequences of three novel and one previously described CYP11B1 gene mutations (p.(Arg143Trp), p.(Ala306Val), p.(Glu310Lys) and p.(Arg332Gln)) detected in patients suffering from classical and non-classical 11β-OHD. Functional analyses were performed by using a HEK293 cell in vitro expression system comparing wild type (WT) with mutant 11β-hydroxylase activity. Mutant proteins were examined in silico to study their effect on the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Two mutations (p.(Ala306Val) and p.(Glu310Lys)) detected in patients with classical 11β-OHD showed a nearly complete loss of 11β-hydroxylase activity. The mutations p.(Arg143Trp) and p.(Arg332Gln) detected in patients with non-classical 11β-OHD showed a partial functional impairment with approximately 8% and 6% of WT activity, respectively. Functional mutation analysis allows the classification of novel CYP11B1 mutations as causes of classical and non-classical 11β-OHD. The detection of patients with non-classical phenotypes underscores the importance to screen patients with a phenotype comparable to non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency for mutations in the CYP11B1 gene in case of a negative analysis of the CYP21A2 gene. As CYP11B1 mutations are most often individual for a family, the in vitro analysis of novel mutations is essential for clinical and genetic counselling. PMID:24022297

  19. Función adrenal y metabolismo lipídico en niños asmáticos tratados con budesonida Adrenal function and lipid metabolism in asthmatic children with budesonide treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Paoli-de Valeri

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de bajas dosis de budesonida inhalado sobre la función adrenal y el metabolismo lipídico en niños asmáticos. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron: 10 niños asmáticos (edad promedio, 8.6 años tratados con budesonida inhalado (200-300 µg/día por un lapso mayor a tres meses (grupo A; 15 niños asmáticos (edad promedio, 7.8 años sin tratamiento esteroideo (grupo B, y 10 niños no asmáticos (grupo C. Se determinaron los niveles de cortisol basal y postestímulo con ACTH, andrógenos adrenales, lípidos y cortisol urinario. Resultados. Entre los grupos A y B no hubo diferencias significativas en las variables estudiadas. En los niños asmáticos (grupo A-B el cortisol urinario fue significativamente mayor en relación con el grupo C. Los niveles de triglicéridos, colesterol total, colesterol de la lipoproteína de baja densidad e índices aterogénicos fueron mayores en el grupo de niños asmáticos, con y sin budesonida, comparados con el grupo C. Conclusiones. El tratamiento con dosis bajas de budesonida inhalado en niños asmáticos no modificó la función del eje adrenal ni el metabolismo lipídico. Los pacientes asmáticos presentaron un perfil lipídico aterogénico que podría incrementar el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular.Objective. To assess the effect of low doses of inhaled budesonide on the adrenal function and lipid metabolism of asthmatic children. Material and methods. The study included 10 asthmatic children (mean age, 8.8 years treated with inhaled budesonide (200-300 µg/day for a period longer than 3 months (group A; 15 asthmatic children (mean age, 7.8 years without steroid treatment (group B and 10 non-asthmatic children (group C. Basal cortisol levels, as well as postACTH, adrenal androgens, lipids and urinary cortisol were determined. Results. No significant differences were detected between groups A and B in the studied variables. In asthmatic children, urinary cortisol was

  20. Mechanisms of Functional Hypoconnectivity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Mecp2 Null Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sceniak, Michael P; Lang, Min; Enomoto, Addison C; Howell, C James; Hermes, Douglas J; Katz, David M

    2016-05-01

    Frontal cortical dysfunction is thought to contribute to cognitive and behavioral features of autism spectrum disorders; however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study sought to define how loss of Mecp2, the gene mutated in Rett syndrome (RTT), disrupts function in the murine medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using acute brain slices and behavioral testing. Compared with wildtype, pyramidal neurons in the Mecp2 null mPFC exhibit significant reductions in excitatory postsynaptic currents, the duration of excitatory UP-states, evoked population activity, and the ratio of NMDA:AMPA currents, as well as an increase in the relative fraction of NR2B currents. These functional changes are associated with reductions in the density of excitatory dendritic spines, the ratio of vesicular glutamate to GABA transporters and GluN1 expression. In contrast to recent reports on circuit defects in other brain regions, we observed no effect of Mecp2 loss on inhibitory synaptic currents or expression of the inhibitory marker parvalbumin. Consistent with mPFC hypofunction, Mecp2 nulls exhibit respiratory dysregulation in response to behavioral arousal. Our data highlight functional hypoconnectivity in the mPFC as a potential substrate for behavioral disruption in RTT and other disorders associated with reduced expression of Mecp2 in frontal cortical regions.

  1. The functional architecture of the left posterior and lateral prefrontal cortex in humans.

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    Volle, Emmanuelle; Kinkingnéhun, Serge; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Mondon, Karl; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Seassau, Magali; Duffau, Hugues; Samson, Yves; Dubois, Bruno; Levy, Richard

    2008-10-01

    The anatomical and functional organization of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is one of the most debated issues in cognitive and integrative neurosciences. The aim of this study is to determine whether the human LPFC is organized according to the domain of information, to the level of the processing or to both of these dimensions. In order to clarify this issue, we have designed an experimental protocol that combines a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy subjects (n = 12) and a voxel-by-voxel lesion mapping study in patients with focal prefrontal lesions (n = 37) compared with normal controls (n = 48). Each method used the same original cognitive paradigm ("the domain n-back tasks") that tests by a cross-dimensional method the domain of information (verbal, spatial, faces) and the level of processing (from 1- to 3-back). Converging data from the 2 methods demonstrate that the left posterior LPFC is critical for the higher levels of cognitive control and is organized into functionally different subregions (Brodman's area 9/46, 6/8/9, and 44/45). These findings argue in favor of a hybrid model of organization of the left posterior LPFC in which domain-oriented (nonspatial and spatially oriented) and cross-domain executive-dependent regions coexist, reconciling previously divergent data.

  2. Liver Function Tests

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    ... Baby Boomers Get Tested Core Programs HE Webinar Disney 2014 5 Ways to Love Your Liver Liver ... Drive Away Liver Disease Liver Lowdown Aug 2013 Disney Marathon In The Field Healthy Foods Diet Recommendations ...

  3. Relationship of Visual Cortex Function and Visual Acuity in Anisometropic Amblyopic Children

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    Chuanming Li, Lin Cheng, Qiongwu Yu, Bing Xie, Jian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect the functional deficit of the visual cortex in anisometropic amblyopia children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique, and investigate the relationship between visual acuity and visual cortex function.Methods: Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI (BOLD-fMRI was performed in ten monocular anisometropic amblyopia children and ten normal controls. fMRI images were acquired in two runs with visual stimulation delivered separately through the sound and amblyopic eyes. Measurements were performed in cortical activation of striate and extrastriate areas at the occipital lobe. The relationship between cortex function and visual acuity was analyzed by Pearson partial analysis.Results: The activation areas of both the striate and extrastriate cortices in the amblyopic eyes were significantly lower than that of the sound fellow eyes. No relationship was found between the striate and extrastriate cortex activation. No relationship was found between the visual cortical activation of striate, extrastriate areas and visual acuity of anisometropic amblyopes.Conclusions: BOLD-fMRI revealed the independent striate and extrastriate cortical deficits in anisometropic amblyopes. In addition, the visual acuity lesion and the striate and extrastriate cortical deficits were not parallel, and results of fMRI examination have much potential value in the evaluation of amblyopia.

  4. Social and Nonsocial Functions of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex: Implications for Education

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    Gilbert, Sam J.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the role of rostral prefrontal cortex (approximating Brodmann Area 10) in two domains relevant to education: executive function (particularly prospective memory, our ability to realize delayed intentions) and social cognition (particularly our ability to reflect on our own mental states and the mental states of others).…

  5. Effects of Mandibular Retrusive Deviation on Prefrontal Cortex Activation: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

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    Takero Otsuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate occlusal condition by assessing brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, which is associated with emotion. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS was used to detect changes in cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex of 12 healthy volunteers. The malocclusion model was a custom-made splint that forced the mandible into retrusion. A splint with no modification was used as a control. The cortical activation during clenching was compared between the retrusive position condition and the control condition. A visual analog scale score for discomfort was also obtained during clenching and used to evaluate the interaction between fNIRS data and psychiatric changes. Activation of the prefrontal cortex was significantly greater during clenching in the mandibular retrusive condition than during clenching in the control condition. Furthermore, Spearman rank-correlation coefficient revealed a parallel relation between prefrontal cortex activation and visual analog scale score for discomfort. These results indicate that fNIRS can be used to objectively evaluate the occlusal condition by evaluating activity in the prefrontal cortex.

  6. Effects of mandibular retrusive deviation on prefrontal cortex activation: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

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    Otsuka, Takero; Yamasaki, Ryuichi; Shimazaki, Tateshi; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Sasaguri, Kenichi; Kawata, Toshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate occlusal condition by assessing brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, which is associated with emotion. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to detect changes in cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex of 12 healthy volunteers. The malocclusion model was a custom-made splint that forced the mandible into retrusion. A splint with no modification was used as a control. The cortical activation during clenching was compared between the retrusive position condition and the control condition. A visual analog scale score for discomfort was also obtained during clenching and used to evaluate the interaction between fNIRS data and psychiatric changes. Activation of the prefrontal cortex was significantly greater during clenching in the mandibular retrusive condition than during clenching in the control condition. Furthermore, Spearman rank-correlation coefficient revealed a parallel relation between prefrontal cortex activation and visual analog scale score for discomfort. These results indicate that fNIRS can be used to objectively evaluate the occlusal condition by evaluating activity in the prefrontal cortex.

  7. CT diagnosis of adrenal abnormalities in patients with primary non-adrenal malignancies

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    Hussain, S.; Seltzer, S.E.; Abrams, H.L.; Belldegrun, A.; Richie, J.P.

    1986-05-01

    Fifty-seven patients with primary non-adrenal malignancy were found to have unsuspected adrenal abnormality on CT. In 33, comparison of histophatologic findings and/or the patients' hospital course or follow-up lead to the diagnosis of adrenal metastases (23), benign non-functioning adenomas (7), metastasis with hyperplasia (1), benign hyperplasia (1), and fatty infiltration (1). The analysis of CT findings indicated that: I) A heterogenous adrenal mass showing contrast enhancement was always metastatic, II) Nonfunctioning adenomas were always 3 cm or smaller in diameter, III) Bilateral adrenal masses and growth of adrenal mass on follow-up CT or regression on treatment indicated metastases, and IV) metastatic disease could not be excluded purely on the basis of the size of the adrenal mass.

  8. Adrenal haemorrhage with cholestasis and adrenal crisis in a newborn of a diabetic mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklu, Esad; Kurtoglu, Selim; Akcakus, Mustafa; Koklu, Selmin

    2007-03-01

    The large hyperaemic foetal adrenal gland is vulnerable to vascular damage. This may occur in the neonatal period as a consequence of difficult labour, or its aetiology may not be apparent. The spectrum of presentation is considerable, ranging from asymptomatic to severe life-threatening intra-abdominal haemorrhage. The presentation of adrenal insufficiency may be delayed but the regenerative capacity of the adrenal is great, and most adrenal haemorrhage is not associated with significantly impaired function. Some reports showed that cholestatic hepatopathy with congenital hypopituitarism reversed by hydrocortisone treatment is considered in the context of the endocrine syndrome, probably as a consequence of the adrenal failure. We describe a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage with hepatitis syndrome and persistent hypoglycaemia in a newborn male with striking features of neonatal cholestasis and adrenal crisis.

  9. The Functions of Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Melvin M.

    1981-01-01

    Admissions testing and its consequences are looked upon as a reflection of the current debate occurring in Western capitalist democracies concerning the optimization of freedom, fairness, and wealth. In dealing with the competition and conflict of values and interests, there can be no factual but political resolution. (Author/AL)

  10. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

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    Vincenzo eDi Lazzaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization.We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH and unaffected hemisphere (UH by measuring resting and active motor threshold and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI, to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. Active motor threshold differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p=0.004, not in females (p>0.200, and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p=0.033 and p=0.042. LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery.

  11. Improving prefrontal cortex function in schizophrenia through focused training of cognitive control

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    Bethany G Edwards

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that individuals with schizophrenia show deficits in cognitive control functions thought to depend on the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, and its interactions with related regions. The current study explored the effects of instructed strategy training on improving cognitive control functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Event-related fMRI was used to test whether effects of such training were associated with changes in brain activity dynamics during task performance. Patients with schizophrenia (N=22 performed the AX-CPT cognitive control task in two-sessions, with the first occurring pre-training and second following strategy training. The training protocol emphasized direct encoding of contextual cues and updating response selection goals in accordance with cue information. A matched group of healthy controls (N=14 underwent the same protocol but were only scanned in the pre-training session. In the pre-training session, patients exhibited behavioral evidence of impaired utilization of contextual cue information, along with reduced cue-related activity – but increased activation during probe and response periods – in a network of regions associated with cognitive control, centered on the lateral PFC. Following training, this pattern of activation dynamics significantly shifted, normalizing towards the pattern observed in controls. These activation effects were associated with both clinical symptoms and behavioral performance improvements. The results suggest that focused strategy training may facilitate cognitive task performance in patients with schizophrenia by changing the dynamics of activity within critical control-related brain regions.

  12. Local morphology predicts functional organization of experienced value signals in the human orbitofrontal cortex.

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    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Amiez, Céline; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-28

    Experienced value representations within the human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are thought to be organized through an antero-posterior gradient corresponding to secondary versus primary rewards. Whether this gradient depends upon specific morphological features within this region, which displays considerable intersubject variability, remains unknown. To test the existence of such relationships, we performed a subject-by-subject analysis of fMRI data taking into account the local morphology of each individual. We tested 38 subjects engaged in a simple incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards, focusing on reward outcome (experienced value signal). The results showed reliable and dissociable primary (erotic) and secondary (monetary) experienced value signals at specific OFC sulci locations. More specifically, experienced value signal induced by monetary reward outcome was systematically located in the rostral portion of the medial orbital sulcus. Experienced value signal related to erotic reward outcome was located more posteriorly, that is, at the intersection between the caudal portion of the medial orbital sulcus and transverse orbital sulcus. Thus, the localizations of distinct experienced value signals can be predicted from the organization of the human orbitofrontal sulci. This study provides insights into the anatomo-functional parcellation of the anteroposterior OFC gradient observed for secondary versus primary rewards because there is a direct relationship between value signals at the time of reward outcome and unique OFC sulci locations.

  13. Longitudinal evidence for diminished frontal cortex function in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Lars; Salami, Alireza; Andersson, Mikael; Eriksson, Johan; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Kauppi, Karolina; Lind, Johanna; Pudas, Sara; Persson, Jonas; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional estimates of age-related changes in brain structure and function were compared with 6-y longitudinal estimates. The results indicated increased sensitivity of the longitudinal approach as well as qualitative differences. Critically, the cross-sectional analyses were suggestive of age-related frontal overrecruitment, whereas the longitudinal analyses revealed frontal underrecruitment with advancing age. The cross-sectional observation of overrecruitment reflected a select elderly sample. However, when followed over time, this sample showed reduced frontal recruitment. These findings dispute inferences of true age changes on the basis of age differences, hence challenging some contemporary models of neurocognitive aging, and demonstrate age-related decline in frontal brain volume as well as functional response. PMID:21156826

  14. Hiperplasia adrenal congênita: dosagem da 17-hidroxiprogesterona basal para seleção e casos para realização do teste de estímulo com ACTH sintético Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: measurement of basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone as a screening test to select patients for the synthetic ACTH provocative test

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    Lúcia Helena Coelho Nóbrega

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar se os níveis de 17-hidroxiprogesterona podem predizer o resultado do teste de estímulo como diagnóstico de hiperplasia adrenal congênita, forma tardia. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas no estudo e avaliadas retrospectivamente 122 pacientes com suspeita clínica de hiperplasia adrenal congênita forma tardia. Essa suspeita clínica incluía sinais e/ou sintomas de hiperandrogenismo (hirsutismo, acne, pele oleosa, irregularidade menstrual, etc.. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas ao teste de estímulo da adrenal com ACTH sintético 0,25 mg (Synacthen®. Após repouso de 60 minutos as amostras foram colhidas nos tempos basal e 60 minutos após a administração de 0,25 mg de ACTH sintético para dosagem de 17-hidroxiprogesterona, sendo mantido o acesso venoso com catéter heparinizado. Foi utilizado o método de radioimunoensaio para realizar as dosagens séricas da 17-hidroxiprogesterona. A sensibilidade e a especificidade da 17-hidroxiprogesterona basal como teste de rastreamento para hiperplasia adrenal congênita foram medidas, avaliando vários pontos de corte. Curvas ROC foram feitas para analisar a performance do teste, utilizando o software Medcalc®. RESULTADOS: a análise por curva ROC mostrou um ponto de corte de 181 ng/dl acima do qual dever-se-ia realizar o teste de estímulo, bem próximo a 200 ng/dl, mais comumente aceito pela literatura. Níveis séricos da 17-hidroxiprogesterona mais altos que 200 ng/dl têm valores preditivo positivo e negativo de 75% e 100% e acurácia de 98,4% como diagnóstico de hiperplasia adrenal não-clássica. CONCLUSÕES: considerando os dados, sugerimos que pacientes com hiperandrogenismo clínico devam iniciar a investigação com 17-hidroxiprogesterona basal e, caso esta se mostre acima de 181 ng/dl, sigam a investigação com o teste de estímulo com ACTH sintético.INTRODUCTION: adrenal hyperplasia is a common genetic disorder and 95% of the cases are due to a 21-hydroxylase

  15. Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Phosphatidylcholine and Executive Functions in Healthy, Older Adults

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    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and executive functions in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher plasma levels of phosphatidylcholine are associated with better performance on a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the prefrontal cortex (PFC that have been implicated in cognitive flexibility. Methods: We examined 72 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 in an observational, cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between blood biomarkers of phosphatidylcholine, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test, and gray matter structure of regions within the PFC. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions and we controlled for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index.Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the PFC, the left inferior PFC (Brodmann’s Area 45, mediates the relationship between phosphatidylcholine blood biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that the inferior PFC acts as a mediator of the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and cognitive flexibility in cognitively intact older adults. This report demonstrates a novel structural mediation between plasma phosphatidylcholine levels and cognitive flexibility. Future work should examine the potential mechanisms underlying this mediation, including phosphatidylcholine-dependent cell membrane integrity of the inferior PFC and phosphatidylcholine-dependent cholinergic projections to the inferior PFC.

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function in 8 boys with adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC due to NR0B1 mutations.

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    Caroline Galeotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Boys carrying mutations in the NR0B1 gene develop adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC and impaired sexual development due to the combination of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH and primary defects in spermatogenesis. METHODS: We analysed the evolution of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function of 8 boys with AHC due to NR0B1 mutations. Our objective was to characterize and monitor the progressive deterioration of this function. RESULTS: The first symptoms appeared in the neonatal period (n = 5 or between 6 months and 8.7 years (n = 3. Basal plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH concentrations increased in all boys, whilst cortisol levels decreased in one case. The natremia was equal or below 134 mmol/L and kaliemia was over 5 mmol/L. All had increased plasma renin. In 3 of 4 patients diagnosed in the neonatal period and evaluated during the first year, the basal plasma gonadotropins concentrations, and their response to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH test (n = 2, and those of testosterone were normal. The plasma inhibin B levels were normal in the first year of life. With the exception of two cases these concentrations decreased to below the normal for age. Anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations were normal for age in all except one case, which had low concentrations before the initiation of testosterone treatment. In 3 of the 8 cases the gene was deleted and the remaining 5 cases carried frameshift mutations that are predicted to introduce a downstream nonsense mutation resulting in a truncated protein. CONCLUSIONS: The decreases in testosterone and inhibin B levels indicated a progressive loss of testicular function in boys carrying NR0B1 mutations. These non-invasive examinations can help to estimate the age of the testicular degradation and cryopreservation of semen may be considered in these cases as investigational procedure with the aim of restoring fertility.

  17. Resting state functional connectivity within the cingulate cortex jointly predicts agreeableness and stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John P; Sheu, Lei K; Gianaros, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Further, individual differences in stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity covary with the functionality of corticolimbic brain systems, particularly areas of the cingulate cortex. What remains unclear, however, is how individual differences in personality traits interact with cingulate functionality in the prediction of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity. Accordingly, we tested the associations between (i) a particular personality trait, Agreeableness, which is associated with emotional reactions to conflict, (ii) resting state functional connectivity within the cingulate cortex, and (iii) stressor-evoked blood pressure (BP) reactivity. Participants (N=39, 19 men, aged 20-37 years) completed a resting functional connectivity MRI protocol, followed by two standardized stressor tasks that engaged conflict processing and evoked BP reactivity. Agreeableness covaried positively with BP reactivity across individuals. Moreover, connectivity analyses demonstrated that a more positive functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate (BA31) and the perigenual anterior cingulate (BA32) covaried positively with Agreeableness and with BP reactivity. Finally, statistical mediation analyses demonstrated that BA31-BA32 connectivity mediated the covariation between Agreeableness and BP reactivity. Functional connectivity within the cingulate appears to link Agreeableness and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stressor-evoked BP reactivity.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, Ż; Knaś, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands.

  19. Connectivity of the amygdala, piriform, and orbitofrontal cortex during olfactory stimulation: a functional MRI study.

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    Nigri, Anna; Ferraro, Stefania; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Critchley, Hugo D; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Minati, Ludovico

    2013-03-06

    The majority of existing functional MRI studies on olfactory perception have addressed the relationship between stimulus features and the intensity of activity in separate regions considered in isolation. However, anatomical studies as well as neurophysiological recordings in rats and insects suggest that odor features may also be represented in a sparse manner through the simultaneous activity of multiple cortical areas interacting as a network. Here, we aimed to map the interdependence of neural activity among regions of the human brain, representing functional connectivity, during passive smelling. Seventeen healthy participants were scanned while performing a blocked-design task alternating exposure to two unpleasant odorants and breathing fresh air. High efferent connectivity was detected for the piriform cortex and the amygdala bilaterally. By contrast, the medial orbitofrontal cortex was characterized by high afferent connectivity, notably in the absence of an overall change in the intensity of hemodynamic activity during olfactory stimulation. Our results suggest that, even in the context of an elementary task, information on olfactory stimuli is scattered by the amygdala and piriform cortex onto an anatomically sparse representation and then gathered and integrated in the medial orbitofrontal cortex.

  20. Differentiating functions of the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex in motor response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Rodrigo, Achala; Domenico, Stefano I Di; Ayaz, Hasan; Gulrajani, Sean; Lam, Jaeger; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2014-01-15

    The right inferior frontal gyrus is generally considered a critical region for motor response inhibition. Recent studies, however, suggest that the role of this cortical area in response inhibition may be overstated and that the contributions of other aspects of the prefrontal cortex are often overlooked. The current study used optical imaging to identify regions of the prefrontal cortex beyond the right inferior frontal gyrus which may serve to support motor response inhibition. Forty-three right-handed healthy adults completed a manual Go/No-Go task while evoked oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex was measured using 16-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy. During motor response inhibition, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and to a lesser extent the homologous contralateral region, showed increased activation relative to a baseline task. Conversely, the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly deactivated, and the extent of reduced activity in this region was associated with fewer errors on the response inhibition task. These findings suggest a more substantial role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in response inhibition and possibly a distinct function of the middle frontal gyrus subserving error detection on manual motor control tasks.

  1. Dorsal premotor cortex and conditional movement selection: A PET functional mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, S T; Fagg, A H; Arbib, M A

    1998-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) brain mapping was used to investigate whether or not human dorsal premotor cortex is involved in selecting motor acts based on arbitrary visual stimuli. Normal subjects performed four movement selection tasks. A manipulandum with three graspable stations was used. An imperative visual cue (LEDs illuminated in random order) indicated which station to grasp next with no instructional delay period. In a power task, a large aperture power grip was used for all trials, irrespective of the LED color. In a precision task, a pincer grasp of thumb and index finger was used. In a conditional task, the type of grasp (power or precision) was randomly determined by LED color. Comparison of the conditional selection task versus the average of the power and precision tasks revealed increased blood flow in left dorsal premotor cortex and superior parietal lobule. The average rate of producing the different grasp types and transport to the manipulandum stations was equivalent across this comparison, minimizing the contribution of movement attributes such as planning the individual movements (as distinct from planning associated with use of instructional stimuli), kinematics, or direction of target or limb movement. A comparison of all three movement tasks versus a rest task identified movement related activity involving a large area of central, precentral and postcentral cortex. In the region of the precentral sulcus movement related activity was located immediately caudal to the area activated during selection. The results establish a role for human dorsal premotor cortex and superior parietal cortex in selecting stimulus guided movements and suggest functional segregation within dorsal premotor cortex.

  2. Enhancing offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation via systematic novelty exposure: the influence of maternal HPA function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinces, Sarah M; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S; Tang, Akaysha C

    2014-01-01

    In the rat, repeated brief exposures to novelty early in life can induce long-lasting enhancements in adult cognitive, social, emotional, and neuroendocrine function. Family-to-family variations in these intervention effects on adult offspring are predicted by the mother's ability to mount a rapid corticosterone (CORT) response to the onset of an acute stressor. Here, in Long-Evans rats, we investigated whether neonatal and adulthood novelty exposure, each individually and in combination, can enhance offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation. Using a 2 × 2 within-litter design, one half of each litter were exposed to a relatively novel non-home environment for 3-min (Neo_Novel) daily during infancy (PND 1-21) and the other half of the litter remained in the home cage (Neo_Home); we further exposed half of these two groups to early adulthood (PND 54-63) novelty exposure in an open field and the remaining siblings stayed in their home cages. Two aspects of HPA regulation were assessed: the ability to maintain a low level of resting CORT (CORTB) and the ability to mount a large rapid CORT response (CORTE) to the onset of an acute stressor. Assessment of adult offspring's ability to regulate HPA regulation began at 370 days of age. We further investigated whether the novelty exposure effects on offspring HPA regulation are sensitive to the context of maternal HPA regulation by assessing maternal HPA regulation similarly beginning 7 days after her pups were weaned. We found that at the population level, rats receiving neonatal, but not early adulthood exposure or both, showed a greater rapid CORTE than their home-staying siblings. At the individual family level, these novelty effects are positively associated with maternal CORTE. These results suggest that early experience of novelty can enhance the offspring's ability to mount a rapid response to environmental challenge and the success of such early life intervention is critically dependent upon the

  3. Effects of chronic ethanol exposure on neuronal function in the prefrontal cortex and extended amygdala.

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    Pleil, Kristen E; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Crowley, Nicole A; Li, Chia; Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A; Rose, Jamie H; McCall, Nora M; Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M; Morrow, A Leslie; Jones, Sara R; Kash, Thomas L

    2015-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption and withdrawal leads to anxiety, escalated alcohol drinking behavior, and alcohol dependence. Alterations in the function of key structures within the cortico-limbic neural circuit have been implicated in underlying the negative behavioral consequences of chronic alcohol exposure in both humans and rodents. Here, we used chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE) in male C57BL/6J mice to evaluate the effects of chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal on anxiety-like behavior and basal synaptic function and neuronal excitability in prefrontal cortical and extended amygdala brain regions. Forty-eight hours after four cycles of CIE, mice were either assayed in the marble burying test (MBT) or their brains were harvested and whole-cell electrophysiological recordings were performed in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PLC and ILC), the lateral and medial central nucleus of the amygdala (lCeA and mCeA), and the dorsal and ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST and vBNST). Ethanol-exposed mice displayed increased anxiety in the MBT compared to air-exposed controls, and alterations in neuronal function were observed in all brain structures examined, including several distinct differences between subregions within each structure. Chronic ethanol exposure induced hyperexcitability of the ILC, as well as a shift toward excitation in synaptic drive and hyperexcitability of vBNST neurons; in contrast, there was a net inhibition of the CeA. This study reveals extensive effects of chronic ethanol exposure on the basal function of cortico-limbic brain regions, suggests that there may be complex interactions between these regions in the regulation of ethanol-dependent alterations in anxiety state, and highlights the need for future examination of projection-specific effects of ethanol in cortico-limbic circuitry.

  4. Effect of interleukin-1beta gene functional polymorphism on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiol, Sergi; Molina, Vicente; Rosa, Araceli; Sanz, Javier; Palomo, Tomás; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2007-12-05

    Hypoactivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during cognitive tasks is among the most consistent findings in schizophrenia. The biological factors contributing to this hypofrontality are only partially known. Previous reports have shown the influence of genes mapped to IL-1 cluster (i) in the risk to develop schizophrenia and (ii) on brain morphological abnormalities in these patients. Moreover, Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), encoded by IL-1B gene (IL-1 cluster, chromosome 2q13) has a key role in dopaminergic differentiation and dendrite growth in developing cortical neurons. The authors explored the role of a genetic functional polymorphism at IL-1B gene in relation to DLPFC activity. DLPFC (left and right) metabolic activity was measured in a sample of 19 DSM-IV diagnosed schizophrenic patients of Spanish origin using a procedure based on MRI/PET image fusion. During PET studies, subjects performed a contingent Continuous Performance Test aiming to activate DLPFC. Functional promoter polymorphism -511 C/T (rs16944) of IL-1B gene was genotyped in these patients. Those patients who were allele 2 (-511 T) carriers showed a lower metabolic activity in the left DLPFC with respect to patients homozygous for allele 1 (-511 C) (U = 16, z = -2.32, P = 0.02). Our results suggest that hypofrontality reported in some schizophrenic patients might be explained, at least in part, by this functional polymorphism at IL-1B gene. Genetic variants with influence on brain functionality may account for the neurocognitive heterogeneity observed in schizophrenic patients.

  5. X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia associated with hypospadias in an Egyptian baby: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia is a rare developmental disorder of the human adrenal cortex and is caused by deletion or mutation of the dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region of the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX-1 gene. Most affected children present with failure to thrive, salt wasting and hypoglycemic convulsions in the first months of life. Hypospadias affects approximately one in 250 live male births. Mutations in the mastermind-like domain-containing 1 (MAMLD1 gene have been implicated as one of the causes of hypospadias in children. To the best of our knowledge, an association between congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to a DAX-1 mutation and hypospadias due to mutation of the MAMLD1 gene has not previously been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 35-day-old male Egyptian baby was referred to our institution for the evaluation of a two-week history of recurrent vomiting associated with electrolyte imbalance. On examination, our patient was found to have hypotension and dehydration. A genital examination showed distal penile hypospadias with chordee and normal testes. He had hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. Endocrinological investigations revealed low levels of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and aldosterone, with a high level of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. A provisional diagnosis of congenital adrenal hypoplasia associated with hypospadias was made. A molecular genetics study confirmed the diagnosis of X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to DAX-1 mutations and hypospadias due to MAMLD1 mutation. He was started on hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone treatment. After three weeks of treatment, his symptoms improved and his blood sugar, sodium, potassium and cortisol levels normalized. Conclusions We report the case of an Egyptian baby with an association of congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to DAX-1 mutation and hypospadias due

  6. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Dissociative Disorders, PTSD, and Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Daphne; Knutelska, Margaret; Yehuda, Rachel; Putnam, Frank; Schmeidler, James; Smith, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    Background This study investigated basal and stress-induced HPA axis alterations in dissociative disorders (DD). Methods Forty-six subjects with DD without lifetime PTSD, 35 subjects with PTSD, and 58 HC subjects, free of current major depression, were studied as inpatients. After a 24-hour urine collection and hourly blood sampling for ambient cortisol determination, a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test was administered, followed by the Trier Social Stress Test. Results The DD group had significantly elevated urinary cortisol compared to the HC group, more pronounced in the absence of lifetime major depression, whereas the PTSD and HC groups did not differ. The DD group demonstrated significantly greater resistance to, and faster escape from, dexamethasone suppression compared to the HC group, whereas the PTSD and HC groups did not differ. The three groups did not differ in cortisol stress reactivity, but both psychiatric groups demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between dissociation severity and cortisol reactivity, after controlling for all other symptomatology. The PTSD subgroup with comorbid DD tended to have blunted reactivity compared to the HC group. Conclusions The study demonstrates a distinct pattern of HPA axis dysregulation in DD, emphasizing the importance of further study of stress response systems in dissociative psychopathology. PMID:17137559

  7. A case of human intramuscular adrenal gland transplantation as a cure for chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodstein, E; Hardy, M A; Goldstein, M J

    2010-02-01

    Intramuscular endocrine gland transplantation has been well described as it pertains to parathyroid autotransplantation; however, transplantation of the adrenal gland is less well characterized. While adrenal autotransplantation in the setting of Cushing's disease has been described, intramuscular adrenal allotransplantation as a cure for adrenal insufficiency to our knowledge has not been previously carried out. Current treatment for adrenal insufficiency leaves patients without diurnal variation in cortisol release and susceptible to the detrimental effects of chronic hypercortisolism. We describe here the case of a 5-year-old girl with renal failure who had adrenal insufficiency following fulminant meningococcemia that led to requirements for both stress-dose steroid and mineralocorticoid replacement. Ten months after the onset of her disease, she received a simultaneous renal and adrenal gland transplant from her mother. The adrenal gland allograft was morselized into 1 mm(3) segments and implanted into three 2 cm pockets created in her rectus abdominis muscle. Three years after surgery, her allograft remains fully functional, responding well to adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulation and the patient does not require any steroid or mineral-corticoid supplementation. We believe this case represents the first description of successful functional intramuscular adrenal allograft transplantation with long-term follow up as a cure for adrenal insufficiency.

  8. Current trends in intraoperative optical imaging for functional brain mapping and delineation of lesions of language cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Neal; Uhlemann, Falk; Sheth, Sameer A; Bookheimer, Susan; Martin, Neil; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-08-01

    Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), epileptic focus, or glioma, ideally has a prerequisite of microscopic delineation of the lesion borders in relation to the normal gray and white matter that mediate critical functions. Currently, Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used for preoperative mapping of critical function, whereas electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is used for intraoperative mapping. For lesion delineation, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) are used preoperatively, whereas microscopy and histological sectioning are used intraoperatively. However, for lesions near eloquent cortex, these imaging techniques may lack sufficient resolution to define the relationship between the lesion and language function, and thus not accurately determine which patients will benefit from neurosurgical resection of the lesion without iatrogenic aphasia. Optical techniques such as intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals (iOIS) show great promise for the precise functional mapping of cortices, as well as delineation of the borders of AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas. Here we first review the physiology of neuroimaging, and then progress towards the validation and justification of using intraoperative optical techniques, especially in relation to neurosurgical planning of resection AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas near or in eloquent cortex. We conclude with a short description of potential novel intraoperative optical techniques.

  9. Functional connectivity of visual cortex in the blind follows retinotopic organization principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striem-Amit, Ella; Ovadia-Caro, Smadar; Caramazza, Alfonso; Margulies, Daniel S; Villringer, Arno; Amedi, Amir

    2015-06-01

    Is visual input during critical periods of development crucial for the emergence of the fundamental topographical mapping of the visual cortex? And would this structure be retained throughout life-long blindness or would it fade as a result of plastic, use-based reorganization? We used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging based on intrinsic blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations to investigate whether significant traces of topographical mapping of the visual scene in the form of retinotopic organization, could be found in congenitally blind adults. A group of 11 fully and congenitally blind subjects and 18 sighted controls were studied. The blind demonstrated an intact functional connectivity network structural organization of the three main retinotopic mapping axes: eccentricity (centre-periphery), laterality (left-right), and elevation (upper-lower) throughout the retinotopic cortex extending to high-level ventral and dorsal streams, including characteristic eccentricity biases in face- and house-selective areas. Functional connectivity-based topographic organization in the visual cortex was indistinguishable from the normally sighted retinotopic functional connectivity structure as indicated by clustering analysis, and was found even in participants who did not have a typical retinal development in utero (microphthalmics). While the internal structural organization of the visual cortex was strikingly similar, the blind exhibited profound differences in functional connectivity to other (non-visual) brain regions as compared to the sighted, which were specific to portions of V1. Central V1 was more connected to language areas but peripheral V1 to spatial attention and control networks. These findings suggest that current accounts of critical periods and experience-dependent development should be revisited even for primary sensory areas, in that the connectivity basis for visual cortex large-scale topographical organization can develop without any

  10. Alzheimer caregiver stress: basal natural killer cell activity, pituitary-adrenal cortical function, and sympathetic tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, M; Hauger, R; Patterson, T L; Semple, S; Ziegler, M; Grant, I

    1997-01-01

    The association between Alzheimer caregiving and natural killer (NK) cell activity and basal plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, beta-endorphin, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y was determined in 100 spousal Alzheimer caregivers and 33 age- and gender-comparable control volunteers upon intake into a study of the psychological and physiologic impact of caregiving. The relationship between these physiologic measures and individual characteristics such as age, gender, medical status, severity of stress, severity of depressive symptoms, and caregiver burden was tested. In addition, the association between NK activity and alterations of the neuroendocrine measures was investigated. As compared to controls, the Alzheimer caregivers had similar levels of NK activity and of basal plasma neuroendocrine hormones and sympathetic measures. While older age and male gender status were associated with increased levels of ACTH, neither medical caseness, severity of life stress, nor severity of depressive symptoms was associated with alterations in any of the multiple physiologic domains. Classification of Alzheimer caregiver burden identified caregivers who were mismatched in terms of the amount of care they were required to provide and the amount of respite time received. The mismatched caregivers had significantly higher basal plasma ACTH but no change in other physiological measures, as compared to non-mismatched caregivers. NK activity was negatively correlated with plasma levels of neuropeptide Y but not with any of the other neuroendocrine measures. Based on this cross-sectional evaluation of NK activity and neuroendocrine and sympathetic measures, we conclude that most Alzheimer caregivers do not show evidence of altered basal physiology.

  11. [The effect of ethanol consumption by dams on the offspring locomotion in the open field test and carboxypeptidase activities in the rat brain and adrenal medulla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhina, E S; Saldaev, D A; Vernigora, A N; Gengin, M T

    2005-03-01

    Consumption of dams ethanol increased the posterity locomotion activity in open field test. The increase in female rats was higher then in male ones. Differences in the carboxypeptidase H and PMSF-inhibited carboxypeptidase activities between the brain regions and adrenal medulla of prenatally exposed to ethanol and intact rats were found. The changing of enzyme activities in female rats was higher then in male ones. It is possible that dams ethanol consumption induced profound changes in locomotion mediated, at least partially, by changes in the rate of proteolytic processing of neuropeptide precursors.

  12. Repeatability of Detecting Visual Cortex Activity in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Ma'soumbeigi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is too expensive and time consuming, its frequent implementation is difficult. The aim of this study is to evaluate repeatability of detecting visual cortex activity in fMRI. Materials and Methods In this study, 15 normal volunteers (10 female, 5 male; Mean age±SD: 24.7±3.8 years attended. Functional magnetic resonance images were obtained during a visual task of sine-wave with spatial frequency of 1.84 cpd and temporal frequency of 8 Hz in three scan runs. Two runs of functional images were provided consecutively in a session, and the third run was provided 1-6 weeks later. The activation map was created using the data obtained from the block-designed fMRI study. Voxels whose Z value was above a threshold of 2.3, at a significance level p=0.05, were considered activated. After image processing, the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal changes and the number of activated voxels in response to visual stimuli were compared in different runs. Results The results of this study demonstrate no significant difference between the number of activated voxels and BOLD signal in first and second runs in one session (Paired t-test, p>0.05. Moreover, there is a considerable correlation between first and second scan runs (rsignal=0.74, p=0.006 and rvoxel=0.62, p=0.03, while the correlation between the runs in separate sessions is weak (rsignal=0.28, p=0.38 and rvoxel=0.32, p=0.31. Conclusion Since the repeatability of BOLD signal and number of activated voxels in one session is considerably better than that in the separate sessions, it is suggested that in fMRI visual studies that need repeated scanning, scans should be acquired during a single session.

  13. Functional organization of human intraparietal and frontal cortex for attending, looking, and pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafiev, Serguei V.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Stanley, Christine M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    We studied the functional organization of human posterior parietal and frontal cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map preparatory signals for attending, looking, and pointing to a peripheral visual location. The human frontal eye field and two separate regions in the intraparietal sulcus were similarly recruited in all conditions, suggesting an attentional role that generalizes across response effectors. However, the preparation of a pointing movement selectively activated a different group of regions, suggesting a stronger role in motor planning. These regions were lateralized to the left hemisphere, activated by preparation of movements of either hand, and included the inferior and superior parietal lobule, precuneus, and posterior superior temporal sulcus, plus the dorsal premotor and anterior cingulate cortex anteriorly. Surface-based registration of macaque cortical areas onto the map of fMRI responses suggests a relatively good spatial correspondence between human and macaque parietal areas. In contrast, large interspecies differences were noted in the topography of frontal areas.

  14. The disorganized visual cortex in reelin-deficient mice is functional and allows for enhanced plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Wagener, Robin Jan; Martens, Ann-Kristin; Goetze, Bianka; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Staiger, Jochen F; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-11-01

    A hallmark of neocortical circuits is the segregation of processing streams into six distinct layers. The importance of this layered organization for cortical processing and plasticity is little understood. We investigated the structure, function and plasticity of primary visual cortex (V1) of adult mice deficient for the glycoprotein reelin and their wild-type littermates. In V1 of rl-/- mice, cells with different laminar fates are present at all cortical depths. Surprisingly, the (vertically) disorganized cortex maintains a precise retinotopic (horizontal) organization. Rl-/- mice have normal basic visual capabilities, but are compromised in more challenging perceptual tasks, such as orientation discrimination. Additionally, rl-/- animals learn and memorize a visual task as well as their wild-type littermates. Interestingly, reelin deficiency enhances visual cortical plasticity: juvenile-like ocular dominance plasticity is preserved into late adulthood. The present data offer an important insight into the capabilities of a disorganized cortical system to maintain basic functional properties.

  15. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  16. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  17. Markers of renal function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj Gowda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  18. Impact of blindness onset on the functional organization and the connectivity of the occipital cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Olivier; Dormal, Giulia; Albouy, Geneviève; Vandewalle, Gilles; Voss, Patrice; Phillips, Christophe; Lepore, Franco

    2013-09-01

    Contrasting the impact of congenital versus late-onset acquired blindness provides a unique model to probe how experience at different developmental periods shapes the functional organization of the occipital cortex. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain activations of congenitally blind, late-onset blind and two groups of sighted control individuals while they processed either the pitch or the spatial attributes of sounds. Whereas both blind groups recruited occipital regions for sound processing, activity in bilateral cuneus was only apparent in the congenitally blind, highlighting the existence of region-specific critical periods for crossmodal plasticity. Most importantly, the preferential activation of the right dorsal stream (middle occipital gyrus and cuneus) for the spatial processing of sounds was only observed in the congenitally blind. This demonstrates that vision has to be lost during an early sensitive period in order to transfer its functional specialization for space processing toward a non-visual modality. We then used a combination of dynamic causal modelling with Bayesian model selection to demonstrate that auditory-driven activity in primary visual cortex is better explained by direct connections with primary auditory cortex in the congenitally blind whereas it relies more on feedback inputs from parietal regions in the late-onset blind group. Taken together, these results demonstrate the crucial role of the developmental period of visual deprivation in (re)shaping the functional architecture and the connectivity of the occipital cortex. Such findings are clinically important now that a growing number of medical interventions may restore vision after a period of visual deprivation.

  19. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B; Martin, John H

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system-with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) - is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

  20. Functional rather than effector-specific organization of human posterior parietal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Heed, T.; Beurze, S.M.; Toni, I; Roder, B.; Medendorp, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have shown that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) distinguishes between the planning of eye and hand movements. This distinction has usually been interpreted as evidence for a modular, effector-specific organization of this cerebral region. However, the eyes differ markedly from other body parts both in terms of their functional purpose and with regard to the spatial transformations required to plan goal-directed movements. PPC may therefore provi...

  1. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Carmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST—is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that ten days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

  2. Structural and functional changes across the visual cortex of a patient with visual form agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly; Thomas, Owen M; Minini, Loredana; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Milner, A David; Parker, Andrew J

    2013-07-31

    Loss of shape recognition in visual-form agnosia occurs without equivalent losses in the use of vision to guide actions, providing support for the hypothesis of two visual systems (for "perception" and "action"). The human individual DF received a toxic exposure to carbon monoxide some years ago, which resulted in a persisting visual-form agnosia that has been extensively characterized at the behavioral level. We conducted a detailed high-resolution MRI study of DF's cortex, combining structural and functional measurements. We present the first accurate quantification of the changes in thickness across DF's occipital cortex, finding the most substantial loss in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC). There are reduced white matter connections between LOC and other areas. Functional measures show pockets of activity that survive within structurally damaged areas. The topographic mapping of visual areas showed that ordered retinotopic maps were evident for DF in the ventral portions of visual cortical areas V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Although V1 shows evidence of topographic order in its dorsal portion, such maps could not be found in the dorsal parts of V2 and V3. We conclude that it is not possible to understand fully the deficits in object perception in visual-form agnosia without the exploitation of both structural and functional measurements. Our results also highlight for DF the cortical routes through which visual information is able to pass to support her well-documented abilities to use visual information to guide actions.

  3. Functionally informed cortex based alignment: an integrated approach for whole-cortex macro-anatomical and ROI-based functional alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Martin A; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    Due to anatomical variability across subjects many brain mapping experiments have analysis focused on a few particular regions of interest so as to circumvent the problem of sub-optimal statistics resulting from the lack of anatomical correspondence across subjects. Since the topographic distribution of experimental effects across the cortex is also often of interest, two separate analyses are often conducted, one on the regions of interest alone, as well as a separate 'whole brain' analysis with sub-optimal spatial correspondence across brains. In this paper we present a new group alignment procedure which incorporates, from each subject, both macro-anatomical (curvature) information and functional information from standard localizer experiments. After specifying appropriate parameters to weight anatomical and functional alignment forces, we were able to create a group cortical reconstruction which was well aligned in terms of both anatomical and functional areas. We observed an increase in the overlap of functional areas as well as an improvement in group statistics following this integrated alignment procedure. We propose that, using this alignment scheme, two separate analyses may not be necessary as both analyses can be integrated into a single procedure. After an integrated structural and functional alignment one is able to carry out a whole brain analysis with improved statistical sensitivity due to the reduction in spatial variation in the location of functional regions of interest which fCBA accomplishes. Furthermore, regions in the vicinity of localised and aligned regions-of-interest will also benefit from the integrated alignment.

  4. Gradients in the Brain: The Control of the Development of Form and Function in the Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Sansom, Stephen N; Frederick J Livesey

    2009-01-01

    In the developing brain, gradients are commonly used to divide neurogenic regions into distinct functional domains. In this article, we discuss the functions of morphogen and gene expression gradients in the assembly of the nervous system in the context of the development of the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is a mammal-specific region of the forebrain that functions at the top of the neural hierarchy to process and interpret sensory information, plan and organize tasks, and to control...

  5. Adrenal invovement in histoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Norasyikin, A. Wahab; Nor Azmi, Kamaruddin; Rozita, Mohd; Suehazlyn, Zainudin

    2013-01-01

    Histoplasmosis infection is endemic in Asia and disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) is one form of its presentation (Benevides et al., 2007). DH commonly affects both adrenal glands. We describe a case of disseminated histoplasmosis complicated with hypercalcaemia in a 75-year-old immunosuppressed patient who presented with bilateral adrenal masses. The fine needle aspiration cytology of the adrenal mass was positive for Histoplasma capsulatum.

  6. Face sensorimotor cortex and its neuroplasticity related to orofacial sensorimotor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Martin, Ruth; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sessle, Barry J

    2011-12-01

    This review describes evidence in subprimates and primates that the face primary somatosensory cortex (face SI) and primary motor cortex (face MI) are involved in sensorimotor integration and control of orofacial motor functions that include semiautomatic movements (e.g., chewing, swallowing) and voluntary movements (e.g., jaw-opening). The review also notes that the neuroplastic capabilities of the face SI and face MI have recently been documented, and may reflect or allow for functional adaptation (or maladaptation) of the orofacial sensorimotor system to an altered oral state or oral motor behaviour. They may contribute to the processes whereby patients undergoing oral rehabilitation can (or cannot) restore the lost orofacial sensorimotor functions. Such understanding is important since pain, injuries to the oral tissues, and alterations to the dental occlusion induced by tooth loss or attrition are common occurrences in humans that may sometimes be accompanied by impaired oral sensorimotor functions. Furthermore, impaired oral sensorimotor functions are common in many neurological disorders, sometimes making the most vital functions of eating, swallowing and speaking difficult and thereby reducing the patient's quality of life. It has also been well documented that such negative consequences can be improved following oral rehabilitation as patients adapt, for example, to a new dental prosthesis aimed at restoring function. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and cortical neuroplastic processes underlying orofacial sensorimotor functions and adaptation is also important for the development of new therapeutic strategies to facilitate recovery of patients suffering from orofacial pain and sensorimotor disorders and improve their quality of life.

  7. Adrenal hypoplasia congenita: a rare cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Loureiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary adrenal insufficiency is defined by the impaired synthesis of adrenocortical hormones due to an intrinsic disease of the adrenal cortex. Determining its etiology is crucial to allow adequate long-term management and genetic counseling. We report the case of a male adolescent that presented in the neonatal period with adrenal crisis and received replacement therapy for primary adrenal insufficiency. During follow-up, adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC was suspected given his persistently raised adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, with markedly low 17-OH progesterone and androstenedione levels. DNA sequence analysis revealed a mutation in NR0B1 gene (c.1292delG, confirming the diagnosis. Delayed puberty and persistent low levels of gonadotropins led to testosterone replacement therapy. X-linked AHC is a rare cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, related to mutations in NR0B1 gene. Despite its rarity, AHC should be considered in patients who present with primary adrenal failure, low levels of 17-OH progesterone and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  8. Prenatal Stress Produces Persistence of Remote Memory and Disrupts Functional Connectivity in the Hippocampal-Prefrontal Cortex Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Neira, David; Espinosa, Nelson; Fuentealba, Pablo; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal stress is a risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, many of which are commonly characterized by an increased persistence of aversive remote memory. Here, we addressed the effect of prenatal stress on both memory consolidation and functional connectivity in the hippocampal-prefrontal cortex axis, a dynamical interplay that is critical for mnemonic processing. Pregnant mice of the C57BL6 strain were subjected to restraint stressed during the last week of pregnancy, and male offspring were behaviorally tested at adulthood for recent and remote spatial memory performance in the Barnes Maze test under an aversive context. Prenatal stress did not affect the acquisition or recall of recent memory. In contrast, it produced the persistence of remote spatial memory. Memory persistence was not associated with alterations in major network rhythms, such as hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) or neocortical spindles. Instead, it was associated with a large decrease in the basal discharge activity of identified principal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as measured in urethane anesthetized mice. Furthermore, functional connectivity was disrupted, as the temporal coupling between neuronal discharge in the mPFC and hippocampal SWRs was decreased by prenatal stress. These results could be relevant to understand the biological basis of the persistence of aversive remote memories in stress-related disorders.

  9. Stem cells in the development and differentiation of the human adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    There are no studies on stem cells (SCs) and development and differentiation (DD) of the human adrenal glands. The SCs in DD of the adrenal glands were herein investigated histochemically and immunohistochemically in 18 human embryonic adrenal glands at gestational week (GW) 7-40. At 7 GW, the adrenal glands were present, and at 7 GW, numerous embryonic SCs (ESCs) are seen to create the adrenal cortex. The ESCs were composed exclusively of small cells with hyperchromatic nuclei without nucleoli. The ESCs were positive for neural cell adhesion molecule, KIT, neuron-specific enolase, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α, synaptophysin, and MET. They were negative for other SC antigens, including chromogranin, ErbB2, and bcl-2. They were also negative for lineage antigens, including cytokeratin (CK)7, CK8, CK18, and CK19, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, epithelial membrane antigen, HepPar1, mucin core apoprotein (MUC)1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6, and cluster differentiation (CD)3, CD45, CD20, CD34, and CD31. The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was high (Ki-67 LI = around 20%). α-Fetoprotein was positive in the ESCs and adrenal cells. The ESC was first seen in the periphery of the adrenal cortex at 7-10 GW. The ESC migrates into the inner part of the adrenal cortex. Huge islands of ESC were present near the adrenal, and they appeared to provide the ESC of the adrenal. At 16 GW, adrenal medulla appeared, and the adrenal ESCs were present in the periphery or the cortex, in the cortical parenchyma, corticomedullary junctions, and in the medulla. The adrenal essential architecture was established around 20 GW; however, there were still ESCs. At term, there are a few ESCs. These data suggest that the adrenal glands were created by ESCs.

  10. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  11. Large-scale functional models of visual cortex for remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumby, Steven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kenyon, Garrett [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swaminarayan, Sriram [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Landecker, Will [PORTLAND STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience has revealed many properties of neurons and of the functional organization of visual cortex that are believed to be essential to human vision, but are missing in standard artificial neural networks. Equally important may be the sheer scale of visual cortex requiring {approx}1 petaflop of computation. In a year, the retina delivers {approx}1 petapixel to the brain, leading to massively large opportunities for learning at many levels of the cortical system. We describe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop large-scale functional models of visual cortex on LANL's Roadrunner petaflop supercomputer. An initial run of a simple region VI code achieved 1.144 petaflops during trials at the IBM facility in Poughkeepsie, NY (June 2008). Here, we present criteria for assessing when a set of learned local representations is 'complete' along with general criteria for assessing computer vision models based on their projected scaling behavior. Finally, we extend one class of biologically-inspired learning models to problems of remote sensing imagery.

  12. Entorhinal cortex structure and functional MRI response during an associative verbal memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braskie, Meredith N; Small, Gary W; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2009-12-01

    Entorhinal cortex (ERC) volume in adults with mild cognitive impairment has been shown to predict prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Likewise, neuronal loss in ERC has been associated with AD, but not with normal aging. Because ERC is part of a major pathway modulating input to the hippocampus, structural changes there may result in changes to cognitive performance and functional brain activity during memory tasks. In 32 cognitively intact older adults, we examined the relationship between left ERC thickness and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during an associative verbal memory task. This task has been shown previously to activate regions that are sensitive to aging and AD risk. ERC was manually defined on native space, high resolution, oblique coronal MRI scans. Subjects having thicker left ERC showed greater activation in anterior cingulate and medial frontal regions during memory retrieval, but not encoding. This result was independent of hippocampal volume. Anterior cingulate cortex is directly connected to ERC, and is, along with medial frontal cortex, implicated in error detection, which is impaired in AD. Our results suggest that in healthy older adults, processes that engage frontal regions during memory retrieval are related to ERC structure.

  13. Computational modeling suggests distinct, location-specific function of norepinephrine in olfactory bulb and piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Licurgo; Reiner, Seungdo J; Ennis, Matthew; Linster, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenergic modulation from the locus coerulus is often associated with the regulation of sensory signal-to-noise ratio. In the olfactory system, noradrenergic modulation affects both bulbar and cortical processing, and has been shown to modulate the detection of low concentration stimuli. We here implemented a computational model of the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, based on known experimental results, to explore how noradrenergic modulation in the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex interact to regulate odor processing. We show that as predicted by behavioral experiments in our lab, norepinephrine can play a critical role in modulating the detection and associative learning of very low odor concentrations. Our simulations show that bulbar norepinephrine serves to pre-process odor representations to facilitate cortical learning, but not recall. We observe the typical non-uniform dose-response functions described for norepinephrine modulation and show that these are imposed mainly by bulbar, but not cortical processing.

  14. Computational modeling suggests distinct, location-specific function of norepinephrine in olfactory bulb and piriform cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licurgo ede Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Noradrenergic modulation from the locus coerulus is often associated with the regulation of sensory signal-to-noise ratio. In the olfactory system, noradrenergic modulation affects both bulbar and cortical processing, and has been show to modulate the detection of low concentration stimuli. We here implemented a computational model of the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, based on known experimental results, to explore how noradrenergic modulation in the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex interact to regulate odor processing. We show that as predicted by behavioral experiments in our lab, norepinephrine can play a critical role in modulating the detection and associative learning of very low odor concentrations. Our simulations show that bulbar norepinephrine serves to pre-process odor representations to facilitate cortical learning, but not recall. We observe the typical non-uniform dose – response functions described for norepinephrine modulation and show that these are imposed mainly by bulbar, but not cortical processing.

  15. Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity in Late Preterm Preadolescence: An Anatomic Seed-Based Study of Resting State Networks Related to the Posteromedial and Lateral Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Andrew J.; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Choi, SoYoung; Ceschin, Rafael; Bhushan, Chitresh; Leahy, Richard M.; Corby, Patricia; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Late preterm birth confers increased risk of developmental delay, academic difficulties and social deficits. The late third trimester may represent a critical period of development of neural networks including the default mode network (DMN), which is essential to normal cognition. Our objective is to identify functional and structural connectivity differences in the posteromedial cortex related to late preterm birth. Methods Thirty-eight preadolescents (ages 9–13; 19 born in the late preterm period (≥32 weeks gestational age) and 19 at term) without access to advanced neonatal care were recruited from a low socioeconomic status community in Brazil. Participants underwent neurocognitive testing, 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). Seed-based probabilistic diffusion tractography and RS-fMRI analyses were performed using unilateral seeds within the posterior DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus) and lateral parietal DMN (superior marginal and angular gyri). Results Late preterm children demonstrated increased functional connectivity within the posterior default mode networks and increased anti-correlation with the central-executive network when seeded from the posteromedial cortex (PMC). Key differences were demonstrated between PMC components with increased anti-correlation with the salience network seen only with posterior cingulate cortex seeding but not with precuneus seeding. Probabilistic tractography showed increased streamlines within the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus within late preterm children while decreased intrahemispheric streamlines were also observed. No significant differences in neurocognitive testing were demonstrated between groups. Conclusion Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks

  16. Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity in Late Preterm Preadolescence: An Anatomic Seed-Based Study of Resting State Networks Related to the Posteromedial and Lateral Parietal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Degnan

    Full Text Available Late preterm birth confers increased risk of developmental delay, academic difficulties and social deficits. The late third trimester may represent a critical period of development of neural networks including the default mode network (DMN, which is essential to normal cognition. Our objective is to identify functional and structural connectivity differences in the posteromedial cortex related to late preterm birth.Thirty-eight preadolescents (ages 9-13; 19 born in the late preterm period (≥32 weeks gestational age and 19 at term without access to advanced neonatal care were recruited from a low socioeconomic status community in Brazil. Participants underwent neurocognitive testing, 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI. Seed-based probabilistic diffusion tractography and RS-fMRI analyses were performed using unilateral seeds within the posterior DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and lateral parietal DMN (superior marginal and angular gyri.Late preterm children demonstrated increased functional connectivity within the posterior default mode networks and increased anti-correlation with the central-executive network when seeded from the posteromedial cortex (PMC. Key differences were demonstrated between PMC components with increased anti-correlation with the salience network seen only with posterior cingulate cortex seeding but not with precuneus seeding. Probabilistic tractography showed increased streamlines within the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus within late preterm children while decreased intrahemispheric streamlines were also observed. No significant differences in neurocognitive testing were demonstrated between groups.Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks despite no significant

  17. How Visual Is the Visual Cortex? Comparing Connectional and Functional Fingerprints between Congenitally Blind and Sighted Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Peelen, Marius V; Han, Zaizhu; He, Chenxi; Caramazza, Alfonso; Bi, Yanchao

    2015-09-09

    Classical animal visual deprivation studies and human neuroimaging studies have shown that visual experience plays a critical role in shaping the functionality and connectivity of the visual cortex. Interestingly, recent studies have additionally reported circumscribed regions in the visual cortex in which functional selectivity was remarkably similar in individuals with and without visual experience. Here, by directly comparing resting-state and task-based fMRI data in congenitally blind and sighted human subjects, we obtained large-scale continuous maps of the degree to which connectional and functional "fingerprints" of ventral visual cortex depend on visual experience. We found a close agreement between connectional and functional maps, pointing to a strong interdependence of connectivity and function. Visual experience (or the absence thereof) had a pronounced effect on the resting-state connectivity and functional response profile of occipital cortex and the posterior lateral fusiform gyrus. By contrast, connectional and functional fingerprints in the anterior medial and posterior lateral parts of the ventral visual cortex were statistically indistinguishable between blind and sighted individuals. These results provide a large-scale mapping of the influence of visual experience on the development of both functional and connectivity properties of visual cortex, which serves as a basis for the formulation of new hypotheses regarding the functionality and plasticity of specific subregions. Significance statement: How is the functionality and connectivity of the visual cortex shaped by visual experience? By directly comparing resting-state and task-based fMRI data in congenitally blind and sighted subjects, we obtained large-scale continuous maps of the degree to which connectional and functional "fingerprints" of ventral visual cortex depend on visual experience. In addition to revealing regions that are strongly dependent on visual experience (early visual

  18. Development of adrenal zonation in fetal rats defined by expression of aldosterone synthase and 11beta-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotus, C; Levay-Young, B K; Rogers, L M; Gomez-Sanchez, C E; Engeland, W C

    1998-10-01

    The adult rat adrenal cortex is comprised of three concentric steroidogenic zones that are morphologically and functionally distinguishable: the zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, and the zona fasciculata/reticularis. Expression of the zone-specific steroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo), and P450 11beta hydroxylase (P45011beta), produced by the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata/reticularis, respectively, can be used to define the adrenal cortical cell phenotype of these two zones. In this study, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to determine the ontogeny of expression of P450aldo and P45011beta to monitor the pattern of development of the rat adrenal cortex. RIA was used to measure adrenal content of aldosterone and corticosterone, the resulting products of the two enzymatic pathways. Double immunofluorescent staining for both enzymes at gestational day 16 (E16) showed P45011beta protein expressed in cells distributed throughout most of the adrenal intermixed with a separate, but smaller, population of cells expressing P450aldo protein. Whereas expression of P45011beta protein retained a similar pattern of distribution from E16 to adulthood (ignoring distribution of SA-1 positive, presumptive medullary cells), P450aldo protein changed its pattern of distribution by E19, becoming localized in a discontinuous ring of cells adjacent to the capsule. By postnatal day 1, P450aldo protein distribution was similar to that observed in adult glands; P450aldo-positive cells formed a continuous zone underlying the capsule. In situ hybridization showed that the pattern of P45011beta messenger RNA expression paralleled protein expression at all times, whereas P450aldo messenger RNA paralleled protein at E19 and after, but was undetectable before E19. However, adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone, as measured by RIA, were detected by E16, supporting the functional capacity of both phenotypes for all ages studied. These

  19. Changes in functional connectivity of ventral anterior cingulate cortex in heroin abusers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Ya-rong; QIN Wei; YUAN Kai; TIAN Jie; LI Qiang; YANG Lan-ying; LU Lin; GUO You-min

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies with animal experiments, autopsy, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and task-related functional MRI (fMRI) have confirmed that brain functional connectivity in addicts has become impaired. The goal of this study was to investigate the alteration of resting-state functional connectivity of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) in the heroin abusers' brain.Methods Fifteen heroin abusers and fifteen matched healthy volunteers were studied using vACC as the region-of interest (ROI) seed. A 3.0 T scanner with a standard head coil was the imagining apparatus. T2*-weighted gradient-echo planar imaging (GRE-EPI) was the scanning protocol. A ROI seed based correlation analysis used a SPM5 software package as the tool for all images processing.Results This study showed a functional connection to the insula vACC in heroin abusers. Compared with controls,heroin users showed decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and vACC, between the parahippocampala gyrus/amgdala (PHC/amygdala) and vACC, between the thalamus and vACC, and between the posterior cingulated cortex/precuneus (PCC/pC) and vACC.Conclusion The altered resting-state functional connectivity to the vACC suggests the neural circuitry on which the addictive drug has an affect and reflects the dysfunction of the addictive brain.

  20. Chronic Stress and Limbic-Hypothalamopituitary-Adrenal Axis (LHPA Response in Female Reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis is a critical adaptive system that maximizes survival potential in the face of physical or psychological challenge. The principal end products of the HPA axis, glucocorticoid hormones, act on multiple organ systems, including the brain, to maintain homeostatic balance. The brain is a target of stress, and the hippocampus is the first brain region, besides the hypothalamus, to be recognized as a target of glucocorticoids. These anatomical areas in brain are limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and amigdal that have multiple control points in regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis. The studies show the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA activity and regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classic feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Chronic stress can have a deleterious effect on the reproductive axis that, for females, is manifested in reduced pulsatile gonadotropin secretion and increased incidence of ovulatory abnormalities and infertility. The limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (LHPA axis suggests a functional role for gonadal steroids in the regulation of a female’s response to stress.

  1. Atypically diffuse functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex in autism

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    Turner Katherine C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting sociocommunicative behavior, but also sensorimotor skill learning, oculomotor control, and executive functioning. Some of these impairments may be related to abnormalities of the caudate nuclei, which have been reported for autism. Methods Our sample was comprised of 8 high-functioning males with autism and 8 handedness, sex, and age-matched controls. Subjects underwent functional MRI scanning during performance on simple visuomotor coordination tasks. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI effects were identified as interregional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal cross-correlation, using the caudate nuclei as seed volumes. Results In the control group, fcMRI effects were found in circuits with known participation of the caudate nuclei (associative, orbitofrontal, oculomotor, motor circuits. Although in the autism group fcMRI effects within these circuits were less pronounced or absent, autistic subjects showed diffusely increased connectivity mostly in pericentral regions, but also in brain areas outside expected anatomical circuits (such as visual cortex. Conclusion These atypical connectivity patterns may be linked to developmental brain growth disturbances recently reported in autism and suggest inefficiently organized functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, potentially accounting for stereotypic behaviors and executive impairments.

  2. Task-related deactivation and functional connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Davey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive disorder is associated with functional alterations in activity and resting-state connectivity of the extended medial frontal network. In this study we aimed to examine how task-related medial network activity and connectivity were affected by depression.Methods: Eighteen patients with major depressive disorder, aged 15- to 24-years-old, were matched with 19 healthy control participants. We characterised task-related activations and deactivations while participants engaged with an executive-control task (the multi-source interference task; MSIT. We used a psycho-physiological interactions (PPI approach to examine functional connectivity changes with subgenual ACC. Voxelwise statistical maps for each analysis were compared between the patient and control groups.Results: There were no differences between groups in their behavioral performances on the MSIT task, and nor in patterns of activation and deactivation. Assessment of functional connectivity with the subgenual cingulate showed that depressed patients did not demonstrate the same reduction in functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during task performance, but that they showed greater reduction in functional connectivity with adjacent ventromedial frontal cortex. The magnitude of this latter connectivity change predicted the relative activation of task-relevant executive control regions in depressed patients.Conclusions: The study reinforces the importance of the subgenual cingulate cortex for depression, and demonstrates how dysfunctional connectivity with ventral brain regions might influence executive–attentional processes.

  3. [Pediatric emergency: adrenal insufficiency and adrenal crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Alicia; Pasqualini, Titania; Stivel, Mirta; Heinrich, Juan Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is defined by impaired secretion of adrenocortical hormones. It is classified upon the etiology in primary and secondary. Rapid recognition and therapy of adrenocortical crisis are critical to survival. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms: anorexia, vomiting, weakness, fatigue and lethargy. They are followed by hypotension, shock, hypoglicemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. All patients with adrenal insufficiency require urgent fluid reposition, correction of hypoglycemia and glucocorticoid replacement, in order to avoid serious consequences of adrenal crisis. After initial crisis treatment, maintenance dose of corticoids should be indicated. Mineralocorticoids replacement, if necessary, should also be initiated.

  4. Principles and management of adrenal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadpour, N.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides information on adrenal diseases of latest developments and guides the clinicians in the care of their patients. The book is divided into two parts. The first section gives an overview of the embryology, anatomy, physiology, markers, pathology, imaging and the current progress in the field. The second edition covers specific diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla. The increasingly significant roles played by steroids, catecholamines, blockers, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are elucidated and discussed. The contents include: Overview of progress; current problems, and perspectives - embryology anatomy, physiology, and biologic markers; pathology; advances in diagnosis; imaging techniques; adrenal disorders in childhood; primary aldosteronism; Cushing's syndrome; carcinoma; pheochromocytoma; neuroblastoma; metastatic disease; surgical management; and subject index.

  5. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Peter; Turner-Bridger, Benita; Peter, Manuel; Momoh, Ayiba; Arambepola, Devika; Robinson, Hugh P C; Livesey, Frederick J

    2015-09-15

    A key aspect of nervous system development, including that of the cerebral cortex, is the formation of higher-order neural networks. Developing neural networks undergo several phases with distinct activity patterns in vivo, which are thought to prune and fine-tune network connectivity. We report here that human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cerebral cortex neurons form large-scale networks that reflect those found in the developing cerebral cortex in vivo. Synchronised oscillatory networks develop in a highly stereotyped pattern over several weeks in culture. An initial phase of increasing frequency of oscillations is followed by a phase of decreasing frequency, before giving rise to non-synchronous, ordered activity patterns. hPSC-derived cortical neural networks are excitatory, driven by activation of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and can undergo NMDA-receptor-mediated plasticity. Investigating single neuron connectivity within PSC-derived cultures, using rabies-based trans-synaptic tracing, we found two broad classes of neuronal connectivity: most neurons have small numbers (40). These data demonstrate that the formation of hPSC-derived cortical networks mimics in vivo cortical network development and function, demonstrating the utility of in vitro systems for mechanistic studies of human forebrain neural network biology.

  6. Bedside Evaluation of the Functional Organization of the Auditory Cortex in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Julie; Pazart, Lionel; Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Muzard, Emelyne; Beaussant, Yvan; Haffen, Emmanuel; Moulin, Thierry; Aubry, Régis; Ortega, Juan-Pablo; Gabriel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    To measure the level of residual cognitive function in patients with disorders of consciousness, the use of electrophysiological and neuroimaging protocols of increasing complexity is recommended. This work presents an EEG-based method capable of assessing at an individual level the integrity of the auditory cortex at the bedside of patients and can be seen as the first cortical stage of this hierarchical approach. The method is based on two features: first, the possibility of automatically detecting the presence of a N100 wave and second, in showing evidence of frequency processing in the auditory cortex with a machine learning based classification of the EEG signals associated with different frequencies and auditory stimulation modalities. In the control group of twelve healthy volunteers, cortical frequency processing was clearly demonstrated. EEG recordings from two patients with disorders of consciousness showed evidence of partially preserved cortical processing in the first patient and none in the second patient. From these results, it appears that the classification method presented here reliably detects signal differences in the encoding of frequencies and is a useful tool in the evaluation of the integrity of the auditory cortex. Even though the classification method presented in this work was designed for patients with disorders of consciousness, it can also be applied to other pathological populations.

  7. Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita Presenting as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Flint

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient with genetically confirmed adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC whose presentation and laboratory abnormalities were consistent with the more common condition, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. The patient presented with failure to thrive and salt wasting. General appearance showed marked hyperpigmentation and normal male genitalia. He displayed mildly elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and markedly elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels at baseline and with ACTH stimulation testing. Results were consistent with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. He required glucocorticoids and high doses of mineralocorticoids. The marked elevation in 11-deoxycortisol directed our clinical reasoning away from a hypoplastic condition and towards a hyperplasic adrenal condition. Sequencing of the DAX1 gene (named for dosage-sensitive sex reversal (DSS locus and the AHC locus on the X chromosome revealed a missense mutation. A review of the literature revealed that elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels have been noted in kindreds with DAX1 mutations, but only when measured very early in life. A mouse model has recently been described that displays elevated 11-deoxycorticosterone levels and evidence for hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. We conclude that DAX1 testing may be considered in patients with laboratory evidence of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, especially in those with severe salt wasting.

  8. Gestational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure effects on sensory cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Darryl B; Woods, Letha; Brown, La'nissa; Johnson, Salynn; Ebner, Ford F

    2006-12-01

    Gestational exposure to environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) poses a significant threat to normal growth and differentiation of the developing brain. To characterize the impact of gestational TCDD exposure on subsequent cortical function, pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to a single acute dose (100 or 700ng/kg b.w. via gavage) on gestational day 15. This dosing regimen had no significant effect on birth index. After the TCDD-exposed animals were born and reached maturity, neural activity was recorded under urethane anesthesia from neurons in primary somatic sensory cortex. Spontaneous activity was reduced by approximately 50% in barrel cortex compared to corn oil vehicle controls. The magnitude of neuronal response to sensory (whisker) stimuli also was significantly reduced, and responses did not achieve control levels at any stimulus intensity. The greatest deficit was in the short latency component of the cortical responses. These decrements in cortical responsiveness were present in young F1 generation TCDD-exposed animals and persisted for up to 180 days. Because glutamate receptors are crucial to the evoked responses and show developmental regulation, selected iontotropic glutamate receptor subunits (NMDA NR2A+NR2B and GluR1) were profiled for RNA levels in the cortex of F1 generation rats. The expression of NR2B (NMDA receptor) and GluR1 (AMPA receptor) subunits was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed F1 generation animals compared to vehicle controls. The results indicate that gestational TCDD exposure results in cortical deficits that are paralled by diminished expression of certain NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits at a time when synapses are being formed for the first time in cortex.

  9. Stress-Related Functional Connectivity Changes Between Auditory Cortex and Cingulate in Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    The question arises whether functional connectivity (FC) changes between the distress and tinnitus loudness network during resting state depends on the amount of distress tinnitus patients' experience. Fifty-five patients with constant chronic tinnitus were included in this study. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were performed and seed-based (at the auditory cortex) source localized FC (lagged phase synchronization) was computed for the different EEG frequency bands. Results initially demonstrate that the correlation between loudness and distress is nonlinear. Loudness correlates with beta3 and gamma band activity in the auditory cortices, and distress with alpha1 and beta3 changes in the subgenual, dorsal anterior, and posterior cingulate cortex. In comparison to nontinnitus controls, seed-based FC differed between the left auditory cortices for the alpha1 and beta3 bands in a network encompassing the posterior cingulate cortex extending into the parahippocampal area, the anterior cingulate, and insula. Furthermore, distress changes the FC between the auditory cortex, encoding loudness, and different parts of the cingulate, encoding distress: the subgenual anterior, the dorsal anterior, and the posterior cingulate. These changes are specific for the alpha1 and beta3 frequency bands. These results fit with a recently proposed model that states that tinnitus is generated by multiple dynamically active separable but overlapping networks, each characterizing a specific aspect of the unified tinnitus percept, but adds to this concept that the interaction between these networks is a complex interplay of correlations and anti-correlations between areas involved in distress and loudness depending on the distress state of the tinnitus patient.

  10. Examining the role of endogenous orexins in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis endocrine function using transient dual orexin receptor antagonism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Michel A; Sciarretta, Carla; Brisbare-Roch, Catherine; Strasser, Daniel S; Studer, Rolf; Jenck, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The orexin neuropeptide system regulates wakefulness and contributes to physiological and behavioral stress responses. Moreover, a role for orexins in modulating hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been proposed. Brain penetrating dual orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists such as almorexant decrease vigilance and have emerged as a novel therapeutic class for the treatment of insomnia. Almorexant was used here as a pharmacological tool to examine the role of endogenous orexin signaling in HPA axis endocrine function under natural conditions. After confirming the expression of prepro-orexin and OXR-1 and OXR-2 mRNA in hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands, the effects of systemic almorexant were investigated on peripheral HPA axis hormone release in the rat under baseline, stress and pharmacological challenge conditions. Almorexant did not alter basal or stress-induced corticosterone release despite affecting wake and sleep stages (detected by radiotelemetric electroencephalography/electromyography) during the stress exposure. Moreover, almorexant did not affect the release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone at different time points along the diurnal rhythm, nor corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)- and ACTH-stimulated neuroendocrine responses, measured in vivo under stress-free conditions. These results illustrate that dual OXR antagonists, despite modulating stress-induced wakefulness, do not interfere with endocrine HPA axis function in the rat. They converge to suggest that endogenous orexin signaling plays a minor role in stress hormone release under basal conditions and under challenge.

  11. Negative BOLD signal changes in ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex are associated with perfusion decreases and behavioral evidence for functional inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Katharina; Blankenburg, Felix; Kupers, Ron;

    2012-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) to study the negative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal and its underlying blood flow changes in healthy human subjects. This was combined with psychophysiological measurements to test...... was accompanied by commensurate decreases in relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Conjunction analysis of the fMRI and PET data revealed a region in the ipsilateral postcentral gyrus showing overlap of negative BOLD signals and relative rCBF decreases. The current perception threshold (CPT...... that the negative BOLD signal is associated with functional inhibition. Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at 7Hz evoked robust negative BOLD signals in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) ipsilateral to stimulation, and positive BOLD signals in contralateral SI. The negative BOLD signal in ipsilateral SI...

  12. IMAGe association: report of two cases in siblings with adrenal hypoplasia and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine; Arroyo, May R; Duckworth, Lizette Vila

    2014-01-01

    We report the postmortem findings of two siblings with gross and microscopic features consistent with IMAGe association (Intrauterine growth retardation, Metaphyseal dysplasia, Adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and Genital anomalies) with an emphasis on the histopathology of the adrenal gland in this rare syndrome. The first sibling was an 8-week old male diagnosed postnatally with primary adrenal insufficiency. There was no deletion of the DAX1 gene by FISH. Examination at autopsy revealed dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, epicanthal folds, flat philtrum, cryptorchidism, penile chordee, overriding fourth toe, and height and weight below 3rd percentile. Grossly, the adrenal glands were not identified; however, microscopic examination of the suprarenal soft tissue revealed a 3 mm focus of disorganized fetal adrenal cortex with distended "cytomegalic" cells with abundant pink eosinophilic cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, and cytoplasmic vacuolization. A minute focus of permanent adult cortex was also seen, but no adrenal medulla was identified. An autopsy of the sibling, who died 12 years previously at day 9 of life, revealed dysmorphic facial features with cryptorchidism and a large phallus. The adrenal glands were grossly hypoplastic (11 mm). Histologically, the adrenal glands showed disorganized fetal cortex with cytomegalic cells, a larger amount of permanent adult cortex, and bizarre nuclei with numerous pseudoinclusions. While there is currently limited information regarding the histopathologic adrenal findings in IMAGe association, our small case series suggests overlapping features between X-linked recessive congenital adrenal hypoplasia (cytomegalic cells with lack of permanent adult cortex) and autosomal recessive congenital adrenal hypoplasia (diminished permanent adult cortex without cytomegalic cells).

  13. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Measure Neuronal Activity in the Cortex

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    Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan

    2013-01-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging optical neuroimaging technology that indirectly measures neuronal activity in the cortex via neurovascular coupling. It quantifies hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and thus measures the same hemodynamic response as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but is portable, non-confining, relatively inexpensive, and is appropriate for long-duration monitoring and use at the bedside. Like fMRI, it is noninvasive and safe for repeated measurements. Patterns of [Hb] changes are used to classify cognitive state. Thus, fNIRS technology offers much potential for application in operational contexts. For instance, the use of fNIRS to detect the mental state of commercial aircraft operators in near real time could allow intelligent flight decks of the future to optimally support human performance in the interest of safety by responding to hazardous mental states of the operator. However, many opportunities remain for improving robustness and reliability. It is desirable to reduce the impact of motion and poor optical coupling of probes to the skin. Such artifacts degrade signal quality and thus cognitive state classification accuracy. Field application calls for further development of algorithms and filters for the automation of bad channel detection and dynamic artifact removal. This work introduces a novel adaptive filter method for automated real-time fNIRS signal quality detection and improvement. The output signal (after filtering) will have had contributions from motion and poor coupling reduced or removed, thus leaving a signal more indicative of changes due to hemodynamic brain activations of interest. Cognitive state classifications based on these signals reflect brain activity more reliably. The filter has been tested successfully with both synthetic and real human subject data, and requires no auxiliary measurement. This method could be implemented as a real-time filtering option or bad channel

  14. Functional and structural remodeling of glutamate synapses in prefrontal and frontal cortex induced by behavioral stress

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    Laura eMusazzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, is associated with abnormal function and regulation of the glutamatergic system. Consistently, preclinical studies on stress-based animal models of pathology showed that glucocorticoids and stress exert crucial effects on neuronal excitability and function, especially in cortical and limbic areas. In prefrontal and frontal cortex, acute stress was shown to induce enhancement of glutamate release/transmission dependent on activation of corticosterone receptors. Although the mechanisms whereby stress affects glutamate transmission have not yet been fully understood, it was shown that synaptic, non-genomic action of corticosterone is required to increase the readily releasable pool of glutamate vesicles but is not sufficient to enhance transmission in prefrontal and frontal cortex. Slower, partly genomic mechanisms are probably necessary for the enhancement of glutamate transmission induced by stress.Combined evidence has suggested that the changes in glutamate release and transmission are responsible for the dendritic remodeling and morphological changes induced by stress and it has been argued that sustained alterations of glutamate transmission may play a key role in the long-term structural/functional changes associated with mood disorders in patients. Intriguingly, modifications of the glutamatergic system induced by stress in the prefrontal cortex seem to be biphasic. Indeed, while the fast response to stress suggests an enhancement in the number of excitatory synapses, synaptic transmission and working memory, long-term adaptive changes -including those consequent to chronic stress- induce opposite effects. Better knowledge of the cellular effectors involved in this biphasic effect of stress may be useful to understand the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders, and open new paths for the development of therapeutic approaches.

  15. The relationship of anatomical and functional connectivity to resting-state connectivity in primate somatosensory cortex.

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    Wang, Zheng; Chen, Li Min; Négyessy, László; Friedman, Robert M; Mishra, Arabinda; Gore, John C; Roe, Anna W

    2013-06-19

    Studies of resting-state activity in the brain have provoked critical questions about the brain's functional organization, but the biological basis of this activity is not clear. Specifically, the relationships between interregional correlations in resting-state measures of activity, neuronal functional connectivity and anatomical connectivity are much debated. To investigate these relationships, we have examined both anatomical and steady-state functional connectivity within the hand representation of primary somatosensory cortex (areas 3b and 1) in anesthetized squirrel monkeys. The comparison of three data sets (fMRI, electrophysiological, and anatomical) indicate two primary axes of information flow within the SI: prominent interdigit interactions within area 3b and predominantly homotopic interactions between area 3b and area 1. These data support a strikingly close relationship between baseline functional connectivity and anatomical connections. This study extends findings derived from large-scale cortical networks to the realm of local millimeter-scale networks.

  16. Long-range functional interactions of anterior insula and medial frontal cortex are differently modulated by visuospatial and inductive reasoning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Mantini, Dante; Romanelli, Roberta; Tommasi, Marco; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Colom, Roberto; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-09-01

    The brain is organized into functionally specific networks as characterized by intrinsic functional relationships within discrete sets of brain regions. However, it is poorly understood whether such functional networks are dynamically organized according to specific task-states. The anterior insular cortex (aIC)-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)/medial frontal cortex (mFC) network has been proposed to play a central role in human cognitive abilities. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed at testing whether functional interactions of the aIC-dACC/mFC network in terms of temporally correlated patterns of neural activity across brain regions are dynamically modulated by transitory, ongoing task demands. For this purpose, functional interactions of the aIC-dACC/mFC network are compared during two distinguishable fluid reasoning tasks, Visualization and Induction. The results show an increased functional coupling of bilateral aIC with visual cortices in the occipital lobe during the Visualization task, whereas coupling of mFC with right anterior frontal cortex was enhanced during the Induction task. These task-specific modulations of functional interactions likely reflect ability related neural processing. Furthermore, functional connectivity strength between right aIC and right dACC/mFC reliably predicts general task performance. The findings suggest that the analysis of long-range functional interactions may provide complementary information about brain-behavior relationships. On the basis of our results, it is proposed that the aIC-dACC/mFC network contributes to the integration of task-common and task-specific information based on its within-network as well as its between-network dynamic functional interactions.

  17. Long-term sensory deprivation selectively rearranges functional inhibitory circuits in mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peijun; Rudolph, Uwe; Huntsman, Molly M

    2009-07-21

    Long-term whisker removal alters the balance of excitation and inhibition in rodent barrel cortex, yet little is known about the contributions of individual cells and synapses in this process. We studied synaptic inhibition in four major types of neurons in live tangential slices that isolate layer 4 in the posteromedial barrel subfield. Voltage-clamp recordings of layer 4 neurons reveal that fast decay of synaptic inhibition requires alpha1-containing GABA(A) receptors. After 7 weeks of deprivation, we found that GABA(A)-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the inhibitory low-threshold-spiking (LTS) cell recorded in deprived barrels exhibited faster decay kinetics and larger amplitudes in whisker-deprived barrels than those in nondeprived barrels in age-matched controls. This was not observed in other cell types. Additionally, IPSCs recorded in LTS cells from deprived barrels show a marked increase in zolpidem sensitivity. To determine if the faster IPSC decay in LTS cells from deprived barrels indicates an increase in alpha1 subunit functionality, we deprived alpha1(H101R) mutant mice with zolpidem-insensitive alpha1-containing GABA(A) receptors. In these mice and matched wild-type controls, IPSC decay kinetics in LTS cells were faster after whisker removal; however, the deprivation-induced sensitivity to zolpidem was reduced in alpha1(H101R) mice. These data illustrate a change of synaptic inhibition in LTS cells via an increase in alpha1-subunit-mediated function. Because alpha1 subunits are commonly associated with circuit-specific plasticity in sensory cortex, this switch in LTS cell synaptic inhibition may signal necessary circuit changes required for plastic adjustments in sensory-deprived cortex.

  18. Olfactory impairment is correlated with confabulation in alcoholism: towards a multimodal testing of orbitofrontal cortex.

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    Pierre Maurage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Olfactory abilities are now a flourishing field in psychiatry research. As the orbitofrontal cortex appears to be simultaneously implicated in odour processing and executive impairments, it has been proposed that olfaction could constitute a cognitive marker of psychiatric states. While this assumption appears promising, very few studies have been conducted on this topic among psychopathological populations. The present study thus aimed at exploring the links between olfaction and executive functions. These links were evaluated using two tasks of comparable difficulty, one known to rely on orbitofrontal cortex processing (i.e., a confabulation task, and one not associated with this area (i.e., Stop-Signal task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty recently detoxified alcoholic individuals and twenty paired controls took part in an experiment evaluating olfactory abilities and executive functioning (i.e., Stop-Signal task and confabulation task. Comorbidities and potential biasing variables were also controlled for. Alcoholic individuals exhibited impaired performance for high-level olfactory processing and significant confabulation problems as compared to controls (but no deficit in Stop-Signal task, even when the influence of comorbidities was taken into account. Most importantly, olfactory abilities and confabulation rates were significantly correlated in both groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Alcoholism jointly leads to olfactory and memory source impairments, and these two categories of deficits are associated. These results strongly support the proposition that olfactory and confabulation measures both index orbitofrontal functioning, and suggest that olfaction could become a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric disorders. Moreover, it underlines the need to take into account these olfactory and source memory impairments in a clinical context.

  19. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Aboitiz, Francisco; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904302

  1. Monosynaptic functional connectivity in cerebral cortex during wakefulness and under graded levels of anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette A Vizuete

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The balance between excitation and inhibition is considered to be of significant importance for neural computation and cognitive function. Excitatory and inhibitory functional connectivity in intact cortical neuronal networks in wakefulness and graded levels of anesthesia has not been systematically investigated. We compared monosynaptic excitatory and inhibitory spike transmission probabilities using pairwise cross-correlogram analysis. Spikes were measured at 64 sites in the visual cortex of rats with chronically implanted microelectrode arrays during wakefulness and three levels of anesthesia produced by desflurane. Anesthesia decreased the number of active units, the number of functional connections, and the strength of excitatory connections. Connection probability (number of connections per number of active unit pairs was unaffected until the deepest anesthesia level, at which a significant increase in the excitatory to inhibitory ratio of connection probabilities was observed. The results suggest that the excitatory-inhibitory balance is altered at an anesthetic depth associated with unconsciousness.

  2. The prefrontal cortex: insights from functional neuroimaging using cognitive activation tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Polikliniek 7, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2004-03-01

    This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the functional anatomy of a variety of cognitive processes represented by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Overall, these studies have demonstrated that standard prefrontal neuroactivation tasks recruit a widely distributed network within the brain of which the PFC consistently forms a part. As such, these results are in keeping with the notion that executive functions within the PFC rely not only on anterior (mainly prefrontal) brain areas, but also on posterior (mainly parietal) brain regions. Moreover, intervention of similar brain regions in a large number of different executive tasks suggests that higher-level cognitive functions may best be understood in terms of an interactive network of specialised anterior as well as posterior brain regions. (orig.)

  3. The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2013-07-24

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function.

  4. Reorganization of early visual cortex functional connectivity following selective peripheral and central visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Norman; Sanda, Nicolae; Authié, Colas N; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Habas, Christophe; Amedi, Amir; Safran, Avinoam B

    2017-02-24

    Behavioral alterations emerging after central or peripheral vision loss suggest that cerebral reorganization occurs for both the afferented and deafferented early visual cortex (EVC). We explored the functional reorganization of the central and peripheral EVC following visual field defects specifically affecting central or peripheral vision. Compared to normally sighted, afferented central and peripheral EVC enhance their functional connectivity with areas involved in visual processing, whereas deafferented central and peripheral EVC increase their functional connectivity with more remote regions. The connectivity pattern of afferented EVC suggests adaptive changes that might enhance the visual processing capacity whereas the connectivity pattern of deafferented EVC may reflect the involvement of these regions in high-order mechanisms. Characterizing and understanding the plastic changes induced by these visual defects is essential for any attempt to develop efficient rehabilitation strategies.

  5. Structural and functional definition of the motor cortex in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessle, B J; Wiesendanger, M

    1982-02-01

    1. The details of the organization of the motor cortex and its anterior and posterior border were investigated in three monkeys by a combination of techniques including intracortical microstimulation (i.c.m.s.), electrophysiological recording of cutaneous and muscle afferent inputs to single cortical neurones, and electrophysiological and anatomical identification of corticospinal neurones; in addition, data from these methods were related to cortical cytoarchitecture.2. Almost 5000 individual cortical loci were tested with i.c.m.s. in the unanaesthetized monkeys. In this paper, we particularly consider the organization of the forelimb motor representation, and its relation to the representation of other parts of the body. I.c.m.s. thresholds of about 5 muA were common for evoking twitch movements and e.m.g. responses in distal forelimb and face, jaw and tongue muscles, but proximal forelimb, trunk and hind-limb movements also sometimes had such low thresholds.3. The fingers were found to be represented nearest the central sulcus, with horseshoe-shaped bands of cortical tissue representing progressively more proximal muscles situated around this central ;finger core'.4. Cytoarchitectonically, the cortex having these low-threshold motor effects was characteristic of area 4. There was also a close fit between the extent of this ;excitable cortex' and the extent of densely spaced corticospinal neurones identified electro-physiologically or with horseradish peroxidase labelling. In subsequent mapping of forelimb afferents to the cortex when the animal was deeply anaesthetized, low-threshold and short-latency responses to muscle nerve stimulation were rarely found in this ;excitable cortex'.5. The anterior border could be clearly established by i.c.m.s. and by the sharp boundary of corticospinal neurones. It was noted that the motor cortex extends rostrally beyond area 4 and its anterior border appears to reside in the posterior part of area 6aalpha (Vogt & Vogt, 1919

  6. Adrenal Lymphangioma Masquerading as a Catecholamine Producing Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Hodish

    2015-01-01

    with an adrenal cystic lesion and biochemical testing concerning for pheochromocytoma. The pertinent diagnostic and imaging features of adrenal lymphangiomas are reviewed. Methods. We describe a 59-year-old patient who presented with hyperhidrosis and a 2.2 by 2.2 cm left adrenal nodule. Biochemical evaluation revealed elevated plasma-free normetanephrine, urine normetanephrine, urine vanillylmandelic acid, and urine norepinephrine levels. Elevated plasma norepinephrine levels were not suppressed appropriately with clonidine administration. Results. Given persistent concern for pheochromocytoma, the patient underwent adrenalectomy. The final pathology was consistent with adrenal lymphangioma. Conclusions. Lymphangiomas are benign vascular lesions that can very rarely occur in the adrenal gland. Imaging findings are generally consistent with a cyst but are nonspecific. Excluding malignancy in patients presenting with adrenal cysts can be difficult. Despite its benign nature, the diagnosis of adrenal lymphangioma may ultimately require pathology.

  7. Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-María; Besle, Julien; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI is ideally suited for structural and functional imaging of the brain. High-resolution structural MRI can be used to map the anatomical boundaries between functional domains of the brain by identifying changes related to the pattern of myelination within cortical gray matter, opening up the possibility to study the relationship between functional domains and underlying structure in vivo. In a recent study, we demonstrated the correspondence between functional (based on retinotopic mapping) and structural (based on changes in T2(⁎)-weighted images linked to myelination) parcellations of the primary visual cortex (V1) in vivo at 7T (Sanchez-Panchuelo et al., 2012b). Here, we take advantage of the improved BOLD CNR and high spatial resolution achievable at 7T to study regional structural variations across the functionally defined areas within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in individual subjects. Using a traveling wave fMRI paradigm to map the internal somatotopic representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers in S1, we were able to identify multiple map reversals at the tip and base, corresponding to the boundaries between Brodmann areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2. Based on high resolution structural MRI data acquired in the same subjects, we inspected these functionally-parcellated Brodmann areas for differences in cortical thickness and MR contrast measures (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and signal intensity in phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images) that are sensitive to myelination. Consistent area-related differences in cortical thickness and MTR/PSIR measurements were found across subjects. However these measures did not have sufficient sensitivity to allow definition of areal boundaries.

  8. Adrenal adrenoceptors in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio ede Lucia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a chronic clinical syndrome characterized by the reduction in left ventricular (LV function and it represents one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances in pharmacological treatment, HF represents a severe clinical and social burden. Sympathetic outflow, characterized by increased circulating catecholamines (CAs biosynthesis and secretion, is peculiar in HF and sympatholytic treatments (as β-blockers are presently being investigated for the treatment of this disease. Adrenal gland secretes Epinephrine (80% and Norepinephrine (20% in response to acetylcholine stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the chromaffin cell membranes. This process is regulated by adrenergic receptors (ARs: α2ARs inhibit CA release through coupling to inhibitory Gi-proteins, and βARs (mainly β2ARs stimulate CA release through coupling to stimulatory Gs-proteins. All ARs are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and GPCR kinases (GRKs regulate their signaling and function. Adrenal GRK2-mediated α2AR desensitization and downregulation are increased in HF and seem to be a fundamental regulator of CA secretion from the adrenal gland. Consequently, restoration of adrenal a2AR signaling through the inhibition of GRK2 is a fascinating sympatholytic therapeutic strategy for chronic HF. This strategy could have several significant advantages over existing HF pharmacotherapies (antiadrenergic, such as bAR-blockers minimizing side-effects on extra-cardiac tissues and reducing the chronic activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone and endothelin systems.The role of adrenal ARs in regulation of sympathetic hyperactivity opens interesting perspectives in understanding pathophysiology of HF and identifying new potential therapeutic targets.

  9. Anatomy and function of an excitatory network in the visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Chung Allen; Bonin, Vincent; Reed, Michael; Graham, Brett J; Hood, Greg; Glattfelder, Katie; Reid, R Clay

    2016-04-21

    Circuits in the cerebral cortex consist of thousands of neurons connected by millions of synapses. A precise understanding of these local networks requires relating circuit activity with the underlying network structure. For pyramidal cells in superficial mouse visual cortex (V1), a consensus is emerging that neurons with similar visual response properties excite each other, but the anatomical basis of this recurrent synaptic network is unknown. Here we combined physiological imaging and large-scale electron microscopy to study an excitatory network in V1. We found that layer 2/3 neurons organized into subnetworks defined by anatomical connectivity, with more connections within than between groups. More specifically, we found that pyramidal neurons with similar orientation selectivity preferentially formed synapses with each other, despite the fact that axons and dendrites of all orientation selectivities pass near (<5 μm) each other with roughly equal probability. Therefore, we predict that mechanisms of functionally specific connectivity take place at the length scale of spines. Neurons with similar orientation tuning formed larger synapses, potentially enhancing the net effect of synaptic specificity. With the ability to study thousands of connections in a single circuit, functional connectomics is proving a powerful method to uncover the organizational logic of cortical networks.

  10. Functional connectivity of primary motor cortex is dependent on genetic burden in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Katherine A; Lowe, Mark J; Harrington, Deborah L; Lin, Jian; Durgerian, Sally; Mourany, Lyla; Paulsen, Jane S; Rao, Stephen M

    2014-09-01

    Subtle changes in motor function have been observed in individuals with prodromal Huntington disease (prHD), but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood nor is the cumulative effect of the disease (disease burden) on functional connectivity. The present study examined the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) connectivity of the primary motor cortex (M1) in 16 gene-negative (NEG) controls and 48 gene-positive prHD participants with various levels of disease burden. The results showed that the strength of the left M1 connectivity with the ipsilateral M1 and somatosensory areas decreased as disease burden increased and correlated with motor symptoms. Weakened M1 connectivity within the motor areas was also associated with abnormalities in long-range connections that evolved with disease burden. In this study, M1 connectivity was decreased with visual centers (bilateral cuneus), but increased with a hub of the default mode network (DMN; posterior cingulate cortex). Changes in connectivity measures were associated with worse performance on measures of cognitive-motor functioning. Short- and long-range functional connectivity disturbances were also associated with volume loss in the basal ganglia, suggesting that weakened M1 connectivity is partly a manifestation of striatal atrophy. Altogether, the results indicate that the prodromal phase of HD is associated with abnormal interhemispheric interactions among motor areas and disturbances in the connectivity of M1 with visual centers and the DMN. These changes may, respectively, contribute to increased motor symptoms, visuomotor integration problems, and deficits in the executive control of movement as individuals approach a manifest diagnosis.

  11. Facilitating skilled right hand motor function in older subjects by anodal polarization over the left primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Friedhelm C; Heise, Kirstin; Celnik, Pablo; Floel, Agnes; Gerloff, Christian; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2010-12-01

    Healthy ageing is accompanied by limitations in performance of activities of daily living and personal independence. Recent reports demonstrated improvements in motor function induced by noninvasive anodal direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) in young healthy adults. Here we tested the hypothesis that a single session of anodal tDCS over left M1 could facilitate performance of right upper extremity tasks required for activities of daily living (Jebsen-Taylor hand function test, JTT) in older subjects relative to Sham in a double-blind cross-over study design. We found (a) significant improvement in JTT function with tDCS relative to Sham that outlasted the stimulation period by at least 30 min, (b) that the older the subjects the more prominent this improvement appeared and (c) that consistent with previous results in younger subjects, these effects were not accompanied by any overt undesired side effect. We conclude that anodal tDCS applied over M1 can facilitate performance of skilled hand functions required for activities of daily living in older subjects.

  12. Birth by caesarian section alters postnatal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J A; Keisler, D H; Sterle, J A; Matteri, R L; Carroll, J A

    1999-03-01

    Eight crossbred sows were selected for the present study (n = 4 vaginal delivery and n = 4 Caesarian section [C-section]). Gestation length did not differ between vaginal delivery and C-section pigs (113.6 +/- .1 and 113.2 +/- .3 d, respectively; P > .16). Blood and tissue samples from 38 pigs were collected at birth. All remaining pigs were sustained with vaginal-delivery sows until 2 wk of age (n = 39). At 2 wk of age, remaining pigs were catheterized for blood sample collection to assess pituitary-adrenal responsiveness to an injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 10 microg/kg). Blood samples were collected at -30, -15, 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 90 min; pigs received CRH or saline at time 0. Pigs were killed and tissue samples were collected immediately following the last blood sample. Serum concentrations of ACTH and cortisol (CS) were measured. Total RNA was isolated from the pituitary and adrenal glands to evaluate gene expression for mRNA specific for pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and for the ACTH receptor. Centrifuged clot:blood ratio was reduced in the C-section pigs at birth (P pigs. Basal serum concentration of ACTH was greater in C-section than in vaginally delivered pigs at birth (P = .01) but did not differ at 2 wk of age (P = .42). Basal serum concentration of CS was not different at birth (P = .86) but was greater in C-section pigs than in vaginally delivered pigs at 2 wk of age (P .99) between the two groups of pigs following the CRH challenge. However, serum concentration of CS was greater (P pigs following the CRH challenge. Expression of ACTH receptor mRNA tended to be greater in C-section pigs at birth (P .73); however, there was a developmental increase (P pigs.

  13. EXPRESSION OF ENDOGENOUS OUABAIN IN MULTIPLE ADRENAL TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore expression of endogenous ouabain(EO) in multiple adrenal tumors.Methods Thirty-one cases of adrenal tumors and 6 cases of healthy adrenal tissues were selected. The expression of EO in the adrenal tiss ue was detected with immunohistochemical streptavidin peroxadase conjugated(SP) method.Results Most of EO positive products were localized in cy toplasm of the zona reticularis of human adrenal cortex, and positive products s howed to be fine granular. There was no positive signal in the medulla. EO showe d on diffused positive in patients with pheochromocytoma accompanied high blood pressure[SBP:(165.22±7.61) mmHg, DBP:(105.52±4.26) mmHg], but there were neg ative in ones with normative blood pressure[SBP:(118.52±4.58) mmHg, DBP:(83±3.60) m mHg]. The expression of EO was positive in all adrenocortical hyperplasic, aden oma an d carcinoma, no matter its high or normative blood pressure. The degree of expre ssion of EO in adrenal tissues was related to the level of BP.Conclusion Expression of endogenous ouabain(EO) in health y adrenal tissue and adrenal tumors was a valuable morphological and pathophysio logical clue for the research on ouabain.

  14. GALACSI integration and functional tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Penna, P.; Ströbele, S.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Duchateau, M.; Fedrigo, E.; Gago, F.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-.; Manescau, A.; Mehrgan, L.; Sedghi, B.; Suarez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Zampieri, S.

    2014-07-01

    GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) modules of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) that will correct the wavefront delivered to the MUSE Integral Field Spectrograph. It will sense with four 40×40 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors the AOF 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS), acting on the 1170 voice-coils actuators of the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). GALACSI has two operating modes: in Wide Field Mode (WFM), with the four LGS at 64" off axis, the collected energy in a 0.2"×0.2" pixel will be enhanced by a factor 2 at 750 nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1'×1' using the Ground Layer AO (GLAO) technique. The other mode, the Narrow Field Mode (NFM), provides an enhanced wavefront correction (Strehl Ratio (SR) of 5% (goal 10%) at 650 nm) but in a smaller FoV (7.5"×7.5"), using Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), with the 4 LGS located closer, at 10" off axis. Before being shipped to Paranal, GALACSI will be first integrated and fully tested in stand-alone, and then moved to a dedicated AOF facility to be tested with the DSM in Europe. At present the module is fully assembled, its main functionalities have been implemented and verified, and AO system tests with the DSM are starting. We present here the main system features and the results of the internal functional tests of GALACSI.

  15. Functional characterization of two novel point mutations in the CYP21 gene causing simple virilizing forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Nils; Riepe, Felix G; Grötzinger, Joachim; Partsch, Carl-Joachim; Sippell, Wolfgang G

    2005-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders most often caused by deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase due to mutations in the CYP21 gene. We studied the functional and structural consequences of two novel missense mutations in the CYP21 gene, detected in two simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients. Both the male and female patient were compound heterozygous for the novel I77T and A434V point mutations, respectively. The in vitro expression analysis in COS-7 cells revealed a reduced 21-hydroxylase activity in the I77T mutant of 3 +/- 2% (sd) for the conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol and of 5 +/- 3% for the conversion of progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone. The A434V mutant had a residual enzyme activity of 14 +/- 2% for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 12 +/- 6% for progesterone. Substrate affinity was similar in the mutants as in the CYP21 wild-type protein, whereas reaction velocity was markedly decreased in both mutants. These effects could be readily explained by structural changes induced by the mutations, which were rationalized by a three-dimensional-model structure of the CYP21 protein. We hypothesize that the I77T mutation markedly decreases the reaction product release and/or substrate entrance to the enzyme's active site, whereas the A434V mutant reduces both the catalytic capacity and reaction velocity. Studying the enzyme function in vitro helps to understand the phenotypical expression and disease severity of 21-hydroxylase deficiency and also provides new insights into cytochrome P450 structure-function relationships.

  16. Acute effects of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Komatsu, Kazutoshi; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    We examined the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen older adults visited our laboratory twice: once for exercise and once for the control condition. On each visit, subjects performed working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity exercise with a cycling ergo-meter. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition. Moreover, NIRS analysis showed that physical exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity, especially in the left hemisphere, during the working memory task. These findings suggest that the moderate intensity exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity associated with working memory performance in older adults.

  17. On the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaday, Charles; Ethier, Christian; Van Vreeswijk, Carl;

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex (MCx), taken together, strongly support the notion that the MCx controls the muscle synergies subserving movements in an integrated manner. For example, during pointing the shoulder, elbow and wrist muscles...... appear to be controlled as a coupled functional system, rather than singly and separately. The recurrent pattern of intrinsic synaptic connections between motor cortical points is likely part of the explanation for this operational principle. So too is the reduplicated, non-contiguous and intermingled...... circuitry. It will be suggested that both operational principles are probably involved. We also discuss the neural mechanisms by which cortical points may be dynamically linked to synthesize movement related muscle synergies. Separate corticospinal outputs sum linearly and lead to a blending...

  18. Mixed functional microarchitectures for orientation selectivity in the mouse primary visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Satoru; Yoshida, Takashi; Ohki, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    A minicolumn is the smallest anatomical module in the cortical architecture, but it is still in debate whether it serves as functional units for cortical processing. In the rodent primary visual cortex (V1), neurons with different preferred orientations are mixed horizontally in a salt and pepper manner, but vertical functional organization was not examined. In this study, we found that neurons with similar orientation preference are weakly but significantly clustered vertically in a short length and horizontally in the scale of a minicolumn. Interestingly, the vertical clustering is found only in a part of minicolumns, and others are composed of neurons with a variety of orientation preferences. Thus, the mouse V1 is a mixture of vertical clusters of neurons with various degrees of orientation similarity, which may be the compromise between the brain size and keeping the vertical clusters of similarly tuned neurons at least in a subset of clusters. PMID:27767032

  19. Cingulate cortex functional connectivity predicts future relapse in alcohol dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Zakiniaeiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing illness. Alcohol and stress cues have consistently been shown to increase craving and relapse risk in recovering alcohol dependent (AUD patients. However, differences in functional connectivity in response to these cues have not been studied using data-driven approaches. Here, voxel-wise connectivity is used in a whole-brain investigation of functional connectivity differences associated with alcohol and stress cues and to examine whether these differences are related to subsequent relapse. In Study 1, 45, 4- to 8-week abstinent, recovering AUD patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during individualized imagery of alcohol, stress, and neutral cues. Relapse measures were collected prospectively for 90 days post-discharge from inpatient treatment. AUD patients showed blunted anterior (ACC, mid (MCC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, voxel-wise connectivity responses to stress compared to neutral cues and blunted PCC response to alcohol compared to neutral cues. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, weaker connectivity in ACC and MCC during neutral exposure was associated with longer time to relapse (better recovery outcome. Similarly, greater connectivity in PCC during alcohol-cue compared to stress cue was associated with longer time to relapse. In Study 2, a sub-group of 30 AUD patients were demographically-matched to 30 healthy control (HC participants for group comparisons. AUD compared to HC participants showed reduced cingulate connectivity during alcohol and stress cues. Using novel data-driven approaches, the cingulate cortex emerged as a key region in the disruption of functional connectivity during alcohol and stress-cue processing in AUD patients and as a marker of subsequent alcohol relapse.

  20. Immunologic, hemodynamic, and adrenal incompetence in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...... research explores several new markers of renal dysfunction that may replace serum creatinine in the future and give new insight on the hepatic nephropathy. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence, and the impact on renal...

  1. A Multiple-plane Approach to Measure the Structural Properties of Functionally Active Regions in the Human Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; King, Anthony P.; Angstadt, Mike; Dennis, Michael J.; Xie, Hong; Welsh, Robert C.; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Liberzon, Israel

    2009-01-01

    Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide the means of studying both the structural and the functional properties of various brain regions, allowing us to address the relationship between the structural changes in human brain regions and the activity of these regions. However, analytical approaches combining functional (fMRI) and structural (sMRI) information are still far from optimal. In order to improve the accuracy of measurement of structural properties in active regions, the current study tested a new analytical approach that repeated a surface-based analysis at multiple planes crossing different depths of cortex. Twelve subjects underwent a fear conditioning study. During these tasks, fMRI and sMRI scans were acquired. The fMRI images were carefully registered to the sMRI images with an additional correction for cortical borders. The fMRI images were then analyzed with the new multiple-plane surface-based approach as compared to the volume-based approach, and the cortical thickness and volume of an active region were measured. The results suggested (1) using an additional correction for cortical borders and an intermediate template image produced an acceptable registration of fMRI and sMRI images; (2) surface-based analysis at multiple depths of cortex revealed more activity than the same analysis at any single depth; (3) projection of active surface vertices in a ribbon fashion improved active volume estimates; and (4) correction with gray matter segmentation removed non-cortical regions from the volumetric measurement of active regions. In conclusion, the new multiple-plane surface-based analysis approaches produce improved measurement of cortical thickness and volume of active brain regions. These results support the use of novel approaches for combined analysis of functional and structural neuroimaging. PMID:19922802

  2. Functional double dissociation within the entorhinal cortex for visual scene-dependent choice behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Woo; Lee, Inah

    2017-01-01

    How visual scene memory is processed differentially by the upstream structures of the hippocampus is largely unknown. We sought to dissociate functionally the lateral and medial subdivisions of the entorhinal cortex (LEC and MEC, respectively) in visual scene-dependent tasks by temporarily inactivating the LEC and MEC in the same rat. When the rat made spatial choices in a T-maze using visual scenes displayed on LCD screens, the inactivation of the MEC but not the LEC produced severe deficits in performance. However, when the task required the animal to push a jar or to dig in the sand in the jar using the same scene stimuli, the LEC but not the MEC became important. Our findings suggest that the entorhinal cortex is critical for scene-dependent mnemonic behavior, and the response modality may interact with a sensory modality to determine the involvement of the LEC and MEC in scene-based memory tasks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21543.001 PMID:28169828

  3. Neural convergence and divergence in the mammalian cerebral cortex: from experimental neuroanatomy to functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kingson; Kaplan, Jonas; Damasio, Hanna; Damasio, Antonio

    2013-12-15

    A development essential for understanding the neural basis of complex behavior and cognition is the description, during the last quarter of the twentieth century, of detailed patterns of neuronal circuitry in the mammalian cerebral cortex. This effort established that sensory pathways exhibit successive levels of convergence, from the early sensory cortices to sensory-specific and multisensory association cortices, culminating in maximally integrative regions. It was also established that this convergence is reciprocated by successive levels of divergence, from the maximally integrative areas all the way back to the early sensory cortices. This article first provides a brief historical review of these neuroanatomical findings, which were relevant to the study of brain and mind-behavior relationships and to the proposal of heuristic anatomofunctional frameworks. In a second part, the article reviews new evidence that has accumulated from studies of functional neuroimaging, employing both univariate and multivariate analyses, as well as electrophysiology, in humans and other mammals, that the integration of information across the auditory, visual, and somatosensory-motor modalities proceeds in a content-rich manner. Behaviorally and cognitively relevant information is extracted from and conserved across the different modalities, both in higher order association cortices and in early sensory cortices. Such stimulus-specific information is plausibly relayed along the neuroanatomical pathways alluded to above. The evidence reviewed here suggests the need for further in-depth exploration of the intricate connectivity of the mammalian cerebral cortex in experimental neuroanatomical studies.

  4. Grey matter volume and resting-state functional connectivity of the motor cortex-cerebellum network reflect the individual variation in masticatory performance in the healthy elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shu eLin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have consistently identified brain activation in the motor area and the cerebellum during chewing. In this study, we further investigated the structural and functional brain signature associated with masticatory performance, which is a widely used index for evaluating overall masticatory function in the elderly. Twenty-five healthy elderly participants underwent oral examinations, masticatory performance tests, and behavioral assessments, including the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale. Masticatory performance was assessed with the validated colorimetric method, using color-changeable chewing gum. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and resting-state function MRI were performed. We analyzed alterations in grey matter volume (GMV using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC between brain regions using the seed-based method. The structural and functional MRI analyses revealed the following findings: (1 the GMV change in the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (2 The rsFC between the cerebellum and the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (3 The GMV changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, as well as the rsFC between the cerebellum and the DLPFC, was positively correlated with masticatory performance. The findings showed that in the premotor cortex, a reduction of GMV and rsFC would reflect declined masticatory performance. The positive correlation between DLPFC connectivity and masticatory performance implies that masticatory ability is associated with cognitive function in the elderly. Our findings highlighted the role of the central nervous system in masticatory performance and increased our understanding of the structural and functional brain signature underlying individual variations in masticatory performance in the elderly.

  5. Left-sided giant adrenal myelolipoma secreting catecholamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Udupa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipoma (AML is a rare benign tumor composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue. Most of these patients are asymptomatic and the tumors are non-secreting. We present a case with a large functional adrenal myelolipoma, wherein the patient was hypertensive and biochemistry revealed increase in 24 hours urinary Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA, a metabolite of catecholamine. The mass was removed surgically and diagnosed as adrenal myelolipoma on histopathological examination. Both his blood pressure and urinary VMA returned to normal following surgery, which suggested that the mass was functioning and was secreting catecholamine. To the best of our knowledge, a catecholamine secreting adrenal myelolipoma has been reported in the literature only once previously. The association of hypertension and adrenal myelolipoma may not be entirely coincidental, as it may be associated with secreting catecholamine, as seen in our case. We also review the literature on functioning adrenal myelolipoma.

  6. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eAsp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed the False Tagging Theory as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the False Tagging Theory to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex would cause a doubt deficit that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage were (1 more credulous to misleading ads; and (2 showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was corrected by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex disrupts a false tagging mechanism which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging are exposed to persuasive information.

  7. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

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    Florence eHoogewoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  8. The functional upregulation of piriform cortex is associated with cross-modal plasticity in loss of whisker tactile inputs.

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    Bing Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cross-modal plasticity is characterized as the hypersensitivity of remaining modalities after a sensory function is lost in rodents, which ensures their awareness to environmental changes. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cross-modal sensory plasticity remain unclear. We aim to study the role of different types of neurons in cross-modal plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In addition to behavioral tasks in mice, whole-cell recordings at the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and their two-photon imaging, were conducted in piriform cortex. We produced a mouse model of cross-modal sensory plasticity that olfactory function was upregulated by trimming whiskers to deprive their sensory inputs. In the meantime of olfactory hypersensitivity, pyramidal neurons and excitatory synapses were functionally upregulated, as well as GABAergic cells and inhibitory synapses were downregulated in piriform cortex from the mice of cross-modal sensory plasticity, compared with controls. A crosswire connection between barrel cortex and piriform cortex was established in cross-modal plasticity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: An upregulation of pyramidal neurons and a downregulation of GABAergic neurons strengthen the activities of neuronal networks in piriform cortex, which may be responsible for olfactory hypersensitivity after a loss of whisker tactile input. This finding provides the clues for developing therapeutic strategies to promote sensory recovery and substitution.

  9. Continuous representation of human portraits and natural scenery in human ventral temporal cortex:evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖壮伟; 林冲宇; 罗小景; 黄芳梅; 庄伟端; 李俊雄; 翁旭初; 吴仁华

    2004-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a powerful tool for tracking human brain activity in vivo. This technique is mainly based on blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) contrast. In the present study, we employed this newly developed technique to characterize the neural representations of human portraits and natural sceneries in the human brain.Methods Nine subjects were scanned with a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner using gradient-recalled echo and echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI) pulse sequence while they were visually presented with 3 types of white-black photographs: natural scenery, human portraits, and scrambled nonsense pictures. Multiple linear regression was used to identify brain regions responding preferentially to each type of stimulus and common regions for both human portraits and natural scenery. The relative contributions of each type of stimulus to activation in these regions were examined using linear combinations of a general linear test.Results Multiple linear regression analysis revealed two distinct but adjacent regions in both sides of the ventral temporal cortex. The medial region preferentially responded to natural scenery, whereas the lateral one preferentially responded to the human portraits. The general linear test further revealed a distribution gradient such that a change from portraits to scenes shifted areas of activation from lateral to medial.Conclusions The boundary between portrait-associated and scenery-associated areas is not as clear as previously demonstrated. The representations of portraits and scenes in ventral temporal cortex appear to be continuous and overlap.

  10. Functional mapping of the human visual cortex with intravoxel incoherent motion MRI.

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    Christian Federau

    Full Text Available Functional imaging with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is demonstrated. Images were acquired at 3 Tesla using a standard Stejskal-Tanner diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging sequence with multiple b-values. Cerebro-spinal fluid signal, which is highly incoherent, was suppressed with an inversion recovery preparation pulse. IVIM microvascular perfusion parameters were calculated according to a two-compartment (vascular and non-vascular diffusion model. The results obtained in 8 healthy human volunteers during visual stimulation are presented. The IVIM blood flow related parameter fD* increased 170% during stimulation in the visual cortex, and 70% in the underlying white matter.

  11. Allosteric modulation of GABA(B) receptor function in human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olianas, Maria C; Ambu, Rossano; Garau, Luciana; Onali, Pierluigi

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of different allosteric modulators on the functional activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors in membranes of post-mortem human frontal cortex were examined. Western blot analysis indicated that the tissue preparations expressed both GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits of the GABA(B) receptor heterodimer. In [35S]-GTPgammaS binding assays, Ca2+ ion (1 mM) enhanced the potency of the agonists GABA and 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid (3-APA) and that of the antagonist CGP55845, but not that of the GABA(B) receptor agonist (-)-baclofen. CGP7930 (2,6-di-t-Bu-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol), a positive allosteric modulator of GABA(B) receptors, potentiated both GABA(B) receptor-mediated stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding and inhibition of forskolin (FSK)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Chelation of Ca2+ ion by EGTA reduced the CGP7930 enhancement of GABA potency in stimulating [35S]-GTPgammaS binding by two-fold. Fendiline, also reported to act as a positive allosteric modulator of GABA(B) receptors, failed to enhance GABA stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding but inhibited the potentiating effect of CGP7930. The inhibitory effect was mimicked by the phenothiazine antipsychotic trifluoperazine (TFP), but not by other compounds, such as verapamil or diphenydramine (DPN). These data demonstrate that the function of GABA(B) receptors of human frontal cortex is positively modulated by Ca2+ ion and CGP7930, which interact synergistically. Conversely, fendiline and trifluoperazine negatively affect the allosteric regulation by CGP7930.

  12. Increased functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and reward system in pathological gambling.

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    Saskia Koehler

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum. PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder.

  13. Functional MRI of the brain: localisation of eloquent cortex in focal brain lesion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymarkowski, S.; Sunaert, S.; Oostende, S. van; Hecke, P. van; Wilms, G.; Demaerel, P.; Marchal, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Nuttin, B.; Plets, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of functional MRI (fMRI) in a clinical environment on a large patient group, and to evaluate the pretherapeutic value of localisation of eloquent cortex. Forty patients with focal brain lesions of different origin were studied using fMRI. Functional information was obtained using motor, somatosensory, auditory and phonological stimuli depending on the localisation of the lesions. To obtain information about the spatial accuracy of fMRI, the results were compared with postoperative electrocortical stimulation. Two patients with secondary trigeminal neuralgia were scanned using a motor protocol and were implanted with an extradural plate electrode. Imaging was successful in 40 of 42 patients (including the 2 with trigeminal neuralgia). These patients were analysed for strength of activation, the relation of the lesion to activation sites and the presence of mass effect. The correlation between these data and surgical findings provided significant additional clinical information. Functional MRI can be accurately performed in patients with focal brain lesions using a dedicated approach. Functional MRI offers important clinical information as a contribution to a decrease in posttherapeutic morbidity. The accuracy of the technique can be confirmed by other modalities, including invasive cortical electrostimulation. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  14. Functional specialization of the left ventral parietal cortex in working memory

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    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the ventral parietal cortex (VPC is subject to much debate. Many studies suggest a lateralization of function in the VPC, with the left hemisphere facilitating verbal working memory and the right subserving stimulus-driven attention. However, many attentional tasks elicit activity in the VPC bilaterally. To elucidate the potential divides across the VPC in function, we assessed the pattern of activity in the VPC bilaterally across two tasks that require different demands, an oddball attentional task with low working memory demands and a working memory task. An anterior region of the VPC was bilaterally active during novel targets in the oddball task and during retrieval in WM, while more posterior regions of the VPC displayed dissociable functions in the left and right hemisphere, with the left being active during the encoding and retrieval of WM, but not during the oddball task and the right showing the reverse pattern. These results suggest that bilateral regions of the anterior VPC subserve non-mnemonic processes, such as stimulus-driven attention during WM retrieval and oddball detection. The left posterior VPC may be important for speech-related processing important for both working memory and perception, while the right hemisphere is more lateralized for attention.

  15. Oleoyl-estrone increases adrenal corticosteroid synthesis gene expression in overweight male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María del Mar; Vilà, Ruth; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Esteve, Montserrat; Alemany, Marià

    2010-01-01

    Oleoyl-estrone (OE) induces a marked loss of body fat in rats by maintaining energy expenditure, body protein and blood glucose despite decreasing food intake. OE increases glucocorticoids, but they arrest OE lipid-mobilization. We studied here whether OE induces a direct effect on adrenal glands function as part of this feedback regulation. Dietary overweight male rats were given oral 10nmol/g OE gavages for ten days. A group (PF) of pair-fed to OE rats, and controls received vehicle-only gavages. OE rats lost slightly more body than PF, but had larger adrenal glands. Tissue corticosterone levels, and gene expressions for glucocorticoid-synthesizing enzymes were increased in OE versus controls and PF; thus, we assumed that adrenal growth affected essentially its cortex since OE also lowered the expression of the medullar catecholamine synthesis enzyme genes. Serum corticosterone was higher in PF than in OE and controls, but liver expression of corticosteroid-disposing steroid 5alpha-reductase was 3x larger in OE than PF and controls. Circulating glucocorticoids changed little under OE, in spite of higher adrenal gland and liver content, hinting at modulation of glucocorticoid turnover as instrumental in their purported increased activity. In conclusion, we have observed that OE considerable enhanced the expression of the genes controlling the synthesis of glucocorticoids from cholesterol in the rat and increasing the adrenal glands' corticosterone, size and cellularity, but also the liver disposal of corticosteroids, suggesting that OE increases corticosterone synthesis and degradation (i.e. serum turnover), a process not driven by limited energy availability but directly related to the administration of OE.

  16. Human cerebral cortex Cajal-Retzius neuron: development, structure and function. A Golgi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Padilla, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The development, morphology and possible functional activity of the Cajal-Retzius cell of the developing human cerebral cortex are explored herein. The C-RC, of extracortical origin, is the essential neuron of the neocortex first lamina. It receives inputs from afferent fibers that reach the first lamina early in development. Although the origin and function of these original afferent fibers remain unknown, their target is the first lamina sole neuron: the C-RC. This neuron orchestrates the arrival, size and stratification of all pyramidal neurons (of ependymal origin) of the neocortex gray matter. Its axonic terminals spread radially and horizontally throughout the entirety of the first lamina establishing contacts with the dendritic terminals of all gray matter pyramidal cells regardless of size, location and/or eventual functional roles. While the neuron axonic terminals spread radially and horizontally throughout the first lamina, the neuronal' body undergoes progressive developmental dilution and locating any of them in the adult brain become quite difficult. The neuron bodies are probably retained in the older regions of the neocortex while their axonic collaterals will spread throughout its more recent ones and eventually will extend to great majority of the cortical surface. The neocortex first lamina evolution and composition and that of the C-RC are intertwined and mutually interdependent. It is not possible to understand the C-RC evolving morphology without understanding that of the first lamina. The first lamina composition and its structural and functional organizations obtained with different staining methods may be utterly different. These differences have added unnecessary confusion about its nature. The essential emptiness observed in hematoxylin and eosin preparations (most commonly used) contrast sharply with the concentration of dendrites (the cortex' largest) obtained using special (MAP-2) stain for dendrites. Only Golgi preparations

  17. Forebrain NR2B overexpression facilitating the prefrontal cortex long-term potentiation and enhancing working memory function in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Cui

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex plays an important role in working memory, attention regulation and behavioral inhibition. Its functions are associated with NMDA receptors. However, there is little information regarding the roles of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit in prefrontal cortical synaptic plasticity and prefrontal cortex-related working memory. Whether the up-regulation of NR2B subunit influences prefrontal cortical synaptic plasticity and working memory is not yet clear. In the present study, we measured prefrontal cortical synaptic plasticity and working memory function in NR2B overexpressing transgenic mice. In vitro electrophysiological data showed that overexpression of NR2B specifically in the forebrain region resulted in enhancement of prefrontal cortical long-term potentiation (LTP but did not alter long-term depression (LTD. The enhanced LTP was completely abolished by a NR2B subunit selective antagonist, Ro25-6981, indicating that overexpression of NR2B subunit is responsible for enhanced LTP. In addition, NR2B transgenic mice exhibited better performance in a set of working memory paradigms including delay no-match-to-place T-maze, working memory version of water maze and odor span task. Our study provides evidence that NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in prefrontal cortex is critical for prefrontal cortex LTP and prefrontal cortex-related working memory.

  18. Functional Task Test: Data Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

  19. What Are Lung Function Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include tests that measure lung size and air flow, such as spirometry and lung volume tests. Other tests measure how well gases such as oxygen get in and out of your blood. These tests include pulse oximetry and arterial blood ...

  20. Metabolism of adrenal cholesterol in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Abraham; Delcroix, Claude; Levin, Sam

    1972-01-01

    The synthesis of adrenal cholesterol, its esterification and the synthesis of the glucocorticosteroid hormones were studied in vitro on human adrenal tissue. It was found that the synthesis of adrenal cholesterol may normally be small in the zona “fasciculata,” particularly when compared with the synthesis of the glucocorticosteroid hormones, that it is several times higher in the zona “reticularis” where esterified cholesterol is less abundant, and that under ACTH stimulation it increases strikingly and proportionally to the degree of esterified adrenal cholesterol depletion. On the other hand, the relative rate of esterification as well as the concentration of free adrenal cholesterol are remarkably stable: they do not differ according to the adrenal zonation and are unaffected by ACTH. Furthermore, from a qualitative point of view, the relative proportions of Δ1 and Δ2 cholesteryl esters formed in situ are similar to those anticipated from their relative concentrations, suggesting that the characteristic fatty acid distribution of the adrenal cholesteryl esters results from an in situ esterification rather than from a selective uptake of the plasma cholesteryl esters. Besides, the in vitro esterification reveals a propensity to the formation of the most unsaturated cholesteryl esters. Regarding hydrocortisone and corticosterone, their synthesis tends to be more elevated in the zona “fasciculata.” Despite its higher cholesterol concentration the zona “fasciculata” should not therefore be viewed as a quiescent functional complement to the zona “reticularis” and the cortical distribution of glucocorticosteroid hormone synthesis is quite distinct from that of adrenal cholesterol synthesis. PMID:4338120

  1. Human Cerebral Cortex Cajal-Retzius Neuron: Development, Structure and Function. A Golgi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eMarín-Padilla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development, morphology and possible functional activity of the Cajal-Retzius cell of the developing human cerebral cortex have been explored herein. The C-RC, of extracortical origin, is the essential neuron of the neocortex first lamina. It receives inputs from subcortical afferent fibers that reach the first lamina early in development. Although the origin and function of these original afferent fibers remain unknown, they target the first lamina sole neuron: the C-RC. The neuron’ orchestrates the arrival, size and stratification of all pyramidal neurons (from ependymal origin of the neocortex gray matter. Its axonic terminals spread radially and horizontally throughout the entire first lamina establishing contacts with the dendritic terminals of all gray matter pyramidal cells regardless of size, location and/or eventual functional roles. While the neuron axonic terminals spread radially and horizontally throughout the first lamina, the neuron’ bodies undergoes progressive developmental dilution and locating any of them in the adult brain become quite difficult. The neuron bodies are probably retained in the older regions of the developing neocortex while their axonic collaterals will spread throughout its more recent ones that, eventually, will represent the great majority of the brain surface. This will explain their bodies progressive dilution in the developing neocortex and, later, in the adult brain. Although quite difficult to locate the body of any of them, they have been described in the adult brain.

  2. Reduced functional connectivity within the primary motor cortex of patients with brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiman, D; Miranda, M F; Erthal, F; Buur, P F; Elschot, M; Souza, L; Rombouts, S A R B; Schimmelpenninck, C A; Norris, D G; Malessy, M J A; Galves, A; Vargas, C D

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at the effects of traumatic brachial plexus lesion with root avulsions (BPA) upon the organization of the primary motor cortex (M1). Nine right-handed patients with a right BPA in whom an intercostal to musculocutaneous (ICN-MC) nerve transfer was performed had post-operative resting state fMRI scanning. The analysis of empirical functional correlations between neighboring voxels revealed faster correlation decay as a function of distance in the M1 region corresponding to the arm in BPA patients as compared to the control group. No differences between the two groups were found in the face area. We also investigated whether such larger decay in patients could be attributed to a gray matter diminution in M1. Structural imaging analysis showed no difference in gray matter density between groups. Our findings suggest that the faster decay in neighboring functional correlations without significant gray matter diminution in BPA patients could be related to a reduced activity in intrinsic horizontal connections in M1 responsible for upper limb motor synergies.

  3. Reduced functional connectivity within the primary motor cortex of patients with brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fraiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at the effects of traumatic brachial plexus lesion with root avulsions (BPA upon the organization of the primary motor cortex (M1. Nine right-handed patients with a right BPA in whom an intercostal to musculocutaneous (ICN-MC nerve transfer was performed had post-operative resting state fMRI scanning. The analysis of empirical functional correlations between neighboring voxels revealed faster correlation decay as a function of distance in the M1 region corresponding to the arm in BPA patients as compared to the control group. No differences between the two groups were found in the face area. We also investigated whether such larger decay in patients could be attributed to a gray matter diminution in M1. Structural imaging analysis showed no difference in gray matter density between groups. Our findings suggest that the faster decay in neighboring functional correlations without significant gray matter diminution in BPA patients could be related to a reduced activity in intrinsic horizontal connections in M1 responsible for upper limb motor synergies.

  4. Functional Connectivity of the Caudal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Is Decreased in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyue; Shi, Lijuan; Cui, Xilong; Wang, Suhong; Luo, Xuerong

    2016-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is frequently reported to have functionally distinct sub-regions that play key roles in different intrinsic networks. However, the contribution of the ACC, which is connected to several cortical areas and the limbic system, to autism is not clearly understood, although it may be involved in dysfunctions across several distinct but related functional domains. By comparing resting-state fMRI data from persons with autism and healthy controls, we sought to identify the abnormalities in the functional connectivity (FC) of ACC sub-regions in autism. The analyses found autism-related reductions in FC between the left caudal ACC and the right rolandic operculum, insula, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and the middle temporal gyrus. The FC (z-scores) between the left caudal ACC and the right insula was negatively correlated with the Stereotyped Behaviors and Restricted Interests scores of the autism group. These findings suggest that the caudal ACC is recruited selectively in the pathomechanism of autism.

  5. Developmental changes in motor cortex activity as infants develop functional motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Meehan, Sean K; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2016-09-01

    Despite extensive research examining overt behavioral changes of motor skills in infants, the neural basis underlying the emergence of functional motor control has yet to be determined. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) from 22 infants (11 six month-olds, 11 twelve month-olds) as they reached for an object, and stepped while supported over a treadmill. Based on the developmental systems framework, we hypothesized that as infants increased goal-directed experience, neural activity shifts from a diffused to focal pattern. Results showed that for reaching, younger infants showed diffuse areas of M1 activity that became focused by 12 months. For elicited stepping, younger infants produced much less M1 activity which shifted to diffuse activity by 12 months. Thus, the data suggest that as infants gain goal-directed experience, M1 activity emerges, initially showing a diffuse area of activity, becoming refined as the behavior stabilizes. Our data begin to document the cortical activity underlying early functional skill acquisition.

  6. Dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintigraphy in hyperandrogenism: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.P.; Woodbury, M.C.; Schteingart, D.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the contribution of adrenal-derived androgens in women with hirsutism, adrenal scintigrams under dexamethasone suppression (DS) were performed on 35 women with increasing facial or body hair and irregular or absent menses. Based upon the DS regimen chosen (8 mg/d for 2 days or 4 md/d for 7 days before the injection of 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethylnorcholesterol), three imaging patterns were identified. The first was the absence of uptake before 3 days (8-mg DS) or before 5 days (4-mg DS) after injection. This imaging pattern was seen in 17 of the 35 patients studied and was considered normal. The second pattern was bilateral uptake earlier than 3 days (8-mg DS regimen) or 5 days (4-mg DS) after injection. This was seen in 13 of the 35 patients and was interpreted as bilateral early visualization. Adrenal-vein catheterization performed on six patients with this pattern showed increased adrenal-vein testosterone. The third pattern, observed in five patients, was unilateral early visualization, which in four cases investigated to date was the result of an adrenocortical adenoma. This study confirms the adrenal cortex as a source of androgens in women with hirsutism and hyperandrogenism and demonstrates that DS adrenal scintigraphy can be utilized to identify those women in whom adrenal-derived androgens contribute to their hyperandrogenism.

  7. Cerebellin in the rat adrenal gland: gene expression and effects of CER and [des-Ser1]CER on the secretion and growth of cultured adrenocortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marcin; Albertin, Giovanna; Spinazzi, Raffaella; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwick K

    2005-03-01

    Cerebellin (CER) is a regulatory peptide, originally isolated from rat cerebellum, which derives from the cleavage of precerebellin (Cbln), three types of which (Cbln1-3) have been identified in humans and rats. CER is also expressed in several extra-cerebellar tissues, including adrenal gland, and evidence has been provided that CER exerts a modulatory action on human and rat adrenal gland. Hence, we have investigated the expression of Cbln1-3 mRNAs and CER protein-immunoreactivity (IR) in the various zones of rat adrenal glands, and the effects of CER and its metabolite [des-Ser(1)]CER (des-CER) on the secretion and growth of cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed high and low expression of Cbln2 mRNA in zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata-reticularis, respectively. Cbln1 was not expressed, and Cbln3 mRNA was detected only in ZG. No Cbln expression was found in adrenal medulla. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of CER-IR exclusively in the adrenal cortex, the reaction being more intense in ZG. As expected, ACTH (10(-8) M) markedly enhanced corticosterone secretion and lowered proliferation rate of cultured adrenocortical cells. CER was ineffective, while des-CER exerted an ACTH-like effect, but only at the lowest concentration (10(-10) M). Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that CER is expressed in rat adrenal cortex, and to suggest that CER conversion to des-CER by endopeptidases is needed for CER to exert its autocrine-paracrine regulatory functions.

  8. Probabilistic map of critical functional regions of the human cerebral cortex: Broca's area revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Matthew C; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Tate, Joseph E; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-10-01

    The organization of basic functions of the human brain, particularly in the right hemisphere, remains poorly understood. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging have improved our understanding of cortical organization but do not allow for direct interrogation or determination of essential (versus participatory) cortical regions. Direct cortical stimulation represents a unique opportunity to provide novel insights into the functional distribution of critical epicentres. Direct cortical stimulation (bipolar, 60 Hz, 1-ms pulse) was performed in 165 consecutive patients undergoing awake mapping for resection of low-grade gliomas. Tasks included motor, sensory, counting, and picture naming. Stimulation sites eliciting positive (sensory/motor) or negative (speech arrest, dysarthria, anomia, phonological and semantic paraphasias) findings were recorded and mapped onto a standard Montreal Neurological Institute brain atlas. Montreal Neurological Institute-space functional data were subjected to cluster analysis algorithms (K-means, partition around medioids, hierarchical Ward) to elucidate crucial network epicentres. Sensorimotor function was observed in the pre/post-central gyri as expected. Articulation epicentres were also found within the pre/post-central gyri. However, speech arrest localized to ventral premotor cortex, not the classical Broca's area. Anomia/paraphasia data demonstrated foci not only within classical Wernicke's area but also within the middle and inferior frontal gyri. We report the first bilateral probabilistic map for crucial cortical epicentres of human brain functions in the right and left hemispheres, including sensory, motor, and language (speech, articulation, phonology and semantics). These data challenge classical theories of brain organization (e.g. Broca's area as speech output region) and provide a distributed framework for future studies of neural networks.

  9. Prefrontal cortex activation during story encoding/retrieval: a multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Moro, Sara; Cutini, Simone; Ursini, Maria Laura; Ferrari, Marco; Quaresima, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Encoding, storage and retrieval constitute three fundamental stages in information processing and memory. They allow for the creation of new memory traces, the maintenance and the consolidation of these traces over time, and the access and recover of the stored information from short or long-term memory. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that measures concentration changes of oxygenated-hemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HHb) in cortical microcirculation blood vessels by means of the characteristic absorption spectra of hemoglobin in the near-infrared range. In the present study, we monitored, using a 16-channel fNIRS system, the hemodynamic response during the encoding and retrieval processes (EP and RP, respectively) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 13 healthy subjects (27.2 ± 2.6 years) while were performing the "Logical Memory Test" (LMT) of the Wechsler Memory Scale. A LMT-related PFC activation was expected; specifically, it was hypothesized a neural dissociation between EP and RP. The results showed a heterogeneous O2Hb/HHb response over the mapped area during the EP and the RP, with a O2Hb progressive and prominent increment in ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) since the beginning of the EP. During the RP a broader activation, including the VLPFC, the dorsolateral PFC and the frontopolar cortex, was observed. This could be explained by the different contributions of the PFC regions in the EP and the RP. Considering the fNIRS applicability for the hemodynamic monitoring during the LMT performance, this study has demonstrated that fNIRS could be utilized as a valuable clinical diagnostic tool, and that it has the potential to be adopted in patients with cognitive disorders or slight working memory deficits.

  10. PREFRONTAL CORTEX ACTIVATION DURING STORY ENCODING/RETRIEVAL: A MULTI-CHANNEL FUNCTIONAL NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eBasso Moro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Encoding, storage and retrieval constitute three fundamental stages in information processing and memory. They allow for the creation of new memory traces, the maintenance and the consolidation of these traces over time, and the access and recover of the stored information from short or long-term memory. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that measures concentration changes of oxygenated-hemoglobin (O2Hb and deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HHb in cortical microcirculation blood vessels by means of the characteristic absorption spectra of hemoglobin in the near-infrared range. In the present study, we monitored, using a sixteen-channel fNIRS system, the hemodynamic response during the encoding and retrieval processes (EP and RP, respectively over the prefrontal cortex (PFC of thirteen healthy subjects (27.2±2.6 y. while were performing the Logical Memory Test (LMT of the Wechsler Memory Scale. A LMT-related PFC activation was expected; specifically, it was hypothesized a neural dissociation between EP and RP. The results showed a heterogeneous O2Hb/HHb response over the mapped area during the EP and the RP, with a O2Hb progressive and prominent increment in ventrolateral PFC since the beginning of the EP. During the RP a broader activation, including the ventrolateral PFC, the dorsolateral PFC and the frontopolar cortex, was observed. This could be explained by the different contributions of the PFC regions in the EP and the RP. Considering the fNIRS applicability for the hemodynamic monitoring during the LMT performance, this study has demonstrated that fNIRS could be utilized as a valuable clinical diagnostic tool, and that it has the potential to be adopted in patients with cognitive disorders or slight working memory deficits.

  11. Neuropeptide S facilitates mice olfactory function through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the olfactory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Shao

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS is a newly identified neuromodulator located in the brainstem and regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptors (NPSR. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the olfactory cortex suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of NPS or co-injection of NPSR antagonist on the olfactory behaviors, food intake, and c-Fos expression in olfactory cortex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos immunereactive (-ir neurons that also bear NPSR. NPS (0.1-1 nmol i.c.v. injection significantly reduced the latency to find the buried food, and increased olfactory differentiation of different odors and the total sniffing time spent in olfactory habituation/dishabituation tasks. NPS facilitated olfactory ability most at the dose of 0.5 nmol, which could be blocked by co-injection of 40 nmol NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5]NPS. NPS administration dose-dependently inhibited food intake in fasted mice. Ex-vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry in the olfactory cortex revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced c-Fos expression in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, piriform cortex (Pir, ventral tenia tecta (VTT, the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt. The percentage of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 88.5% and 98.1% in the AON and Pir, respectively. The present findings demonstrated that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function in mice.

  12. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  13. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their genitalia during infancy. Steroids used to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia do not usually cause side effects such as obesity or weak bones, because the doses replace the hormones that the ...

  14. Functional differentiation of the premotor cortex : Behavioural and brain imaging studies in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, Adriaan Remco Ewoud

    2015-01-01

    The premotor cortex is a brain structure that is involved in the preparation of movements. It has an important role in the final integration of task-related information and to funnel this to the primary motor cortex, which subsequently causes the execution of a movement. Premotor areas can also infl

  15. Functional connectivity of human premotor and motor cortex explored with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munchau, A.; Bloem, B.R.; Irlbacher, K.; Trimble, M.R.; Rothwell, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Connections between the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex are dense and are important in the visual guidance of arm movements. We have shown previously that it is possible to engage these connections in humans and to measure the net amount of inhibition/facilitation from premotor to motor

  16. Functionally Specific Oscillatory Activity Correlates between Visual and Auditory Cortex in the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Inga M.; Hipp, Joerg F.; Schneider, Till R.; Roder, Brigitte; Engel, Andreas K.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the visual cortex of blind humans is activated in non-visual tasks. However, the electrophysiological signals underlying this cross-modal plasticity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the neuronal population activity in the visual and auditory cortex of congenitally blind humans and sighted controls in a…

  17. Quantitative Liver Function Tests: A Realizable Goal?

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Denis J; Susan L Elliott; Hany Ghabrial; Smallwood, Richard A

    1991-01-01

    A variety of tests has been used to assess liver function and predict hepatic functional reserve in patients with liver disease. These tests comprise clinical assessment, simple biochemical measurements and so-called ‘quantitative’ tests of liver function, ie, elimination rate measurements of exogenous markers such as drugs and other compounds. So far no single test or group of tests has proved to be a sufficiently sensitive and accurate measure of overall hepatic function across the whole sp...

  18. Colocalized structural and functional changes in the cortex of patients with trigeminal neuropathic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre F DaSilva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests that in chronic pain there are changes in gray matter consistent with decreased brain volume, indicating that the disease process may produce morphological changes in the brains of those affected. However, no study has evaluated cortical thickness in relation to specific functional changes in evoked pain. In this study we sought to investigate structural (gray matter thickness and functional (blood oxygenation dependent level - BOLD changes in cortical regions of precisely matched patients with chronic trigeminal neuropathic pain (TNP affecting the right maxillary (V2 division of the trigeminal nerve. The model has a number of advantages including the evaluation of specific changes that can be mapped to known somatotopic anatomy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cortical regions were chosen based on sensory (Somatosensory cortex (SI and SII, motor (MI and posterior insula, or emotional (DLPFC, Frontal, Anterior Insula, Cingulate processing of pain. Both structural and functional (to brush-induced allodynia scans were obtained and averaged from two different imaging sessions separated by 2-6 months in all patients. Age and gender-matched healthy controls were also scanned twice for cortical thickness measurement. Changes in cortical thickness of TNP patients were frequently colocalized and correlated with functional allodynic activations, and included both cortical thickening and thinning in sensorimotor regions, and predominantly thinning in emotional regions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, such patterns of cortical thickness suggest a dynamic functionally-driven plasticity of the brain. These structural changes, which correlated with the pain duration, age-at-onset, pain intensity and cortical activity, may be specific targets for evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  19. Resting-state functional connectivity in anterior cingulate cortex in normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang eCao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that normal aging is associated with cognitive decline and well-maintained emotional well-being. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is an important brain region involved in emotional and cognitive processing. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (FC of two ACC subregions in 30 healthy older adults versus 33 healthy younger adults, by parcellating into rostral (rACC and dorsal (dACC ACC based on clustering of FC profiles. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated greater connection between rACC and anterior insula, suggesting that older adults recruit more proximal dACC brain regions connected with insula to maintain a salient response. Older adults also demonstrated increased FC between rACC and superior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, decreased integration between rACC and default mode, and decreased dACC-hippocampal and dACC-thalamic connectivity. These altered FCs reflected rACC and dACC reorganization, and might be related to well emotion regulation and cognitive decline in older adults. Our findings provide further insight into potential functional substrates of emotional and cognitive alterations in the aging brain.

  20. Functional changes in piriform cortex pyramidal neurons in the chronic methamphetamine-treated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Nobuaki; Kadota, Tomoko; Akaike, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic treatment of rats with methamphetamine (MAP) causes a range of functional changes to the central nervous system (CNS), including a toxicity that is widespread throughout the brain (Frost and Cadet 2000; Fasihpour et al. 2013). In this report, we examined the effect of chronic MAP treatment on pyramidal neurons of the rat piriform cortex, an area involved in sensory processing, associative learning and a model system for studies on synaptic plasticity. MAP treatment significantly depolarized the membrane potential and decreased neuronal input resistance. Furthermore, the voltage-dependence of both AMPA and NMDA responses was disturbed by chronic MAP treatment, and the extent of long-term potentiation (LTP) was decreased. Morphological changes of MAP-treated rat pyramidal neurons were observed as blebbing of the dendrite trees. The changes we observed represent detrimental effects on the function of piriform cortical neurons further illustrating deficits in synaptic plasticity extend beyond the hippocampus. These changes may contribute to behavioural deficits in chronic MAP-treated animals.

  1. High-resolution optical functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan P Koch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive optical imaging of brain function has been promoted in a number of fields in which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is limited due to constraints induced by the scanning environment. Beyond physiological and psychological research, bedside monitoring and neurorehabilitation may be relevant clinical applications that are yet little explored. A major obstacle to advocate the tool in clinical research is insufficient spatial resolution. Based on a multi-distance high-density optical imaging setup, we here demonstrate a dramatic increase in sensitivity of the method. We show that optical imaging allows for the differentiation between activations of single finger representations in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI. Methodologically our findings confirm results in a pioneering study by Zeff et al. (2007 and extend them to the homuncular organization of SI. After performing a motor task, 8 subjects underwent vibrotactile stimulation of the little finger and the thumb. We used a high-density diffuse-optical sensing array in conjunction with optical tomographic reconstruction. Optical imaging disclosed three discrete activation foci one for motor and 2 discrete foci for vibrotactile stimulation of the 1st and 5th finger respectively. The results were co-registered to the individual anatomical brain anatomy (MRI which confirmed the localization in the expected cortical gyri in 4 subjects. This advance in spatial resolution opens new perspectives to apply optical imaging in the research on plasticity notably in patients undergoing neurorehabilitation.

  2. Neural Substrates of Dopamine D2 Receptor Modulated Executive Functions in the Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M Victoria; Miller, Earl K

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) play a major role in cognition, mood and motor movements. Their blockade by antipsychotic drugs reduces hallucinatory and delusional behaviors in schizophrenia, but often fails to alleviate affective and cognitive dysfunctions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) expresses D2R and is altered in schizophrenia. We investigated how D2R modulate behavior and PFC function in monkeys. Two monkeys learned new and performed highly familiar visuomotor associations, where each cue was associated with a saccade to a right or left target. We recorded neural spikes and local field potentials from multiple electrodes while injecting the D2R antagonist eticlopride in the lateral PFC. Blocking prefrontal D2R impaired associative learning and cognitive flexibility, reduced motivation, but left the performance of familiar associations intact. Eticlopride reduced saccade-direction selectivity of prefrontal neurons, leading to a decrease in neural information about the associations, and an increase in alpha oscillations. These results, together with our recent study using a D1R antagonist, suggest that D1R and D2R in the primate lateral PFC cooperate to modulate several executive functions. Our findings help to gain insight into why antipsychotic drugs, with strong antagonistic actions on D2R, fail to ameliorate cognitive and emotional deficits in schizophrenia.

  3. Lack of functional specialization of neurons in the mouse primary visual cortex that have expressed calretinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eCamillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein often used as a marker for a subset of inhibitory interneurons in the mammalian neocortex. We studied the labeled cells in offspring from a cross of a Cre-dependent reporter line with the CR-ires-Cre mice, which express Cre-recombinase in the same pattern as calretinin. We found that in the mature visual cortex, only a minority of the cells that have expressed calretinin and Cre-recombinase during their lifetime is GABAergic and only about 20% are immunoreactive for calretinin. The reason behind this is that calretinin is transiently expressed in many cortical pyramidal neurons during development. To determine whether neurons that express or have expressed calretinin share any distinct functional characteristics, we recorded their visual response properties using GCaMP6s calcium imaging. The average orientation selectivity, size tuning, and temporal and spatial frequency tuning of this group of cells, however, match the response profile of the general neuronal population, revealing the lack of functional specialization for the features studied.

  4. Functional and laminar dissociations between muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic neuromodulation in the tree shrew primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Anwesha; Bießmann, Felix; Veit, Julia; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-04-01

    Acetylcholine is an important neuromodulator involved in cognitive function. The impact of cholinergic neuromodulation on computations within the cortical microcircuit is not well understood. Here we investigate the effects of layer-specific cholinergic drug application in the tree shrew primary visual cortex during visual stimulation with drifting grating stimuli of varying contrast and orientation. We describe differences between muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic effects in terms of both the layer of cortex and the attribute of visual representation. Nicotinic receptor activation enhanced the contrast response in the granular input layer of the cortex, while tending to reduce neural selectivity for orientation across all cortical layers. Muscarinic activation modestly enhanced the contrast response across cortical layers, and tended to improve orientation tuning. This resulted in highest orientation selectivity in the supra- and infragranular layers, where orientation selectivity was already greatest in the absence of pharmacological stimulation. Our results indicate that laminar position plays a crucial part in functional consequences of cholinergic stimulation, consistent with the differential distribution of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors function to enhance sensory representations arriving in the cortex, whereas muscarinic receptors act to boost the cortical computation of orientation tuning. Our findings suggest close homology between cholinergic mechanisms in tree shrew and primate visual cortices.

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex in humans: response to increased functional demands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Khushu; S S Kumaran; R P Tripathi; A Gupta; P C Jain; V Jain

    2001-06-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been performed on 20 right handed volunteers at 1.5 Tesla using echo planar imaging (EPI) protocol. Index finger tapping invoked localized activation in the primary motor area. Consistent and highly reproducible activation in the primary motor area was observed in six different sessions of a volunteer over a period of one month. Increased tapping rate resulted in increase in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal intensity as well as the volume/area of activation (pixels) in the contralateral primary motor area up to tapping rate of 120 taps/min (2 Hz), beyond which it saturates. Activation in supplementary motor area was also observed. The obtained results are correlated to increased functional demands.

  6. The loss of interneuron functional diversity in the piriform cortex after induction of experimental epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilovici, Cezar; Pollock, Emily; Everest, Michelle; Poulter, Michael O

    2012-12-01

    Interneuronal functional diversity is thought to be an important factor in the control of neural network oscillations in many brain regions. Specifically, interneuron action potential firing patterns are thought to modulate brain rhythms. In neurological disorders such as epilepsy where brain rhythms are significantly disturbed interneuron function is largely unexplored. Thus the purpose of this study was to examine the functional diversity of piriform cortex interneurons (PC; an area of the brain that easily supports seizures) before and after kindling-induced epilepsy. Using cluster analysis, we found five control firing behaviors. These groups were termed: non-adapting very high frequency (NAvHF), adapting high frequency (AHF), adapting low frequency (ALF), strongly adapting low frequency (sALF), and weakly adapting low frequency (wALF). A morphological analysis showed these spiking patterns were not associated with any specific interneuronal morphology although we found that most of the cells displaying NAvHF firing pattern were multipolar. After kindling about 40% of interneuronal firing pattern changed, and neither the NAvHF nor the wALF phenotypes were found. We also found that in multipolar interneurons a long-lasting potassium current was increased. A qPCR analysis indicated Kv1.6 subtype was up-regulated after kindling. An immunocytochemical analysis showed that Kv1.6 protein expression on parvalbumin (multipolar) interneurons increased by greater than 400%. We also examined whether these changes could be due to the selective death of a subset of interneurons but found that there was no change in cell number. These data show an important loss of the functional diversity of interneurons in the PC. Our data suggest that under pathophysiological condition interneurons are plastic resulting in the attenuation of high frequency network oscillations in favor of low frequency network activity. This may be an important new mechanism by which network synchrony is

  7. Fetal alcohol exposure alters proopiomelanocortin gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function via increasing MeCP2 expression in the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is a precursor gene of the neuropeptide β-endorphin in the hypothalamus and is known to regulate various physiological functions including stress response. Several recent reports showed that fetal alcohol exposure programs the hypothalamus to produce lower levels of POMC gene transcripts and to elevate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to stressful stimuli. We investigated the role of methyl CpG binding protein (MeCP2 in the effects of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed between GD 7 and 21 with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol, pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet, or fed ad libitum with rat chow, and their male offsprings were used at 60 days after birth in this study. Fetal alcohol exposure reduced the level of POMC mRNA, but increased the level of DNA methylation of this gene in the arcuate nucleus (ARC of the hypothalamus where the POMC neuronal cell bodies are located. Fetal alcohol exposed rats showed a significant increase in MeCP2 protein levels in POMC cells, MeCP2 gene transcript levels as well as increased MeCP2 protein binding on the POMC promoter in the arcuate nucleus. Lentiviral delivery of MeCP2 shRNA into the third ventricle efficiently reduced MeCP2 expression and prevented the effect of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression in the arcuate nucleus. MeCP2-shRNA treatment also normalized the prenatal ethanol-induced increase in corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus and elevated plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone hormone responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge. These results suggest that fetal alcohol programming of POMC gene may involve recruitment of MeCP2 on to the methylated promoter of the POMC gene to suppress POMC transcript levels and contribute to HPA axis dysregulation.

  8. Adrenal Insufficiency as a Cause of Acute Liver Failure: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Vafaeimanesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many diseases and conditions can contribute to elevated liver enzymes. Common causes include viral and autoimmune hepatitis, fatty liver, and bile duct diseases, but, in uncommon cases like liver involvement in endocrine disorders, liver failure is also seen. Adrenal insufficiency is the rarest endocrine disorder complicating the liver. In the previously reported cases of adrenal insufficiency, mild liver enzymes elevation was seen but we report a case with severe elevated liver enzymes and liver failure due to adrenal insufficiency. Based on our knowledge, this is the first report in this field. Case Report. A 39-year-old woman was referred to emergency ward due to drowsiness and severe fatigue. Her laboratory tests revealed prothrombin time: 21 sec, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 2339 IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 2002 IU/L, and ALP: 90 IU/L. No common cause of liver involvement was discovered, and eventually, with diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and corticosteroid therapy, liver enzymes and function became normal. Finally, the patient was discharged with good general condition. Conclusion. With this report, we emphasize adrenal insufficiency (primary or secondary as a reason of liver involvement in unexplainable cases and recommend that any increase in the liver enzymes, even liver failure, in these patients should be observed.

  9. Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-11-19

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC.

  10. Ultrastructural and Functional Properties of a Giant Synapse Driving the Piriform Cortex to Mediodorsal Thalamus Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Patric; Horstmann, Heinz; Kuner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Neocortico-thalamo-cortical loops represent a common, yet poorly understood, circuit employing giant synapses also referred to as "class I", giant, or driver synapses. Here, we characterize a giant synapse formed by projection neurons of the paleocortical piriform cortex (PIR) onto neurons of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure of labeled PIR-MD terminals, obtained by using serial-section scanning electron microscopy (EM) combined with photooxidation-based detection of labeled terminals, revealed a large terminal engulfing multiple postsynaptic dendritic excrescences. The terminal contained multiple synaptic contacts, a high density of synaptic vesicles and several central mitochondria. Using targeted stimulations of single identified PIR-MD terminals in combination with patch-clamp recordings from the connected MD neuron, we found large postsynaptic currents with fast kinetics and strong short-term depression, yet fast recovery upon repetitive stimulation. We conclude that the phylogenetically old paleocortex already developed giant synaptic connections exhibiting similar functional properties as connections formed by giant neocortico-thalamic projections.

  11. Symptoms of frontotemporal dementia provide insights into orbitofrontal cortex function and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskontas, Indre V; Possin, Katherine L; Miller, Bruce L

    2007-12-01

    Recent investigations into the brain substrates of behavioral changes in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) demonstrate that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a crucial role in normal social and emotional behavior. The initial symptoms of FTD reflect the early involvement of OFC as well as the disruption of an associated network involving the insula, striatum, and medial frontal lobes. As predicted by patients with other types of OFC lesions, FTD patients show impairments involving stimulus-reward reversal learning, response inhibition, and ability to judge the appropriateness of their behavior in the social context. While the natural reward system remains intact in these patients, that is, patients will seek out directly rewarding stimuli, such as food and sex, with progressive OFC dysfunction they lose the ability to process complex stimulus-reward contingencies. These abnormalities are apparent in their social interactions, which break down early in the disease. Also, deficits in emotion recognition and empathy have been directly linked to OFC atrophy in these patients. In contrast, some patients with early FTD show intact cognitive skills, including memory and executive functioning. Here, we review the behavioral and neuropsychological changes that accompany OFC atrophy in FTD and argue that phylogenetically new neurons found in this region, called von Economo neurons, are selectively vulnerable in FTD.

  12. Ultrastructural and Functional Properties of a Giant Synapse Driving the Piriform Cortex to Mediodorsal Thalamus Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Patric; Horstmann, Heinz; Kuner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Neocortico-thalamo-cortical loops represent a common, yet poorly understood, circuit employing giant synapses also referred to as “class I”, giant, or driver synapses. Here, we characterize a giant synapse formed by projection neurons of the paleocortical piriform cortex (PIR) onto neurons of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure of labeled PIR-MD terminals, obtained by using serial-section scanning electron microscopy (EM) combined with photooxidation-based detection of labeled terminals, revealed a large terminal engulfing multiple postsynaptic dendritic excrescences. The terminal contained multiple synaptic contacts, a high density of synaptic vesicles and several central mitochondria. Using targeted stimulations of single identified PIR-MD terminals in combination with patch-clamp recordings from the connected MD neuron, we found large postsynaptic currents with fast kinetics and strong short-term depression, yet fast recovery upon repetitive stimulation. We conclude that the phylogenetically old paleocortex already developed giant synaptic connections exhibiting similar functional properties as connections formed by giant neocortico-thalamic projections. PMID:28197093

  13. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  14. Sex-related functional asymmetry of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in regard to decision-making under risk and ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterer, Matthew J.; Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has provided preliminary indication of sex-related functional asymmetry of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in social and emotional functions and complex decision-making. Findings have been inconsistent, and based on small numbers of patients. Given the rarity of these neurological cases, replicable results across studies are important to build evidence for sex-related functional asymmetry of the vmPFC. Here we used a sample of sixteen neurological patients with unilateral damage to the left or right vmPFC and examined differences between men and women on a task that probed decision-making under risk or decision-making under ambiguity. We found that men with right-hemisphere vmPFC damage and women with left-hemisphere vmPFC damage demonstrated significantly reduced aversion to risk and ambiguity. Men with damage to the left vmPFC and women with damage to the right vmPFC showed aversion to risk and ambiguity comparable to participants with left or right-sided brain damage outside the vmPFC, and to comparison participants without brain damage. Our results add to previous findings of sex-related functional asymmetry of the vmPFC in decision-making. Our study also replicates findings of no observable behavioral differences between men and women without neurological damage on tests of decision-making. This pattern of neurobiological divergence but behavioral convergence between men and women may reflect a complex interplay of neuroendocrine, developmental, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26111489

  15. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Dong Won; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings.

  16. [Adrenal neoplasms in childhood. Description of a clinical case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzi, P; Bertanza, C; Gargantini, L; Bianchi, C

    1987-01-01

    Hyperadrenocorticism caused by tumors of adrenal cortex is uncommon in children; it occurs more frequently in girls and on the left side. The clinical manifestations depend upon age and sex of patients; virilization is the predominant sign in about two thirds of the cases, and Cushing's syndrome in the others. Diagnosis is made by hormonal and instrumental evaluations. Therapy is surgical eradication. Histology has not proved to be useful because pleiomorphism and capsular invasion have been found in clinically benign tumors. High mortality rate in older literature may have been due to post-operative complications and inadequate steroid replacement; in more recent issues good prognosis is referred in pediatric patients. Early diagnosis and therapy are important to prevent adverse effect on growth and development. After an up-to-date review of the literature, a case of adrenocortical tumor is reported. We present a 3 years old boy with pseudoprecocious puberty (accelerated growth and bone age, sexual hair, facial acne, penile enlargement, hoarse voice) and a diagnosis of testosterone-producing adrenal tumor was confirmed by endocrine and radiological investigations. Removal of functioning adrenal tumor was followed by rapid regression of most of the clinical signs of the disease; plasma and urinary steroids returned to normal values. Twelve months after eradication of the tumor the patient is in good health; long-term-follow-up is necessary to exclude any relapse.

  17. Functionally defined white matter reveals segregated pathways in human ventral temporal cortex associated with category-specific processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jesse; Pestilli, Franco; Witthoft, Nathan; Golarai, Golijeh; Liberman, Alina; Poltoratski, Sonia; Yoon, Jennifer; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-07

    It is unknown if the white-matter properties associated with specific visual networks selectively affect category-specific processing. In a novel protocol we combined measurements of white-matter structure, functional selectivity, and behavior in the same subjects. We find two parallel white-matter pathways along the ventral temporal lobe connecting to either face-selective or place-selective regions. Diffusion properties of portions of these tracts adjacent to face- and place-selective regions of ventral temporal cortex correlate with behavioral performance for face or place processing, respectively. Strikingly, adults with developmental prosopagnosia (face blindness) express an atypical structure-behavior relationship near face-selective cortex, suggesting that white-matter atypicalities in this region may have behavioral consequences. These data suggest that examining the interplay between cortical function, anatomical connectivity, and visual behavior is integral to understanding functional networks and their role in producing visual abilities and deficits.

  18. Effects of Physical Exercise on Working Memory and Prefrontal Cortex Function in Post-Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, M; Aoki, C; Sakatani, K

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in healthy older adults, but it is not clear whether this remains the case in post-stroke patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in post-stroke patients using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We studied 11 post-stroke patients. The patients performed Sternberg-type working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40 % of maximal oxygen uptake) with a cycling ergometer for 15 min. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We evaluated behavioral performance (response time and accuracy) of the working memory task. It was found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition (p exercise enhanced prefrontal cortex activation, particularly in the right prefrontal cortex (p memory task compared with the control condition. These findings suggest that the moderate-intensity aerobic exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in post-stroke patients.

  19. Anodal tDCS of dorsolateral prefontal cortex during an Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladwin, T.E.; den Uyl, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Anodal stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex by transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance performance on working memory tasks. However, it is not yet known precisely which aspects of working memory - a broad theoretical concept including short-term memory and v

  20. Neurogenetic and epigenetic correlates of adolescent predisposition to and risk for addictive behaviors as a function of prefrontal cortex dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Febo, Marcelo; Smith, David E; Roy, A Kenison; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Cronjé, Frans J; Femino, John; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L; Pandey, Subhash C; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Gold, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    As addiction professionals, we are becoming increasingly concerned about preteenagers and young adults' involvement with substance abuse as a way of relieving stress and anger. The turbulent underdeveloped central nervous system, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), provides impetus to not only continue important neuroimaging studies in both human and animal models, but also to encourage preventive measures and cautions embraced by governmental and social media outlets. It is well known that before people reach their 20s, PFC development is undergoing significant changes and, as such, hijacks appropriate decision making in this population. We are further proposing that early genetic testing for addiction risk alleles will offer important information that could potentially be utilized by their parents and caregivers prior to use of psychoactive drugs by these youth. Understandably, family history, parenting styles, and attachment may be modified by various reward genes, including the known bonding substances oxytocin/vasopressin, which effect dopaminergic function. Well-characterized neuroimaging studies continue to reflect region-specific differential responses to drugs and food (including other non-substance-addictive behaviors) via either "surfeit" or "deficit." With this in mind, we hereby propose a "reward deficiency solution system" that combines early genetic risk diagnosis, medical monitoring, and nutrigenomic dopamine agonist modalities to combat this significant global dilemma that is preventing our youth from leading normal productive lives, which will in turn make them happier.

  1. Micropatterned bioimplant with guided neuronal cells to promote tissue reconstruction and improve functional recovery after primary motor cortex insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysse, L; Beduer, A; Sol, J C; Vieu, C; Loubinoux, I

    2015-07-01

    With the ever increasing incidence of brain injury, developing new tissue engineering strategies to promote neural tissue regeneration is an enormous challenge. The goal of this study was to design and evaluate an implantable scaffold capable of directing neurite and axonal growth for neuronal brain tissue regeneration. We have previously shown in cell culture conditions that engineered micropatterned PDMS surface with straight microchannels allow directed neurite growth without perturbing cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth. In this study, the micropatterned PDMS device pre-seeded with hNT2 neuronal cells were implanted in rat model of primary motor cortex lesion which induced a strong motor deficit. Functional recovery was assessed by the forelimb grip strength test during 3 months post implantation. Results show a more rapid and efficient motor recovery with the hNT2 neuroimplants associated with an increase of neuronal tissue reconstruction and cell survival. This improvement is also hastened when compared to a direct cell graft of ten times more cells. Histological analyses showed that the implant remained structurally intact and we did not see any evidence of inflammatory reaction. In conclusion, PDMS bioimplants with guided neuronal cells seem to be a promising approach for supporting neural tissue reconstruction after central brain injury.

  2. Feminizing Adrenal Carcinoma Presenting with Heart Failure and Ventricular Tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Harnoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of feminizing adrenal carcinoma with severe elevation in serum estradiol and otherwise unexplained congestive heart failure with ventricular arrhythmia and review the literature on feminizing adrenal tumors and the potential relationship between estrogen and cardiac problems. A 54-year-old man presented with congestive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia. Imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Hormonal evaluation revealed a very high serum level of estradiol, elevated DHEA-sulfate and androstenedione, and lack of cortisol suppression on a low-dose overnight dexamethasone suppression test. The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy with subsequent normalization of serum estradiol. Surgical pathology examination established adrenocortical carcinoma MacFarlane stage II. Upon 15-month followup, the patient continued to have a normal serum estradiol level, his cardiac function was significantly improved, and he had no further episodes of ventricular arrhythmia. To the best of our knowledge, the serum estradiol level that was detected in our case is the highest that has been reported. Further, we hypothesize that the very high serum concentration of estradiol in our case may have played a role in his cardiac presentation with congestive heart failure and arrhythmia, particularly as these problems resolved with normalization of his serum estradiol level.

  3. Context-Dependent Modulation of Functional Connectivity: Secondary Somatosensory Cortex to Prefrontal Cortex Connections in Two-Stimulus-Interval Discrimination Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Stephanie S.; Romo, Ranulfo; Brody, Carlos D.

    2010-01-01

    In a complex world, a sensory cue may prompt different actions in different contexts. A laboratory example of context-dependent sensory processing is the two-stimulus-interval discrimination task. In each trial, a first stimulus (f1) must be stored in short-term memory and later compared with a second stimulus (f2), for the animal to come to a binary decision. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons need to interpret the f1 information in one way (perhaps with a positive weight) and the f2 information in an opposite way (perhaps with a negative weight), although they come from the very same secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) neurons; therefore, a functional sign inversion is required. This task thus provides a clear example of context-dependent processing. Here we develop a biologically plausible model of a context-dependent signal transformation of the stimulus encoding from S2 to PFC. To ground our model in experimental neurophysiology, we use neurophysiological data recorded by R. Romo’s laboratory from both cortical area S2 and PFC in monkeys performing the task. Our main goal is to use experimentally observed context-dependent modulations of firing rates in cortical area S2 as the basis for a model that achieves a context-dependent inversion of the sign of S2 to PFC connections. This is done without requiring any changes in connectivity (Salinas, 2004b). We (1) characterize the experimentally observed context-dependent firing rate modulation in area S2, (2) construct a model that results in the sign transformation, and (3) characterize the robustness and consequent biological plausibility of the model. PMID:19494146

  4. Adrenal androgen hyperresponsiveness to adrenocorticotropin in women with acne and/or hirsutism: adrenal enzyme defects and exaggerated adrenarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, A W; Rosenfield, R L; McGuire, J; Rudy, S; Helke, J

    1986-05-01

    To determine the adrenal contribution to elevated plasma androgens in 31 young hyperandrogenemic women with acne and/or hirsutism, we compared their responses to ACTH with those of 14 normal women. Each subject was given a low dose (10 micrograms/m2) of synthetic ACTH-(1-24) (Cortrosyn) after administration of 1.5 mg dexamethasone the night before the test. Thirty and 60 min responses of plasma 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone (17-Preg), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, (17-prog), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol were measured. Eighteen (58%) patients had increased responses of at least one 17-ketosteroid or adrenal androgen precursor. All patients had cortisol responses within the range of those of the 14 normal subjects. Nine patients (29%) had evidence of steroid biosynthetic enzyme deficiencies, either mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia or the heterozygote state; after ACTH, 4 of these patients had elevated 17-prog in the range of values in heterozygote carriers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, 2 had elevated levels of 11-deoxycortisol compatible with 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency, and 3 had elevated levels of 17-Preg and DHEA, suggestive of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Another 9 subjects (29%) had 17-ketosteroid (DHEA and/or androstenedione) hyperresponsiveness to ACTH with associated elevated 17-Preg responses. As a group, their patterns suggested relatively deficient 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and relatively hyperactive C lyase without impairment of cortisol secretion. This pattern resembles exaggerated adrenarche, and we postulate that these 9 patients have hyperplasia of the zona reticularis. Neither basal levels of plasma androgens (free testosterone and DHEA sulfate) nor menstrual history predicted which patients would have abnormal ACTH responses. Although 5 of 11 (45%) patients with acne alone had abnormal responses to ACTH, 10 of 14 patients with acne and hirsutism (71%) had abnormal

  5. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  6. Función adrenal y metabolismo lipídico en niños asmáticos tratados con budesonida Adrenal function and lipid metabolism in asthmatic children with budesonide treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Paoli-de Valeri; Yajaira Zerpa-de Miliani; Ezio G. Valeri-Dávila; Gabriela Bellabarba

    1999-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de bajas dosis de budesonida inhalado sobre la función adrenal y el metabolismo lipídico en niños asmáticos. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron: 10 niños asmáticos (edad promedio, 8.6 años) tratados con budesonida inhalado (200-300 µg/día) por un lapso mayor a tres meses (grupo A); 15 niños asmáticos (edad promedio, 7.8 años) sin tratamiento esteroideo (grupo B), y 10 niños no asmáticos (grupo C). Se determinaron los niveles de cortisol basal y postestímulo con ACTH...

  7. Reorganization of auditory cortex in early-deaf people: functional connectivity and relationship to hearing aid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation is a model for understanding brain plasticity. Although it is a well-documented phenomenon, we still know little of the mechanisms underlying it or the factors that constrain and promote it. Using fMRI, we identified visual motion-related activity in 17 early-deaf and 17 hearing adults. We found that, in the deaf, the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) was responsive to visual motion. We compared functional connectivity of this reorganized cortex between groups to identify differences in functional networks associated with reorganization. In the deaf more than the hearing, the STG displayed increased functional connectivity with a region in the calcarine fissure. We also explored the role of hearing aid use, a factor that may contribute to variability in cross-modal reorganization. We found that both the cross-modal activity in STG and the functional connectivity between STG and calcarine cortex correlated with duration of hearing aid use, supporting the hypothesis that residual hearing affects cross-modal reorganization. We conclude that early auditory deprivation alters not only the organization of auditory regions but also the interactions between auditory and primary visual cortex and that auditory input, as indexed by hearing aid use, may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early-deaf people.

  8. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L; Doya, Kenji; Helmich, Rick C; Dirkx, Michiel; Houk, James; Jörntell, Henrik; Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Galea, Joseph M; Miall, R Chris; Popa, Traian; Kishore, Asha; Verschure, Paul F M J; Zucca, Riccardo; Herreros, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system across a range of motor and cognitive functions. The paper includes theoretical and empirical contributions, which cover the following topics: recent evidence supporting the dynamical interplay between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortical areas in humans and other animals; theoretical neuroscience perspectives and empirical evidence on the reciprocal influences between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex in learning and control processes; and data suggesting possible roles of the cerebellum in basal ganglia movement disorders. Although starting from different backgrounds and dealing with different topics, all the contributors agree that viewing the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. The paper reports the most advanced perspectives on the role of the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system and illustrates other elements of consensus as well as disagreements and open questions in the field.

  9. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  10. Imaging of adrenal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, S. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    Adrenal scintillation scanning, CT and ultrasonography are compared with the conventional imaging methods. The accuracy of retroperitoneal pneumography and adrenal venography are not high, and they detected only large tumors such as Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma. Scintillation scanning is highly effective for the diagnoses of primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome. However, this technique does not visualize pheochromocytoma or hypopituitarism. CT is noninvasive and of high diagnostic value. It is impossible to diagnose tumors by ultrasonography unless the size is more than 3 cm.

  11. Glial glutamate transporters mediate a functional metabolic crosstalk between neurons and astrocytes in the mouse developing cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutsinos-Porche, Brigitte; Bonvento, Gilles; Tanaka, Kohichi; Steiner, Pascal; Welker, Egbert; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J; Pellerin, Luc

    2003-01-23

    Neuron-glia interactions are essential for synaptic function, and glial glutamate (re)uptake plays a key role at glutamatergic synapses. In knockout mice, for either glial glutamate transporters, GLAST or GLT-1, a classical metabolic response to synaptic activation (i.e., enhancement of glucose utilization) is decreased at an early functional stage in the somatosensory barrel cortex following activation of whiskers. Investigation in vitro demonstrates that glial glutamate transport represents a critical step for triggering enhanced glucose utilization, but also lactate release from astrocytes through a mechanism involving changes in intracellular Na(+) concentration. These data suggest that a metabolic crosstalk takes place between neurons and astrocytes in the developing cortex, which would be regulated by synaptic activity and mediated by glial glutamate transporters.

  12. Differences of prefrontal cortex activity between picture-based personality tests: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Haida, Munetaka; Matsumoto, Mariko; Hayakawa, Noriyoshi; Inomata, Seiji; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on brain activity induced by picture-based personality tests. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a newly developed, noninvasive technology in neuroimaging that can measure brain activity through blood volume changes. We measure the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10 [BA10]) activities of adolescents during the Rorschach (1921), the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study (PFS; Hayashi, 1964), and Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943). BA10 showed that the PFS was left-hemisphere dominant and significantly different from the Rorschach and TAT, which showed a tendency to be right-hemisphere dominant. We believe that this tendency reflects emotion and sociality.

  13. Functional organization of motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys is altered by sensory loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Jain, Neeraj; Collins, Christine E; Lyon, David C; Kaas, Jon H

    2010-02-16

    When somatosensory cortex (S1) is deprived of some of its inputs after section of ascending afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, it reorganizes to overrepresent the surviving inputs. As somatosensory cortex provides guiding sensory information to motor cortex, such sensory loss and representational reorganization could affect the development of the motor map in primary motor cortex (M1), especially if the sensory loss occurs early in development. To address this possibility, the dorsal columns of the spinal cord were sectioned between cervical levels (C3-5) 3-12 days after birth in five macaque monkeys. After 3-5 years of maturation (young adults), we determined how movements were represented in M1 contralateral to the lesion by using microelectrodes to electrically stimulate sites in M1 to evoke movements. Although the details of the motor maps in these five monkeys varied, the forelimb motor maps were abnormal. The representations of digit movements were reduced and abnormally arranged. Current levels for evoking movements from the forelimb region of M1 were in the normal range, but the lowest mean stimulation thresholds were for wrist or elbow instead of digit movements. Incomplete lesions and bilateral lesions produced fewer abnormalities. The results suggest that the development of normal motor cortex maps in M1 depends on sensory feedback from somatosensory maps.

  14. Pulmonary Function Tests: Are They Really Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenal, T.; Ford, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests and clinical evaluation can complement one another, but neither can take the place of the other. The tests can provide objective, reproducible assessment of a patient's pulmonary status. Pulmonary function tests can support clinical diagnoses, quantify the severity and variability of the disorder, and can assist early intervention by indicating problems likely to arise later in the course of the disease.

  15. Pain and emotion in the insular cortex: evidence for functional reorganization in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Wankerl, Johanna; Strigo, Irina A

    2012-06-29

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is among the top causes of disability worldwide and many patients with depression experience pain symptoms. Little is known regarding what makes depressed persons feel like they are in pain. An increasing number of neuroimaging studies show that both physical pain and depression involve the insular cortex. The present study aimed to investigate whether emotional processing in MDD patients is topologically shifted towards the insular area(s) involved in pain processing in healthy individuals. To achieve this aim, we investigated the functional organization of the insula by conducting meta-analyses of previously published neuroimaging studies on: (1) emotion in patients with MDD, (2) emotion in healthy subjects, and (3) physical pain in healthy subjects. Our results show that the dorsal part of the insula is reproducibly activated during experimental pain in healthy individuals, with multiple separate pain-related areas aligned along its dorsal border. Regions with maximal pain-related activation likelihood estimate (ALE) were located in the posterior (left) and dorsal mid-anterior insula (left and right). Furthermore, emotion-related peaks in healthy subjects were found both in its ventral (as shown in a previous meta-analysis) and dorsal anterior part. Importantly, emotion-related peaks in depressed patients were shifted to the dorsal anterior insula, where regions related to physical pain in healthy subjects are located. This shift was reflected in the observation that median z-coordinates of emotion-related responses in the left hemisphere were significantly larger in depressed patients than in healthy controls. This shift of emotion-related responses to the dorsal insula, i.e., where pain-processing takes place in healthy subjects, may play a role in "emotional allodynia" - a notion that individuals with MDD experience pain in response to stimuli that are normally not painful.

  16. A success story in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriplani, Alka; Lunkad, Amol; Agarwal, Nutan; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Ariachery, C Aminni

    2012-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in adrenal steroidogenic pathways. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95 % of cases. This case was diagnosed to have simple virilizing type of CAH and started on dexamethasone, and underwent genitoplasty and clitoroplasty at 25 years of age, then was married 3 years after surgery and conceived spontaneously 2 years after marriage, to deliver a healthy male baby. Thus, proper diagnosis and treatment with steroids and genitoplasty can give females with CAH a normal sexual, normal menstrual, and reproductive function.

  17. Cystic Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Adrenal Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, Mohammed Shafi; Satish, Priyanka; Janakiraman, Raghunath Keddy; Singh, Shivshankar

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are usually solid tumours. But it can present as cystic lesions in the adrenal gland. Cystic lesions in adrenal gland with hypertension needs attention to rule out pheochromocytoma. If ignored, it may lead to hypertensive emergency, multisystem crisis and death. Early diagnosis with biochemistry, Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of abdomen, proper functional imaging like Meta Iodo Benzyl Guanidine (MIBG) scan is essential. Proper preoperative preparation is important to prevent hypertensive crisis during and after surgery. We are reporting a case of cystic pheochromocytoma in a young male. PMID:28050427

  18. Exposure to an Extremely-Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Stimulates Adrenal Steroidogenesis via Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase Activity in a Mouse Adrenal Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Kawata, Shiyori; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Kadoriku, Fumiya; Kitamura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) are generated by power lines and household electrical devices. In the last several decades, some evidence has shown an association between ELF-MF exposure and depression and/or anxiety in epidemiological and animal studies. The mechanism underlying ELF-MF-induced depression is considered to involve adrenal steroidogenesis, which is triggered by ELF-MF exposure. However, how ELF-MFs stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis is controversial. In the current study, we investigated the effect of ELF-MF exposure on the mouse adrenal cortex-derived Y-1 cell line and the human adrenal cortex-derived H295R cell line to clarify whether the ELF-MF stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis directly. ELF-MF exposure was found to significantly stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis (p steroidogenesis via an increase in intracellular cAMP caused by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity in Y-1 cells. The same mechanism may trigger the increase in adrenal steroid secretion in mice observed in our previous study.

  19. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Ting, E-mail: yeting@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie, Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Juan, E-mail: gaojuan@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Ma, Xin, E-mail: lijianshe@medmail.com.cn [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li, Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); and others

    2012-12-15

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  20. A 3 T event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of primary and secondary gustatory cortex localization using natural tastants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); K.U.Leuven, Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [K.U.Leuven, Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-01-15

    It is known that taste is centrally represented in the insula, frontal and parietal operculum, as well as in the orbitofrontal cortex (secondary gustatory cortex). In functional MRI (fMRI) experiments activation in the insula has been confirmed, but activation in the orbitofrontal cortex is only infrequently found, especially at higher field strengths (3 T). Due to large susceptibility artefacts, the orbitofrontal cortex is a difficult region to examine with fMRI. Our aim was to localize taste in the human cortex at 3 T, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the primary gustatory cortex. Event-related fMRI was performed at 3 T in seven healthy volunteers. Taste stimuli consisted of lemon juice and chocolate. To visualize activation in the orbitofrontal cortex a dedicated 3D SENSE EPI fMRI sequence was used, in addition to a 2D SENSE EPI fMRI sequence for imaging the entire brain. Data were analyzed using a perception-based model. The dedicated 3D SENSE EPI sequence successfully reduced susceptibility artefacts in the orbitofrontal area. Significant taste-related activation was found in the orbitofrontal and insular cortices. fMRI of the orbitofrontal cortex is feasible at 3 T, using a dedicated sequence. Our results corroborate findings from previous studies. (orig.)

  1. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  2. Adaptive reaction of boys’ sympathetic-adrenal system to physical activity in puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekcei Anatolevich Zverev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of adaptive reactions of the sympathetic-adrenal system of 11-16-year-old boys to graduated exercise at different pubertal stages. To evaluate the functional state of the cardiovascular system, the heart rate, systolic and cardiac output were determined. The state of the sympathetic-adrenal system was analyzed by the excretion level of catecholamines and DOPA. Cardiac output in response to graduated exercise in boys at pubertal stages 1-2 is substantially ensured by the increased heart rate, and at the other stages of puberty - mainly due to increase in stroke volume, which is estimated as a favorable response to exercise. In mechanisms of urgent adaptation to graduated exercise, the boys of third and fourth pubertal stages show an intensive functioning of the cardiovascular system and a reducing reserve capacity of the sympathetic-adrenal system. The adolescents of fifth pubertal stage show economical response to functional tests, a reduced reactivity of the components of the sympathetic-adrenal system on the background of a significant increase in the excretion of precursors.

  3. Hyperprolactinaemia is associated with a higher prevalence of pituitary-adrenal dysfunction in non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeerdsma, Geert; Sluiter, WJ; Hew, JM; Molenaar, WM; deLange, WE; Dullaart, RPF

    1996-01-01

    In non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA), hyperprolactinaemia (hyperPRL) is considered to be a sign of hypothalamic-pituitary dysregulation, but it is unknown whether hyperPRL is associated with an increased frequency of pituitary hormone deficiencies. Forty consecutive patients with histolo

  4. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a "doubt deficit" that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was "corrected" by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a "false tagging mechanism" which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information.

  5. Functionally Brain Network Connected to the Retrosplenial Cortex of Rats Revealed by 7T fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjuan; Nie, Binbin; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Hua; Shan, Baoci

    2016-01-01

    Functional networks are regarded as important mechanisms for increasing our understanding of brain function in healthy and diseased states, and increased interest has been focused on extending the study of functional networks to animal models because such models provide a functional understanding of disease progression, therapy and repair. In rodents, the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is an important cortical region because it has a large size and presents transitional patterns of lamination between the neocortex and archicortex. In addition, a number of invasive studies have highlighted the importance of the RSC for many functions. However, the network based on the RSC in rodents remains unclear. Based on the critical importance of the RSC, we defined the bilateral RSCs as two regions of interest and estimated the network based on the RSC. The results showed that the related regions include the parietal association cortex, hippocampus, thalamus nucleus, midbrain structures, and hypothalamic mammillary bodies. Our findings indicate two possible major networks: a sensory-cognitive network that has a hub in the RSCs and processes sensory information, spatial learning, and episodic memory; and a second network that is involved in the regulation of visceral functions and arousal. In addition, functional asymmetry between the bilateral RSCs was observed.

  6. Increased amygdala and visual cortex activity and functional connectivity towards stimulus novelty is associated with state anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga T Ousdal

    Full Text Available Novel stimuli often require a rapid reallocation of sensory processing resources to determine the significance of the event, and the appropriate behavioral response. Both the amygdala and the visual cortex are central elements of the neural circuitry responding to novelty, demonstrating increased activity to new as compared to highly familiarized stimuli. Further, these brain areas are intimately connected, and thus the amygdala may be a key region for directing sensory processing resources to novel events. Although knowledge regarding the neurocircuit of novelty detection is gradually increasing, we still lack a basic understanding of the conditions that are necessary and sufficient for novelty-specific responses in human amygdala and the visual cortices, and if these brain areas interact during detection of novelty. In the present study, we investigated the response of amygdala and the visual cortex to novelty, by comparing functional MRI activity between 1st and 2nd time presentation of a series of emotional faces in an event-related task. We observed a significant decrease in amygdala and visual cortex activity already after a single stimulus exposure. Interestingly, this decrease in responsiveness was less for subjects with a high score on state anxiety. Further, novel faces stimuli were associated with a relative increase in the functional coupling between the amygdala and the inferior occipital gyrus (BA 18. Thus, we suggest that amygdala is involved in fast sensory boosting that may be important for attention reallocation to novel events, and that the strength of this response depends on individual state anxiety.

  7. Quantitative Liver Function Tests: A Realizable Goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J Morgan

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of tests has been used to assess liver function and predict hepatic functional reserve in patients with liver disease. These tests comprise clinical assessment, simple biochemical measurements and so-called ‘quantitative’ tests of liver function, ie, elimination rate measurements of exogenous markers such as drugs and other compounds. So far no single test or group of tests has proved to be a sufficiently sensitive and accurate measure of overall hepatic function across the whole spectrum of liver disease. This may he due to diversity in the hepatic handling of these compounds and in changes in architecture, hemodynamics and cell function in liver disease. The absence of a satisfactory test emphasizes the value of clinical assessments (eg, the Child-Turcotte or Child-Pugh classifications, because of their relative simplicity.

  8. RTTN mutations link primary cilia function to organization of the human cerebral cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Kia; E. Verbeek (Elly); M.P. Engelen (Erik); R. Schot (Rachel); R.A. Poot (Raymond); I.F.M. de Coo (René); M. Leguin (Maarten); C.J. Poulton (Cathryn); F. Pourfarzad, F. (Farzin); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); A. Brehm (António); M.C.Y. de Wit (Marie Claire); R. Oegema (Renske); W.B. Dobyns (William); F.W. Verheijen (Frans); G.M.S. Mancini (Grazia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPolymicrogyria is a malformation of the developing cerebral cortex caused by abnormal organization and characterized by many small gyri and fusion of the outer molecular layer. We have identified autosomal-recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding Rotatin, in individuals with bilateral diffu

  9. Reduced functional connectivity within the primary motor cortex of patients with brachial plexus injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraiman, D.; Miranda, M.F.; Erthal, F.; Buur, P.F.; Elschot, M.; Souza, L.; Rombouts, S.A.; Schimmelpenninck, C.A.; Norris, D.G.; Malessy, M.J.; Galves, A.; Vargas, C.D.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at the effects of traumatic brachial plexus lesion with root avulsions (BPA) upon the organization of the primary motor cortex (M1). Nine right-handed patients with a right BPA in whom an intercostal to musculocutaneous (ICN-MC) nerve transfer was performed had post-operative resting

  10. Functional rather than effector-specific organization of human posterior parietal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heed, T.; Beurze, S.M.; Toni, I.; Roder, B.; Medendorp, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have shown that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) distinguishes between the planning of eye and hand movements. This distinction has usually been interpreted as evidence for a modular, effector-specific organization of this cerebral region. However, the

  11. Higher Brain Functions Served by the Lowly Rodent Primary Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavornik, Jeffrey P.; Bear, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    It has been more than 50 years since the first description of ocular dominance plasticity--the profound modification of primary visual cortex (V1) following temporary monocular deprivation. This discovery immediately attracted the intense interest of neurobiologists focused on the general question of how experience and deprivation modify the brain…

  12. Functional properties of GABA synaptic inputs onto GABA neurons in monkey prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Rotaru (Diana C.); C. Olezene (Cameron); T. Miyamae (Takeaki); N.V. Povysheva (Nadezhda V.); A.V. Zaitsev (Aleksey V.); D.A. Lewis (David A.); G. Gonzalez-Burgos (Guillermo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn rodent cortex GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated synapses are a significant source of input onto GABA neurons, and the properties of these inputs vary among GABA neuron subtypes that differ in molecular markers and firing patterns. Some features of cortical interne

  13. cTBS delivered to the left somatosensory cortex changes its functional connectivity during rest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valchev, Nikola; Curcic-Blake, Branisalava; Renken, Remco J.; Avenanti, Alessio; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) plays a critical role in somatosensation as well as in action performance and social cognition. Although the SI has been a major target of experimental and clinical research using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to date information on the e

  14. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and 24-h blood pressure profile in obese men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Gláucia; Togeiro, Sônia Maria; Hayashi, Lílian F; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Ribeiro, Artur Beltrame; Tufik, Sérgio; Zanella, Maria Teresa

    2008-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation may be the mechanism of this relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in obese men with and without OSAS and to determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy (nCPAP) influenced responses. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and overnight cortisol suppression test with 0.25 mg of dexamethasone were performed in 16 obese men with OSAS and 13 obese men controls. Nine men with severe apnea were reevaluated 3 mo after nCPAP therapy. Body mass index and blood pressure of OSAS patients and obese controls were similar. In OSAS patients, the percentage of fall in systolic blood pressure at night (P = 0.027) and salivary cortisol suppression postdexamethasone (P = 0.038) were lower, whereas heart rate (P = 0.022) was higher compared with obese controls. After nCPAP therapy, patients showed a reduction in heart rate (P = 0.036) and a greater cortisol suppression after dexamethasone (P = 0.001). No difference in arterial blood pressure (P = 0.183) was observed after 3 mo of nCPAP therapy. Improvement in cortisol suppression was positively correlated with an improvement in apnea-hypopnea index during nCPAP therapy (r = 0.799, P = 0.010). In conclusion, men with OSAS present increased postdexamethasone cortisol levels and heart rate, which were recovered by nCPAP.

  15. Functional dissociation of the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex in the direct and indirect retrieval of color features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Jinghui Zhao; Jiongjiong Yang; Lin Ma; Sheng He; Xuchu Weng

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the storage/retrieval of object features is related to brain regions that are involved in the processing of these features. However, it remains unclear whether, and under what conditions, retrieving information about a feature reactivates the same region that specifically supports that feature's perception. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we com-pared brain activation in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex during subjects performing a color perception task, and direct and indirect color retrieval tasks. After performing the color perception task to localize the regions responsible for color perception, subjects were intensively trained (outside of the scanner) to remember associations between colors and motion directions, and associations between colors and letters. Then, they were asked to perform two color retrieval tasks in the scanner, with stationary and gray scaled images as control stimuli. The results showed that the bilateral posterior occipito-temporal cortex was activated during the color percep-tion task. When color information was retrieved by direct cues (motion direction), the same bilateral oceipito-temporal region was acti-vated. When color information was retrieved indirectly (judging whether a motion direction matched a letter by their associated colors), a region anterior to the color perception region in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex was additionally activated. Our results provided evidence for the functional dissociation in the two subregions of the ventral oecipito-temporal cortex during retrieval of color features: the posterior area might relate to perceptual features of color, while the anterior region might relate to the knowledge of associations with color.

  16. Severity of Virilization Is Associated with Cosmetic Appearance and Sexual Function in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, Yvonne G.; Janssen, Eefje H. C. C.; Callens, Nina; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; van den Berg, Marjan; Drop, Stenvert L. S.; Dessens, Arianne B.; Beerendonk, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Women with the classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are born with different degrees of virilization of the external genitalia. Feminizing surgery is often performed in childhood to change the appearance of the genitalia and to enable penilevaginal intercourse later in

  17. The long term outcome of feminizing genital surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: anatomical, functional and cosmetic outcomes, psychosexual development, and satisfaction in adult female patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schreuders-Bais, C.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are only a few reports analyzing the long term outcome of feminizing surgery in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Such analysis is crucial to evaluate the treatment and to make necessary adjustments. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the adult outcome after feminizing

  18. Effects of hypophysectomy and administration of pituitary hormones on luteal function and uptake of high density lipoproteins by luteinized ovaries and adrenals of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.D.; Rajkumar, K.; McKibbin, P.E.; Macdonald, G.J.; Buhr, M.M.; Grinwich, D.L.

    1985-04-01

    The role of plasma lipoproteins and hypophyseal hormones in the maintenance of progesterone secretion by the rat corpus luteum was investigated. In the first experiment, rats were treated daily from days 1-6 of pregnancy with 5 mg/kg 4-aminopyrozolopyramidine (4APP), a blocker of hepatic lipoprotein secretion, or with 5 mg/kg 4APP and 1 or 2 mg ovine PRL or 0.1 ml 0.5% phosphoric acid (4APP vehicle). The administration of 4APP reduced serum cholesterol and progesterone levels on days 2-6 of pregnancy and ovarian progesterone on day 6. The reduced progesterone secretion had no effect on embryo implantation. PRL, in the doses used, was incapable of abrogating the effects of 4APP on circulating or ovarian progesterone levels. Ovaries and adrenals, but not kidneys, of pseudopregnant rats exhibited specific and saturable uptake of porcine high density lipoprotein (HDL). Time-course studies indicated that the uptake of HDL was rapid in ovaries compared to that in adrenals. Ovaries from rats not only exhibited uptake of porcine HDL, but also were capable of using it for progesterone synthesis. Treatment with 4APP increased the adrenal uptake of HDL, but ovarian uptake was not different from that in the control group. Hypophysectomy reduced both adrenal and ovarian uptake of HDL. In adrenals only ACTH at the dose employed ameliorated reduction of HDL uptake induced by hypophysectomy, while in the ovaries, both PRL and LH reversed the effect of hypophysectomy. The effect of PRL on uptake was specific to (/sup 125/I)HDL and did not alter (/sup 125/I)albumin uptake. It is concluded that: 1) hypophysectomy reduces HDL uptake in the luteinized rat ovary; and 2) PRL and LH replacement therapy maintain ovarian uptake of HDL, suggesting a direct effect of these luteotropins on lipoprotein uptake.

  19. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F; Mori Sequeiros García, M Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M; Orlando, Ulises D; Mele, Pablo G; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the "classical" protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed.

  20. Novel Systematics of Nomenclature and Classification of Female Functional Androgenization (Including Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Non-Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisthövel F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A novel nomenclature as well as a comprehensive, clearly defined classification of functional androgenization (FA from puberty well into postmenopause have been developed. Data are presented indicating the applicability of this algorithm. Design: Retrospective case-control study involving FA-patients, and controls (C. Methods: FA-patients were classified into five groups, functional cutaneous androgenization (FCA: skin as well as functional androgenizing syndrome (FAS I (ovary, II (adrenal, III (multi-organ-disorder with FA, obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and IV (residual FA dysfunctions using group-specific variable clusters. They are set up by primary (classifying variables such as cutaneous androgenetic symptoms (acne vulgaris, hirsutism, androgenetic alopecia, body mass index (BMI, testosterone, free androgen index (FAI, polyfollicular ovaries (PFOs, and 1-h-insulin (after oral glucose loading. Groups FCA and FAS I–III were sub-classified through classic full-blown (“a” and non-classic, minimum standard core/miscellaneous clusters (“b”. Variables were allocated as integral part of different clusters (e.g. enhanced BMI: in FCAb, FAS IIb, FAS IIIa/b, and FAS IV. Patients’ complete characterization was achieved additionally by using secondary (facultative variables, e.g. triglycerid levels. Results: The FA-groups included 6, 33, 10, 59, and 18 subjects. All FCA-patients presented cutaneous androgenetic symptoms, PFOs were visualized in all FAS I and III patients. Group FAS Ia showed highest LH levels, and testosterone was higher in FAS I vs. FCA, FAS II, FAS IV and C. Levels of DHEAS were found to be highest in group FAS II. BMI and triglycerids were higher in FAS III vs. FCA, FAS I, FAS II, and C, and one-hr-insulin in FAS III was higher vs. FCA, FAS I, and C. In FAS IV covering the residual FA-patients, several obese, hyperinsulinaemic individuals were classified who showed an increased FAI without the presence of PFOs

  1. Abnormal function of the posterior cingulate cortex in heroin addicted users during resting-state and drug-cue stimulation task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; YANG Wei-chuan; WANG Ya-rong; HUANG Yu-fang; LI Wei; ZHU Jia

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that brain function in heroin addicted users is impaired.However,the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has not received much attention.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic heroin use is associated with craving-related changes in the functional connectivity of the PCC of heroin addicted users.Methods Fourteen male adult chronic heroin users and fifteen age and gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the present study.The participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and a cue-induced craving task fMRI scan.The activated PCC was identified in the cue-induced craving task by means of a group contrast test.Functional connectivity was analyzed based on resting-state fMRI data in order to determine the correlation between brain regions.The relationship between the connectivity of specific regions and heroin dependence was investigated.Results The activation of PCC,bilateral anterior cingulate cortex,caudate,putamen,precuneus,and thalamus was significant in the heroin group compared to the healthy group in the cue-induced craving task.The detectable functional connectivity of the heroin users was stronger between the PCC and bilateral insula,bilateral dorsal striatum,right inferior parietal Iobule (IPL) and right supramarginal gyrus (P<0.001) compared to that of the healthy subjects in the resting-state data analysis.The strength of the functional connectivity,both for the PCC-insula (r=0.60,P <0.05) and for PCC-striatum (r=0.58,P<0.05),was positively correlated with the duration of heroin use.Conclusion The altered functional connectivity patterns in the PCC-insula and PCC-striatum areas may be regarded as biomarkers of brain damage severity in chronic heroin users.

  2. Testing the Role of Dorsal Premotor Cortex in Auditory-Motor Association Learning Using Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Carlotta; Stephan, Marianne A.; Zatorre, Robert J.; Penhune, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between the auditory and the motor systems are critical in music as well as in other domains, such as speech. The premotor cortex, specifically the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), seems to play a key role in auditory-motor integration, and in mapping the association between a sound and the movement used to produce it. In the present studies we tested the causal role of the dPMC in learning and applying auditory-motor associations using 1 Hz repetitive Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). In this paradigm, non-musicians learn a set of auditory-motor associations through melody training in two contexts: first when the sound to key-press mapping was in a conventional sequential order (low to high tones mapped onto keys from left to right), and then when it was in a novel scrambled order. Participant’s ability to match the four pitches to four computer keys was tested before and after the training. In both experiments, the group that received 1 Hz rTMS over the dPMC showed no significant improvement on the pitch-matching task following training, whereas the control group (who received rTMS to visual cortex) did. Moreover, in Experiment 2 where the pitch-key mapping was novel, rTMS over the dPMC also interfered with learning. These findings suggest that rTMS over dPMC disturbs the formation of auditory-motor associations, especially when the association is novel and must be learned rather explicitly. The present results contribute to a better understanding of the role of dPMC in auditory-motor integration, suggesting a critical role of dPMC in learning the link between an action and its associated sound. PMID:27684369

  3. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F.; Mori Sequeiros García, M. Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M.; Orlando, Ulises D.; Mele, Pablo G.; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J.

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the “classical” protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed. PMID:27375556

  4. Anterior cingulate cortex-related connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia: a spectral dynamic causal modeling study with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Biao eCui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural basis of schizophrenia (SZ is important for shedding light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this mental disorder. Structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC have been implicated in the neurobiology of SZ. However, the effective connectivity among them in SZ remains unclear. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways involving these regions were affected in first-episode SZ using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Forty-nine patients with a first-episode of psychosis and diagnosis of SZ—according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision—were studied. Fifty healthy controls (HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state fMRI. We used spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM to estimate directed connections among the bilateral ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and MPFC. We characterized the differences using Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA in addition to classical inference (t-test. In addition to common effective connectivity in these two groups, HCs displayed widespread significant connections predominantly involved in ACC not detected in SZ patients, but SZ showed few connections. Based on BPA results, SZ patients exhibited anterior cingulate cortico-prefrontal-hippocampal hyperconnectivity, as well as ACC-related and hippocampal-dorsolateral prefrontal-medial prefrontal hypoconnectivity. In summary, sDCM revealed the pattern of effective connectivity involving ACC in patients with first-episode SZ. This study provides a potential link between SZ and dysfunction of ACC, creating an ideal situation to associate mechanisms behind SZ with aberrant connectivity among these cognition and emotion-related regions.

  5. Genetic disorders involving adrenal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Achermann, John C

    2007-01-01

    The past decade has seen significant advances in our understanding of the genetic aetiology of several forms of adrenal failure that present in infancy or childhood. Several of these disorders affect adrenal development and are termed 'adrenal hypoplasia'. These conditions can be broadly divided into: (1) secondary forms of adrenal hypoplasia due to panhypopituitarism (e.g. HESX1, LHX4, SOX3) or abnormalities in ACTH synthesis (TPIT) or processing (e.g. POMC or PC1); (2) adrenal hypoplasia as part of an ACTH resistance syndrome [MC2R/ACTH receptor, MRAP, AAAS (triple A syndrome)], and (3) primary defects in the development of the adrenal gland itself (primary adrenal hypoplasia). Primary adrenal hypoplasia most commonly occurs in an X-linked form due to mutations in the nuclear receptor DAX1 (NR0B1) but can occur in a poorly understood recessive form or as part of the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia, genitourinary anomalies) syndrome. Defining the molecular basis of these conditions can have significant clinical implications for management, counselling and presymptomatic diagnosis, as well as providing fascinating insight into normal and abnormal mechanisms of adrenal development in humans.

  6. Temporal and spatial distribution of mast cells and steroidogenic enzymes in the human fetal adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Alexandre; Louiset, Estelle; Duparc, Céline; Laquerrière, Annie; Patrier, Sophie; Renouf, Sylvie; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Mukai, Kuniaki; Lefebvre, Hervé; Castanet, Mireille

    2016-10-15

    Mast cells are present in the human adult adrenal with a potential role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion in both normal cortex and adrenocortical adenomas. We have investigated the human developing adrenal gland for the presence of mast cells in parallel with steroidogenic enzymes profile and serotonin signaling pathway. RT-QPCR and immunohistochemical studies were performed on adrenals at 16-41 weeks of gestation (WG). Tryptase-immunopositive mast cells were found from 18 WG in the adrenal subcapsular layer, close to 3βHSD- and CYP11B2-immunoreactive cells, firstly detected at 18 and 24 WG, respectively. Tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin receptor type 4 expression increased at 30 WG before the CYP11B2 expression surge. In addition, HDL and LDL cholesterol receptors were expressed in the subcapsular zone from 24 WG. Altogether, our findings suggest the implication of mast cells and serotonin in the establishment of the mineralocorticoid synthesizing pathway during fetal adrenal development.

  7. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  8. Prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in behavioural flexibility and posttraumatic functional recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Hana Malá; Andersen, Lykke Grønbech; Christensen, Rie Friis

    2015-01-01

    Within one experiment and one T-maze, we examined the consequences of (i) bilateral lesions of the anteromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), (ii) bilateral transections of the fimbria-fornix (FF), or (iii) combined lesions of both PFC and FF (COMB) on rats' ability to perform reversal or set-shifting......Within one experiment and one T-maze, we examined the consequences of (i) bilateral lesions of the anteromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), (ii) bilateral transections of the fimbria-fornix (FF), or (iii) combined lesions of both PFC and FF (COMB) on rats' ability to perform reversal or set......-shifting. Postoperatively, the animals were trained to perform a spatial discrimination go-right task. This was followed by (1) a spatial reversal go-left task (reversal learning), or (2) a visual pattern discrimination task (set-shift). Neither single (PFC or FF) lesion nor combined (COMB) lesions affected the animals...

  9. Enhancing offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA regulation via systematic neonatal novelty exposure: the influence of maternal HPA function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Dinces

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rat, repeated brief exposures to novelty early in life can induce long-lasting enhancements in adult cognitive, social, emotional, and neuroendocrine function. Family-to-family variations in these intervention effects on adult offspring are predicted by the mother’s ability to mount a rapid corticosterone (CORT response to the onset of an acute stressor. Here, in Long-Evans rats, we investigated whether neonatal and adulthood novelty exposure, each individually and in combination, can enhance offspring HPA regulation. Using a 2x2 within-litter design, one half of each litter were exposed to a relatively novel non-home environment for 3-min (Neo_Novel daily during infancy (PND1-21 and the other half of the litter remained in the home cage (Neo_Home; we further exposed half of these two groups to early adulthood (PND54-63 novelty exposure in an open field and the remaining siblings stayed in their home cages. Two aspects of HPA regulation were assessed: the ability to maintain a low level of resting CORT (CORTB and the ability to mount a large rapid CORT response (CORTE to the onset of an acute stressor. Assessment of adult offspring’s ability to regulate HPA regulation began at 370 days of age. We further investigated whether the novelty exposure effects on offspring HPA regulation are sensitive to the context of maternal HPA regulation by assessing maternal HPA regulation similarly beginning 7 days after her pups were weaned. We found that at the population level, rats receiving neonatal, but not early adulthood exposure or both, showed a greater rapid CORTE than their home-staying siblings. At the individual family level, these novelty effects are positively associated with maternal CORTE. These results suggest that early experience of novelty can enhance the offspring’s ability to mount a rapid response to environmental challenge and the success of such early life intervention is critically dependent upon the context of maternal

  10. Observation of activation status of motor-related cortex of patients with acute ischemic stroke through functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqian Chen; Hui Xiao; Ping Ni; Gennian Qian; Shangwen Xu; Xizhang Yang; Youqiang Ye; Jinhua Chen; Biyun Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About more than three fourth of patients with stroke have motor dysfunction at different degrees, especially hand motor dysfunction. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides very reliable visible evidence for studying central mechanism of motor dysfunction after stroke, and has guiding and applicable value for clinical therapy.OBJECTIVE: To observe the activation of motor-related cortex of patients with acute ischemic stroke with functional magnetic resonance imaging, and analyze the relationship between brain function reconstruction and motor restoration after stroke.DESIGN: A contrast observation.SETTING: Medical Imaging Center, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Nine patients with acute ischemic stroke who suffered from motor dysfunction and received the treatment in the Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA between August and December 2005 were recruited, serving as experimental group. The involved patients including 5 male and 4 female, aged 16 to 87 years, all met the diagnostic criteria of cerebrovascular disease revised by The Fourth National Conference on Cerebrovascular Disease, mainly presenting paralysis in clinic, and underwent fMRI. Another 9 right handed persons matched in age and gender who simultaneously received healthy body examination were recruited, serving as control group. All the subjects were informed of the detected items.METHODS: ①Muscular strength of patients of the experimental group was evaluated according to Brunnstrom grading muscular strength (Grade Ⅰ -Ⅵ). ② Passive finger to finger motion was used as the mission (alternate style of quiescence, left hand motion and quiescence, right hand motion was repeated 3 times, serving as 1 sequence, 20 s per block and 20 s time interval. The whole process of scanning was 260 s), and subjects of 2 groups were given Bold-fMRI examination with GE1.5T double gradient 16-channel

  11. The role of prefrontal cortex during postural control in Parkinsonian syndromes a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Holtzer, Roee; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Zemon, Vance; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2016-02-15

    Postural instability represents a main source of disability in Parkinsonian syndromes and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Indirect probes (i.e., mental imagery) of brain involvement support the role of prefrontal cortex as a key cortical region for postural control in older adults with and without Parkinsonian syndromes. Using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRs) as a direct online cortical probe, this study aimed to compare neural activation patterns in prefrontal cortex, postural stability, and their respective interactions, in (1) patients with Parkinsonian syndromes; (2) those with mild parkinsonian signs; (3) and healthy older adults. Among 269 non-demented older adults (76.41 ± 6.70 years, 56% women), 26 individuals presented with Parkinsonian syndromes (Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS): 11.08 ± 3.60), 117 had mild parkinsonian signs (UPDRS: 3.21 ± 2.49), and 126 individuals were included as a healthy control group. Participants were asked to stand upright and count silently for ten seconds while changes in oxygenated hemoglobin levels over prefrontal cortex were measured using fNIRs. We simultaneously evaluated postural stability with center of pressure velocity data recorded on an instrumented walkway. Compared to healthy controls and patients with mild parkinsonian signs, patients with Parkinsonian syndromes demonstrated significantly higher prefrontal oxygenation levels to maintain postural stability. The pattern of brain activation and postural control of participants with mild parkinsonian signs were similar to that of normal controls. These findings highlight the online role of the prefrontal cortex in postural control in patients with Parkinsonian syndromes and afford the opportunity to improve therapeutic options for postural instability.

  12. The contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the functional evaluation of microcircuits in human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Ziemann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) activates a number of different neuron types in the cortex, the final output elicited in corticospinal neurones is surprisingly stereotyped. A single TMS pulse evokes a series of descending corticospinal volleys that are separated from each other by about 1.5 ms (i.e., ~670 Hz). This evoked descending corticospinal activity can be directly recorded by an epidural electrode placed over the high cervical cord. The earliest wave is thought to originate from the direct activation of the axons of fast-conducting pyramidal tract neurones (PTN) and is therefore termed "D" wave. The later waves are thought to originate from indirect, trans-synaptic activation of PTNs and are termed "I" waves. The anatomical and computational characteristics of a canonical microcircuit model of cerebral cortex composed of layer II and III and layer V excitatory pyramidal cells, inhibitory interneurons, and cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical inputs can account for the main characteristics of the corticospinal activity evoked by TMS including its regular and rhythmic nature, the stimulus intensity-dependence and its pharmacological modulation. In this review we summarize present knowledge of the physiological basis of the effects of TMS of the human motor cortex describing possible interactions between TMS and simple canonical microcircuits of neocortex. According to the canonical model, a TMS pulse induces strong depolarization of the excitatory cells in the superficial layers of the circuit. This leads to highly synchronized recruitment of clusters of excitatory neurons, including layer V PTNs, and of inhibitory interneurons producing a high frequency (~670 Hz) repetitive discharge of the corticospinal axons. The role of the inhibitory circuits is crucial to entrain the firing of the excitatory networks to produce a high-frequency discharge and to control the number and magnitude of evoked excitatory discharge in layer V PTNs. In summary

  13. Differential expression of secreted phosphoprotein 1 in the motor cortex among primate species and during postnatal development and functional recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available We previously reported that secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1 mRNA is expressed in neurons whose axons form the corticospinal tract (CST of the rhesus macaque, but not in the corresponding neurons of the marmoset and rat. This suggests that SPP1 expression is involved in the functional or structural specialization of highly developed corticospinal systems in certain primate species. To further examine this hypothesis, we evaluated the expression of SPP1 mRNA in the motor cortex from three viewpoints: species differences, postnatal development, and functional/structural changes of the CST after a lesion of the lateral CST (l-CST at the mid-cervical level. The density of SPP1-positive neurons in layer V of the primary motor cortex (M1 was much greater in species with highly developed corticospinal systems (i.e., rhesus macaque, capuchin monkey, and humans than in those with less developed corticospinal systems (i.e., squirrel monkey, marmoset, and rat. SPP1-positive neurons in the macaque monkey M1 increased logarithmically in layer V during postnatal development, following a time course consistent with the increase in conduction velocity of the CST. After an l-CST lesion, SPP1-positive neurons increased in layer V of the ventral premotor cortex, in which compensatory changes in CST function/structure may occur, which positively correlated with the extent of finger dexterity recovery. These results further support the concept that the expression of SPP1 may reflect functional or structural specialization of highly developed corticospinal systems in certain primate species.

  14. COMPARATIVE MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ADRENAL GLANDS IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Alyabyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of morphological changes of the adrenal glands in arterial hyperten-sion. Adrenals investigated persons who do not suffer in life and suffering from hypertension during the life of hypertension and died from various causes – is incompatible with the life of a mechanical trauma, cerebral hemorrhage, and acute left ventricular failure. In each case, each of the adrenal glands were assessed: the presence and severity of focal and diffuse mononuclear infiltration, the number of lympho-cytes, monocytes, plasma cells and fibroblasts arranged in the respective zones of the cortex and medulla, the severity of hyperemia and edema of various structural parts, the number of zones cortex and medulla endocrinocytes with pycnotic nuclei in the reticular zone evaluated the distribution of secretory cells with lipofuscin and the degree of saturation of the cytoplasm of the secretory cells, in secretory cells of medul-la evaluated nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, the severity of vacuolization and basophils cytoplasm revealed a number of regularities of morphological changes depending from the various clinical manifestations of hypertension, defining the ultimate option of dying. At the heart tanatogenesis version are more pro-nounced morphological features hyperfunctions glomerular zone – namely delipidization left and right glands. The beam and netted areas contralateral glands embodiment of dying of a heart compared to the brain, is more pronounced hyperemia. When cardiac variant tanatogenesis more pronounced focal lym-phoid infiltration and vacuolization in secretory cells of left adrenal medulla.

  15. Context Memory Decline in Middle Aged Adults is Related to Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Diana; Maillet, David; Pasvanis, Stamatoula; Ankudowich, Elizabeth; Grady, Cheryl L; Rajah, M Natasha

    2016-06-01

    The ability to encode and retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details of episodic memories (context memory) begins to decline at midlife. In the current study, event-related fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of context memory decline in healthy middle aged adults (MA) compared with young adults (YA). Participants were scanned while performing easy and hard versions of spatial and temporal context memory tasks. Scans were obtained at encoding and retrieval. Significant reductions in context memory retrieval accuracy were observed in MA, compared with YA. The fMRI results revealed that overall, both groups exhibited similar patterns of brain activity in parahippocampal cortex, ventral occipito-temporal regions and prefrontal cortex (PFC) during encoding. In contrast, at retrieval, there were group differences in ventral occipito-temporal and PFC activity, due to these regions being more activated in MA, compared with YA. Furthermore, only in YA, increased encoding activity in ventrolateral PFC, and increased retrieval activity in occipital cortex, predicted increased retrieval accuracy. In MA, increased retrieval activity in anterior PFC predicted increased retrieval accuracy. These results suggest that there are changes in PFC contributions to context memory at midlife.

  16. [Functional asymmetry of the frontal cortex and lateral hypothalamus of cats during food instrumental conditioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanetsiian, G L; Pavlova, I V

    2003-01-01

    The synchronism and latency of auditory evoked potentials (EP) recorded in symmetric points of the frontal cortex and lateral hypothalamus of cats were measured at different stages of instrumental food conditioning and after the urgent transition to 30% reinforcement. Correlation coefficients between EPs in the cortex and hypothalamus were high (with left-side dominance) at the beginning of the experiments, when food motivation was high, and during the whole experiments in cases of high-probability of conditioned performance. Analysis of early positive P55-80 EP component showed that at all conditioning stages the peak latency of this component was shorter in the left cortical areas than in symmetrical points, whereas in the hypothalamus the shorter latency at the left side was observed at the stage of unstable conditioned reflex, and at the stage of stable reflex the latency of the studied component was shorter at the right side. During transition to 30% reinforcement, the latency was also shorter in the right hypothalamus. It is suggested that the high left-side correlation between the hypothalamus and cortex was associated with motivational and motor component of behavior rather than reflected the emotional stress induced by transition to another stereotype of food reinforcement (30%).

  17. Metaphorically Feeling: Comprehending Textural Metaphors Activates Somatosensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Sathian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual metaphor theory suggests that knowledge is structured around metaphorical mappings derived from physical experience. Segregated processing of object properties in sensory cortex allows testing of the hypothesis that metaphor processing recruits activity in domain-specific sensory cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  18. The mid-fusiform sulcus: a landmark identifying both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of human ventral temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kevin S; Golarai, Golijeh; Caspers, Julian; Chuapoco, Miguel R; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2014-01-01

    Human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) plays a pivotal role in high-level vision. An under-studied macroanatomical feature of VTC is the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS), a shallow longitudinal sulcus separating the lateral and medial fusiform gyrus (FG). Here, we quantified the morphological features of the MFS in 69 subjects (ages 7-40), and investigated its relationship to both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of VTC with four main findings. First, despite being a minor sulcus, we found that the MFS is a stable macroanatomical structure present in all 138 hemispheres with morphological characteristics developed by age 7. Second, the MFS is the locus of a lateral-medial cytoarchitectonic transition within the posterior FG serving as the boundary between cytoarchitectonic regions FG1 and FG2. Third, the MFS predicts a lateral-medial functional transition in eccentricity bias representations in children, adolescents, and adults. Fourth, the anterior tip of the MFS predicts the location of a face-selective region, mFus-faces/FFA-2. These findings are the first to illustrate that a macroanatomical landmark identifies both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of high-level sensory cortex in humans and have important implications for understanding functional and structural organization in the human brain.

  19. Multimodal intervention in older adults improves resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Niu, Yanan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Huang, Xin; Wang, Baoxi; Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The disconnection between them is suggested to be an important cause of cognitive decline in normal aging. Here, using multimodal intervention training, we investigated the functional plasticity in resting-state connectivity of these two regions in older adults. The multimodal intervention, comprised of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, was conducted to explore the regional connectivity changes in the default-mode network, as well as changes in prefrontal-based voxel-wise connectivity in the whole brain. Results showed that the intervention selectively affected resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Moreover, the strength of resting-state functional connectivity between these regions correlated with individual cognitive performance. Our results suggest that multimodal intervention could postpone the effects of aging and improve the function of the regions that are most heavily influenced by aging, as well as play an important role in preserving the brain and cognition during old age.

  20. Multimodal intervention in older adults improves resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The disconnection between them is suggested to be an important cause of cognitive decline in normal aging. Here, using multimodal intervention training, we investigated the functional plasticity in resting-state connectivity of these two regions in older adults. The multimodal intervention, comprised of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, was conducted to explore the regional connectivity changes in the default-mode network, as well as changes in prefrontal-based voxel-wise connectivity in the whole brain. Results showed that the intervention selectively affected resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Moreover, the strength of resting-state functional connectivity between these regions correlated with individual cognitive performance. Our results suggest that multimodal intervention could postpone the effects of aging and improve the function of the regions that are most heavily influenced by aging, as well as play an important role in preserving the brain and cognition during old age.Clinical Trial Registration: This trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR (http://www.chictr.org: ChiCTR-PNRC-13003813.

  1. Laboratory testing for platelet function disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israels, S J

    2015-05-01

    Platelet function testing is both complex and labor intensive. A stepwise approach to the evaluation of patients with suspected platelet disorders will optimize the use of laboratory resources, beginning with an appropriate clinical evaluation to determine whether the bleeding is consistent with a defect of primary hemostasis. Bleeding assessment tools, evaluation of platelet counts, and review of peripheral blood cell morphology can aid the initial assessment. For patients requiring further laboratory testing, platelet aggregometry, secretion assays, and von Willebrand factor assays are the most useful next steps and will direct further specialized testing including flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and molecular diagnostics. Guidelines and recommendations for standardizing platelet function testing, with a particular focus on light transmission aggregometry, are available and can provide a template for clinical laboratories in establishing procedures that will optimize diagnosis and assure quality results. This review outlines an approach to platelet function testing and reviews testing methods available to clinical laboratories.

  2. Structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus and resting state functional connectivity of the ventral prefrontal cortex in late life depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Steffens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies in late life depression have reported decreased structural integrity of white matter tracts in the prefrontal cortex. Functional studies have identified changes in functional connectivity among several key areas involved in mood regulation. Few studies have combined structural and functional imaging. In this study we sought to examine the relationship between the uncinate fasciculus, a key fronto-temporal tract and resting state functional connectivity between the ventral prefrontal cortex ((PFC and limbic and striatal areas. METHODS: The sample consisted of 24 older patients remitted from unipolar major depression. Each participant had a magnetic resonance imaging brain scan using standardized protocols to obtain both diffusion tensor imaging and resting state functional connectivity data. Our statistical approach compared structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus and functional connectivity data. RESULTS: We found positive correlations between left uncinate fasciculus (UF fractional anisotropy (FA and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC between the left ventrolateral PFC and left amygdala and between the left ventrolateral PFC and the left hippocampus. In addition, we found a significant negative correlation between left ventromedial PFC-caudate rsFC and left UF FA. The right UF FA did not correlate with any of the seed region based connectivity. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the notion that resting state functional connectivity reflects structural integrity, since the ventral PFC is structurally connected to temporal regions by the UF. Future studies should include larger samples of patients and healthy comparison subjects in which both resting state and task-based functional connectivity are examined.

  3. A substitution in the ligand binding domain of the porcine glucocorticoid receptor affects activity of the adrenal gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Murani

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis play a vital role in the maintenance of basal and stress-related homeostasis and influence health and well-being. To identify loci affecting regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in the pig we performed a genome-wide association study for two parameters of acute and long-term adrenal activity: plasma cortisol level and adrenal weight. We detected a major quantitative trait locus at the position of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1 - a key regulator of HPA axis activity. To determine the causal variant(s, we resequenced the coding region of NR3C1 and found three missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. SNP c.1829C>T, leading to a p.Ala610Val substitution in the ligand binding domain, showed large (about 0.6× and 1.2× phenotypic standard deviations for cortisol level and adrenal weight, respectively, and highly significant (2.1E-39≤log10(1/p≤1.7E+0 negative effects on both traits. We were able to replicate the association in three commercial pig populations with different breed origins. We analyzed effects of the p.Ala610Val substitution on glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional activity of porcine glucocorticoid receptor (GR in vitro and determined that the substitution introduced by SNP c.1829C>T increased sensitivity of GR by about two-fold. Finally, we found that non-coding polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with SNP c.1829C>T have only a minor effect on the expression of NR3C1 in tissues related to the HPA axis. Our findings provide compelling evidence that SNP c.1829C>T in porcine NR3C1 is a gain-of-function mutation with a major effect on the activity of the adrenal gland. Pigs carrying this SNP could provide a new animal model to study neurobiological and physiological consequences of genetically based GR hypersensitivity and adrenal hypofunction.

  4. Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed.

  5. Contralateral adrenal suppression on adrenocortical scintigraphy provides good evidence showing subclinical cortisol overproduction from unilateral adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabami, Takuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Obi, Ryusei; Asai, Shiko; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2016-12-30

    Unilateral and/or predominant uptake on adrenocortical scintigraphy (ACS) may be related to autonomous cortisol overproduction in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS). However, there is no information regarding whether increased tracer uptake on the tumor side or decreased uptake on the contralateral side on ACS is more greatly associated with inappropriate cortisol production. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between quantitative (131)I-6β-iodomethyl-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) uptake in both adrenal glands and parameters of autonomic cortisol secretion and attempted to set a cut off for SCS detection. The study included 90 patients with unilateral adrenal adenoma who fulfilled strict criteria. The diagnosis of SCS was based on serum cortisol ≥3.0 μg/dL after 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) with at least 1 other hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function abnormality. Twenty-two (27.7%) subjects were diagnosed with SCS. The uptake rate on the affected side in the SCS group was comparable to that in the non-functioning adenoma group. In contrast, the uptake rate on the contralateral side was lower and the laterality ratio significantly higher in the SCS group. The two ACS indices were correlated with serum cortisol levels after a 1-mg DST, but uptake on the tumor side was not. Tumor size was also important for the functional statuses of adrenal tumors and NP-59 imaging patterns. The best cut-off point for the laterality ratio to detect SCS was 3.07. These results clearly indicate that contralateral adrenal suppression in ACS is good evidence showing subclinical cortisol overproduction.

  6. Clinical Characteristics and Metabolic Features of Patients with Adrenal Incidentalomas with or without Subclinical Cushing's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Yeon Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas discovered by computed tomography (CT and to investigate metabolic features of subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS in patients with adrenal incidentalomas in a tertiary hospital in Korea.MethodsThis retrospective study examined the clinical aspects of 268 patients with adrenal incidentalomas discovered by CT at Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital. Clinical data and endocrine function of the patients as well as histological findings were obtained from medical records, while anatomic characteristics were analyzed by reviewing imaging studies. Hormonal tests for pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, and aldosterone-secreting adenoma were performed.ResultsMost (n=218, 81.3% cases were nonfunctioning tumors. Of the 50 patients with functioning tumors (18.7%, 19 (7.1% were diagnosed with SCS, nine (3.4% with overt Cushing's syndrome, 12 (4.5% with primary aldosteronism, and 10 (3.7% with pheochromocytoma. Malignant tumors (both primary and metastatic were rare (n=2, 0.7%. Body mass index, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and total cholesterol were significantly higher in patients with SCS in comparison with those with nonfunctioning tumors. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension were significantly higher in patients with SCS compared with those with nonfunctioning tumors.ConclusionFunctioning tumors, especially those with subclinical cortisol excess, are commonly found in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, although malignancy is rare. In addition, patients with SCS in adrenal incidentalomas have adverse metabolic and cardiovascular profiles.

  7. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals probability-dependent changes in functional connectivity between right inferior frontal cortex and primary motor cortex during go/no-go performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. van Campen; F.X. Neubert; W.P.M. van den Wildenberg; K.R. Ridderinkhof; R.B. Mars

    2013-01-01

    The functional role of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) in mediating human behavior is the subject of ongoing debate. Activation of the rIFC has been associated with both response inhibition and with signaling action adaptation demands resulting from unpredicted events. The goal of this stud

  8. Test bank for precalculus functions & graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kolman, Bernard; Levitan, Michael L

    1984-01-01

    Test Bank for Precalculus: Functions & Graphs is a supplementary material for the text, Precalculus: Functions & Graphs. The book is intended for use by mathematics teachers.The book contains standard tests for each chapter in the textbook. Each set of test focuses on gauging the level of knowledge the student has achieved during the course. The answers for each chapter test and the final exam are found at the end of the book.Mathematics teachers teaching calculus will find the book extremely useful.

  9. [Synergy of vision and extraocular proprioception in the mechanisms of functional plasticity of the primary visual cortex in the kitten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Y; Fregnac, Y; Buisseret, P

    1983-01-01

    In 6 week old dark reared kittens, a visual monocular exposure for 6 hrs. elicits major functional modifications in the primary visual cortex. Most cells become orientation selective and are activated through the open eye only. However, if a unilateral section of the ophthalmic branch of the fifth nerve is performed 1 week before the monocular exposure, these modifications are less pronounced, particularly when carried out on the same side as the open eye. Moreover, if the ophthalmic branch has been cut bilaterally, visual monocular exposure has almost no effect: cortical cells remain non selective to orientation and binocularly activated.

  10. Framework for Ethernet Network Functionality Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Aamir Mehmood

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer networks and telecommunication systems use a wide range of applications. Therefore, the power and complexity of computer networks are increasing every day which enhances the possibilities of the end user, but also makes harder the work of those who have to design, maintain and make a network efficient, optimized and secure. Ethernet functionality testing as a generic term used for checking connectivity, throughput and capability to transfer packets over the network. Especially in the packet-switch environment, Ethernet testing has become an essential part for deploying a reliable network. A platform and vendor independent framework is required to verify and test the functionality of the Ethernet network and to verify the functionality and performance of the TCP/IP stack. NetBurst is developed for Ethernet functionality testing

  11. Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tančić-Gajić Milina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis type 1 is one of the most common genetically transmitted diseases with a high index of spontaneous mutations and extremely varied and unpredictable clinical manifestations. It is diagnosed by the existence of certain clinical criteria. The presence of numerous localised cutaneous neurofibromas or a plexiform neurofibroma is virtually pathognomonic of neurofibromatosis type 1. The incidence of pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 is 0.1-5.7%. CASE OUTLINE A 56-year old female patient was admitted for further evaluation of incidental adrenal tumour previously diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT. She had previously unrecognized neurofibromatosis type 1 and a clinical picture which could remind of pheochromocytoma. None of the catecholamine samples in 24 hr urine indicated functionally active pheochromocytoma. Chromogranin A was moderately increased. Decision for operation was made after performing the image techniques. Adrenal incidentaloma had features of pheochromocytoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, with positive 131I-MIBG (iodine 131-labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. After being treated with phenoxybenzamine and propranolol, she was operated on. The pathohistological finding showed the case of left adrenal pheochromocytoma. CONCLUSION Detailed diagnostic procedure for pheochromocytoma should be performed with patients having neurofibromatosis type 1 and adrenal incidentaloma. Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours with fatal outcome if not duly recognized and cured.

  12. Adrenal Insufficiency - Aetiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma Akter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal insufficiency is caused by either primary adrenal failure or by hypothalamic-pituitary impairment of the corticotropic axis. Adrenal insufficiency, first codified in 1855 by Thomas Addison, remains relevant in 2014 because of its lethal nature. Though, it is a rare disease but is life threatening when overlooked. Main presenting symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia and weight loss are nonspecific, thus diagnosis is often delayed. The diagnostic work-up is well established but some pitfalls remain. The diagnosis is adequately established by the 250 μg ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test in most cases. Glucocorticoids provide life saving treatment but long-term quality of life is impaired, perhaps because therapy is not given in a physiologic way. Dehydroepiandrosterone-replacement therapy has been introduced that could help to restore quality of life. It may be useful in pubertal girls, but not in adults. Monitoring of glucocorticoid-replacement is difficult due to lack of objective methods of assessment and is therefore largely based on clinical grounds. Thus, long-term management of patients with adrenal insufficiency remains a challenge, requiring an experienced specialist.

  13. Adrenal insufficiency in patients with decompensatedcirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal reserve depletion and overstimulation of thehypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are causesfor adrenal insufficiency (AI) in critically ill individuals.Cirrhosis is a predisposing condition for AI in cirrhotics aswell. Both stable cirrhotics and liver transplant patients(early and later after transplantation) have been reportedto present AI. The mechanisms leading to reducedcortisol production in cirrhotics are the combination oflow cholesterol levels (the primary source of cortisol), theincreased cytokines production that overstimulate andexhaust HPA axis and the destruction of adrenal glandsdue to coagulopathy. AI has been recorded in 10%-82%cirrhotics depending on the test used to evaluate adrenalfunction and in 9%-83% stable cirrhotics. The similarityof those proportions support the assumption that AI isan endogenous characteristic of liver disease. However,the lack of a gold standard method for AI assessmentand the limitation of precise thresholds in cirrhoticsmake difficult the recording of the real prevalence of AI.This review aims to summarize the present data overAI in stable, critically ill cirrhotics and liver transplantrecipients. Moreover, it provides information about thecurrent knowledge in the used diagnostic tools and thepossible effectiveness of corticosteroids administration incritically ill cirrhotics with AI.

  14. Pigs fed saturated fat/cholesterol have a blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, are insulin resistant and have decreased expression of IRS-1, PGC1α and PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Michael A; Karamanlidis, Georgios; Laws, John; Cremers, Stephanie G; Weinberg, Peter D; Clarke, Lynne

    2013-04-01

    The increasing incidence of insulin resistance has been linked to both increased intake of saturated fatty acids and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We tested the hypothesis that adding saturated fat/cholesterol to the diet of growing pigs would both disrupt HPA function and cause insulin resistance. Three-month-old pigs were fed either a control (13% energy from fat) or a high saturated fatty acid cholesterol (HSFC) diet (44% energy from fat; 2% cholesterol). After 10 weeks on the diets, intravenous ACTH, insulin and glucose challenges were performed, and after 12 weeks, tissue samples were taken for measurement of mRNA and for lipid-rich aortic lesions. Plasma total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly increased in pigs fed the HSFC diet. Cortisol release during the ACTH challenge was suppressed in HSFC-fed pigs which were also more insulin resistant and glucose intolerant than controls. The HSFC diet decreased the expression of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 in muscle and adipose tissue as well as adiponectin and adiponectin receptor 2 expression in fat. The HSFC diet decreased PGC-1α and PPARα expression in muscle but increased PPARα expression in liver. There was a trend for an increase in lipid-stained lesion frequency around the abdominal branches of the aorta in HSFC-fed pigs. We conclude that feeding increased saturated fat to pigs causes disruption in the HPA axis, insulin resistance and decreased muscle and adipose expression of genes controlling insulin signalling and mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

  15. Functional Testing of Wireless Sensor Node Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are networked embedded computer systems with stringent power, performance, cost and form-factor requirements along with numerous other constraints related to their pervasiveness and ubiquitousness. Therefore, only a systematic design methdology coupled with an efficient...... test approach can enable their conformance to design and deployment specifications. We discuss off-line, hierarchical, functional testing of complete wireless sensor nodes containing configurable logic through a combination of FPGA-based board test and Software-Based Self-Test (SBST) techniques....... The proposed functional test methodology has been applied to a COTS-based sensor node development platform and can be applied, in general, for testing all types of wireless sensor node designs....

  16. What We Know and Do Not Know about the Functions of the Orbitofrontal Cortex after 20 Years of Cross-Species Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Elisabeth A.; O'Doherty, John P.; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    When Pat Goldman-Rakic described the circuitry and function of primate prefrontal cortex in her influential 1987 monograph (Goldman-Rakic, 1987), she included only a few short paragraphs on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). That year, there were only nine papers published containing the term “orbitofrontal,” an average of less than one paper per month. Twenty years later, this rate has increased to 32 papers per month. This explosive growth is partly attributable to the remarkable similarities ...

  17. The role of executive function and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the expression of neuroticism and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Poore, Joshua C; Krueger, Frank; Barbey, Aron K; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how specific neurological systems contribute to the expression of multiple personality dimensions. We used individuals with traumatic brain injuries to examine the contribution of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)--a region important for executive function and attention-to the expression of neuroticism and conscientiousness factors and facets. Results from Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping analyses revealed that focal damage to the left DLPFC (Brodmann's area 9) was associated with high neuroticism and low conscientious factor and facet scores (anxiety and self-discipline, respectively). Compared with lesioned and normal controls, veterans with damage in left DLPFC also reported higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness facet scores, slower reaction times on the California Computerized Assessment Package assessment, and lower scores on the Delis-Kaplan executive function battery. Findings suggest that while neuroticism and conscientiousness remain psychometrically independent personality dimensions, their component facets may rely on a common neurocognitive infrastructure and executive function resources in general.

  18. Deconstructing the brain's moral network: dissociable functionality between the temporoparietal junction and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmanhall, Oriel; Mobbs, Dean; Dalgleish, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Research has illustrated that the brain regions implicated in moral cognition comprise a robust and broadly distributed network. However, understanding how these brain regions interact and give rise to the complex interplay of cognitive processes underpinning human moral cognition is still in its infancy. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine patterns of activation for 'difficult' and 'easy' moral decisions relative to matched non-moral comparators. This revealed an activation pattern consistent with a relative functional double dissociation between the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Difficult moral decisions activated bilateral TPJ and deactivated the vmPFC and OFC. In contrast, easy moral decisions revealed patterns of activation in the vmPFC and deactivation in bilateral TPJ and dorsolateral PFC. Together these results suggest that moral cognition is a dynamic process implemented by a distributed network that involves interacting, yet functionally dissociable networks.

  19. The Full Function Test Explosive Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Griffith, L V; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-12-13

    We have conducted three tests of a new pulsed power device called the Full Function Test (FFT). These tests represented the culmination of an effort to establish a high energy pulsed power capability based on high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) technology. This involved an extensive computational modeling, engineering, fabrication, and fielding effort. The experiments were highly successful and a new US record for magnetic energy was obtained.

  20. Immobility behavior during the forced swim test correlates with BNDF levels in the frontal cortex, but not with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsoi, Milene; Antonio, Camila Boque; Viana, Alice Fialho; Nardin, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze

    2015-03-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is widely used to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of compounds and is sensitive to stimuli that cause depression-like behaviors in rodents. The immobility behavior observed during the test has been considered to represent behavioral despair. In addition, some studies suggest that the FST impairs rats' performance on cognitive tests, but these findings have rarely been explored. Thus, we investigated the effects of the FST on behavioral tests related to neuropsychiatric diseases that involve different cognitive components: novel object recognition (NOR), the object location test (OLT) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were evaluated. The rats were forced to swim twice (15-min session followed by a 5-min session 24h later) and underwent cognitive tests 24h after the last swimming exposure. The FST impaired the rats' performance on the OLT and reduced the PPI and acoustic startle responses, whereas the NOR was not affected. The cognitive impairments were not correlated with an immobility behavior profile, but a significant negative correlation between the frontal BDNF levels and immobility behavior was identified. These findings suggest a protective role of BDNF against behavioral despair and demonstrate a deleterious effect of the FST on spatial memory and pre-attentive processes, which point to the FST as a tool to induce cognitive impairments analogous to those observed in depression and in other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological, hi

  2. Review on Histological and Functional Effect of Aluminium Chloride on Cerebral Cortex of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhane Alem Berihu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Various findings are give emphasis to Aluminium has more and more obvious disturbance of the brain other body organs. The purpose of this review is to give a comprehensive report of the existing data on Aluminium induced brain toxicity in different animal models. Along with, we also have made an attempt to present the possible mechanism related to aluminium induced brain toxicity suggested by various researchers. We used 62 different published materials for the compilation of this review article. Google search engine was used for accessing published materials from databases like google scholar, pubmed and hinari. The focus is on Al levels in brain, region-specific and subcellular distribution, mechanism of aluminium on neurotoxicity, histological change and neurobehavioral alternations. The present analysis indicated that AlCl3 showed to be neurotoxin chemical by affecting the biochemical content of brain, histological alternation of cerebral cortex of the brain, disrupting behavioral activities. However, whether aluminium is a sole factor in neurodegeneration, histological alternation of cerebral cortex of the brain still needs to be understood.

  3. Label-free in vivo optical imaging of functional microcirculations within meninges and cortex in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Wang, Ruikang K

    2010-12-15

    Abnormal microcirculation within meninges is common in many neurological diseases. There is a need for an imaging method that is capable of monitoring dynamic meningeal microcirculations, preferably decoupled from cortical blood flow. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a recently developed label-free imaging method capable of producing 3D images of dynamic blood perfusion within micro-circulatory tissue beds at an imaging depth up to ∼2 mm, with an unprecedented imaging sensitivity to blood flow at ∼4 μm/s. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of OMAG in imaging the detailed blood flow distributions, at a capillary level resolution, within the meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact. Using a thrombotic mouse model, we show that the OMAG can yield longitudinal measurements of meningeal vascular responses to the insult and can decouple these responses from those in the cortex, giving valuable information regarding the localized hemodynamics along with the dynamic formation of thrombotic event. The results indicate that OMAG can be a useful tool to study therapeutic strategies in preclinical animal models in order to mitigate various pathologies that are mainly related to the meningeal circulations.

  4. Glutamate concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts resting-state cortical-subcortical functional connectivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall W Duncan

    Full Text Available Communication between cortical and subcortical regions is integral to a wide range of psychological processes and has been implicated in a number of psychiatric conditions. Studies in animals have provided insight into the biochemical and connectivity processes underlying such communication. However, to date no experiments that link these factors in humans in vivo have been carried out. To investigate the role of glutamate in individual differences in communication between the cortex--specifically the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC--and subcortical regions in humans, a combination of resting-state fMRI, DTI and MRS was performed. The subcortical target regions were the nucleus accumbens (NAc, dorsomedial thalamus (DMT, and periaqueductal grey (PAG. It was found that functional connectivity between the mPFC and each of the NAc and DMT was positively correlated with mPFC glutamate concentrations, whilst functional connectivity between the mPFC and PAG was negatively correlated with glutamate concentration. The correlations involving mPFC glutamate and FC between the mPFC and each of the DMT and PAG were mirrored by correlations with structural connectivity, providing evidence that the glutamatergic relationship may, in part, be due to direct connectivity. These results are in agreement with existing results from animal studies and may have relevance for MDD and schizophrenia.

  5. 相对性肾上腺皮质功能不全与呼吸机撤离的关系及对预后的影响%Impact of relative adrenal function on ventilator weaning and the prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐欣晖; 周巍; 陈琦; 黄欢; 朱长清

    2014-01-01

    目的:对机械通气的重症患者进行肾上腺皮质功能状态分析,探讨相对性肾上腺皮质不全(RAI)与呼吸机撤离的关系,评价肾上腺皮质功能测定对呼吸机撤离及预后的意义。方法选择上海仁济医院急诊科及急诊ICU机械通气超过24 h的患者,使用250μg促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)静脉注射,测定刺激前及刺激后60 min血浆总皮质醇水平,即T60与T0,二者的差值ΔT≤9μg/dl定义为RAI。分析RAI与呼吸机撤离的相关性,使用Kaplan-Meier评价RAI与机械通气患者30 d存活率的相关性。结果共60例机械通气患者纳入研究,其中有创通气38例,无创通气22例;撤机成功24例,撤机失败36例。卡方检验显示,成功撤机组RAI患者比例明显著低于非RAI患者(P=0.00011),并在有创通气组中更为明显。同时机械通气患者30 d存活率观察发现,合并RAI的患者死亡率明显高于非RAI通气患者(P=0.0003)。结论 RAI明显影响有创通气的撤机成功率,并与机械通气的死亡率显著相关。%Objective To examine the adrenal function of critically ill patients received mechanical ventilation, and explore the relationship between the relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) and weaning outcome, evaluate the impaction of RAI impact on prognosis. Methods Critically ill patients who were mechanical ventilated over 24 hours were enrolled in this study. Each patient was given a bolus dose of 250 μg corticotrophin, plasma total cortisol level was detected at T0 and T60 (before and 60 minutes) after the shot and RAI defined as the difference between T0 and T60≤9 μg/dl. Chi-square test was used to analysis the correlation of the RAI and the weaning outcome, and Kaplan-Meiler was used evaluate the 30 days survival. Results A total of 60 patients with mechanical ventilation were recruited, including 38 invasive ventilation and 22 non-invasive. The successful weaning group

  6. Quantum algorithms for testing Boolean functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Andersson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss quantum algorithms, based on the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm, for finding which variables a Boolean function depends on. There are 2^n possible linear Boolean functions of n variables; given a linear Boolean function, the Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithm can deterministically identify which one of these Boolean functions we are given using just one single function query. The same quantum algorithm can also be used to learn which input variables other types of Boolean functions depend on, with a success probability that depends on the form of the Boolean function that is tested, but does not depend on the total number of input variables. We also outline a procedure to futher amplify the success probability, based on another quantum algorithm, the Grover search.

  7. Saccade-related activity in the prefrontal cortex: its role in eye movement control and cognitive functions

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    Shintaro eFunahashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal neurons exhibit saccade-related activity and pre-saccadic memory-related activity often encodes the directions of forthcoming eye movements, in line with demonstrated prefrontal contribution to flexible control of voluntary eye movements. However, many prefrontal neurons exhibit post-saccadic activity that is initiated well after the initiation of eye movement. Although post-saccadic activity has been observed in the frontal eye field, this activity is thought to be a corollary discharge from oculomotor centers, because this activity shows no directional tuning and is observed whenever the monkeys perform eye movements regardless of goal-directed or not. However, prefrontal post-saccadic activities exhibit directional tunings similar as pre-saccadic activities and show context dependency, such that post-saccadic activity is observed only when monkeys perform goal-directed saccades. Context-dependency of prefrontal post-saccadic activity suggests that this activity is not a result of corollary signals from oculomotor centers, but contributes to other functions of the prefrontal cortex. One function might be the termination of memory-related activity after a behavioral response is done. This is supported by the observation that the termination of memory-related activity coincides with the initiation of post-saccadic activity in population analyses of prefrontal activities. The termination of memory-related activity at the end of the trial ensures that the subjects can prepare to receive new and updated information. Another function might be the monitoring of behavioral performance, since the termination of memory-related activity by post-saccadic activity could be associated with informing the correctness of the response and the termination of the trial. However, further studies are needed to examine the characteristics of saccade-related activities in the prefrontal cortex and their functions in eye movement control and a variety of

  8. Localization and production of peptide endocannabinoids in the rodent CNS and adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefanie C; Ralvenius, William T; Gachet, M Salomé; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Gertsch, Jürg

    2015-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and their endogenous arachidonic acid-derived agonists 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide, which play important neuromodulatory roles. Recently, a novel class of negative allosteric CB1 receptor peptide ligands, hemopressin-like peptides derived from alpha hemoglobin, has been described, with yet unknown origin and function in the CNS. Using monoclonal antibodies we now identified the localization of RVD-hemopressin (pepcan-12) and N-terminally extended peptide endocannabinoids (pepcans) in the CNS and determined their neuronal origin. Immunohistochemical analyses in rodents revealed distinctive and specific staining in major groups of noradrenergic neurons, including the locus coeruleus (LC), A1, A5 and A7 neurons, which appear to be major sites of production/release in the CNS. No staining was detected in dopaminergic neurons. Peptidergic axons were seen throughout the brain (notably hippocampus and cerebral cortex) and spinal cord, indicative of anterograde axonal transport of pepcans. Intriguingly, the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla were also strongly stained for pepcans. We found specific co-expression of pepcans with galanin, both in the LC and adrenal gland. Using LC-MS/MS, pepcan-12 was only detected in non-perfused brain (∼ 40 pmol/g), suggesting that in the CNS it is secreted and present in extracellular compartments. In adrenal glands, significantly more pepcan-12 (400-700 pmol/g) was measured in both non-perfused and perfused tissues. Thus, chromaffin cells may be a major production site of pepcan-12 found in blood. These data uncover important areas of peptide endocannabinoid occurrence with exclusive noradrenergic immunohistochemical staining, opening new doors to investigate their potential physiological function in the ECS. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Fluorescent Tools in Neuropharmacology'.

  9. 人肾上腺基因表达谱的建立及其功能的新认识%New Comprehension of Human Adrenal Functions by Profiling Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭永德; 高国峰; 顾彦杰; 胡仁明; 陈家论

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the functions of human adrenal glands (AD), cDNA libraries of human normal adrenal were constructed. Large-scale sequencing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and bioinformatics techniques were used. The categories of genes highly expressed in AD were gene/protein expression, followed by energy-metabolism. The first three genes highly expressed in AD were the enzymes and protein involved in the biosynthesis of steroids. It was first shown that some important genes were expressed in human adrenal,including hormones or secretory proteins, such as CRH, melanin concentration hormone (MCH), urocortin,cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), and PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) were expressed in AD; many receptors, such as cytokine, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter receptors, also existed in AD; cholesterol-metabolism-related genes, such as LDL receptor, HDL binding protein, cholesterol synthases. It suggests that the genes highly expressed in AD are closely related to the specific functions of adrenal. Besides steroids, many peptide hormones and cytokines are also expressed in AD. There is extensive cross-talking between adrenal and other systems by many important active peptides or cytokines. Furthermore, there may be a local CRH-ACTH-cortisol regulatory network in human adrenal.%为深入理解人类肾上腺(AD)的功能,构建了正常人肾上腺cDNA文库,并利用大规模表达序列标签(ESTs)测序和生物信息学技术,研究显示参与基因/蛋白表达的基因类型表达最多,其次为能量代谢类.肾上腺中表达丰度最高的3个基因均为参与类固醇合成的酶类和蛋白.一些重要的基因首次显示在肾上腺表达,包括神经激素和神经肽,如促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素(CRH),黑色素浓激素(MCH),urocortin,可卡因和安非他明调节肽(CART)和垂体腺苷酸环化酶激活肽(PACAP);许多重要介质的受体,如细胞因子、神经肽及神

  10. Estrogen deficiency leads to telomerase inhibition,telomere shortening and reduced cell proliferation in the adrenal gland of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharyn Bayne; Margaret EE Jones; He Li; Alex R Pinto; Evan R Simpson; Jun-Ping Liu

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency mediates aging, but the underlying mechanism remains to be fully determined. We report here that estrogen deficiency caused by targeted disruption of aromatase in mice results in significant inhibition oftelomerase activity in the adrenal gland in vivo. Gene expression analysis showed that, in the absence of estrogen, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression is reduced in association with compromised cell proliferation in the adrenal gland cortex and adrenal atrophy. Stem cells positive in c-kit are identified to populate in the parenchyma of adrenal cortex. Analysis of telomeres revealed that estrogen deficiency results in significantly shorter telomeres in the adrenal cortex than that in wild-type (WT) control mice. To further establish the causal effects of estrogen, we conducted an estrogen replacement therapy in these estrogen-deficient animals. Administration of estrogen for 3 weeks restores TERT gene expression, telomerase activity and cell proliferation in estrogen-deficient mice. Thus, our data show for the first time that estrogen deficiency causes inhibitions of TERT gene expression, telomerase activity, telomere maintenance, and cell proliferation in the adrenal gland of mice in vivo, suggesting that telomerase inhibition and telomere shortening may mediate cell proliferation arrest in the adrenal gland, thus contributing to estrogen deficiency-induced aging under physiological conditions.

  11. ADRENAL INCIDENTALOMAS: ANALYSIS OF 126 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉忠; 严维刚; 曾正陪; 肖河; 冯超; 王惠君

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal incidentalomas. Methods. One hundred and twenty-six patients with incidentalomas were analyzed, among them 98 underwent operation. Results. Eighty-eight of the adrenal incidentalomas were discovered by ultrasound. Of all the types of adrenal incidentalomas, 52 (41.3%) of them were adenomas; 43 (34.1%) were hypersecretory adrenal tumors, including 29 pheochromocytomas, 9 primary aldosteronisms, 1 adrenogenitol syndrome combined with adrenal adenoma, 2 Cushing's syndrome combined with adenomas and 2 Cushing's syndrome combined with nodular hyperplasias. All nonhypersecretory adrenal adenomas were under 6 cm, and all adrenal carcinomas were above 6 cm.Conclusions. To search for hypersecretory adrenal tumors and to detect malignant adrenal tumors are quite essential in the process of diagnosing adrenal incidentalomas. For nonhypersecretory adrenal adenomas, the size of tumor is the most important index in determining whether the tumor is benign or malignant and whether the tumor needs to be treated with operation.

  12. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates visual attention during facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Richard C; Philippi, Carissa L; Motzkin, Julian C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is known to play a crucial role in regulating human social and emotional behaviour, yet the precise mechanisms by which it subserves this broad function remain unclear. Whereas previous neuropsychological studies have largely focused on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in higher-order deliberative processes related to valuation and decision-making, here we test whether ventromedial prefrontal cortex may also be critical for more basic aspects of orienting attention to socially and emotionally meaningful stimuli. Using eye tracking during a test of facial emotion recognition in a sample of lesion patients, we show that bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage impairs visual attention to the eye regions of faces, particularly for fearful faces. This finding demonstrates a heretofore unrecognized function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex-the basic attentional process of controlling eye movements to faces expressing emotion.

  13. What we know and do not know about the functions of the orbitofrontal cortex after 20 years of cross-species studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elisabeth A; O'Doherty, John P; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2007-08-01

    When Pat Goldman-Rakic described the circuitry and function of primate prefrontal cortex in her influential 1987 monograph (Goldman-Rakic, 1987), she included only a few short paragraphs on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). That year, there were only nine papers published containing the term "orbitofrontal," an average of less than one paper per month. Twenty years later, this rate has increased to 32 papers per month. This explosive growth is partly attributable to the remarkable similarities that exist in structure and function across species. These similarities suggest that OFC function can be usefully modeled in nonhuman and even nonprimate species. Here, we review some of these similarities.

  14. Modulation of functionally localized right insular cortex activity using real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback

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    Brian D Berman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for subjects to learn to volitionally control localized brain activity using neurofeedback is actively being investigated. We aimed to investigate the ability of healthy volunteers to quickly learn to use visual feedback during real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI to modulate brain activity within their anterior right insular cortex (RIC localized during a blink suppression task, an approach of possible interest in the use of rtfMRI to reduce urges. The RIC region of interest (RIC-ROI was functionally localized using a blink suppression task, and BOLD signal changes within RIC-ROI used to create a constantly updating display fed back to the subject in the scanner. Subjects were instructed to use emotional imagery to try and increase activity within RIC-ROI during four feedback training runs (FB1–FB4. A ‘control’ run (CNTRL before training and a ‘transfer’ run (XSFR after training were performed without feedback to assess for baseline abilities and learning effects. Fourteen participants completed all neurofeedback training runs. At the group level, increased BOLD activity was seen in the anterior RIC during all the FB runs, but a significant increase in the functionally defined RIC-ROI was only attained during FB2. In atlas-defined insular cortex ROIs, significant increases were seen bilaterally during the CNTRL, FB1, FB2, and FB4 runs. Increased activity within the insular cortices did not show lateralization. Training did, however, result in a significant increase in functional connectivity between the RIC-ROI and the medial frontal gyrus when comparing FB4 to FB1. Since neurofeedback training did not lead to an increase in BOLD signal across all feedback runs, we suggest that learning to control one’s brain activity in this fashion may require longer or repeated rtfMRI training sessions.

  15. [Retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex with functional magnetic resonance imaging - basic principles, current developments and ophthalmological perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M B; Kaule, F; Grzeschik, R; Behrens-Baumann, W; Wolynski, B

    2011-07-01

    Since its initial introduction in the mid-1990 s, retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex, based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has contributed greatly to our understanding of the human visual system. Multiple cortical visual field representations have been demonstrated and thus numerous visual areas identified. The organisation of specific areas has been detailed and the impact of pathophysiologies of the visual system on the cortical organisation uncovered. These results are based on investigations at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla or less. In a field-strength comparison between 3 and 7 Tesla, it was demonstrated that retinotopic mapping benefits from a magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla. Specifically, the visual areas can be mapped with high spatial resolution for a detailed analysis of the visual field maps. Applications of fMRI-based retinotopic mapping in ophthalmological research hold promise to further our understanding of plasticity in the human visual cortex. This is highlighted by pioneering studies in patients with macular dysfunction or misrouted optic nerves.

  16. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  17. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  18. Mapping the functional network of medial prefrontal cortex by combining optogenetics and fMRI in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhifeng; Watson, Glenn D R; Alloway, Kevin D; Lee, Gangchea; Neuberger, Thomas; Zhang, Nanyin

    2015-08-15

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in multiple cognitive and limbic functions. Given its vital importance, investigating the function of individual mPFC circuits in animal models has provided critical insight into the neural basis underlying different behaviors and psychiatric conditions. However, our knowledge regarding the mPFC whole-brain network stays largely at the anatomical level, while the functional network of mPFC, which can be dynamic in different conditions or following manipulations, remains elusive especially in awake rodents. Here we combined optogenetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (opto-fMRI) to reveal the network of brain regions functionally activated by mPFC outputs in awake rodents. Our data showed significant increases in blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signals in prefrontal, striatal and limbic regions when mPFC was optically stimulated. This activation pattern was robust, reproducible, and did not depend on the stimulation period in awake rats. BOLD signals, however, were substantially reduced when animals were anesthetized. In addition, regional brain activation showing increased BOLD signals during mPFC stimulation was corroborated by electrophysiological recordings. These results expand the applicability of the opto-fMRI approach from sensorimotor processing to cognition-related networks in awake rodents. Importantly, it may help elucidate the circuit mechanisms underlying numerous mPFC-related functions and behaviors that need to be assessed in the awake state.

  19. Caffeine-induced activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the hippocampus causes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibition in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Benjian; Liang, Gai; Ping, Jie; Kou, Hao; Li, Xiaojun; Xiong, Jie; Hu, Dongcai; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations have shown that fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are susceptible to adult metabolic syndrome. Clinical investigations and experiments have demonstrated that caffeine is a definite inducer of IUGR, as children who ingest caffeine-containing food or drinks are highly susceptible to adult obesity and hypertension. Our goals for this study were to investigate the effect of prenatal caffeine ingestion on the functional development of the fetal hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and to clarify an intrauterine HPA axis-associated neuroendocrine alteration induced by caffeine. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered 20, 60, and 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from gestational days 11-20. The results show that prenatal caffeine ingestion significantly decreased the expression of fetal hypothalamus corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The fetal adrenal cortex changed into slight and the expression of fetal adrenal steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as well as the level of fetal adrenal endogenous corticosterone (CORT), were all significantly decreased after caffeine treatment. Moreover, caffeine ingestion significantly increased the levels of maternal and fetal blood CORT and decreased the expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD-2). Additionally, both in vivo and in vitro studies show that caffeine can downregulate the expression of fetal hippocampal 11β-HSD-2, promote the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and enhance DNA methylation within the hippocampal 11β-HSD-2 promoter. These results suggest that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of the fetal HPA axis, which may be associated with the fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoid and activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the fetal hippocampus. These results will be beneficial in

  20. POD-1/Tcf21 overexpression reduces endogenous SF-1 and StAR expression in rat adrenal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During gonad and adrenal development, the POD-1/capsulin/TCF21transcription factor negatively regulates SF-1/NR5A1expression, with higher SF-1 levels being associated with increased adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In adrenocortical tumor cells, POD-1 binds to the SF-1 E-box promoter region, decreasing SF-1 expression. However, the modulation of SF-1 expression by POD-1 has not previously been described in normal adrenal cells. Here, we analyzed the basal expression of Pod-1 and Sf-1 in primary cultures of glomerulosa (G and fasciculata/reticularis (F/R cells isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated whether POD-1 overexpression modulates the expression of endogenous Sf-1 and its target genes in these cells. POD-1 overexpression, following the transfection of pCMVMycPod-1, significantly decreased the endogenous levels of Sf-1 mRNA and protein in F/R cells, but not in G cells, and also decreased the expression of the SF-1 target StAR in F/R cells. In G cells overexpressing POD-1, no modulation of the expression of SF-1 targets, StAR and CYP11B2, was observed. Our data showing that G and F/R cells respond differently to ectopic POD-1 expression emphasize the functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the adrenal cortex, and support the hypothesis that SF-1 is regulated by POD-1/Tcf21 in normal adrenocortical cells lacking the alterations in cellular physiology found in tumor cells.

  1. POD-1/Tcf21 overexpression reduces endogenous SF-1 and StAR expression in rat adrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, M M; Abreu, N P; Vrechi, T A M; Lotfi, C F

    2015-12-01

    During gonad and adrenal development, the POD-1/capsulin/TCF21transcription factor negatively regulates SF-1/NR5A1expression, with higher SF-1 levels being associated with increased adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In adrenocortical tumor cells, POD-1 binds to the SF-1 E-box promoter region, decreasing SF-1 expression. However, the modulation of SF-1 expression by POD-1 has not previously been described in normal adrenal cells. Here, we analyzed the basal expression of Pod-1 and Sf-1 in primary cultures of glomerulosa (G) and fasciculata/reticularis (F/R) cells isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated whether POD-1 overexpression modulates the expression of endogenous Sf-1 and its target genes in these cells. POD-1 overexpression, following the transfection of pCMVMycPod-1, significantly decreased the endogenous levels of Sf-1 mRNA and protein in F/R cells, but not in G cells, and also decreased the expression of the SF-1 target StAR in F/R cells. In G cells overexpressing POD-1, no modulation of the expression of SF-1 targets, StAR and CYP11B2, was observed. Our data showing that G and F/R cells respond differently to ectopic POD-1 expression emphasize the functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the adrenal cortex, and support the hypothesis that SF-1 is regulated by POD-1/Tcf21 in normal adrenocortical cells lacking the alterations in cellular physiology found in tumor cells.

  2. Adaptations in Basal and Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal-Activated Deoxycorticosterone Responses Following Ethanol Self-administration in Cynomolgus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Vanessa A.; Porcu, Patrizia; Morrow, A. Leslie; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Acute ethanol activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, while long-term exposure results in a blunted neuroendocrine state, particularly with regards to the primary endpoint, cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid produced in the adrenal cortex. However, it is unknown if this dampened neuroendocrine status also influences other adrenocortical steroids. Plasma concentration of the mineralocorticoid and neuroactive steroid precursor deoxycorticosterone (DOC) is altered by pharmacological challenges of the HPA axis in cynomolgus monkeys. The present study investigated HPA axis regulation of circulating DOC concentration over the course of ethanol (4% w/v) induction and self-administration in non-human primates (Macaca fasciculata, n = 10). Plasma DOC, measured by radioimmunoassay, was compared at baseline (ethanol naïve), during schedule-induced polydipsia, and following 6-months of 22 h/day access to ethanol and water. The schedule induction of ethanol drinking did not alter basal DOC levels but selectively dampened the DOC response to pharmacological challenges aimed at the anterior pituitary (ovine corticotrophin-releasing hormone) and adrenal gland (post-dexamethasone adrenocorticotropin hormone), while pharmacological inhibition of central opioid receptors with naloxone greatly enhanced the DOC response during induction. Following 6 months of ethanol self-administration, basal DOC levels were increased more than twofold, while responses to each of the challenges normalized somewhat but remained significantly different than baseline. These data show that HPA axis modulation of the neuroactive steroid precursor DOC is markedly altered by the schedule induction of ethanol drinking and long-term voluntary ethanol self-administration. The consequences of chronic ethanol consumption on HPA axis regulation of DOC point toward allostatic modification of hypothalamic and adrenal function. PMID:28220108

  3. Update on Executive Function Neuropsychological Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Marino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This review presents different problems related to executive functions (EF assessment with neuropsychological tests. It shows an overview of EF definitions and theoreticals models created to overcome the problem of inductive lists. Also EF tests history and their emerging contexts are reviewed, to hypothetisize about its consequences over actual conditions of EF assessment practice. Later, an EF tests classification is proposed, taking into account criterias like tests origins, constructs relates and systemic or simple forms of aplication. Finally the idea of a new generation of tests supported by theoreticals and technological advances was analyzed. This includes the development of EF scientifical ontologies, reverse inferences analysis and ecological and etological validity studies.

  4. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Grønvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2014-01-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank...... for emotional functioning (EF), which is one of the core domains of the QLQ-C30....

  5. Functional organization for musical consonance and tonal pitch hierarchy in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Grall, Jeremy

    2014-11-01

    Pitch relationships in music are characterized by their degree of consonance, a hierarchical perceptual quality that distinguishes how pleasant musical chords/intervals sound to the ear. The origins of consonance have been debated since the ancient Greeks. To elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these musical fundamentals, we recorded neuroelectric brain activity while participants listened passively to various chromatic musical intervals (simultaneously sounding pitches) varying in their perceptual pleasantness (i.e., consonance/dissonance). Dichotic presentation eliminated acoustic and peripheral contributions that often confound explanations of consonance. We found that neural representations for pitch in early human auditory cortex code perceptual features of musical consonance and follow a hierarchical organization according to music-theoretic principles. These neural correlates emerge pre-attentively within ~ 150 ms after the onset of pitch, are segregated topographically in superior temporal gyrus with a rightward hemispheric bias, and closely mirror listeners' behavioral valence preferences for the chromatic tone combinations inherent to music. A perceptual-based organization implies that parallel to the phonetic code for speech, elements of music are mapped within early cerebral structures according to higher-order, perceptual principles and the rules of Western harmony rather than simple acoustic attributes.

  6. 人参皂苷对慢性应激抑郁模型大鼠行为学及HPA轴、BDNF的影响%Effects of ginsenosides on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽琴; 罗艳; 张瑞睿; 郭建友

    2011-01-01

    Gingseng is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine community for the treatment of depression-like dis, orders. Ginsenosides is considered to be the major active components of ginseng. Previous studies have demonstrated that ginsenosides produced antidepressant-like action in various mouse models of behavioral despair. The present study aimed to examine whether ginsenosides could affect the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression in rats. The mechanism(s) underlying the antidepressant-like action was investigated by measuring serum corticesterone level, glucocorticoid receptor ( GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA levels in brain tissues. CUMS, being lasted for 6 weeks, caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Whereas serum corticosterone level was significantly increased in rats exposed to CUMS, expressions of GR mRNA in hippocampus, and BDNF mRNA in hippocampus and frontal cortex, were decreased in CUMS-treated rats. Daily intragastric administration of ginsenosides (12. 5, 25, 50 mg · kg-1) during the six weeks of CUMS significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes induced by CUMS. However, there was no significant difference in MR mRNA level among groups. The results suggest that the antidepressant-like action of ginsenosides is likely mediated by modulating the function of hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal axis and increasing the expression of BDNF in brain tissues.%目的:探讨人参皂苷对慢性应激所致大鼠抑郁模型的干预作用.方法:通过测定大鼠血清中皮质酮(COR)、糖皮质激素受体(GR)、盐皮质激素受体(MR)和脑组织中神经营养(BDNF)的mRNA表达水平,探讨人参皂苷的抗抑郁机制.结果:与正常组大鼠比较,经过慢性应激6周后大鼠糖水偏好显著下降,强迫游泳测试不动时间

  7. The role of long-range connectivity for the characterization of the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösche, Thomas R; Tittgemeyer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation. Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed. We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant, and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms, and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  8. The role of Long-Range Connectivity for the Characterization of the Functional-Anatomical Organization of the Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Knösche

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high-degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation.Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed.We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  9. The Functional MR study of motor cortex%大脑皮层运动功能区的功能性磁共振成像

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the motor cortex activitie s on fMR imaging. Method The fMR study of motor cortex was performed in 15 normal volunteers using 1. 5T superconducting MR system, EPI pulse sequences, and BOLD fMR imaging. Six axial slices centered approxi- matdy at the precentral gyrus was obtained wit h or without both hands finger tapping motion under the operator instruction during the scanning. Pixels with significant signal differences ( P <0.0001) between with and without finger tapping were calculated as functional signal. The functional signal was superimposed on the corresponding T1 WI and brain water images Results The motor cortex ac tivities stimulated by finger tapping show as the area of increased signalintensity. The location of actwities is correspondent very well with the location of motor cortex. Most of activities present at the lateral aspect of precentral gyrus. In our group, the motion activities of left hemisphere is larger than that of right side in 10 volunteers, almost same sixe in 3 volunteers, smaller than that of right side in 1 volunteer. The fMR scan failed in 1 volunteer. Super- imposing the functional signals on the brain uner image may help to display the location of the activities. Conlusion fMR can show the location and size of motor cortex. It is simple, fast, noninvasive, and very convenient to implements with routine MR study.

  10. The clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in adrenal cortical diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Kyu [College of Medicine, Donga Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    {sup 131}I-6-{beta}-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) has an advantage to assess adrenal dysfunction caused by adrenal cortical disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in each adrenal disease. Ten patients who did eleven NP-59 adrenal scintigraphies at Dong-A University Hospital from March 1990 to December 1996 were selected as the subject. Among the subject there were 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, 2 cases of incidentaloma, 1 case of metastatic adrenal tumor, liver cirrhosis with hirsutism and hypertension respectively. Among 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, there were 2 cases of Cushing's disease, 2 cases of adrenal adenoma and 1 case of adrenal carcinoma. There are no disagreement between clinical diagnosis and scan finding in Cushing's syndrome. In 2 incidentaloma cases, even though one is interpretated as a functioning tumor, both of 2 cases could avoid unnecessary biopsy according to scintigraphy result. One case of hirsutism, clinically adrenal originated, revealed the normal scintigraphic finding after dexamethasone suppression scan. It could suggest that the etiology of hirsutism was extra-adrenal origin. One case of hypertension took the study to exclude the possibility of primary aldosteronism. Normal suppression scan finding revealed that primary aldosteronism did not exist in this case. In conclusion, NP-59 scintigraphy was very useful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and it could avoid unnecessary biopsy in the incidental adrenal tumor.

  11. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rangaswamy M; Kumar Sandeep; Asha M; Manjunath G

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, accounting for <0.1% of the hypertensive population. Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (EAPs) are rarer still, accounting for 10% of all pheochromocytomas. Pheochromocytomas are functional catecholamine-secreting tumors of the paraganglionic chromaffin cells found in the adrenal medulla and the extra-adrenal paraganglia cells. EAPs are readily detected by computed tomography (CT) as soft tissue masses closely associated with the entire length o...

  12. Imaging findings of neonatal adrenal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bo Kyung; Lee, Min Hee [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    In newborn infants, normal adrenal glands are characterized by a relatively thin echogenic center surrounded by a thick, hypoechoic cortical rim as seen on ultrasound (US). Various disorders involving the neonatal adrenal gland include adrenal hemorrhage, hyperplasia, cyst, Wolman's disease, and congenital neuroblastoma. Adrenal hemorrhage is the most common cause of an adrenal mass in the neonate, though differentiation between adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma is in many cases difficult. We describe characteristic US, CT and MR imaging findings in neonates with various