Sample records for adolescents 13-15 years

  1. Prevalence of Malocclusion in 13-15 Year-old Adolescents in Tabriz


    Ahangar Atashi, Mohammad Hossein


    Background and aims Malocclusion with its great hazardous effects seems to have become more prevalent in recent decades; therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of different malocclusions among 13-15 year-old adolescents in Tabriz. Materials and methods The subjects in the present study consisted of 398 adolescents aged 13-15, who were randomly selected from 5 different districts of the city. Students who had previous orthodontic treatment or extraction of any pe...

  2. The Relationship between Bible Reading and Attitude toward Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.


    The relationship between Bible reading and attitude toward drug use is examined among a sample of 25,888 teenagers, 13-15 year olds, throughout England and Wales. Information about sex, age, personality, belief in God, and church attendance was also considered. The conclusion is that Bible reading makes a small but significant contribution to…

  3. 北京怀柔区13~15岁青少年钙代谢实验研究%A study of calcium metabolism for 13-15-years adolescents in Beijing Huairou district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢佳希; 吴非同; 徐海泉; 徐春燕; 孟卓然; 黄振武; 张倩


    Objective To calculate the proper calcium intake for teenagers in north China by using the calcium metabolic balance experiment.Methods A total of 304 young people aged from 13 to 15 years old in Beijing Huairou district were divided into 4 groups, including a control group and 3 intervention groups in which daily milk powder contenting 300 mg, 600 mg, and 900 mg calcium, respectively, was supplied.After 1-year calcium supplement, 4 males and 4 females were randomly recruited from each group.Therefore, 32 people participated in calcium metabolism experiment for six days.During the experiment, samples of food, feces, and urine were collected.Calcium content in samples was determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results The calcium apparent absorption rate in the subjects was 63.2%, and 67.4 % in boys and 58.7% in girls, with no significant difference between boys and girls.Calcium retention platform for all subjects was 770 mg/d (790 mg/d in boys and 600 mg/d in girls) .The corresponding amount of minimum calcium intake was 1400 mg/d (1320 mg/d in boys and for 1200 mg/d in girls) .Conclusion In order to meet the need of growth of calcium retention and to enable the body to maintain a high level of calcium absorption, adolescents need daily calcium intake of 800 -1000 mg.%目的:通过钙代谢平衡实验推算我国北方青少年钙的适宜摄入量。方法将北京怀柔区304名13~15岁青少年分为4组,其中一组为对照组,另外三组每天补充含钙量分别为300 mg,600 mg,900 mg的奶粉。连续补钙1年后,从每个组男、女生各随机抽取4人,共32人,进行钙代谢实验。实验期共6天,收集研究对象在实验期间内摄入的饮食、排出的尿液和粪便,采用原子吸收分光光度法测定样品钙含量。结果研究对象钙的表观吸收率为63.2%,男生为67.4%,女生为58.7%,差异无统计学意义。全部研究对象的钙储留量为770 mg/d时

  4. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade


    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  5. Tobacco Use Among Students Aged 13-15 Years in South Korea: The 2013 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Jihye; Kashiwabara, Mina


    Objectives We examined the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke among middle-school students in Korea using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2013. Methods The GYTS in Korea was conducted between July and August 2013 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data were collected using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13-15 years in sampled classrooms. Results The GYTS in Korea was completed by 4235 students aged 13-15 years in 43 middle schools. Approximately one in five of the students (17.8%) reported that they had tried cigarettes in the past, while 5.2% reported currently being cigarette smokers. Current cigarette smoking was higher in boys (7.5%) than in girls (2.6%). Of the students, 29.7% had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home, 47.4% inside enclosed public places, and 53.9% in outdoor public places. Of the current cigarette smokers, 25.7% bought their cigarettes from a store despite a law prohibiting this. Additionally, 58.0% of students noticed point-of-sale tobacco advertisements or promotions, 66.8% of current cigarette smokers wanted to stop smoking, and 70.9% of students had been taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school. Conclusions These findings provide an opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive tobacco control policy. The results suggest that youth have relatively easy access to cigarettes and are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke in public places, as well as to point-of-sale tobacco advertisements and promotions. Strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco sales to youth, expanding smoke-free areas, and advertising bans are needed to reduce tobacco use among youth. PMID:28173685


    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl


    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries.


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    Rafal Grad


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to get information about pro-health behaviours and belief in oneself among 13-15-year old teenagers living in Biała Podlaska. The research included 229 pupils from three Grammar Schools (115 girls and 114 boys. The range of respondents’ age varied from 13 to 15 years old. The research tool was two anonymous questionnaires. The first questionnaire contained questions concerning teenagers’ belief in themselves and the efficacy of their activities (10 statements. The second questionnaire referred to the pro-health behaviours and it consisted of 14 situations described in the form of multiple choice questions. It was shown that Grammar School goers higly evaluated their own sense of efficacy (31,2 points. Girls (30,39 points in comparison to boys (32,05 evaluated their efficacy lower by 1,66 points. Grammar School goers in 85,7% of cases choose healthy behaviours and girls are the group which reach for such behaviours more often.

  8. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew


    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  9. Use of cigarettes and other tobacco products among students aged 13-15 years--worldwide, 1999-2005. (United States)


    The use of tobacco in any form is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease. Globally, nearly 5 million persons die every year from tobacco-related illnesses, with disproportionately higher mortality occurring in developing countries. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association, is a school-based survey that includes questions on prevalence of cigarette and other tobacco use; attitudes toward tobacco; access to tobacco products; exposure to secondhand smoke, school curricula on tobacco, media, and advertising; and smoking cessation. This report presents estimates of self-reported cigarette and other tobacco-product use during 1999-2005 in 132 different countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank. The data are aggregated within each of the six WHO regions. GYTS data indicate that nearly two of every 10 students reported currently using a tobacco product, with no statistically significant difference between the proportion of those reporting cigarette smoking (8.9%) and other tobacco use (11.2%). Use of tobacco by adolescents is a major public health problem in all six WHO regions. Worldwide, more countries need to develop, implement, and evaluate their tobacco-control programs to address the use of all types of tobacco products, especially among girls.

  10. 47 CFR 13.15 - License term. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License term. 13.15 Section 13.15 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.15 License term... years from the date of issuance. (b) General Radiotelephone Operator Licenses, Restricted...

  11. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network (United States)

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira


    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  12. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014. (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous


    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  13. 40 CFR 13.15 - Taxpayer information. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxpayer information. 13.15 Section 13.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.15 Taxpayer information. (a) The Administrator may obtain a debtor's current mailing...

  14. Adolescent pregnancy: a 25-year review. (United States)

    Clark, J F; Westney, L S; Lawyer, C J


    A five-year update of a previous 20-year study of adolescent pregnancy is presented. For the 25-year period, data were collected on 2,789 adolescents. Prematurity and low birth weight infants continue to have a high incidence in adolescent pregnancy. This study found that there has been a significant decrease in preeclampsia and toxemia of pregnancy and a large increase in the incidence of cesarean section.

  15. Adolescent Literature Revisited after Four Years. (United States)

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.


    The articles collected in this bulletin survey a wide range of topics concerning adolescent literature. Some of the titles included are "Seven Myths about Adolescent Literature" (Paul B. Janeczko), "The Book as Enemy" (Thomas Weaver), "Popular Non-Fiction Titles for Adolescents" (Noma Russell), "Values and Paperback Power" (Nel Ward), "An Approach…

  16. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype in Adolescents Aged 15 to 18 Years


    Caridad Hernández Gutiérrez; Elodia Rivas Alpízar; Teresita Rodríguez Izaguirre; Alain Francisco Morejón Giraldoni


    Background: presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of cardiometabolic deterioration, increased type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Objective: to determine the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Area III of Cienfuegos. Method: a case series study was conducted in a universe of 198 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years who attended a consultation created for this study at the Octavio de la Concepción y de la P...

  17. The Decision-Filled Years of Adolescence. (United States)

    Baugher, Shirley L.; Martin, Betty B.


    After a discussion of the causes and results of adolescent stress, the authors suggest possible topics which home economics teachers could address in their curricula. These include developmental and transitional life stages, stress reactions, recovery from loss and grief, death, divorce, teen pregnancy and abortion, child abuse, rape, and others.…

  18. Webcam Delivery of the Camperdown Program for Adolescents Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial (United States)

    Carey, Brenda; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross


    Purpose: This Phase I clinical trial explored the viability of webcam Internet delivery of the Camperdown Program for adolescents who stutter. Method and Procedure: Participants were 3 adolescents ages 13, 15, and 16 years, with moderate-severe stuttering. Each was treated with the Camperdown Program delivered by webcam with no clinic attendance.…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    This study discusses the relationship between adolescents' social skills and four indicators of psycho-social functioning, viz. self-esteem, well-being, coping and social support. A total of 660 adolescents, 13-15 years of age, responded to a series of self-report measures which referred to these se

  20. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

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    Charzewska Jadwiga


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  1. Stress response symptoms in adolescents during the first year after a parent's cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, Gea A.; Visser, Annemieke; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Gazendam-Donofrio, Stacey M.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.


    Purpose This work aims to prospectively study stress response symptoms (SRS) in adolescents during the first year after a parent's cancer diagnosis and factors associated with SRS. Additionally, SRS in these adolescents were compared to SRS in adolescents whose parents were diagnosed 1-5 years (refe

  2. Gestational risks and psychiatric disorders among indigenous adolescents. (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M


    This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10-12 and 13-15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant effects on adolescent psychiatric disorders even when controlling for age and gender of adolescent, family per capita income, living in a single mother household, and adolescent reports of mother's positive parenting.

  3. Early risk factors for depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents: a 6-to-8 year follow-up study. (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon


    Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.

  4. Perinatal characteristics among early (10–14 years old and late (15–19 years old pregnant adolescents

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    Alves João


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in adolescents is a worldwide health problem and has been mostly common in poor populations. It is not clear if socioeconomic or biological factors are the main determinants of perinatal adverse outcomes in pregnant adolescents. Adolescents under 15 years old may present a high growth rate which may contribute to impair fetal growth. Our aim is to compare perinatal characteristics among early (aged 10 to 14 years and late (aged 15 to 19 years pregnant adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Pernambuco State 2009, obtained from DATASUS/SISNAC, a Brazilian Government, open-access public health database. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between early (aged 10–14 years and late (aged 15–19 years pregnant adolescents. Family income was compared between early and late pregnant adolescents using a sample of 412 subjects evaluated at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP during 2011. Statistical comparisons were made using the chi-square test was used with a significant level of 0.05; bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. This project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board. Results Data from 31,209 pregnant adolescents were analyzed. 29,733 (95.2% were aged 15 to 19 years and 1,476 (4.7% were aged 10 to 14 years. There were significant differences with respect to marital status, education level and number of prenatal visits of mothers aged 10 to 14 years compared to 15 to 19 years. Of importance, early adolescents had a greater rate of neonates born premature and with low birth weight. Prematurity and low birth weight remained statistically significant after multivariate analysis. Conclusions Early aged adolescents may have an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight. These findings highlight the potential role of biological factors in newborn outcomes in pregnant adolescents.

  5. Sleep complaints in adolescent depression: one year naturalistic follow-up study


    Anna S. Urrila; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Pankakoski, Maiju; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Strandholm, Thea; Marttunen, Mauri; ,


    Background Sleep complaints are highly prevalent in adolescents suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The aims of this study were to describe the longitudinal course of sleep complaints, and to assess the association between sleep complaints and clinical outcome in a sample of adolescents with MDD during naturalistic follow-up. Methods A sample of adolescent outpatients (n = 166; age 13–19 years, 17.5% boys) diagnosed with MDD was followed-up during one year in naturalistic settings...

  6. Course of adolescent headache: 4-year annual face-to-face follow-up study


    Karlı, Necdet; Bican, Aylin; Zarifoğlu, Mehmet


    The objective of this study is to investigate the course of the diagnosis and characteristics of headache in 12- to 17-year-old adolescents during a follow-up period of 4 years. Headache prevalence and characteristics, and even the type of headache show important changes during adolescence. The course of adolescent headache might reveal important insight into the pathophysiology of headache. Subjects who received a single headache diagnosis were invited to participate in a follow-up study con...

  7. Should arthroscopy in adolescents: Three years of clinical experience

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    Анастасия Ивановна Брянская


    Full Text Available Background.Shoulder joint injuries and shoulder instability often occur in adolescents.Materials and methods. During a 3-year period, we performed arthroscopic surgery on 42 patients with shoulder joint injuries.Results and discussion. The majority (76.2% of the patients on whom we performed arthroscopic shoulder joint surgery were male. This is likely due to more aggressive physical activity among males. Most of the patients were injured during exercise (n = 27, 64.3%. Arthroscopy is a highly effective surgical method for the treatment of shoulder joint injuries. Prolonged non-operative treatment with no well-established indications and an incorrect diagnosis can lead to rapid progression of degenerative and dystrophic changes of the shoulder joint and may result in shoulder joint dysfunction.

  8. The Prevalence of Idiopathic Scoliosis in Eleven Year-Old Korean Adolescents: A 3 Year Epidemiological Study


    Lee, Jin-Young; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Han Jo; Park, Moon Soo; Suh, Bo-Kyung; Nam, Ji Hoon; Jung, Jae Kyun; Lee, Hwan-Mo


    Purpose School screening allows for early detection and early treatment of scoliosis, with the purpose of reducing the number of patients requiring surgical treatment. Children between 10 and 14 years old are considered as good candidates for school screening tests of scoliosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the epidemiological findings of idiopathic scoliosis in 11-year-old Korean adolescents. Materials and Methods A total of 37856 11-year-old adolescents were screened for s...

  9. Programming Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents (PICA) Project Year Three: A Laboratory Model. (United States)

    Cohen, Harold L.; And Others

    The report reviews the third year of a 4-year demonstration and research project, Programing Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents (PICA). General purpose is to develop remedial procedures for adolescents with both scholastic and social or behavioral problems. In a half day educational program 12 such students study academic and interpersonal…

  10. Pregnancy in adolescents as a problem to 14 – 19 year olds in Nocaima (Cundinamarca)


    Alvarado, Ricardo; Martínez Pachón, Óscar Andrés; Baquero Umaña, Margarita María; Valencia, Catalina María; Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela María


    Adolescent pregnancy is a current problem which raises concern due to its individual, familiar and collective consequences. Fifteen million adolescents give birth each year in the world. Abortion is the preferred option used in unwanted pregnancies. Adolescent pregnancy is frequent in Nocaima, Cundinamarca and is a community concern in this small town initiating its process of becoming a healthy municipality. As such, the community has highlighted this problem to be studied and submitted to i...

  11. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years (United States)

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.


    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  12. Adolescent Summer Care Arrangements and Risk for Obesity the Following School Year (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph L.


    This longitudinal study identified common summer care arrangements for adolescents and examined whether those arrangements predicted risk for obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile for age and gender) the following school year. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1766 adolescents ages 10-18…

  13. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

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    Fereshteh Shakibaei


    Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future.

  14. [Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in adolescents 10 to 12 years of age]. (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes


    Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood.

  15. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood

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    Joanna Jacobus


    Full Text Available Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30 and controls (CON, n = 38 with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ + ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions, particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps < .05. More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps < .05. Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  16. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum (United States)

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel


    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  17. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment 1 Year Later. (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J


    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescentsyear later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them.

  18. Qualitative Examination of Adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life at 1 Year Postconcussion (United States)

    Iadevaia, Cheree; Roiger, Trevor; Zwart, Mary Beth


    Context Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries can negatively influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescent patients. The effect of sport-related concussion on adolescent HRQOL remains unclear. Objective To investigate the perceptions of adolescent student-athletes and their parents regarding the adolescents' HRQOL 1 year after sport-related concussion. Design Qualitative study. Setting Secondary school. Patients or Other Participants Seven adolescent student-athletes (age range, 12–16 years) who sustained a sport-related concussion at least 1 year (15.3 ± 2.8 months) before the study participated along with their primary care-giving parents (n = 7). Data Collection and Analysis Fourteen semistructured face-to-face interviews (7 adolescents, 7 parents) were completed. Interviews were transcribed and inductively analyzed by a team of 3 athletic trainers with 32 combined years of professional experience. Themes were negotiated through a consensual review process. Participant checks were completed to ensure trustworthiness of the results. Results Four major themes emerged from the interviews: (1) significant effect of symptoms, (2) feelings of frustration, (3) influence on school attendance and activities, and (4) nature of interpersonal and team relationships. Participants indicated that the physical symptoms of the concussion substantially affected their emotional and academic function. The influence of the concussion on social interactions seemed to depend on the nature of interpersonal relationships. Conclusions Sport-related concussion can negatively influence physical and emotional function, academics, and interpersonal interactions as perceived by adolescent student-athletes and their parents. Education of parents and their children, school professionals, coaches, and teammates remains critical to effectively recognize and manage sport-related concussion. Secondary school districts also play a critical role in the concussion

  19. Commentary on "Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years" (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.


    This article is a brief review of child and adolescent obesity over the past ten years. The starting point for the review is the well-known fact that there has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity among children, adolescents, and adults in the United Sates (Ogden et al., 2002). The rise has occurred across all age and ethnic groups,…

  20. Sensory assessment of normal adolescents between 11 and 18 years old

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    Nara Suemi Shishido


    Full Text Available Tactile sensibility allows for adequate neuropsychomotor development. In addition, it enables the understanding of the subject’s own body, actions and explorations of objects, people and the environment. Previous studies have evaluated 3 to 10 year-old children. Herein, we evaluate the tactile sensibility in adolescents. The aim of this study was to verify whether the rapid growth of the body changes the normal pattern of tactile sensibility in adolescents. Furthermore, we provide evaluation material that is easy to use, simple, and secure to handle, designed to attend the specific age range studied. Thirty-two young participants between 11 and 18 years old, sixteen males and sixteen females, were evaluated. The adolescents go to public school and present normal development patterns. Graphesthesia, stereognosia, and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament tests were performed to evaluate the sensibility on the ventral and dorsal sides of the right and left hands. A questionnaire was used to identify the relevant activities performed with the hands during the studied period. The adolescents tested were collaborative during the research and presented curiosity regarding the boxes used in the experiment. Results indicated alterations in the tactile sensibility on the dorsal side of the hands from 13-year- old males. The major activities indicated by the adolescents were writing and sports for males and writing and cleaning for females. First evidences of possible changes in the normal tactile sensibility during adolescence were observed in this study.

  1. Prevalence of self-injury performed by adolescents aged 16–19 years

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    Beata Pawłowska


    1. Self-injury is performed by 14% of adolescents aged 16–19 years, significantly more girls than boys. 2. Significantly more adolescents who perform self-injury, as compared to those who do not do it, use psychoactive substances, get drunk, report planning suicide, neglect school and more often consume alcohol. 3. Significantly more adolescents who perform self-injury, as compared to those who do not perform it, raised in a single parent family inform about alcohol addiction of a family member, conflicts with parents and the experienced psychological and physical violence experienced from their parents and peers. Significantly more girls who perform self-injury, as compared to those who do not perform it, experienced sexual abuse. 4. Performing self-injury by adolescents coexists with factors motivating to this type of behaviours: sense of helplessness, rejection, loneliness, sense of guilt, anger, impulsiveness, desire for revenge, school problems, conflicts with parents and peers.

  2. Suicide in children and young adolescents: a 25-year database on suicides from Northern Finland. (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Harju, Aleksi; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko


    Despite the large amount of research on adolescent suicidality, there are few detailed studies illustrating the characteristics of child and adolescent completed suicide. Our study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides occurring over a period of 25 years within a large geographical area in Northern Finland, with a special focus on gender differences. The study sample included all 58 suicides among children and adolescents (suicide victims were male. Violent suicide methods predominated in both genders (males 98%, females 83%). While symptoms of mental illness were common, only a minority (15% of males and 17% of females) had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. 17% of females but none of the males had been hospitalized previously due to self-poisoning. A greater proportion of females than males had a history of self-cutting (33% vs. 7%) and previous suicide attempts (25% vs. 4%). 48% of males and 58% of females were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their suicide, and alcohol intoxication was related to suicides during the night. One fifth of the adolescents screened positive for substances other than alcohol. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities but also some differences in the characteristics of male and female suicides in adolescents.

  3. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade


    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  4. Allergy from infancy to adolescence. A population-based 18-year follow-up cohort

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    Aromaa Minna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxious parents have many concerns about the future health of their atopic infants. Paediatricians and primary care practitioners need to seek knowledge on long-term outcomes in order to cope with the increasing caseload of suspected allergy and the concerns of parents. The aim of the study was to assess suspected and diagnosed allergy in infancy as predictors of allergy and asthma in adolescence. Methods Families expecting their first baby and making their first visit to a maternity health care clinic in 1986 were selected as the study population in a random sample. There were 1278 eligible study families. The data were provided of the children at the ages of 9 and 18 months and 3, 5, 12, 15 and 18 years by health care professionals, parents, and adolescents (themselves. Results At the age of 9 months, the prevalence of allergy suspicions was distinctly higher than that of allergy diagnoses. At the age of five years suspected allergy approaches were nil, and the prevalence of diagnosed allergy was about 9%. During the adolescence, the prevalence of self-reported allergy increases steadily up to the age of 18 years, and that of asthma remains at approximately 5%. Suspected allergy at the age of 9 or 18 months and at the 5 years of age does not predict allergy at adolescence. Compared with non-allergic children, children with definite allergy at the age of 5 were over 8 times more likely to have allergy and nearly 7 times more likely to have asthma in adolescence. Conclusion An early ascertained diagnosis of allergy, but not suspicions of allergy, predicts prevailing allergy in adolescence. Efforts need to be focused on accurate diagnosis of early childhood allergies.

  5. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study. (United States)

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne


    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  6. Cognitive Ability and Health-Related Behaviors during Adolescence: A Prospective Study across Five Years (United States)

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Skinner, Timothy


    Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N = 420; 188 males, 232 females) was 12.30 years (SD =…

  7. Patterns of adolescent smoking and later nicotine dependence in young adults: A 10-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.O.M. van de; Greenwood, P.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Olsson, C.A.; Patton, G.C.


    Objectives: There is considerable variability in progression from smoking initiation to established smoking. This paper addresses the extent to which different patterns of adolescent smoking, including periods of cessation, predict smoking status in young adults. Study design: Ten-year, eight-wave p

  8. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents: A 1-Year Prospective Study (United States)

    Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo


    In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…

  9. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years (United States)

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne


    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  10. The influence of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication on Bahamian adolescent risk involvement: a three-year longitudinal examination. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Kaljee, Linda


    The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. The results obtained with mixed-effects models indicate that parental knowledge, youth disclosure, and parental control are negatively associated with both delinquency and substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication was associated with decreased sexual risk behavior, whereas problematic parent-adolescent communication was associated with increased sexual risk behavior. The results obtained with path models indicate that youth disclosure is a significant longitudinal predictor of reduced adolescent delinquency and that parental control during early adolescence predicted reduced substance use in middle adolescence. The findings suggest that parental knowledge, youth disclosure and parental control differ in their impacts on substance use, delinquency and sexual risk behaviors. Problematic parent-adolescent communication is consistently associated with increases in all three types of adolescent risk behaviors. Future parental monitoring interventions should focus on enhancing parents' interpersonal communication skills and emphasize the differences in and importance of the unique components of parental monitoring.

  11. Hyperparathyroidism Two Years after Radioactive Iodine Therapy in an Adolescent Male

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    Danielle L. Gomez


    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is a very rare complication following radioactive iodine therapy. There is typically a latency period of more than a decade following radiation exposure and, therefore, it is observed almost exclusively in adults. Consequently, pediatricians are not aware of the association. We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma occurring in an adolescent male two years following radioactive iodine treatment for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Periodic screening of serum calcium following ablative doses of radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer may be justified even in adolescents.

  12. [Calcium intake and adiposity in adolescents aged 12-16 years in Guadalajara, Mexico]. (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Gabriela; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Bárbara; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio


    The purpose was to evaluate the association between calcium (Ca) intake and adiposity in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 125 adolescents 12 to 16 years. Ca intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall dietary surveys and food frequency consumption. Adiposity was measured by anthropometric methods and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The association between Ca intake and adiposity was identified by simple correlation and multivariate models adjusted to energy consumption, age, sex and menarche. Mean age of adolescents was 13.5 +/- 0.8 years. A negative correlation was identified between Ca intake and anthropometric indicators weight, skinfolds, body mass index, fat mass and percentage of fat (the latter two by BIA and only in women). Multivariate analysis, including energy consumption showed no association between Ca intake and adiposity. In conclusion, Ca consumption does not associate with adiposity in adolescents; multivariate models showed that energy intake and menarche are the variables that show a higher association with adiposity at this stage of life.

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

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    Narinder Singh


    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  14. Effect of ethnicity on weight loss among adolescents 1 year after bariatric surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; E; Messiah; Gabriela; Lopez-Mitnik; Deborah; Winegar; Bintu; Sherif; Kristopher; L; Arheart; Kirk; W; Reichard; Marc; P; Michalsky; Steven; E; Lipshultz; Tracie; L; Miller; Alan; S; Livingstone; Nestor; de; la; Cruz-Muoz


    AIM:To investigate whether or not bariatric surgeryweight outcomes vary by ethnicity in a large,nationally representative sample of adolescents.METHODS:The Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database was used for analysis and contains data on surgeries performed on adolescents from 2004 to 2010from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities across the United States Adolescents(n=827)between 11 and 19 years old who underwent either gastric bypass or adjustable gastric banding surgery were included in the analysis.Outcome measures included changes in anthropometric measurements[weight(kg)and body mass index]from baseline to 3(n=739),6(n=512),and 12(n=247)mo after surgery.RESULTS:A year after patients underwent either gastric bypass(51%)or adjustable gastric banding(49%)surgery,mean estimated weight loss for all ethnic groups differed by a maximum of only 1.5 kg,being34.3 kg(95%CI:30.0-38.5 kg)for Hispanics,33.8 kg(95%CI:27.3-40.3 kg)for non-Hispanic blacks,and32.8 kg(95%CI:30.9-34.7 kg)for non-Hispanic whites.No overall pairwise group comparisons were significant,indicating that no ethnic group had better weight loss outcomes than did another.CONCLUSION:Bariatric surgery substantially reduces the weight of severely obese adolescents at 1 year post-procedure with little variation by ethnicity and/or gender.These results suggest that bariatric surgery is a safe and reasonable treatment for all severely obese adolescents with the appropriate indications.

  15. Sociodemographic correlates of food habits among school adolescents (12–15 year in north Gaza Strip

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    Shi Zumin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about meal patterns and food consumption of adolescents in Palestine. The objective of this study was to describe the association between sociodemographic factors and food intake, and meal patterns among Palestinian school adolescents (12–15 year in North Gaza Strip. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 comprising 944 subjects in 10 schools in Gaza city, Jabalia village and Jabalia refugee camp. Self-administered questionnaires were filled in by students and parents to obtain data on frequency of meals, food intake and sociodemographic characteristics. Results High household socioeconomic status (SES was associated with the increased number of meals and the increased intakes of many nutritious foods such as; animal food items, fruits and vegetables and dairy foods. The percentage of adolescents having breakfast daily of high and low SES was 74.5% vs 55% in boys and 65.6% vs 45% in girls. The percentage of girls with refugee status who had lunch was higher (90.2% compared to the local citizen girls (83.9%, (p = 0.03. Girls were less likely to skip daily lunch (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.36–0.87, p = 0.01 compared to boys. Risk of skipping lunch was three times higher among adolescents living in the village compared to Gaza well-off area (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.72–6.31, p Conclusion Meal skipping is common, particularly among those of low SES and the intakes of many nutritious foods such as animal food items, fruits and vegetables and dairy foods seem to be low among adolescents of low SES. The results of this study could be used as an important base-line for future monitoring of the nutritional situation of adolescents.

  16. Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J


    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence.

  17. Adolescent Psychological and Social Predictors of Young Adult Smoking Acquisition and Cessation: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Bricker, J.B.; Liu, J.M.; Comstock, B.A.; Peterson, A.V.


    Objective: A 10-year follow-up study to test the extent to which theory-based adolescent psychological and social factors directly predict and moderate the prediction of young adult smoking acquisition and cessation. Design: A prospective community-based sample. A total of 2,970 adolescents particip

  18. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.


    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  19. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey (United States)

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony


    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  20. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2013. (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa


    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  1. The influence of representations of attachment, maternal-adolescent relationship quality, and maternal monitoring on adolescent substance use: a 2-year longitudinal examination. (United States)

    Branstetter, Steven A; Furman, Wyndol; Cottrell, Lesley


    The present study examined the hypotheses that more secure representations of attachments to parents are associated with less adolescent substance use over time and that this link is mediated through relationship quality and monitoring. A sample of 200 adolescents (M = 14-16 years), their mothers, and close friends were assessed over 2 years. Higher levels of security in attachment styles, but not states of mind, were predictive of higher levels of monitoring and support and lower levels of negative interactions. Higher levels of security in attachment styles had an indirect effect on changes in substance use over time, mediated by maternal monitoring. These findings highlight the roles of representations of attachments, mother-adolescent relationship qualities, and monitoring in the development of adolescent substance use.

  2. Impact of early adolescent externalizing problem behaviors on identity development in middle to late adolescence: a prospective 7-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim


    Adolescents at-risk for problem behaviors can have more difficulties in developing a firm sense of personal identity. Hence the purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to scrutinize how externalizing problems in early adolescence impact identity development in middle to late adolescence. Participants were 443 (43.12% female) Dutch adolescents. Teachers rated their externalizing problem behaviors when participants were 11 or 12 years old and their identity formation was studied during five consecutive years (from 14 to 18 years of age). The sample was divided into four groups: boys and girls with a high versus a low-risk for externalizing problem behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Multi-group Latent Growth Curve and profile stability analyses were used to evaluate identity development across adolescence. Findings indicated that high-risk boys and girls reported a less structured identity, with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment. Since externalizing problems behaviors and lack of a coherent sense of identity might reinforce each other, early intervention for high-risk adolescents might foster positive youth development.

  3. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

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    Bohman Hannes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  4. The Influence of Parental Divorce on Educational Ambitions of 18/19 Year-Old Adolescents from Oslo, Norway. (United States)

    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Bjertness, Espen; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    Former studies have shown that children and adolescents of divorced parents have significantly poorer educational attainment than their peers from continuously married parents. Educational ambition is important because it has relationship with educational attainment. Our aim was to investigate the associations between parental divorce and educational ambitions among adolescents in the Scandinavian region. Data were used from Young-HUBRO surveys that were conducted in Oslo in the years 2000/2001 and 2004. A change in educational ambition was investigated in a prospective study (n = 1,861) by comparing 18/19 year-olds who experienced late parental divorce with adolescents of continuously married parents. 18/19 year-old adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 2,391) with their peers from continuously married parents. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to include, among others, mental health problem as a potential confounder. The prospective study showed that a change from ambition for university/college education to having undecided educational ambition was significantly higher among adolescents with experience of late parental divorce than among adolescents of continuously married parents (OR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.1-3.0). In the cross-sectional study, adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were more likely to have undecided educational ambition, compared to their peers from continuously married parents (OR 1.3; 95 % CI 1.1-1.8). In conclusion, experience of parental divorce seems to be associated with undecided educational ambition among 18/19 year-old adolescents. Mechanisms that reduce the adverse influence of parental divorce on educational ambitions need to be in place.

  5. Brief report: Citizenship concepts among adolescents. Evidence from a survey among Belgian 16-year olds. (United States)

    Dejaeghere, Yves; Hooghe, Marc


    In this research note we investigate the occurrence of citizenship concepts among adolescents in Belgium. The analysis is based on the Belgian Youth Survey (2006), which is a representative survey among 6330 16-year olds in the country. Citizenship concepts were shown to be multi-dimensional, with distinct factors for conventional or electoral participation and civic engagement. A third, weaker factor could be distinguished covering obedience to the law. This structure is largely in line with earlier comparative analysis. An exploratory analysis suggests that these factors have different outcomes on actual or intended political participation behavior of adolescents. We discuss the relevance of these findings with regard to the current debates on civic education and civic engagement among younger age cohorts.

  6. Mother and adolescent expressed emotion and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom development: a six-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Hale, William W; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim H J


    In expressed emotion (EE) theory, it is held that high EE household environments enhance adolescent psychopathological distress. However, no longitudinal study has been conducted to examine if either the mother's EE or the adolescent's perception of EE predicts adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom dimensions (an EE effect model) or vice versa (psychopathological effect model) together in one model. To unravel the reciprocal influences of maternal and adolescent perceived EE to adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom dimensions, we tested two (i.e., one for internalizing and one for externalizing) cross-lagged panel models. In this study, it was found that both internalizing and externalizing symptom dimensions predicted the adolescent's perception of maternal EE as well as the mother's own rated EE criticism over time. The findings of this study should give both researchers and therapists a reason to reevaluate only using the EE effects model assumption in future EE studies.

  7. Operations managers conference: summary of proceedings. [Carmel, California, Feb. 13-15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The fifth AESOP Operations Managers Conference was held in Carmel, California on February 13-15, 1979. The keynote address dealt with the changing role of the computer operations manager. Representatives presented contrasting approaches to managing the procurement and installation of new computer systems. The advantages and disadvantages of maintaining strong internal management support and good communication with the vendor and of increasing the involvement of broad-based planning committees and operations personnel in the computer procurement process were discussed. Two promising management programs, the PEER and 10/40 systems proved effective in improving employee morale by reducing job fragmentation, increasing internal mobility and modifying the work week. The topic of unionization of operations personnel was also discussed. The uneasy relationship between computers and the energy shortage was also considered. Techniques for avoiding computer problems caused by blackouts and brownouts were presented. The difficulty of conserving power at a computer facility was also discussed. Presentations concerning the President's committee on ADP reorganizaion and methods for predicting trends in computer innovation were made. Abstracts and two-page summaries of the papers given are included in this report.

  8. CFS in Children and Adolescent: Ten Years of Retrospective Clinical Evaluation

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    Irene Elgen


    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate number of children being diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Methods. For a period of 10 years (2002–2011 data from children being referred for fatigue symptoms were collected retrospectively. Results. Thirty-seven children were referred. Four were excluded due to incorrect coding. Six (18% patients received other diagnoses at the end of evaluation time. Of the 27 who received the diagnosis G93.3, four had a previous chronic illness, while 23 patients were previously healthy. All patients reported onset of fatigue symptom in relation to an infection, and all tested positive for IgG to either Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus or borrelia, indicating previous infection. There were 16 (59% boys among the 27 patients. The mean age at the debut of fatigue symptoms was 141 months (SD 30 for boys and 136 months (SD 31 for girls, respectively. Being underweight, defined as BMI < 17.5, was found in 12 (44% patients. Conclusion. An increasing number of children and adolescents are evaluated for CFS. The clinical assessment of children and adolescents with possible CFS need systematically evaluation. Nutritional status, possible eating disorder, and psychosocial issues need to be addressed and evaluated carefully. A multidisciplinary approach is essential when assessing CFS in children and adolescents. There is a need for European guidelines.

  9. Prevalence of gingivitis and associated factors in 13-16-year-old adolescents in Greece

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    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis and investigate possible associations among gingivitis and socioeconomic, demographic variables and oral hygiene habits in a sample of adolescents in Greece. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 812 adolescents, 384 boys and 428 girls aged 13-16 years. All participants were clinically examined and answered questions regarding socioeconomic, demographic variables and oral hygiene habits. Statistical analysis of the questionnaire items was carried out by using a multiple logistic regression analysis models. Results: Five hundred and ninety-one adolescents were diagnosed as having gingivitis giving a prevalence rate 72.8%. Male gender (P < 0.05, lower parental educational (P < 0.01 and income level (P = 0.001, no regular dental follow-up (P < 0.001, no daily tooth-brushing (P < 0.001, no dental floss use (P < 0.001, presence of dental plaque (P < 0.001, and smoking (P < 0.001 were the most important associated factors of gingivitis. Conclusion: The study showed that gingivitis was associated with male gender, lower educational and income parental level, inadequate oral hygiene, the presence of dental plaque and smoking while the prevalence of this condition in the study sample was 72.8%.

  10. Adolescent abortions: Situational analysis based on official statistics conducted in Kazakhstan during the last 5 years (2007-2011

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    Gulya Nazarovna Alimbayeva


    Full Text Available In recent decades, adolescent pregnancy has become an important health issue in a great number of both developed and developing countries.We have investigated the official statistics database of the National Ministry of the Health (MoH and their #13 Statutory Form (SF and found the total number of abortions between 2007-2011 in Kazakhstan decreased by 28%. The total number of adolescent (≤15 and 15-18 years of age abortions decreased by 52.7%. Contrary to this decrease in the total number of adolescent abortions, spontaneous abortions have increased from 23.2% to 45.0%. We found a tendency towards a decrease in the number of adolescents with the first pregnancy among adolescents 15-18 who had abortion between 2007-2011, from 51.3% to 35.8%. This clearly reflects the success of prevention activities among adolescents who have already had an abortion or birth. During the analyzed period, there were two lethal outcomes from abortions among girls 15-18 years old. There are some limitations in the assessment levels and dynamic changes of abortions among adolescents due to the division of age in the official statistical database.

  11. Video games use patterns and parenteral supervision in a clinical sample of Hispanic adolescents 13-17 years old. (United States)

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette; Nazario, Lelis L; Gutiérrez, Roberto; González, Alexis


    Video games have become a popular entertainment among adolescents. Although some video games are educational, there are others with high content of violence and the potential for other harmful effects. Lack of appropriate supervision of video games use during adolescence, a crucial stage of development, may lead to serious behavioral consequences in some adolescents. There is also concern about time spent playing video games and the subsequent neglect of more developmentally appropriate activities, such as completing academic tasks. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess video game use patterns and parental supervision among 55 adolescent patients 13-17 years old (mean age 14.4 years; 56.4% males) and their parents. Parental supervision /monitoring of the adolescents video games use was not consistent and gender related differences were found regarding their video game use. Close to one third (32%) of the participants reported video game playing had interfered with their academic performance. Parents who understood video games rating system were more likely to prohibit their use due to rating. These findings underscore the need for clear and consistently enforced rules and monitoring of video games use by adolescents. Parents need to be educated about the relevance of their supervision, video games content and rating system; so they will decrease time playing and exposure to potentially harmful video games. It also supports the relevance of addressing supervision, gender-based parental supervisory styles, and patterns of video games use in the evaluation and treatment of adolescents.

  12. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, Sunyoung


    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19 9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea during the years 1995-2007 as compared with that of their South Korean peers Refugee children of 6 5 years of age were

  13. Proc. of the sixteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences, May 13-15, 1998, Argonne, IL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Proceedings Volume includes the technical papers that were presented during the Sixteenth Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences on May 13--15, 1998, at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. The Symposium was structured into eight technical sessions, which included 30 individual presentations followed by discussion and interaction with the audience. A list of participants is appended to this volume. The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term, mission-oriented research in the Department. The Office has prime responsibility for establishing the basic scientific foundation upon which the Nation's future energy options will be identified, developed, and built. BES is committed to the generation of new knowledge necessary to solve present and future problems regarding energy exploration, production, conversion, and utilization, while maintaining respect for the environment. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, prolonging the useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing. The program emphasis is on reducing costs through improved industrial production and performance and expanding the nation's store of fundamental knowledge for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in energy technologies. To achieve these goals, the Engineering Research Program supports approximately 130 research projects covering a broad spectrum of topics that cut across traditional engineering disciplines. The program

  14. Bilateral xanthogranulomatous funiculitis and orchiepididymitis in a 13-year-old adolescent boy. (United States)

    Repetto, Paolo; Bianchini, Maria Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Pier Luca; Roncati, Luca; Durante, Viviana; Biondini, Diego; Maiorana, Antonio; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Cacciari, Alfredo


    Xanthogranulomatous orchitis is an extremely rare inflammatory nonneoplastic lesion of the testis. We report a case of a 13-year-old adolescent boy who presented a painless left hemiscrotal swelling. The subsequent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of abnormal expanding tissue located in both testes and spermatic cord, reaching the internal inguinal ring. Testicular tumor markers were normal. The frozen section examination of the surgical specimen showed only inflammatory tissue and not neoplastic tissue. No orchiectomy was performed. Definitive histopathologic diagnosis was xanthogranulomatous inflammation. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case of xanthogranulomatous orchiepididymitis and funiculitis found in medical literature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available : Adolescence is a time when the body prepares itself for the nutritional demands of pregnancy, lactation and heavy workloads that girls will soon experience. Good nutrition is essential for good health, physical growth and development, body composition and mental development In recent years, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth is increasing due to the early onset of puberty, the declining age of menarche and early sexual activity. They need to earn to cope with the future demands of life. Nutritional needs during adolescence are increased because of the increased growth rate and changes in the body composition associated with puberty. The dramatic increase in energy and nutrient requirements coincides with other factors that may affect adolescents’ food choices and nutrient intake and thus nutritional status. National and population based surveys have found that adolescents often fail to meet dietary recommendations for over all nutritional status and for specific nutrient intakes. Nutritional requirements in relation to body size are more during adolescence. In a country like India with varying social customs and common beliefs against females there is a high prevalence of malnutrition amongst girls. Adolescents are tomorrow’s adult population and their health and well-being are crucial. Yet, interest in adolescents’ health is relatively recent and a focus on nutrition is even more recent. Nutrition influences growth and development throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence; it is, however, during the period of adolescence that nutrient needs are the greatest. A questionnaire-based study was undertaken in Jaipur city of Rajasthan with 500 respondents divided equally between government schools and private schools populations. Adolescent girl is subjected to more physical and mental challenges on a day –to-day basis due to ever increasing pressure of modernization. Hence they have to work hard physically as well as

  16. The Influence of Parental Divorce on Educational Ambitions of 18/19 Year-Old Adolescents from Oslo, Norway


    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Bjertness, Espen; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Claussen, Bjørgulf


    Former studies have shown that children and adolescents of divorced parents have significantly poorer educational attainment than their peers from continuously married parents. Educational ambition is important because it has relationship with educational attainment. Our aim was to investigate the associations between parental divorce and educational ambitions among adolescents in the Scandinavian region. Data were used from Young-HUBRO surveys that were conducted in Oslo in the years 2000/20...

  17. A 2-year longitudinal study of prospective predictors of pathological Internet use in adolescents. (United States)

    Strittmatter, Esther; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer, Gloria; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael


    Longitudinal studies of prospective predictors for pathological Internet use (PIU) in adolescents as well as its course are lacking. This three-wave longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the European Union-funded project "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" over a 2-year period. The sample consisted of 1444 students at the baseline investigation (T0); 1202 students after 1 year (T1); and 515 students after 2 years (T2). Structured self-report questionnaires were administered at all three time points. PIU was assessed using the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). In addition, demographic (i.e., gender), social (i.e., parental involvement), psychological (i.e., emotional problems), and Internet use-related factors (i.e., online activities) were assessed as prospective predictors. The prevalence of PIU was 4.3 % at T0, 2.7 % at T1 and 3.1 % at T2. However, only 3 students (0.58 %) had persistent categorical PIU (YDQ score of ≥5) over the 2-year period. In univariate models, a variety of variables that have been previously identified in cross-sectional investigations predicted PIU at T2. However, multivariate regression demonstrated that only previous PIU symptoms and emotional problems were significant predictors of PIU 2 years later (adjusted R (2) 0.23). The stability of categorical PIU in adolescents over 2 years was lower than previously reported. However, current PIU symptoms were the best predictor of later PIU; emotional symptoms also predicted PIU over and above the influence of previous problematic Internet use. Both PIU symptoms and emotional problems may contribute to the vicious cycle that supports the perpetuation of PIU.

  18. Health strategies and reservoirs of knowledge among adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen


    This article presents selected results of qualitative research into perceptions of health among adolescents. Pupils (N = 108) in the age 13-15 years from nine schools in four different municipalities in Denmark have been interviewed. An analytic strategy that combines knowledge research with syst......This article presents selected results of qualitative research into perceptions of health among adolescents. Pupils (N = 108) in the age 13-15 years from nine schools in four different municipalities in Denmark have been interviewed. An analytic strategy that combines knowledge research...... really relate to the diseases, and it is therefore difficult for them to actively affect the different determinants. The adolescents feel that a lot of information and teaching is being directed towards them. They face an abundance of communication about health and information directed at their presumed...... and personally relevant for them. Finally, the adolescents are aware that they are influenced by their friends both positively and negatively. Indeed, they are concerned about the way they are being taught about health in school and desirous to learn more. (Global Health Promotion, 2010; 17(2): pp. 16-24)...

  19. Ego-resiliency development from late adolescence to emerging adulthood: A ten-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Milioni, Michela


    This study examined the development of ego-resiliency from late adolescence to emerging adulthood, using a 10-year cohort-sequential design. Participants were 335 Italian adolescents (173 females and 162 males), living, at the time of the study, in Genzano, a small city near to Rome. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that the developmental trajectory of ego-resiliency from 15 to 25 years is adequately described by a piecewise model that included separate growth profiles corresponding to different developmental stages. Essentially, ego-resiliency remained remarkably stable until the end of high school, and then encountered a phase of relative increase. Moreover, the trajectory of ego-resiliency from ages 15 to 19 was predicted by self-efficacy beliefs in managing negative emotions, and the trajectory from age 19 to 25 was predicted by experienced familial support and self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions at age 15. Experienced stressful life events also accounted for individuals' deviation from the typical ego-resiliency trajectory.

  20. Stages of Adolescence (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  1. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment. (United States)

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I


    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Exercise during school hours when added to patient education improves outcome for 2 years in adolescent patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, M S; Roos, Ewa M.; Olesen, J L;


    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is common among adolescents and associated with long-lasting pain and disability. Patient education and exercise therapy are commonly used treatments in primary and secondary care but the effect of these treatments in adolescents is unknown. We aimed...... to determine the effect of exercise therapy as an add-on therapy to patient education compared with education alone. METHODS: 121 adolescents from 15-19 years of age were cluster randomised to patient education or patient education combined with exercise therapy. Patient education covered self......-point Likert scale) at 12 months with additional follow-ups at 3, 6 and 24 months. RESULTS: Adolescents randomised to patient education and exercise therapy were more likely to have recovered at 12 months (OR, 1.73, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.93, number needed to treat (NNT) of 11). Similar results were observed at 3...

  3. Reciprocal relations between body satisfaction and self-esteem: A large 13-year prospective study of adolescents. (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; von Soest, Tilmann


    Previous research has demonstrated that body satisfaction and self-esteem are highly correlated in adolescence, but reasons are poorly understood. We tested three explanations: (i) the two constructs are actually one; (ii) the correlation is explained by a third factor; (iii) there are prospective relationships between body satisfaction and self-esteem. A population based sample of Norwegian adolescents (n = 3251) was examined four times over a 13-year period. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that body satisfaction and self-esteem were separate constructs and the correlation between them was not attenuated when adjusting for 3rd variables. Autoregressive cross-lagged analysis showed reciprocal relations between body satisfaction and self-esteem. The prospective relationship between body satisfaction during adolescence and self-esteem in late adolescence and emerging adulthood was stronger than at later stages.

  4. Incidence of cancer in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients treated 25 years previously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Hansen, Emil Jesper; Christensen, Steen Bach;


    PURPOSE: To report the incidence of cancer in a cohort of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated 25 years previously. METHODS: 215 consecutive AIS patients treated between 1983 and 1990 were identified and requested to return for clinical and radiographic examination. The incidence...... of cancer was determined through chart review and follow-up interviews. Using the original radiographic log file that included patient position, mAs, kV and the total number of X-rays taken, a radiation physicist calculated the total radiation dose during treatment and follow-up adjusted for BMI and sex...... radiation exposure was 0.8-1.4 mSV per examination and 2.4-5.6 mSv/year. An average of 16 radiographs were taken during the treatment period. Nine AIS patients developed cancer, mostly breast (3) and endometrial (4). The AIS patients had a relative risk of 4.8 (CI 2.3-5.8, p

  5. Family and home correlates of television viewing in 12–13 year old adolescents: The Nepean Study

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    Crawford David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few young people meet television viewing guidelines. Purpose To determine the association between factors in the family and home environment and watching television, including videos and DVDs, in early adolescence. Methods Cross-sectional, self-report survey of 343 adolescents aged 12–13 years (173 girls, and their parents (338 mothers, 293 fathers. Main measures were factors in the family and home environment potentially associated with adolescents spending ≥ 2 hours per day in front of the television. Factors examined included family structure, opportunities to watch television/video/DVDs, perceptions of rules and regulations on television viewing, and television viewing practices. Results Two-thirds of adolescents watched ≥ 2 hours television per day. Factors in the family and home environment associated with adolescents watching television ≥ 2 hours per day include adolescents who have siblings (Adjusted Odds Ratio [95%CI] AOR = 3.0 [1.2, 7.8]; access to pay television (AOR = 2.0 [1.1, 3.7]; ate snacks while watching television (AOR = 3.1 [1.8, 5.4]; co-viewed television with parents (AOR = 2.3 [1.3, 4.2]; and had mothers who watched ≥ 2 hours television per day (AOR = 2.4 [1.3, 4.6]. Conclusion There are factors in the family and home environment that influence the volume of television viewed by 12–13 year olds. Television plays a central role in the family environment, potentially providing a means of recreation among families of young adolescents for little cost. Interventions which target family television viewing practices and those of parents, in particular, are more likely to be effective than interventions which directly target adolescent viewing times.

  6. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years (United States)

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani


    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266

  7. Development of a Sex Education Programme for 12-Year-Old to 14-Year-Old Turkish Adolescents (United States)

    Cok, Figen; Gray, Lizbeth Ann


    Previous research has documented a need for the development of a sex education programme in Turkish schools in terms of adolescence readiness and the presence of misconceptions regarding critical aspects of sexual issues. Currently no school-based sex education is available for Turkish adolescents. This paper presents the development of a…

  8. [The combined DAK therapy of obesity for children and adolescents. Evaluation after 1 year]. (United States)

    Adam, S; Westenhöfer, J; Rudolphi, B; Kraaibeek, H K


    In 2003, the program "The combined DAK therapy of obesity for children and adolescents", funded and conducted by the Deutsche Angestellten Krankenkasse (DAK) (A German Health Insurance Company), has started. The whole treatment lasts for 1 year including an initial inpatient therapy for 6 weeks followed by an outpatient treatment at home that adresses the overweight patients and their families. The therapy contents are developed according to the recommendations of the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Adipositas im Kindes- und Jugendalter (AGA)". In a prospective cohort study a sample of 604 subjects was studied in order to examine the achievement of the treatment goals weight reduction, behaviour modification and improvement of quality of life. The development of weight was evaluated using BMI-SDS. 44,1% of children and adolescents had a successful weight reduction, they reduced their weight at least by 0,3 BMI-SDS. Furthermore, significant changes of health behaviour, physical fitness and quality of life were observed. However, during the outpatient treatment an impairment of some behaviour changes were observed. Nevertheless, the study has identified significant, positive effects in weight loss, behaviour modifications, changes in physical fitness and in the development of quality of life as a result of the therapy. It is demonstrated that a relapse in "old behaviour" followed by an increase of weight after the inpatient treatment can be avoided bythe subsequent outpatient therapy.

  9. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents

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    Mario R Serra


    The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs were classified as: normal (Group 1, slightly shifted (Group 2, and significantly shifted (Group 3. The musical general exposure (MGE, from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01, in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05 only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01. Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05 and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05. A significant difference (P < 0.05 was found in Group 1′s HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2 dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6 dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents.

  10. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu


    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation.

  11. Spectrum of Childhood and Adolescent Ovarian Tumors in India: 25 Years Experience at a Single Institution

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    Ruchi Rathore


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumour in children and adolescent girls form an uncommon but important part of gynaecological malignancies. They account for 1% of all the childhood malignancies and 8% of all abdominal tumours in children. Since the ovarian cysts are thought to arise from mature follicles, these tumours were considered to be infrequent in the paediatric population. AIM: The rarity of this condition prompted us to conduct this study and share our experience on the incidence and clinicopathological features of different ovarian tumours in girls up to 20 years of age observed in last 25 years at a single tertiary care hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology at a tertiary hospital, Delhi. All ovarian tumours up to the age of 20 years in the past 25 years (1990-2014 were included for the purpose of studying the clinicopathological aspects of ovarian tumours in this age group. Descriptive statistics for prevalence and age-wise prevalence was done. Chi-square test, to find an association between the age, laterality and size with malignancy was performed. RESULTS: We received a total of 1102 cases of ovarian tumours over the period of 25 years  (1990 to 2014, of which 112 (10% cases were seen in girls up to 20 years of age. The mean age of the patients was 15.3 ± 4 years. The most common presenting complaint was pain abdomen (46.4 % There was a statistically significant correlation found between size and malignancy status of tumours in our study (p = 0.00. Of 112 cases of ovarian tumours, 39/112 (34.8% were malignant and 73/112 (65.2% were benign. Mature  cystic teratoma (27.6% was the most common type of benign tumour in this age group and immature teratomas were the most common type of malignant ovarian neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Premenarchal girls with ovarian masses may have varied presentations. Abdominal pain is the most common presenting complaint of young adolescent girls with

  12. Primary anxiety disorders and the development of subsequent alcohol use disorder: a 4-year community study of adolescents and young adults


    Zimmermann, Petra; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Pfister, Hildegard; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lieb, Roselind


    Background. Cross-sectional findings in community surveys of adults suggest that adolescent anxiety disorders are strong predictors of the subsequent onset of alcohol use, abuse and dependence. However, prospective data that follow a sample of adolescents into adulthood are needed to confirm these associations. Method. Baseline and 4-year follow-up data from the EDSP-Study, a prospective community survey of 3021 (2548 at follow-up) adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 24 years at baseli...

  13. Pregnancy in Adolescents of the “Rafael Valdes” Policlinic during the Year 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Serra Ruíz


    Full Text Available Background: the situation of teen pregnancy is now a health problem worldwide, associated with increased maternal morbidity. Objective: to estimate the rate of teen pregnancy and related maternal morbidity characterized. Method: prospective descriptive study conducted in the Area of Health Polyclinic "Rafael Valdés Cotorro Municipality during the year 2009. The sample consisted of 79 pregnant teenagers, to which they were asked informed consent to participate in research. The variables studied were: conditions during pregnancy and related complications that were taken from obstetric card and processed using the SPSS statistical system-11, 5, using frequencies and percentages and descriptive statistical techniques. Results: the rate of teen pregnancy in 2009 was 226 x 1000 and shows an increasing trend. Vaginal infection (98, 7 %, anemia (58, 2 % and asymptomatic bacteriuria (38 % were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: pregnancy in adolescence is a health problem today is growing and continues to be necessary to examine.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian adolescents aged 13 years: findings from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (MyHeARTs) (United States)

    Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Sim, Pei Ying; Su, Tin Tin; Dahlui, Maznah; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzrel; Dzaki, Najat; Norbaya, Saidatul; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie M; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid


    Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity. Design This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression was performed on the data. Setting National secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. Participants 1361 students (mean age 12.9±0.3 years) (61.4% girls) completed the consent forms and participated in this study. Students with a chronic health condition and/or who could not understand the questionnaires due to lack of literacy were excluded. Main outcome measures Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results Deficiency in vitamin D was seen in 78.9% of the participants. The deficiency was significantly higher in girls (92.6%, p<0.001), Indian adolescents (88.6%, p<0.001) and urban-living adolescents (88.8%, p<0.001). Females (OR=8.98; 95% CI 6.48 to 12.45), adolescents with wider waist circumference (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.25) and in urban areas had higher risks (OR=3.57; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.02) of being vitamin D deficient. Conclusions The study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adolescents. Main risk factors are gender, ethnicity, place of residence and obesity. PMID:27540095

  15. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Ruivo


    Full Text Available Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Results: Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. Conclusions: This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture.

  16. Number of Years of Team and Individual Sport Participation During Adolescence and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adulthood. (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Jewett, Rachel; Ashdown-Franks, Garcia; Belanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer


    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = -.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.

  17. Pubertal development, personality, and substance use: a 10-year longitudinal study from childhood to adolescence. (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R


    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age--related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages--related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses.

  18. Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents in Israel during the years 1998 to 2007. (United States)

    Rabinowicz, Ron; Barchana, Micha; Liphshiz, Irena; Futerman, Boris; Linn, Shai; Weyl-Ben-Arush, Myriam


    Our goal was to describe childhood cancer incidence and survival in Israel and to identify demographic and epidemiologic variations among children and adolescents with cancer. We used data from the Israel National Cancer Registry to examine the incidence and survival of pediatric cancer in Israeli children aged 0 to 19 years, diagnosed during the years 1998 to 2007. Cases were analyzed according to sex, age, ethnicity, and geographic region. Among the 4255 cases of childhood cancer, there was a total age-adjusted incidence rate of 172.4 per million for children aged 0 to 19 years and 153.4 per million for children aged 0 to 14 years. The incidence rate for boys was higher than for girls (192.5 and 153.3, respectively) and higher for Jewish children than for Arab children (177.6 and 156.8, respectively). The largest groups were leukemias (22%), lymphomas (20.2%), and central nervous system tumors (17.4%). The number of new cases increased each year, but the incidence rate remained steady. The survival probability updated to December 2008 was estimated and the 5-year survival was calculated for the new cases until the end of 2003. The overall survival at 5 years was 80.8%, with 72.8% for the Arabic population and 83.2% for the Jewish population, and depended on the diagnosis. Incidence and survival in childhood cancer in Israel is at the same medium level compared with other parts of the world. This study may set the basis for investigating the genetic and environmental factors that cause pediatric cancer in Israel, delineating the genetic basis for ethnic origin disparities in survival.

  19. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period (United States)

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.


    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of…

  20. Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8-15 Years, 2005-2012 (United States)

    ... Ordering Information Printed Publications Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates Government Printing Office Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8–15 Years, 2005–2012 Recommend on ...

  1. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.


    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  2. Ten years' of experience in patient education of families with a child/adolescent suffering from cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke


    Aims: The patient education programme for families with children or adolescents with cystic fibrosis (the CF school) was established ten years ago to enable patients to make choices in their lives as CF patients. The CF school provides patients with knowledge about cystic fibrosis (CF), teaches...

  3. Maternity Care Practices and Breastfeeding Among Adolescent Mothers Aged 12-19 Years--United States, 2009-2011. (United States)

    Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Dee, Deborah L; Sharma, Andrea J; Smith, Ruben A


    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months of life, and that mothers continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year. However, in 2011, only 19.3% of mothers aged ≤20 years in the United States exclusively breastfed their infants at 3 months, compared with 36.4% of women aged 20-29 years and 45.0% of women aged ≥30 years. Hospitals play an essential role in providing care that helps mothers establish and continue breastfeeding. The U.S. Surgeon General and numerous health professional organizations recommend providing care aligned with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including adherence to the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (Ten Steps), as well as not providing gift packs containing infant formula. Implementing BFHI-aligned maternity care improves duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding among mothers; however, studies have not examined associations between BFHI-aligned maternity care and breastfeeding outcomes solely among adolescent mothers (for this report, adolescents refers to persons aged 12-19 years). Therefore, CDC analyzed 2009-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data and determined that among adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, self-reported prevalence of experiencing any of the nine selected BFHI-aligned maternity care practices included in the PRAMS survey ranged from 29.2% to 95.4%. Among the five practices identified to be significantly associated with breastfeeding outcomes in this study, the more practices a mother experienced, the more likely she was to be breastfeeding (any amount or exclusively) at 4 weeks and 8 weeks postpartum. Given the substantial health advantages conferred to mothers and children through breastfeeding, and the particular vulnerability of adolescent mothers to lower breastfeeding rates, it is important for hospitals to provide evidence-based maternity practices related to breastfeeding as part of their

  4. Changes in Weight and Comorbidities among Adolescents Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: 1-Year Results from the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Reichard, Kirk W.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Miller, Tracie L.; Livingstone, Alan S.; De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor


    Background Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity but the weight loss and other health related outcomes for this procedure in large, diverse adolescent patient populations are not well characterized. Objective To analyze the prospective Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) to determine the weight loss and health related outcomes in adolescents. Setting BOLD data is collected from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities in the United States. Methods Main outcome measures included anthropometric and comorbidity status at baseline (n=890) and at 3 (n=786), 6 (n=541), and 12 (n=259) months after surgery. Adolescents (75% female; 68% non-Hispanic white, 14% Hispanic, 11% non-Hispanic black, and 6% other) age 11-to-19 years were included in the analyses. Results The overall one year mean weight loss for those who underwent gastric bypass surgery was more than twice that of those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery (48.6 kg versus 20 kg, P<0.001). Similar results were found for all other anthropometric changes and comparisons over one year between surgery types (P<0.001). In general, gastric bypass patients reported more improvement versus adjustable gastric band patients in comorbidities one year after surgery. There were a total of 45 readmissions among gastric bypass patients and 10 among adjustable gastric band patients with 29 and 8 reoperations required, respectively. Conclusions Weight loss at 3-, 6-, and 12-months after surgery is approximately double in adolescent males and females who underwent gastric bypass surgery versus those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery. Bariatric surgery can safely and substantially reduce weight and related comorbidities in morbidly obese adolescents for at least 1 year. PMID:22542199

  5. Involvement in bullying as predictor of suicidal ideation among 12- to 15-year-old Norwegian adolescents. (United States)

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Sund, Anne Mari


    The aim of this study was to examine relationships between bullying and suicidal ideation. A total of 2,464 adolescents in Norway were assessed at two time points, 1 year apart [i.e., at ages 14 (T1) and 15 (T2)], with identical questionnaires. Suicidal ideation was measured by four items including both active and passive suicidal thoughts. ANOVA and standard linear regression methods were applied. Both bullied adolescents and adolescents who were aggressive toward others had significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation (p bullied, girls had higher levels of suicidal ideation than boys did. This was not the case for the group of adolescents who were the aggressors. In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, both being bullied and being aggressive toward others were significant (p suicidal ideation at age 14 (T1), when gender, age and socioeconomic status, and depressing symptom levels were controlled for. In the controlled longitudinal multivariate analyses, being bullied (p suicidal ideation at age 15 (T2), while aggressiveness toward others did not. Bullied adolescents (both genders) were at risk for suicidal ideation, and having an additional risk if they were depressed.

  6. Two-Year Follow-Up of a Sexual Health Promotion Program for Spanish Adolescents. (United States)

    Espada, Jose P; Escribano, Silvia; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia


    The aim is to evaluate the effects of the Competencias para adolescentes con una sexualidad saludable (COMPAS) program and compare them with an evidence-based program (¡Cuídate!) and a control group (CG). Eighteen public high schools were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions. Initially, 1,563 Spanish adolescents between 14 and 16 years of age participated, and 24 months after their implementation, 635 of them completed a survey. Self-report measures collected data on sexual behavior, knowledge, attitudes, intention, sexual risk perception, and perceived norm. Compared to the CG, COMPAS increased the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and improved the attitudes toward people living with human immunodeficiency virus at the 2-year follow-up. Neither intervention had a long-term impact on behavioral variables. Results suggest that COMPAS has a comparable impact to the other intervention on the variables predicting consistent condom use. Reinforcing the messages and skills that have the greatest impact on condom use and adding booster sessions following program completion as strategies to maintain long-term effects are necessary.

  7. Social Recovery Model: An 8-Year Investigation of Adolescent 12-step Group Involvement following Inpatient Treatment (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Brown, Sandra A.; Abrantes, Ana; Kahler, Christopher; Myers, Mark


    Background Despite widespread use of 12-step treatment approaches and referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) by youth providers, little is known about the significance of these organizations in youth addiction recovery. Furthermore, existing evidence is based mostly on short-term follow-up and is limited methodologically. Methods Adolescent inpatients (N = 160; M age = 16, 40% female) were followed at 6-months, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 years post-treatment. Time-lagged, generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeled treatment outcome in relation to AA/NA attendance controlling for static and time-varying covariates. Robust regression (LOWESS) explored dose-response thresholds of AA/NA attendance on outcome. Results AA/NA attendance was common and intensive early post-treatment, but declined sharply and steadily over the 8-year period. Patients with greater addiction severity and those who believed they could not use substances in moderation were more likely to attend. Despite declining attendance, the effects related to AA/NA remained significant and consistent. Greater early participation was associated with better long-term outcomes. Conclusions Even though many youth discontinue AA/NA over time, attendees appear to benefit, and more severely substance-involved youth attend most. Successful early post-treatment engagement of youth in abstinence-supportive social contexts, such as AA/NA, may have long-term implications for alcohol and drug involvement into young adulthood. PMID:18557829

  8. Psychopathological factors that can influence academic achievement in early adolescence: a three-year prospective study. (United States)

    Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa


    This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children's Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = -.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = -.187, p academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes.

  9. Brazilian hepatitis B vaccine: a six-year follow-up in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla Vêncio Frauzino Alexandre


    Full Text Available The protective anti-HBs titres were examined six-year post-immunisation with the Brazilian recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. After the primary vaccination, all adolescents (n = 89 responded with protective anti-HBs titres and had a geometric mean titre (GMT of 4031.8 mIU/mL. In 2010, 94.5% maintained protective anti-HBs (> 10 mIU/mL antibodies, with a GMT of 236.0 mIU/mL. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-HBs titres after the primary vaccination and the titres at the six-year follow-up (p < 0.01. Eleven subjects showed anti-HBs titres suggestive of a natural booster. Prostitution and tattoos/piercings were marginally associated with natural boosters in the multivariate analysis. This study showed the first data on anti-HBs persistence following the Brazilian hepatitis B vaccine in sexually active individuals and highlights its effectiveness in the medium term.

  10. Estimating Body Composition in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: Comparison of Different Methods in a 3 Years Longitudinal Design (United States)

    Aerenhouts, Dirk


    A recommended field method to assess body composition in adolescent sprint athletes is currently lacking. Existing methods developed for non-athletic adolescents were not longitudinally validated and do not take maturation status into account. This longitudinal study compared two field methods, i.e., a Bio Impedance Analysis (BIA) and a skinfold based equation, with underwater densitometry to track body fat percentage relative to years from age at peak height velocity in adolescent sprint athletes. In this study, adolescent sprint athletes (34 girls, 35 boys) were measured every 6 months during 3 years (age at start = 14.8 ± 1.5yrs in girls and 14.7 ± 1.9yrs in boys). Body fat percentage was estimated in 3 different ways: 1) using BIA with the TANITA TBF 410; 2) using a skinfold based equation; 3) using underwater densitometry which was considered as the reference method. Height for age since birth was used to estimate age at peak height velocity. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations between measurement methods at each occasion. Data were analyzed longitudinally using a multilevel cross-classified model with the PROC Mixed procedure. In boys, compared to underwater densitometry, the skinfold based formula revealed comparable values for body fatness during the study period whereas BIA showed a different pattern leading to an overestimation of body fatness starting from 4 years after age at peak height velocity. In girls, both the skinfold based formula and BIA overestimated body fatness across the whole range of years from peak height velocity. The skinfold based method appears to give an acceptable estimation of body composition during growth as compared to underwater densitometry in male adolescent sprinters. In girls, caution is warranted when interpreting estimations of body fatness by both BIA and a skinfold based formula since both methods tend to give an overestimation. PMID:26317426

  11. School screening and point prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in 4000 Norwegian children aged 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brox Jens


    Full Text Available Abstract Background School screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is discussed. The aim of the present study was to describe the point prevalence of AIS and to evaluate the effectiveness of school screening in 12-year- old children. Methods Community nurses and physical therapists in the Southern Health region of Norway including about 12000 school children aged 12 years were invited to participate. All participating community nurses and physical therapists fulfilled an educational course to improve their knowledge about AIS and learn the screening procedure including the Adam Forward Bending Test and measurement of gibbus using a scoliometer. Results Sub-regions including 4000 school children participated. The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis defined as a positive Adam Forward Bending Test, gibbus > 7° and primary major curve on radiographs > 10°, was 0.55%. Five children (0.13% had a major curve > 20°. Bracing was not indicated in any child; all children were post menarche; four had Risser sign of 4, and one with Risser 1 did not have curve progression > 5° at later follow-up. In one of these 5 children however, the major curve progressed to 45° within 7 months after screening and the girl was operated. Conclusion The point prevalence of AIS in 12- year old children is in agreement or slightly lower than previous studies. The screening model employed demonstrates acceptable sensitivity and specificity and low referral rates. Screening at the age of 12 years only was not effective for detecting patients with indication for brace treatment.

  12. The PICA Project. Year 2. Project Interim Report. Programming Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents. (United States)

    Cohen, Harold L.; And Others

    An operant conditioning program for 12 problematic adolescent boys is described in detail. Complete procedures are discussed, including criteria for student selection and the Programming Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents (PICA) academic and psychological test battery. The academic component of the program focuses on mathematics and English…

  13. Effects of reciprocal teaching: A two-year intervention study among low achieving adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okkinga, Mariska; Gelderen, van Amos; Sleegers, Peter; Steensel, van Roel


    Low achieving adolescents are known to have difficulties with reading comprehension. This presentation discusses how reciprocal teaching can improve low achieving adolescents' reading comprehension in natural classroom settings (as opposed to small-group settings) and to what extent intervention eff

  14. Children and adolescents in the Psychiatric Emergency Department: a 10-year survey in Copenhagen County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taastrøm, Annette; Klahn, Julie; Staal, Nina;


    Background: Knowledge on psychiatric emergencies in children and adolescents is limited. The Psychiatric Emergency Departments (PED) in Copenhagen enable the acute examination of children and adolescents 24 h a day, 7 days a week. However, very little is known about who presents to the PED...

  15. Impact of a youth-friendly HIV clinic: 10 years of adolescent outcomes in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey K Reif


    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents account for over 40% of new HIV infections in Haiti. This analysis compares outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents before and after implementation of an adolescent HIV clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using programmatic data among HIV-positive adolescents aged 13 to 19. Data from 41,218 adolescents who were HIV tested from January 2003 to December 2012 were included. Outcomes across the HIV care cascade were assessed before and after implementation of an adolescent clinic (2009, including HIV testing, enrolment in care, assessment for antiretroviral therapy (ART eligibility, ART initiation and 12-month retention. Pre-ART outcomes were assessed 12 months after HIV testing. Factors associated with pre-ART and ART attrition were identified through multivariable competing risk and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. Results: Cumulatively, 1672 (4.1% adolescents tested HIV positive (80% female, median age 16 years. Retention by cascade step comparing pre- and post-clinic included the following: 86% versus 87% of patients enrolled in care, 61% versus 79% were assessed for ART eligibility, 85% versus 92% initiated ART and 68% versus 66% were retained 12 months after ART initiation. Pre-ART attrition decreased from 61% pre-clinic to 50% post-clinic (p<0.001. Pre-ART attrition was associated with being female (sub-distributional hazard ratio (sHR: 1.59; CI: 1.31–1.93, syphilis diagnosis (sHR: 1.47; CI: 1.16–1.85 and slum residence (sHR: 0.84; CI: 0.72–0.97. ART attrition was associated with syphilis diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR: 2.23; CI: 1.35–3.68 and CD4 <50 cells/µL (HR: 1.88; CI: 1.15–3.06. Conclusions: Implementation of a youth-friendly adolescent clinic improved retention in HIV care among adolescents, particularly in the assessment of ART eligibility and ART initiation. Additional interventions are needed to improve retention among pre-ART patients and support

  16. Insights into Adherence among a Cohort of Adolescents Aged 12–20 Years in South Africa: Reported Barriers to Antiretroviral Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi Maskew


    Full Text Available Adolescents experience disproportionately high rates of poor ART outcomes compared to adults despite prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy in Southern African treatment programs, presenting a significant challenge to national attempts to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for 2020. This cohort study among adolescents aged 12–20 years accessing ART care at two urban public-sector clinics in Johannesburg between September and November 2013 aimed to identify factors potentially associated with poor attendance at clinic visits. Patients were followed up through routine medical records to identify missed visits (failing to attend clinic within 30 days of scheduled visit date up to 2 years after enrolment. We enrolled 126 adolescents on ART for a median of 6.3 years (IQR: 2.7–8.4. A total of 47 (38% adolescents missed a scheduled visit within 24 months of enrolment. Older adolescents (18–20 years were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents aged 12–14 years (risk ratio (RR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.00–2.95. Those who were identified to have difficulty in taking medication (RR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13–2.18 as a barrier to care were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents who did not. Awareness of treatment fatigue, challenges to taking ART, and caregiver difficulties is important when considering interventions to improve treatment outcomes among adolescents.

  17. Insights into Adherence among a Cohort of Adolescents Aged 12–20 Years in South Africa: Reported Barriers to Antiretroviral Treatment (United States)

    Fox, Matthew P.; Evans, Denise; Govindasamy, Darshini; Jamieson, Lise; Malete, Given; Mongwenyana, Constance; Technau, Karl


    Adolescents experience disproportionately high rates of poor ART outcomes compared to adults despite prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy in Southern African treatment programs, presenting a significant challenge to national attempts to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for 2020. This cohort study among adolescents aged 12–20 years accessing ART care at two urban public-sector clinics in Johannesburg between September and November 2013 aimed to identify factors potentially associated with poor attendance at clinic visits. Patients were followed up through routine medical records to identify missed visits (failing to attend clinic within 30 days of scheduled visit date) up to 2 years after enrolment. We enrolled 126 adolescents on ART for a median of 6.3 years (IQR: 2.7–8.4). A total of 47 (38%) adolescents missed a scheduled visit within 24 months of enrolment. Older adolescents (18–20 years) were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents aged 12–14 years (risk ratio (RR) = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.00–2.95). Those who were identified to have difficulty in taking medication (RR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13–2.18) as a barrier to care were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents who did not. Awareness of treatment fatigue, challenges to taking ART, and caregiver difficulties is important when considering interventions to improve treatment outcomes among adolescents. PMID:27867661

  18. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  19. [Psychology and nutrition in the ontogenetic development in the infant-adolescence years]. (United States)

    Fuillerat Alfonso, R


    The relationship between the psychic development and the nutritional condition from the fetal stage up to the teenage years is the innermost objective of this study. The importance of eating and having an adequate diet during the pregnancy period, the training of the future mother to breast feed in the first months of the baby's life and the subsequent application of the ablactación process and its relation with psychomotor development and the personality progression in the different stages of the psychological, physiological and social development of the infant-adolescent period. The results shown were obtained from various studies carried out in the Nutritional Clinical Service. They are related to the reinduction of breast feeding in children less than 4 months of age with protein energetic malnutrition, as well as other stages of the infant-juvenile obese and other chronic and genetic diseases related to the nourishment and nutrition (diabetes, fenilcetonuria, hiperamonemia, homocistinuria y fibrosis quística), in which the close relationship betweeen the Psychology, and the Nutrition stands, all through the Psychotherapeutic and educational treatments and based on the application of the clinic psychology in the prevention, promotion and treatment of the nutritional alterations and other chronic and genetic diseases related to nourishment and malnutrition. Aspects related to the psychological and social characterizations as well as the personality evolution of these patients and their relatives environment are established.

  20. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study (United States)

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu


    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  1. Hip and knee strength is not affected in 12-16 year old adolescents with patellofemoral pain - a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Camilla Rams; Baird, William Neill; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard;


    One of the rationales behind using strength training in the treatment of adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is that reduced strength of the lower extremity is a risk factor for PFP and a common deficit. This rationale is based on research conducted on adolescents >15 years of age but has...

  2. Adolescent alcohol intoxication in the dutch hospital departments of pediatrics: A 2-year comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.J. van; Lely, N. van der; Bouthoorn, S.H.; Dalen, W.E. van; Pereira, R.R.


    Purpose: To monitor the prevalence of, and the circumstances leading to, adolescent alcohol intoxication admissions in Dutch hospital departments of pediatrics. Methods: Data were collected in 2007 and 2008, using the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System, in which pediatricians received questionnaire

  3. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights? (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen


    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them.

  4. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adolescents Aged 18 Years or Younger - United States, 2017. (United States)

    Robinson, Candice L; Romero, José R; Kempe, Allison; Pellegrini, Cynthia


    In October 2016, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adolescents Aged 18 Years or Younger-United States, 2017. The 2017 child and adolescent immunization schedule summarizes ACIP recommendations, including several changes from the 2016 immunization schedules, in three figures, and footnotes for the figures. These documents can be found on the CDC immunization schedule website ( These immunization schedules are approved by ACIP (, the American Academy of Pediatrics (, the American Academy of Family Physicians (, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ( Health care providers are advised to use the figures and the combined footnotes together. The full ACIP recommendations for each vaccine, including contraindications and precautions, can be found at Providers should be aware that changes in recommendations for specific vaccines can occur between annual updates to the childhood/adolescent immunization schedules. If errors or omissions are discovered within the child and adolescent schedule, CDC posts revised versions on the CDC immunization schedule website.

  5. Lantus, the first peakless basal insulin analogue: 10 years of clinical experience in children and adolescents


    Tamara Leonodovna Kuraeva


    This review analyses existing literature, including authors' own data, describing the results of clinical trials which assess safety and efficacy of insulin Glargine (Lantus®) in children and adolescents, as well as peculiar features of T1D management in this age group, including the challenge of reducing the rate of hypoglycemia while maintaining adequate glycemic control. The article also discusses various issues in T1D management in children and adolescents, including the role of glycemic ...

  6. The prevalence of malocclusion and its association with dental caries among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents


    Vellappally, Sajith; Seby J Gardens; Al Kheraif, Abdul-Aziz Abdullah; Krishna, Madhusudan; Babu, Suresh; Hashem, Mohamed; Jacob, Vimal; Anil, Sukumaran


    Background To assess the prevalence of malocclusion among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and to determine the association of malocclusion with dental caries. Methods This cross-sectional study included 243 children with various mental disabilities with or without physical infirmities. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the dentition status were recorded using the World Health Organization Oral Health Surveys – Bas...

  7. Adolescent impulsivity and soft drink consumption: The role of parental regulation. (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Bergh, Ingunn H; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Nanna; Bjelland, Mona


    The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents.

  8. The examination of relationship between human values and moral maturity in adolescence

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    Hakan Sarıçam


    Full Text Available This study was aim to examine both human values and moral maturity of adolescence within gender and age variables and the relationship between human values and moral maturity in adolescence. The study was conducted with 341 adolescences[N=108 (32% male, 233’ü (68% female] attending to Agrı high schools in 2011 -2012 school year in and their age ranged from 13 to 18. All adolescences were chosen in this study randomly. In this study The Moral Maturity Scale (Dilmaç, 2007 and The Human Values Scale (Selçuk ve Kaya, 2008 were used. As a result of the study it was found that female adolescences got significantly higher score than male adolescences in human values and in moral maturity level (p<.05. Moreover adolescences with 16-18 age got significantly higher score than adolescences with 13-15 age (p<.01. In this study it was also found that all gender were at Kohlberg conventional moral level. Moreover human values and its sub constructs are significantly correlated with moral maturity and five sub construct except forbearance explain 24 % variance of moral maturity (p<.01. The findings of this research were discussed in the light of the literature and some recommendations and suggestions were presented for the further research.

  9. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents. (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L


    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  10. Early Adolescents' Unique Perspectives of Maternal and Paternal Rejection: Examining Their Across-Dyad Generalizability and Relations with Adjustment 1 Year Later. (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Mahler, Alissa; An, Danming; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Skinner, Ann T; Deater-Deckard, Kirby


    Parental rejection is linked to deep and enduring adjustment problems during adolescence. This study aims to further clarify this relation by demonstrating what has long been posited by parental acceptance/rejection theory but never validated empirically-namely that adolescents' unique or subjective experience of parental rejection independently informs their future adjustment. Among a longitudinal, multi-informant sample of 161 families (early adolescents were 47 % female and 40 % European American) this study utilized a multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis to isolate for each early adolescent-parent dyad, the adolescent's distinct view of parental rejection (i.e., the adolescent unique perspective) from the portion of his or her view that overlaps with his or her parent's view. The findings indicated that adolescents' unique perspectives of maternal rejection were not differentiated from their unique perspectives of paternal rejection. Also, consistent with parental acceptance-rejection theory, early adolescents' unique perspectives of parental rejection were associated with worse adjustment (internalizing and externalizing) 1 year later. This study further demonstrates the utility and validity of the multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis approach for identifying and examining adolescent unique perspectives. Both conceptually and analytically, this study also integrates research focused on unique perspectives with a distinct but related line of research focused on discrepancies in perspectives.

  11. Reproductive Tract Infections and Treatment Seeking Behavior among Married Adolescent Women 15-19 Years in India

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    Ranjan Kumar Prusty, MPS


    Full Text Available Background: India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Methods: Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08 of India were used. The prevalence of RTIs symptoms and treatment seeking behavior among women by different socio-demographic characteristics was analyzed. Factor analysis was utilized to create an index using information about 11 symptoms of RTI/STI collected in the survey. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to know the association between infections and treatment seeking behavior with socio-demographic factors. Results: About 15 percent of adolescent women reported having any symptoms of RTI/STI. The main symptoms reported were low backache, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse and itching or irritation around the vulvar region. Factor analysis showed the concentration of diseases in three clusters – infection in around the vulva, other reproductive infection and abnormal discharge; and intercourse related problems. Major predictors of both symptoms of reproductive infections and treatment seeking behavior from multivariate analysis are age, education, wealth, region and awareness about RTI/STI. Conclusion and Public Health Implications: Knowledge and treatment seeking behavior is poor among adolescent women in India. There is need for programmatic and policy emphasis on increasing knowledge and awareness through family life education including in educational curriculum at school level.

  12. Prevalence, comorbidity and heritability of hoarding symptoms in adolescence: a population based twin study in 15-year olds.

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    Volen Z Ivanov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hoarding Disorder (HD is often assumed to be an 'old age' problem, but many individuals diagnosed with HD retrospectively report first experiencing symptoms in childhood or adolescence. We examined the prevalence, comorbidity and etiology of hoarding symptoms in adolescence. METHODS: To determine the presence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms, a population-based sample of 15-year old twins (N = 3,974 completed the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self Report. Co-occurring Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD were estimated from parental report. Model-fitting analyses divided hoarding symptom scores into additive genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms was 2% (95% CI 1.6-2.5%, with a significantly higher prevalence in girls than boys. Exclusion of the clutter criterion (as adolescents do not have control over their environment increased the prevalence rate to 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.3%. Excessive acquisition was reported by 30-40% among those with clinically significant hoarding symptoms. The prevalence of co-occurring OCD (2.9%, ASD (2.9% and ADHD (10.0% was comparable in hoarding and non-hoarding teenagers. Model-fitting analyses suggested that, in boys, additive genetic (32%; 95% CI 13-44% and non-shared environmental effects accounted for most of the variance. In contrast, among girls, shared and non-shared environmental effects explained most of the variance, while additive genetic factors played a negligible role. CONCLUSIONS: Hoarding symptoms are relatively prevalent in adolescents, particularly in girls, and cause distress and/or impairment. Hoarding was rarely associated with other common neurodevelopmental disorders, supporting its DSM-5 status as an independent diagnosis. The relative importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for hoarding differed

  13. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

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    Torsheim Torbjørn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of

  14. Continuous up to 4 Years Entecavir Treatment of HBV-Infected Adolescents – A Longitudinal Study in Real Life (United States)

    Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Smok, Beata; Rajewski, Paweł; Wietlicka-Piszcz, Magdalena; Halota, Waldemar; Tretyn, Andrzej


    This study evaluated the long-term (up to 4 years) efficacy and safety of entecavir ETV treatment and analysed the significance of baseline and on-treatment factors in long-term ETV outcomes in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We determined the cumulative virological and serological outcomes of 44 adolescents with CHB receiving ETV for up to 4 years. To investigate the dynamics of HBV DNA, ALT activity and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion over time and their associations with the considered factors, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. The cumulative rates of undetectable HBV DNA (<20 IU/ml) and HBeAg seroconversion after 4 years were 89.7% and 55.4%, respectively. In the study group, we showed that having undetectable HBV DNA at the 6th or 12th month of therapy predicted the achievement of a sustained response rate (SRR, defined as the loss of HBV DNA, loss of HBeAg and ALT normalization) at year 3 of ETV therapy (P = 0.048, OR = 5.83; P = 0.012; OR = 14.57, respectively). The GEE analysis indicated that of the different factors, the duration of ETV therapy had a strong impact on the achievement of virological suppression, HBeAg seroconversion and SRR in adolescents. Each month after the initiation of therapy, the odds of loss of HBV DNA increased by approximately 5% (OR = 1.05, P<0.0001), on average. Additionally, the GEE analysis revealed that adolescents with an age at infection of ≥10 years had 3 times higher odds of achieving undetectable HBV DNA than patients with a younger infection age (OR = 3.67, P = 0.028). None of the ETV-treated patients reported significant adverse effects. ETV is an effective and safe treatment option for adolescents with CHB. Undetectable HBV DNA in the 6th and/or 12th month of ETV treatment and older age at infection could predict maintained virological suppression. PMID:27685782

  15. Evidence Base Update: 50 Years of Research on Treatment for Child and Adolescent Anxiety. (United States)

    Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Francis, Sarah E; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Chorpita, Bruce F


    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorder among children and adolescents. We examined 111 treatment outcome studies testing 204 treatment conditions for child and adolescent anxiety published between 1967 and mid-2013. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review using the PracticeWise Evidence-Based Services database. Using guidelines identified by this journal (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014), studies were included if they were conducted with children and/or adolescents (ages 1-19) with anxiety and/or avoidance problems. In addition to reviewing the strength of the evidence, the review also examined indicators of effectiveness, common practices across treatment families, and mediators and moderators of treatment outcome. Six treatments reached well-established status for child and adolescent anxiety, 8 were identified as probably efficacious, 2 were identified as possibly efficacious, 6 treatments were deemed experimental, and 8 treatments of questionable efficacy emerged. Findings from this review suggest substantial support for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as an effective and appropriate first-line treatment for youth with anxiety disorders. Several other treatment approaches emerged as probably efficacious that are not primarily CBT based, suggesting that there are alternative evidence-based treatments that practitioners can turn to for children and adolescents who do not respond well to CBT. The review concludes with a discussion of treatments that improve functioning in addition to reducing symptoms, common practices derived from evidence-based treatments, mediators and moderators of treatment outcomes, recommendations for best practice, and suggestions for future research.

  16. Sedentary behavior in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. (United States)

    Dumith, Samuel C; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana M B; Araújo, Cora Luiza


    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sedentary behavior and investigate associated factors in adolescents 11 years of age from the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Sedentary behavior was investigated with a questionnaire, and was defined as spending more than two hours per day watching television, playing videogames, or using the computer. Of the 4,452 adolescents interviewed, 98% reported watching television, 44% playing videogames, and 22% using the computer. The average time spent on each of these electronic media was 197, 36, and 17 minutes per day, respectively. Prevalence of sedentary behavior was 79.7% (95%CI: 78.6; 80.9) and showed a positive association with socioeconomic level and nutritional status and a negative association with well-being. These 11-year-olds spent extensive time at TV viewing, videogames, and the computer. Special attention should be given to the most exposed groups of adolescents, including the more affluent, overweight, and those with limited schooling.

  17. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age. (United States)

    Pak, Sunyoung


    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  18. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in a longitudinal pilot study of adolescent girls: what happens 2 years later? (United States)

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M


    We assessed the prospective association of risk factors for eating and body image disturbances after a 2-year follow-up in a community sample of Spanish adolescent girls. The participants included 128 Spanish girls aged 12-14, who took part in a 28-month prospective study. Aspects assessed were eating attitudes (Eating Attitudes Test), influence of the body shape model (questionnaire on influences of the aesthetic body shape model), extreme weight-control behaviors (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire), body image (Body Image Questionnaire) and Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI, extreme weight-control behaviors and body image problems emerged as potential predictors of an increase in eating disturbances. An increased influence of the thinness model was significantly associated with reduced body satisfaction and body image problems. Preventive programs are needed to contribute reducing the impact of sociocultural influences with regard to thinness, the use of extreme weight-control behaviors and overweight in adolescents.

  19. The stability of self-concept during adolescence and early adulthood: a six-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Keltikangas-Järvinen, L


    The stability and gender differences of self-concept during adolescence and early adulthood were studied in 894 randomly selected Finnish subjects using the shortened version of the Coopersmith (1967) Self-Esteem Inventory. There were no differences between the men and women in the total score for self-concept. In early adulthood, men scored higher than women on general self-esteem, and women scored higher on the home-parents factor in each developmental period from pre-adolescence to adulthood. The stability of self-concept, as well as its different components, was rather high. General self-esteem showed the highest predictive value for the total score 6 years later.

  20. Lantus, the first peakless basal insulin analogue: 10 years of clinical experience in children and adolescents

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    Tamara Leonodovna Kuraeva


    Full Text Available This review analyses existing literature, including authors' own data, describing the results of clinical trials which assess safety and efficacy of insulin Glargine (Lantus® in children and adolescents, as well as peculiar features of T1D management in this age group, including the challenge of reducing the rate of hypoglycemia while maintaining adequate glycemic control. The article also discusses various issues in T1D management in children and adolescents, including the role of glycemic control in development of vascular complications, hypoglycemia and the variability of glycemia. The data confirm the high efficacy of Lantus insulin in respect to metabolic control, including the decrease in the incidence of hypoglycemia and in variability of glycemic profile, the safety of its clinical use in treatment of children, including young children, and adolescents, as well as its ability to improve the quality of life for patients and their parents.

  1. Five years follow-up following two or three doses of a hepatitis B vaccine in adolescents aged 11-15 years: a randomised controlled study

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    Kuriyakose Sherine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard three-dose schedule of hepatitis B vaccines is frequently not completed, especially in adolescents. A primary study has confirmed the equivalence of a two-dose schedule of an Adult formulation of hepatitis B vaccine [Group HBV_2D] to a three-dose schedule of a Paediatric formulation in adolescents (11-15 years [Group HBV_3D]. This follow-up study evaluated the five year persistence of antibody response and immune memory against the hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs antigens five years after completion of primary vaccination. Methods A total of 234 subjects returned at the Year 5 time point, of which 144 subjects received a challenge dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Blood samples were collected yearly and pre- and post-challenge dose to assess anti-HBs antibody concentrations. Results At the end of five years, 79.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71.7 - 86.1 and 91.4% (95% CI: 82.3 - 96.8 of subjects who received the two-dose and three-dose schedules, respectively had anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥10 mIU/mL. Post-challenge dose, all subjects had anti-HBs antibody concentration ≥10 mIU/mL and >94% subjects had anti-HBs antibody concentration ≥100 mIU/mL. All subjects mounted a rapid anamnestic response to the challenge dose. Overall, the challenge dose was well-tolerated. Conclusion The two-dose schedule of hepatitis B vaccine confers long-term immunogenicity and shows evidence of immune memory for at least five years following vaccination. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00343915, NCT00524576

  2. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years. (United States)

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge


    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  3. A 2-year longitudinal study of eating attitudes, BMI, perfectionism, asceticism and family climate in adolescent girls and their parents. (United States)

    Westerberg, J; Edlund, B; Ghaderi, A


    The aim of this longitudinal study of 383 Swedish adolescent girls (11 and 13 years old at year 1) and their parents was to examine changes in eating attitudes over a two-year period, and to investigate the predictive value of eating attitudes, perfectionism, asceticism, family climate and body mass index (BMI) for the development of disturbed eating attitudes. The following self-report questionnaires were used: Children's Eating Attitudes test, Eating Attitudes Test, Eating Disorder Inventory for Children, Eating Disorder Inventory 2, I Think I Am and The Family Climate. The frequency of disturbed eating attitudes increased with increased age in the girls. Children's eating attitudes, higher BMI than peers, the girls rating of a less healthy relation to family and their fathers' eating attitudes at year 1 contributed most to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes for the girls 2 years later. The results suggest that early signs of disturbed eating attitudes and higher BMI than peers may be important predictors for the development of more serious eating disturbances among adolescent girls.

  4. Longitudinal Associations of Exposure to Perfluoroalkylated Substances in Childhood and Adolescence and Indicators of Adiposity and Glucose Metabolism 6 and 12 Years Later

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    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Grøntved, Anders; Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade;


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term association of exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), during childhood (9 years) and adolescence (15 years) on indicators of adiposity and glucose metabolism in adolescence...... childhood (N = 590), during adolescence (N = 444), and into young adulthood (N = 369). Stored plasma samples were analyzed for PFOS and PFOA. Indicators of adiposity comprising body height, body weight, sum of four skinfolds, and waist circumference; as well as indicators of glucose metabolism, comprising...... was associated with decreased β-cell function at 15 years of age. We did not observe associations between exposure during adolescence and indicators of adiposity and glucose metabolism in young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: This study found evidence for childhood exposure to PFOS and PFOA predicting adiposity at 15...

  5. Human biomonitoring for metals in Italian urban adolescents: data from Latium Region. (United States)

    Pino, Anna; Amato, Antonio; Alimonti, Alessandro; Mattei, Daniela; Bocca, Beatrice


    As a part of the activities of the first Italian human biomonitoring survey (PROBE - PROgramme for Biomonitoring general population Exposure), a reference population of adolescents, aged 13-15 years, was examined for their exposure to metals. The study included 252 adolescents living in urban areas, representative of Latium Region (Italy) and blood specimens were analyzed for metals (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ir, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sb, Sn, Tl, U, V and W) by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results obtained will improve the knowledge about the body burden in adolescents and are tentative reference values for Italian young people as a basis for risk evaluation deriving from urban/environmental exposure to metals.

  6. Long-term observation of adolescents initiating HAART therapy : Three-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flynn, Patricia M.; Rudy, Bret J.; Lindsey, Jane C.; Douglas, Steven D.; Lathey, Janet; Spector, Stephen A.; Martinez, Jaime; Silio, Margarita; Belzer, Marvin; Friedman, Lawrence; D'Angelo, Lawrence; Smith, Elizabeth; Hodge, Janice; Hughes, Michael D.


    The PACTG 381 cohort included 120 adolescents infected via high-risk behaviors and treated with at least two NRTIs plus either a protease inhibitor or an efavirenz-containing HAART regimen. After 24 weeks of therapy, only 69 of 118 (59%) evaluable subjects had undetectable viral loads. We now presen

  7. On Being Aware and Accepting: A One-Year Longitudinal Study into Adolescent Well-Being (United States)

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Kashdan, Todd B.; Leeson, Peter; Heaven, Patrick; Jordan, Carlie


    The nature and potential benefit of awareness and experiential acceptance in adolescence remains neglected and understudied. To address this gap in the literature, 776 students (50% female) in Grade 10 completed measures of mindfulness, emotional awareness, and experiential acceptance, as well as measures of major personality traits. To study…

  8. The Co-Use of Tobacco and Cannabis among Adolescents over a 30-Year Period (United States)

    Webster, Lauren; Chaiton, Michael; Kirst, Maritt


    Background: This study explores the patterns of use and co-use of tobacco and cannabis among Ontario adolescents over 3 decades and if characteristics of co-users and single substance users have changed. Methods: Co-use trends for 1981-2011 were analyzed using the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey,…

  9. The tracking of dietary intakes of children and adolescents in Sweden over six years: the European Youth Heart Study

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    Wärnberg Julia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stability of dietary habits through various life-stages is not well understood. A better understanding of the tracking of diet over time could have implications for health promotion as well as for the planning of nutritional epidemiology studies. We examined the stability of dietary intakes of children and adolescents over six years. Methods As part of the European Youth Heart Study, in 1998-9, a 24-h dietary recall was performed on over one thousand 9- and 15-year-olds in Sweden. In 2004-5, 40% returned to the follow-up study. These 452 subjects (273 15- and 179 21-year-olds were assigned to age- and gender-specific tertiles of intakes of food groups, energy, selected nutrients and energy density (low, mid and high at each time point. The agreement between the classification of subjects into tertiles at both time points was examined using Cohen's weighted κ and other stability coefficients. We included a dropout analysis and considered the effect that energy mis-reporting might have on our results. Results Fair tracking was seen between childhood and adolescence for the milk, fil and yoghurt food group (κ = 0.30, and between adolescence and young adulthood for fruit (κ = 0.24. Slight tracking was observed for most other food groups and fair to slight tracking for all nutrients studied. Only membership of the high milk, fil and yoghurt tertile could be predicted from membership at baseline, in children. Excluding potential energy mis-reporters did not affect the results. Conclusions Despite the long time between data collections, and the method of dietary data collection used, evidence for slight tracking was observed for most food groups and nutrients over these six years.

  10. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding. (United States)

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios


    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming.

  11. Long-term health consequences of violence exposure in adolescence: a 26–year prospective study

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    Olofsson Niclas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence victimization represents a serious risk factor for health related symptoms, for both men and women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of violence exposure in late adolescence and early adulthood on adult health, physical as well as mental, using a long-term prospective population-based study, with a follow up of 9, 19, and 26 years. Methods The primary data source is a longitudinal panel from one of the longest running social science surveys in the world, the Swedish Level-of-Living surveys (LNU. We analyzed three cohorts, individuals aged 15–19 in 1974 and 1981, and individuals aged 18–19 in 1991 which were followed up 2000. Structured interviews on childhood, family relationships, life-events, living conditions, health history and status, working conditions, behavioral, psychosocial, and demographic variables were repeatedly used in all cohorts. Results Multivariate models of violence exposures in adolescence in the 1974–91 cohorts as predictors of adult health in 2000 are reported for both men and women. Women exposed to violence had raised odds ratios for ill health, measured as heavy illness burden, and poor self rated health, after controlling for possible confounders. No such associations were found for men. Conclusions This study’s findings provide additional empirical support for the importance of policies and practices to identify and prevent violence exposure in adolescence and young adulthood and to supply treatments for adolescence exposed to violence and above all the young women.

  12. Mental health problems and educational attainment in adolescence: 9-year follow-up of the TRAILS study.

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    Karin Veldman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. METHODS: Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9 year follow-up, were used. Mental health problems (externalizing, internalizing and attention problems were measured by the Youth Self Report and the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 11 and 16. Difference scores for mental health problems between age 11 and 16 were calculated. Educational attainment was assessed at age 19. RESULTS: Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 were significantly associated with low educational attainment at age 19 (crude model. When adjusted for demographic variables and the other mental health problems, only the association for attention problems remained significant (odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval: 3.19, 2.11-4.83. Increasing externalizing problems between age 11 and 16 also predicted low educational attainment at age 19 (OR 3.12, 1.83-5.32. Among girls, increasing internalizing problems between age 11 and 16 predicted low educational attainment (OR 2.21, 1.25-3.94. For boys, no significant association was found for increasing internalizing problems and low educational attainment. For increasing attention problems between age 11 and 16 no significant association with low educational attainment was found. CONCLUSIONS: Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 and an increase of these problems during adolescence predicted low educational attainment at age 19. Early treatment of these mental health problems may improve educational attainment, and reduce socioeconomic health differences in adulthood.

  13. Negative and positive consequences of adolescent cancer 10 years after diagnosis : an interview-based longitudinal study in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Gronqvist, Helena; Engvall, Gunn; Ander, Malin; Tuinman, Marrit A.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Sanderman, Robbert; Mattsson, Elisabet; von Essen, Louise


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide insight into survivor-reported negative and positive consequences of cancer during adolescence 10 years after diagnosis and compare these with consequences reported 3 and 4 years after diagnosis. METHODS: Three, 4, and 10 years after diagnosis, survivo

  14. The Examination of the State-Trait Anxiety Levels of the Male Football Players at the Age of 13-15 in Terms of Different Variables

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    E. Olcay KARABULUT


    Full Text Available This study is a screening model research that aims to examine the state-trait anxiety levels of the male football players at the age of 13-15 in terms. The participants of the study include 61 volunteer footballers chosen randomly among the 80 footballers in Nike Premier Cup U-15 Turkey Championship held in Kırşehir in 2008. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger et al. (1970 is utilized to measure the footballers' anxiety levels. Its translation into Turkish and validity and reliability studies on it were implemented by Öner and Le Compte (1983. In the analysis of the data, their arithmetic mean, standard deviations, frequency (f levels and percentage (% values are calculated. As a result of these calculations, Mann Whitney U and Krusukal Wallis analyses are applied for the nonparametric groups and the significance level of all the data is found. As a result, at the end of the study, it is found that the participants have high anxiety levels, that the sport year and the fathers' perceived house management attitude variables cause no significant difference in state-trait anxiety levels of the footballers and that the fathers' high education levels affect the participants' anxiety levels negatively.

  15. Urban work profile among adolescents aged 14-15 years: a population-based study in southern Brazil.


    Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes,Ana Maria Batista; Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Dilélio,Alitéia Santiago; Bocanegra,Carlos Alberto Delgado; Castilhos, Eduardo Dickie de; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Fantinel, Everton José; Fiori, Nadia Spada; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Carvalho, Samuel


    The scope of this article was to describe the urban work patterns among 14 to 15-yearold youths from Southern Brazil. Child labor was characterized as any activity that resulted in retribution in the form of goods, services or money. The analyses were stratified by sex and economic level. Of the 4325 adolescents interviewed, the proportion of labor in the last year was 22.2%, namely 27.7% for the male sex, and 17% for the female sex. This proportion was also higher among the poorer stra...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Adolescents are less frequently studied population as far as tuberculosis is concerned. And their response to the disease as well as clinical manifestations is different from children . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A retrospective study was done on patients up to the age of 19 years and classified them in to child and adolescent. Up to 12 years was taken as child and beyond that as adolescent. Data col lection was done from the RNTCP registers and medical records. The incidence of pulmonary, extra - pulmonary was found separately. Among pulmonary as well as the total intra - thoracic tuberculosis, sputum positivity was found. The incidence of lymph node tube rculosis, pleural effusion and others were also recorded. The records were checked to find out the completion/cure of disease and any record of relapse. RESULTS: Total 67 patients were included in the study, 35 males and 32 females. 40.3% were adolescents and the rest were children. 48.14% were having pulmonary tuberculosis among adolescents while 85% in childhood had this presentation. (p - 0.001. Intra - thoracic tuberculosis (pulmonary , intra - thoracic nodes and pleural effusion occurred to 62.96% adolescen ts and 87.5% children. 53.84% of adolescents with pulmonary TB were sputum positive whereas in children it was only 18.7%. T he increased chance of sputum positivity among adolescents was statistically significant (p - 0.026. Among the total tuberculosis patients in each category, 29.6% adolescents had extra - thoracic lymph node tuberculosis while only 7.5% children had this (p - 0. 04. There were no statistically significant differences in other forms of extra - pulmonary tuberculosis. All patients were compliant and had completed treatment. DISCUSSION AND CONCL USIONS: Our adolescents had greater incidence of extra - thoracic Tb (37% w hile Cruz et al found 18.6% of this type. Smear positivity of adolescents with intra - thoracic TB was also higher in our study (41

  17. Impact of a youth-friendly HIV clinic: 10 years of adolescent outcomes in Port-au-Prince, Haiti


    Reif, Lindsey K; Rachel Bertrand; Charles Benedict; Lamb, Matthew R.; Vanessa Rouzier; Rose Verdier; Johnson, Warren D; Jean W Pape; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Louise Kuhn; McNairy, Margaret L.


    Introduction: Adolescents account for over 40% of new HIV infections in Haiti. This analysis compares outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents before and after implementation of an adolescent HIV clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using programmatic data among HIV-positive adolescents aged 13 to 19. Data from 41,218 adolescents who were HIV tested from January 2003 to December 2012 were included. Outcomes across the HIV care cascade were assessed before and a...

  18. Preschool Personality Antecedents of Narcissism in Adolescence and Emergent Adulthood: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study


    Carlson, Kevin S.; Gjerde, Per F.


    This prospective study examined relations between preschool personality attributes and narcissism during adolescence and emerging adulthood. We created five a priori preschool scales anticipated to foretell future narcissism. Independent assessors evaluated the participants' personality at ages 14, 18, and 23. Based upon these evaluations, we generated observer-based narcissism scales for each of these three ages. All preschool scales predicted subsequent narcissism, except Interpersonal Anta...

  19. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in paediatric and adolescent age group: 10-year experience in a university hospital in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulaziz Abdullah Alsaif


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: To describe the clinical presentation, surgical intervention and treatment, complications, tumour histopathology characteristics, follow-up and survival of 23 patients at or below the age of 21 at the time of diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective medical chart review of 23 patients diagnosed with DTC and treated in our institute from January 2003 to December 2013 was done. Pertinent data were collected regarding clinical presentation, workups, surgical intervention and treatment, postoperative complications, histopathology, follow-up events and survival. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 17 years. 15 patients (65.2% had papillary carcinoma and 7 patients (30.4% had papillary carcinoma with follicular variant. Multifocality and extrathyroidal extension were found in 11 (47.8% and 6 (26.1% patients respectively. 21 patients underwent total thyroidectomy with neck dissection and were subjected to thyroid ablation with radioactive iodine (radioiodine and thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH-suppressant thyroxine replacement therapy. Median follow-up was 6.6 years. Recurrence occurred in 1 patient. No significant postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion: Appropriate investigations should be carried out to exclude thyroid cancer in children and adolescents presenting with a neck mass. Total thyroidectomy with appropriate cervical lymph node dissection, followed by radioiodine ablation therapy and TSH-suppressant thyroxine replacement therapy is the recommended option to manage children and adolescents with DTC. Neck examination should be part of the routine clinical examination in the paediatric and adolescent age group. A local elaborate genetic database for this disease is essential and may help compare its behaviour with that seen in other populations.

  20. The pathway for adolescent maternity: longitudinal study 10 years after child's birth / Percursos da gravidez na adolescência: estudo longitudinal após uma década da gestação

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    Nancy Ramacciotti de Oliveira-Monteiro


    Full Text Available This article presents a longitudinal qualitative research about maternity in adolescence in a context of social vulnerability, seeking to check psychosocial indicators along the years of the study. Eight dyads of mothers in adolescence and their firstborns were interviewed when their children were less than five months old; three and a half years old and ten years old. The instruments used in their daily environment were free speech interviews and observation submitted to scales for screening the competence and psychological conditions of the children. The results are presented in thematic axis, indicating valorization of maternity, distance from violent scenarios and instability in residence associated to school/professional damages and, children who do not present developmental problems. Maternity in adolescence may represent protection for the mothers concerning environmental risks associated to violence and drugs.

  1. Quality of life in children and adolescents one-year after cure of Cushing syndrome: A prospective study (United States)

    Keil, Margaret F.; Merke, Deborah P.; Gandhi, Roma; Wiggs, Edythe A.; Obunse, Kathy; Stratakis, Constantine A.


    Objective Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is associated with symptoms that may impair health related quality of life (HRQL). There are no prospective reports of HRQL in children with CS. Methods Prospective study of 40 children (mean age 13 ± 3.2 years) with CS evaluated prior to and one-year post-treatment. The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) was used to assess HRQL; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WASI) was used to assess cognitive function, and patient-reported symptoms were assessed with a CS symptom checklist. Results Active CS was associated with low physical and psychosocial summary scores compared to US population data (p< 0.001). Despite improvement from pre- to one-year post-cure, residual impairment remained in physical summary and function and scores, role-physical, global health, and emotional impact (parent). Incomplete recovery of adrenal function at one-year post-treatment was associated with impaired scores. WASI IQ scores declined and a correlation was noted between age at first evaluation and IQ score changes. Most self-reported CS symptoms showed improvement, but forgetfulness, unclear thinking, and decreased attention span did not improve after cure of CS. Conclusion CS in children and adolescents is associated with impaired HRQL, with residual impairment one-year after cure. Our results also suggest that younger children are more likely to experience negative changes in cognitive function. HRQL is an important outcome measure in children and adolescents with CS and identification of factors that contribute to HRQL may help to diminish the physical and psychological burden of disease in this population of patients. PMID:19170709

  2. Reproducibility of a web-based FFQ for 13- to 15-year-old Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anne A.; Tetens, Inge; Olsen, Sjurdur F.


    FFQ are widely used in large-scale studies to assess dietary intake. To aid interpretation of diet-disease associations assessment of validity must be performed. Reproducibility is one aspect of validity focusing on the stability of repeated assessment with the same method which may also reveal...... problems in instrument design or participant instructions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a web-based FFQ targeting Danish adolescents within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data for the present study were obtained from a prospective design nested within...

  3. Short-term response to a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine in anti-HBs negative adolescents who had received primary vaccination 16 years ago. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Yu; Lin, Hans Hsienhong


    We conducted a revaccination study to investigate the short-term response to booster hepatitis B (HB) vaccination in seronegative adolescents who had received primary infantile HB vaccination. A booster dose of recombinant HB vaccine was administered to 395 adolescents 15-18 years of age whose serum titers of antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (anti-HBs) were anti-HBs seropositivity (postbooster titers> or =10 mIU/mL). As compared with adolescents who had undetectable prebooster anti-HBs titers (anti-HBs titers than for those with prebooster titers of 0.1-0.9 and 1.0-9.9 mIU/mL. Our observations indicate that a booster dose of HB vaccine maybe unable to induce sufficient immunological response in adolescents who had undetectable residual anti-HBs titers.

  4. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

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    A. A. Suriawati


    Full Text Available Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs. Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

  5. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents (United States)

    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid


    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. PMID:27783041

  6. Increased rate of arterial stiffening with obesity in adolescents: a five-year follow-up study.

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    Frida Dangardt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We prospectively and longitudinally determined the effects of childhood obesity on arterial stiffening and vascular wall changes. Changes in arterial stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV and vascular morphology of the radial (RA and dorsal pedal arteries (DPA were examined in obese adolescents compared to lean subjects in a 5-year follow-up study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 28 obese subjects and 14 lean controls participated in both baseline (14 years old and follow-up studies. PWV was measured by tonometer (SphygmoCor® and recorded at RA and carotid artery, respectively. Intima thickness (IT, intima-media thickness (IMT and RA and DPA diameters were measured using high-resolution ultrasound (Vevo 770™. Over the course of 5 years, PWV increased by 25% in the obese subjects as compared to 3% in the controls (p = 0.01. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP increased by 23% in the obese subjects as opposed to 6% in controls (p = 0.009. BMI increased similarly in both groups, as did the IT and IMT. The change in PWV was strongly associated to the baseline BMI z -score (r = 0.51, p<0.001, as was the change in DBP (r = 0.50, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During the transition from early to late adolescence, there was a general increase in arterial stiffness, which was aggravated by childhood obesity. The increase in arterial stiffness and DBP after 5 years was closely correlated to the baseline BMI z -score, indicating that childhood obesity has an adverse impact on vascular adaptation.

  7. [Effect of the media on the drawings of 14-16 years old adolescents]. (United States)

    Hortoványi, Jidit


    Due to the pervasive presence of the Internet, the popularity of social networking sites and the general use of electronic tools in our age, the different idols and celebrities of media, film heroes or fictional characters have become an everyday part of a teenager's communication and cogitation. These themes often appear on adolescent drawings and they are often full of individual content and thus become the forms of self-expression. In my study I draw the attention to this phenomenon by presenting some examples. One characteristic area of it is when teenagers fill the schematic signs, icons and emoticons of the media with individual denotations, which can express anxiety or aggressive feelings hidden into these symbols. Identifying with movie characters or scenes often has a function to accomplish wishes. Similarly to role models, the identification with an idealised character may mean that the adolescent lives through the characteristic he longs for. The fictional characters of a film can be the tool of self-irony or self-taunting too, which can also refer to anxiety or aggressive feelings. In other cases pupils reveal very complex contents about selfknowledge through the scenes or characters of a film, which are difficult to get into shape in a verbal way. Finally, the frequent appearance of some famous trademarks in drawings could be an indication of matter of prestige and these emblems could be interpreted as a way of self-expression in peer groups.

  8. The quest for identity in adolescence : Heterogeneity in daily identity formation and psychosocial adjustment across 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, Andrik I.; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Koot, Hans M.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Meeus, W.H.J.


    Identity formation is one of the key developmental tasks in adolescence. According to Erikson (1968) experiencing identity uncertainty is normative in adolescence. However, empirical studies investigating identity uncertainty on a daily basis are lacking. Hence, studying individual differences in da

  9. Three- and five-year follow-up of a combined inpatient-outpatient treatment of obese children and adolescents. (United States)

    Adam, Sibylle; Westenhoefer, Joachim; Rudolphi, Birgit; Kraaibeek, Hanna-Kathrin


    Aim. "The combined DAK therapy for obesity in children and adolescents" combines a 6-week inpatient with a 10.5-month outpatient treatment. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether the therapeutic achievements are maintained two and four years after intervention. Method. All subjects who had participated in the 12-month program in 2004/2005 were included in the follow-up study. Body weight, height, and physical fitness were assessed through direct measurements, behaviour, and quality of life by self-report questionnaires. Statistical analysis is based on an intention-to-treat analysis. Results. The response rate after three years was 63.4% and 42.2% after five years. Within three years, participants reduced their BMI-SDS significantly by 0.20 (SD 0.49) and by 0.15 (SD 0.51) within five years. Significant positive changes could be observed with respect to the participants eating behaviour. Similarly, the food intake, particularly the consumption of calorie-reduced beverages, increased significantly while that of nonrecommended foods decreased. Improvement was also seen in the subjective quality of life as well as several aspects of self-perception. Conclusion. Compared to baseline data, significant reduction of BMI-SDS and positive changes of health-related behaviours could be observed even three and five years after the start of the initial program.

  10. Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence : a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood



    Background: We investigated whether adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes have an excess risk of mental and physical morbidity in adulthood, as compared with adolescents exclusively reporting major depressive disorder (MDD) and controls without a history of adolescent mood disorders. Methods: A community sample of adolescents (N = 2 300) in the town of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depressive symptoms. Both participants with positive screening and matched controls (in total 631) we...

  11. The Influence of 2-Year Changes in Physical Activity, Maturation, and Nutrition on Adiposity in Adolescent Youth. (United States)

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Carrillo de Albornoz, Margarita; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Barrera-Expósito, Jesús; Dorado-Guzmán, Manuel; Moore, Justin B; Carnero, Elvis A


    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA) and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys). A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percent (FMP) were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Three assessments were performed: September 2011 (S1), 2012 (S2), and 2013 (S3). A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine temporal changes in PA and FMP and sex change in maturation categories (two factor mixed-design, 2x2x3). A stepwise linear regression was conducted in order to estimate the predictors of FMP change. Significant changes for FMP were found between S1, S2, and S3 (23.41±8.24 vs. 21.89±7.82 vs. 22.05±8.06, p<0.05; respectively); a significant interaction of FMP with sex was observed (F = 4.387, p<0.05 for S2-S3), but not for maturation. PA at S2 was significantly higher than S3 (2.58±0.72 vs. 2.29±0.73, p<0.001). An interaction between PA change and sex was statically significant (F = 4.889, p<0.05 for S2-S3). A reduction in PA was observed after the S2 period without changes in adiposity. In contrast, a significant reduction in FMP was seen between S1 and S2, while PA did not significantly change. There were no significant differences for nutritional variables between S1 and S3, and nutrition was not a determinant of the changes in PA or FMP. Our results suggest that body composition changes observed during adolescence are not driven by changes in PA. Moreover, the interaction analysis suggests that PA behavior is affected by sex, but is not modified by maturation.

  12. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up (United States)

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara


    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  13. The development of moral emotions and decision-making from adolescence to early adulthood: a 6-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Colasante, Tyler; Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina


    Adolescents' emotions in the context of moral decision-making repeatedly have been shown to predict actual behaviour. However, little systematic information on developmental change regarding these emotion expectancies has been available thus far. This longitudinal study investigated anticipated moral emotions and decision-making between the ages of 15 and 21 in a representative sample of Swiss adolescents (N = 1,258; 54 % female; M = 15.30 years). Anticipated moral emotions and decision-making were assessed through a semi-structured interview procedure. Using Bernoulli hierarchical linear modeling, it was found that positive feelings after a moral transgression (i.e., "happy victimizer" responses) decreased over time, whereas positive feelings after a moral decision (i.e., "happy moralist" responses) increased. However, this pattern was contingent upon the moral scenario presented. Systematic relationships between anticipated moral emotions and moral personality characteristics of sympathy, conscientiousness, and agreeableness were found, even when controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and cognitive ability. Overall, this study demonstrates that the development of anticipated moral emotions is not limited to childhood. Furthermore, our findings suggest that moral emotions serve as an important link between moral personality development and decision-making processes that are more proximal to everyday moral behavior.

  14. Depression, mood change and self-esteem among adolescents aged 12-25 years with acne vulgaris in India

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    Saravanan Dharshana


    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is a medical condition of serious concern among adolescents. This study was conducted with the aim to compare psychosocial factors such as depression, self-esteem, and social impairments between females who had acne vulgaris and those who did not have acne vulgaris. Materials and Methods: Fifty (50 female acne cases and 100 controls (hereafter nonacne participants in the age group of 12-25 years who were seeking treatment at the Dermatology Outpatient Department (OPD of Saveetha Medical College, were enrolled in the study. Information about sociodemographic profiles, disease management, and normative perception was gathered. Further assessment of self-esteem, cognitive and behavioral factors, and self-efficacy was done. Results: Seventy-four percent (74% of the acne cases were overwhelmed by their skin condition, and this was found to be statistically significant (P < .0001. More than half (58%; P < .0001 of the acne cases experienced anger while thinking of their skin conditions. Half of the number of acne cases (52% felt that people perceived them as being dirty due to their skin condition and that it hindered them from interacting with the opposite sex. Conclusion: Adolescent females who had acne reported difficulties in overcoming the emotional disturbances occurring due to acne vulgaris.

  15. Substance use and misuse among 17- to 18-year-old Croatian adolescents: correlation with scholastic variables and sport factors. (United States)

    Modric, Toni; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir


    Substance use and misuse (SUM) and the relation to physical activity/exercise/athletic participation (sport factors) and scholastic achievement are rarely studied in Croatia. The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the SUM habits in Croatian adolescents (17-18 years of age, 254 males, and 218 females), and (2) to study potential gender-specific interrelationships between scholastic and sport factors in relation to SUM. The testing was done using an extensive, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire that consisted of scholastic variables, sport factors, and SUM data. Descriptive statistics, counts, and proportions were calculated. Gender differences were established using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Gender-specific correlations within and between studied variables were established using the Spearman's correlation. The incidence of smoking habits and alcohol consumption among Croatian adolescents was alarming, and a serious intervention program should be developed to address this issue. Educational achievement was negatively related to SUM, with no gender-specific relationships. The data indicated some "protective" effects of the sport factors against SUM in boys, but a significant positive correlation between alcohol drinking and sport participation in girls was also noted.

  16. Personal and socio-environmental predictors of dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings (United States)

    Loth, K; MacLehose, R; Bucchianeri, M; Crow, S; Neumark-Stainer, D


    Aim To identify personal and socio-environmental factors associated with the persistence of dieting or disordered eating from adolescence to young adulthood, as well as factors associated with the initiation of dieting or disordered eating during young adulthood. Methods Participants (n= 4,746) completed EAT-I surveys as adolescents; EAT-III surveys were completed 10 years later by 1,902 of the original participants (1082 females and 820 males). Results Study results indicate that there are personal factors, including weight concerns, weight importance, depressive symptoms and body satisfaction, present during adolescence that are predictive of an individual's engagement in dieting or disordered eating behaviors ten years later. For example, among both males and females weight importance was found to be predictive of continued dieting and disordered eating from adolescence through young adulthood. For example, 26.1% of males with low levels of weight concern at baseline reported engaging in persistent disordered eating as compared to 60.4% of males with high levels of weight concern at baseline (Prevalence difference: 34.3, 95% CI: 10.5, 58.1; p<0.01). Parental weight concerns, peer dieting and weight teasing at baseline were not found to be predictive of dieting or disordered eating at 10-year follow-up. Conclusions Personal factors identified during adolescence were found to be predictive of both persistent dieting and disordered eating from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as initiation of these behaviors during young adulthood. In particular, weight concerns and weight importance were found to be predictive in most models providing support for inclusion of these factors in adolescent health screening. PMID:24925491

  17. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon


    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  18. The study of bodily socialization of adolescents, whose families are experiencing divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechulina A.E.


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of the sociogenesis of corporeality adolescents whose parents are in high conflict relationships and experiencing divorce. The main group consisted of families that have undergone the examination of parent-child relations in the Centre for forensic examinations and studies, the control group – families with prosperous spousal relationship (a total of 28 parents and 16 adolescents aged 13-15 years. To assess qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the bodily sphere of the adolescents used the methodology of "the Volume and structure intercepting background", "Scale of assessment of skin" and test "body Shape", especially the parent-child relationship was assessed using questionnaires "the Behavior and attitudes of parents of adolescents to them." Statistically significant intergroup differences (U-Mann–Whitney test on a number of parameters that characterize the bodily socialization of adolescents. Adolescents from families undergoing divorce, revealed violations of individual (lability of borders and social (reflection, metaphoric levels of physicality in the type of retardation.

  19. Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15-19 years). (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Meriläinen, Matti


    This study investigates Internet use among Finnish adolescents (n = 475) combining qualitative and quantitative research. Internet use was evaluated using the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998a, 1998b). The data was divided into three parts according to the test scores: normal users (14.3%), mild over-users (61.5%), and moderate or serious over-users (24.2%). The most common reason for use was having fun. While half the students reported disadvantages associated with their use, further qualitative analysis revealed that students with serious overuse did not report any harm caused by using the Internet. As disadvantages of using the Internet, students reported that it is time-consuming and causes mental, social, and physical harm and poor school attendance. Four factors of Internet addiction were found, and for two of them, a statistical difference between females and males was found.

  20. Percursos da gravidez na adolescência: estudo longitudinal após uma década da gestação The pathway for adolescent maternity: longitudinal study 10 years after child's birth

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    Nancy Ramacciotti de Oliveira-Monteiro


    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma pesquisa longitudinal qualitativa sobre maternidade na adolescência em contextos de vulnerabilidade social, com objetivo de verificar indicadores psicossociais no seguir dos anos. Oito díades mães-crianças/primeiros filhos nascidos na adolescência foram investigadas quando as crianças tinham: menos de cinco meses, três anos e meio, e 10 anos. Entrevistas de discurso livre e escala para triagem de competência e condições psicológicas das crianças (CBCL foram instrumentos aplicados nos próprios ambientes de moradia. Resultados são apresentados em eixos temáticos indicando valorização da maternidade, maior distanciamento de cenários violentos, instabilidade de moradia associada a prejuízos escolares/profissionais, crianças não apresentando maiores queixas quanto ao desenvolvimento. A maternidade na adolescência pode representar proteção frente a riscos ambientais associados a violência e drogas.This article presents a longitudinal qualitative research about maternity in adolescence in a context of social vulnerability, seeking to check psychosocial indicators along the years of the study. Eight dyads of mothers in adolescence and their firstborns were interviewed when their children were less than five months old; three and a half years old and ten years old. The instruments used in their daily environment were free speech interviews and observation submitted to scales for screening the competence and psychological conditions of the children. The results are presented in thematic axis, indicating valorization of maternity, distance from violent scenarios and instability in residence associated to school/professional damages and, children who do not present developmental problems. Maternity in adolescence may represent protection for the mothers concerning environmental risks associated to violence and drugs.

  1. Asian Resources for a Population Library Information Network; Report of a Working Meeting (Bangkok, Thailand, September 13-15, 1973). Asian Population Studies Series No. 19/A. (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    A working meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, September 13-15, 1973, was called to consider three main topics: (1) the current status of exchange of information on population and family planning; (2) the feasibility of establishing national and regional networks for collection and dissemination of information on population and family planning; and (3)…

  2. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

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    Jason Jiunshiou Lee

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10 students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989 were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857 and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795. The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile. Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17 compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  3. Effects of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral activation system (BAS), and emotion regulation on depression: A one-year follow-up study in Chinese adolescents. (United States)

    Li, Yanzhang; Xu, Yun; Chen, Zi


    Depression is a worldwide mental health problem among adolescents. The current study aimed to examine the roles of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral activation system (BAS), and emotion regulation on adolescent depression. A total of 330 Chinese adolescents were recruited to complete initial assessments of BIS/BAS, emotion regulation, and depression, with a follow-up after one year. Depression on these two occasions was positively correlated with gender, age, initial scores of BIS/BAS activity, and with Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire scores for self-blame, rumination, putting into perspective, catastrophizing, and blaming others, and negatively correlated with initial positive reappraisal scores. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that higher BIS activity, catastrophizing, rumination, and lower positive reappraisal predicted depression after one year. However, after controlling for initial depression, these variables were indirectly related to subsequent depression. Implications are discussed for assessments of depression and interventions targeted at the BIS, BAS, and emotion regulation.

  4. From Benign to Malign in a Case of Cervical Adenopathy in a 17-Year-Old Adolescent: Diagnostic Traps

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    Simona Dumitra


    Full Text Available Distinguishing between benign and malign adenopathies remains a challenge and could represent a source of error in a diagnosis. We report a case of right laterocervical adenopathy in a 17-year-old teenager admitted to hospital with an episode of fever associated with dysphagia, congested pharynx, and pultaceous deposits. Initially the adenopathy was considered to be secondary to a coinfection with Streptococcus B-hemolytic and Epstein-Barr virus, as suggested by the positive bacteriological and serological tests. The onset of the adenopathy before the episode and the ultrasound modifications raised the suspicion of a malignancy, later confirmed by the histopathologic examination of the lymph node excision. The final diagnosis was nodal metastasis of an undifferentiated lymphoepithelial carcinoma with an ENT starting point. Currently, the adolescent is hospitalised in the ENT ward, where the pharynx carcinoma with nodal metastasis was confirmed. Sometimes the infectious context can mask or unmask a malign chronic disease with insidious evolution.

  5. Multidisciplinary care of obese children and adolescents for one year reduces ectopic fat content in liver and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Ohrt, Johanne Dam


    BACKGROUND: Ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle tissue is related to cardiovascular disease risk and is a common metabolic complication in obese children. We evaluated the hypotheses of ectopic fat in these organs could be diminished following 1 year of multidisciplinary care...... specialized in childhood obesity, and whether this reduction would associate with changes in other markers of metabolic function. METHODS: This observational longitudinal study evaluated 40 overweight children and adolescents enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment protocol at the Children's Obesity Clinic...... of care. Univariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, treatment duration, baseline degree of obesity, and pubertal developmental stage were used for investigating possible associations. RESULTS: The standard deviation score (SDS) of baseline median body mass index (BMI) was 2.80 (range: 1...

  6. [Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adolescents: lessons learned in 30 years of the epidemic]. (United States)

    Bazin, Gabriela Ricordi; Gaspar, Mariza Curto Saavedra; Silva, Nicole Carvalho Xavier Micheloni da; Mendes, Carolina da Costa; Oliveira, Cora Pichler de; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo


    This study aims to evaluate antiretroviral therapy in children and adolescents with AIDS. We selected 247 abstracts published from 1983 to 2013, collected from the PubMed and LILACS databases. Sixty-nine articles were selected. Attention to research in the pediatric age bracket in 30 years of the epidemic is explained by the age group's immunological characteristics, since AIDS progresses faster in children than in adults. Recent studies focus on the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy before the onset of symptoms. Early introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has been implemented effectively and safely in populations with limited resources, leading to significantly improved survival. The current challenge is to manage a chronic disease with acute complications. New studies should focus on population specificities and identify the individual needs of pediatric patients.

  7. Do mental health and behavioural problems of early menarche persist into late adolescence? A three year follow-up study among adolescent girls in Oslo, Norway. (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence


    Early menarche has been linked to mental health and behavioural problems in several studies. Most of these studies are cross-sectional, the data gathered during puberty. Thus, there is a lack of research on the long-term effect of early menarche on mental health. The main aim of this study was to explore whether the differences in mental health problems between girls with early and late menarche persist into late adolescence. The data consisted of responses from a large school-based survey of all 10th grade girls (15 years of age) in Oslo, Norway. Of the 1860 participating girls in the 2001 survey, 1377 were included in the three year follow-up study in 2004, giving a response rate of 74%. Mental distress was measured with the Hopkins Symptom Check list 10-version. Additional items assessed were number of sexual partners, weight and body satisfaction. All information was self-reported, including age of menarche. We found a clear gradient in the cross sectional analyses at baseline of higher odds for mental distress at lower age of menarche even after adjustment for socio demographic and other factors. In the analysis of the follow-up data there was no statistically significant difference in mental distress across age of menarche, even though the differences in body and weight satisfaction and average body mass index remained at the same level between baseline and follow-up. We therefore conclude that the effects of age of menarche on mental health problems are a transitory problem during puberty.

  8. Prevalence of periodontitis among the adolescents aged 15-18 years in Mangalore City: An epidemiological and microbiological study

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    K Pallavi Nanaiah


    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth. Both aggressive periodontitis (AP and chronic periodontitis (CP have a multifactorial etiology, with dental plaque as the initiating factor. However, the initiation and progression of periodontitis are influenced by other factors including microbiologic, social and behavioral and systemic and genetic factors. The prevalence of periodontal diseases varies in different regions of the world according to the definition of periodontitis and the study population, and there are indications that they may be more prevalent in developing than in developed countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adolescents of 15-18 years of age in Mangalore City. One thousand one hundred students aged 15-18 years were selected for the study from the schools and colleges in Mangalore City using a convenient sampling method. The prevalence of AP and CP were assessed in the study using a community periodontal index. Students who were diagnosed clinically and radiographically were subjected to microbiological examination to confirm AP. Results: A high prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was found in students belonging to the lower socioeconomic status group compared with the higher socioeconomic groups, which were associated with poor oral hygiene habits. The prevalence of AP was found to be 0.36% and that of CP was found to be 1.5%. Conclusion: Oral diseases have a significant impact on the social and psychological aspects of an individual′s life. Exposure to risk factors, such as age, low socio-economic status, poor education, low dental care utilization, poor oral hygiene levels, smoking, psychosocial stress and genetic factors are significantly associated with an increased risk of periodontitis among adolescents. Although genetic factors play a major role in periodontitis, the treatment outcome will still be

  9. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean


    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  10. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent. (United States)

    Kahn, David


    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  11. Use of birth control pills and condoms among 17-19-year-old adolescents in Norway: contraceptive versus protective behaviour? (United States)

    Traeen, B; Lewin, B; Sundet, J M


    This article addresses the relationship between sexual risk behaviour and contraceptive behaviour, and considers whether adolescents who use condoms are practising birth control or STD protective behaviour. The material comprised a representative sample of 3000 Norwegians aged 17-19 years. Data were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The response-rate was 63%. At the first sexual intercourse 51% of the adolescents used condoms and 7% birth control pills. At the most recent intercourse 31% used condoms and 38% the pill. Use of the pill was widespread among adolescents with high coital frequency and few coital partners. Use of condoms was not particularly widespread among adolescents who reported a relatively large number of coital partners. Irrespective of the number of years they had been coitally active there was no significant difference between those who intended to use condoms at the next sexual intercourse and those who did not as regards their beliefs about condoms as protection against STDs, HIV and unintended pregnancies. The results from this study indicate that the majority of adolescents who use contraception do this for protection against unintended pregnancy and not for protection against STDs. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practise STD protective behaviour in specific situations.

  12. The Open Science Grid – Support for Multi-Disciplinary Team Science – the Adolescent Years

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    As it enters adolescence the Open Science Grid (OSG) is bringing a maturing fabric of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) services that supports an expanding HEP community to an increasingly diverse spectrum of domain scientists. Working closely with researchers on campuses throughout the US and in collaboration with national cyberinfrastructure initiatives, we transform their computing environment through new concepts, advanced tools and deep experience. We discuss examples of these including: the pilot-job overlay concepts and technologies now in use throughout OSG and delivering 1.4 Million CPU hours/day; the role of campus infrastructures- built out from concepts of sharing across multiple local faculty clusters (made good use of already by many of the HEP Tier-2 sites in the US); the work towards the use of clouds and access to high throughput parallel (multi-core and GPU) compute resources; and the progress we are making towards meeting the data management and access needs of non-HEP communiti...

  13. A Randomised Controlled Treatment Trial of Two Forms of Family Therapy in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Five-Year Follow-Up (United States)

    Eisler, Ivan; Simic, Mima; Russell, Gerald F. M.; Dare, Christopher


    Background: There is growing evidence that family therapy is an effective treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa. This study aimed to ascertain the long-term impact of two forms of outpatient family intervention previously evaluated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Method: A five-year follow-up was conducted on a cohort of 40 patients…

  14. Efficacy Trial of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents: Effects at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily


    Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  15. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida


    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  16. Effect of trazodone on sleep bruxism in children and adolescents 6-18 years of age, a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shakibaei


    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Sleep bruxism is a common sleep disorder with unclear etiology and no definitive treatment. Recent
    • suggested medications are not often practically used due to their numerous limitations. Based on the fact that sleep bruxism occurs most often in the second stage of non-REM sleep, this study aimed to assess the effect of trazodone on sleep bruxism.
    • METHODS: This pilot study was conducted as a before-after design on 28 children and adolescents with 6-18 years of age suffering from sleep bruxism referring by children and adolescents mental health clinic, children dental specialists and pediatricians. The treatment started with 0.5mg/kg/day. In non-responders, it was weekly added by 0.5 mg/kg/day (with optimum of 2 mg/kg/day. Frequency of bruxism and related morning face/jaw pain were assessed daily from two weeks before (baseline to four weeks after starting the intervention by the parents/roommate.
    • RESULTS: Findings showed a significant reduction in the frequency of both bruxism and related morning pain from baseline to the 2nd and the 4th weeks of the intervention (P<0.001. Minor side effects such as drowsiness, nausea and dry mouth were seen among approximately one-third of the patients. These side effects were self-limited and tolerable.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Trazodone could be effective in reducing the frequency of sleep bruxism and its related morning face/jaw pain. Well-designed placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the results.
    • KEY WORDS: Sleep bruxism, trazodone, teeth clenching, teeth grinding.

  17. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors* (United States)

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar


    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  18. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon


    Objective Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. Methods The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13–15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Results Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Conclusion Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents. PMID:27482238

  19. Two-year outcomes of an adjunctive telephone coaching and electronic contact intervention for adolescent weight-loss maintenance: the Loozit randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Nguyen, B; Shrewsbury, V A; O'Connor, J; Steinbeck, K S; Hill, A J; Shah, S; Kohn, M R; Torvaldsen, S; Baur, L A


    This paper reports the final 24-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of additional therapeutic contact (ATC) as an adjunct to a community-based weight-management program for overweight and obese 13-16-year-olds. ATC involved telephone coaching or short-message-service and/or email communication once per fortnight. Adolescents were randomized to receive the Loozit group program-a two-phase behavioral lifestyle intervention with (n=73), or without (n=78), ATC in Phase 2. Adolescents/parents separately attended seven weekly group sessions (Phase 1), followed by quarterly adolescent sessions (Phase 2). Assessor-blinded, 24-month changes in anthropometry and metabolic health included primary outcomes body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist:height ratio (WHtR). Secondary outcomes were self-reported psychosocial and lifestyle changes. By 24 months, 17 adolescents had formally withdrawn. Relative to the Loozit program alone, ATC largely had no impact on outcomes. Secondary pre-post assessment of the Loozit group program showed mean (95% CI) reductions in BMI z-score (-0.13 (-0.20, -0.06)) and WHtR (-0.02 (-0.03, -0.01)) in both arms, with several metabolic and psychosocial improvements. Adjunctive ATC did not provide further benefits to the Loozit group program. We recommend that further work is needed to optimize technological support for adolescents in weight-loss maintenance. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRNO12606000175572.

  20. Motor Impulsivity during Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Biometric Analysis of the Go/No-Go Task in 9- to 18-Year-Old Twins (United States)

    Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.


    In the present study, we investigated genetic and environmental effects on motor impulsivity from childhood to late adolescence using a longitudinal sample of twins from ages 9 to 18 years. Motor impulsivity was assessed using errors of commission (no-go errors) in a visual go/no-go task at 4 time points: ages 9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years.…

  1. Prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in adolescents: nine-year follow-up study (2003-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Solé


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema in adolescents (AD; 13-14 years living in seven Brazilian cities, by applying the standardized written questionnaire (WQ of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC, and to evaluate the time trend nine years after the last assessment of ISAAC phase 3 (ISP3. METHODS: The ISAAC-WQ was answered by 20,099 AD from the Northern, Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern Brazilian regions. Values obtained were compared to those observed in ISP3 using nonparametric (chi-squared or Fisher tests, and the ratio of annual increment/decrement was established for each of the centers, according to the symptom assessed. RESULTS: Considering the national data and comparing to values of ISP3, there was a decrease in the mean prevalence of active asthma (18.5% vs. 17.5% and an increase in the frequency of severe asthma (4.5% vs. 4.7% and physician-diagnosed asthma (14.3% vs. 17.6%. An increase in prevalence of rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema in Brazil was variable; higher prevalence values, especially of asthma and eczema, were observed in regions located closer to the Equator.

  2. Does Playing Sports Video Games Predict Increased Involvement in Real-Life Sports Over Several Years Among Older Adolescents and Emerging Adults? (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena


    Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among youth. Yet, this association has not been examined in the long-term among older adolescents and emerging adults, and thus represents an exciting new area for discovery. The primary goal of the current study, therefore, was to examine the long-term association between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports clubs among older adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, we examined whether self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this longitudinal association. We surveyed older adolescents and emerging adults (N = 1132; 70.6 % female; M age = 19.06 years, range of 17-25 years at the first assessment) annually over 3 years about their video game play, self-esteem, and involvement in real-life sports. We found a long-term predictive effect of sports video game play on increased involvement in real-life sports over the 3 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated that self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this long-term association. Our findings make an important contribution to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game play, as they suggest that sports video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults.

  3. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Material Chemistry in Nuclear Environment (MATERIAL CHEMISTRY '02, MC '02); March 13-15, 2002, Tsukuba




    The volume contains all presented papers during the the 3rd International Symposium on Material Chemistry in Nuclear Environment: MATERIAL CHEMISTRY '02 (MC'02), held March 13-15, 2002. The purpose of this symposium is to provide an international forum for the discussion of recent progress in the field of materials chemistry in nuclear environments. This symposium intends to build on the success of the previous symposiums held in Tsukuba in 1992 and 1996. The topics discussed in the symposium...

  4. Prevalence of Hearing Loss Among a Representative Sample of Canadian Children and Adolescents, 3 to 19 Years of Age (United States)

    Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Beauregard, Yves


    Objectives: There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. Design: This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic. The initial study sample included 2591 participants, aged 3 to 19 years, representing 6.5 million Canadians (3.3 million males). After exclusions, subsamples consisted of 2434 participants, aged 3 to 19 years and 1879 participants, aged 6 to 19 years, with valid audiometric results. Eligible participants underwent otoscopic examination, tympanometry, DPOAE, and audiometry. HL was defined as a pure-tone average >20 dB for 6- to 18-year olds and ≥26 dB for 19-year olds, for one or more of the following: four-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) pure-tone average, high-frequency (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz) pure-tone average, and low-frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) pure-tone average. Mild HL was defined as >20 to 40 dB (6- to 18-year olds) and ≥26 to 40 dB (19-year olds). Moderate or worse HL was defined as >40 dB (6- to 19-year olds). HL in 3- to 5-year olds (n = 555) was defined as absent DPOAEs as audiometry was not conducted. Self-reported HL was evaluated using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 hearing questions. Results: The primary study outcome indicates that 7.7% of Canadian youth, aged 6 to 19, had any HL, for one or more pure-tone average. Four-frequency pure-tone average and high-frequency pure-tone average HL prevalence was 4.7 and 6.0%, respectively, whereas 5.8% had a low-frequency pure-tone average HL. Significantly more children/adolescents had unilateral HL

  5. On self-perceived oral health in Swedish adolescents. (United States)

    Ostberg, Anna-Lena


    Aiming to investigate adolescents' perceptions of oral health, with a focus on gender differences, quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in Skaraborg County, Sweden. Adolescents (13-18 years; n = 17,280) answered a school questionnaire, epidemiological indices on oral health were collected, and 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Most adolescents perceived their oral health as good, girls more often than boys. The oral behavior of girls was also more often healthy (floss usage: girls 31%, boys 21%), and they were consistently less satisfied with the appearance of their teeth than boys. Girls considered their own consumption of candy to be too high more often than boys. Acknowledging the importance of sound teeth was strongly associated with self-perceived oral health: boys, odds ratio (OR) 8.58 [confidence interval (CI) 7.12-10.34]; girls, OR 5.56 [CI 4.23-7.30]. Adolescents living with a single mother (13-15-yr-olds OR 1.37 [CI 1.20-1.57], 16-18-yr-olds OR 1.51 [CI 1.28-1.77]), or with neither parent, more often reported bleeding gums than those who lived with both parents, while adolescents who lived with a single father did not. Weak correlations between epidemiological indices and self-perceived oral health were found at the school level. In the interviews, adolescents perceived the possibilities to influence their own oral health as limited. Perceptions of influences on oral health were related to personal and professional care, social support, social impact, and external factors such as time and economy. Support from the mother--more than from the father--was emphasized. This thesis showed that positive oral health attitudes and parental support are of great importance if oral health is to be perceived as good. There were gender differences in all issues related to self-perceived oral health.

  6. Late mortality among five-year survivors of cancer in childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Torgil R.; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Perfekt, Roland; Barlow, Lotti; Falck Winther, Jeanette; Glattre, Eystein; Olafsdottir, Gudridur; Olsen, Joergen H.; Ritvanen, Annukka; Sankila, Risto [Univ. Hospital MAS, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Endocrinology


    The present study was aimed at assessing differences between the Nordic countries, if any, in late mortality among five-year survivors of childhood cancer. All cases diagnosed before the age of 20 years, between 1960 and 1989, were collected from all Nordic cancer registries. In total, 13,689 patients were identified as five-year survivors and during the extended follow-up 12.3% of them died. Mortality was analysed by decade of diagnosis, for all sites, and for leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and central nervous system tumours separately. Analyses were done within a Cox proportional hazards regression framework with adjustments made for gender and age at diagnosis. Hazard ratios were calculated in relation to a weighted Nordic mean based on the proportion of five-year survivors in each country. Overall late mortality was significantly higher in Denmark and Finland than in Norway and Sweden. This could not be explained by inverse differences in five-year survival. The differences diminished over time and had disappeared in the last period. The pattern was similar for both genders. The disappearance of the differences was most probably the effect of a closer collaboration between Nordic paediatric oncologists with development and implementation of common protocols for treatment of childhood cancers in all countries.

  7. Bullying in Early Adolescence and Antisocial Behavior and Depression Six Years Later: What Are the Protective Factors? (United States)

    Vassallo, Suzanne; Edwards, Ben; Renda, Jennifer; Olsson, Craig A.


    This study identified factors that protected (a) adolescent bullies from becoming antisocial young adults, and (b) adolescent victims of bullying from subsequent depression. Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project, a population birth cohort study that has followed participants since 1983. Systematic examination of potential risk…

  8. Attachment Theory as a Framework for Understanding Sequelae of Severe Adolescent Psychopathology: An 11-Year Follow-Up Study. (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; And Others


    Examined long-term sequelae of severe adolescent psychopathology from the perspective of adult attachment theory. Compared 66 upper-middle-class adolescents who were psychiatrically hospitalized at age 14 for problems other than thought or organic disorders, to 76 socio-demographically similar high school students. When reviewed at age 25,…

  9. The Quest for Identity in Adolescence: Heterogeneity in Daily Identity Formation and Psychosocial Adjustment across 5 Years (United States)

    Becht, Andrik I.; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Koot, Hans M.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.


    Identity formation is one of the key developmental tasks in adolescence. According to Erikson (1968) experiencing identity uncertainty is normative in adolescence. However, empirical studies investigating identity uncertainty on a daily basis are lacking. Hence, studying individual differences in daily certainty (i.e., identity commitment levels)…

  10. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms after a One Year Follow-Up during Adolescence (United States)

    Gomez-Baya, Diego; Mendoza, Ramon; Paino, Susana


    Research to date has identified various risk factors in the emergence of depressive disorders in adolescence. There are very few studies, however, which have analyzed the role of perceived emotional intelligence in depressive symptoms longitudinally during adolescence. This work aimed to analyze longitudinal relationships between perceived…

  11. Assessing the Efficacy of Tadalafil in Reducing Pulmonary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents Aged 5 Months-15 Years

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    MR Alipour


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children has consequences such as right ventricular failure and even death. Recently, the use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors has been taken into account in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, among which tadalafil is more acceptable by parents and patients due to its single dose per day compared to sildenafil which should be taken 4 times a day. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of tadalafil on reducing pulmonary artery pressure in children and adolescents aged 5 months to 15 years old. Methods: This before and after type study entailed 20 patients of 5-month to 15-year with pulmonary arterial hypertension who had outpatient visits in Yazd Khatam-L-Anbiya clinic during 2013-2014. The participants were diagnosed by echocardiography, considering that they had not ever received any pulmonary arterial pressure lowering medicine up to now, whose congenital heart disease were inoperable. They were then treated using a single dose of oral tadalafil for 6 months. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software via t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: Mean of pulmonary arterial pressure before and six months after taking tadalafil were 52.30 ± 7.948 mmHg and 33/55 ± 10/34 mmHg, respectively, which on average it was decreased by 18.75 mmHg(pv<0.0001. The mean of arterial oxygen saturation was reported %82.45 ± 7.14 and %86.25 ± 6.496 before and after taking tadalafil, respectively which was increased by 3.9% (pv<0.0001. The severity of tricuspid failure was reduced from moderate to mild level. No serious complication was observed leading to drug discontinuation in the patients’ follow-ups. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that tadalafil drug is effective on the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension within children and adolescents. Moreover, it can be used instead of sildenafil, due to its single dose per day.

  12. The combined effects of self-referent information processing and ruminative responses on adolescent depression. (United States)

    Black, Stephanie Winkeljohn; Pössel, Patrick


    Adolescents who develop depression have worse interpersonal and affective experiences and are more likely to develop substance problems and/or suicidal ideation compared to adolescents who do not develop depression. This study examined the combined effects of negative self-referent information processing and rumination (i.e., brooding and reflection) on adolescent depressive symptoms. It was hypothesized that the interaction of negative self-referent information processing and brooding would significantly predict depressive symptoms, while the interaction of negative self-referent information processing and reflection would not predict depressive symptoms. Adolescents (n = 92; 13-15 years; 34.7% female) participated in a 6-month longitudinal study. Self-report instruments measured depressive symptoms and rumination; a cognitive task measured information processing. Path modelling in Amos 19.0 analyzed the data. The interaction of negative information processing and brooding significantly predicted an increase in depressive symptoms 6 months later. The interaction of negative information processing and reflection did not significantly predict depression, however, the model not meet a priori standards to accept the null hypothesis. Results suggest clinicians working with adolescents at-risk for depression should consider focusing on the reduction of brooding and negative information processing to reduce long-term depressive symptoms.

  13. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.


    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  14. Ten-Year Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization?among?US?Adolescent?Females (United States)

    Howard, Donna E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Wang, Min Q.


    Background: The study provides 10-year trend data on the psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence (PDV) victimization among females who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of US high school students between 1999 and 2009. Methods: The dependent variable was PDV. Independent variables included 4 dimensions: violence,…

  15. Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the Effects of Adolescent Sleep Loss During the Middle School Years (United States)

    Fredriksen, Katia; Rhodes, Jean; Reddy, Ranjini; Way, Niobe


    The influence of the sleep patterns of 2,259 students, aged 11 to 14 years, on trajectories of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and grades was longitudinally examined using latent growth cross-domain models. Consistent with previous research, sleep decreased over time. Students who obtained less sleep in sixth grade exhibited lower initial…

  16. Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: a 4-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Dennison, Meg; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B


    This study investigated the relationship between the development of effortful control (EC), a temperamental measure of self-regulation, and concurrent development of three regions of the prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dlPFC; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, vlPFC) between early- and mid-adolescence. It also examined whether development of EC mediated the relationship between cortical maturation and emotional and behavioral symptoms. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline assessments when they were approximately 12 years old and follow-up assessments approximately 4 years later. At each assessment, participants had MRI scans and completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, as well as measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, and aggressive and risk taking behavior. Cortical thicknesses of the ACC, dlPFC and vlPFC, estimated using the FreeSurfer software, were found to decrease over time. EC also decreased over time in females. Greater thinning of the left ACC was associated with less reduction in EC. Furthermore, change in effortful control mediated the relationship between greater thinning of the left ACC and improvements in socioemotional functioning, including reductions in psychopathological symptoms. These findings highlight the dynamic association between EC and the maturation of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the importance of this relationship for socioemotional functioning during adolescence.

  17. Evolution of blood pressure from adolescents to youth in salt sensitivies: a 18-year follow-up study in Hanzhong children cohort

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    Mu Jianjun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Essential hypertension mostly originates from children. Salt Sensitivity (SS is regarded as the intermediate phenotype of essential hypertension. The present study investigated the effects of salt-sensitivity on evolution of blood pressure (BP and development to hypertension from adolescents to youth. Methods A baseline survey was carried out in 4,623 adolescents aged 6-15 years old in Hanzhong rural areas in 1987, 310 of whom(mean 9.2 years were randomly recruited for determination of salt sensitivity using the tests of oral saline load and furosemide sodium-volume depletion. SS was diagnosed in 101 subjects while 209 were determined as non-salt-sensitive (NSS. We made a 18-year followed-up of the cohort in 2005. Results The response rate for surviving baseline adolescents was 71.9%. At follow up, BP in youth with baseline SS was higher than that in NSS (SBP:122.9 ± 13.1 VS 117.3 ± 12.4, P  DBP: 78.2 ± 10.4 VS 74.7 ± 10.8, P P VS 6.3%, RR = 2.34, P  Conclusion Our findings indicate that adolescents with higher BP salt-sensitivity have a higher rate of incident hypertension in youth. Salt sensitivity could be at high risk predisposing to development of hypertension from adolescents to youth.

  18. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014


    Donzelli, Sabrina; Zaina, Fabio; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano


    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary...

  19. Persistence of Th1/Tc1 responses one year after tetravalent dengue vaccination in adults and adolescents in Singapore. (United States)

    Harenberg, Anke; Begue, Sarah; Mamessier, Audrey; Gimenez-Fourage, Sophie; Ching Seah, Ching; Wei Liang, Ai; Li Ng, Jun; Yun Toh, Xue; Archuleta, Sophia; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shek, Lynette P; Wartel-Tram, Anh; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Lang, Jean; Crevat, Denis; Caillet, Catherine; Guy, Bruno


    To characterize the cell mediated immunity (CMI) induced by the investigational CYD tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV), we developed a whole-blood, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay and a multiplex assay, each requiring 3 mL of blood. We assessed CMI before and 28 d after a first and third injection of CYD-TDV and one year after the third injection in a subset of 80 adolescents and adults enrolled in a phase II trial in Singapore ( NCT NCT00880893). CD4/IFNγ/TNFα responses specific to dengue NS3 were detected before vaccination. Vaccination induced YF-17D-NS3-specific CD8/IFNγ responses, without significant TNFα, and a CYD-specific Th1/Tc1 cellular response in all participants, which was characterized by predominant IFNγ secretion compared with TNFα, associated with low level IL-13 secretion in multiplex analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) supernatants after restimulation with each the CYD vaccine viruses. Responses were directed mainly against CYD-4 after the first vaccination, and were more balanced against all four serotypes after the third vaccination. The same qualitative profile was observed one year after the third vaccination, with approximately 2-fold lower NS3-specific responses, and 3-fold lower serotype-specific cellular responses. These findings confirm previous observations regarding both the nature and specificity of cellular responses induced by CYD-TDV, and for the first time demonstrate the persistence of cellular responses after one year. We also established the feasibility of analyzing CMI with small blood samples, allowing such analysis to be considered for pediatric trials.

  20. Two-year stability of the late positive potential across middle childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Klein, Daniel N; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak


    The late positive potential (LPP) may be a useful measure of individual differences in emotional processing across development, but little is known about the stability of the LPP across time. We assessed the LPP and behavioral measures of emotional interference following pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images in 8- to 13-year-old youth. Approximately two years later, the same participants completed the task again (N=34). Results indicated that the LPP is moderately-to-highly reliable across development. Stability was lower and more inconsistent for behavioral measures. In addition, consistent with previous cross-sectional analyses, a decrease in occipital activity was observed at the second assessment. Results indicate that the LPP appears to be a stable measure of emotional processing, even across a fairly large period of development.

  1. Impact of mother tongue and gender on overweight, obesity and extreme obesity in 24,989 Viennese children/adolescents (2-16 years). (United States)

    Segna, Daniel; Widhalm, Harald; Pandey, Maitrayee P; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Dietrich, Sabine; Widhalm, Kurt


    The present survey aims at determining the prevalence of extreme obesity (defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 99.5th percentile) for the first time in Austria and at investigating the relationship between weight status and mother tongue in a representative Viennese sample of 24,989 children and adolescents (2-16 years) with a percentage of approximately 46 % of migration background.Directly measured anthropometric data on body weight and height were collected and BMI was calculated. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity was determined for every subgroup according to mother tongue using the German national reference criteria by Kromeyer-Hauschild et al.In this sample, 2.1 % of all children and adolescents had to be classified as being extremely obese. More boys (2.3 %) than girls (1.9 %) suffered from extreme obesity (p = 0.048). Total 1.7 % of children and adolescents with German as their native language, 2.5 % of Turkish native speakers and 2.9 % of children and adolescents with another mother tongue were extremely obese (p ≤ 0.001). The highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was found in Turkish-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001), whereas the lowest one was found in German-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001).This large study clearly shows that extreme obesity is a common disease and largely neglected. Apparently, another native language than German, as an indicator for a migration background, may be associated with a substantially higher probability for the development of extreme obesity in Vienna, Austria. Thus, effective preventive measures to overcome obesity are urgently needed.

  2. Mental Health Changes and Its Predictors in Adolescents using the Path Analytic Model: A 7-Year Observational Study.

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    Ali Reza Soltanian


    Full Text Available This 7-year observational study examines the hours of TV-watching, phone conversation with friends, using the internet, and physical activity as predictors of mental health among adolescents in south of Iran.At the baseline (in 2005, the participants were 2584 high school students in the 9th to 11th grade. At the baseline, 30% of the available participants (n = 775 were selected in the follow-up (2012 using convenience sampling method. This study used the path analysis to examine the predictors of mental health and to obtain direct, indirect and total effects of the independent variables.At the baseline (2005, female gender, internet use, maternal education, physical activity and father's education were associated with mental health (p<0.05. Baseline mental health, internet use and physical activity predicted mental health of the participants in the follow up (p<0.05.The findings of the study revealed that better mental health in later life is associated with better mental health at baseline, male gender, higher physical activity and phone communication with friends, and less use of the internet and TV.

  3. Family environmental factors do not explain differences in the behavioral effect of a healthy diet promotion program in lower vocational schools among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.; van Assema, P.; Knibbe, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Brug, J.


    Purpose. Assess whether family environmental factors affected changes in fruit and snack consumption among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents participating in a Dutch healthy diet promotion program. Design. Data were derived from pretest and posttest questionnaires completed by adolescents in 10 schools

  4. Family Environmental Factors Do Not Explain Differences in the Behavioral Effect of a Healthy Diet Promotion Program in Lower Vocational Schools Among 12-to 14-Year-Old Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.; Assema, P. van; Knibbe, R.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Brug, J.


    Purpose - Assess whether family environmental factors affected changes in fruit and snack consumption among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents Participating in a Dutch healthy diet promotion program Design - Data were derived from pretest and posttest questionnaries completed by adolescents in 10 school

  5. Determinants of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Nepal and Sri Lanka: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007 (United States)

    Kabir, M. A.; Goh, Kim-Leng


    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate tobacco use behaviours and their correlates among secondary school students in Nepal and Sri Lanka together with cross-country comparisons. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Settings: The data were obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007. Current tobacco use was considered as…

  6. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil (United States)

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória


    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  7. Characteristics of children and adolescents in the Dutch national in- and outpatient mental health service for deaf and hard of hearing youth over a period of 15 years. (United States)

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Treffers, Philip D A


    In this study socio-demographic, deafness-related and diagnostic characteristics of hearing impaired children and adolescents referred to a national mental health service for deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents were examined. Socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics were compared to corresponding characteristics of hearing referred peers with identified mental health problems. The difference in characteristics between them and hearing referred peers with identified mental health problems was analyzed. A total of 389 deaf and hard of hearing and 3361 hearing children and adolescents was extracted from a database, all first referrals of patients of a center for child and adolescent psychiatry over a 15-year period. With deaf and hard of hearing patients we found higher rates of environmental stress, as indicated by conditions such as more one parent families (38.6% versus 25.8%), and more parents with a low educational level (44.2% versus 31.1%). Moreover, deaf and hard of hearing patients were older at their first referral (10.8 versus 9.4 years) and had higher rates of pervasive developmental disorders (23.7% versus 12.3%) and mental retardation (20.3% versus 3.9%). Within the target group of deaf and hard of hearing patients, most patients were deaf (68.9%; 22.3% was severely hard of hearing), relatively few (13.7%) had a non-syndromal hereditary hearing impairment, and more (21.3%) had a disabling physical health condition, especially those with a pervasive developmental disorder (42.6%). These findings illustrate both the complexity of the problems of deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents referred to specialist mental health services, and the need for preventive interventions aimed at early recognition.

  8. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in Chile in 2013. (United States)

    Díaz, Janepsy; Cárcamo, Marcela; Seoane, Mabel; Pidal, Paola; Cavada, Gabriel; Puentes, Rodrigo; Terrazas, Solana; Araya, Pamela; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana B; Manríquez, Macarena; Hormazábal, Juan C; Ayala, Salvador; Valenzuela, María T


    In 2011, Chile experienced an increase in the number of cases of IMD caused by Neisseria meningitidis group W. This epidemiological scenario prompted authorities to implement prevention strategies. As part of these strategies, the Institute of Public Heath of Chile conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged 10-19 years. The identification of presumptive N. meningitidis strains was performed by testing carbohydrate utilization in the National Reference Laboratory at the ISP. Association of meningococcal carriage with risk factors was analyzed by calculating the Odds Ratio. Selected variables were included in a logistic model for risk analyses. The prevalence of carriage of N. meningitidis was 6.5% (CI: 5.7-7.3%). Older age (carriers: 14.2±0.29 vs. non-carriers: 13.8±0.08 years old; p=0.009), cohabitation with children (carriers: 0.9±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.7±0.03; p=0.028), number of smoking cohabitants (carriers: 0.55±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.44±0.03) and frequent attendance to crowded social venues (carriers: 49% vs. non-carriers: 37%; p=0.008) were determined to favor carriage. Statistical modeling showed that meningococcal carriage was associated with older age (OR: 1.077, p-value: 0.002) and cohabitation with children (OR: 1.182, p-value: 0.02).

  9. Meeting new challenges: The 2014 HUPO-PSI/COSMOS Workshop: 13-15 April 2014, Frankfurt, Germany. (United States)

    Orchard, Sandra; Albar, Juan Pablo; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Kettner, Carsten; Jones, Andrew R; Salek, Reza M; Vizcaino, Juan Antonio; Deutsch, Eric W; Hermjakob, Henning


    The Annual 2014 Spring Workshop of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) of the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) was held this year jointly with the metabolomics COordination of Standards in MetabOlomicS (COSMOS) group. The range of existing MS standards (mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, mzTab, TraML) was reviewed and updated in the light of new methodologies and advances in technologies. Adaptations to meet the needs of the metabolomics community were incorporated and a new data format for NMR, nmrML, was presented. The molecular interactions workgroup began work on a new version of the existing XML data interchange format. PSI-MI XML3.0 will enable the capture of more abstract data types such as protein complex topology derived from experimental data, allosteric binding, and dynamic interactions. Further information about the work of the HUPO-PSI can be found at

  10. [Dissertations 25 years after the date 36. Dental development and facial growth during adolescence]. (United States)

    Schols, J G J H


    Dental development does not end with the shedding of the deciduous dentition. Partly as a result of the continuing facial growth up to adulthood, adaptations in the position of the teeth and the occlusion occur after the second phase of eruption. The dissertation Gebissentwicklung und Gesichtswachstum in der Adoleszenz, from 1988, was concerned with research into tooth development, facial growth and their interrelationship during the first decade after the second phase of tooth eruption. Changes in the dental arches go together with changes in the occlusion. These physiological changes in the dentition can largely be attributed to the shift of the mandibular dental arch to a more ventral position, with respect to the maxillary dental arch. Facial growth and changes in the morphology of the craniofacial skeleton up to adulthood are especially a result of adaptations which take place under the floor of the nose and as a result of the enlargement of the mandible. Later research in patients up to the age of approximately 40 years, revealed that these dental and skeletal changes continued to occur.


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    Anosov I. P.


    Full Text Available We considered the theoretical issues related to the state of the microcirculation of blood in young male students with different somatotype. We examined the boys, students of Melitopol State Pedagogical University, pertaining to youth in the age group between 16 and 18 years. We examined 127 men of three constitutional types: muscle, thoracic and abdominal. Microcirculation blood of representatives of each of the studied constitutional types was characterized by different refractive LDF-graphy different from those in other somatotype (Koynosov, 2004; Betz, 1989. Selection of instructional techniques and the amount of research were the primary goals and objectives of the work. We used the following methods: somatotype registration (by Bunak. Anthropometric measurements were carried out to enable pinpoint constitutional types, the method of laser Doppler flowmetry for the study of the dynamics parameters of microcirculation in the male body (Kozlov, 2001, methods of statistical analysis of the results using Student's t-test. The study of individual- typological characteristics of microcirculation in young male students with different somatotype showed the dynamics of the main functional parameters of microcirculation of somatotype. In the course of the work it was found that: students muscular constitutional type was inherent in PM 0.3 and was equal to 9.42, the maximum flow Kv - 23.5 ±0.9% and the minimum value of IFM was 1.75 ±0.04% in comparison with other constitutional types.

  12. Adolescent hypertension identified with correct cuff and its cardiovascular and gestational problems after 29 years

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    Sandra Regina Ramos Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify, in 2011, rates of hypertension, cardiovascular and gestational problems in subjects presenting high blood pressure in 1982, when correct cuff size was used, according to the American Heart Association Arm Circumference/Cuff Width ratio of 0.40. METHODS: high blood pressure was defined in 2011 as systolic = 115 mmHg and diastolic = 80mmHg, resulting in 20 subjects between 39 and 43 years old. (Risk Group. They were compared to 20 subjects from the original sample with lower blood pressure values (Control group. RESULTS: the rates of hypertension, cardiovascular and gestational problems were significantly higher (Fisher: p=0.02 in the Risk Group, with one case of cardiovascular death. Our findings arouse speculations about whether, if a proper cuff had been used in clinical practice, the complications and death could have been avoided. CONCLUSIONS: data suggest compliance with the use of cuff width corresponding to 40% of arm circumference, despite polemics concerning cuff availability and difficulties of using many sizes.

  13. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in 10-12 years old adolescents of Bushehr port

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    Giti Javan


    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride increases tooth resistance to dental caries, but mild toxicity due to excessive ingestion of fluoride can cause dental fluorosis. Drinking water naturally contains fluoride and is a major source of fluoride. In Bushehr port, drinking water is supplied from limestone springs with normal fluoride levels but dental fluorosis is observed. Methods: A total of 95 native school children (between the ages of 10-12 years old were randomly selected from four Bushehr port regions. Dental fluorosis, height and weight were examined. Probable attributing factors of dental fluorosis were also questioned. A 16 to 18 hours urinary fluoride concentration was measured with a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results: Dental fluorosis in four upper incisors was apparent in 52.6 % of the subjects. The urinary fluoride concentration was 2.18 mg/lit. Fluoride concentration in drinking water of schools ranged from 0.41 to 0.58 mg/lit. Forty percent of subjects were caries free. Conclusion: In spite of the normal range of fluoride concentration in the drinking water of Bushehr, dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration are higher than the recommended ranges. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the amount and effects of fluoride ingestion in residents of Bushehr province.

  14. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls. (United States)

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John


    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  15. Prevalence of sealants in relation to dental caries on the permanent molars of 12 and 15-year-old Greek adolescents. A national pathfinder survey

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    Mamai-Homata Eleni


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of sealants as an effective measure for the prevention of pit and fissure caries in children has been well documented by several studies; either they are used on an individual or on a public health basis. In order to plan and establish a national preventive program with sealants in a community, it is mandatory to know the epidemiological pattern of caries along with other variables influencing their use and effectiveness. Aims: To assess the utilization and distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on the first and second permanent molars of Greek adolescents and to evaluate whether the existing usage of sealants and some socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the population examined Methods A stratified cluster sample of 2481 Greek adolescents was selected according to WHO guidelines (1224 twelve and 1,257 fifteen-year-old, living in urban and rural areas in 11 districts within the country. Five calibrated examiners carried out clinical examinations, recording caries experience at the dentine threshold (BASCD criteria and presence or absence of sealants along with Socio-demographic indicators associated with oral health. Mann Whitney and Pearson's chi-square non parametric tests were utilized for assessing the data. The level of significance was p Results Sealants utilization varied considerably within the different districts, with 8,3% of the 12 and 8,0% of the 15-year-old adolescents having at least one sealed molar. Sealants reduced DMFS scores by 11% in the 12-year-olds and by 24% in the 15-year-olds, while 15-year-old adolescents from rural areas had a statistically significant (p = 0.002 less chance of having sealants (71% compared to children from urban areas. Girls had higher chance to receive sealants in both age groups (26% for the 12 and 19% for the 15-year-old as well as patients that visited the dentist for prevention compared to those visiting the dentist because they

  16. Long-term trends and patterns of fatal traumatic brain injuries in the pediatric and adolescent population of austria in 1980-2012: analysis of 33 years. (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Mauritz, Walter; Rusnak, Martin; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rehorcikova, Veronika; Leitgeb, Johannes


    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are of special concern in the pediatric and adolescent population because of high incidence, mortality, and potential years of life lost (PYLL). Knowledge on causes and mortality trends is essential for effective prevention. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term trends and causes of TBI-related mortality between 1980 and 2012 in the pediatric and adolescent populations of Austria. Death certificate data on TBI-related deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 years of age and exact population numbers were obtained from the Austrian Statistical Office. Five age groups were created. Mortality trends and causes of TBI were analyzed. PYLL were used to indicate the public health impact. Of 5319 identified TBI-related deaths, 75% were male victims. The annual mortality rates per 100,000 between 1980 and 2012 decreased from 25 to 2.6 in males, from 8.5 to 1.0 in females, and from 16.9 to 1.8 in the total population. Those 15-19 years of age had the highest mortalities, followed by 0-2 years of age. Over 80% of deaths were caused by accidents, inflicted TBIs were most common in those 0-2 years of age, and traffic accidents in those 15-19 years of age. In the studied period, 295,793 PYLL could be attributed to TBIs. Measures to prevent traffic accidents contributed significantly to the decrease of mortality and PYLL, especially in 15- to 19-year-old men. Causes and trends of TBI-related mortality exhibit age-group-specific patterns, and this knowledge could contribute to planning further preventive action to reduce TBI fatalities in the studied population.

  17. Socioeconomic differences in overweight and weight-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings from Project EAT. (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Mason, Susan M; Loth, Katie; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    Reducing socioeconomic disparities in weight-related health is a public health priority. The purpose of this paper was to examine 10-year longitudinal patterns in overweight and weight-related behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood as a function of family-level socioeconomic status (SES) and educational attainment. Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) followed a diverse sample of 2287 adolescents from 1999 to 2009. Mixed-effects regression tested longitudinal trends in overweight, fast food, breakfast skipping, physical inactivity, and screen use by family-level SES. The influence of subsequent educational attainment in young adulthood was examined. Results revealed that the prevalence of overweight increased significantly from adolescence to young adulthood with the greatest change seen in those from low SES (mean change=30.7%, 95% CI=25.6%-35.9%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=21.7%, 95% CI=18.2%-25.1%). Behavioral changes from adolescence to young adulthood also differed by SES background; the prevalence of frequent fast food intake (≥3times/week) increased most dramatically in those from low SES (mean change=6%, 95% CI=0.5%-11%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=-1.2%, 95% CI=-5.2%-2.9%). Overall trends suggest that a higher educational attainment mitigates the negative impacts of a low SES background. These findings suggest that continued effort is needed to ensure that public health strategies addressing obesity and related behaviors reach adolescents and young adults from low SES backgrounds and do not contribute to widening socioeconomic gaps in weight-related health.

  18. Non-suicidal self-injury maintenance and cessation among adolescents: a one-year longitudinal investigation of the role of objectified body consciousness, depression and emotion dysregulation. (United States)

    Duggan, Jamie; Heath, Nancy; Hu, Tina


    Using the objectification theory, scholars have theorized the sense of detachment and disregard for the body that results from continued body objectification are believed to put a person at greater risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), due to a lack of emotional investment in the body. The goal of the current study was to longitudinally investigate the association between body objectification and NSSI among an early adolescent sample. The overall sample consisted of 120 participants (56 % female) who ranged in age from 11 to 13 years of age (M = 12.34, SD = .48). Participants were followed over the course of a 12-month period, and classified into three groups of interest; adolescents who reported maintaining NSSI behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Maintain group, n = 20), adolescents who reported stopping the behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Stop group, n = 40), and a comparison group of adolescents who did not report engaging in NSSI (n = 60). Using a 3 (NSSI Maintain, NSSI Stop, and Comparison) X 2 (Gender) X 2 (Time 1 and Time 2) repeated measures multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA), results indicated a significant group by time interaction, showing group differences with respect to body shame and body surveillance over time. Specifically, both NSSI groups reported significantly greater body shame and body surveillance over time than the non-NSSI group. Additionally, the NSSI Maintain group reported significantly greater body surveillance at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The NSSI Maintain group also reported significantly more emotion dysregulation difficulties and depressive symptoms at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The influence of body objectification as a core intrapersonal risk factor related to the maintenance and cessation of NSSI behaviour is discussed, as are clinical implications considering body objectification as an important variable in prevention and

  19. El neonato de madre adolescente: estudio comparativo Adolescent mothers' neonates: a comparison study

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    José E. Caicedo R.


    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hijos de 25 adolescentes extremas (13-15 años, 77 intermedias (16-17 años, 88 limítrofes (18-19 años y 100 controles mayores (20-30 años. Los hijos de las extremas tuvieron mayores porcentajes de morbilidad, lo mismo que los hijos de todas las adolescentes en comparación con los de las controles (p < 0.05. Entre la morbilidad resaltó el mayor grado de asfixia perinatal en los hijos de las adolescentes extremas y las limítrofes. El peso, la talla, el perímetro cefálico y el índice de Rohrer fueron similares en los cuatro grupos. No se detectó asociación entre la morbilidad de los niños y las siguientes variables maternas: El estado civil, la morbilidad y el rechazo al embarazo. La mortalidad global de los hijos de las adolescentes fue significativamente mayor que la de los controles, pero a costa de los hijos de las intermedias (p < 0.05. En conclusión, tanto la morbilidad general como la mortalidad son superiores entre los hijos de las adolescentes más jóvenes. Morbidity was studied in neonate infants of 25 young adolescent mothers (13 to 15 year-old, 77 mid adolescent mothers (16 to 17 year old, 88 borderline adolescent mothers (18 to 19 year-old and 100 post adolescent ones (20 to 30 year old. Young adolescents' children as well as children from all adolescent mothers showed higher morbidity rates as compared to those of controls (p < 0.05. A higher frequency of perinatal asphyxia in neonates of both young and borderline adolescents was evident. Weight, height, cephalic perimeter and Rohrer index were similar in the four groups. No correlation was observed between neonates' morbidity and the following maternal variables: marital status, morbidity and pregnancy rejection. Overall mortality of adolescents' children, particularly of those of mid adolescent mothers, was significantly higher than that of controls (p < 0.05}. In conclusion, and inverse correlation was found between neonates' overall morbidity and

  20. The effect of educational group therapy plan on self–esteem rate in adolescent girls

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    Roya Turkashvand


    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of major changes in various aspects of physical, mental and social caracters they may get. There are new requirements for the changes have been occurred. Attention to these needs, in turn, are faster and better compatibility and increase self-esteem. Self-esteem is the basic factor of personality development in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of educational group therapy on self-esteem of adolescent girls.Materials and Method: This is a quasi- experimental study. Seventy-one adolescent girls of 13-15 years old were selected cluster-randomly from guidance school and divided in two groups of experimental and control (35 cases, 36 controls. Self-esteem of adolescents in two groups measured using Pop test. Then the educational group therapy plan was utilized based on promotion of adolescent’s self- esteem at 10 sessions for case group. Self-esteem rate was measured just after the performance of planned session and were analyzed with SPSS-14 software.Results: The results of the study indicated that performing educational group therapy session can increase the mean self-esteem score for case group (84.74 comparing to control group (74.05. Independent t-test shows significant difference between self-esteem score in case and control groups.Conclusion: According to our results the authors suggest that using educational group therapy plan is an effective approach in increasing self-esteem in adolescent girls and may improve mental health. Therefore, we suggest this plan for increasing self-esteem of adolescents in the schools

  1. A new brace treatment similar for adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis based on restoration of thoracolumbar lordosis. Radiological and subjective clinical results after at least one year of treatment

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    van Loon Piet JM


    Full Text Available Abstract Study design A prospective treatment study with a new brace was conducted Objective. To evaluate radiological and subjective clinical results after one year conservative brace treatment with pressure onto lordosis at the thoracolumbar joint in children with scoliosis and kyphosis. Summary of background data Conservative brace treatment of adolescent scoliosis is not proven to be effective in terms of lasting correction. Conservative treatment in kyphotic deformities may lead to satisfactory correction. None of the brace or casting techniques is based on sagittal forces only applied at the thoracolumbar spine (TLI= thoracolumbar lordotic intervention. Previously we showed in patients with scoliosis after forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine a radiological instantaneous reduction in both coronal curves of double major scoliosis. Methods A consecutive series of 91 children with adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis were treated with a modified symmetric 30 degrees Boston brace to ensure only forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine. Scoliosis was defined with a Cobb angle of at least one of the curves [greater than or equal to] 25 degrees and kyphosis with or without a curve Results Before treatment start ‘in brace’ radiographs showed a strong reduction of the Cobb angles in different curves in kyphosis and scoliosis groups (sagittal n = 5 all p Conclusion Conservative treatment using thoracolumbar lordotic intervention in scoliotic and kyphotic deformities in adolescence demonstrates a marked improvement after one year also in clinical and postural criteria. An effect not obtained with current brace techniques.

  2. Differences in Characteristics and Treatment Received among Depressed Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients with and without Co-Occuring Alcohol Misuse: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

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    Tiia Pirkola


    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed at examining the differences between depressed psychiatric adolescent outpatients with and without cooccurring alcohol misuse in psychosocial background, clinical characteristics, and treatment received during one-year followup. Furthermore, we investigated factors related to nonattendance at treatment. Materials and Methods. Consecutive 156 adolescent (13–19 years psychiatric outpatients with a unipolar depressive disorder at baseline were interviewed using structured measures at baseline and at 12 months. Alcohol misuse was defined as having an AUDIT score of 8 or more points. The outpatients received “treatment as usual” of clinically defined duration. Results. Among depressive outpatients, poor parental support, parental alcohol use and decreased attendance at treatment associated with alcohol misuse. The severity of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT-score was the strongest factor independently predicting nonattendance at treatment in multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Alcohol misuse indicates family problems, has a deleterious effect on treatment attendance, and should be taken into account when managing treatment for depressive adolescent outpatients.

  3. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study. (United States)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo


    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  4. Emotion regulation in first episode adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: what difference does a year make? (United States)

    Voon, David; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham


    We examined the roles of cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination in first episode non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, and the impact of age-related differences in emotion regulation use. Adverse life events and psychological distress played a significant role in NSSI onset. Being male and less use of cognitive reappraisal contributed to NSSI risk but only in regard to 12-month incidence; this effect was not observed when predicting 24-month incidence. Neither expressive suppression nor rumination was related to NSSI onset in our sample. Age-related differences in emotion regulation were found, but did not modify the above relationships. Findings hint at the possible impact of developmental changes in adolescents' cognitive-emotional processing and their subsequent risk of NSSI. Results support further investigation into prevention and early intervention initiatives aimed at assisting adolescents cope with acute life stressors to prevent/delay first episode NSSI.

  5. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

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    Sachsse Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively. Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis, the right temporal locus extended more antero

  6. Efficacy of live feedback to improve objectively monitored compliance to prescribed, home-based, exercise therapy-dosage in 15 to 19 year old adolescents with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riel, Henrik; Matthews, Mark; Vicenzino, Bill;


    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain is one of the most frequent knee conditions among adolescents with a prevalence of 7 %. Evidence-based treatment consists of patient education combined with hip and quadriceps strengthening. Recent evidence suggests that a large proportion of adolescents does...... feedback from a sensor (BandCizer™) and an iPad will improve the ability of adolescents with PFP to perform exercises as prescribed. METHODS: This study is a randomized, controlled, participant-blinded, superiority trial with a 2-group parallel design. Forty 15 to 19 year old adolescents...... with patellofemoral pain will be randomized to receive either live visual and auditory feedback on time under tension or no feedback on time under tension during a 6-week intervention period. Adolescents will be instructed to perform three elastic band exercises. Feedback will be provided by BandCizer™ and an i...

  7. Secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity from 2006 to 2009 in urban asian Indian adolescents aged 14-17 years.

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    Deepak Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available The present study examines the secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban Asian Indian adolescents in New Delhi (North India. The data were derived from cross-sectional sampling of children, 3493 in year 2006 and 4908 in year 2009, aged 14-17 years studying in privately-funded and government-funded schools. Age, gender and Asian Indian-specific cut offs of body mass index (BMI were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 9.8% in 2006 to 11.7% in 2009 (p<0.01, whereas underweight decreased from 11.3% to 3.9% (p<0.001. There was a significantly higher risk of being overweight (OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42 and obese (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.66 in year 2009 than 2006, after adjusting for age, gender and type of school. Males and privately-funded school children had significantly higher increase in prevalence and risk of being overweight and obese over the three years. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban Asian Indian adolescents. More specifically, the study showed the association of this increasing trend of overweight and obesity prevalence with male gender and high socio-economic status, calling for an urgent need for immediate and targeted preventive measures.

  8. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being. (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate


    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions ("SSS-peer", "SSS-scholastic" and "SSS-sports") had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13-15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being.

  9. Childhood Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Cigarette Use: A Six-Year Longitudinal Study Controlling for Peer Relations Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinstein, M.J.; Greca, A.M. La


    Objective: To examine potential pathways between childhood depressive symptoms and adolescent cigarette use, controlling for potential "third variable" causes. Design: Participants included 250 youth (60% girls) who were in Grades 4 to 6 at study outset and in Grades 10 to 12 (M age = 16.78) at a 6-

  10. Effectiveness of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention: changes in alcohol use of adolescents after 1 and 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Bos-Oude Groeniger, I.; Izeboud, C.; Rover, de C.; Veer, van 't P.


    Background: Underage alcohol drinking is a severe public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention on alcohol use of adolescents in the second and fourth grade of high school. Methods: The community interven

  11. The Relation between Civic Education and Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Two-Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents (United States)

    Dassonneville, Ruth; Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen


    It is generally assumed that civic education efforts will have a positive effect on the political attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. In the present study, we distinguish among formal civic education, an open classroom climate, and active learning strategies, and we explore their relation with political interest, efficacy,…

  12. Inflexible Parents, Inflexible Kids: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study of Parenting Style and the Development of Psychological Flexibility in Adolescents (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.


    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined…

  13. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.


    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  14. Psychological treatments for depression in pre-adolescent children (12 years and younger): systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (United States)

    Forti-Buratti, M Azul; Saikia, Rupalim; Wilkinson, Esther L; Ramchandani, Paul G


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of psychological treatments for depression in pre-adolescent children, a disorder affecting 1-2 % of children in this age range. A systematic review of studies of psychological interventions to treat depressive disorder in pre-adolescent children (aged up to 12-years-old) was carried out. The primary outcome was level of depressive symptoms. Studies were found using Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge databases and selected on several criteria. Only randomised controlled trials were included. Where individual studies covered a broader age range (usually including adolescents up to age 18 years), authors of those studies were contacted and requested to provide individual patient level data for those aged 12 years and younger. 2822 abstracts were reviewed, and from these 124 full text articles were reviewed, yielding 7 studies for which we were able to access appropriate data for this review. 5 of these studies evaluated cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Combined results from these studies suggest that there is a lack of evidence that CBT is better than no treatment [standard mean difference -0.342 (95 % confidence interval -0.961, 0.278)], although the number of participants included in the trials was relatively small. The evidence for efficacy of family therapy and psychodynamic therapy is even more limited. The very limited number of participants in randomised controlled trials means that there is inconclusive evidence for the psychological treatment of depression in children aged 12 years and below. Given the prevalence and significant impact of this disorder, there is an urgent need to establish the effectiveness or otherwise of psychological intervention.

  15. Childhood and Adolescent Thyroid Cancer in Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: 5 Years On. (United States)

    Suzuki, S


    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, releasing a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Questions were raised regarding the health effects of radiation exposure, which led to increased anxiety among the Fukushima residents about the possible development of thyroid cancer. Thus, thyroid ultrasound examinations began for those who were from the areas where the radiation doses were highest, and will continue for the long term. In total, 300 476 subjects aged 18 years or younger at the time of the disaster were screened from 9 October 2011 to 31 March 2014. The participation rate was 81.7% of the total population of this age and in the affected area. Among them, the proportions of those who fell into the categories A1 (no nodules or cysts present), A2 (nodule ≤ 5 mm or cyst ≤ 20 mm diameter), B (nodule > 5 mm or cyst > 20 mm diameter) and C (immediate need for further investigation) were 51.5, 47.8, 0.8 and 0%, respectively; 2294 subjects in categories B and C were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination; 113 were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The full-scale survey (second round survey) began in April 2014, and was completed by 30 June 2015, and comprised 169 455 subjects (participation rate; 44.7%). The proportions of those who fell into the categories A1, A2, B and C were 41.6, 57.6, 0.8 and 0% (no case), respectively; 1223 subjects in category B were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination, 25 of these were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The thyroid cancers identified in this survey so far are unlikely to be due to radiation exposure, and are more likely to be the result of screening using highly sophisticated ultrasound techniques. However, it would be advisable to continue long

  16. Excessive TV Viewing Time and Associated Factors in Brazilian Adolescents from a Rural Area

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    Fronza Fernanda Cerveira Abuana Osório


    Full Text Available Purpose. Sedentary behavior has been identified as a risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. This study identified the prevalence of excessive TV viewing time during the week and weekend and associated factors in adolescents living in a small urban and rural area. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 283 students (aged 10-19 years from Brazil was conducted in 2010. Data on TV viewing time and sociodemographic information were collected by questionnaires, cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the 20-m shuttle run test, and anthropometric characteristics were obtained by measuring waist circumference and skinfold thickness. Statistical analysis involved binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of excessive TV viewing time ( 2 h was 76.7% during on weekdays and 78.4% on the weekend. Adolescents aged 10-12 years (OR = 6.20; 95% CI = 2.91, 13.19; p < 0.001 and 13-15 years (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.28, 5.18; p = 0.008 were more exposed to excessive TV viewing time during the week. No associations were found for excessive TV viewing time on the weekend. Conclusions. Approximately 8 in 10 adolescents presented excessive TV viewing time; excessive TV viewing time during the week was associated with age.

  17. Respecting the circle of life: one year outcomes from a randomized controlled comparison of an HIV risk reduction intervention for American Indian adolescents. (United States)

    Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Chambers, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Lee, Angelita; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne


    Potential for widespread transmission of HIV/AIDS among American Indian (AI) adolescents exists, yet no evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been adapted and evaluated with this population. Intensive psychoeducation may improve knowledge and decision-making which could potentially translate to reductions in HIV risk behaviors. A peer group randomized controlled comparison of an adapted EBI vs. control was delivered over an eight-day summer basketball camp in one reservation-based tribal community to adolescents ages 13-19. Outcome data were gathered immediately post-camp and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Self-selected peer groups were randomized to intervention (n = 138) or control (n = 129) conditions for a total sample of 267 participants (56.2% female), mean age 15.1 years (SD = 1.7). Intervention participants had better condom use self-efficacy post-camp (Adjusted Mean Difference [AMD] = -0.75, p AMD = -0.44, p AMD = -0.23, p AMD = 0.07, p AMD = 0.06, p AMD = 0.37, p impacts on AI adolescent risk for HIV/AIDS, but attenuated at 12 months. Intervention delivery through a community-based camp is feasible and acceptable with strong retention. Additional study is needed to evaluate the adapted intervention's impact on sexual risk behaviors and if booster sessions and parent involvement translate to long-term impacts.

  18. [Sex education and the problem of early sexual relations among adolescents]. (United States)

    Castellanous Simons, B; Gonzalez Hernandez, A


    Puberty today occurs about 2 years earlier than it did at the beginning of the century. The age of menarche is now usually between 11-13 years, while the establishment of spermatogenesis and appearance of the 1st ejaculation usually occurs between 13-15 years. The ages at which adolescents feel mature, want to behave like adults, and initiate sexual activity are now lower than in the past. Sexual relations may occur between adolescents before they are fully capable of recognizing their consequences as autonomous and responsible acts guided by a system of moral convictions. Both marriage and parenthood may have unfavorable consequences for future personality development, sexual adjustment, and the personal-social adaptation of the individual. In Cuba, the persistence of traces of bourgeois mentality can be seen in the tendency to teach young girls false concepts of female behavior. Traits such as submissiveness, passivity, and fragility are stressed, and girls are taught to inhibit their sexuality from a very young age. Adolescent boys are expected to display virility and machismo. Adolescent boys may be so interested in the physical aspects of sexual activity that they deprecate the aspects, considering them to be weak female traits. Boys are more likely to separate the sexual object and the love object, while such duality is unusual in girls. Among the most serious problems of adolescent sexual activity in Cuba is a high rate of abortions among young adolescents. Some adolescents are promiscuous and have frequent changes of partner. The age group 15-19 years has the 3rd highest rate of syphilis and the 2nd highest of gonorrhea. The proportion of births to minors has increased from 22% in 1973 to almost half in some provinces. Divorce rates have been in constant increase in Cuba, and psychosocial immaturity of very young spouses is a principal factor in divorce. The widening temporal gap between attainment of puberty and marriage, which is likely to be postponed

  19. Reading and writing difficulties in adolescence and later risk of welfare dependence. A ten year follow-up, the HUNT Study, Norway

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    Holmen Turid L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Welfare dependence and low work participation among young people have raised concern in many European countries. Reading and writing difficulties (RWD might make young people vulnerable to work integration problems and welfare dependence through negative influences on education and health. Our main objective of this study was to examine if RWD in adolescence affected the risk of welfare dependence in young adulthood. Methods Baseline information on self-reported RWD, health and family was obtained for 8950 school-attending adolescents in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, participating in the Young-HUNT1 survey, 1995-97. All individuals were linked to biological parents to identify siblings and parental education from national registers. Welfare dependence was assessed by the reception of social benefits (medical and economic from the national social insurance database (1998-2007. Only long-term benefits (> 180 days were included. Results The adolescents who reported RWD at baseline were more likely to receive medical or social benefits during follow-up compared with those who did not report RWD. In girls with RWD, the adjusted 5-year risk (at age 24 to 28 for receiving medical benefits was 0.20 (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.26, compared with 0.11 (0.09-0.12 in girls without RWD. In boys the corresponding risks were 0.13 (0.09-0.17 and 0.08 (0.07-0.09. Conclusions The associations between RWD in adolescence and welfare dependence later in life suggest that increased attention should be paid to these problems when discussing the public health aspects of work integration, since there might be a potential for prevention.

  20. One-year outcome and incidence of anorexia nervosa and restrictive eating disorders among adolescent girls treated as out-patients in a family-based setting. (United States)

    Rosling, Agneta; Salonen Ros, Helena; Swenne, Ingemar


    Aims To study the 1-year outcome and to analyse predictors of outcome of a cohort of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) or restrictive eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOSr) treated as out-patients in a family-based programme at a specialized eating disorder service. To calculate the incidence of anorexia nervosa among treatment-seeking girls younger than 18 in Uppsala County from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 168 female patients were offered treatment, and 141 were followed-up 1 year after starting treatment, 29 with AN and 112 with EDNOSr. Results Of the 29 girls who initially had AN, 6 (20%) had a good outcome and were free of any form of eating disorder at follow-up; only 1 (3%) had AN. Of the patients with EDNOSr, 54 (48%) had a good outcome and were free of eating disorders. Three (3%) had a poor outcome and had developed AN. The incidence of AN was 18/100,000 person-years in girls younger than 12 and 63/100,000 in girls younger than 18. Conclusion Restrictive eating disorders, including AN, in children and adolescents can be successfully treated in a family-based specialized out-patient service without in-patient care.

  1. Comparison of long-term (10 years) immunogenicity of two- and three-dose regimens of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in adolescents. (United States)

    Beran, Jiri; Kervyn, Diane; Wertzova, Veronika; Hobzova, Lenka; Tichy, Petr; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie


    300 adolescents aged 12-15 years were randomised (1:1) into two groups to compare the long-term (10 years) immunogenicity profile of two doses of an Adult formulation [Group HAB_2D: 150; 0-6 months] vs. three doses of a Paediatric formulation [Group HAB_3D: 150; 0-1-6 months] of a combined hepatitis A and B (HAB) vaccine. At Year 10, anti-HAV seropositivity rate was 100% in both groups, while 85.9% and 85.1% subjects in the HAB_2D and HAB_3D groups, respectively, had anti-HBs antibody concentrations > or =10 mIU/mL. The anti-HAV antibody GMCs (HAB_2D: 429.3 mIU/mL; HAB_3D: 335.5 mIU/mL) and anti-HBs antibody GMCs (HAB_2D: 50.6 mIU/mL; HAB_3D: 60.1 mIU/mL) were similar in both groups. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Hence, with respect to long-term antibody persistence, the two-dose schedule of the combined HAB vaccine Adult formulation is an effective alternative to the conventional three-dose schedule of the Paediatric formulation in adolescents.

  2. Adolescent development (United States)

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  3. Interpersonal Conflicts and Development of Self-Esteem from Adolescence to Mid-Adulthood. A 26-Year Follow-Up


    Kiviruusu, Olli; Berg, Noora; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari


    This study investigated the association between interpersonal conflicts and the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood. The directionality of effects between self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts was also studied. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at age 16 (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) using postal questionnaires. Measures covered self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts including, conflicts with parents,...

  4. Visual function in very low birth weight adolescents : Fifteen-year follow-up of children in southeast Sweden


    Hellgren, Kerstin


    Background: Very low birth weight (VLBW < 1500 g) carries an increased risk of visual and cognitive deficits. Long term follow-up studies are sparse. The associations between neural structure and visual and cognitive outcome need to be more fully explored. Aims: To describe visual functions in adolescents with VLBW in comparison with a matched control group and to investigate associations with white matter damage of immaturity (WMDI), optic disc measurements and cognitive ...

  5. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*


    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar


    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional stud...

  6. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among adolescents in Nellore District of Andhra pradesh, India

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    Sudhakar Kaipa


    Full Text Available Background: Malocclusion is misalignment of teeth and /or incorrect relation between the teeth of the dental arches. It leads to various unfavorable psychological and social sequelae. The concept of early diagnosis of malocclusion plays a very important role in identifying the disease and performing the treatment. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of malocclusion and to determine orthodontic treatment needs among 13-15 year old school children inNellore district of Andhra Pradesh. Materials & Method: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among a total of 2126 school children aged 13-15 years. Dental Aesthetic Index was used to assess malocclusion. Results: About 50.8% of them had dental appearance for whom orthodontic treatment need was ′slight′ or ′not indicated and one third of them (31% needed elective treatment. The rest of the children had dental appearance varying from severe to handicapping malocclusion for whom treatment was highly desirable (10.2% or mandatory (8%. Conclusions: Forty nine percent of adolescents from Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh were in need of orthodontic treatment for dental health reasons. Among the components of Dental Aesthetic Index, incisal segment crowding was mainly responsible for allocating subjects into the group of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need. The importance in having this data is in influencing policy makers and government officials to design health education programs and preventive orthodontic treatment programs.

  7. Specifying the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parental monitoring for younger versus older adolescents: a five year longitudinal test. (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Bolland, John M


    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to examine the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parenting during adolescence. Semi-parametric group based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results from these analyses revealed: (1) a trajectory of declining parental monitoring for 48% of youth; and (2) four distinct trajectories of exposure to violence. Multivariate findings were largely consistent with the ecological-transactional model of community violence. Youth with stable and/or increasing trajectories of exposure to violence were more likely than youth with stable-low exposure to violence to have declining parental monitoring, but additional analyses revealed a similar pattern of findings for younger adolescents (age 9-11 T1), but no evidence of linkages between trajectories of exposure to violence and parental monitoring for older adolescents (age 12-16 T1). The theoretical and policy implications of these findings as well as areas for future research are also discussed.

  8. Risky traffic behaviour among young adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. Compared with older adolescents (18-24 years old), young adolescents (10-17 years old) exhibit more risky behaviour. Because of their physical and mental development, young adolescents are attracted to risky challenges, they are more suscep

  9. Validity and predictors of BMI derived from self-reported height and weight among 11- to 17-year-old German adolescents from the KiGGS study

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    Ellert Ute


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For practical and financial reasons, self-reported instead of measured height and weight are often used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity of self-reports and to identify potential predictors of the validity of body mass index (BMI derived from self-reported height and weight. Findings Self-reported and measured data were collected from a sub-sample (3,468 adolescents aged 11-17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS. BMI was calculated from both reported and measured values, and these were compared in descriptive analyses. Linear regression models with BMI difference (self-reported minus measured and logistic regression models with weight status misclassifications as dependent variables were calculated. Height was overestimated by 14- to 17-year-olds. Overall, boys and girls under-reported their weight. On average, BMI values calculated from self-reports were lower than those calculated from measured values. This underestimation of BMI led to a bias in the prevalence rates of under- and overweight which was stronger in girls than in boys. Based on self-reports, the prevalence was 9.7% for underweight and 15.1% for overweight. However, according to measured data the corresponding rates were 7.5% and 17.7%, respectively. Linear regression for BMI difference showed significant differences according to measured weight status: BMI was overestimated by underweight adolescents and underestimated by overweight adolescents. When weight status was excluded from the model, body perception was statistically significant: Adolescents who regarded themselves as 'too fat' underestimated their BMI to a greater extent. Symptoms of a potential eating disorder, sexual maturation, socio-economic status (SES, school type, migration background and parental overweight showed no association with the BMI difference, but parental overweight was a consistent predictor of the

  10. Bullying and associated factors in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years Bullying e fatores associados em adolescentes com idade entre 11 e 15 anos

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    Ricardo Azevedo da Silva


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bullying among adolescents has become the subject of extensive research due to its negative effects on attitude and behavior. However, Brazilian literature on the topic is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To assess bullying and associated factors among adolescents in a population-based sample in southern Brazil. METHOD: Population-based, cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 11 to 15 years living in the municipality of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. RESULTS: A total of 1,145 adolescents were included. Bullying behaviors and attitudes were found to be associated with the following factors: intentionally skipping classes, failing at school, using alcohol, smoking cigarettes, using illegal drugs, having engaged in sexual intercourse, carrying a weapon, being involved in an accident/being run over by any vehicle, and being involved in fights with physical aggression. CONCLUSION: Bullying is associated with several behaviors that pose risk to the adolescents' physical and psychological health.INTRODUÇÃO: O bullying entre adolescentes tem sido objeto de várias pesquisas devido aos prejuízos comportamentais que acarreta. Contudo, a literatura brasileira sobre o tema é escassa. OBJETIVO: Avaliar comportamentos de bullying e fatores associados em uma amostra de base populacional de adolescentes vivendo no sul do Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, com adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Um total de 1.145 adolescentes foram selecionados. Os comportamentos e atitudes de bullying mostraram-se associados aos seguintes fatores: faltar aula intencionalmente, reprovar algum ano na escola, usar álcool, cigarro e/ou drogas ilícitas, ter tido relações sexuais, portar arma, sofrer algum acidente ou atropelamento e brigar e/ou agredir alguém. CONCLUSÃO: O bullying esteve associado com vários comportamentos considerados de risco para a saúde física e

  11. A 7 year follow-up of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an analysis of predictive factors in a clinical prospective study

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    Judith Becker Nissen


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a frequent psychiatric disorder. Despite its significant influence on personal development, little is known about its long-term course in children and adolescents. The aim was to follow children and adolescents with OCD for 7 years and to compare patients gaining remission with patients experiencing symptoms. Methods: The study was a prospective follow-up study in which the patients were interviewed 7 years after their initial contact with the healthcare system. The patients had been described at baseline. Results: Among the 95 participants, 53 participants described symptoms at follow-up and 44 participants described remission. More patients with persistent symptoms described an anxious personality trait. The schizoid/compulsive personality traits were represented at a higher rate in the group with persistent symptoms than in the group with remission symptoms. Important predictive factors included predisposition to OCD, the occurrence of comorbid disorders and older referral age. The occurrence of magic obsessions and repetitive compulsions increased the risk of OC symptoms at follow-up. The group “late responders” differed from the non-responder group by predisposition to depression. Conclusions: The present clinical study is one of the longest follow-up studies conducted in children and adolescents with OCD. In addition to confirming several previous findings, the study added new knowledge about the importance of phenotypic presentation, personality traits and quality of life. Furthermore, the late responder group has been described in relation to the remission group and to the group with persistent symptoms.

  12. Study of School Environment and Prevalence of Obesity & Its Predictors among Adolescent (10-13 Years Belonging to a Private School in an Urban Indian City

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    Mehan Meenakshi, Munshi Aparna, Surabhi Somila, Bhatt Trushna, Kantharia Neha


    Full Text Available Background: Recent shift in lifestyle and behavioral patterns in population have caused an obesity epidemic during formative years. Present study evaluated existing health and nutrition policies in a private school in an urban Indian city and assessed prevalence of obesity in adolescent children & their association if any, with predictive behaviors of obesity. Methods: A private coeducational school located in an urban Indian city was selected and its existing health policies were evaluated using CDC’s School Health Index (SHI. Further, 5 teachers were assessed regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of healthy dietary & lifestyle practices. Critical evaluation of school canteen services was also done. Total 273 adolescents (10-13 years were enrolled after taking informed consent. Prevalence of obesity & its relationship with modifiable risk factors (fast food & sweetened beverage intake, physical inactivity, low fruit & vegetable intake and increased television viewing was found by comparing behaviors amongst obese & non-obese adolescents. Their biochemical profile for assessment of anemia, dyslipidemia and high fasting blood sugar levels was also determined. Results: Current framework of school lacked clear health & nutrition policies. Canteen food service offered unhealthy food. Teachers had insufficient knowledge about healthy behaviors among children. Prevalence of overweight & obesity was 23.5%. Cumulative presence of >3 risk behaviors of obesity was significantly associated with its development (OR 2.07, 95% CI. Mean consumption of sweetened carbonated beverages by overweight and obese subjects was significantly higher (p<0.05 than non-obese. Conclusion: There is a need to sensitize school authorities and teachers about importance of a strong health and nutrition related policies and health promotion programs.

  13. Proceedings of the Symposium on Psychology in the Department of Defense (11th) Held in Colorado Springs, Colorado on 13-15 April 1988 (United States)


    and military : - agencies, however, express concerns about separation, childcare, deployment, maternity / paternity leave, discrimination, and career... adolescence marked by deep feelings of inadequacy, inferiority, and a sense of rejection by parents and significant others (page 21). 478p N ~U...TO THE SINAI: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACH" Suzanne Wood Katharine Gravino ...... .................... ... 451 "TYPOLOGY OF ARMY FAMILIES: COPING STYLES

  14. Serum Oxidant and Antioxidant Status Following an All-Out 21-km Run in Adolescent Runners Undergoing Professional Training—A One-Year Prospective Trial

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    Haifeng Zhang


    Full Text Available This study investigated the 1-year longitudinal effect of professional training in adolescent runners on redox balance during intense endurance exercise. Changes in selected serum oxidant and antioxidant status in response to a 21-km running time trial in 10 runners (15.5 ± 1.3 years undergoing professional training were evaluated twice in 12 months (pre- and post-evaluation. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and 4-h following the 21-km run for analysis of serum concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, xanthine oxidase (XO, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC. In pre-evaluation trial, serum TBARS and SOD decreased after the 21-km run (p < 0.05 while XO, GSH, CAT and TAOC were unchanged. In post-evaluation trial, serum TBARS and SOD decreased, whereas XO and CAT increased post-exercise (p < 0.05. Furthermore, pre-exercise serum T-AOC, post-exercise serum XO, CAT, T-AOC (p < 0.05, and GSH (p = 0.057 appeared to be higher than the corresponding pre-evaluation values. The current findings suggest that a professional training regime in adolescent runners is not likely to jeopardize the development of their antioxidant defense. However, uncertainties in the maintenance of redox balance in runners facing increased exercise-induced oxidative stress as a consequence of training-induced enhancement of exercise capacity await further elucidation.

  15. Serum oxidant and antioxidant status following an all-out 21-km run in adolescent runners undergoing professional training--a one-year prospective trial. (United States)

    Tong, Tom K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; Lippi, Giuseppe; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei


    This study investigated the 1-year longitudinal effect of professional training in adolescent runners on redox balance during intense endurance exercise. Changes in selected serum oxidant and antioxidant status in response to a 21-km running time trial in 10 runners (15.5 ± 1.3 years) undergoing professional training were evaluated twice in 12 months (pre- and post-evaluation). Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and 4-h following the 21-km run for analysis of serum concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). In pre-evaluation trial, serum TBARS and SOD decreased after the 21-km run (p training regime in adolescent runners is not likely to jeopardize the development of their antioxidant defense. However, uncertainties in the maintenance of redox balance in runners facing increased exercise-induced oxidative stress as a consequence of training-induced enhancement of exercise capacity await further elucidation.

  16. Sports, smoking, and overweight during adolescence as predictors of sciatica in adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study of a birth cohort. (United States)

    Rivinoja, Anni E; Paananen, Markus V; Taimela, Simo P; Solovieva, Svetlana; Okuloff, Annaleena; Zitting, Paavo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro I


    Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, and level of physical activity predict low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. The authors investigated whether participating in sports, smoking, and being overweight or obese at 14 years of age predicted hospitalizations due to LBP or sciatica in adulthood. In 1980, at the age of 14 years, a total of 11,399 members of the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort returned the postal questionnaire. Patients from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort who were hospitalized because of LBP or sciatica were followed to the end of 2008 through the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Data were analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards multistate model with the Markov clock forward time scale. During follow-up, 119 females (2.7%) and 254 males (5.6%) had been hospitalized at least once because of LBP or sciatica. Among females, overweight was associated with an increased risk of second-time hospitalization for surgical treatment for sciatica (hazard ratio = 7.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 34.4). Among males, smoking was associated with an increased risk of first-time nonsurgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.7) and second-time surgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 8.2). The authors found potentially modifiable risk factors in adolescence that predicted hospital treatments for low back disorders during adolescence and young adulthood.

  17. Normal sizes of internal jugular veins in children/adolescents aged birth to 18 years at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eksioglu, Ayse Secil, E-mail: [Dr. Sami Ulus Women and Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Babür Caddesi No:4, 06080 Altındağ, Ankara (Turkey); Tasci Yildiz, Yasemin, E-mail: [Dr. Sami Ulus Women and Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Babür Caddesi No:4, 06080 Altındağ, Ankara (Turkey); Senel, Saliha, E-mail: [Dr. Sami Ulus Women and Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Babür Caddesi No:4, 06080 Altındağ, Ankara (Turkey)


    Objectives: We aimed to establish normal ultrasonographic (US) values of internal jugular vein (IJV) sizes in children/adolescents aged birth to 18 years and to determine the correlation of US measurements with age, height, weight and body surface area (BSA) of children in different age groups. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-six healthy children (0–18 years) were divided into four groups according to their age (0–2, 3–6, 7–12, and 13–18 years). US measurements (transverse, anteroposterior diameter, and cross-sectional area at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver) of bilateral IJVs were taken at the level of cricoid cartilage. Results: Our study gives information about the reference values in children between birth to 18 years of age. There were significant differences between measurements taken at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver in all age groups. Moderate to strong correlations (clinically significant) between age, height and BSA of the subjects and IJV measurements were detected only in the 0–2 years age group. The strength of the correlations decreased with increasing age. Pearson's correlation revealed that height had the strongest and weight had the weakest correlation with US measurements. ‘Height’ was an independent variable on the right, and ‘age’ on the left side, except for rest CSA, when a regression analysis was performed for clinically significant correlations. Conclusions: Determination of normal reference values for US measurements of the IJV and knowledge of correlation with age, height, weight and BSA might be valuable during interventional procedures and for the diagnosis of phlebectasia in children/adolescents.

  18. Risk factors for development of non-specific musculoskeletal pain in preteens and early adolescents: a prospective 1-year follow-up study

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    Auvinen Anssi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal pain symptoms are common in children and adolescents. These symptoms have a negative impact on children's physical and emotional well-being, but their underlying aetiology and risk factors are still poorly understood. Most of the previous cohort studies were conducted among mid and/or late adolescents and were mainly focused on a specific pain location (e.g. low back pain or neck pain. The purpose of this study is to estimate occurrence of new-onset pain symptoms, in all musculoskeletal locations, in preteens and early adolescents and investigate risk factors for development of these symptoms. Methods 1756 schoolchildren (mean age 10.8 were recruited from schools in southern Finland. Information was extracted as to whether they experienced musculoskeletal pain and a total of 1192 children were identified as free of musculoskeletal pain symptoms. Information was collected on factors which could potentially predict the development of musculoskeletal pain: headache, abdominal pain, sadness/feeling down, day-time tiredness, difficulty in falling asleep, waking up during nights, level of physical activity and hypermobility. These children were followed-up 1-year later and those with new episodes of non-traumatic and traumatic musculoskeletal pain symptoms were identified. Results A total of 1113 schoolchildren (93% of baseline pain-free children were found at one-year follow-up. New episodes of musculoskeletal pain were reported by 21.5% of these children. Of them 19.4% reported non-traumatic pain and 4.0% reported traumatic pain. The neck was the most commonly reported site with non-traumatic pain, while the lower limb was the most common site for traumatic pain. The independent risk factors for non-traumatic musculoskeletal pain were headache (OR = 1.68, [95% CI 1.16–2.44] and day-time tiredness (OR = 1.53, [95% CI 1.03–2.26]. The risk factors for traumatic musculoskeletal pain were vigorous exercise (OR = 3

  19. Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among 10–19 year-old adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts, Tanzania

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    Exavery Amon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV/AIDS pandemic remains a leading challenge for global health. Although condoms are acknowledged for their key role on preventing HIV transmission, low and inappropriate use of condoms persists in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa. This study assesses factors affecting acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania. Methods Data were collected in 2011 as part of a larger cross-sectional survey on condom use among 10–19 year-olds in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Associations between acceptability of condom promotion and distribution and each of the explanatory variables were tested using Chi Square. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent predictors of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution using STATA (11 statistical software at 5% significance level. Results Mean age of the 1,327 adolescent participants (50.5% being males was 13.5 years (SD = 1.4. Acceptance of condom promotion and distribution was found among 37% (35% in Mpwapwa and 39% in Mbeya rural of the adolescents. Being sexually active and aged 15–19 was the strongest predictor of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution (OR = 7.78, 95% CI 4.65-12.99. Others were; not agreeing that a condom is effective in preventing transmissions of STIs including HIV (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.56, being a resident of Mbeya rural district (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.19, feeling comfortable being seen by parents/guardians holding/buying condoms (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.46 and living with a guardian (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.04. Conclusion Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural is low. Effect of sexual activity on the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution is age-dependent and was the strongest. Feeling

  20. Interpersonal Conflicts and Development of Self-Esteem from Adolescence to Mid-Adulthood. A 26-Year Follow-Up. (United States)

    Kiviruusu, Olli; Berg, Noora; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari


    This study investigated the association between interpersonal conflicts and the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood. The directionality of effects between self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts was also studied. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at age 16 (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) using postal questionnaires. Measures covered self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts including, conflicts with parents, friends, colleagues, superiors, partners, break-ups with girl/boyfriends, and divorces. Participants were grouped using latent profile analysis to those having "consistently low", "decreasing", or "increasing" number of interpersonal conflicts from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were done using latent growth curve models and autoregressive cross-lagged models. Among both females and males the self-esteem growth trajectory was most favorable in the group with a consistently low number of interpersonal conflicts. Compared to the low group, the group with a decreasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a self-esteem trajectory that started and remained at a lower level throughout the study period. The group with an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a significantly slower self-esteem growth rate compared to the other groups, and also the lowest self-esteem level at the end of the study period. Cross-lagged autoregressive models indicated small, but significant lagged effects from low self-esteem to later interpersonal conflicts, although only among males. There were no effects to the opposite direction among either gender. Our results show that those reporting more and an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts have a lower and more slowly developing self-esteem trajectory from adolescence to mid-adulthood. While the result was expected, it does not seem to imply an effect from interpersonal conflicts to low self-esteem. Rather, if anything, our results

  1. Family Affluence and the Eating Habits of 11- to 15-Year-Old Czech Adolescents: HBSC 2002 and 2014

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    Jaroslava Voráčová


    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data from the Czech Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC study conducted in 2002 and 2014 was utilized. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Higher odds of daily consumption of fruit (2002: OR = 1.67; 2014: OR = 1.70, p < 0.001 and vegetables (2002: OR = 1.54; 2014: OR = 1.48, p < 0.001 were associated with high FAS in both genders. Adolescents with higher FAS were less likely to consume sweets (2002: OR = 0.72, p < 0.05 and more likely to eat breakfast on weekdays (2014: OR = 1.19, p < 0.05. In 2002 and 2014, the data showed lower odds of daily consumption of soft drinks (Low: OR = 0.47; Medium: OR = 0.43; High: OR = 0.41, p < 0.001, fruit (Low: OR = 0.73; Medium: OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; High: OR = 0.75, p < 0.05, sweets (Low: OR = 0.71; Medium: OR = 0.79, p < 0.001 and breakfast on weekends (High: OR = 0.70, p < 0.05, and a higher likelihood of eating breakfast on weekdays (Low: OR = 1.26, p < 0.01; Medium: OR = 1.13, p < 0.05. These findings play an important role in future public measures to improve dietary habits and decrease social inequalities in youth.

  2. Violência e atividade sexual desprotegida em adolescentes menores de 15 anos Violence and unsafe sexual activity of adolescents under 15 years of age

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    Sérgio Araujo Martins Teixeira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à atividade sexual desprotegida em adolescentes femininas menores de 15 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional de corte transversal com adolescentes femininas menores de 15 anos e sexualmente ativas, atendidas em um ambulatório público de ginecologia. Os instrumentos de coleta de dados foram: entrevista semiestruturada para dados pessoais e de sexualidade, e exame clínico-laboratorial para diagnóstico de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Os dados foram analisados por meio de testes de frequência, de associação de variáveis com p OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with unprotected sexual activity in female adolescents younger than 15 years. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional trial with female teenagers less than 15 years-old and sexually active, attended at a public gynecology clinic. Instruments for data collection were: semi-structured interviews for personal data and about sexuality as well as clinical examination and laboratory tests for diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were analyzed by testing of frequency, association of variables with p <0.05 and multiple correspondence analysis. RESULTS: One hundred adolescents between 11 and 14 years of age sexually active were interviewed and examined, 71% declared themselves black, one-third were behind in school, 80% began sexual activity before 13 years of age , 58% reported having been victims of violence in the intrafamily environment and 13% had suffered sexual abuse, 77% did not use condoms regularly and 22% had STDs. Unprotected sexual activity occurred more frequently with the first sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, commercial sexual exploitaion, multiple sexual partners, intrafamily violence and school delay, in addition to be black, to unexpected pregnancy and have STDs. CONCLUSION: The multiple violence suffered by teenagers, including structural, intrafamily and sexual, contribute to increase their

  3. Cigarette smoking among 17–18 year old adolescents – Prevalence and association with sociodemographic, familial, sport, and scholastic factors

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    Kemal Idrizovic


    Full Text Available Introduction: Though adolescence is recognised as a critical period for smoking prevention, there is a lack of research focused on this issue in Kosovo. The aim of this study has been to examine the gender-specific factors of influence (predictors for smoking among adolescents in Pristina, Kosovo. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised 1002 adolescents at the age of 17–18 (366 boys, 636 girls, all of whom were in the school’s 12th grade. The predictors included sociodemographic variables, familial (i.e., parental monitoring, parents’ educational background, and sport-related factors. The Chi2 and forward stepwise logistic regression analyses with a dichotomous criterion (smoking vs. non-smoking were applied. Results: The incidence of smoking was high (31% and 40% smokers, including 7% and 12% daily smokers for girls and boys, respectively. The regression model revealed more frequent absence from school (odds ratio (OR: 1.544; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.063–2.243, more unexcused school absences (OR: 1.360; 95% CI: 1.029–1.796, and frequent parental questioning (OR: 1.530; 95% CI: 1.020–2.295 to be significant predictors of smoking among boys. For girls, a higher risk of smoking was associated with lower scholastic achievement (OR: 1.467; 95% CI: 1.089–1.977, more frequent absence from school (OR: 1.565; 95% CI: 1.137–2.155, increased conflict with parents (OR: 1.979; 95% CI: 1.405–2.789, and a self-declared perception of less parental care (OR: 0.602; 95% CI: 0.377–0.962. Sports were not found to be strongly related to smoking. However, a high risk of daily smoking was found among boys who participated in team sports and subsequently quit. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for gender- and culture-specific approaches to studying the factors that influence smoking among adolescents. Med Pr 2015;66(2:153–163

  4. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority (United States)

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry


    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  5. Self-aggregation behavior of synthetic zinc 3-hydroxymethyl-13/15-carbonyl-chlorins as models of main light-harvesting components in photosynthetic green bacteria. (United States)

    Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Shimamura, Yasuhide; Kunieda, Michio


    Zinc complexes of 3-hydroxymethyl-13/15-carbonyl-chlorins having a six-membered lactone as the E-ring were prepared by modifying purpurin-18 as models of bacteriochlorophyll-d, one of the chlorophyllous pigments in the main light-harvesting antenna systems (chlorosomes) of green photosynthetic bacteria. The synthetic 13-carbonylated compound self-aggregated in 1%(v/v) tetrahydrofuran and hexane to give large oligomers possessing red-shifted and broadened electronic absorption bands and intense circular dichroism bands at the shifted Q ( y ) region, indicating that the supramolecular structure of the resulting self-aggregate was similar to those of natural and artificial chlorosomal aggregates. The red-shift value observed here was smaller than the reported values in chlorosomal pigments having a five-membered keto-ring, which was ascribable to a weaker intermolecular hydrogen-bonding of 13-C=O with 3(1)-OH in a supramolecule of the former self-aggregate and suppression of the pi-pi interaction among the composite chlorins. On the other hand, the isomeric 15-carbonylated molecule was monomeric even in the nonpolar organic solvent, confirming the reported proposal that the linear orientation of three interactive moieties, OH, C=O and Zn, in a molecule is requisite for its chlorosomal self-aggregation.

  6. A Western dietary pattern is associated with overweight and obesity in a national sample of Lebanese adolescents (13-19 years): a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Naja, Farah; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Nasreddine, Lara


    Adolescent obesity is associated with both immediate and longer-term health implications. This study aims to identify dietary patterns among a nationally representative sample of Lebanese adolescents aged between 13 and 19 years (n 446) and to assess the association of these patterns with overweight and obesity. Through face-to-face interviews, socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables were collected. Dietary intake was assessed using a sixty-one-item FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: Western and traditional Lebanese. The Western pattern was characterised by high consumption of red meat, eggs and fast-food sandwiches. The traditional Lebanese pattern reflected high intakes of fruits and vegetables, legumes and fish. Female sex and a higher maternal education level were associated with a greater adherence to the traditional Lebanese pattern. As for the Western pattern, the scores were negatively associated with crowding index, physical activity and frequency of breakfast consumption. After adjustment, subjects belonging to the 3rd tertile of the Western pattern scores had significantly higher odds of overweight compared with those belonging to the 1st tertile (OR 2·3; 95% CI 1·12, 4·73). In conclusion, two distinct dietary patterns were identified among adolescents in Lebanon: the traditional Lebanese and the Western, with the latter pattern being associated with an increased risk of overweight. The findings of this study may be used to guide the development of evidence-based preventive nutrition interventions to curb the obesity epidemic in this age group.

  7. Risk and protective factors that distinguish adolescents who attempt suicide from those who only consider suicide in the past year. (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J


    Data from the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey was analyzed to identify risk and protective factors that distinguished adolescents across three groups: no suicidality, suicidal ideation only, and suicide attempt. The population-based sample included 70,022 students in grades 9 and 12. Hopelessness and depressive symptoms emerged as important risk factors to distinguish youth who reported suicidal ideation or behavior from those without a history of suicidality. However, these factors were not as important in differentiating adolescents who attempted suicidal from those who considered suicide but did not act on their thoughts. Instead, for both genders, self-injury represented the most important factor to distinguish these youth. Other risk factors that differentiated the latter groups, but not the former groups, for males were dating violence victimization and cigarette smoking, and for females was a same-sex sexual experience. Running away from home also seemed to increase the risk of a suicide attempt among youth in this study. Parent connectedness and academic achievement emerged as important protective factors to differentiate all the groups, yet neighborhood safety appeared to protect against the transition from suicidal thoughts to behavior. Findings from this study suggest risk and protective factors practitioners should target in clinical assessments and intervention programs to help prevent suicidal behavior among youth at greatest risk.

  8. Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years

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    Carlberg Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6% and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate

  9. Clinical and biochemical correlates of successful semen collection for cryopreservation from 12-18-year-old patients: a single-center study of 86 adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagenäs, Isabella; Jørgensen, Niels; Rechnitzer, Catherine;


    Cryopreservation of semen should be offered to adults before gonadotoxic treatment. However, the experience with semen collection in adolescents is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential correlates of successful semen sampling in adolescents....

  10. The effect of socioeconomic indicators and macronutrient intake rate on body composition in adolescents 12 to 16 years old in Merida, Yucatan. (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Andrade Olalde, Ana Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis; Dickinson, Federico


    Intake pattern of macronutrients (protein, lipid, carbohydrate) and socioeconomic status (SES) are major causes of high child and adolescent overweight and obesity prevalences in Mexico. An evaluation was done of the relationship between body mass index (BMI)-based nutritional status and body composition (BC), macronutrient intake rates (MIR) and SES indicators in 127 boys and 156 girls aged 12 to 16 years attending schools in Merida, Mexico. Anthropometric variables included height, weight, and BMI. The BC (body fat mass, fat-free mass, dry lean mass) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (Bodystat 1500 MDD). The MIR were estimated following FAO/WHO/UNO standard (1985). Proxy socioeconomic indicators included parents' age (as a maturity indicator) and education, fathers' occupation, school type and monthly household food expenditure per capita. Excess weight (overweight + obesity) assessed by BMI, was higher in boys (40.16 %) than in girls (33.97 %). Boys had higher BMI, less fat mass and higher fat-free mass than girls. The MIR did not vary significantly in response to age, sex, BC or SES. Participants with higher SES were taller and heavier, had higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass. In the studied adolescents, anthropometric and BC values, and overweight and obesity rates were more associated with SES than MIR.

  11. Neurocognitive and clinical predictors of long-term outcome in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis: a 6-year follow-up.

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    Tim Ziermans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies aiming to predict transition to psychosis for individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR have focused on either neurocognitive or clinical variables and have made little effort to combine the two. Furthermore, most have focused on a dichotomous measure of transition to psychosis rather than a continuous measure of functional outcome. We aimed to investigate the relative value of neurocognitive and clinical variables for predicting both transition to psychosis and functional outcome. METHODS: Forty-three UHR individuals and 47 controls completed an extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment at baseline and participated in long-term follow-up approximately six years later. UHR adolescents who had converted to psychosis (UHR-P; n = 10 were compared to individuals who had not (UHR-NP; n = 33 and controls on clinical and neurocognitive variables. Regression analyses were performed to determine which baseline measures best predicted transition to psychosis and long-term functional outcome for UHR individuals. RESULTS: Low IQ was the single neurocognitive parameter that discriminated UHR-P individuals from UHR-NP individuals and controls. The severity of attenuated positive symptoms was the only significant predictor of a transition to psychosis and disorganized symptoms were highly predictive of functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical measures are currently the most important vulnerability markers for long-term outcome in adolescents at imminent risk of psychosis.

  12. Interpersonal Conflicts and Development of Self-Esteem from Adolescence to Mid-Adulthood. A 26-Year Follow-Up (United States)

    Kiviruusu, Olli; Berg, Noora; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari


    This study investigated the association between interpersonal conflicts and the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood. The directionality of effects between self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts was also studied. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at age 16 (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) using postal questionnaires. Measures covered self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts including, conflicts with parents, friends, colleagues, superiors, partners, break-ups with girl/boyfriends, and divorces. Participants were grouped using latent profile analysis to those having “consistently low”, “decreasing”, or “increasing” number of interpersonal conflicts from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were done using latent growth curve models and autoregressive cross-lagged models. Among both females and males the self-esteem growth trajectory was most favorable in the group with a consistently low number of interpersonal conflicts. Compared to the low group, the group with a decreasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a self-esteem trajectory that started and remained at a lower level throughout the study period. The group with an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a significantly slower self-esteem growth rate compared to the other groups, and also the lowest self-esteem level at the end of the study period. Cross-lagged autoregressive models indicated small, but significant lagged effects from low self-esteem to later interpersonal conflicts, although only among males. There were no effects to the opposite direction among either gender. Our results show that those reporting more and an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts have a lower and more slowly developing self-esteem trajectory from adolescence to mid-adulthood. While the result was expected, it does not seem to imply an effect from interpersonal conflicts to low self-esteem. Rather, if anything

  13. Anger Communication in Bicultural Adolescents (United States)

    Novin, Sheida; Rieffe, Carolien


    Little is known about bicultural adolescents' emotional competence. The aim of the present study was to examine anger communication by comparing thirty-eight 16-year-old Moroccan-Dutch adolescents with 40 Dutch and 40 Moroccan peers using hypothetical anger-eliciting vignettes. Findings show that although Moroccan and Dutch adolescents were…

  14. Socio-economic risk factors for injuries in Swedish children and adolescents: a national study over 15 years. (United States)

    Nyberg, Cecilia; Schyllander, Jan; Stark Ekman, Diana; Janson, Staffan


    Few studies have assessed if Sweden's injury prevention work has been equally effective for children of different socio-economic backgrounds. The goal of this paper is to review the country's injury rates for children over time, stratified by socio-economic status (SES), to see if the effects are similar across SES levels. This study employs a retrospective case-control study design, using data from the hospitalisation records of 51,225 children, which were linked to family socio-economic data. Children and adolescents in families receiving social welfare benefits, and those living with single parents and mothers with less education had higher risks of injuries leading to hospitalisation. The population-based safety work over the past decades seems to have had only minor effects on reducing the impact of socio-economic based difference in injury risks to younger Swedes.

  15. Does Effectiveness of Adolescent Smoking-Cessation Intervention Endure Into Young Adulthood? 7-Year Follow-Up Results from a Group-Randomized Trial.

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    Arthur V Peterson

    Full Text Available The Hutchinson Study of High School Smoking was the first randomized trial to show effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention on 6-months prolonged smoking abstinence at one year post-intervention in a large population-based sample of adolescent smokers. An important question remains: Do the positive effects from teen smoking cessation interventions seen at up to 12 months post-intervention endure into young adulthood? This study examines for the first time whether such positive early effects from teen smoking cessation intervention can endure into young adulthood in the absence of additional intervention.High school smokers (n = 2,151 were proactively recruited into the trial from fifty randomly selected Washington State high schools randomized to the experimental (Motivational Interviewing + Cognitive Behavioral Skills Training telephone counseling intervention or control (no intervention condition. These smokers were followed to 7 years post high school to ascertain rates of six-year prolonged smoking abstinence in young adulthood. All statistical tests are two-sided.No evidence of intervention impact at seven years post high school was observed for the main endpoint of six-year prolonged abstinence, neither among all smokers (14.2% in the experimental condition vs. 13.1% in the control condition, difference = +1.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI = -3.4 to 5.8, p = .61, nor among the subgroups of daily smokers and less-than-daily smokers, nor among other a priori subgroups. But, observed among males was some evidence of an intervention impact on two endpoints related to progress towards quitting: reduction in number of days smoked in the past month, and increase in the length of the longest quit attempt in the past year.There was no evidence from this trial among adolescent smokers that positive effectiveness of the proactive telephone intervention for smoking abstinence, observed previously at one year post-intervention, was sustained

  16. Early Adolescent Ego Development. (United States)

    James, Michael A.


    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  17. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study]. (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares


    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  18. A Qualitative Study of the Context of Child and Adolescent Substance Use Initiation and Patterns of Use in the First Year for Early and Later Initiators (United States)

    Rose, Maya; Cohen-Serrins, Julian; Knight, Emily


    Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants’ first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use and using alone. The data suggest that interventions targeting this population should focus on improving parental monitoring and decreasing positive parental attitudes toward adolescent substance use and efforts to increase identification and intervention by middle school staff to reach youth from high-risk families. PMID:28122018

  19. Catch–up growth in the first two years of life in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants is associated with lower body fat in young adolescence (United States)

    Jacobs, Lotte; Rayyan, Maissa; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Ortibus, Els; Levtchenko, Elena


    Aim To investigate growth patterns and anthropometrics in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 0.67 SDS. At 11 years, anthropometrics, neurocognitive performance, body composition, grip strength and puberty scores were assessed. Results ELBW neonates displayed extra–uterine growth restriction with mean Z–scores for height, weight and head circumference of –0.77, –0.93 and –0.46 at birth, –1.61, –1.67 and –0.72 at 9 months, –1.22, –1.61 and –0.84 at 24 months, and –0.42, –0.49 and –1.09 at 11 years. ELBW children performed consistently worse on neurocognitive testing with an average intelligence quotient equivalent at 11 years of 92.5 (SD 13.1). Catch–up growth was not associated with neurocognitive performance. Compared to controls, ELBW cases had lower grip strength (13.6 vs. 15.9 kg) and percentage lean body weight (75.1 vs. 80.5%), but higher body fat (24.6 vs. 19.2%) and advanced puberty scores at 11 years (all P≤0.025). Catch–up growth for weight and height in the first two years of life in cases was associated with a lower percentage body fat compared to cases without catch–up growth (16.8% catch-up growth for weight vs. 25.7%, P<0.001; 20.9% catch-up for height vs. 25.8%, P = 0.049). Conclusions In young adolescence, former ELBW children still have difficulties to reach their target height. Compared to normal birth weight controls, ELBW adolescents show lower neurocognitive performance and grip strength and a higher percentage body fat, a potential risk factor for adverse health outcomes in adulthood. Our key finding is that catch–up growth in ELBW children in the first two years of life is associated with a lower percentage body fat and is therefore likely to be beneficial. PMID:28278233

  20. Longitudinal Impact of Frequent Geographic Relocation from Adolescence to Adulthood on Psychosocial Stress and Vital Exhaustion at Ages 32 and 42 Years: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study


    Lin, K. C.; Twisk, J W R; H. C. Huang


    Background We assessed mobility in different life stages over a 29-year period from adolescence through adulthood and its correlation with psychosocial stress and vital exhaustion at ages 32 and 42 years. Methods Data were derived from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, an observational longitudinal study of 420 boys and girls from age 13 to 42 years. Measurements included cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR), psychosocial stress (measured by a Dutch scale of ...

  1. Body Mass Index Percentile Curves for 7 To 18 Year Old Children and Adolescents; are the Sample Populations from Tehran Nationally Representative?

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    Mostafa Hosseini


    Full Text Available Background: The children’s body composition status is an important indicator of health condition evaluated through their body mass index (BMI. We aimed to provide standardized percentile curves of BMI in a population of Iranian children and adolescents. We assessed the nationally representative of sample populations from Tehran. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 14,865 children aged 7-18 years was gathered. The Lambda-Mu-Sigma method was used to derive sex-specific smoothed centiles for age via the Lambda-Mu-Sigma Chart Maker Program. Finally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity with 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated. Results: BMI percentiles obtained from Tehran’s population, except for the 10th percentile, seem to be very slightly greater than the urban boys from all over Iran. BMI percentiles have an increasing trend by age that is S-shaped with a slight slope. Only in the 90th and 97th percentiles of BMI for girls, this rising trend seems to stop. Boys generally have higher BMIs than girls. The exceptions are younger ages of 90th and 97th percentiles and older ages of 3rd and 10th percentiles. A total number of 1,008 (13.20%; 95% CI: 12.46-13.98 boys and 603 (8.34%; 95% CI: 7.72-9.00 girls were categorized as overweight and obese. Obesity were observed in 402 (5.27%; 95% CI: 4.79-5.79 boys and 274 (3.76%; 95% CI: 3.35-4.22 girls. Conclusion: We construct BMI percentile curves by age and gender for 7 to 18 years Iranian children and adolescents. It can be concluded that sample populations from Tehran are nationally representative.


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    Nurillah Amaliah


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Age of first menstrual period (menarche, as a sign of puberty, was varies among female adolescents. Menarche in Indonesia was moving toward a younger age. However, some are still having menarche in later age. To analyze the relationship between the height status and age of menarche among female adolescents aged 10-15 years in Indonesia. The Basic Health Research (Riskesdas data 2010, a cross-sectional survey data, were analyzed using samples consisted of female adolescent aged 10-15 years. Data analysis was performed in univariate, bivariate with T test and Anova test. Of 13,550 respondents, 48.2 percent had experienced menarche at average age of 12.39 ± 1.08 years. The mean age of menarche of stunted female adolescents was significantly delayed than that of normal female adolescents. The mean age of menarche of female adolescents in higher economic status group was significantly earlier than that of the middle and lower economic status groups. In all age groups, the proportion of female adolescents had experienced menarche are greater in normal height group than that of stunted group. Therefore, the nutritional status of female adolescence should be paid serious attention. Keywords: menarcheal age, stunting, female adolescent ABSTRAK Usia menstruasi pertama (menarche, sebagai tanda pubertas, berbeda pada setiap perempuan remaja. Perkembangan usia menarche di Indonesia semakin menuju ke usia yang lebih muda. Namun, masih ada yang mengalami menarche lambat. Untuk mengetahui hubungan status tinggi badan dan menarche pada perempuan remaja usia 10-15 tahun. Data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas, data survey cross sectioanal dianalisis menggunakan sampel yang terdiri dari perempuan  dengan pendekatan kuantitatif dan desain cross-sectional. Sampel adalah perempuan remaja usia 10–15 tahun. Data dianalisis secara univariat, bivariat dengan uji T dan uji Anova. Dari 13.550 responden di Indonesia sebesar 48,2 persen sudah mengalami menarche

  3. Growth and weight status in treatment-naïve 12-16 year old adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Laubscher Ria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption during adolescence has many known harmful health and social consequences and is strongly associated with numerous health risk behaviours. The consequences of heavy alcohol use during adolescence on nutritional status, specifically growth and weight status are largely unknown at this time. Methods Substance use, anthropometric indices of growth and weight, dietary energy intake and physical activity in heavy drinking adolescents (meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol use disorders and matched light/non-drinking control adolescents were assessed. Results Lifetime alcohol dose, measured in standard drinks of alcohol, was orders of magnitude higher in adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUDs compared to controls. The AUDs group was selected to represent relatively 'pure' AUDs, with minimal other drug use and no psychiatric diagnoses. The growth and weight status of adolescents with AUDs were generally comparable to that of controls, and is in line with the growth and weight status of the South African adolescent population. A greater proportion of overweight/obese females was found in both groups, with this percentage tending to be greater, although not significantly so, in the AUDs group. Adolescent females with AUDs had increased odds of being overweight/obese compared to controls, after adjustment for smoking, physical activity and energy intake. Conclusion Anthropometric indices of growth and weight status of participants in the Control and AUD groups were generally comparable. Female adolescents with AUDs may have an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to adolescent females without AUDs. The presence of an AUD in our adolescent sample was associated with higher energy intake. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the effects of heavy alcohol use on energy balance, growth and weight status in adolescents as they age. Nonetheless, the current study contributes to our

  4. A 6-year follow-up of a large European cohort of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype : outcomes in late adolescence and young adulthood

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    van Lieshout, Marloes; Luman, Marjolein; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Ewijk, Hanneke; Groenman, Annabeth P.; Thissen, Andrieke J. A. M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap


    There are very few studies on the long-term outcome of children and adolescents with ADHD-combined type in Europe. The objective of the present study is to assess the 6-year outcome (including pharmacological treatment) of a large cohort of participants with ADHD-combined type (N = 347, mean age 11.

  5. A 6-year follow-up of a large European cohort of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype: outcomes in late adolescence and young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M. van; Luman, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Ewijk, H. van; Groenman, A.P; Thissen, A.; Faraone, S.V; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Oosterlaan, J.


    There are very few studies on the long-term outcome of children and adolescents with ADHD-combined type in Europe. The objective of the present study is to assess the 6-year outcome (including pharmacological treatment) of a large cohort of participants with ADHD-combined type (N = 347, mean age 11.

  6. The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study (United States)

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom


    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

  7. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD). (United States)

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria


    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities.

  8. Association between 5-HTTLPR genotypes and persisting patterns of anxiety and alcohol use: results from a 10-year longitudinal study of adolescent mental health. (United States)

    Olsson, C A; Byrnes, G B; Lotfi-Miri, M; Collins, V; Williamson, R; Patton, C; Anney, R J L


    The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) encodes a transmembrane protein that plays an important role in regulating serotonergic neurotransmission and related aspects of mood and behaviour. The short allele of a 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (S-allele) within the promoter region of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTLPR) confers lower transcriptional activity relative to the long allele (L-allele) and may act to modify the risk of serotonin-mediated outcomes such as anxiety and substance use behaviours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (or not) 5-HTTLPR genotypes moderate known associations between attachment style and adolescent anxiety and alcohol use outcomes. Participants were drawn from an eight-wave study of the mental and behavioural health of a cohort of young Australians followed from 14 to 24 years of age (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, 1992 - present). No association was observed within low-risk attachment settings. However, within risk settings for heightened anxiety (ie, insecurely attached young people), the odds of persisting ruminative anxiety (worry) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (approximately 30% per allele: OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.97, P=0.029). Within risk settings for binge drinking (ie, securely attached young people), the odds of reporting persisting high-dose alcohol consumption (bingeing) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (approximately 35% per allele: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86, P<0.001). Our data suggest that the S-allele is likely to be important in psychosocial development, particularly in those settings that increase risk of anxiety and alcohol use problems.

  9. Evaluation of the patient-based indices for orthodontic need assessment in the 13 to 18 year-old adolescents in Isfahan

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    maneh Asgari


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Normative need assessments should be substituted or integrated by patient-based outcome measures regarding their shortages in health-oriented approach . This study aimed to assess and compare the ability of an index of oral health-related quality of life measured by Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP questionnaire and the Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (AC-IOTN to identify the normative need to orthodontic treatment using Dental Health Component-IOTN in a sample of the Iranian adolescents.Materials and Methods: Target population of this cross-sectional analytic study was 597 of the 13 to 18 year-old schoolchildren enrolled in middle and high schools of the city of Isfahan, Iran. They completed the COHIP questionnaire and then were examined by two calibrated trained dentists (agreement coefficient:0.9 to record the DHC grading. The students scored their AC in according to the images of the scale. The association between subjective indicators and clinically defined need were evaluated by the correlation analysis and the statistics for the diagnostic validity of tests.Results: Of 568 examined students, 16.7% and 2.1% had definite need according to DHC and AC criteria, respectively. 10% of orthodontic patients had perceived distinct impact on their quality of life. The significant association (P=0.001 between the severity of malocclusion and quality of life was at moderate level by AC (R=0.37, but it was not convincing enough by DHC (R=0.16. The specificity of AC to detect the healthy ones showed to be excellent but its low sensitivity disabled the recognition of patients, precisely.Conclusion: The considered patient-based indices did not meet the competencies to define the orthodontic need in the adolescents, but it could be employed to identify the persons with impaired quality of life and it would probably benefit the process of prioritization.

  10. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome among Adolescent (15-18 Years Old Girls in Tehran during 2005-2006

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    Abbas Entezari


    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS was first introduced by Leventhal and Steinin 1935. It has a wide range of manifestations such as hyperandrogenism, irregular menstruationand central body obesity. The lack of definite diagnostic criteria has made the diagnosis a difficulttask. Moreover, the disturbing aspects of the syndrome range from hirsutism in an adolescent girlto infertility in a young woman. Based on the Rotterdam 2003 Criteria, current diagnostic criteriamust include two of the following three symptoms:1. Either oligo-ovulation or anovulation,2. Clinical or laboratory manifestations of hyperandrogenism,3. Polycystic ovaries on sonographic examination (more than 12 follicles of less than 10 mm indiameter in each ovary.In this study, we have focused on the enrollment of a large sample size to assess the prevalence andclinical features of PCOS such that a wide range of basic information can be utilized for furtherinvestigations.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with multi-stage random sampling.Subjects were selected from 15-18 years old girls from a number of high schools in Tehran. Afterinterview and clinical examination, those individuals with either menstrual irregularities, hirsutismor obesity were referred for further laboratory evaluations and abdominal sonography in order todiagnose PCOS and estimate its prevalence. We also aimed to assess the predominant features ofthis disorder among adolescents.Results: The overall prevalence of the syndrome was 3.42%. Out of the 1430 girls, 49 werediagnosed with PCOS.Conclusion: Despite its high prevalence, this syndrome has not been widely studied. Most of theconducted studies have enrolled small samples within a short time period. Thus, more accuratepolicy making in this regard can be achieved through definition of the prevalence of PCOS andaccurate estimation of its burden.


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    Ender DURUALP


    Full Text Available In this research, it is aimed to describe the loneliness levels of the adolescents who are living in an orphanage, and examine the impact of internet addiction and some variables. 47 male adolescents in Çankırı 100th Year Orphanage were included in the sample of the research. In data collection “Adolescent Identification Form”, “Internet Addiction Scale” developed by Günüç (2009, and “UCLA Loneliness Scale” developed by Russell, Peplau and Ferguson (1978 and its validity and reliability studies made by Demir (1989 were used. In the evaluation of data t test and one way ANOVA were used. When the loneliness level of the adolescent was examined, it was seen that 68,1% of them were having medium level, 31,9% were having low level loneliness and the point average of their loneliness was 45,49±8,03 (medium. Their internet addiction level was medium in 66% of them; low in 17% and high in 17%, and point average of internet addiction level was 90,21±27,89 (medium. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that the loneliness point average of the adolescents who were between 13-15 years old, who were not satisfied with friendship relations at all, who did not have any close friends was high (p<0,05.

  12. Práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida de filhos de adolescentes Adolescents' infant feeding practices in the first year of life

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    Myrian Coelho Cunha da Cruz


    mothers' infants under one year of age living in the city of Volta Redonda (RJ. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,014 infants selected randomly at the 2006 Multiple Vaccination Campaign. The 24-hour recall was used. Characteristics of the mothers and infants were analyzed. The prevalences of breastfeeding, exclusive and predominant breastfeeding and the use of other kinds of milk, in addition to the feeding practices in the first day at home and use of complementary foods, solid or semi-solid foods and pacifiers and bottles were investigated. RESULTS: The prevalences of breastfeeding and exclusive and predominant breastfeeding were 85.5%, 32.0% and 9.6%, respectively, with no differences between adolescents' and adults' children. Adult mothers were significantly more likely to offer other kinds of milk than adolescent mothers (45.3% and 31.2% respectively. Infants at six or more months of age of adolescent mothers were significantly less likely to be breastfed than those of adult mothers (49.2% and 66.0% respectively and more likely to be given pacifiers. Adult and adolescent mothers presented similar complementary feeding practices, with soups and soft foods prevailing. Meat and beans were the most common solid foods given to the infants. CONCLUSION: There are no differences in breastfeeding practices among mothers of different ages, whether adolescent or not, in the first six months of an infant's life but the practices do differ after this age. Among the six-monthold infants or older of adolescent mothers, the extensive use of pacifiers and the characteristics of the complementary foods deserve attention. Comprehensive studies are necessary.

  13. Orthodontic occlusal reconstruction after conservative treatment of unicystic ameloblastoma in an adolescent patient: 10-year follow-up. (United States)

    Tomita, Yuko; Kuroda, Shingo; Takahashi, Takumi; Ohura, Ritsuko; Tanaka, Eiji


    Conservative treatment of an ameloblastoma often requires an occlusal reconstruction. In this article, we report the successful interdisciplinary treatment of a 14-year-old girl with a unicystic ameloblastoma in the mandible. One year after the marsupialization, enucleation with bone curettage was performed with extraction of the impacted third molar, but the proximal second molar could be maintained. The conservative treatment required long-term use of an obturator, and it caused a total open bite. Additionally, the patient genetically had a Class II malocclusion with severe crowding. Consequently, orthodontic treatment was performed after 4 premolar extractions. There was no recurrence of the ameloblastoma 10 years after the enucleation.

  14. Three- and Five-Year Follow-Up of a Combined Inpatient-Outpatient Treatment of Obese Children and Adolescents

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    Sibylle Adam


    Full Text Available Aim. “The combined DAK therapy for obesity in children and adolescents” combines a 6-week inpatient with a 10.5-month outpatient treatment. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether the therapeutic achievements are maintained two and four years after intervention. Method. All subjects who had participated in the 12-month program in 2004/2005 were included in the follow-up study. Body weight, height, and physical fitness were assessed through direct measurements, behaviour, and quality of life by self-report questionnaires. Statistical analysis is based on an intention-to-treat analysis. Results. The response rate after three years was 63.4% and 42.2% after five years. Within three years, participants reduced their BMI-SDS significantly by 0.20 (SD 0.49 and by 0.15 (SD 0.51 within five years. Significant positive changes could be observed with respect to the participants eating behaviour. Similarly, the food intake, particularly the consumption of calorie-reduced beverages, increased significantly while that of nonrecommended foods decreased. Improvement was also seen in the subjective quality of life as well as several aspects of self-perception. Conclusion. Compared to baseline data, significant reduction of BMI-SDS and positive changes of health-related behaviours could be observed even three and five years after the start of the initial program.

  15. "The Only 13-Year-Old on Planet Earth without a Cell Phone": Meanings of Cell Phones in Early Adolescents' Everyday Lives (United States)

    Blair, Bethany L.; Fletcher, Anne C.


    Cellular telephones have become an increasingly prevalent feature of contemporary American life, with usage often beginning during early adolescence. With this in mind, twenty 7th graders and their mothers participated in separate qualitative interviews regarding early adolescents' use of cell phones as well as perceived risks and benefits of such…

  16. The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. (United States)

    Guion, Kimberly; Mrug, Sylvie


    Previous literature has demonstrated the separate contributions of parental attributions and adolescent attributions to psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. However, it is unknown whether parental attributions affect adolescents' mental health directly or indirectly by influencing the youths' attributional style. This study evaluated the direct and indirect (through adolescent attributions) effects of parental attributions on internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescents with chronic illness. Adolescents (N = 128; M = 14.7 years) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes and their caregivers completed measures of attributional style and adolescent adjustment. Parents' optimistic attributions were associated with fewer adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. These effects were partly mediated by adolescent attributions. These results suggest that targeting both adolescent and parent attributions may be important for improving adolescents' adjustment to a chronic illness.

  17. Influence of Mandarin tone exposure on the processing of intonation by 14-year-old American adolescents: An fMRI study (United States)

    Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki; Kuhl, Patricia; Wang, Yue


    This study investigated, for American adolescents, whether the learning of non-native speech contrasts in one prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese tones) would influence the processing of non-native contrasts in another prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese intonation). Two groups of 14-year-old American teenagers were tested using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique, including eight who had received a two-week Mandarin tone training program and eight with no exposure to Mandarin. Subjects were scanned during identification tasks. Despite their similar behavioral performance on identification of Mandarin intonation, preliminary results showed different cortical activation patterns for the two groups. Teenagers exposed to Mandarin showed similar activation patterns for the Mandarin intonation and Mandarin tone task, with more right-hemisphere activation for intonation, which differed from activation for English intonation. Teenagers without exposure activated similar areas for Mandarin and English intonation. Familiarity with Mandarin tonal contrasts affects brain activation, not only for Mandarin tones but also for Mandarin intonation, suggesting that training effects may transcend levels. [Work supported by NIH (HD 37954) and the Talaris Research Institute.

  18. One-Year Follow-up of Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship between Clinical Variables and Abcb1 Gene Polymorphisms. (United States)

    Blázquez, A; Gassó, P; Mas, S; Plana, M T; Lafuente, A; Lázaro, L


    Introduction: Differences in response to fluoxetine (FLX) may be influenced by certain genes that are involved in FLX transportation (ABCB1). We examined remission and recovery from the index episode in a cohort of patients treated with FLX, and also investigated associations between genetic variants in ABCB1 and remission, recovery, and suicide risk. Methods: This was a naturalistic 1-year follow-up study of 46 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). At 12 months they underwent a diagnostic interview with the K-SADS-PL. Results: It was found that remission was around 69.5% and recovery 56.5%. Remission and recovery were associated with lower scores on the CDI at baseline, with fewer readmissions and suicide attempts, and with lower scores on the CGI and higher scores on the GAF scale. No relationship was found between ABCB1 and remission or recovery. However, a significant association was observed between the G2677T ABCB1 polymorphism and suicide attempts. Conclusion: Other factors such as stressful events, family support, and other genetic factors are likely to be involved in MDD outcome.

  19. Change in the direct cost of treatment for children and adolescents with hyperkinetic disorder in Germany over a period of four years

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    Rothenberger Aribert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developed countries, the treatment of hyperkinetic disorder (or ADHD consumes a considerable amount of resources. The primary aim of this study was to determine change in the direct cost of treatment for children and adolescents with hyperkinetic disorder in Germany over time, and compare the cost with the cost of treatment for two physical disorders: epilepsy and asthma. Methods The German Federal Statistical Office provided data on the direct cost of treating hyperkinetic disorder, epilepsy and asthma in Germany for 2002, 2004, and 2006. The direct costs of treatment incurred by hyperkinetic disorder in these years were compared with those incurred by epilepsy and asthma. Results The total direct cost of treatment for the hyperkinetic disorder was € 177 million in 2002, € 234 million in 2004, and € 341 million in 2006. The largest proportion of the cost was incurred by the age group Conclusion The direct cost of treatment for hyperkinetic disorder in the age group

  20. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

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    Kathleen F Janz


    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  1. Hypnosis Training and Education: Experiences with a Norwegian One-Year Education Course in Clinical Hypnosis for Children and Adolescents. (United States)

    Lindheim, Maren Ø; Helgeland, Helene


    Although the efficacy of clinical hypnosis is well documented, its implementation in clinical practice is far from completed and there are few reports of systematic, professional training. This article gives a historical overview and description of a 1-year training program in clinical hypnosis which started in Norway in 2008 and has been held yearly since then. We describe the present education course with respect to aims, conceptual framework, structure, target groups, teaching themes, and experiences. The following factors have been considered of importance for the success of this program: The extent and duration of the course, the focus on demonstrations, experiential skill-building and exercises, and that the education is rooted in acknowledged clinical, academic, and educational environments. The participants' evaluations tell stories of mastery and positive experiences with hypnosis as a therapeutic tool in their clinical practice. However, many struggle to understand the various concepts of hypnosis, trance, and suggestions. Some find it hard to get started and challenging to integrate hypnosis in their clinical practice. Finally, some report scarce opportunities to apply their newly acquired skills at their work places and limited support by their leaders. The development of systematic, professional training programs as described in this article may be of importance for further implementation. However, this will also require that clinicians and leaders in universities and professional environments, and policymakers at higher levels, recognize clinical hypnosis as a valid and efficient choice of treatment. This must be reflected in dedicated efforts to ensure successful implementation in practice.

  2. The relentless past: The effect of chronic sexual abuse in childhood on fifty years of adolescent and adult development. (United States)

    Colarusso, Calvin A


    Four sisters, now in their late fifties and early sixties, were sexually abused during childhood over a four-year span by the same priest. Until recently they told no one about their experience and never received any psychological diagnostic evaluations or treatment. The author conducted detailed psychiatric evaluations of each of the four women while serving as the plaintiffs' expert witness during their lawsuits against the Catholic Church. The suits have been settled, and the women have given written permission to tell their stories. This unique clinical material provides a rare opportunity to describe and understand the ongoing, pervasive effects of untreated, chronic childhood sexual abuse on developmental processes over half a century. In each instance the women were describing the details of the abuse and the effects on their development for the first time. The severity of the pathology and the intense shame and anxiety associated with discussing their experiences after so many years raises questions about the choice of treatment and technique, particularly in regard to transference and countertransference issues.

  3. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease, before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, a prospective nested case-referent study

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    Nordyke Katrina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment. Methods A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12 years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n = 103 and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n = 483 answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL. Results The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94. However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3% compared to referent boys (18.8% (Adjusted OR 0

  4. Atopic dermatitis in adolescence

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    Giampaolo Ricci


    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10-20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10- 30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5-15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients’ quality of life (QoL. The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases.

  5. Factors related to changes in the quality of life among Polish adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis over a 1-year period

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    Dębska G


    Full Text Available Grażyna Dębska,1 Henryk Mazurek2 1Faculty of Health and Medical Studies, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Krakow, 2Department of Pneumonology and Cystic Fibrosis, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Rabka, Poland Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical factors, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables on 1-year changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL in Polish adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF.Method: The study included 67 subjects with CF (mean age 21.1±5.1 years; range 14–37 years; 34 males and 33 females. The Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire was used at baseline and after 1 year. Lung function data, body weight, and body height were extracted from medical records. Clinical assessment was performed with the Shwachman–Kulczycki scale.Results: The highest scores in both HRQoL examinations came from the domains of physical and social functioning, and the lowest from future concerns, body image, and career concerns. No significant changes of Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores were documented over a period of 1 year. Patients with better baseline spirometry results more frequently reported an improvement in the treatment issues (subjects with FEV1 >50% of predicted, P=0.020 and in the career concerns (patients with FVC >50% of predicted, P=0.039. The improvement in the career concerns also depended upon daily physical activity (P=0.024, which was shown to modulate future concerns (P=0.032, along with place of residence and living conditions (P=0.003. Moreover, the time elapsed from the last pulmonary exacerbation was related to the change in social functioning (P=0.026.Conclusion: When planning treatment, attention should be paid to interventions which may improve HRQoL. Systematic chronic therapy improves lung function, related to treatment issues and career concerns. Maintaining good physical condition and

  6. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Voogt Carmen V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. Methods/design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 375: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (n = 375: no intervention. Primary outcomes measures will be: 1 the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2 reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3 frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. Discussion This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971

  7. Experimental use of alcohol in early adolescence: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Uso experimental de álcool no início da adolescência: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

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    Ricardo B. Noal


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of experimental alcohol intake and associated factors in early adolescence. The overall sample consisted of 4,452 adolescents (mean age = 11.3 years; SD = 0.3 from the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Experimental use of alcohol was reported by 17.5% of the interviewees (95%CI: 16.3-18.6, and 5% reported having tried alcohol at nine years of age or younger. Prevalence of experimental alcohol use was higher among adolescents whose mothers had consumed alcohol during pregnancy, whose parents consumed alcohol, who worked outside the home themselves, and who had ever tried smoking. Family strife, parental alcohol intake, and adolescent smoking were strong predictors of experimental alcohol use in early adolescence. Special attention should be targeted to these groups in order to avoid heavy and premature alcohol use in early adolescence.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de uso experimental de bebidas alcoólicas e fatores associados no início da adolescência. Compuseram a amostra 4.452 adolescentes (média = 11,3 anos; DP = 0,3 da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O uso experimental de álcool foi referido por 17,5% dos entrevistados (IC95%: 16,3-18,6 e 5% referiram ter experimentado com nove anos ou menos. O risco de uso experimental de álcool foi maior nos adolescentes cujas mães referiram ter bebido na gestação, quando ambos os pais usavam bebidas alcoólicas, entre os adolescentes que trabalhavam fora e naqueles que já experimentaram cigarro ou outras drogas. As relações familiares, o uso de álcool pelos pais, e o tabagismo do adolescente são os fatores fortemente associados ao uso experimental de álcool no início da adolescência. Mais atenção deveria ser dada especialmente a esses grupos, a fim de combater o consumo precoce de álcool.

  8. Music Therapy with Adolescents

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    Jukko Tervo


    Full Text Available The therapeutic community described in this paper was situated at the University of Oulu Central Hospital Department of Psychiatry, Finland, during the years 1979-1989. The ward consisted of eight beds, four for boys and four for girls. The basic emphasis in the treatment was laid on psychoanalytic psychotherapy and music and art therapies suitable for the stage of adolescent development. Adolescent community therapy (psychoanalytic psychotherapy, music therapy, art therapy, special school etc. creates an environment which supports individual growth of the adolescent and youth culture. This, in turn, simultaneously supports psychotherapy.

  9. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS treated with arthrodesis and posterior titanium instrumentation: 8 to 12 years follow up without late infection

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    Gluch Herbert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data in the peer-reviewed literature regarding long term results in patients treated for AIS with a posterior titanium instrumentation. Therefore we assessed the outcome in 50 patients treated by titanium implant. Methods A total of 50 patients with a mean age of 16.6 years were treated. In all patients, titanium hooks and pedicle screws were used in combination. The demographic data and the pre- and post-operative radiographs of all 50 patients were re-examined, and 49 of the 50 patients (98% attended a radiological and clinical follow up-examination on average 10.1 years post-operatively. The clinical results were recorded by means of the SRS 24 questionnaire. Results In the frontal plane, the mean pre-operative thoracic and lumbar curve had been 62.4° and 43.5° respectively, post-operatively the curves were reduced to 26.9° and 16.3°, resulting in a correction rate of 56.9% for thoracic and 62.5% for lumbar curve. At the follow up-evaluation, the Cobb angle of the thoracic and lumbar curve was 31.0° and 21.3° respectively, giving a final correction rate of 50.3% for thoracic, and 51.0% for lumbar curve. 7 of the 50 patients (14.3% had undergo revision surgery for complications, but complete implant removal was necessary in only one case. Analysis of the SRS 24 questionnaire showed an average score of 95.8 points. Conclusion Posterior titanium instrumentation is a safe and effective procedure in the surgical correction of AIS. In this retrospective study with small patient number, it shows favourable long-term results; in particular, the loss of correction is low, no late infection occurred and there was a very high survival rate of the implant itself.

  10. Does Parental Divorce Increase Risk Behaviors among 15/16 and 18/19 year-old Adolescents? A Study from Oslo, Norway


    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Espen; Claussen, Bjørgulf


    Background: Several studies have reported an increase in risk behaviors among adolescents after experience of parental divorce. The aim of the study was to investigate whether parental divorce is associated with risk behavior among adolescents independent of mental health problems, first when early divorce was experienced, and second after experience of late parental divorce. Method: One prospective (n=1861) and one cross-sectional study (n=2422) were conducted using data from two Young-HUBRO...

  11. Adolescent behavior and PTSD 6-7 years after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. (United States)

    Mann, Mana; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R; Maslow, Carey B; Osahan, Sukhminder; Stellman, Steven D


    Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2-3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent enrollees ages 11-18 y of age in the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and DISC Predictive Scales (DPS), respectively, as reported by the adolescents. Associations between parental PTSD and adolescent PTSD and behavioral problems were studied in a subset of 166 adolescent-parent pairs in which the parent was also a Registry enrollee. Nearly one-fifth (17.4%) of the adolescents, all of whom were 5-12 y old at the time of the attacks, scored in the abnormal (5.7%) or borderline (11.7%) range of total SDQ. Problems were more frequent in minority, low-income, and single-parent adolescents. Abnormal and borderline SDQ scores were significantly associated with direct WTC exposures and with WTC-related injury or death of a family member. Adolescent PTSD was significantly associated with WTC exposure and with fear of one's own injury or death, and with PTSD in the parent (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.1-28.4). This adolescent population should be monitored for persistence or worsening of these problems. Co-occurrence of parent and child mental health symptoms following a disaster may have implications for healthcare practitioners and for disaster response planners.

  12. Adolescent behavior and PTSD 6–7 years after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (United States)

    Mann, Mana; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R; Maslow, Carey B; Osahan, Sukhminder; Stellman, Steven D


    Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2–3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent enrollees ages 11–18 y of age in the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and DISC Predictive Scales (DPS), respectively, as reported by the adolescents. Associations between parental PTSD and adolescent PTSD and behavioral problems were studied in a subset of 166 adolescent-parent pairs in which the parent was also a Registry enrollee. Nearly one-fifth (17.4%) of the adolescents, all of whom were 5–12 y old at the time of the attacks, scored in the abnormal (5.7%) or borderline (11.7%) range of total SDQ. Problems were more frequent in minority, low-income, and single-parent adolescents. Abnormal and borderline SDQ scores were significantly associated with direct WTC exposures and with WTC-related injury or death of a family member. Adolescent PTSD was significantly associated with WTC exposure and with fear of one's own injury or death, and with PTSD in the parent (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.1–28.4). This adolescent population should be monitored for persistence or worsening of these problems. Co-occurrence of parent and child mental health symptoms following a disaster may have implications for healthcare practitioners and for disaster response planners. PMID:28229007

  13. Testing the Personal Wellbeing Index on 12-16-Year-Old Adolescents in 3 Different Countries with 2 New Items (United States)

    Casas, Ferran; Sarriera, Jorge Castella; Alfaro, Jaime; Gonzalez, Monica; Malo, Sara; Bertran, Irma; Figuer, Cristina; da Cruz, Daniel Abs; Bedin, Livia; Paradiso, Angela; Weinreich, Karin; Valdenegro, Boris


    The 7-item adult version of the Personal Wellbeing scale (Cummins et al. Social Indic Res 64:159-190, 2003) was administered to two samples of adolescents aged 12-16 in Brazil (N = 1,588) and Spain (N = 2,900), and to a sample of adolescents aged 14-16 in Chile (N = 843). The results obtained were analyzed to determine its psychometric…

  14. Dual growth of adolescent smoking and drinking: evidence for an interaction between the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism and sex. (United States)

    Kleinjan, Marloes; Poelen, Evelien A; Engels, Rutger C M E; Verhagen, Maaike


    Smoking and alcohol use often co-occur during adolescence, but little is known about the codevelopment of these substances. In the search for etiological factors that help to explain the development of adolescent substance use patterns, studies have revealed substantial heritability for both alcohol use and smoking. In this regard, the µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, chromosome 6q24-q25) has been linked to both substances. This study examined the predictive relationships between initial level and growth of smoking and drinking in 311 early adolescents (13-15 years old) over a 4-year period. In addition, the effects of the A118G polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene on the initial values and the development over time of alcohol use and smoking were assessed. Finally, as prevalence and heritability estimates for both alcohol- and smoking-related behaviors differ between males and females, OPRM1 by sex interactions were tested. We found that high initial levels of early adolescent alcohol consumption were related to a stronger increase in smoking levels over time. In contrast, high initial levels of smoking were not related to growth of alcohol use. No main OPRM1 effects were found, but sex-specificity of the gene was found for smoking development. Male A-allele carriers showed a faster development in smoking behavior, whereas in females, the G-allele led to a faster development in smoking. Thus, in addition to high levels of alcohol as a risk factor for the development of smoking behavior, sex-specific effects exist for OPRM1, which may additionally have consequences for the development of adolescent smoking.

  15. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents. (United States)

    van der Wurff, Inge S M; von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M


    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13-15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60). Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039), and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = -0.053 and p = 0.007). This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.

  16. Cooley’s Anemia Symposium (6th) Held in New York on 13-15 March 1990. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 612 (United States)


    OGAWA. 1988. J. Immunol. 140: 3040-3044. 24. NIENHUIS, A. W., R. E. DONAHUE, S. KARLSSON, S. C. CLARK, B. AGRICOLA , N. ANTINOFF, J. E. PIERCE, P. TURNER...more often. She speaks with a voice that is more self-assured and is seriously thinking of starting a small business . Iphigenia is a 30-year-old

  17. Adolescents' information management: comparing ideas about why adolescents disclose to or keep secrets from their parents. (United States)

    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree


    Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management.

  18. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use, May 13-15, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresselhaus, M; Crabtree, G; Buchanan, M; Mallouk, T; Mets, L; Taylor, K; Jena, P; DiSalvo, F; Zawodzinski, T; Kung, H; Anderson, I S; Britt, P; Curtiss, L; Keller, J; Kumar, R; Kwok, W; Taylor, J; Allgood, J; Campbell, B; Talamini, K


    The coupled challenges of a doubling in the world's energy needs by the year 2050 and the increasing demands for ''clean'' energy sources that do not add more carbon dioxide and other pollutants to the environment have resulted in increased attention worldwide to the possibilities of a ''hydrogen economy'' as a long-term solution for a secure energy future.

  19. Trends of selected health behaviors of Polish youth aged 13-15 the European and worldwide studies between 1995-2011


    Marcin Dudek; Joanna Kasznia-Kocot; Karolina Giel


    Health behaviors such as an adequate amount of physical activity, psychological welfare, maintaining a proper diet and avoiding stimulants affects people’s health and allows for its proper maintenance. The aim was to evaluation of health behaviors tendencies amongst Polish youth and determination of the impact of social changes in Poland. Trends of selected health habits were presented on analysis data of ESPAD and HBSC research conducted amongst 13–15 years old teenag...

  20. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns. (United States)

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M


    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  1. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance (United States)

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.


    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  2. Eating attitudes, body image satisfaction and self-esteem of South African Black and White male adolescents and their perception of female body silhouettes. (United States)

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A


    This cross-sectional study of urban high schools in Johannesburg, South Africa, sought to examine eating attitudes, body image and self-esteem among male adolescents (n = 391). Anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg self-esteem, body image satisfaction and perception of females were collected at age 13, 15 and 17 years. Descriptive analysis was done to describe the sample, and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was used to test for significant differences between data that were not normally distributed (EAT-26). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyses were conducted to test for associations between self-esteem scores and eating attitudes, body mass indices and body image satisfaction scores. To assess the differences between groups that were normally distributed chi-square tests were carried out. Ethnic differences significantly affected adolescent boys' body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and self-esteem; White boys had higher self-esteem, BMI and normal eating attitudes than the Black boys did. BMI was positively associated with self-esteem (p = 0.01, r = 0.134) and negatively with dieting behaviour in White boys (p = 0.004, r = -0.257), and with lower EAT-26 bulimic and oral control scores in Black boys. In conclusion, the findings highlight ethnic differences and a need to better understand cultural differences that influence adolescent attitudes and behaviour.

  3. Trends of selected health behaviors of Polish youth aged 13-15 the European and worldwide studies between 1995-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Dudek


    Full Text Available Health behaviors such as an adequate amount of physical activity, psychological welfare, maintaining a proper diet and avoiding stimulants affects people’s health and allows for its proper maintenance. The aim was to evaluation of health behaviors tendencies amongst Polish youth and determination of the impact of social changes in Poland. Trends of selected health habits were presented on analysis data of ESPAD and HBSC research conducted amongst 13–15 years old teenagers. Between 1995–2003 there was a rapid increase of numbers of teenagers who began to smoke cigarettes under the age of 13 (36–40%, and a significantly large increase was observed amongst female teenagers (26–31%. Between 2003 and 2011 a decline in numbers of teenagers who smoke cigarettes over a factor of 14% for boys and 9% for girls was observed. Most commonly consumed alcohols amongst teenagers were beer, wine and then vodka. Numbers of teenagers becoming intoxicated with alcohol rose (35% for females, and 27% for males. Between 1995–2003 an upward trend was observed regarding the consumption of psychoactive substances amongst teenagers under the age of 13, usage of those substances amongst teenagers drops in the coming years, with the exception of marihuana. Level of physical activity amongst inhabitants of Poland declined; simultaneously number of people spending their time in front of the computer screen increased (over five times amongst females. Numbers of Polish teenagers becoming overweight and obese increased up to 10% for males.

  4. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents. (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.


    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  5. [The pregnant adolescent]. (United States)

    Grenon-Plante, D


    According to the Canadian Association of Family Planning 85% of adolescents are unprotected at their 1st intercourse, and 16% become pregnant; only 20% of those having a regular sex life use contraception. Women below 20 contributed to 17% of births in 1976 in Canada; in the same year 41.5% of all new mothers were unmarried, and only 27.5% of new fathers accepted responsibility for their paternity. These figures give an idea of the extent of the problem of unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, a problem shared by all Western countries. The adolescent mother is too young to know what she wants, not to mention to accept responsibility for the caring of an infant. Risk of maternal mortality is twice as great among teenage mothers, and so is risk of infant death, mostly due to prematurity. Nurses can play a very important role in helping adolescent mothers, and they must never project their moral values on their young patients.

  6. The Relation between Breakfast Skipping and School Performance in Adolescents (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle


    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…

  7. Insights on Adolescence from a Life Course Perspective (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Crosnoe, Robert; Elder, Glen H., Jr.


    In this essay, we argue that viewing adolescence within the full life course will improve our understanding of both adolescence itself and the life course more generally. Such an approach makes explicit how adolescence is linked to developmental processes in the years both before and after adolescence in ways that are shaped by broader patterns of…

  8. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.


    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  9. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley


    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  10. Trajectories and stability of self-reported short sleep duration from adolescence to adulthood. (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C; Skogen, Jens C; Øverland, Simon; Wold, Bente; Williams, Lana J; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sivertsen, Børge


    The trajectories and stability of self-reported sleep duration recorded at ages 13, 15, and 23 years on reported sleep duration at age 30 years among 1105 students (55% male) who participated in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health and Behaviour Study were examined. Questionnaire data were used to obtain demographic and sleep variables. Dichotomised short sleep duration was based on normative values and set as ≤ 8.5 h (age 13 years), ≤ 8 h (age 15 years) and ≤ 7 h (ages 23 and 30 years). Results indicated a significant overall reduction in total sleep duration (h per night) across age groups. Sleep duration (continuous) at age 15 and 23 years (whole group) was moderately but positively correlated with sleep duration at age 30 years (P < 0.01). When split by sex, at age 15 years, this association was present among females only (P < 0.01); however, at age 23 years, this association was present in both male and females (both P < 0.001). Categorical short sleep at age 23 years (whole group) was associated with short sleep at age 30 years (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval 2.36-5.69). Following sex stratification, this effect was significant for both males (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.77, 95% confidence interval: 2.22-6.42) and females (unadjusted odds ratio = 2.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-5.04). No associations were noted for categorical short sleep at ages 13 or 15 years, and subsequent short sleep at 30 years. Habitual short sleep duration during middle adulthood is not sustained from the time of early adolescence. Rather, these trends appear to be formed during early adulthood.

  11. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyi O. Toriola


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa.Setting: A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used.Results: Body mass index (BMI classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal bodyweight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years’ measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH, boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of -0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ, bent arm hang (BAH and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders.Conclusion: Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the participating

  12. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California. (United States)

    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  13. Consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents: a multi-national comparison of eleven countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (United States)

    Al Ani, M F; Al Subhi, L K; Bose, S


    Regional cross-country profile of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study examines the prevalence and differences of consuming F&V ≥5 times/d among adolescents in eleven EMR countries, and also describes differences in the proportions of taking F&V ≥5 times/d by sex, age and BMI. The study included 26 328 school adolescents (13-15 years) with complete data on consumption of F&V, age, sex, weight and height taken from the Global School-based Student Health Survey conducted in the EMR between 2005 and 2009. Overall, only 19·4 % of adolescents reported consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. The highest prevalence was reported in Djibouti (40·4 %) and the lowest was reported in Pakistan (10·0 %). Statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed across countries (P<0·05). With the exception of Oman, Libya and Djibouti, significantly more males than females ate F&V ≥5 times/d. Proportion of students consuming F&V ≥5 times/d also varied significantly in all counties based on BMI (P<0·0001), with students within normal BMI having the highest frequency. A negative trend was observed between age and the prevalence of taking F&V ≥5 times/d in most of the eleven EMR countries but Jordan, Djibouti and Morocco. The prevalence of adequate intake of F&V was low in the eleven EMR countries. There is a need for interventions to increase the prevalence of adolescents consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. Interventions should take into consideration psychosocial, environmental and socio-environmental factors influencing F&V intake within countries.

  14. Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8-15 Years, 2005-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 158 (United States)

    Sarafrazi, Neda; Hughes, Jeffery P.; Borrud, Lori; Burt, Vicki; Paulose-Ram, Ryne


    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem associated with many adverse health outcomes in adulthood. During 2011-2012, nearly 17% of children and adolescents were obese. Weight status misperception occurs when the child's perception of their weight status differs from their actual weight status based on measured height and weight.…

  15. Homophobia and the Transition to Adulthood: A Three Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents and Young Adults, 2008-2011 (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil


    Studies on homophobia among adolescents routinely depart from the assumption that this attitude will be continued into adulthood. However, little research has been conducted on how the transition toward adulthood actually affects homophobia. While earlier studies relied on cross-sectional observations, the present analysis makes use of the Belgian…

  16. Influence of environmental and personal factors on social participation: a five year follow-up study in adolescents and young adults with IBD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekeet-Helsen, M.J.E.; Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, P.M.


    The purpose of this study is to determine the predictive effects of personal and environmental characteristics on the development of adolescents and young adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Examples of predictors that were examined are: coping style, optimism, parental overprotection and

  17. The Mark Twain Teacher Internship Program for the Preparation of Personnel in the Education of Adolescents with Special Needs: 1972-73 Program Year. (United States)

    Fagen, Stanley; Checkon, Stephen

    Described and evaluated is the 1972-73 Mark Twain Internship Program, a demonstration project to train teachers of emotionally disturbed adolescents who experience learning and human relations difficulties. It is noted that the program was sponsored by the Montgomery County, Maryland public school system and was funded under Title IV, Education of…

  18. The Mark Twain Teacher Internship Program for the Preparation of Personnel in the Education of Adolescents with Special Needs: 1973-74 Program Year. (United States)

    Fagen, Stanley; Checkon, Stephen

    Described and evaluated is the 1973-74 Mark Twain Internship Program, a demonstration project to train teachers of emotionally disturbed adolescents who experience learning and human relations difficulties. It is noted that the program was sponsored by the Montgomery County, Maryland public school system and was funded under Title IV, Education of…

  19. Predictors of Suicidal Ideation in Late Childhood and Adolescence: A 5-Year Follow-Up of Two Nationally Representative Cohorts in the Republic of Korea (United States)

    Park, Sunhee


    This study explores the trajectory of suicidal ideation in childhood and adolescence and identifies its strong predictors. Secondary data obtained from two nationally representative cohorts of South Korean youth were longitudinally analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and discrete time survival analysis. This study revealed an increase in the…

  20. Does Parenting Shield Youth from Exposure to Violence during Adolescence? A 5-Year Longitudinal Test in a High-Poverty Sample of Minority Youth (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.


    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…

  1. Mother's and father's monitoring is more important than parental social support regarding sexual risk behaviour among 15-year-old adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.


    Background and objectives There is strong evidence that parental processes such as monitoring and social support play an important role with regard to sexual risk behaviour among adolescents. We wished to explore the influence of both parents 'monitoring and support on sexual risk behaviour among ad

  2. A prospective 8-year follow-up of posterior resin composite restorations in permanent teeth of children and adolescents in Public Dental Health Service: reasons for replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan W.V.; Halken, Jette


    Objectives: the aim of the study was to investigate reasons for replacement and repair of posterior resin composite (RC) restorations placed in permanent teeth of children and adolescents attending Public Dental Health Service in Denmark. Material and method: all posterior RC placed consecutively...

  3. Oral health status in 5-18 years old children and adolescent with type 1 diabetes compared with healthy group in Hamadan, Iran 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Rafatjou


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, is the most common metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the state of oral health in children with type 1 diabetes compared with healthy children in 2013-2014 in Hamadan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: The specimens were selected through convenience sampling in two groups. Group one consisted of 80 individuals (5-18 years old; case group, suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus referred to the Pediatric endocrine clinic. Control group consisted of 80 non-diabetic healthy children who were out- patients of pediatric and orthodontic department of Hamadan dental school. Two groups were similar in age and sex. The data were collected through a questionnaire, medical records and clinical examination. DMFT, dmft, GI and PI indices were assessed in each patient. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and T-test. Results: In spite of similarity in oral hygiene habits in both group, there was no significant difference in mean DMFT and permanent decayed teeth in both groups (P>0.05, but the mean dmft (P<0.008 and primary decayed teeth (P<0.011 in the control group was significantly higher than that of the case group. Also, diabetic patients had significantly more gingival inflammation (P<0.05. The mean PI in the two groups did not differ significantly. Oral hygiene habits were similar in both groups but diabetic patients were significantly referred to dentists with lower frequency then that of control group (P=0.00. Conclusion: The devastating effects of diabetes on the oral health, along with other side effects can be effective in promoting tooth decay and gingivitis in diabetic patients. Unfortunately, oral health care and programmed dental visit were not the priority for the diabetic patient (and parents involved in our study. Therefore, programs to increase awareness and encourage patients for a better control of their oral health in order to diminish diabetes

  4. Comorbidity in adolescence: simultaneous declaration of depressive, eating symptoms and use of psychoactive substances in general population of 17 year old students in a big city

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    Modrzejewska, Renata


    Full Text Available Aim. To determine whether the following symptoms: depressive symptoms, eating disorder symptoms among adolescents in Cracow secondary schools are associated with an increased risk of psychoactive substance use.Method. A representative sample of the population of Krakow secondary school pupils was tested. A twostage draw method identified a group of 2034 2nd form pupils of all types of secondary schools: grammarschools, technical schools and vocational schools (17-year olds. They were tested using the following screening questionnaires: Beck Depression Scale, EAT-26 eating disorders scale and author’s drugquestionnaire.Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among boys and girls is associated with an increased alcohol use (74.8% among depressive boys and 65.8% in the depressive group of girls, cigarette smoking(41.7% and 46.7% and drug use (29.0% and 18.6%. All of the relationships are statistically significant in both sexes. 41.7% of depressive boys admit to smoking, versus. only 32.6% in the non-depressive group. In the girls’ group, these relationships are as follows: 46.7% versus 32.1%. The relationships are statistically significant in both sexes.The prevalence of eating disorder symptoms among boys and girls is associated with a higher alcohol use (respectively: 73.5% and 61.9%, cigarette smoking (42.1% and. 46.9%, and drug use (31.6% and 21.5%. Compared with a group of young people without eating disorder symptoms, the relationships are of statistical significance.Conclusions. Comorbidity of the following symptoms was found: depressive symptoms, eating disorder symptoms and symptoms of psychoactive substance use. The presence of depressive symptoms increases the risk of the use of psychoactive substances, especially alcohol and tobacco, to a lesser extent – drugs, both in the boys and in the girls. The presence of eating disorder symptoms increases the risk of smoking and drug use among both boys and girls.

  5. Acculturation influences on AAPI adolescent-mother interactions and adolescents' sexual initiation. (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara; Caldwell, Cleopatra H


    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data is to examine relationships among Asian American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) adolescents' level of acculturation, maternal influences, and age of sexual initiation. Selected predictive variables are based on the theoretical frameworks and literature review. The results indicate that for these adolescents speaking English at home was positively associated with maternal sexual discussion, mothers' perceptions of connectedness with their adolescents, adolescents' perceived maternal sexual expectations, and later sexual initiation at Wave 1. Adolescents' years of U.S. residency are positively associated with adolescents' level of perceived connectedness with their mothers and later sexual initiation at Wave 2. Adolescents' level of acculturation influence how they interacted with their mothers, perceived their mothers' sexual expectations, and when they decided to initiate sexual intercourse. Interventions to delay AAPI adolescents' sexual debut should consider factors related to AAPI adolescents' and their mothers' levels of acculturation.

  6. Obesity and adolescence. A public health concern. (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Birnbaum, Liora; Kandel, Isack; Morad, Mohammed


    Obesity in adolescence has increased significantly over the past 30-40 years and a recent international comparison study (13 European countries, Israel and the US) showed that the highest prevalence in adolescents was found in the US (12.6% in 13 year old boys, 10.8% in girls; 13.9% in 15 year old boys and 15.1% in 15 year old girls) and the lowest in Lithuania. This increase in adolescence is a public health concern, because most obese adolescents continue their obesity into adulthood with serious risk for chronic disease. Focus should therefore be on prevention programs that increase healthier patterns of lifestyle and physical activity.

  7. Crianças e adolescentes obesos: dois anos de acompanhamento interdisciplinar Obese children and adolescents: two years of interdisciplinary follow-up

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    Mariana Porto Zambon


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar dois anos de seguimento de crianças e adolescentes obesos em ambulatório especializado. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de coorte, com coleta retrospectiva dos dados de 150 pacientes (1 a 19 anos de idade do Ambulatório de Obesidade do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Destes pacientes, 53% eram do sexo masculino e 63% eram de Campinas, São Paulo. A média da idade no início de ganho de peso foi 4,3 anos. Dos 150 pacientes, 128 retornaram uma vez, com avaliação de peso, altura, índice de massa corpórea (IMC e escores Z. Foram realizados hemograma, glicemia de jejum, insulina basal, relação glicemia/insulina, triglicérides, colesterol total e frações. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com o seguimento. Entre os grupos, foi analisada a diferença entre idade, sexo, procedência, idade de início, acantose nigricans e os escores Z de peso, altura e IMC, proporção de exames laboratoriais alterados e a diferença dos escores Z de IMC em relação à primeira consulta. RESULTADOS: Dos 128 pacientes, 57% permaneceram em seguimento, sendo que 114 retornaram pelo menos uma vez. Comparando os grupos, os moradores de Campinas foram os que mais abandonaram o ambulatório, sem diferenças em relação às demais variáveis clínicas, antropométricas e laboratoriais estudadas. Houve queda da média do escore Z do IMC em ambos os grupos, em relação à consulta inicial. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes deste estudo apresentaram redução da média do escore Z do IMC semelhante à literatura. Apesar do alto índice de abandono, não foram identificados fatores de risco que o justificassem, com exceção da procedência da criança.OBJECTIVE: To study two years follow-up of obese children and adolescents from a specialized out-patient clinic. METHODS: This cohort study with retrospective collection of data enrolled 150 patients (1 to 19 years old, 53% males, 63% from Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, and

  8. Cognitive bias modification versus CBT in reducing adolescent social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

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    B Esther Sportel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Social anxiety is a common mental disorder among adolescents and is associated with detrimental long term outcomes. Therefore, this study investigated the efficacy of two possible early interventions for adolescent social anxiety and test anxiety. An internet-based cognitive bias modification (CBM; n = 86 was compared to a school-based cognitive behavioral group training (CBT; n = 84 and a control group (n = 70 in reducing symptoms of social and test anxiety in high socially and/or test anxious adolescents aged 13-15 years. Participants (n = 240 were randomized at school level over the three conditions. CBM consisted of a 20-session at home internet-delivered training; CBT was a 10-session at school group training with homework assignments; the control group received no training. Participants were assessed before and after the intervention and at 6 and 12 month follow-up. At 6 month follow-up CBT resulted in lower social anxiety than the control condition, while for CBM, this effect was only trend-significant. At 12 month follow-up this initial benefit was no longer present. Test anxiety decreased more in the CBT condition relative to the control condition in both short and long term. Interestingly, in the long term, participants in the CBM condition improved more with regard to automatic threat-related associations than both other conditions. The results indicate that the interventions resulted in a faster decline of social anxiety symptoms, whereas the eventual end point of social anxiety was not affected. Test anxiety was influenced in the long term by the CBT intervention, and CBM lead to increased positive automatic threat-related associations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTR965.

  9. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G


    show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume......Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...

  10. Suicide in children and adolescents: A case report of the possible suicide of a 7 year old girl and presentation of data from a forensic autopsy material in Norway

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    Stray-Pedersen Arne


    Full Text Available The present paper reports a 7 year old girl’s death by hanging. The forensic investigation disclosed death most likely to be self-inflicted, either an act of suicide, subsidiary a case of accidental asphyxia from a child’s play. A review of forensic autopsy records from southeast Norway during the years 1984-2012 was performed. Totally 116 deaths among children and adolescents < 18 years of age were classified as either suicide or as “undetermined - suicide likely” subsequent to post-mortem examination. The most common suicidal methods were hanging (46%, the use of firearms (24%, jumping in front of a train (11% and drug intake / intoxication (8%. Though rarely observed in children < 12 years of age, suicide is a common cause of sudden death in adolescents, and there is evidence that the extent of the problem is unceasing. The paper highlights the value of forensic medical examination and crime scene reenactment in the evaluation of the manner of death in obscure cases.

  11. Adolescent Drinking and Adolescent Stress: A Domain-Specific Relationship in Northern Irish Schoolchildren (United States)

    McKay, Michael Thomas; Cole, Jon C.


    Previous research has suggested an association between heightened levels of stress among adolescents and reduced levels of mental, physical and emotional well-being. This study sought to examine the relationship between 10 domains of adolescent stress and self-reported drinking behaviour. A total of 610 adolescents, aged 12-16 years old, were…

  12. Male and Female Delinquency Trajectories from Pre through Middle Adolescence and Their Continuation in Late Adolescence (United States)

    Landsheer, Johannes A.; van Dijkum, C.


    This study of male and female adolescent delinquency trajectories focuses on the prediction of late adolescence delinquency, based on earlier delinquency and social support. In this 3-wave longitudinal survey, 270 Dutch adolescents (113 males and 157 females) ages 12 to 14, were followed for a period of 6 years. For males, the level of delinquent…

  13. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls (United States)

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel


    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  14. Adolescents' Views regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan


    Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…

  15. Associations between Observed Mother-Adolescent Interactions and Adolescent Information Management (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M.; Smetana, Judith G.; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Villalobos, Myriam; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina


    Associations between observed mother-adolescent interactions during a conflict task and adolescents' information management strategies were examined in 108 primarily middle class, European-American adolescents (M = 13.80 years, SD = 1.52) and their mothers. Teens who communicated more clearly disclosed more about personal and multifaceted…

  16. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries


    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  17. A 6-year follow-up of a large European cohort of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype: outcomes in late adolescence and young adulthood. (United States)

    van Lieshout, Marloes; Luman, Marjolein; Twisk, Jos W R; van Ewijk, Hanneke; Groenman, Annabeth P; Thissen, Andrieke J A M; Faraone, Stephen V; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Oosterlaan, Jaap


    There are very few studies on the long-term outcome of children and adolescents with ADHD-combined type in Europe. The objective of the present study is to assess the 6-year outcome (including pharmacological treatment) of a large cohort of participants with ADHD-combined type (N = 347, mean age 11.4 years) in late adolescence and early adulthood. At study entry and follow-up (mean age 17.4 years), participants were comprehensively assessed on ADHD and comorbid disorders by structured psychiatric interviews and multi-informant questionnaires. Overall functioning was assessed by the Children's Global Assessment Scale. The retention rate was 75.6 %. The majority of participants (86.5 %) persisted in a DSM-5 ADHD diagnosis, 8.4 % had a subthreshold diagnosis, and 5.1 % remitted from the disorder at follow-up. Comorbidities decreased strongly; oppositional defiant disorder: 58 > 31 %, conduct disorder: 19 > 7 %. At follow-up, mood- and anxiety disorders were virtually non-existent following strict criteria (1-3 %). Percentage of children having had pharmacological treatment at any time increased from 79 to 91 %. On the Children's Global Assessment Scale, 48.5 % of participants were still functionally impaired at follow-up. Parental ADHD, higher ADHD symptom severity at baseline and higher parent-reported impairment at baseline positively predicted current ADHD symptom severity (R (2) = 20.9 %). Younger baseline age, higher ADHD symptom severity at baseline and higher parent-reported impairment at baseline were positively associated with poorer overall functioning (R (2) = 17.8 %). Pharmacological treatment had no (beneficial) impact on either ADHD symptom severity or overall functioning. Results confirm that ADHD is largely persistent into late adolescence with severity and family history for the disorder as important risk factors.

  18. Prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among adolescents 15- to 19-year olds: A cross-sectional study from three major cities in Saudi Arabia

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    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa


    Full Text Available Background: Adequate sleep has been considered important for the adolescent′s health and well being. On the other hand, self-imposed sleep curtailment is now recognized as a potentially important and novel risk factor for obesity. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among Saudi adolescents. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study with self-reported sleep questionnaires. It was conducted during the years 2009/2010 in three cities in Saudi Arabia; Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants were 2868 secondary-school males (1379 and females (1389 aged 15 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, and sleeping duration. Logistic regression analysis while adjusted for age, gender, and location was used to examine the associations between sleep duration and obesity measures. Results: The mean (SD of sleep duration was 7.2 (1.6 hours/day with no significant differences between males and females. About 31% of the participants obtain less than 7 hours of sleep per day, while approximately 50% of the sample gets less than 8 hours of daily sleep. Two-way ANCOVA results while controlling for the effect of age revealed a significant gender by school-type interaction (P<0.001. In addition, adequate sleep duration increased the odds of having normal weight (adjusted odds ratios = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.50, P = 0.003. Conclusion: The present study observed a high prevalence of short sleep duration among Saudi adolescents 15- to 19-year olds and that short sleep duration was significantly associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Future interventions should investigate whether adopting a healthy lifestyle by adolescents with short sleep duration would improve their sleeping habits or not.

  19. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A: a clinical Trial for Patients with suicidal and self-injurious Behavior and Borderline Symptoms with a one-year Follow-up

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    Schneider Csilla


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, there are no empirically validated treatments of good quality for adolescents showing suicidality and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. Risk factors for suicide are impulsive and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, depression, conduct disorders and child abuse. Behind this background, we tested the main hypothesis of our study; that Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents is an effective treatment for these patients. Methods Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT has been developed by Marsha Linehan - especially for the outpatient treatment of chronically non-suicidal patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The modified version of DBT for Adolescents (DBT-A from Rathus & Miller has been adapted for a 16-24 week outpatient treatment in the German-speaking area by our group. The efficacy of treatment was measured by a pre-/post- comparison and a one-year follow-up with the aid of standardized instruments (SCL-90-R, CBCL, YSR, ILC, CGI. Results In the pilot study, 12 adolescents were treated. At the beginning of therapy, 83% of patients fulfilled five or more DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder. From the beginning of therapy to one year after its end, the mean value of these diagnostic criteria decreased significantly from 5.8 to 2.75. 75% of patients were kept in therapy. For the behavioral domains according to the SCL-90-R and YSR, we have found effect sizes between 0.54 and 2.14. During treatment, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior reduced significantly. Before the start of therapy, 8 of 12 patients had attempted suicide at least once. There were neither suicidal attempts during treatment with DBT-A nor at the one-year follow-up. Conclusions The promising results suggest that the interventions were well accepted by the patients and their families, and were associated with improvement in multiple domains including suicidality, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, emotion

  20. Kapitel 1-7, 13, 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Morten Rievers


    Den 30. september 1968 udsendte VKR-regeringen en erklæring, hvis hovedsynspunkt var " registrering af danske statsborgere ikke længere må finde sted alene på grundlag af lovlig politisk virksomhed." Det fremgik ydermere af erklæringen, at såfremt tjenesten lå inde med sådanne registreringer...

  1. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent. (United States)

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell


    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families.

  2. Immunogenicity, Safety, and Antibody Persistence at 3, 5, and 10 Years Postvaccination in Adolescents Randomized to Booster Immunization with a Combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, 5-Component Acellular Pertussis, and Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine Administered with a Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine Concurrently or 1 Month Apart


    Embree, Joanne; Law, Barbara; Voloshen, Tim; Tomovici, Antigona


    An understanding of the antibody persistence elicited by a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Tdap-IPV) after adolescent vaccination is important to optimize booster dosing intervals. Our objectives were to compare the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap-IPV coadministered with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and sequential administration and evaluate humoral immunity at 3, 5, and 10 years after Tdap-IPV vaccination in adolescents. This...

  3. Personality disorders in adolescence.

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    Kamila Lenkiewicz


    Full Text Available Adult personality disorders are well recognized and described in the literature. The discussion about the possibility of the presence of personality disorders in adolescents started about 20 years ago. Some authors claim the before the age of 18 it is only possible to identify precursors of future personality disorders and such a standpoint is reflected in diagnostic criteria. This is based on the assumption that personality in adolescence is still not well established. Consequently, the criterion on the persistence of symptoms for the period of time cannot be met (the persistence of symptoms of personality disorders for the period of at least two years. Other approach postulates that problems presented in adolescence should not be exclusively limited to Axis I according to DSM. The proponents of this approach claim that current diagnostic tools are not adjusted to adolescents, thus it is very difficult to measure stability and persistence of symptoms in this age group. This paper presents literature review on personality disorders in adolescence.

  4. Erratum to: Six years ahead: a longitudinal analysis regarding course and predictive value of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in children and adolescents. (United States)

    Becker, Andreas; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sohn, Alexander; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Klasen, Fionna


    Erratum to: Eur Child Adolesc PsychiatryDOI 10.1007/s00787‑014‑0640‑x Unfortunately, the names of two authors, Ulrike Ravens- Sieberer and Fionna Klasen, were omitted in the original publication of the article. Please find the correct author list below:Andreas Becker · Aribert Rothenberger · Alexander Sohn · Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer · Fionna Klasen · The BELLA study group

  5. Change in emotion regulation strategy use and its impact on adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: a three-year longitudinal analysis using latent growth modeling. (United States)

    Voon, David; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham


    This longitudinal study examines the extent to which changes in the use of cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination impact on frequency, duration, and medical severity of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents. Data from 3,143 predominantly female high school students recruited from 40 Australian secondary schools were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Significant differences in the psychological factors between the 555 participants with a history of NSSI and non-self-injurers were reported at baseline. Self-injurers experienced significantly greater accumulation of life stressors over time compared with non-self-injurers. After controlling for adverse life events, psychological distress and other emotion regulation strategies, use of cognitive reappraisal at baseline was associated with less severe NSSI presentations, and slower growth in medical severity of NSSI over time. Findings indicate that while both cohorts have similar emotion regulation trajectories, adolescents who self-injure start off at a disadvantage and have a propensity to engage in less helpful processes that tend to heighten negative emotional states. Results recommend increasing focus on improving adolescents' frequency and skills in use of cognitive reappraisal in efforts to reduce NSSI among this population.

  6. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)adolescent Disruptive Behavior


    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.


    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report, preschool behavior was evaluated by the parental questionnaire 'How was your child as a pre...

  7. Adolescent Loneliness Assessment (United States)

    de Minzi, Maria Cristina Richaud; Sacchi, Carla


    The aim of the present work was to develop a loneliness scale for adolescents in order to assess their perceptions of the quality of their relationships with parents and peers. The scale was administered to 1,233 Argentine secondary school students, aged 13-16 years. Factor analyses (principal axes, oblimin solution) were conducted. Four factors…

  8. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels


    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school...

  9. Natural Mentoring Relationships among Adolescent Mothers: A Study of Resilience (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.


    This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…

  10. Adolescents' lived experience of epilepsy. (United States)

    Eklund, Pernilla Garmy; Sivberg, Bengt


    To improve the well-being of adolescents with epilepsy, research is needed on how adolescents cope. In this study, Lazarus' model of stress and coping and Antonovsky's Theory of Sense of Coherence were used as the theoretical framework. The aim was to describe the lived experience of adolescents with epilepsy and their coping skills. The participants were 13-19 years old with an epilepsy diagnosis but without mental retardation or cerebral palsy. The study was performed in southern Sweden at the pediatric department of a university hospital. Semistructured and open-ended interviews were conducted with 13 adolescents. The transcripts were analyzed with manifest and latent content analysis. All the adolescents had developed strategies to cope with the emotional strains caused by epilepsy. They experienced strains from the seizures, limitation of leisure activities, side effects of medication, and feelings of being different. The coping strategies described were finding support, being in control, and experimenting.

  11. Adolescence physical activity is associated with higher tibial pQCT bone values in adulthood after 28-years of follow-up--the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. (United States)

    Tolonen, S; Sievänen, H; Mikkilä, V; Telama, R; Oikonen, M; Laaksonen, M; Viikari, J; Kähönen, M; Raitakari, O T


    High peak bone mass and strong bone phenotype are known to be partly explained by physical activity during growth but there are few prospective studies on this topic. In this 28-year follow-up of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort, we assessed whether habitual childhood and adolescence physical activity or inactivity at the age of 3-18 years were associated with adult phenotype of weight-bearing tibia and the risk of low-energy fractures. Baseline physical activity and data on clinical, nutritional and lifestyle factors were assessed separately for females and males aged 3-6-years (N=395-421) and 9-18-years (N=923-965). At the age of 31-46-years, the prevalence of low-energy fractures was assessed with a questionnaire and several tibial traits were measured with pQCT (bone mineral content (BMC; mg), total and cortical cross-sectional areas (mm(2)), trabecular (for the distal site only) and cortical (for the shaft only) bone densities (mg/cm(3)), stress-strain index (SSI; mm(3), for the shaft only), bone strength index (BSI; mg(2)/cm(4), for the distal site only) and the cortical strength index (CSI, for the shaft only)). For the statistical analysis, each bone trait was categorized as below the cohort median or the median and above and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) were determined. In females, frequent physical activity at the age of 9-18-years was associated with higher adulthood values of BSI, total and cortical areas, BMC, CSI and SSI at the tibia independently of many health and lifestyle factors (ORs 0.33-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.002-0.05). Cortical density at the tibial shaft showed the opposite trend (P-value for trend 0.03). Similarly in males, frequent physical activity was associated with higher values of adult total and cortical areas and CSI at the tibia (ORs 0.48-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.01-0.02). However, there was no evidence that childhood or adolescence physical activity was associated with lower risk of low

  12. Perfil del comportamiento sexual en adolescentes mexicanos de 12 a 19 años de edad: resultados de la ENSA 2000 Profile of sexual behavior in 12 to 19 year-old Mexican adolescents: results of ENSA 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González-Garza


    embarazos.OBJECTIVE: To describe traits associated with sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents, their knowledge about contraception, and factors associated with pregnancy and utilization of contraceptives during first sexual intercourse. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the Mexican National Health Survey 2000 (ENSA 2000 were analyzed. This study, conducted between September 1999 and March 2000, was a complex survey with a probabilistic, stratified, and cluster sampling design. The sample population included 15 241 adolescents 12 to 19 years of age. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and a chi-squared test for differences of proportions; also, logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. RESULTS: A total of 69.2% adolescents reported knowledge of at least one contraception method; 16.4% of subjects reported having had sexual intercourse. Males initiated sexual intercourse earlier than females and only 37% of all adolescents utilized contraceptives during their first sexual intercourse. Logistic regression analysis showed that being male, having a higher education, having knowledge of at least one contraception method, and having initiated sexual intercourse at an older age, were factors associated with utilization of a contraception method in their first sexual intercourse. A total of 55.7% of sexually active female adolescents had been pregnant. Pregnancy among adolescents was associated with low educational level, sexual activity at early age, and to have sometime lived in free union. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of sexually active adolescents did not use contraception during their first sexual intercourse, rendering them at risk of unwanted pregnancies.

  13. Adolescent Loneliness. (United States)

    Goldenberg, Sheila

    Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…

  14. Positively Adolescent! (United States)

    Williamson, Sue


    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  15. Punishing adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper


    Should an adolescent offender be punished more leniently than an adult offender? Many theorists believe the answer to be in the affirmative. According to the diminished culpability model, adolescents are less mature than adults and, therefore, less responsible for their wrongdoings and should...

  16. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Ekinci


    Full Text Available Scoliosis is called idiopathic when no other underlying disease can be identified. The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is still unknown despite many years of research effort. Theories on AIS's etiology have included mechanical, hormonal, metabolic, neuromuscular, growth, and genetic abnormalities. Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk of curve progression. The adolescent onset of severe idiopathic scoliosis has traditionally been evaluated using standing posteroanterior radiographs of the full spine to assess lateral curvature with the Cobb method. Scoliosis in children of school age and above primarily occurs in girls. The therapeutic goal in children is to prevent progression. In children, scoliosis of 20 and deg; or more should be treated with a brace, and scoliosis of 45 and deg; or more with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 174-182

  17. Methylphenidate Misuse in Substance Abusing Adolescents. (United States)

    Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.


    Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…

  18. Adolescent male health. (United States)

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge


    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years.

  19. Developing guidance for pregnancy testing of adolescents participating in research: ethical, legal and practical considerations. (United States)

    Larcher, Vic; Brierley, Joe


    Adolescents need safe effective drugs that have undergone ethically approved testing in clinical trials; such studies often require pregnancy testing in 'women of childbearing age' which includes children/adolescents. There is a lack of consistent standard operating procedures for pregnancy testing in these individuals, in either research or clinical (ie, both preprocedure and clinical emergency) settings. Some harmonisation between a selective or universal testing approach based on a risk analysis of the trial drug or procedure would seem sensible. The need for pregnancy testing and the reasons for the method chosen (universal or selective) should be clearly defined in the research protocol. Research ethics committees (RECs) need to satisfy themselves that the selection of subjects to be tested, the procedures for obtaining consent and the respecting of the young person's confidentiality are appropriate and that management of any positive tests are in accord with local safeguarding policies and procedures. Researchers should have core competencies necessary to manage sensitive questioning and child safeguarding training. Clinical trials of medicinal product (CTIMP) pregnancy testing in females 13-15years of age requires parental consent and the child's active involvement in the decision-making process ('assent') the implications of a positive test should be discussed in advance Children under 13 years should not normally be subject to pregnancy testing in CTIMPs, unless there are exceptional circumstances, for example, a trial of contraceptive agents of a high teratogenicity risk, as reviewed by a specialist paediatric REC. We analyse the ethical, legal and practical aspects of this issues and supply guidance to support those involved.

  20. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies Regarding Adolescents' Peer-Related Loneliness: Associations with Adolescent Adjustment. (United States)

    Spithoven, Annette W M; Vanhalst, Janne; Lodder, Gerine; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goossens, Luc


    Because loneliness is a subjective experience, it is often examined using self-reports. Yet, researchers have started to use other-reports to examine loneliness. As previous research suggests that discrepancies between self- and other views might have important implications for adolescents' mental health, the current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on adolescents' loneliness in relation with prosocial behavior, aggression, and adolescents' parent-related loneliness. The sample consisted of 374 mother-adolescent dyads and 318 father-adolescent dyads (41.80% male, M age  = 15.67 years, SD = 1.25). Results indicated that informants used different reference points to assess adolescents' peer-related loneliness, but were otherwise comparable. Moreover, informant discrepancies were associated with greater adolescents' reported parent-related loneliness. The current study did not provide evidence that discrepancies were related to prosocial or aggressive behavior. The current study adds to the notion that other-reports on loneliness show substantial convergence with self-reports. In addition, this study indicates that the discrepancy between other- and self-reports on loneliness holds valuable information for adolescent socio-emotional adjustment.

  1. Identity Development in Deaf Adolescents (United States)

    Kunnen, E. Saskia


    We studied identity development during 5 years in seven deaf adolescents who attended a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 18 years), administering identity interviews every year. Identity development is conceptualized as the processes of exploration and commitment formation (Bosma,…

  2. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years? (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh


    Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale

  3. The adolescent and contraception. (United States)

    Bonar, R W; Mcculla, D


    Coital activity is often initiated during adolescence, and adolescents, like many adults, do not behave in purely rational ways and frequently fail to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Public attention is focused on adolescent pregnancies because of their increasing number and because the consequences are usually catastrophic. Unplanned pregnancies can have physical, psychosocial, and prenatal effects. It is important from both the individual and societal perspective that high priority be given to the task of preventing adolescent pregnancy. The health care provider, to gain the trust of the adolescent, must be open, honest, and willing to consider the young person's feelings and motivations. In addition to historical data and physical examination, the choice of a contraceptive method is based on individual preferences involving personal, familial, religious, and societal beliefs as well as sexual practice. A decision involving birth control for the adolescent can be complicated by parental influence and involvement. The teenage years are frequently a time of embarrassment about the physical maturation and biological functioning of the body. Birth control methods which require a person to touch himself/herself or to be used at the time of sexual intercourse may be unacceptable to the teenager. Fertility awareness techniques, such as basal body temperature, rhythm, and cervical mucus methods are inexpensive but call for a high degree of personal motivation. The use of a diaphragm requires an office visit and a pelvic examination for fitting and prescription. Contraceptive foam, suppositories, and condoms can be easily obtained over-the-counter for a minimal cost, and a moderate degree of personal motivation is needed for their effective use. Though effective, abortions should not be recommended indiscriminately. Permanent contraceptive methods are not recommended for the adolescent. The IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) are recommended for adolescents

  4. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Beliefs about the Legitimacy of Parental Authority and Their Own Obligation to Obey: A Longitudinal Investigation (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Cumsille, Patricio; Martinez, M. Loreto


    Adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority and obligation to obey were examined in 568 Chilean adolescents (11-14 years old at Wave 1), followed once a year for 4 years. Adolescents' beliefs about parental legitimacy and obligation to obey declined with age. The steepest decline occurred during early adolescence, particularly…

  5. Suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years: prevalence and associated factors Ideação suicida em adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos: prevalência e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents aged 11 to 15 years. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents completed a self-report that contained the Children's Depression Inventory. Suicidal ideation was measured according to item 9 of the Children's Depression Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: 1145 adolescents were invited to participate, and 1039 were interviewed (refusal rate: 9.26%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14.1%. Factors associated to suicidal ideation: female gender, current alcohol consumption, use of illicit drugs, symptoms indicating conduct disorders and high Children's Depression Inventory scores for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies should focus on female adolescents, especially those sexually active with probable mental health problems and substance use.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à ideação suicida entre adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base-populacional. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicável que continha o Children's Depression Inventory. A ideação suicida foi mensurada de acordo com o item 9 do Children's Depression Inventory. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada acompanhada de um modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: 1.145 adolescentes foram convidados a participar e 1.039 foram entrevistados (recusas: 9,26%. A prevalência de ideação suicida foi de 14,1%. Fatores associados à ideação suicida: sexo feminino, consumir álcool, uso de drogas ilícitas, apresentar sintomas indicativos de transtorno de conduta e elevada pontuação no Children's Depression Inventory para sintomas depressivos. CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias de prevenção devem priorizar adolescentes do sexo feminino, principalmente aquelas sexualmente ativas, com prováveis problemas de sa

  6. Imaging brain development: the adolescent brain. (United States)

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne


    The past 15 years have seen a rapid expansion in the number of studies using neuroimaging techniques to investigate maturational changes in the human brain. In this paper, I review MRI studies on structural changes in the developing brain, and fMRI studies on functional changes in the social brain during adolescence. Both MRI and fMRI studies point to adolescence as a period of continued neural development. In the final section, I discuss a number of areas of research that are just beginning and may be the subject of developmental neuroimaging in the next twenty years. Future studies might focus on complex questions including the development of functional connectivity; how gender and puberty influence adolescent brain development; the effects of genes, environment and culture on the adolescent brain; development of the atypical adolescent brain; and implications for policy of the study of the adolescent brain.

  7. The prevalence of disc aging and back pain after fusion extending into the lower lumbar spine. A matched MR study twenty-five years after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

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    Danielsson, A.J.; Nachemson, A.L. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Cederlund, C.G.; Ekholm, S. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology


    To determine the long-term outcome after fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in terms of degenerative disc findings diagnosed using MR imaging and to elucidate the clinical consequences. Material and methods: Thirty-two patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, who had undergone spinal fusion using Harrington rods to the lower lumbar spine with one or two unfused discs below the fusion, were re-examined 25 years after the fusion. The re-examinations included validated questionnaires, clinical examination, full standing frontal and lateral radiographs and MR examination of the lower lumbar region. Curve size and degenerative findings on MR images were evaluated by two unbiased radiologists, blinded to the clinical findings. A matched control group of 32 persons without scoliosis was subjected to the same examinations. Results and conclusion: There were significantly more degenerative disc changes (p<0.0001), disc height reduction (p=0.0010) and end-plate changes (p<0.0001 for both upper and lower end-plates) in the lowest unfused disc in the patient group compared with the control group. The MR findings in the lowest unfused disc, but not the one above, in the patient group correlated to lumbar pain intensity as well as to the diminished lumbar lordosis.

  8. Early determinants of attention and hyperactivity problems in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Determinantes precoces de problemas de atenção e hiperatividade na adolescência: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Anselmi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess early determinants of attention and hyperactivity problems in adolescents. In 1993, all hospital births in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were monitored and mothers were interviewed (N = 5,249. At 11 years of age, 4,423 mothers answered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ in order to evaluate attention and hyperactivity problems in the adolescents. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalence of attention and hyperactivity problems was 19.9%. Factors associated with the outcome in the adjusted analysis were: male gender, low family income, smoking during pregnancy, minor psychiatric disorders in the mother, and history of child's behavioral/emotional problems at four years of age. Early life events impacted attention and hyperactivity problems in adolescence. Risk factors for attention and hyperactivity problems found in this study were similar to those reported in other cultures.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar determinantes precoces dos problemas de atenção e hiperatividade em adolescentes. Em 1993, os nascimentos foram recrutados e as mães entrevistadas (n = 5.249. Aos 11 anos, 4.423 mães responderam ao Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ para avaliar problemas de atenção e hiperatividade nos adolescentes. Variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas, biológicas e psicológicas foram investigadas como prováveis fatores de risco. Razões de prevalência brutas e ajustadas foram calculadas com regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de problemas de atenção e hiperatividade foi 19,9%. Sexo masculino, baixa renda familiar, tabagismo materno na gestação, transtornos psiquiátricos maternos e problemas de comportamento/emocionais do adolescente aos quatro anos permaneceram associados na análise ajustada. Eventos do início da vida influenciaram os problemas de atenção e hiperatividade na adolescência. Os

  9. Aversiones y preferencias alimentarias de los adolescentes de 14 a 18 años de edad, escolarizados en la ciudad de Santander Nutritional aversions and preferences of 14-18 years old adolescents, schooled at the city of Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. de Rufino-Rivas


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las aversiones y preferencias alimentarias de los adolescentes, de 14 a 18 años de edad, escolarizados en Santander y analizar los cambios ocurridos en las mismas en la última década. Sujetos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, analizando una muestra de 1.134: 549 varones (48,4%, IC-95%: 45,5% a 51,3% y 585 mujeres (51,6%, IC-95%: 48,7% a 54,5%, de edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 18 años, escolarizados en siete centros de enseñanza secundaria de Santander, mediante un cuestionario. Resultados: Las verduras y hortalizas (54,7% y las legumbres (18,7% constituyen las principales aversiones alimentarias de los adolescentes. Por otro lado, los cereales (53,3% y la carne (14,6% son los grupos de alimentos preferidos. Las lentejas, la lechuga, la fresa, el agua y la pasta en general fueron los alimentos más valorados dentro de sus respectivos grupos de alimentos y bebidas. Conclusión: Las aversiones y preferencias alimentarias de los adolescentes santanderinos son, en líneas generales, bastante similares a las observadas en otros estudios, y no han sufrido cambios sustanciales a lo largo de la última década. Los datos obtenidos pueden ser útiles para observar las futuras tendencias sobre preferencias alimentarias, que conjuntamente con otros parámetros permitan caracterizar el comportamiento alimentario de nuestros adolescentes.Objective: To describe the nutritional aversions and preferences of 14-18 years old adolescents schooled at Santander and analyze the changes taking place within the last decade. Subjects: A cross-sectional study was carried out analyzing a sample of 1134 adolescents: 549 males (48.4%, 95% CI: 45.5%-5.3% and 585 females (5.6%, 95% CI: 48.7%-54.5%, ages comprised between 14 and 18 years, and schooled at centers of secondary educational level from Santander, by means of a questionnaire. Results: vegetables (54.7% and legumes (18.7% represent the main nutritional aversions of adolescents. On

  10. Adolescent childbearing. (United States)

    Vernon, M


    The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness

  11. [Adolescence and AIDS]. (United States)


    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  12. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.


    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them wi

  13. Patterns of Sedentary Behaviours in Irish Female Adolescents (United States)

    Regan, Aine; Heary, Caroline


    Engagement in excessive sedentary behaviour represents a health risk for adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour amongst Irish female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years old. 314 adolescents completed a questionnaire on their sedentary behaviour habits, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking,…

  14. Japanese Adolescents' Disclosure and Information Management with Parents (United States)

    Nucci, Larry; Smetana, Judith; Araki, Noriyuki; Nakaue, Masataka; Comer, Jessamy


    Adolescents' obligation to disclose and their actual disclosure about their activities to parents, justifications for nondisclosure, and strategies for information management were examined in different domains in 460 middle adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.6 years) from working and middle-class families in Japan. Adolescents felt most…

  15. Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescence: The Role of Subthreshold Symptoms (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.


    Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…

  16. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.


    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  17. Mother– and Father–Adolescent Relationships and Early Sexual Intercourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, R.; van de Bongardt, D.; van de Looij-Jansen, P.; Wijtzes, A.; Raat, H.


    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prospective associations between mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationship quality and early sexual intercourse initiation (ie, ≤16 years) among a large sample of Dutch adolescents. METHODS: Two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study

  18. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima


    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  19. Japanese Adolescents' Disclosure and Information Management with Parents (United States)

    Nucci, Larry; Smetana, Judith; Araki, Noriyuki; Nakaue, Masataka; Comer, Jessamy


    Adolescents' obligation to disclose and their actual disclosure about their activities to parents, justifications for nondisclosure, and strategies for information management were examined in different domains in 460 middle adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.6 years) from working and middle-class families in Japan. Adolescents felt most obligated…

  20. Posttraumatic Stress in Adolescents with Asthma and Their Parents (United States)

    Kean, Emily Millikan; Kelsay, Kimberly; Wamboldt, Frederick; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.


    Objective: To assess posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in adolescents with and without asthma and their parents and the relationship between PTS symptoms and asthma morbidity. Method: Three groups of adolescents (12-18 years) participated: adolescents who had experienced a life-threatening asthma episode (n = 49), asthma controls (n = 71), and…

  1. Mother-Adolescent Conflict: Stability, Change, and Relations with Externalizing (United States)

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Valiente, Carlos; Kupfer, Anne; Eggum, Natalie D.


    Stability and change in mother-adolescent conflict reactions (CRs) and the prediction of CRs from adolescents' earlier behavior problems (and vice versa) were examined with 131 mothers and their adolescents (63 boys). Dyads engaged in a 6-min conflict discussion twice, 2 years apart ["M" age was 13 at Time 1 (T1)]. Non-verbal expressive…

  2. Is knee pain during adolescence a self-limiting condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S.; Rathleff, Camilla R.; Olesen, Jens L.


    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adolescent knee pain is 33%, and patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most common diagnosis with a nontraumatic onset. The 2-year prognosis of adolescent PFP compared with other types of knee pain is unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the 2-year prognosis of knee pain among...... adolescents with and without a diagnosis of PFP. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: In 2011, a cohort of 2200 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years answered an online questionnaire on musculoskeletal pain. Of these, 504 reported knee pain, and 153 of these were clinically diagnosed with PFP....... After 2 years, the 504 adolescents, as well as 252 randomly selected adolescents who did not report knee pain in 2011, were contacted again. Primary outcome at follow-up was the proportion of adolescents with knee pain during the last week prior to follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 55.9% (95% CI, 50...

  3. Residual β-Cell Function 3 to 6 Years After Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Reduces Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Sand; Johannesen, Jesper; Pociot, Flemming


    boys) 4.8-18.9 years of age with type 1 diabetes for 3-6 years were included. RBF was assessed by testing meal-stimulated C-peptide concentrations. Information regarding severe hypoglycemia within the past year, current HbA(1c), and daily insulin requirements was retrieved from the medical records...

  4. Mothers' and fathers' knowledge of adolescents' daily activities: its sources and its links with adolescent adjustment. (United States)

    Waizenhofer, Robyn N; Buchanan, Christy M; Jackson-Newsom, Julia


    To elucidate the benefits ascribed to parental monitoring, the authors examined links between parental knowledge and methods of obtaining knowledge about adolescents' activities, and links between these constructs and adolescent adjustment. The roles of parent gender, adolescent gender, and family earner status in these associations were also studied. Participants were 95 adolescents (ages 10 to 17 years, 60% male and 40% female) and their parents. Mothers knew more about adolescents' activities than did fathers and were more likely than fathers to gain information by active supervision or voluntary disclosure from the adolescent. Fathers, more than mothers, received information via spouses. Active methods of supervision predicted more knowledge among fathers and mothers from dual-earner families but not among mothers from single-earner families. More maternal knowledge predicted lower adolescent deviance. No method of gaining knowledge predicted adjustment directly.

  5. Contextual influence of Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent. (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita


    This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media.

  6. Quality-of-life factors in adolescent inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    MacPhee, M; Hoffenberg, E J; Feranchak, A


    Little is known about the specific psychosocial factors that influence quality of life in adolescents with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We adapted a model by Garrett and Drossman to assess adolescent adjustment to recent-onset IBD. Thirty adolescent-parent pairs completed a set of standardized questionnaires. The inclusion criteria were adolescents 12-18 years of age with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis of life scores significantly correlated with satisfaction and degree of closeness with their social support members, such as parents. An unexpected finding was that the adolescents included more extended family than peers in their social support networks. Also of note was that parental coping styles rather than adolescent coping styles significantly correlated with adolescents' quality-of-life health scores. Severity of illness did not correlate with adolescent quality-of-life health scores. There was significant agreement between adolescent and parental quality-of-life health scores and stressful event ratings. Adolescents with recent-onset IBD rely more on family members than their peers for emotional support, and they depend more on their parents' coping skills than their own. These findings may indicate lags in normal adolescent development. Adolescents and parents do communicate and share concerns with each other. Support programs for adolescents with IBD should reinforce existing coping skills and parent-adolescent communication while promoting normative development.

  7. Assessments of adolescent language. (United States)

    Wiig, E H


    I have stressed that language and learning disabilities that are exhibited in the preschool or elementary school years often persist into adolescence but that the characteristics and implications of these disabilities change with the preadolescent and adolescent transitions to metalinguistic maturity. As the student with language disabilities matures and as educational demands increase in complexity and in level of abstractness, the interactions between language and cognition become more apparent. Language disabilities of adolescents are often described in relation to observed deficits in the acquisition of content (semantics), form (morphology and syntax), and use (pragmatics). I have broadened this perspective to consider identification of metalinguistic strengths and/or deficits, deficits in the integration and organization of communication, reasoning and problem solving, and in conceptualization and creativity. Several assessment options were discussed, among them, norm-and criterion- referenced testing, language sample analysis, portfolio assessments of integrated communication, observational checklists and interviews, classroom language probes, and self-assessments. The perspectives taken for assessment have been that no single assessment option can satisfy all assessment objectives and/or constraints. I have also stressed that all tests are subject to measurement error and how to account for this error. Last, but not least, I have shared some of the voices of adolescents which express their perspectives and priorities.

  8. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour. (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo


    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  9. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking


    Saari, Antti J; Jukka Kentala; Mattila, Kari J


    Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 (n = 1,072). Respondents' smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% (n = 813) of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Res...

  10. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study


    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh


    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...

  11. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents



    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was o...

  12. Parents as a Resource: Communication Quality Affects the Relationship between Adolescents' Internet Use and Loneliness (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Holtz, Peter; Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad


    The authors examined the influence of parent-adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the link between adolescents' Internet use and loneliness, controlling for perceived family support in general terms. Adolescents (N = 216, M[subscript age] = 15.80 years) provided data on Internet use, loneliness, Internet-related…

  13. Adolescent Romantic Relationships in China and Canada: A Cross-National Comparison (United States)

    Li, Zhi Hong; Connolly, Jennifer; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy


    This study compared the romantic involvements of Canadian and Chinese adolescents as well as linkages with friend and parental relationships. Participants were 496 Chinese adolescents and 395 Canadian adolescents, aged 16-17 years. Chinese adolescents were less likely to have any form of romantic involvement, including a romantic relationship,…

  14. Future Time Perspective: Adolescents' Predictions of Their Interpersonal Lives in the Future. (United States)

    Blinn, Lynn M.; Pike, Gary


    Investigated adolescent future time perspective in adolescents (N=125) aged 15 to 20 years. Found adolescents did not perceive divorce in their future although periods of singlehood, widowhood, and nuclear family life were perceived as extremely likely, particularly among female adolescents. (Author/ABL)

  15. Identity development in deaf adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E. Saskia


    We studied identity development during 5 years in 11 deaf adolescents who attend a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 19 years). Identity development is conceptualized by the processes of exploration and commitment formation, as formulate

  16. Clinical characteristics of depression among 6 ~ 16 years old children and adolescents in Chengdu%成都市儿童青少年抑郁障碍临床特征调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郭莺; 杨彦春; 黄颐; 孙学礼


    Objective To determine the clinical characteristics of depression among 6~ 16 years old children and adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional studies was conducted in 4585 children and adolescents in grades 1 ~10in Chengdu. All subjects were first screened for depression using strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ) and those with SDQ-identified depression were then assessed using the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA). Their final diagnosis were made according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fourth edition (DSM-IV).Results SDQ detected total 55 patients from 4585 children and adolescents and the positive rate was 50.2% (2302/4585). Among them, 29 patients had major depression, 26 patients had depression NOS. The overall prevalence of depressive disorders was l.2% (55/4585). The median age of onset was 13 years old (P25: 11 years old. P75: 15 years old) and the peak age of onset was 15 years old, which accounted for 21.8% (12/55) of total patients. The three most common symptoms of depression , in a descent order, were depressed mood (74.5%) . irritability (72.7%) and fatigue or decreased energy (72.7%). 34.5% ( 19/55) of children and adolescents with depressive disorders had experiences to try to hurt themselves or commit suicide and 70.9% (39/55) patients had a past history of' depression. Depression impaired learning, social and entertainment of depressed children and adolescents to varying degrees. 74.5% (41/55) of patients had learning problems. The condition was usually mild to moderate in the majority ( 78.2% , 43/55 ) of patients. Conclusion Depressive disorder during children and adolescents should be paid attention to early detectedamd early treated.%目的 探讨成都市儿童青少年抑郁障碍的临床特征.方法 采用量表筛查和访谈结合的方法对成都市五城区6 ~ 16岁的4585名在校学生进行抑郁障碍调查.首先应用长处和困难问卷(strength and

  17. Continuity in sex-typed behavior from preschool to adolescence: a longitudinal population study of boys and girls aged 3-13 years. (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa


    Sex-typed behavior was assessed at age 3 using the Pre-School Activities Inventory, and at age 13 using the Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale, in 54 masculine boys, 57 masculine girls, 75 feminine boys, 65 feminine girls, 61 control boys, and 65 control girls. At age 13, girls who had been masculine at age 3 felt less similar to other girls, were less content being a girl, and had greater self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control girls, and girls who had been feminine at age 3 had greater self-efficacy for female-typed activities. Boys who had been feminine at age 3 felt less similar to other boys and had lower self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control boys at age 13, and boys who had been masculine at age 3 felt more competent in agentic roles. Thus, sex-typed behavior at age 3 predicted sex-typed behavior at age 13. It was concluded that the degree of sex-typed behavior shown by preschool children is a good indicator of their degree of sex-typed behavior following the transition to adolescence.

  18. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel


    This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults.

  19. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka


    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  20. Early Adolescent Childbearing: Some Further Notes. (United States)

    Hoeppner, Marie

    Current research on adolescent fertility indicates that illegitimacy is becoming concentrated in the teenage and even preteen years. Increasing sexual activity, lack of contraceptive information and techniques, and a desired pregnancy are possible explanations. Some of the problems faced by adolescent mothers include more complicated pregnancies,…

  1. Factors Identifying Successful Adolescent Career Awareness Programs. (United States)

    Polanco, Mary Liz

    Helping adolescents make successful career decisions has been the concern of the education system, with a variety of methods being tried over the years. A literature review indicated that there are a number of successful programs giving adolescents a good basis from which to make career choices. State and national levels contribute funding and…

  2. Motor Coordination and Intelligence Level in Adolescents (United States)

    Planinsec, Jurij; Pisot, Rado


    This study investigated the relationship between motor coordination and intelligence level in adolescents. The sample was comprised of 550 adolescents from Slovenia, aged 13.1 years (SD = 0.87), who attended elementary schools. For assessment of motor coordination a battery of eight tests were used. Assessment of intelligence was carried out with…

  3. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents (United States)

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis


    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  4. A framework for exploring adolescent wellness. (United States)

    Spurr, Shelley; Bally, Jill; Ogenchuk, Marcella; Walker, Keith


    This article presents and explains a "Framework for Exploring Adolescent Wellness" and outlines a research approach used to explore adolescent wellness specific to the discipline of nursing. The "Framework for Exploring Adolescent Wellness" assessed the concept of wellness through the perceptions of youth and sought to explain the relationship between adolescent well-being and development. A wellness survey was used to collect data from 280 youth, 16 to 20 years old, in two Western Canadian high schools. Their perceptions of wellness meant more to them than regular physical activity and healthy eating. The majority of youth suggested that psychological (89%), social (85%), and physical (80%) development made the most significant contribution to adolescent wellness. Slightly more than half the youth felt that spirituality (53%) contributed to their sense of wellness. These research findings indicate the need for an approach to adolescent nursing care that includes a high priority and greater visibility to the practice and philosophy of wellness.

  5. [Alcohol consumption and self esteem in adolescents]. (United States)

    Aguirre, Alicia Alvarez; Alonso Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi


    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of levels of self esteem and alcohol consumption in adolescents, by carrying out a transversal, descriptive study, in a college of nursing of Queretaro in Mexico, in the month of July 2008, with a sample of 109 adolescents, between 17 and 20 years old. For attainment of the data two instruments were applied: AUDIT and the Rosemberg self esteem scale. The majority of the participating adolescents had high self esteem (94.5%) and none presented low self esteem. Of the adolescents in the study 80.7% did not consume alcohol hazardously. It was concluded that the adolescents presented high self esteem and low alcohol consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive programs related to alcohol consumption and to identify the protective factors to guarantee the maintenance of healthy habits for the adolescents.

  6. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Hong


    Full Text Available During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risktaking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues.

  7. ADHD in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christina Mohr

    The most frequent reason for referral to the child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals in Denmark is the suspicion that a child or an adolescent may have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this dissertation was to assess how often ADHD has been diagnosed in Denmark......, to assess the validity of the ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents, to describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of Danish children and adolescents with ADHD, and to assess their long-term risk for crimes. In the years under investigation, the incidence rates of diagnosed ADHD...... had significantly increased and the majority of ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents could be confirmed and were given based on high-quality clinical assessments. Results supported that children and adolescents with ADHD constitute a heterogeneous group that often have comorbid psychiatric...

  8. The influence of behavioural and health problems on alcohol and drug use in late adolescence - a follow up study of 2 399 young Norwegians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratberg Grete H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both early alcohol debut, behavioural and health problems are reported to enhance adolescence substance use. This prospective study investigate the influence of behavioural and health problems on adolescents' alcohol and drug use. Method Prospective population based cohort study of 2 399 adolescents attending the Young-HUNT study, aged 13-15 at baseline in 1995/97, and 17-19 at follow-up 4 years later. Exposure variables were self reported conduct problems, attention problems, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and muscular pain and tension. Outcome variables at follow-up were frequent alcohol use and initiation of drug use. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models, influence of gender and drinking status at baseline were controlled for by stratification. Results At follow-up 19% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more frequently. Baseline conduct problems (OR 2.2, CI 1.7-3.0 and attention problems (OR 1.5, CI 1.2-2.0 increased the risk for frequent alcohol use at follow-up in the total population. Girls who had experienced alcohol-intoxications at baseline showed strong association between baseline problems and frequent alcohol use at follow-up. Conduct problems (OR 2.5, CI 1.3-4.8, attention problems (OR 2.1, CI 1.2-3.4, anxiety/depressive symptoms (OR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.1 and muscular pain and tension (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9 all were associated with frequent alcohol use among early intoxicated girls. 14% of the students had tried cannabis or other drugs at follow-up. Conduct problems at baseline increased the odds for drug use (OR 2.6, CI 1.9-3.6. Any alcohol intoxications at baseline, predicted both frequent alcohol use (boys OR 3.6, CI 2.4-5.2; girls OR 2.8, CI 1.9-4.1, and illegal drug use (boys OR 4.7; CI 3.2-7.0, girls OR 7.7, CI 5.2-11.5 within follow-up. Conclusions Conduct problems in high-school more than doubles the risk for both frequent alcohol use and initiation of drug use later in adolescence

  9. Adolescent loneliness. (United States)

    Williams, E G


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  10. Analyses of non-synonymous obesity risk alleles in SH2B1 (rs7498665) and APOB48R (rs180743) in obese children and adolescents undergoing a 1-year lifestyle intervention. (United States)

    Volckmar, A-L; Pütter, C; Song, J-Y; Graniger, J; Knoll, N; Wolters, B; Hebebrand, J; Scherag, A; Reinehr, T; Hinney, A


    Association of obesity risk alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near or in the SH2B adaptor protein 1 gene (SH2B1) and increased body mass index (BMI) has been often described. A gene in close proximity, apolipoprotein B48 receptor gene (APOB48R), is tagged by the same SNP(s).We analyzed 454 overweight and obese children and adolescents (10.8±2.6 years, BMI-SDS 2.4±0.5; 55% girls) who completed a 1-year lifestyle intervention ('Obeldicks' program). Carriers of obesity risk alleles of non-synonymous SNPs in SH2B1 (rs7498665, Thr484Ala) or APOB48R (rs180743, Pro419Ala), as genotyped by TaqMan, were analysed for changes in anthropometrics (body-mass index (BMI), and standardized BMI (BMI-SDS)), blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and plasma parameters (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerides, glucose, insulin, and HOMA).We observed no evidence for an association of the obesity risk alleles to alterations in any of the analyzed phenotypes. Both mean BMI and BMI-SDS improved during the intervention independent of genotype. The mean systolic blood pressure was lowered and concentrations of HDL-cholesterol increased significantly.The obesity risk alleles of non-synonymous SNPs at SH2B1 and APOB48R have no strong effect on weight loss-related phenotypes in overweight children after a 1-year lifestyle intervention.

  11. Maternal misconceptions of weight status among Nepean adolescents. (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; Garnett, Sarah P; Campbell, Karen; Carver, Alison; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A


    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physical growth and sexual maturation. These changes may alter parents' beliefs about their adolescent's weight status. This study aimed to examine the changes between early and mid-adolescence in: (a) the accuracy of maternal perception regarding her adolescent's weight status, (b) the degree of maternal concern about her adolescent's weight status, and (c) the predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight as average weight. A secondary analysis of the longitudinal Nepean Study data was conducted. Participants were Australian, free-living 13-year-olds in 2002-2003 (n=347) followed up at age 15 years (n=279) and their mothers. Participants' body mass index (BMI) status (overweight, normal, or underweight) was calculated from measured height and weight. Maternal perceptions and concerns about adolescent's weight status were determined by items adapted from the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Sex-adjusted binary logistic regression models assessed potential predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight. Data were available on 224 adolescent-mother dyads. Approximately one fourth of mothers misclassified their adolescent's weight status, but this varied across groups (age 13 years [%]; age 15 years [%], respectively) underweight (75%; 70%), overweight (54%; 59%), and normal weight (12%; 9%). The endpoint data show that between 13 and 15 years of age, maternal concern regarding their adolescent's weight decreased in all weight-status groups. Predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight were adolescent BMI z score, recent weight-management practices, weight history, sex, and maternal concern regarding her adolescent's weight. These results reinforce the need for strategies in primary care that are implemented throughout adolescence to improve maternal awareness of childhood overweight.

  12. Romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and nonpregnant, nonparenting teens. (United States)

    Medora, N P; Goldstein, A; von der Hellen, C


    Feelings of romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and a control group of nonpregnant, nonparenting adolescents were investigated. The Bachman Self-Esteem Scale (Bachman, O'Malley, & Johnston, 1978) and the Dean Romanticism Scale (Dean, 1961) were distributed to 649 U.S. female adolescents--255 pregnant adolescents, 121 adolescent mothers, and 273 teenagers in the control group. For romanticism, the results indicated a significant main effect for group (pregnant teens, teen mothers, and a control group consisting of nonpregnant, nonparenting teenagers) and ethnicity (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian) but not for age (13 to 15 years and 16 to 19 years). The pregnant teens and teen mothers thus had a higher degree of romanticism than the control group did. For self-esteem, there was a significant main effect for race, but not for group or for age. This main effect was qualified by a significant interaction between ethnicity and age.

  13. Family income and education were related with 30-year time trends in dietary and meal behaviors of American children and adolescents. (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I


    Recent survey data reveal the persistence of long-acknowledged socioeconomic status (SES) differentials in the prevalence of obesity in U.S. children and adolescents. We examined 30-y changes in the association of dietary and meal behaviors with family income and education to understand the possible contribution of these trends to SES trends in obesity rates in 2- to 19-y-old Americans. We used dietary and SES data for 2- to 19-y olds from the NHANES 1971-1974 to 2003-2008 (n = 39,822). The secular changes in the independent association of family income and education with 24-h dietary behaviors [energy intake (kcal), amount of foods and beverages (g), percent energy from all beverages and from nutritive beverages, and energy density of foods] and 24-h meal behaviors [number of eating occasions, energy from snack episodes (%), and mention of breakfast] were examined using multivariable regression methods. The secular increase in energy intake and food and beverage amount was significant in the lowest family SES categories. The positive association of family income and education with intakes of energy, food amounts, and beverage energy, noted in 1971-1974 or 1976-1980, was not observed in later surveys. There was an age gradient in changes in most diet and SES associations over time, with largest adverse changes in 12- to 19-y olds. Higher education was associated with lower energy from snack episodes, breakfast skipping, and energy density of foods and these associations did not change over time. Overall, these results suggest both income and education differentials in secular increases in food amounts and energy intakes.

  14. Validity of the jump-and-reach test in sub-elite adolescent handball players. (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Pabst, Jan; Granacher, Urs; Büsch, Dirk


    The primary purpose of this study was to examine concurrent validity of the jump-and-reach (JaR) test using the Vertec system and a criterion device (i.e., Optojump system). In separate sub-analyses, we investigated the influence of gym floor condition and athletes' sex on the validity of vertical jump height. Four hundred and forty sub-elite adolescent female (n = 222, mean age: 14 ± 1 years, age range: 13-15 years) and male (n = 218, mean age: 15 ± 1 years, age range: 14-16 years) handball players performed the JaR test in gyms with region or point elastic floors. Maximal vertical jump height was simultaneously assessed using the Vertec and the Optojump system. In general, significantly higher jump heights were obtained for the Vertec compared to the Optojump system (11.2 cm, [INCREMENT]31%, Cohen´s d = 2.58). The sub-analyses revealed significantly larger jump heights for the Vertec compared to the Optojump system irrespective of gym floor condition and players' sex. The association between Optojump and Vertec-derived vertical jump height amounted to rP = 0.84, with a coefficient of determination (R) of 0.71. The sub-analyses indicated significantly larger correlations in males (rP = 0.75, R = 0.56) than in females (rP = 0.63, R = 0.40). Yet, correlations were not significantly different between region (rP = 0.83, R = 0.69) as opposed to point elastic floor (rP = 0.87, R = 0.76). Our findings indicate that the two apparatus cannot be used interchangeably. Consequently, gym floor and sex specific regression equations were provided to estimate true (Optojump system) vertical jump height from Vertec-derived data.

  15. Immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence at 3, 5, and 10 years postvaccination in adolescents randomized to booster immunization with a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine administered with a hepatitis B virus vaccine concurrently or 1 month apart. (United States)

    Embree, Joanne; Law, Barbara; Voloshen, Tim; Tomovici, Antigona


    An understanding of the antibody persistence elicited by a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Tdap-IPV) after adolescent vaccination is important to optimize booster dosing intervals. Our objectives were to compare the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap-IPV coadministered with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and sequential administration and evaluate humoral immunity at 3, 5, and 10 years after Tdap-IPV vaccination in adolescents. This phase II randomized, controlled, and open-label study enrolled 280 11- to 14-year-old adolescents with up to 10 years postvaccination follow-up. Group 1 (n = 145) received Tdap-IPV, followed by a HepB dose 1 month later, and group 2 (n = 135) received both vaccines simultaneously. No consistent increases in solicited reactions or unsolicited adverse events occurred with coadministration. All vaccinees attained seroprotective antibody levels at ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, at a ≥1:8 dilution for poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, and 3), and ≥10 mIU/ml for hepatitis B at 1 month postvaccination. Clinically relevant immunologic interactions did not occur with coadministration. For pertussis, all participants achieved seropositivity levels (at or above the lower limit of quantitation), and 72.7% to 95.8% had 4-fold increases in pertussis antibodies at 1 month postvaccination. At 10 years postvaccination, the remaining participants (62.8% of the original cohort) maintained seroprotective levels of ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, a ≥1:8 dilution for all 3 poliovirus serotypes, and 74.1% to 98.2% maintained pertussis seropositivity levels depending on the antigen tested. There were no differences between the groups. These results support the coadministration of Tdap-IPV and HepB to adolescents and suggest that vaccination with Tdap-IPV can offer protection for 10 years after an adolescent booster vaccination.

  16. The influence of discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics on the well-being of adolescents. (United States)

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E


    The present study examined whether discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics predict adolescent well-being over time. Self-report data from 972 adolescent-parent dyads collected at two time points separated by one year were analyzed. Both adolescents and parents rated a variety of family dynamics (e.g., cohesion), and adolescents reported on their levels of well-being (confidence, purpose in life, and positive relations with others). Significant discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning were found for all positive family dynamics, but not for family conflict. Furthermore, discrepancies increased over time and larger discrepancies were noted for older adolescents. Results from the residualized path model showed that discrepancies were bidirectionally related to adolescent well-being. In addition, age was found to moderate the predictive model. Specifically, 14-15 year olds (year 10) were found to be more stable in their well-being over time than younger adolescents. Also, results indicate that well-being is a significantly stronger negative predictor of discrepancies over time for the 14-15 year olds (year 10) than the for 10-11 year olds (year 6). The authors suggest that future research would benefit from investigations of the relationship between divergent perspectives of family members and adjustment outcomes of adolescents.

  17. Developing quality measures for adolescent care: validity of adolescents' self-reported receipt of preventive services.


    Klein, J D; Graff, C A; Santelli, J S; Hedberg, V A; Allan, M. J.; Elster, A. B.


    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of directly surveying adolescents about the content of preventive health services they have received and to assess the validity of adolescent self-reported recall. DATA SOURCES/SETTING: Audiotaped encounters, telephone interviews, and chart reviews with 14-21 year olds being seen for preventive care visits at 15 pediatric and family medicine private practices, teaching hospital clinics, and health centers. DESIGN: 537 adolescents presenting for well v...

  18. Assessing resilience in adolescence: The Spanish adaptation of the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire


    Guilera, Georgina; Pereda, Noemí; Paños, Ana; Abad, Judit


    Background The concept and assessment of resilience have attracted considerable attention in recent years, but none of the instruments developed to measure resilience in adolescents have been adapted to the Spanish context. The Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) provides a comprehensive and multidimensional assessment of the resources associated with resilience in adolescents. Methods This study analyzes the psychometric properties of the ARQ. Participants included a community sample o...

  19. A 7-year follow-up retrospective, international, multicenter study of insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. (United States)

    Mameli, Chiara; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Ho, Josephine; Cardona-Hernandez, Roque; Suarez-Ortega, Larisa; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo


    We evaluated the long-term glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for at least 5 years in three diabetes centers from three different countries: Canada, Italy and Spain. This was an observational retrospective multicenter cohort study. Subjects were included if they were followed at one of the participating centers, had type 1 diabetes, age 5-20 years at time of data collection and used CSII for more than 5 years. Data collected included gender, age, disease duration, age at CSII initiation, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin requirement and serious adverse events (SAE) at baseline and every 12 months during follow-up. One hundred fifteen patients were included in the study (55% males), aged 5-20 years (mean: 13.5 ± 3.8 years), with mean diabetes duration of 6.3 ± 3.4 years, using CSII for mean of 6.9 ± 1.2 years (range 5-12 years.). HbA1c significantly improved after 1 year of CSII treatment and during follow-up (p = 0.02). When HbA1c was compared between countries, a difference was observed, with slightly lower values in Italy than in Canada and Spain (p = 0.04). When evaluated by gender, HbA1c was similar at baseline, but significantly improved only in males during all follow-up (p = 0.004). No significant differences were observed for BMI, insulin requirement or SAE. Insulin pump therapy is safe and effective in the pediatric population, although in this study, the major benefit in HbA1c was seen in males. The use of advanced pump features was associated with greater improvement in HbA1c.

  20. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis. (United States)

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J


    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.

  1. Behavioral Disorder amongst Adolescents Attending Secondary School in Southeast Nigeria

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    J. M. Chinawa


    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49% adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11% adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8% committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems.

  2. Divergence between adolescent and parental perceptions of conflict in relationship to adolescent empathy development. (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan J T; Koot, Hans M; Van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J


    Adolescents' developing empathy may be associated with the frequency of conflict with parents, as well as the level of agreement between adolescent and parental perceptions of the frequency of such conflicts. This 6-year longitudinal study investigated the link between adolescent empathy development and perceptions of the frequency of parent-child conflict, as reported by 467 adolescents (43% female, from age 13) and both parents. First, we investigated heterogeneity in empathy development by identifying classes of individuals with similar developmental trajectories. Adolescents were categorized into high-, average-, and low-empathy classes. Initial differences between these classes further increased from age 13 to 16, particularly for cognitive empathy. To assess the association between empathy and the frequency of conflict, we compared these empathy classes in terms of initial levels and over-time changes in the frequency of adolescent- and parent-reported conflict. Compared to the average- and high-empathy classes, the low-empathy class evidenced elevated conflict throughout adolescence. Furthermore, the low- and average-empathy classes demonstrated temporary divergence between adolescent- and parent-reported conflict from early- to mid-adolescence, with adolescents underreporting conflict compared to both parents. Adolescents' agreement with parents was moderated by empathy class, while parents were always in agreement with one another. This may suggest that these discrepancies are related to distortions in adolescents' perceptions, as opposed to biased parental reports. These findings highlight the potential importance of early detection and intervention in empathy deficiencies, and suggest that lower adolescent empathy may indicate elevated family conflict, even if a failure to consider parents' perspective leads adolescents to underreport it.

  3. CDC Grand Rounds: Adolescence - Preparing for Lifelong Health and Wellness. (United States)

    Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe


    Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future.

  4. Group Work with Parents of Adolescent Sex Offenders: Intervention Guidelines

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    Robert Bennett


    Full Text Available Interest and attention to adolescent sex offenders has increased greatly over the past twenty years. Allegations of adolescent sexual improprieties are known to have profound and disruptive repercussions on the entire family, especially the parents of the offending adolescent. Adolescent criminal acts, in general, result in a myriad of disconcerting emotions experienced by the parent(s. Although a great deal of attention is currently being focused upon treatment of adolescent sex offenders, little is being written about intervention with parents of these adolescents. This paper reviews the clinical and research literature pertaining to the family dimensions of male adolescent sexual offending behavior and offers a set of guidelines for use in group practice with parents of these adolescent.

  5. Social Identity Change: Shifts in Social Identity during Adolescence (United States)

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret


    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then…

  6. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte


    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up smoking

  7. Sobrepeso em adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos em um município da região Sul do Brasil Overweight in adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old in a Southern Brazilian city

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    Marcia Cristina Dalla Costa


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a freqüência de sobrepeso em adolescentes, bem como os fatores ambientais, biológicos e socioeconômicos associados, no município de Toledo, Paraná. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal desenvolvido com adolescentes matriculados no ensino médio, de 14 a 19 anos, do período diurno da área urbana do município. Adotou-se o índice de massa corporal/idade para diagnosticar exposição ao risco de sobrepeso. Utilizou-se um questionário pré-testado para levantamento dos dados pessoais, antropométricos, biológicos e hábitos, como: usar TV, vídeo e computador, praticar esportes e freqüência das refeições. Para a situação socioeconômica, foi utilizado o critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil da Associação Nacional de Empresas de Pesquisa. RESULTADOS: dos adolescentes, 3,8% apresentaram baixo peso e 10,2% sobrepeso. Associação estatisticamente significativa foi encontrada para a freqüência de sobrepeso entre os adolescentes que realizavam quatro ou mais refeições/dia (5,5% e entre aqueles que realizavam até três refeições/dia (16,3%. Ao estratificar o sobrepeso por classes econômicas, as freqüências mostram uma tendência de decréscimo de sobrepeso com a queda da classe econômica. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência de sobrepeso é superior à de baixo peso, o qual se encontra abaixo dos índices identificados em outros municípios brasileiros. Menor número de refeições e classes econômicas mais elevadas apresentaram associação com o sobrepeso.OBJECTIVES: to identify overweight incidence in adolescents as well as associated environmental, biological, social and economic factors in the municipality of Toledo, Paraná. METHODS: a cross sectional study was performed with adolescents enrolled in middle school aged 14 to 19 years old, in day classes of the urban area in the municipality. Body mass/age rates were used to diagnose the risk of overweight exposure. A pretested questionnaire was used to

  8. Five year trends on total and abdominal adiposity in Spanish adolescents Tendencias durante cinco años en la grasa total y abdominal en adolescentes españoles

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    L. A. Moreno


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess five years trends in total and abdominal fat in Spanish adolescents. Design: Two cross-sectional studies: adolescents from the city of Zaragoza (Spain assessed during 2001-2002 and 2006-2007. Subjects: 399 adolescents in 2001-02 and 392 adolescents in 2006-07. Main outcome measurements: Socio-economic status was assessed using the education level of both parents. A complete anthropometric assessment was performed in both surveys using the same methodology: weight, height, skinfold thickness (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, thigh and calf and circumferences (waist and hip. The body mass index (BMI and the sum of 6 skinfold thicknesses were calculated. Body fat percentage (BF% was also calculated by the formulas described by Slaughter et al. Results: After adjusting for age and pubertal status, only females showed a significantly decrease in weight, BMI and waist circumference, and a significant increase in the sum of 6 skinfolds (all P Objetivo: Evaluar las tendencias de cinco años de la grasa total y abdominal de adolescentes españoles. Diseño: Dos estudios transversales: adolescentes de la ciudad de Zaragoza (España evaluados durante 2001-2002 y 2006-2007. Sujetos: 399 adolescentes en 2001-02 y 392 adolescentes en 2006-07. Principales variables estudiadas: El estado socioeconómico se evaluó usando el nivel educativo de ambos progenitores. Se realizó una evaluación antropométrica completa en ambos estudios con la misma metodología: peso, talla, grosor del pliegue (bíceps, tríceps, subescapular, suprailíaco, muslo y pantorrilla y circunferencias (cintura y cadera. Se calcularon el índice de masa corporal (IMC y la suma del grosor de 6 pliegues. También se calculó el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC con las fórmulas descritas por Slaughter et al. Resultados: tras ajustar por edad y estado puberal, sólo las chicas mostraron un descenso significativo del peso, IMC y la circunferencia de la cintura, y

  9. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007-2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe. (United States)

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Iorga, Magdalena; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir


    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20-24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70-0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10-1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03-1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90-3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04-2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12-2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26-0.71), 0.90 (0.85-0.96), and 0.29 (0.20-0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers.

  10. Treating Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  11. Adolescent growth and development. (United States)

    Chulani, Veenod L; Gordon, Lonna P


    Adolescence is a developmental stage defined by physical and psychosocial maturation. This article reviews normal pubertal development and the evaluation and management of adolescents with suspected pubertal abnormalities and provides an overview of adolescent psychosocial development.

  12. Adolescent homosexuality. (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G


    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.

  13. Concurrent work with parents of adolescent patients. (United States)

    Novick, Kerry Kelly; Novick, Jack


    Over the last ten years we have seen an increasing acceptance of the general idea of working with parents of child patients. What remains, however, as an area of controversy, conflict, and resistance, is the question of whether and how much therapists should or can work with the parents of adolescent patients. Questions cluster around how to maintain confidentiality and lead to the even larger issue of conceptualizing the developmental goals of the phase of adolescence. We see the major developmental tasks for both parents and adolescents as involving transformation of the self and the relationship, in the context of separateness rather than separation. If adolescent therapists work from the assumption that the goal of adolescence is transformation, concurrent work with parents and adolescents will move them all into a new level of relationship. Without concomitant change in parents, it is doubly hard for adolescents to progress into adulthood. In this paper we offer clinical material from five older adolescents and their parents to illustrate the techniques that follow from our model of dynamic concurrent parent work throughout the phases of treatment. Using the tasks of the therapeutic alliance as a conceptual framework, we describe working toward the dual goals of restoration to the path of progressive development and restoration of the parent-child relationship. We pay particular attention to the unfolding of conflicts between closed-system omnipotent functioning and open-system reality mastery, and the role offathers in late-adolescent development.

  14. Adolescent HIV/AIDS: Issues and challenges

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    Naswa Smriti


    Full Text Available Adolescence (10- 19 years is a phase of physical growth and development accompanied by sexual maturation, often leading to intimate relationships. Adolescent HIV/AIDS is a separate epidemic and needs to be handled and managed separately from adult HIV. The adolescents can be subdivided into student, slum and street youth; street adolescents being most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Among various risk factors and situations for adolescents contracting HIV virus are adolescent sex workers, child trafficking, child labor, migrant population, childhood sexual abuse, coercive sex with an older person and biologic (immature reproductive tract as well as psychological vulnerability. The most common mode of transmission is heterosexual, yet increasing number of perinatally infected children are entering adolescence. This is due to "bimodal progression" (rapid and slow progressors among the vertically infected children. Clinically, the HIV infected adolescents present as physically stunted individuals, with delayed puberty and adrenarche. Mental illness and substance abuse are important co-morbidities. The disclosure and declaration of HIV status to self and family is challenging and guilt in sexually infected adolescents and tendency to blame parents if vertically affected need special consideration and proper counseling. Serodiscordance of the twins and difference in disease progression of seroconcordant twins are added causes of emotional trauma. Treatment related issues revolve around the when and what of initiation of ART; the choice of antiretrovirals and their dosages; issues related to long term ADRs; sense of disinhibition following ART commencement; adherence and resistance.

  15. Adolescent home food environments and socioeconomic position. (United States)

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Savige, Gayle; Worsley, Anthony


    Many adolescents have diets that are less than optimal, particularly adolescents of low socioeconomic position (SEP). The determinants of SEP differences in adolescent dietary intake are poorly understood. This study examined the home food environments of adolescents and specifically investigated whether low SEP adolescents have less supportive home meal environments, fewer eating rules and poorer home availability of fruit and vegetables than adolescents of high SEP. A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to 3,264 adolescents in years 7 and 9, from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescent perceptions of the home meal environment, eating rules and home food availability were described and compared across SEP, which was measured using maternal education. Maternal education was linked to various aspects of the home meal environment, as well as home food availability, but not to eating rules. Low SEP adolescents were more likely to report that they were always allowed to watch television during meal times, and that unhealthy foods were always or usually available at home. In contrast, high SEP adolescents were more likely to report that vegetables were always served at dinner, that the evening meal was never an unpleasant time and always or usually a time for family connectedness, and that fruit was always or usually available at home. This study highlights aspects of the home food environment that might explain SEP variation in adolescent diets. Feasible ways of increasing home availability of healthy foods, and encouraging home meal environments to be supportive of healthy eating should be explored, particularly in households of low SEP adolescents.

  16. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review



    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative ho...

  17. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms. (United States)

    Butler, Amy C


    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  18. Incidence of eating disorder beheviors in child and adolescent´s mental health unit H.G. Cuidad Real year 2008

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    Ricardo Tejeda Serrano


    Full Text Available The Children´s Mental Health Unit is the ambulatory reference device for the evaluation and treatment of mental disorders in children (0-18 years. One role of nursing is to collect and analyze epidemiological data on the unit. Within the social upheavals that have aroused more interest in the recent past are the eating disorders (ED, which often pose a challenge in the care capacity of the devices of Mental Health that may be overwhelmed, not only the greater number of patients in recent years, but above all for the welfare needs of these patients.

  19. The sociodemographic factors related with the adolescent pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seva Oner; Gulcin Yapici; Ahmet Oner Kurt; Tayyar Sasmaz; Resul Bugdayci


    Objective:The adolescent pregnancy is one of the most important problems in the21st century. The adolescent pregnancies pose more health risks to both mothers and babies when compared with the adult pregnancies.Of all the births in the world,11% are given by the adolescents.The aim of the study was to determine the sociodemographic factors concerning with the adolescent pregnancy.Methods:This study was conducted at18 primary health care centers inMersin, Turkey.The adolescent group was comprised of pregnant women younger than19 years, the adult group was comprised of pregnants aged between20-29 years.The questionnaire was conducted with face-to-face interviews.Results:Respondents included107 pregnant adolescents and 110 pregnant adults.The median age of adolescent group and adult group was18 and26 years, respectively.About61.7% of the pregnant adolescents and94.5% of the pregnant adults were officially married.In the adolescent group, the family frequency without social security was more than that in the adult group.In the adult group, the frequency of opposing the adolescent pregnancy for their families was more than that in the adolescent group.The adolescent pregnancy among sisters and friends of the adolescent pregnants was more frequent compared with that in the adult group.Conclusions:The family frequency without social security was more in the adolescent group.This situation is certain to cause more problems for the adolescents in benefiting from the health care services.We are absolutely think that efforts should be made so as to improve the society in terms of social and cultural aspects.

  20. Discontinuance of ADHD Treatment in Adolescents

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    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Prevalence of ADHD drug discontinuance in adolescents and young adults was studied in the UK by using the General Practice Database for patients aged 15-21 years from 1999 to 2006.

  1. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating. (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol


    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  2. Development during adolescence of the neural processing of social emotion. (United States)

    Burnett, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Moll, Jorge; Frith, Chris; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne


    In this fMRI study, we investigated the development between adolescence and adulthood of the neural processing of social emotions. Unlike basic emotions (such as disgust and fear), social emotions (such as guilt and embarrassment) require the representation of another's mental states. Nineteen adolescents (10-18 years) and 10 adults (22-32 years) were scanned while thinking about scenarios featuring either social or basic emotions. In both age groups, the anterior rostral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was activated during social versus basic emotion. However, adolescents activated a lateral part of the MPFC for social versus basic emotions, whereas adults did not. Relative to adolescents, adults showed higher activity in the left temporal pole for social versus basic emotions. These results show that, although the MPFC is activated during social emotion in both adults and adolescents, adolescents recruit anterior (MPFC) regions more than do adults, and adults recruit posterior (temporal) regions more than do adolescents.

  3. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy? (United States)

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Stable prediction of mood and anxiety disorders based on behavioral and emotional problems in childhood: a 14-year follow-up during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Roza (Sabine); M.B. Hofstra (Marijke); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to predict the onset of mood and anxiety disorders from parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems in childhood across a 14-year period from childhood into young adulthood. METHOD: In 1983, parent reports of behavioral and em

  5. Evaluation of a Life Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use in Two European Countries: One-Year Follow-Up (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Weichold, Karina


    Background: Life skills programs are effective tools to combat youth substance use. However there is a lack of studies concerning their effectiveness in Europe. Objective: This study investigated the 1 year follow up effects and the program implementation of a life skills school-based intervention (IPSY: Information + Psychosocial…

  6. Prevalence, incidence rates and persistence of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study: a 15-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, C. G.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner


    BACKGROUND: A cohort of 1501 unselected 8th grade schoolchildren was established 15 years ago with the aim to follow the course of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from school age into adult life. To date no studies have evaluated incidence rates and persistence of contact...

  7. Adolescents' reasoning about parental gender roles. (United States)

    Brose, Sara J; Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot


    In an examination of how adolescents reason about several factors related to division of childcare labor, 38 adolescents, including 20 girls (M age = 16.36 years, SD = .50) and 18 boys (M age = 16.59 years, SD = .62) were interviewed about conflicts between a mother and a father over which parent should stay home with the child, the authority of the father, and similar issues in a traditional culture. The relative income of each parent was varied. Participants considered the needs of the child most when reasoning about infants, and the right to work most frequently when reasoning about preschoolers (p gender equity and adolescents' future goals were discussed.

  8. Epidemic suicide among Micronesian adolescents. (United States)

    Rubinstein, D H


    Suicide rates since 1960 in Micronesia (the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have undergone an epidemic-like increase. This phenomenon is focused narrowly within the 15--24-year male age-group. Extremely high rates and culturally patterned motives and methods are now characteristic of this group. Survey research throughout Micronesia suggests that the epidemic increase in adolescent male suicide is a cohort effect among the first post-war generation. Traditional adolescent socialization in pre-war Micronesia largely involved village-level subsistence activities organized around communal lineage-houses. This extra-familial level of socialization served as a cultural solution to the residential and psychological distance post-pubertal males maintained from their domestic families. With the post-war social change in Micronesia, the communal village-level of organization has largely disintegrated, causing adolescent socialization functions to be absorbed by the nuclear family. The resulting situations of intergenerational domestic discord appear the primary social triggers for adolescent suicide. At the same time, suicides have acquired subcultural significance among male youth, giving rise to fad-like and imitative acts. A 3-year research project is now being undertaken to conduct an ethnographic study of factors contributing to adolescent stress and suicide in one Micronesian community.

  9. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents (United States)

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.


    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  10. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.


    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure…

  11. What Is Adolescence?: Adolescents Narrate Their Lives in Lima, Peru (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.


    This study explores the lives of Peruvian adolescents in a low-income human settlement outside of Lima. Twenty 12-17 year olds were asked to narrate their own life stories using the life history narrative research method. Holistic content analysis was coupled with a grounded-theory approach to explore these data. Intergenerational responsibility,…

  12. Adolescents in conflict: Intercultural contact attitudes of immigrant mothers and adolescents as predictors of family conflicts. (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F; Sonnenberg, Katharina


    Recent research demonstrates that intergenerational differences in immigrant families' adaptation can be detrimental for family functioning. However, most of the findings originate from immigrant groups in North America who face different situations compared with European Diaspora returnees. This comparative study investigated whether ethnic German Diaspora immigrant adolescents' and mothers' disagreement about the desirability of adolescents' intercultural contact with native peers relates to more conflict in the family domain. In addition, we accounted for general developmental factors predicting family conflict by considering adolescents' background in terms of prosocial behaviour and hyperactivity. Participants comprised 185 Diaspora immigrant mother-adolescent dyads from the former Soviet Union living in Germany (adolescents: mean age 15.7 years, 60% female) and 197 native German mother-adolescent dyads (adolescents: mean age 14.7 years, 53% female). Results indicated a similar level of family conflict in immigrant and native families. However, conflict was elevated in those immigrant families disagreeing on intercultural contact attitudes, independent of the significant effects of adolescents' background of prosocial behaviour or hyperactivity. Our study highlights potential side effects in the family domain, if immigrant adolescents and parents disagree in their attitude regarding adaptation to the host culture's life domains, such as contact with native peers.

  13. Brief report: Agreement between parent and adolescent autonomy expectations and its relationship to adolescent adjustment. (United States)

    Pérez, J Carola; Cumsille, Patricio; Martínez, M Loreto


    While disagreement in autonomy expectations between parents and their adolescent children is normative, it may also compromise adolescent adjustment. This study examines the association between parents' and adolescents' agreement on autonomy expectations by cognitive social domains and adolescent adjustment. A sample of 211 Chilean dyads of adolescents (57% female, Mage = 15.29 years) and one of their parents (82% mothers, Mage = 44.36 years) reported their expectations for the age at which adolescents should decide on their own regarding different issues in their life. Indexes of parent-adolescent agreement on autonomy expectations were estimated for issues of personal and prudential domains. Greater agreement in the prudential than in the personal domain was observed. For boys and girls, higher agreement in adolescent-parent autonomy expectations in the personal domain was associated with lower substance use. A negative association between level of agreement in adolescent-parent autonomy expectations in the prudential domain and externalizing behaviors and substance use was found.

  14. Unusual cause of acute lower extremity ischemia in a healthy 15-year-old female: A case report and review of popliteal artery aneurysm management in adolescents


    David M. Notrica; Emilie Amaro; Maria E. Linnaus; Jozef Zoldos


    Limb ischemia in healthy teenagers is unusual. While traumatic or iatrogenic injury is the most common etiologies of limb ischemia in the pediatric population, anatomic variants such as true aneurysms should be considered [1]. We report the second documented pediatric case of an idiopathic, isolated true popliteal aneurysm resulting in acute limb ischemia in a previously healthy 15-year-old female. We also review the proper evaluation and surgical management of this anatomic anomaly. In this ...

  15. Urban-rural differences in adolescent eating behaviour : a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15-year-olds in Scotland


    Levin, Kate Ann


    This work was supported by NHS Health Scotland and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute. However, NHS Health Scotland and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article. Objective: Improving the diet of the Scottish population has been a government focus in recent years. Population health is known to vary between geographies; therefore alongside trends and socio-economic inequalities in eating behaviour, geographic differences should also be monitor...

  16. Breakfast skipping and proposed effects of breakfast on obesity: A school based study in adolescents in Aligarh, India

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    Nafis Faizi


    Full Text Available Background: Breakfast is one of the most integral components of an individual′s diet, despite that breakfast skipping is widely prevalent. Proposed effects of breakfast on obesity (PEBO have corroborative evidences from different countries, especially, regarding the effects of breakfast skipping on obesity. Habits and lifestyle factors like breakfast skipping maybe formed, changed or strengthened in the tender age of adolescence and can also serve as an early warning system of threats that may engulf larger populations. The study objectives were to find out the frequency of breakfast skipping in adolescents and PEBO, including associations with body mass index (BMI status. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in all the 13-15 years students who fulfilled the inclusion criteria in the schools affiliated to Aligarh Muslim University. The study was based on a pretested and validated questionnaire and the nutritional status/anthropometric records were measured by the now recommended World Health Organization multicentric growth reference standards 2007. Result and Conclusion: A total of 1416 students were studied, out of which frequency of breakfast consumption was found to be <2 times/week in 6. 21% of the study population, 3-5 times/week in 27.54% and 6-7 times/week in 66.24%. As far as PEBO is concerned, a decreased frequency of breakfast was found to have an association with obesity and overweight as well. Further, an association of breakfast skipping on the BMI Z scores was also found to be significant on analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. The high prevalence of breakfast skipping in India and PEBO is a big cause of concern for multiple reasons, and an intervention is urged.

  17. Are adolescents being screened for sexually transmitted diseases?


    Ellen, Jonathan M.; Lane, Margo A; McCright, Jacque


    Objectives To determine the proportion of sexually experiencedAfrican American adolescents who report having been screened for sexually transmitted diseases and to determine the proportion who report having been screened for these diseases among adolescents who have had a preventive primary health care visit in the past 2 years. Methods A telephone survey of a population-based sample of African American adolescents aged 12 to17 years residing in a low-income neighborhood in San Francisco with...

  18. Interplay between weight loss and gut microbiota composition in overweight adolescents. (United States)

    Santacruz, Arlette; Marcos, Ascensión; Wärnberg, Julia; Martí, Amelia; Martin-Matillas, Miguel; Campoy, Cristina; Moreno, Luis A; Veiga, Oscar; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Garagorri, Jesús M; Azcona, Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Collado, Maria C; Sanz, Yolanda


    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an obesity treatment program on the gut microbiota and body weight of overweight adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents (13-15 years), classified as overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force BMI criteria, were submitted to a calorie-restricted diet (10-40%) and increased physical activity (15-23 kcal/kg body weight/week) program over 10 weeks. Gut bacterial groups were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR before and after the intervention. A group of subjects (n=23) experienced >4.0 kg weight loss and showed significant BMI (P=0.030) and BMI z-score (P=0.035) reductions after the intervention, while the other group (n=13) showed <2.0 kg weight loss. No significant differences in dietary intake were found between both groups. In the whole adolescent population, the intervention led to increased Bacteroides fragilis group (P=0.001) and Lactobacillus group (P=0.030) counts, and to decreased Clostridium coccoides group (P=0.028), Bifidobacterium longum (P=0.031), and Bifidobacterium adolescentis (P=0.044) counts. In the high weight-loss group, B. fragilis group and Lactobacillus group counts also increased (P=0.001 and P=0.007, respectively), whereas C. coccoides group and B. longum counts decreased (P=0.001 and P=0.044, respectively) after the intervention. Total bacteria, B. fragilis group and Clostridium leptum group, and Bifidobacterium catenulatum group counts were significantly higher (P<0.001-0.036) while levels of C. coccoides group, Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were significantly lower (P<0.001-0.008) in the high weight-loss group than in the low weight-loss group before and after the intervention. These findings indicate that calorie restriction and physical activity have an impact on gut microbiota composition related to body weight loss, which also seem to be influenced by the individual's microbiota.

  19. Promote "Connections" for Young Adolescents. (United States)

    Jacoby, Monica


    The emotional, social, intellectual, and physical needs of young people from 10 to 15 years old are being increasingly recognized in the schools, but the activities of these students after school are just beginning to be considered in terms of their effects on adolescents' academic and personal growth. Early in 1985, the University of North…

  20. HPV Infections in Adolescents

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    Anna-Barbara Moscicki


    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.