Sample records for adolescent medicine

  1. Medicine use for headache in adolescence predicts medicine use for headache in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille


    BACKGROUND: Health risk behaviours such as smoking and binge drinking track from adolescence to adulthood. Medicine use is associated with smoking and binge drinking among adolescents. Whether medicine-use behaviour tracks from adolescence to adulthood is unknown. AIM: To examine tracking...... from adolescence into adulthood....

  2. Social class variation in medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Due, Pernille


    BACKGROUND: Little is known about social determinants of adolescents' medicine use. The objective was to analyse the association between the family's social class and adolescents' use of medicine for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness. METHODS: Cross......, participation rate 88%, n=5,205. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that medicine use for all four symptoms increased by decreasing social class, controlled for age and prevalence of the specific symptom for which the medicine was taken. Adjusted OR (95% CI) for medicine use among students from lower...... social classes were: medicine for headache 1.35 (1.11-1.65), medicine for stomachache 1.41 (1.08-1.84), medicine for difficulties in getting to sleep 2.00 (1.30-3.08), and medicine for nervousness 3.22 (1.87-5.56). CONCLUSION: Symptom-adjusted medicine use in a representative sample of Danish adolescents...

  3. Adolescents' medicine use for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Fotiou, Anastasios


    BACKGROUND: This study reports secular trends in medicine use for headache among adolescents in 20 countries from 1986 to 2010. METHODS: The international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey includes self-reported data about medicine use for headaches among nationally...... representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds. We included 20 countries with data from at least three data collection waves, with a total of 380 129 participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches varied from 16.5% among Hungarian boys in 1994 to 62.9% among girls in Wales in 1998....... The prevalence was higher among girls than boys in every country and data collection year. The prevalence of medicine use for headaches increased in 12 of 20 countries, most notably in the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Sweden and Wales. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches among adolescents...

  4. [Use of medicines and lifestyles among Italian adolescents]. (United States)

    Piccinini, Magda; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo


    To determine the prevalence, among adolescents, of medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, and to analyse its association with common lifestyles. Data were taken from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), a transnational study coordinated by the WHO. The data are collected through a self-administered questionnaire for investigating health and health behaviours. 80 middle schools and 84 high schools were randomly selected from all Italian public and private schools. The questionnaire was filled out by a representative sample of 2667 (50.1% males) 13- and 15- year-old Italian students. Medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, socio-economic status, physical fitness, breakfast, smoking and drunkenness. Females are more likely than boys to use medicines for headache (41.2% vs 30%) and stomachache (29%vs 16.2%), but there are no gender differences regarding medicines for difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, which are used less frequently. The prevalence of the use of medicines does not increase with age. The related behaviours are: for headache, breakfast, smoking and drunkenness; for stomachache, physical fitness, breakfast and smoking; for difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, drunkenness. The extensive use of medicines in adolescence and its association with some lifestyles suggest the importance to develop education programmes for adolescents.

  5. Music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents. (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori


    This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Health complaints and use of medicines among adolescents in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmanin Ellul R


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate self-reported health complaints and the use of medicines among adolescents in Malta.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to survey self-reported health complaints, the use and the sources of medicines that had been accessed, during the preceding 3 months among adolescents attending secondary schools in Malta. A stratified random sample design generated a sample size of 514 students. The health complaints and use of medicines that were investigated included ear problems/hay fever/cold/cough, headache, skin problems, sport injuries, indigestion/diarrhoea/constipation, eye problems and menstrual pain (for girls. The use of vitamins and antibiotics was also investigated. Results: A total of 477 students participated in the final data collection. Correct information was submitted by 474 students, (aged 14-16 years, who formed the analytical sample, of which 53.8% were girls. The students reported a mean number of 2.70 (SD = 1.39 out of a total of 7 health complaints and 90.3% reported using at least 1 medicine during the preceding 3 months. The community pharmacy was cited as the most commonly accessed source for most of the medicines that were investigated. A proportion of 24.3% of the students had taken at least 1 medicine without adult guidance during the preceding 3 months. Almost 10% of those who had taken antibiotics, had accessed them from the home medicine cabinet.Conclusion: A high proportion of adolescents in Malta reported the use of medicines to alleviate the symptoms of common health complaints. This result is concordant with previous research carried out in the United Kingdom, Germany, Slovakia and Kuwait. A considerable proportion of students in this study had obtained medicines without adult guidance and accessed antibiotics from the home medicine cabinet. This highlights the importance of carefully designed education programs for adolescents that will integrate information about the proper use

  7. Young adolescents' use of medicine for headache:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke


    OBJECTIVE: Use of medicines for headache is common among young adolescents but little is known about their sources of supply and access to medicines. The purpose was to describe sources of supply, availability and accessibility at home and to examine if supply, availability and accessibility were...... associated with medicine use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in eight schools where all fifth and seventh grade students (11- and 13-year-olds) answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic factors, health and medicine use. Response rate: 84.0%, n = 595. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of headache...... at least monthly was 45.0%, and 42.5% had used medicines for headache during the past month. 68.2% reported that medicines for headache were always available at home, and 22.2% were allowed to use these without asking for permission. Most pupils received medicine from their parents (73.1%) and physicians...

  8. An E-mail Service in a Military Adolescent Medicine Clinic: will teens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to determine utilization patterns of an Adolescent Medicine Clinic e-mail service. An e-mail service was offered to 6134 patients presenting for care to a military Adolescent Medicine Clinic in San Antonio, Texas over a 6-month period. Families had to complete an authorization form acknowledging ...

  9. The status of adolescent medicine: Building a global adolescent workforce (United States)

    Lee, Lana; Upadhya, Krishna K; Matson, Pamela; Adger, Hoover; Trent, Maria E


    Remarkable public health achievements to reduce infant and child mortality and improve the health and well-being of children worldwide have successfully resulted in increased survival and a growing population of young people aged 10–24 years. Population trends indicate that the current generation of 1.8 billion young people is the largest in history, but there is a scarcity of dedicated resources available to effectively meet the health needs of adolescents and young adults worldwide. Growing recognition of the pivotal roles young people play in the cultures, societies, and countries in which they live has spurred an expanding global movement to address the needs of this special population. Building an effective global workforce of highly-skilled adolescent health professionals who understand the unique biological, psychological, behavioral, social, and environmental factors that impact the health of adolescents is a critical step in addressing the health needs of the growing cohort of young people. In this review, we aim to: 1) Define a global assessment of the health needs for adolescents around the world; 2) Describe examples of current training programs and requirements in Adolescent Medicine; 3) Identify existing gaps and barriers to develop an effective adolescent health workforce; and 4) Develop a call for targeted actions to build capacity of the adolescent health workforce, broaden culturally relevant research and evidence-based intervention strategies, and reinforce existing interdisciplinary global networks of youth advocates and adolescent health professionals to maximize the opportunities for training, research, and care delivery. PMID:26167974

  10. Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents in Germany (United States)


    Background Germany is a country with a high use of herbal medicinal products. Population-based data on the use of herbal medicinal products among children are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of herbal medicine use among children and adolescents in Germany. Methods As data base served the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative population based survey conducted 2003–2006 by the Robert Koch Institute. 17,450 boys and girls aged 0–17 years provided information on drug use in the preceding seven days. Herbal medicinal products were defined according to the European and German drug laws. SPSS Complex Sample method was used to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with herbal medicine use. Results The prevalence rate of herbal medicinal product use amounts to 5.8% (95% confidence interval 5.3-6.3%). Use of herbal medicine declines along with increasing age and shows no difference between boys and girls in younger age groups. Teenage girls are more likely to use herbal medicines than teenage boys. Two thirds of herbal medicines are used for the treatment of coughs and colds; nearly half of herbal medicines are prescribed by medical doctors. Determinants of herbal medicinal product use are younger age, residing in South Germany, having a poor health status, having no immigration background and coming from a higher social class family. Children’s and parents-related health behavior is not found to be associated with herbal medicine use after adjusting for social class. Conclusions Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 17 years in Germany is widely spread and shows relatively higher rates compared to international data. This study provides a reference on the use of herbal medicinal products for policy-makers, health professionals and parents. Further studies are needed to investigate the

  11. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. (United States)


    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine. (United States)

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L


    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry: legal considerations. (United States)

    Cohen, Michael H; Natbony, Suzanne R; Abbott, Ryan B


    The rising popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in child and adolescent psychiatry raises unique ethical and legal concerns for psychiatrists and other conventional health care providers. This article explores these concerns and provides clinical advice for promoting patient health and safety while minimizing the psychiatrist's risk. Although any departure from the conventional standard of care is a potential risk, the risk of malpractice liability for practicing integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry is low. CAM is most safely recommended from a legal standpoint when there is some published evidence of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-rated health as predictor of medicine use in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Andersen, Anette


    measure was self-reported medicine use during the past month and the determinant was SRH measured by one item. RESULTS: There was an association between poor/fair SRH and medicine use for headache and stomach-ache. The associations remained statistically significant even after adjustment for frequency......PURPOSE: To examine the association between self-rated health (SRH) and medicine use for four common complaints: headache, stomach-ache, difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. METHODS: The study population comprised of all students...

  15. Perspectives of family medicine physicians on the importance of adolescent preventive care: a multivariate analysis. (United States)

    Taylor, Jaime L; Aalsma, Matthew C; Gilbert, Amy L; Hensel, Devon J; Rickert, Vaughn I


    The study objective was to identify commonalities amongst family medicine physicians who endorse annual adolescent visits. A nationally weighted representative on-line survey was used to explore pediatrician (N = 204) and family medicine physicians (N = 221) beliefs and behaviors surrounding adolescent wellness. Our primary outcome was endorsement that adolescents should receive annual preventive care visits. Pediatricians were significantly more likely (p family medicine physicians, bivariate comparisons were conducted between those who endorsed an annual visit (N = 164) compared to those who did not (N = 57) with significant predictors combined into two multivariate logistic regression models. Model 1 controlled for: patient race, proportion of 13-17 year olds in provider's practice, discussion beliefs scale and discussion behaviors with parents scale. Model 2 controlled for the same first three variables as well as discussion behaviors with adolescents scale. Model 1 showed for each discussion beliefs scale topic selected, family medicine physicians had 1.14 increased odds of endorsing annual visits (p family medicine physicians had 1.15 increased odds of also endorsing the importance of annual visits (p Family medicine physicians that endorse annual visits are significantly more likely to affirm they hold strong beliefs about topics that should be discussed during the annual exam. They also act on these beliefs by talking to parents of teens about these topics. This group appears to focus on quality of care in thought and deed.

  16. Evaluation of adolescent medicine sub-specialty training in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the extent of coverage of curriculum contents pertinent to Adolescent Medicine, as well as the adequacy of facilities and professionals in Nigeria using residents' viewpoint. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: The Intensive Course in Paediatrics of the National Post-graduate Medical ...

  17. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille


    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  18. Differences and similarities in medicine use, perceptions and sharing among adolescents in two different educational settings. (United States)

    Vestergaard, Stense; Ravn, Pernille; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Kaae, Susanne


    Background Evidence suggests that there are differences in medicine habits among adolescents with different sociodemographic backgrounds and that peers might also influence medicine use. More knowledge is needed regarding how these aspects together affect how different young people use medicines. Objective To explore the differences in medicine use, perceptions and sharing between adolescents at two different educational (and socio-demographic) settings and assess the influence of parents and peers. Subjects Fifty-nine students from a private high school (HS) and 34 students from a public vocational school (VS) in Denmark between the ages of 15 and 19 years old were subjects in this study. Methods A questionnaire was used that included background, medicine consumption, perceptions and social interaction. Descriptive analyses along with a Fishers test were used to determine differences and similarities between students' medicine patterns at the school settings. Results Of the 93 respondents, 74% used medicine within the past month, with females using more medicines. A significant difference was found with students at the VS using a higher number of medicines. Analgesics were the most frequently consumed medicine; however, reasons for using medicines appear to vary between the schools. Similarities between the schools were identified for perception of safety, sharing medicine and talking primarily with parents about medicine. Conclusion Fewer differences between students' medicine use at two educational settings than expected were identified, showing that aspects other than social background influence adolescents' use of medicine. A general tendency among young people believing that using medicines is a safe might explain these findings.

  19. [Physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study]. (United States)

    Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Camargo, Aline Lins; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro Curi


    This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, followed at 11 (N = 4,452), 15 (N = 4,325), and 18 years of age (N = 4,106). The study recorded the use of medicines in the previous 15 days, continuous use of some medication, level of physical activity (by questionnaire and accelerometry), and screen time (TV, computer, and videogame). One-third of adolescents had used at least one medicine in the previous 15 days and approximately 10% were on some continuous medication. In the adjusted analysis, the results showed that higher levels of physical activity at 18 years and less screen time at 15 years in boys were associated with lower overall use of medicines (p adolescence showed lower use of medicines at 18 years of age.

  20. Socio-economic differences in use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicine for pain and psychological problems among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Mette Jorgine; Hansen, Claus Dalsgaard; Andersen, JH


    of medicine for pain and psychological problems according to parental educational level and household income. Young girls used twice as much medicine for pain and psychological problems compared to young boys. SES differences based on parental educational level were directly associated with the use...... in the use of prescribed medicine for pain. Conclusion: The risk of use of prescribed medicine for psychological problems increased in adolescents with decreasing parental education, while the risk of overall medicine use and use of over-the-counter medicine was increased in adolescents from low household......The objective for this study was to investigate socio-economic status (SES) differentials in the use of overthe- counter and prescribed medicine for pain and psychological problems among adolescents. Data consisted of questionnaire data on medicine use and health status, collected from 17- to 18...

  1. Training needs in adolescent medicine of practising doctors: a Swiss national survey of six disciplines. (United States)

    Kraus, Barbara; Stronski, Susanne; Michaud, Pierre-André


    To assess and compare the training needs in adolescent medicine of doctors within 6 specialties as a basis for the development of pre/postgraduate and continuing medical education (CME) training curricula. Cross-sectional postal survey. Switzerland. National, representative, random sample of 1857 practising doctors in 6 disciplines (general practitioners, paediatricians, gynaecologists, internists, psychiatrists, child psychiatrists) registered with the Swiss Medical Association. Perceived importance of and training interest in 35 topics related to adolescent medicine listed in a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. A total of 1367 questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 73.9%. Clear interest in adolescent medicine was reported by 62.1% of respondents. Topics perceived to be the most important in everyday practice were functional symptoms (71.4%), acne (67.1%), obesity (64.6%), depression-anxiety (68.1%) and communication with adolescents (61.7%). Differences between disciplines were especially marked for gynaecologists, who expressed interest almost exclusively in medical topics specific to their field. In contrast, other disciplines commonly reported a keen interest in psychosocial problems. Accordingly, interest in further training was expressed mostly for functional symptoms (62.4%), eating disorders (56.3%), depression-anxiety (53.7%) and obesity (52.6%). Issues related to injury prevention, chronic disease and confidentiality were rated as low priorities. Regardless of discipline, Swiss primary care doctors expressed a strong interest in adolescent medicine. Continuing medical education courses should include both interdisciplinary courses and discipline-specific sessions. Further training should address epidemiological and legal/ethical issues (e.g. injury prevention, confidentiality, impact of chronic conditions).

  2. Overview of integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry. (United States)

    Simkin, Deborah R; Popper, Charles W


    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) defies simple definition, because the distinction between CAM and conventional medicine is largely arbitrary and fluid. Despite inconclusive data on the efficacy and safety of many CAM treatments in child and adolescent psychiatry, there are enough data on certain treatments to provide guidance to clinicians and researchers. CAM treatments, as adjunctive therapy or monotherapy, can be clinically beneficial and sensible. The low stigma and cost-competitiveness of many CAM psychiatric treatments are highly attractive to children and parents. Physicians need to be knowledgeable about CAM treatments to provide clinically valid informed consent for some conventional treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An E-mail Service in a Military Adolescent Medicine Clinic: will teens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    *Adolescent Medicine Physician, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX,. USA. **Assistant ... into the patient's electronic medical record. At the end of the .... our patients or parents, and privacy concerns were easily addressed.

  4. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria (United States)

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.


    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  5. Clinical holistic medicine: holistic adolescent medicine. (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Press, Joseph; Merrick, Joav; Shek, Daniel T L


    The holistic medical approach seems to be efficient and can also be used in adolescent medicine. Supporting the teenager to grow and develop is extremely important in order to prevent many of the problems they can carry into adulthood. The simple consciousness-based, holistic medicine--giving love, winning trust, giving holding, and getting permission to help the patient feel, understand, and let go of negative beliefs--is easy for the physician interested in this kind of practice and it requires little previous training for the physician to be able to care for his/her patient. A deeper insight into the principles of holistic treatment and a thorough understanding of our fellow human beings are making it work even better. Holistic medicine is not a miracle cure, but rather a means by which the empathic physician can support the patient in improving his/her future life in respect to quality of life, health, and functional capacity--through coaching the patient to work on him/herself in a hard and disciplined manner. When the patient is young, this work is so much easier. During our lifetime, we have several emotional traumas arranged in the subconscious mind with the smallest at the top, and it is normal for the person to work on a large number of traumatic events that have been processed to varying degrees. Some traumas have been acknowledged, some are still being explored by the person, and yet others are still preconscious, which can be seen for example in the form of muscle tension. Sometimes the young dysfunctional patient carries severe traumas of a violent or sexual nature, but the physician skilled in the holistic medical toolbox can help the patient on his/her way to an excellent quality of life, full self-expression, a love and sex life, and a realization of his/her talents--all that a young patient is typically dreaming about. Biomedicine is not necessary or even recommended when the physical or mental symptoms are caused by disturbances in the personal

  6. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Adolescent Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available The holistic medical approach seems to be efficient and can also be used in adolescent medicine. Supporting the teenager to grow and develop is extremely important in order to prevent many of the problems they can carry into adulthood. The simple consciousness-based, holistic medicine — giving love, winning trust, giving holding, and getting permission to help the patient feel, understand, and let go of negative beliefs — is easy for the physician interested in this kind of practice and it requires little previous training for the physician to be able to care for his/her patient. A deeper insight into the principles of holistic treatment and a thorough understanding of our fellow human beings are making it work even better. Holistic medicine is not a miracle cure, but rather a means by which the empathic physician can support the patient in improving his/her future life in respect to quality of life, health, and functional capacity — through coaching the patient to work on him/herself in a hard and disciplined manner. When the patient is young, this work is so much easier. During our lifetime, we have several emotional traumas arranged in the subconscious mind with the smallest at the top, and it is normal for the person to work on a large number of traumatic events that have been processed to varying degrees. Some traumas have been acknowledged, some are still being explored by the person, and yet others are still preconscious, which can be seen for example in the form of muscle tension. Sometimes the young dysfunctional patient carries severe traumas of a violent or sexual nature, but the physician skilled in the holistic medical toolbox can help the patient on his/her way to an excellent quality of life, full self-expression, a love and sex life, and a realization of his/her talents — all that a young patient is typically dreaming about. Biomedicine is not necessary or even recommended when the physical or mental symptoms are caused

  7. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David


    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  8. HIV/AIDS Medicines - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Children and adolescents - HIV medicines, part 9 - English MP3 Children and adolescents - HIV medicines, part 9 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Children and adolescents - HIV medicines, part 9 - English ...

  9. Predictive Ability of the Medicine Ball Chest Throw and Vertical Jump Tests for Determining Muscular Strength and Power in Adolescents (United States)

    Hackett, Daniel A.; Davies, Timothy B.; Ibel, Denis; Cobley, Stephen; Sanders, Ross


    This study examined the predictive ability of the medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump for muscular strength and power in adolescents. One hundred and ninety adolescents participated in this study. Participants performed trials of the medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump, with vertical jump peak power calculated via an estimation…

  10. Use of a Self-Reflection Tool to Enhance Resident Learning on an Adolescent Medicine Rotation. (United States)

    Greenberg, Katherine Blumoff; Baldwin, Constance


    Adolescent Medicine (AM) educators in pediatric residency programs are seeking new ways to engage learners in adolescent health. This mixed-methods study presents a novel self-reflection tool and addresses whether self-reflection enhanced residents' perception of the value of an adolescent rotation, in particular, its relevance to their future practice. The self-reflection tool included 17 Likert scale items on residents' comfort with the essential tasks of adolescent care and open-ended questions that promoted self-reflection and goal setting. Semi-structured, postrotation interviews encouraged residents to discuss their experiences. Likert scale data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and interview notes and written comments on the self-reflection tool were combined for qualitative data analysis. Residents' pre-to post-self-evaluations showed statistically significant increases in comfort with most of the adolescent health care tasks. Four major themes emerged from our qualitative analysis: (1) the value of observing skilled attendings as role models; (2) the comfort gained through broad and frequent adolescent care experiences; (3) the career relevance of AM; and (4) the ability to set personally meaningful goals for the rotation. Residents used the self-reflection tool to mindfully set goals and found their AM education valuable and relevant to their future careers. Our tool helped make explicit to residents the norms, values, and beliefs of the hidden curriculum applied to the care of adolescents and helped them to improve the self-assessed quality of their rapport and communications with adolescents. We conclude that a structured self-reflection exercise can enhance residents' experiences on an AM rotation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A patient with autism and severe depression: medical and ethical challenges for an adolescent medicine unit. (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Ng, Cindy; McDonald, Ann; Walters, Tamara


    An adolescent with autism and intellectual disability presented with severe depression related to menstruation. Because of the complex medical, psychiatric and ethical issues involved, her care was coordinated by a hospital-based adolescent medicine unit. After trials of other therapies over an extended period and interdisciplinary and intersectoral case conferencing, it was decided that hysterectomy was the most appropriate management. This case highlights the complexity of adolescent health care in a tertiary hospital, the importance of intersectoral cooperation between hospital and community, and the integral role of interdisciplinary care of adolescent patients with chronic conditions.

  12. The globalization of training in adolescent health and medicine: one size does not fit all. (United States)

    Leslie, Karen


    Adolescent medicine across the globe is practiced within a variety of healthcare models, with the shared vision of the promotion of optimal health outcomes for adolescents. In the past decade, there has been a call for transformation in how health professionals are trained, with recommendations that there be adoption of a global outlook, a multiprofessional perspective and a systems approach that considers the connections between education and health systems. Many individuals and groups are now examining how best to accomplish this educational reform. There are tensions between the call for globally accepted standards of education models and practice (a one-size fits all approach) and the need to promote the ability for education practices to be interpreted and transformed to best suit local contexts. This paper discusses some of the key considerations for 'importing' training program models for adolescent health and medicine, including the importance of cultural alignment and the utilization of best evidence and practice in health professions education.

  13. Transitioning HIV-Positive Adolescents to Adult Care: Lessons Learned From Twelve Adolescent Medicine Clinics. (United States)

    Tanner, Amanda E; Philbin, Morgan M; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis


    To maximize positive health outcomes for youth with HIV as they transition from youth to adult care, clinical staff need strategies and protocols to help youth maintain clinic engagement and medication adherence. Accordingly, this paper describe transition processes across twelve clinics within the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) to provide lessons learned and inform the development of transition protocols to improve health outcomes as youth shift from adolescent to adult HIV care. During a large multi-method Care Initiative program evaluation, three annual visits were completed at each site from 2010-2012 and conducted 174 semi-structured interviews with clinical and program staff (baseline n=64, year 1 n=56, year 2=54). The results underscore the value of adhering to recent American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) transition recommendations, including: developing formal transition protocols, preparing youth for transition, facilitating youth's connection to the adult clinic, and identifying necessary strategies for transition evaluation. Transitioning youth with HIV involves targeting individual-, provider-, and system-level factors. Acknowledging and addressing key barriers is essential for developing streamlined, comprehensive, and context-specific transition protocols. Adolescent and adult clinic involvement in transition is essential to reduce service fragmentation, provide coordinated and continuous care, and support individual and community level health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Why don't girls choose technological studies? Adolescents' stereotypes and attitudes towards studies related to medicine or engineering. (United States)

    López-Sáez, Mercedes; Puertas, Susana; Sáinz, Milagros


    Gender differences in choice of studies emerge already in adolescence. Two studies with adolescents are presented, the goal of which is to explore the influence of gender by assessing males and females who choose studies related to Medicine or Engineering. Study 1, correlational (N = 330, mean age 15.9, 56.7% girls), shows that girls who choose technology are more poorly appraised than girls who choose other studies. Study 2 (N = 130; mean age 16.77, 56.2% girls), experimental, measures implicit attitudes (using the IAT) towards males and females from Medicine and Engineering. Implicit attitudes are more favorable towards women if they are studying Medicine and towards men if they study Engineering. The results are analyzed with relation to the percentages of boys and girls in the different fields of study.

  15. A study of goiter among female adolescents referred to centre for nuclear medicine, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S; Hassan, M.; Syed, Z.; Hyder, S.W.; Nazeer, L.; Nagra, S.A.


    Objective: To study goiter and thyroid dysfunction in female adolescents residing in Lahore referred to Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital for thyroid scanning and thyroid function tests. Design: Retrospective study of thyroid size, thyroid scan patterns and serum FT/sub 4/ and TSH levels. Setting: Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Patients: 350 female adolescent referred during September 2002 to April 2003. Main outcome measures: adolescent goiter, thyroid nodules, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic multi nodular goiter. Results: Among 350 adolescents 212(60.6%) had goiter of various grades mostly visible. Among goiterous patients 136(64.2%) had diffuse and 76 (35.8%) had nodular presentation. The number of patients with solitary nodular goiter (20.7%) was more than multi nodular goiter (15.1%) and number of patients with solitary cold nodule (16.5%) was more than functioning nodule (4.2%). The incidence of biochemical thyroid dysfunction, both overt and subclinical, was detected in 42(19.8%) patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with nodular than diffuse presentation (29% VS 14.7%; p<0.001) and in multinodular than solitary nodular goiter (p<0.005). More than 80% of the patients with solitary nodular goiter were euthyroid. Simple goiter was detected in 116(54.7%), Graves' disease in 5(2.4%) and toxic multinodular goiter in 4(1.9%) patients. Overall incidence of hypothyroidism was more than double as compared to hyperthyroidism. Incidence of nodularity and hypothyroidism was more in large goiter but duration of goiter was not significant in promoting nodularity. Conclusion: Goiterous adolescents need urgent attention because they don't have just diffuse hypertrophy with normal thyroid function. Many are afflicted with dysfunction and nodularity, particularly solitary cold nodule bearing risk of thyroid malignancy. (author)

  16. Home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents. (United States)

    Tourinho, Francis S V; Bucaretchi, Fábio; Stephan, Celso; Cordeiro, Ricardo


    To investigate the contents of home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents in the towns of Limeira and Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. This is a descriptive population study based on a home survey of a simple random sample from both towns, comprising 705 households from census sectors selected by means of cluster sampling. age medicines kept at home; and having taken at least one medication during the 15 days prior to the interview. The participants were split into two groups based on medication: self-medication (lay advice) and medical prescription. Tests of linear association were performed, in addition to a descriptive analysis of the variables and multiple logistic regression. A total of 3,619 medicines were found (mean = 5.1/household; 79.6% were pharmaceutical preparations). The rooms most commonly used to store medications were bedrooms (47.5%), kitchens (29.9%), and bathrooms (14.6%); 76.5% were in cardboard boxes and within easy reach of 142 children aged medicines at home is a common practice, and it is important to implement campaigns to encourage rational use, reduced waste and safe storage of medicines.

  17. Adverse events in children and adolescents treated with quetiapine: an analysis of adverse drug reaction reports from the Danish Medicines Agency database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D.; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Bruhn, Christina H.


    Quetiapine is a low-affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents by the Food and Drug Administration, but not by European Medicine Agency. Although knowledge of adverse drug reactions in children...... and adolescents is scarce, quetiapine is increasingly being used for youth in Denmark. The aim of this case study is to discuss adverse drug events (ADEs) spontaneously reported to the Danish Medicines Agency on quetiapine used in the pediatric population in relation to adversive drug reactions (ADRs) reported......, hallucinations. As some of the reported ADEs are life threatening and not listed as ADRs in the SPCs, off-label use of quetiapine in children and adolescents gives rise to safety concerns....

  18. [Children's and adolescent's use of medicine for aches and psychological problems: secular trends from 1988 to 2006.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn; Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille


    INTRODUCTION: Medicine use for aches and psychological problems is common among adolescents. Medicines are toxic and may have harmful side effects. It is therefore important to study change over time and patterns of medicine use. The objective of this paper is to describe self-reported medicine use...... for headaches, stomach-aches, difficulties in falling asleep, and nervousness among 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old boys and girls from 1968 to 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data material is 6 comparable and representative cross-sectional studies of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from 1988, 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002......: There was a significant increase in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old student's use of medicine for aches and psychological problems from 1988 to 2006. In the same period, there was a decrease in the prevalence of students who reported pains monthly. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-5...

  19. Is victimization from bullying associated with medicine use among adolescents? A nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Merlo, Juan


    for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness. The determinant was frequency of exposure to bullying, measured with 1 item. RESULTS: In multivariate models adjusted for age and social class, we found that adolescent victims of bullying used medicine for pains and psychological...

  20. The effect of daily small text message reminders for medicine compliance amongst young people connected with the outpatient department for child and adolescent psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Karsten; Christiansen, Erik; Attermann Stokholm, Kristine


    after 6 months. Aim: In this study we investigated whether text message reminders could improve medicine compliance amongst vulnerable young people with psychiatric disorders who were being treated in the outpatient department for child and adolescent psychiatry and who either are under or were......Background: Many patients with psychiatric illnesses have difficulty maintaining medication over time. Many take their medicine irregularly and studies show that it is the most vulnerable patients who have the greatest problems adhering to treatment. Often only 50% are still under medical treatment...... to commence medicinal treatment. Methods: This study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial including all non-acute referrals to an outpatient department for adolescent psychiatry within a group aged 15-20 years starting medical treatment. The patients were followed until the end of their treatment...

  1. The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy and an alternative medicine approach in reducing symptoms of depression in adolescents. (United States)

    Charkhandeh, Mansoureh; Talib, Mansor Abu; Hunt, Caroline Jane


    The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (peffect for Reiki than did female participants. Both CBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Not Missing the Future: A Call to Action for Investigating the Role of Regenerative Medicine Therapies in Pediatric/Adolescent Sports Injuries. (United States)

    Best, Thomas M; Caplan, Arnold; Coleman, Michael; Goodrich, Laurie; Hurd, Jason; Kaplan, Lee D; Noonan, Ben; Schoettle, Philip; Scott, Christopher; Stiene, Henry; Huard, Johnny

    In August 2016, a group including sport medicine clinicians, researchers, and a bioethicist met in Vail, Colorado to discuss regenerative medicine and its potential role in youth sports injuries. There was consensus that a call to action is urgently needed to understand the current evidence base, the risks and rewards, and future directions of research and clinical practice for regenerative medicine therapies in youth sports. We present here a summary of our meeting, which was supported by the National Youth Sports Health and Safety Institute (NYSHSI), a partnership between the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and Sanford Health. The group's goal is to educate practitioners and the public, and to pioneer a means of accumulating meaningful clinical data on regenerative medicine therapies in pediatric and adolescent athletes.

  3. Predictors for adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the Young-HUNT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Steinsbekk

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the factors predicting adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted in an adolescent total population in Central Norway (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In Young-HUNT 1, all inhabitants aged 13 to 19 years (N = 8944, 89% response rate were invited to participate, and the youngest group (13 to 15 year olds was surveyed again 4 years later (Young-HUNT 2, N = 2429, 82% response rate. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire on health and life style which included a question regarding visits to a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months. RESULTS: One in eleven (8.7%, 95%CI 7.6-9.8% had visited a CAM practitioner, an increase of 26% in 4 years (1.8% points. The final multivariable analysis predicted increased odds of an adolescent becoming a CAM visitor four years later (p<0.05 if she or he had previously visited a CAM practitioner (adjOR 3.4, had musculoskeletal pain (adjOR 1.5, had migraine (adjOR 2.3, used asthma medicines (adjOR 1.8 or suffered from another disease lasting more than three months (adjOR 2.1. Being male predicted reduced odds of visiting a CAM practitioner in the future (adjOR 0.6. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that future visits to a CAM practitioner are predicted by both predisposing factors (being female, having visited a CAM practitioner previously and medical need factors (having had musculoskeletal pain, migraine, used asthma medicines or experienced another disease lasting more than three months. None of the specific variables associated with CAM visits were predictive for CAM visits four years later.

  4. Drug development: EU paediatric legislation, the European Medicines Agency and its Paediatric Committee--adolescents' melanoma as a paradigm. (United States)

    Rose, Klaus; Senn, Stephen


    The European Medicines Agency (EMA) website lists all diseases that officially exist in adults only. The class waiver for juvenile melanoma was revoked in 2008 referring to US SEER statistics. This statistical justification is misleading. Melanoma in adolescents is much rarer than claimed by EMA/Paediatric Committee; < 1 ∕ 4 of adolescents with melanoma need systemic treatment; separate efficacy studies are neither medically justified nor feasible. The scarce adolescent patients should be allowed to participate in adult trials. To force companies to investigate them separately turns them into paediatric hostages, to adapt the term therapeutic orphans coined in 1968 by Shirkey. There are now five melanoma Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs). Probably none of the PIP-triggered clinical studies will ever be completed; we propose to call them ghost studies. An oncology research network considering a reasonable trial in melanoma, including adolescents, will compete for recruitment with the PIP-triggered trials designed by regulatory tunnel vision and sponsored by companies under EMA-imposed pressure. EMA/Paediatric Committee's territorial enthusiasm ("our patients") damages oncology research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Physicians' Counseling of Adolescents Regarding E-Cigarette Use. (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T


    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use now surpasses the use of conventional cigarettes among U.S. adolescents. Given the important role of physicians in preventing adolescent risk behaviors, we sought to understand how physicians communicate about e-cigarettes when counseling adolescent patients and their parents. We also explored physicians' support for regulations aimed at discouraging adolescents' e-cigarette use. A national U.S. sample of 776 pediatricians and family medicine physicians who provide primary care to adolescent patients completed an online survey in Spring 2014. Many physicians (41%) would, if asked, tell their patients that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, and a substantial minority (24%) would recommend e-cigarettes to adolescents for smoking cessation. Most physicians reported routinely screening adolescent patients for cigarette smoking but few routinely screened for e-cigarette use (86% vs. 14%; p buying e-cigarettes. Physicians infrequently screen or counsel their adolescent patients about e-cigarette use, although e-cigarettes often come up during visits. Additional efforts by physicians could help prevent future use by adolescents. Recommending e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid to adolescent patients is inadvisable given the lack of evidence for efficacy in that population. As federal regulation of e-cigarettes remains in limbo, pediatricians and family medicine physicians can offer a powerful voice for informing regulations aimed at reducing use by adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving adolescent maternal health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nelson R ... of information concerning their bodies and ..... improve quality of healthcare services for adolescents[15] – services that .... equipment, medicines, supplies and technology needed to ensure effective service provision to adolescents.

  7. Self-reported recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among 15-year olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobina, I; Villberg, J; Villerusa, A


    -old adolescents internationally; (2) to investigate the association between recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among boys and girls; and (3) to evaluate the consistency of these associations across countries. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative international Health Behaviour......BACKGROUND: There is considerable variation in adolescent pain prevalence across epidemiological studies, with limited information on pain-related behaviours among adolescents, including medicine use. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of recurrent pain among 15-year...... in School-aged Children 2009/2010 study collects data about self-reported aches and medicine use from 36,762 15-year-old adolescents from 22 countries/regions in Europe and the United States. Multi-level multivariate logistic regression, stratified by gender, was used to analyse the association between...

  8. Prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' in South African children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanita R. Burger


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' (hereafter simply referred to as antidepressants in children and adolescents in the private health care sector of South Africa. A retrospective drug utilisation design was used to identify patients aged 19 years and younger from a South African pharmaceutical benefit management company’s database, whom were issued at least one antidepressant between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2006. Prescribed daily dosages (PDDs were calculated using the Statistical Analysis System® program. A total of 1 013 patients received a mean number of 2.88 (SD 3.04 prescriptions per patient. Females received more prescriptions than their male counterparts, with the highest prevalence in the 15 ≤ 19 years age group. The pharmacological groups most prescribed were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (43.0% and the tricyclics (42.7%, with imipramine (22.04% and amitriptyline (19% as the most commonly prescribed drugs. Approximately 30% (n = 2 300 of all antidepressants in the study population were prescribed off-label. Amitriptyline and clomipramine were prescribed at daily dosages higher than recommended in children and adolescents aged 9 ≤ 15 years. Lithium, trimipramine, trazodone and sulpiride were prescribed at sub-therapeutic dosages in adolescents. This study provided insight in the prescribing patterns of medicine classified as antidepressants in South African children and adolescents. These drugs, however, have many indications. Further research is needed to determine reasons why specific drugs are prescribed in this population. Opsomming Die algemene doelstelling van hierdie studie was om die voorskrifpatrone van middels wat as 'antidepressante' geklassifiseer word (hierna verwys na as slegs antidepressante wat vir kinders en adolessente in die Suid-Afrikaanse private gesondheidsorgsektor voorgeskryf word, te beskryf. 'n

  9. A systematic review of the Ayurvedic medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations. (United States)

    Kean, James D; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con


    Clinicians utilise critical research to advance their knowledge when prescribing standard and alternative therapies for developmental disorders. Recent research has reported that the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri may improve cognitive outcomes in adult populations; however, few studies have investigated its benefits in younger cohorts. The aim of the current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trial outcomes and safety of Bacopa and its effects on the cognition and behaviour in children and adolescents. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google and CINAHL were searched up to August 2015 for trials investigating Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations. There were no restrictions in study design. Cognitive and behavioural outcomes were grouped into validated constructs and effect sizes were calculated for all significant data to allow for direct comparisons. Five studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The results demonstrated significant consistent improvements in the language behaviour cognitive domain and in a number of the memory sub-domains. Significant improvements were also seen in hyperactivity and attention-deficit domains. Overall outcome data demonstrated small to medium effect sizes (mean d=0.42). Safety and tolerability data was well reported for 80% of studies with only 2.3% of all participants reporting mild side-effects. This review highlights the safe use of Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations for improving elements of cognition as well as behaviour and attention-deficit domains. However, there is a significant need for replicated study designs and stringent statistical analysis to validate these outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (United States)

    ... House to prevent employers from denying coverage of contraceptives on the basis of moral objections. Call for JAH Editor-in-Chief SAHM has opened a call for a new editor-in-chief of its official scholarly journal, the Journal of Adolescent Health (JAH). Applications are due December 15, 2017 , ...

  11. Medicine use among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Utilização de medicamentos por adolescentes: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa D. Bertoldi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate medicine use and associated factors among adolescents. This was a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. Information on medicine use in the 15 days prior to the interviews was collected from the mothers. Overall prevalence of medicine use was 30.9%, and 64.7% of the medicines had been prescribed by a physician. The most frequently used pharmacological groups were medicines for the nervous (35.9% and respiratory systems (25.7%. Medicine use was directly associated with socioeconomic status, maternal schooling, complications during pregnancy or delivery, and neonatal problems resulting in the need for intensive care. Underweight and obese adolescents were more likely to use medicines as compared to those with normal body mass index. A direct association was observed between maternal use of hypnotic drugs and sedatives and adolescent medicine use. It is essential to implement educational policies aimed at promoting rational use of medicines by adolescents.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o uso de medicamentos e fatores associados em adolescentes. Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo, incluindo 4.452 adolescentes nascidos em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 1993. As informações sobre o uso de medicamentos pelo adolescente nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista foram fornecidas pelas mães. A prevalência global de uso de medicamentos foi de 30,9%, sendo que destes, 64,7% foram indicados por médicos. Os grupos farmacológicos mais utilizados foram os medicamentos que atuam nos sistemas nervoso (35,9% e respiratório (25,7%. O uso de medicamentos esteve diretamente associado ao nível econômico, escolaridade da mãe, intercorrência na gravidez ou parto que gerou doença até a adolescência, problema de saúde no momento do nascimento que levou o recém-nascido à UTI, magreza e obesidade. Foi observada uma rela

  12. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY


    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  13. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. (United States)


    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The coming of age of artificial intelligence in medicine. (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L; Shortliffe, Edward H; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen


    This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its "adolescence" (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: will the field come of age in the '90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993;5:93-106). In this article, the discussants reflect on medical AI research during the subsequent years and characterize the maturity and influence that has been achieved to date. Participants focus on their personal areas of expertise, ranging from clinical decision-making, reasoning under uncertainty, and knowledge representation to systems integration, translational bioinformatics, and cognitive issues in both the modeling of expertise and the creation of acceptable systems.

  15. Quality of Parent-Adolescent Conversations About Sex and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: An Observational Study. (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Ha, Thao; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J


    Studies suggest that the quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex uniquely predicts adolescent sexual behavior. Previous studies have relied predominantly on self-report data. Observational methods, which are not susceptible to self-report biases, may be useful in examining the associations between the quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex and adolescent sexual behavior more objectively. With a sample of adolescents (N = 55, 58% male, 44% white, Mage = 15.8) and their parents, we used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between the observed quality of parent-adolescent communication about dating and sex and the likelihood of adolescents' sexual intercourse. The quality of parent-adolescent communication about dating and sex predicted sexual behavior. Specifically, lecturing was associated with a higher likelihood of adolescents having had sexual intercourse. The quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex is a unique correlate of adolescent sexual behavior and warrants further investigation. Thus, it serves as a potential target of preventive interventions that aim to foster adolescent sexual health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving adolescent and young adult health - training the next generation of physician scientists in transdisciplinary research. (United States)

    Emans, S Jean; Austin, S Bryn; Goodman, Elizabeth; Orr, Donald P; Freeman, Robert; Stoff, David; Litt, Iris F; Schuster, Mark A; Haggerty, Robert; Granger, Robert; Irwin, Charles E


    To address the critical shortage of physician scientists in the field of adolescent medicine, a conference of academic leaders and representatives from foundations, National Institutes of Health, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and the American Board of Pediatrics was convened to discuss training in transdisciplinary research, facilitators and barriers of successful career trajectories, models of training, and mentorship. The following eight recommendations were made to improve training and career development: incorporate more teaching and mentoring on adolescent health research in medical schools; explore opportunities and electives to enhance clinical and research training of residents in adolescent health; broaden educational goals for Adolescent Medicine fellowship research training and develop an intensive transdisciplinary research track; redesign the career pathway for the development of faculty physician scientists transitioning from fellowship to faculty positions; expand formal collaborations between Leadership Education in Adolescent Health/other Adolescent Medicine Fellowship Programs and federal, foundation, and institutional programs; develop research forums at national meetings and opportunities for critical feedback and mentoring across programs; educate Institutional Review Boards about special requirements for high quality adolescent health research; and address the trainee and faculty career development issues specific to women and minorities to enhance opportunities for academic success. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K


    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  18. Development of hypertension in overweight adolescents: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly RK


    Full Text Available Rebecca K Kelly,1 Costan G Magnussen,1,2 Matthew A Sabin,3 Michael Cheung,3 Markus Juonala3–5 1Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; 2Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 3Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; 4Department of Medicine, University of Turku, 5Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Abstract: The upward trend in adolescent hypertension is widely attributed to the adolescent obesity epidemic. Secular trends in adolescent prehypertension and hypertension have risen in congruence with increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure in adolescence is moderate to strong in most studies and strongest in those classified as overweight or obese. The mechanisms relating to the development of hypertension in overweight adolescents are unclear; however, a number of nonmodifiable and modifiable factors have been implicated. Importantly, certain clinical and biochemical markers in overweight adolescents are indicative of high risk for hypertension, including family history of hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics may prove useful in stratifying overweight adolescents as high or low risk of comorbid hypertension. The treatment of overweight and obesity related hypertension in this population focuses on two key modalities: lifestyle change and pharmacotherapy. These approaches focus almost exclusively on weight reduction; however, a number of emerging strategies target hypertension more specifically. Among adolescents with overt hypertension there are also several factors that indicate higher risk of concurrent subclinical disease, persistent adult hypertension, and adult cardiovascular disease. This group may benefit substantially from more

  19. Factors associated With Medicaid providers' recommendation of the HPV vaccine to low-income adolescent girls. (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Staras, Stephanie A S; Malo, Teri L; Giuliano, Anna R; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Vadaparampil, Susan T


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States remains a public health challenge with vaccine rates of 50%. Although health care providers can facilitate HPV vaccination, several factors may impede their ability to universally recommend the vaccine. To maximize the potential of HPV vaccines, it is important to understand challenges providers face in the clinical environment. The study sought to identify factors associated with recommendation of the HPV vaccine for low-income adolescents in the early (9-10), target (11-12), early adolescent catch-up (13-14), and late adolescent catch-up (15-17) vaccination groups. Surveys were mailed between October 2009 and April 2010 to a random sample of Florida-based physicians serving Medicaid-enrolled adolescents. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among early adolescents, discomfort discussing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with teens (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75), difficulty ensuring vaccine completion (OR = .73), and discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .44) were associated with recommendation. For target adolescents, discomfort discussing STIs with teens (OR = 2.45), time constraints (OR = .70), vaccine efficacy concerns (OR = .65), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .33), obstetrics/gynecology (OR = .25) and family medicine (OR = .24) specialty, and non-Hispanic black patient (OR = .15) were associated with recommendation. In early catch-up adolescents, concerns that teens will practice riskier behaviors (OR = .57), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .47), and family medicine specialty (OR = .20) were associated with recommendation. For late catch-up adolescents, family medicine specialty (OR = .13) was associated with recommendation. Modifiable factors that impede or influence provider recommendations of HPV vaccines can be addressed through intervention. Overall, findings suggest that efforts should focus on sexuality communication and family medicine specialty

  20. Sleep Needs, Patterns, and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop. Forum on Adolescence (Washington, DC, September 22, 1999). (United States)

    Graham, Mary G., Ed.

    This report summarizes the presentations and discussion at a workshop on adolescent sleep. The workshop was organized by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families and the Forum on Adolescence of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. The workshop brought together policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to examine research…

  1. Injuries in children and adolescents seen during 2006 at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 11, 2010 ... b Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab ... Keywords: injuries; children; adolescents; prevalence; prevention ... performance, and may even develop an extent of mental.

  2. The coming of age of artificial intelligence in medicine


    Patel, Vimla L.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R.; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen


    This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its “adolescence” (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: Will the field come of age in the ‘90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993; 5:93–106). In this article, the ...

  3. Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives


    Kaltiala-Heino,Riittakerttu; Bergman,Hannah; Työläjärvi,Marja; Frisen,Louise


    Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino,1–3 Hannah Bergman,4 Marja Työläjärvi,2 Louise Frisén4 1Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 3Vanha Vaasa Hospital, Vaasa, Finland; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identi...

  4. Adolescence and Later Life Disease Burden: Quantifying the Contribution of Adolescent Tobacco Initiation From Longitudinal Cohorts. (United States)

    Viner, Russell M; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Horta, Bernardo; Mokdad, Ali H; Patton, George


    Adolescence is a time of initiation of behaviors leading to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We use tobacco to illustrate a novel method for assessing the contribution of adolescence to later burden. Data on initiation of regular smoking during adolescence (10-19 years) and current adult smoking were obtained from the 1958 British Birth Cohort, the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), the Pelotas 1982 Birth Cohort, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. We estimated an "adolescent attributable fraction" (AAF) by calculating the proportion of persisting adult daily smoking initiated 155 countries using contemporary surveillance data. In the 1958 British Birth Cohort, 81.6% of daily smokers at age 50 years initiated adolescent initiation. The adjusted AAF was 69.1. Proportions of smokers initiating Adolescent Health Cohort Study; and 70.9%, 5.8%, and 56.9% in Pelotas males and 89.9%, 6.4%, and 75.9% in females. Initiation adolescent smoking initiation to adult smoking burden is high, suggesting a need to formulate and implement effective actions to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents. Similar trends in other NCD risks suggest that adolescents will be central to future efforts to control NCDs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parent and Adolescent Interest in Receiving Adolescent Health Communication Information From Primary Care Clinicians. (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; Cheek, Courtney; Culhane, Jennifer; Fishman, Jessica; Mathew, Leny; Salek, Elyse C; Webb, David; Jaccard, James


    Patient-centered health care recognizes that adolescents and parents are stakeholders in adolescent health. We investigate adolescent and parent interest in receiving information about health topics and parent-teen communication from clinicians. Ninety-one parent-adolescent dyads in one practice completed individual interviews. Items assessed levels of interest in receiving health and health communication information from the adolescent's doctor about 18 topics, including routine, mental health, sexual health, substance use, and injury prevention issues. Analyses tested differences between parents and adolescents, within-dyad correlations, and associations with adolescent gender and age. Most parents were female (84%). Adolescents were evenly divided by gender; 36 were aged 12-13 years, 35 were aged 14-15 years, and 20 were aged 16-17 years. Adolescent race reflected the practice population (60% black; 35% white). The vast majority of parents and adolescents reported moderate or high levels of interest in receiving information about all 18 health issues and information to increase parent-teen communication about these topics. Parents' interest in receiving information varied by adolescent age when the expected salience of topics varied by age (e.g., acne, driving safety), whereas adolescents reported similar interest regardless of age. Adolescent gender influenced parent and adolescent interest. Level of interest in receiving information from doctors within adolescent-parent pairs was not significantly correlated for one-half of topics. Parents and adolescents want health care professionals to help them learn and talk about a wide range of adolescent health topics. Feasible primary care interventions that effectively improve parent-teen health communication, and specific adolescent health outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sense of coherence and medicine use for headache among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Holstein, Bjørn E


    standardized questionnaire. The outcome measure was self-reported medicine use for headaches. The determinants were headache frequency and SOC measured by Wold and Torsheim's version for children of Antonovsky's 13-item SOC scale. RESULTS: Analyses adjusted for age group, family social class, exposure...... to bullying, and headache frequency showed increasing odds for medicine use for headaches (hereafter: medicine use) by decreasing SOC. There was no association between SOC and medicine use among students with a rare experience of headaches but a significant and graded association among students with at least...

  7. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood. (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian


    To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p self-esteem (ES = -.30, p self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transition clinic attendance is associated with improved beliefs and attitudes toward medicine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Fu, Nancy; Jacobson, Kevan; Round, Andrew; Evans, Kathi; Qian, Hong; Bressler, Brian


    To evaluated the differences in knowledge, adherence, attitudes, and beliefs about medicine in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) attending transition clinics. We prospectively enrolled patients from July 2012 to June 2013. All adolescents who attended a tertiary-centre-based dedicated IBD transition clinic were invited to participate. Adolescent controls were recruited from university-affiliated gastroenterology offices. Participants completed questionnaires about their disease and reported adherence to prescribed therapy. Beliefs in Medicine Questionnaire was used to evaluate patients' attitudes and beliefs. Beliefs of medication overuse, harm, necessity and concerns were rated on a Likert scale. Based on necessity and concern ratings, attitudes were then characterized as accepting, ambivalent, skeptical and indifferent. One hundred and twelve adolescents were included and 59 attended transition clinics. Self-reported adherence rates were poor, with only 67.4% and 56.8% of patients on any IBD medication were adherent in the transition and control groups, respectively. Adolescents in the transition cohort held significantly stronger beliefs that medications were necessary ( P = 0.0035). Approximately 20% of adolescents in both cohorts had accepting attitudes toward their prescribed medicine. However, compared to the control group, adolescents in the transition cohort were less skeptical of (6.8% vs 20.8%) and more ambivalent (61% vs 34%) (OR = 0.15; 95%CI: 0.03-0.75; P = 0.02) to treatment. Attendance at dedicated transition clinics was associated with differences in attitudes in adolescents with IBD.

  9. Approaching the adolescent-headed family: a review of teen parenting. (United States)

    Savio Beers, Lee A; Hollo, Ruth E


    In the USA, as many as 1 in 6 women nationwide become adolescent mothers, making adolescent pregnancy and childbearing issues a frequently encountered occurrence by pediatricians and adolescent medicine health care providers. Both social and medical programs focus on prevention and management of adolescent pregnancies; however, caring for the adolescent-headed family is less well understood. For many teen parents, various environmental and behavioral risks contributed to early childbearing and parenting. Following delivery of the infant, many of these same psycho-social, environmental, and educational factors continue to play a role in the teen's ability to parent effectively. This review explores these factors in relation to teen parenting as well as describes the limited data available on outcomes of adolescent mothers and their infants. Despite negative social stereotypes regarding adolescent fathers, research suggesting that most fathers desire involvement with their infants and the impact of and factors influencing father involvement is explored. Understanding the dynamics of the coparenting relationship, an expanding field of study, will aid practitioners in strengthening and supporting teen parenting by both mothers and fathers. As most teen parents continue to reside with their families, teen parenting has an important impact on the multi-generational family structure. These relationships can serve both to support and at times to hinder the adolescent parents' development as an individual and as a parent. Successful interventions and programs to support the adolescent-headed family take on various forms but are usually comprehensive and multidisciplinary and consider the developmental status of both the parent and the child. To best care for adolescent-headed families, pediatricians and adolescent medicine providers should understand the psychosocial, developmental, educational, and relationship issues that influence adolescent parenting.

  10. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal-Cury A


    Full Text Available Alexandre Faisal-Cury,1 Karen M Tabb,2 Guilherme Niciunovas,3 Carrie Cunningham,4 Paulo R Menezes,1 Hsiang Huang4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Psychopathology and Psychiatric Therapeutics (LIM-23, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168 completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23. Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, planned pregnancy, Brazil, low-income population, women

  11. Leveraging Neuroscience to Inform Adolescent Health: The Need for an Innovative Transdisciplinary Developmental Science of Adolescence. (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dahl, Ronald E


    In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention. They also highlight a cornerstone principle: how a deeper understanding of potentially modifiable factors-at key developmental inflection points along the trajectory toward clinical disorders-is beginning to inform, and may eventually transform, a broad range of innovative early intervention strategies to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in standard workup performed by pediatric subspecialists for the diagnosis of adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome. (United States)

    Powers, Sarah E; Uliassi, Nicole W; Sullivan, Shannon D; Tuchman, Lisa K; Mehra, Rinku; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica


    The purpose of this study is to identify trends in the clinical workup, diagnosis, and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome by pediatric endocrinologists, pediatric gynecologists, and adolescent medicine specialists. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care medical center. Females aged 11-18 y who were evaluated for PCOS from June 2009 to October 2011 were included. Any patients with coexisting diagnoses of other primary etiology for amenorrhea were excluded. Patients were identified by ICD-9 codes for PCOS, hypersecretion of ovarian androgens, irregular menses, hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, or amenorrhea. 261 patients were included: 144 from endocrinology, 9 from gynecology, and 108 from adolescent pediatric practices. There were no significant differences in the androgen labs ordered by the subspecialties. Gynecologists ordered pelvic ultrasonography for 89% (n = 8) of patients, compared to 9% (n = 10) by adolescent medicine specialists and 24% (n = 34) by endocrinologists (P PCOS with metformin (58%, n = 66), compared to gynecologists (14%, n = 1) and adolescent medicine specialists (5%, n = 3) (P PCOS are evident among pediatric subspecialties, reflecting lack of standardized care for adolescents. Quantifying outcomes based on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are important next steps. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Home Medicine Chests And Their Relationship With Self-medication In Children And Adolescents [farmácias Domiciliares E Sua Relação Com A Automedicação Em Crianças E Adolescentes


    Tourinho F.S.V.; Bucaretchi F.; Stephan C.; Cordeiro R.


    Objective: To investigate the contents of home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents in the towns of Limeira and Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive population study based on ahome survey of a simple random sample from both towns, comprising 705 households from census sectors selected by means of cluster sampling. Inclusion criteria: age ≤ 18 years; an obligatory interview with at least one guardian; inventory of medicines k...

  14. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use. (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian


    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  15. Fertility Preservation for Transgender Adolescents. (United States)

    Chen, Diane; Simons, Lisa; Johnson, Emilie K; Lockart, Barbara A; Finlayson, Courtney


    To describe fertility preservation (FP) utilization by transgender adolescents within a pediatric gender clinic between July 2013 and July 2016. A retrospective chart review was conducted to abstract demographic and clinical information among adolescents initiating gender-affirming hormones, including patient age at initial FP consultation, birth-assigned sex, race/ethnicity, and outcome of FP consultation. In our sample of 105 transgender adolescents, a total of 13 (seven transgender men and six transgender women) between the age of 14.2 and 20.6 years were seen in formal consultation for FP before initiating hormones. Of these adolescents, four completed sperm cryopreservation and one completed oocyte cryopreservation. Rates of FP utilization among transgender youth were low, which is consistent with a recently published report of FP utilization among transgender youth at another pediatric institution. Identified barriers to FP in our sample included cost, invasiveness of procedures, and desire not to delay medical transition. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influences of combined therapies with traditional Chinese medicine on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ping SHEN


    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the influences of traditional Chinese medicinal combined therapies on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram (AEMG ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods  One hundred and twenty outpatients with mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM group and a brace group. TCM group patients underwent i Navigation of the spinal balance (twice a day, 40min/ time, until to skeletal maturity; ii Balance manipulation (twice a week, 25min/time, lasted 12 months; iii Small needle-knife therapy (once a week, 10 times. The brace group patients were treated with a Milwaukee brace. The Cobb angle was measured after 12 and 24 months of treatment, pulmonary function was determined after 12 months of treatment, and AEMG ratio of the surface electromyogram was measured 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, and intergroup comparison was performed. Results  The Cobb angle significantly decreased in both groups 12 months after treatment (P0.05 in the TCM group and brace group, respectively, 12 months after treatment and 62.5% and 34.7% (P<0.05, respectively, 24 months aftertreatment. Pulmonary function was significantly improved 12 months after treatment in TCM group (P<0.05 but significantly decreased in brace group (P<0.05. The AEMG ratio was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and tended to remain at 1 after stopping treatment in TCM group, showed that the muscle imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, but was adverse in brace group (P<0.05, showed that the muscle imbalance aggravated. No side effect of the therapeutic method was found. Conclusions  The spinal balance therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine theory has excellent therapeutic efficacy and safety, and can significantly ameliorate the imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, improve lung function index, and have better compliance. The AEMG ratio is a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Faghihimani


    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: With reference to the importance of physical activity during childhood and adolescence in their health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases during adulthood, it is necessary to have a reliable and valid method for evaluating physical activity level in this age group. Physical activity questionnaire child (PAQ-C and adolescents (PAQ-A have been designed for this purpose. This study aimed to validate these questionnaires in a representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.    METHODS: After translating the PAQ-C and PAQ-A to Persian, the face and content validities of these questionnaires were assessed by a committee of experts of different specialties including specialists in pediatrics, community medicine, social specialist and sport medicine. After minor modification of some items of the questionnaires according to the available types of physical activity and the socio-cultural conditions, the final questionnaires were prepared. Thereafter, 82 children and adolescents with 8 to 18 years of age completed the questionnaires.    RESULTS: To assess the questionnaire reliability Iranian students and the validity accreditation was modified and got from the committee. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.894 was produced at the end of the analysis showing it has been reliable for this population.    CONCLUSION: According to the results found in this survey, PAQ questionnaire can be used as a reliable and valid method for next studies; so health planning based on Iranian students’ physical activity will be possible in future.      Keywords: Physical Activity Questionnaire, Reliability, Validity.

  18. Multidisciplinary management of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Bowen


    Full Text Available Michael E Bowen1,2, Russell L Rothman2,31Veterans Affairs Quality Scholars Fellowship Program, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Eskind Diabetes Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Although once considered a disease of adults, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in youth is increasing at a significant rate. Similar to adults, youth with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for developing hypertension, lipid abnormalities, renal disease, and other diabetes-related complications. However, children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes also face many unique management challenges that are different from adults with type 2 diabetes or children with type 1 diabetes. To deliver safe, effective, high-quality, cost-effective health care to adolescents with type 2 diabetes, reorganization and redesign of health care systems are needed. Multidisciplinary health care teams, which allow individuals with specialized training to maximally utilize their skills within an organized diabetes treatment team, may increase efficiency and effectiveness and may improve outcomes in children with type 2 diabetes. This review article provides a brief review of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, provides an overview of multidisciplinary health care teams, and discusses the role of multidisciplinary health care management in youth with type 2 diabetes.Keywords: adolescent, type 2 diabetes, multidisciplinary

  19. Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltiala-Heino R


    Full Text Available Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino,1–3 Hannah Bergman,4 Marja Työläjärvi,2 Louise Frisén4 1Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 3Vanha Vaasa Hospital, Vaasa, Finland; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identity services in Western countries. An increasingly accepted treatment model that includes puberty suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs starting during the early stages of puberty, cross-sex hormonal treatment starting at ~16 years of age and possibly surgical treatments in legal adulthood, is often indicated for adolescents with childhood gender dysphoria (GD that intensifies during puberty. However, virtually nothing is known regarding adolescent-onset GD, its progression and factors that influence the completion of the developmental tasks of adolescence among young people with GD and/or transgender identity. Consolidation of identity development is a central developmental goal of adolescence, but we still do not know enough about how gender identity and gender variance actually evolve. Treatment-seeking adolescents with GD present with considerable psychiatric comorbidity. There is little research on how GD and/or transgender identity are associated with completion of developmental tasks of adolescence. Keywords: gender dysphoria, gender identity, adolescence, developmental tasks

  20. Self-reported barriers to medication adherence among chronically ill adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Signe; Boisen, Kirsten A


    's views. Data was analyzed using a thematic synthesis approach. RESULTS: Of 3,655 records 28 articles with both quantitative, qualitative, and q-methodology study designs were included in the review. The synthesis led to the following key themes: Relations, adolescent development, health and illness......, forgetfulness, organization, medicine complexity, and financial costs. Most reported barriers to adherence were not unique to specific diseases. CONCLUSION: Some barriers seem to be specific to adolescence; for example, relations to parents and peers and adolescent development. Knowledge and assessment...

  1. The treatment of adolescent transsexuals: changing insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.; Gooren, L.J.G.


    Introduction. Treatment of individuals with gender identity disorder (GID) has in medicine nearly always met with a great deal of skepticism. Professionals largely follow the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health. For adolescents, specific guidelines have

  2. Assessing an Adolescent's Capacity for Autonomous Decision-Making in Clinical Care. (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Blum, Robert Wm; Benaroyo, Lazare; Zermatten, Jean; Baltag, Valentina


    The purpose of this article is to provide policy guidance on how to assess the capacity of minor adolescents for autonomous decision-making without a third party authorization, in the field of clinical care. In June 2014, a two-day meeting gathered 20 professionals from all continents, working in the field of adolescent medicine, neurosciences, developmental and clinical psychology, sociology, ethics, and law. Formal presentations and discussions were based on a literature search and the participants' experience. The assessment of adolescent decision-making capacity includes the following: (1) a review of the legal context consistent with the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child; (2) an empathetic relationship between the adolescent and the health care professional/team; (3) the respect of the adolescent's developmental stage and capacities; (4) the inclusion, if relevant, of relatives, peers, teachers, or social and mental health providers with the adolescent's consent; (5) the control of coercion and other social forces that influence decision-making; and (6) a deliberative stepwise appraisal of the adolescent's decision-making process. This stepwise approach, already used among adults with psychiatric disorders, includes understanding the different facets of the given situation, reasoning on the involved issues, appreciating the outcomes linked with the decision(s), and expressing a choice. Contextual and psychosocial factors play pivotal roles in the assessment of adolescents' decision-making capacity. The evaluation must be guided by a well-established procedure, and health professionals should be trained accordingly. These proposals are the first to have been developed by a multicultural, multidisciplinary expert panel. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transition clinic attendance is associated with improved beliefs and attitudes toward medicine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease


    Fu, Nancy; Jacobson, Kevan; Round, Andrew; Evans, Kathi; Qian, Hong; Bressler, Brian


    AIM To evaluated the differences in knowledge, adherence, attitudes, and beliefs about medicine in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) attending transition clinics. METHODS We prospectively enrolled patients from July 2012 to June 2013. All adolescents who attended a tertiary-centre-based dedicated IBD transition clinic were invited to participate. Adolescent controls were recruited from university-affiliated gastroenterology offices. Participants completed questionnaires about ...

  4. Treatment of Acute Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents: What Are Providers Doing in Various Specialties? (United States)

    Huguelet, Patricia S; Buyers, Eliza M; Lange-Liss, Jill H; Scott, Stephen M


    The purpose of this study was to assess whether variability exists in the management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents between pediatric Emergency Department (ED) physicians, pediatric gynecologists, and adolescent medicine specialists. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care medical center ED. We included girls aged 9-22 years who presented from July 2008 to June 2014 with the complaint of acute AUB. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision codes for heavy menstrual bleeding, AUB, and irregular menses. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy and current use of hormonal therapy. One hundred fifty patients were included. Among those evaluated, 61% (n = 92) were prescribed hormonal medication to stop their bleeding by providers from the ED, Adolescent Medicine, or Pediatric Gynecology. ED physicians prescribed mostly single-dose and multidose taper combined oral contraceptive pills (85%; n = 24), compared with Adolescent Medicine (54%, n = 7), and Gynecology (28%, n = 13). Pediatric gynecologists were more likely than ED physicians to treat patients with norethindrone acetate, either alone or in combination with a single dose combined oral contraceptive pill (61%, n = 33 vs 7%, n = 2; P bleeding, side effects, and patient satisfaction are valuable next steps. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Facilitators and barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankrah DNA


    Full Text Available Daniel NA Ankrah,1,2 Ellen S Koster,2 Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse,2 Daniel K Arhinful,3 Irene A Agyepong,4 Margaret Lartey5,6 1Pharmacy Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana; 2Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana (Legon, 4Health Policy, Planning and Management, University of Ghana School of Public Health, 5Department of Medicine, University of Ghana Medical School, 6Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is known to be challenging among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, notwithstanding the life-saving importance of this therapy. Of the global total number of adolescents living with HIV in 2013, 83% reside in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed to identify facilitators of and barriers to antiretroviral treatment adherence among adolescents in Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative study using semi-structured interviews for data collection was carried out among adolescents (aged 12–19 years at the adolescents HIV clinic at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Predominantly open-ended questions relating to ART were used. Interviews were done until saturation. In total, 19 interviews were conducted. Analysis was done manually to maintain proximity with the text. Findings: The main facilitators were support from health care providers, parental support, patient’s knowledge of disease and self-motivation, patient’s perceived positive outcomes, and dispensed formulation. The identified barriers were patient’s forgetfulness to take medicines, perceived stigmatization due to disclosure, financial barriers, and adverse effects of ART. Support from health care workers was the most frequently mentioned facilitator, and patient’s forgetfulness and perceived

  6. Consent, competence, and confidentiality related to psychiatric conditions in adolescent medicine practice. (United States)

    Campbell, Amy T


    Health care for adolescents with psychiatric conditions plays out on a complex stage with considerable state variation, based on a mix of statutory and case law. Added to this are less defined factors such as level of trust in community providers, level of cooperation between generalists and specialists, and local regulatory stances toward adolescent health care and mental health care. And, of course, there is the great diversity in diagnosis and maturity level, as well as family cohesion, from patient to patient (and even within a given patient across time). Finally, this situation resides within a larger environment of stigma vis-a-vis mental health care, most notably evident in the United States in disparate insurance coverage of mental versus physical health treatment. With so complex and varied a picture, clinicians should consult with legal counsel to understand applicable state law and local regulatory guidance (if any)and should also seek out ethical consultation when law does not apply or is not decisive, leaving ongoing concerns. And, as with clinical decision-making, in law and ethics "facts matter" [4]. A growing body of law carves out exceptions to general requirements for parental consent, including in mental health care. Ethically informed discussion around capacity determinations, the consent process, and confidentiality can help engage adolescents as "emerging adults"while remaining mindful of risky behavior and "immediate future" orientation that can be hallmarks of adolescence [30]. Respect for the adolescent, parental responsibility toward their child's best interests, and the family unit generally are paramount. Respect--coupled with caution, greater disclosure and cultural sensitivity, and a participatory approach to decision-making that seeks out the least restrictive and coercive options-can help avoid potential legal traps. How best to proceed? It truly depends-with law and ethics the start (not end) of the discussion and analysis.

  7. Case-Based Teaching for Interprofessional Postgraduate Trainees in Adolescent Health. (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Ziniel, Sonja; Touloumtzis, Currie; Pitts, Sarah; Goncalves, Adrianne; Emans, Jean; Burke, Pam


    Adolescent health providers increasingly work in interprofessional environments. There is a lack of evidence regarding best educational practices for preparing the adolescent health care workforce of the future. We developed, implemented, and evaluated an interprofessional longitudinal case-based curriculum for postgraduate trainees in adolescent health. Faculty in an academic adolescent medicine division worked collaboratively with recent trainees to develop six teaching cases illustrative of interprofessional care of adolescents. During the 2013-2014 academic year, seven trainees (two social workers, two physicians, one nurse practitioner, one psychologist, and one dietician) completed the six month-long case modules while simultaneously working together in an interprofessional clinic. Trainees completed four-item pre- and post-case questionnaires that assessed confidence with assessment and diagnosis, comfort with counseling skills, ability to devise a treatment plan, and understanding of their colleagues' role for each of the six cases. Participants completed the 19-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale and the 12-item Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale at three time points during the academic year and a 15-minute interview after their final session. Confidence with assessment/diagnosis, comfort counseling adolescents, and the ability to devise treatment plans increased for most case topics, as did understanding of the role of others on the interprofessional team. Mean Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale and Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale scores were high at baseline and similar at all three time points. Interviews highlighted the value of role clarity, communication, and learning within interprofessional teams along with modeling from interprofessional faculty. Case-based learning in conjunction with collaborative practice provided a successful teaching strategy for interprofessionals in adolescent health


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Stojanović


    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of death in children and adolescents for a ten-year period (2003-2012 according to data from the autopsy records of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Niš. The causes of death (natural or violent were analyzed in relation to sex, age, season, and environment (rural and urban areas, socio-economic and living conditions, and the number of children in the family. The results obtained were statistically analyzed, plotted and discussed in relation to data from the literature available. Regarding the autopsy cases of children and adolescents (194, 106 (54.63% were the cases of violent causes of death and 87 were the cases (44.84% of natural causes of death, while in one case the cause of death could not be determined due to late-stage decomposition alterations of the corpse. The most common natural causes of death were asphyxia, immaturity of the fetus and acute pneumonia. Most common causes of violent death were contusion of the brain, destruction of the brain and brainstem, polytrauma, and bleeding.

  9. Adolescents' struggles with swallowing tablets: barriers, strategies and learning. (United States)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Tulinius, Ditte; Hansen, Ebba Holme


    To explore adolescents' struggles with taking oral medications. Copenhagen, Denmark. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 89 adolescents (33 boys, 56 girls) between the ages of 11 and 20. Adolescents were recruited through four public schools. To identify struggles with taking oral medication, interview transcripts were systematically searched for statements including the terms swallow, chew, crush and eat. Thematic analysis of the identified statements was carried out to reveal dominant themes in the adolescents' accounts. Over one-third of the adolescents spontaneously provided accounts of the difficulties they experienced with taking oral medications, especially with swallowing tablets. Three themes were dominant in their narratives: barriers, strategies and learning. Barriers experienced by the adolescents involved the medications' properties, e.g. taste. Adolescents developed strategies to overcome these barriers, e.g. crushing tablets. Via a process of learning-by-doing and the acquisition of increased experience and autonomy, many adolescents mastered the skill of swallowing tablets. Many adolescents experienced barriers in their attempts to swallow tablets. They developed various strategies to overcome these barriers and gradually mastered taking medicines in a learning-by-doing process.

  10. Training Pediatric Residents and Pediatricians about Adolescent Mental Health Problems: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot for a Proposed National Curriculum (United States)

    Kutner, Lawrence; Olson, Cheryl K.; Schlozman, Steven; Goldstein, Mark; Warner, Dorothy; Beresin, Eugene V.


    Objective: This article presents a DVD-based educational program intended to help pediatric residents and practicing pediatricians recognize and respond to adolescent depression in busy primary care settings. Methods: Representatives from pediatrics and adolescent medicine, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, and experts in the…

  11. Physical Activity and Sociodemographic Correlates of Adolescent Exergamers. (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Cook, Brian; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    Exergame use (or active video games that promote physical activity [PA]) has the potential to increase PA in youth, but there is a scarcity of information about PA of youth who are current exergamers. The current study examined PA behaviors in exergamers versus nonexergamers. Adolescents (N = 2,793; mean age = 14.4 ± 2.0 years) participating in EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and exergaming and PA behavior. Height and weight were measured. Both male and female exergamers tended to be younger and black compared with nonexergamers (p strategy for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Meaningful Use of a Confidential Adolescent Patient Portal. (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Martinko, Thomas; Budd, Pamela; Mercado, Rebeccah; Schentrup, Anzeela M


    To design and evaluate the usage of an adolescent patient portal specifically adapted for adolescent health care needs that also satisfied institutional meaningful use guidelines regarding electronic health records. Key stakeholders at one academic health care center adopted an online portal and opted to designate a patient portal specifically for adolescents to maximize confidentiality in compliance with state privacy laws. This study analyzed aggregate electronic health record data of adolescents' (ages 12-17.9 years) uptake, usage, and functionality of this portal and compared it to parent portal usage for younger children (ages 0-11 years). Differences in means were calculated using paired t tests. The portal was used similarly between parents of young children and adolescents, with almost 1,000 enrollees in each group from September 1, 2012 to March 31, 2015. There were no gender differences in enrollment. Adolescents were less likely than parents of younger children to review appointments (73% vs. 85%), laboratory tests (67% vs. 79%), problem lists (40% vs. 78%), or allergies (45% vs. 77%, all p values adolescents sent 1,397 confidential messages. Institutional decisions for implementing meaningful use requirements can align with goals of adolescent health. Patient portals can enhance adolescent health care quality and adolescents readily use a confidential portal. Implementation of meaningful use requirements should be checked against adolescent health care needs to maximize confidentiality and promote health communication. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association Between Childhood to Adolescent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Trajectories and Late Adolescent Disordered Eating. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Javaras, Kristin N; Baker, Jessica H; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M; Larsson, Henrik


    disorders. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescence, attention allocation, and driving safety. (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K


    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescent health care: improving access by school-based service. (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N


    Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused

  16. Adolescent Self-Consent for Biomedical Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Research. (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Knopf, Amelia S; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hosek, Sybil G; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Zimet, Gregory D


    The Adolescent Medicine Trials Network Protocol 113 (ATN113) is an open-label, multisite demonstration project and Phase II safety study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis with 15- to 17-year-old young men who have sex with men that requires adolescent consent for participation. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the process by which Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and researchers made decisions regarding whether to approve and implement ATN113 so as to inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Participants included 17 researchers at 13 sites in 12 states considering ATN113 implementation. Qualitative descriptive methods were used. Data sources included interviews and documents generated during the initiation process. A common process for initiating ATN113 emerged, and informants described how they identified and addressed practical, ethical, and legal challenges that arose. Informants described the process as responding to the protocol, preparing for IRB submission, abstaining from or proceeding with submission, responding to IRB concerns, and reacting to the outcomes. A complex array of factors impacting approval and implementation were identified, and ATN113 was ultimately implemented in seven of 13 sites. Informants also reflected on lessons learned that may help inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. The results illustrate factors for consideration in determining whether to implement such trials, demonstrate that such protocols have the potential to be approved, and highlight a need for clearer standards regarding biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to optimal care between physicians and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescent patients. (United States)

    Kitts, Robert Li


    The objective of this article was to identify barriers to optimal care between physicians and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) adolescents. To this end, 464 anonymous, self-administered surveys were distributed in 2003 to residents and attending physicians in pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, emergency medicine, and family practice at Upstate Medical University. The survey included questions pertaining to practice, knowledge, and attitude pertaining to lesbian, gay, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) adolescents. One hundred eight four surveys were returned. The majority of physicians would not regularly discuss sexual orientation, sexual attraction, or gender identity while taking a sexual history from a sexually active adolescent. As well, the majority of physicians would not ask patients about sexual orientation if an adolescent presented with depression, suicidal thoughts, or had attempted suicide. If an adolescent stated that he or she was not sexually active, 41% of physicians reported that they would not ask additional sexual health-related questions. Only 57% agreed to an association between being a LGBTQ adolescent and suicide. The majority of physicians did not believe that they had all the skills they needed to address issues of sexual orientation with adolescents, and that sexual orientation should be addressed more often with these patients and in the course of training. This study concludes that barriers in providing optimal care for LGBTQ adolescents can be found with regard to practice, knowledge, and attitude regardless of medical field and other demographics collected. Opportunities exist to enhance care for LGBTQ adolescents.

  18. Treatment of adolescents with morbid obesity with bariatric procedures and anti-obesity pharmacological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Um SS


    Full Text Available Scott S Um1, Wendelin Slusser2, Daniel A DeUgarte11Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Adolescent obesity is a growing health concern that can have immense physical and psychological impact. Treatment of morbidly obese adolescents should include a multidisciplinary team to address medical comorbidities, diet, physical activity, mental health, and behavior modification. Anti-obesity pharmacologic agents have a limited role in the treatment of adolescents because of concerns with side effects, safety, and efficacy. Orlistat (GlaxoSmithKline, Moon Township, PA is the only approved medication for weight-loss in adolescents. However, it is associated with gastrointestinal side effects and its long-term efficacy is unknown. Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy to treat morbid obesity. However, adolescents must meet rigorous criteria and have appropriate cognitive, psychological, and social clearance before being considered for surgical intervention. Gastric bypass remains the gold standard bariatric operation. The adjustable gastric band is not FDA-approved for use in patients under 18 years of age. Sleeve gastrectomy is a promising procedure for adolescents because it avoids an intestinal bypass and the implantation of a foreign body. Prospective longitudinal assessment of bariatric surgery procedures is required to determine long-term outcomes. In this manuscript, we review the treatment options, efficacy, and impact on quality of life for morbidly obese adolescents.Keywords: bariatric surgery, morbid obesity, weight loss, adolescent

  19. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents. (United States)

    Chung, Richard J; English, Abigail


    This review describes the current state of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents in the United States and globally, the legal and health implications of this severe form of abuse, and the roles that pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers can play in addressing this issue. Although this form of exploitation and abuse is shrouded in secrecy, pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers are well positioned to respond when it arises. However, awareness and understanding of the issue are generally lacking among healthcare professionals, currently limiting their effectiveness in combating this problem. Although the empirical evidence base available to guide clinical care of victims of trafficking remains limited given the secretive nature of the abuse, important contributions to the multidisciplinary literature on this issue have been made in recent years, including the Institute of Medicine's landmark report in the United States. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents represent a human rights tragedy that remains inadequately addressed. As preeminent advocates for the health and well-being of adolescents, pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers can play a crucial role in advancing efforts not only to intervene but also to prevent further victimization of vulnerable youth.

  20. Effect of Gestational Weight Gain and Prepregnancy Body Mass Index in Adolescent Mothers on Weight and Body Mass Index of Adolescent Offspring. (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Holland, Margaret L; Smith, Joyce A; Meng, Ying; Kitzman, Harriet


    The purpose of the study was to examine the association of the gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) of low-income adolescent mothers with the risk of their children being overweight and/or obese in late adolescence. Study subjects were low-income, primiparous adolescents (n = 360) who self-identified as black and participated in the New Mothers Study in Memphis, Tennessee, and their children. Gestational weight gain was examined as a continuous variable and also categorized into overgain, recommended gain, and undergain following the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. The effects of maternal prepregnancy BMI percentiles and calculated BMI were also considered. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used. The main outcome measures were offspring overweight, obesity, and BMI. Thirty-nine percent of offspring were overweight or obese. Higher maternal gestational weight gain increased the risk for offspring overweight and obesity. There was an interaction between gestational weight gain and prepregnancy BMI: offspring of mothers with a BMI percentile ≤76 were at greater risk of obesity with higher maternal weight gain. If mothers with a BMI percentile between the 29th and 83rd percentiles overgained, offspring were at greater risk for overweight. Using calculated BMIs, if a mother's BMI was ≤26 kg/m 2 , offspring risk for obesity was greater with higher gestational weight gain. High gestational weight gain had a larger effect on offspring overweight and obesity if maternal prepregnancy BMI percentile was ≤76. The gestational weight gain of primiparous adolescents who self-identified as black had an effect on offspring weight. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity distribution and diversities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüce M


    Full Text Available Murat Yüce,1 Süleyman Salih Zoroglu,2 Mehmet Fatih Ceylan,3 Hasan Kandemir,4 Koray Karabekiroglu5 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical Faculty of Istanbul, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Dr Sami Ulus Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: We aimed to determine distribution and diversities of psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in terms of age groups, sex, and ADHD subtype. Materials and methods: The sample included 6–18 year old children and adolescents from Turkey (N=108; 83 boys, 25 girls diagnosed with ADHD. All comorbid diagnoses were determined based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version assessment. Results: 96.3% of the cases were found to have at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric comorbid disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (69.4% followed by anxiety disorders (49% and elimination disorders (27.8%. Disruptive behavior disorders were more common in ADHD-combined type. Depression and anxiety disorders were more common in girls. Separation anxiety disorder and elimination disorder were more common in children, whereas depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and social phobia were more common in the adolescents. Conclusion: According to our results, when a diagnostic tool was used to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, almost all cases had at least one

  2. Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald's and Subway. (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Kayekjian, Karen C; Velasquez, Paz; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A


    To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overweight and Obesity among In-school Adolescents in Ondo State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ... Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria ... is no current national figure on overweight/obesity in the adult or adolescents. ... A total of 2031 (1126 males and 905 females), students participated in this study.

  4. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M


    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  5. School sport participation during adolescence and mental health in early adulthood. (United States)

    Jewett, Rachel; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Scarapicchia, Tanya; O'Loughlin, Jennifer


    This longitudinal study examined the association between participation in school sport during adolescence and mental health in early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 853) reported participation in school sport in each grade throughout the 5 years of secondary school. In early adulthood, participants reported depressive symptoms, level of stress, and self-rated mental health. Involvement in school sport during adolescence was a statistically significant predictor of lower depression symptoms, lower perceived stress, and higher self-rated mental health in young adulthood. School sport participation may protect against poor mental health in early adulthood. Policies to increase school sport participation may be warranted as part of public health strategies to promote mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Coming of Age of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine* (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R.; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen


    Summary This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its “adolescence” (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: Will the field come of age in the ‘90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993; 5:93–106). In this article, the discussants reflect on medical AI research during the subsequent years and attempt to characterize the maturity and influence that has been achieved to date. Participants focus on their personal areas of expertise, ranging from clinical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty, and knowledge representation to systems integration, translational bioinformatics, and cognitive issues in both the modeling of expertise and the creation of acceptable systems. PMID:18790621

  7. Changes in Adolescents' Receipt of Sex Education, 2006-2013. (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Boonstra, Heather


    Updated estimates of adolescents' receipt of sex education are needed to monitor changing access to information. Using nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated changes over time in adolescents' receipt of sex education from formal sources and from parents and differentials in these trends by adolescents' gender, race/ethnicity, age, and place of residence. Between 2006-2010 and 2011-2013, there were significant declines in adolescent females' receipt of formal instruction about birth control (70% to 60%), saying no to sex (89% to 82%), sexually transmitted disease (94% to 90%), and HIV/AIDS (89% to 86%). There was a significant decline in males' receipt of instruction about birth control (61% to 55%). Declines were concentrated among adolescents living in nonmetropolitan areas. The proportion of adolescents talking with their parents about sex education topics did not change significantly. Twenty-one percent of females and 35% of males did not receive instruction about methods of birth control from either formal sources or a parent. Declines in receipt of formal sex education and low rates of parental communication may leave adolescents without instruction, particularly in nonmetropolitan areas. More effort is needed to understand this decline and to explore adolescents' potential other sources of reproductive health information. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Kljuchnikov


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to one of the urgent problems of modern medicine – osteoporosis. Modern trends in the national epidemiology, risk factors, and diagnostic approaches are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguity and inconsistency of information on osteoporosis in childhood and adolescence, as well as the lack of convincing studies of this issue in children’s sports medicine. The authors conduct an analysis of the generally accepted approaches to the identification of risk groups for the development of osteoporosis in children, the predisposing factors and complex issues of diagnosing this condition are discussed in detail. The publication presents the results of our own observations of the most complex clinical cases in a group of children and adolescents involved in sports, including elite sports. A separate section is devoted to the analysis of pharmacological agents for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in children and young athletes. All presented data are in accordance with the legislation and rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA, 2017. 

  9. Child and Adolescent Homicide in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Tıraşçı


    Full Text Available Studies regarding childhood homicides are lacking in our country. We aimed to investigate the frequency and demographic data of child and adolescent homicides by examining postmortem investigation and autopsy reports from Branch of the Council of Forensic Medicine in Diyarbakir Province, between 2000 and 2003. All of the cases were analyzed regarding the age, sex, method and location of homicide and injury location. There were 39 children aged 6 month through 18 years. Adolescents between 16 and 18 years constitued the overhelming number (64.1% of all the chilhood homicides. Male children and adolescents predominated among the homicide victims (82%. The most frequent means of homicide were firearms-(51.2%. The majority of homicides occured at garden/field (46.1%. With regard to injury location, the most common site was the thorax (41%. In conclusion, setting up providing training programmes including parents will be effective for the prevention of childhood homicide.

  10. [Adolescent medicine: eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)]. (United States)

    Vust, S; Michaud, P A


    Young people (mostly females) suffering from eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are more and more numerous and their difficulties pose serious problems to health care providers as well as the society. These situations correspond to eating disorders which do not totally meet the DSM-IV criteria for either anorexia or bulimia nervosa. The duration of the symptoms, the extent of suffering as well as the impact on daily life should be taken into account to set-up the treatment. The therapeutic approach to these disorders should ideally include both cognitive/dietary and psychodynamic approaches. The Multidisciplinary Unit for Adolescent Health in Lausanne has set-up a group treatment for these patients.

  11. A Practitioner's Guide to Electronic Cigarettes in the Adolescent Population. (United States)

    Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Pesko, Michael F; Shearer, Lee; Hughes, Jenna M; Chang, Jane; Loughlin, Gerald M; Ipp, Lisa S


    We present guidance on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for health care professionals who care for adolescents. ENDS provide users with inhaled nicotine in an aerosolized mist. Popular forms of ENDS include e-cigarettes and vape-pens. ENDS range in disposability, customization, and price. Growth of ENDS usage has been particularly rapid in the adolescent population, surpassing that of conventional cigarettes in 2014. Despite surging use throughout the United States, little is known about the health risks posed by ENDS, especially in the vulnerable adolescent population. These products may potentiate nicotine addiction in adolescents and have been found to contain potentially harmful chemicals. The growth in these products may be driven by relaxed purchasing restrictions for minors, lack of advertising regulations, and youth friendly flavors. Taken together, ENDS represent a new and growing health risk to the adolescent population, one that health care professionals should address with their patients. We suggest a patient centered strategy to incorporate ENDS use into routine substance counseling. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescent Reproductive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs and Future Fatherhood. (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Peters, Sarah; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, Patricia Lindsay


    With a growing focus on the importance of men's reproductive health, including preconception health, the ways in which young men's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) predict their reproductive paths are understudied. To determine if reproductive KAB predicts fatherhood status, timing and residency (living with child or not). Reproductive KAB and fatherhood outcomes were analyzed from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a 20-year, nationally representative study of individuals from adolescence into adulthood. Four measures of reproductive KAB were assessed during adolescence in waves I and II. A generalized linear latent and mixed model predicted future fatherhood status (nonfather, resident/nonresident father, adolescent father) and timing while controlling for other socio-demographic variables. Of the 10,253 men, 3,425 were fathers (686 nonresident/2,739 resident) by wave IV. Higher risky sexual behavior scores significantly increased the odds of becoming nonresident father (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; p fatherhood and residency status. Strategies that address adolescent males' reproductive KAB are needed in the prevention of unintended reproductive consequences such as early and nonresident fatherhood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving self-regulation in adolescents: current evidence for the role of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry-Parrish C


    Full Text Available Carisa Perry-Parrish,1 Nikeea Copeland-Linder,2 Lindsey Webb,2 Ashley Shields,1 Erica MS Sibinga2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pediatric Medical Psychology Program, 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT was introduced in 1995 to address the problem of recurrent depression. MBCT is based on the notion that meditation helps individuals effectively deploy and regulate attention to effectively manage and treat a range of psychological symptoms, including emotional responses to stress, anxiety, and depression. Several studies demonstrate that mindfulness approaches can effectively reduce negative emotional reactions that result from and/or exacerbate psychiatric difficulties and exposure to stressors among children, adolescents, and their parents. Mindfulness may be particularly relevant for youth with maladaptive cognitive processes such as rumination. Clinical experience regarding the utility of mindfulness-based approaches, including MBCT, is being increasingly supported by empirical studies to optimize the effective treatment of youth with a range of challenging symptoms. This paper provides a description of MBCT, including mindfulness practices, theoretical mechanisms of action, and targeted review of studies in adolescents. Keywords: youth, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, adolescents

  14. Ambivalent messages: adolescents' perspectives on pregnancy and birth. (United States)

    Tanner, Amanda Elizabeth; Jelenewicz, Shameeka M; Ma, Alice; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Houston, Avril Melissa; Paluzzi, Pat


    To examine, from a youth's perspective, adolescent pregnancy and parenting in Baltimore, Maryland, a city with high rates of adolescent pregnancy. Six gender-stratified focus groups with 13- to 19-year-olds (4 female and 2 male groups; n = 47). We recorded focus groups, transcribed them verbatim, and analyzed them using the constant comparison method. Participants completed questionnaires to collect demographic and behavioral information. Results fit into a social-ecological framework. Individual (e.g., contraceptive use behaviors, religion), interpersonal (e.g., peer norms, maintaining male partners), and community (e.g., clinic factors, perceptions of community) level influences on adolescent pregnancy emerged. Participants discussed contradictory messages that were often gendered in their expectations; for instance, women were responsible for not getting pregnant and raising children. Adolescents expressed beliefs both against (e.g., challenging to complete school) and supporting early childrearing (e.g., religion). Recommendations for addressing the different influences included mentors, education, and community resources. Adolescents' perspectives and values regarding pregnancy and parenting may not mirror traditional and expected norms for pregnancy and requirements for raising a child. These findings challenge the framing of existing interventions as they may not accurately reflect adolescents' values regarding pregnancy and parenting, and thus may need to be modified to highlight positive attitudes toward contraception and postponing pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents. (United States)

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E


    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing Iranian adolescent girls' needs for sexual and reproductive health information. (United States)

    Mosavi, Seyed Abbas; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Shariati, Mohammad


    To explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults regarding the necessity of providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services for adolescent girls in Iran. This was a qualitative study; the data were coded and categorized in content analysis by MAXQDA10 and were gathered through focus groups with adolescent girls and their mothers and semi-structured interviews with school counselors, sociologists, health providers, state and nongovernmental directors of health programs, clergy, and health policy makers in the Iranian cities of Mashhad, Tehran, Shahroud, and Qom. There were six main reasons for the need to provide SRH services for adolescent girls: a lack of adequate knowledge about SRH, easy access to inaccurate information sources, cultural and social changes, increasing risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, religion's emphasis on sex training of children and adolescents, and the existence of cultural taboos. Most participants confirmed the necessity of providing SRH services for adolescent girls, so instead of talking about provision or non-provision of these services, it is important for policy makers to plan and provide SRH services that can be consistent with cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinctions of bipolar disorder symptoms in adolescence. (United States)

    Gudiene, Devika; Leskauskas, Darius; Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Klimavicius, Dalius; Adomaitiene, Virginija


    Bipolar disorder in adolescents is a serious mental illness with problematic diagnosis that adversely affects social, academic, emotional, and family functioning. The objective of this study was to analyze features of premorbid and clinical symptoms, comorbidity, and course of bipolar disorder in adolescence. Data for analysis were collected from all case histories (N=6) of 14-18-year-old patients, hospitalized with diagnosis of bipolar disorder in the Unit of Children's and Adolescents' Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine, during the period from 2000 to 2005. Analysis of bipolar disorder course showed that five patients previously had been diagnosed with an episode of depression. The most frequent symptoms typical to bipolar disorder were disobedience and impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood. The most common premorbid features were frequent changes of mood, being active in communication, hyperactive behavior. Adolescence-onset bipolar disorder was frequently comorbid with emotionally instable personality disorder, borderline type. Findings of the study confirm the notion that oppositional or impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood without any reason, dysphoric mood and euphoric mood episodes with increased energy were cardinal symptoms of bipolar disorder with mania in adolescents. Most frequent premorbid features of these patients were quite similar to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder making differential diagnosis problematic.

  18. Medical student self-efficacy, knowledge and communication in adolescent medicine. (United States)

    Woods, Jennifer L; Pasold, Tracie L; Boateng, Beatrice A; Hense, Devon J


    To evaluate student self-efficacy, knowledge and communication with teen issues and learning activities. Data were collected during the 8-week pediatric rotation for third-year medical students at a local children's hospital. Students completed a self-efficacy instrument at the beginning and end of the rotation; knowledge and communication skills were evaluated during standardized patient cases as part of the objective structured clinical examination. Self-efficacy, knowledge and communication frequencies were described with descriptive statistics; differences between groups were also evaluated utilizing two-sample t-tests. Self-efficacy levels of both groups increased by the end of the pediatric rotation, but students in the two-lecture group displayed significantly higher self-efficacy in confidentiality with adolescents (t(35)=-2.543, p=0.02); interviewing adolescents, assessing risk, sexually transmitted infection risk and prevention counseling, contraception counseling were higher with marginal significance. No significant differences were found between groups for communication; assessing sexually transmitted infection risk was marginally significant for knowledge application during the clinical exam. Medical student self-efficacy appears to change over time with effects from different learning methods; this higher self-efficacy may increase future comfort and willingness to work with this high-risk, high-needs group throughout a medical career.

  19. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression. (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R


    Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualitative Study of Depression Literacy Among Korean American Parents of Adolescents. (United States)

    Jeong, Yoo Mi; McCreary, Linda L; Hughes, Tonda L


    Lack of depression literacy is associated with low help-seeking behaviors for mental health care in adolescents. As parents generally determine adolescents' health care, ensuring parents can recognize depressive symptoms is crucial. The current study explored depression literacy among Korean American parents of adolescents ages 12 to 19 using a qualitative descriptive design. Semantic content analysis was performed using data from three focus group interviews conducted in 2015 with Korean American parents (10 mothers, four fathers) of adolescents. Participants lacked knowledge about the biological causes and medicinal treatment of depression. Most believed that depression cannot be fully treated, relapses occur easily, and medication is taken indefinitely. Gender influenced perceptions of symptoms. Parents often overlooked children's depressive symptoms until schools alerted them. Nursing interventions should educate parents about the biological causes of depression, strategies for addressing adolescents' symptoms, community-based professional resources, and success stories about depression treatment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(1), 48-56.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Acanthosis nigricans in obese adolescents: prevalence, impact, and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng HY


    Full Text Available Hak Yung Ng Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Tseung Kwan O, Hong Kong, China Abstract: Obesity in adolescence is a public health priority because it usually tracks into adulthood, resulting in enormous medical and social costs. This underscores the importance of early identification and intervention. Acanthosis nigricans (AN was once considered a rare paraneoplastic dermatosis, but is now frequently observed in obese adolescents. Current understanding suggests that it is associated with insulin resistance and has a unique role in secondary prevention. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview of AN in obese adolescents, covering its history, current knowledge on the condition, its clinical significance, management challenges, and the direction of future research. Keywords: Differential diagnosis, screening, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolically healthy obesity, behavioral weight management, pharmacotherapy, bariatric surgery

  2. Risk factors for suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence in HIV-infected adolescents in Gaborone, Botswana: a pilot cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndiaye M


    Full Text Available Maimouna Ndiaye,1,2 Peter Nyasulu,1 Hoang Nguyen,6,7 Elizabeth D Lowenthal,8,9 Robert Gross,10 Edward J Mills,3 Jean B Nachega4–6 1School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Central Medical Stores, Ministry of Health, Gaborone, Botswana; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; 4Department of Medicine and Centre for Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Department of Epidemiology, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research Program, Pittsburgh University Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Departments of Epidemiology and International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Tay Ho Clinics, Department of Medicine, Hanoi Health Services, Hanoi, Vietnam; 8Departments of Pediatrics and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 9Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 10Departments of Medicine and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: Little is known about factors associated with suboptimal antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to determine the level of ART adherence and predictors of non-adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected adolescents at the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Centre of Excellence in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 82 HIV-infected adolescents receiving ART and their caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire. The patient's clinical information was retrieved from medical records. Outcome measures included excellent pill count ART adherence (>95% and virologic suppression

  3. Adolescents' self-presentation on a teen dating web site: a risk-content analysis. (United States)

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa A; Manasse, Stephanie M; Orrell-Valente, Joan K


    To analzye adolescents' profiles on, a teen dating Web site, for risk content. We hypothesized that risk content would vary by age and gender. We selected and coded 752 publicly viewable profiles of adolescents aged 14-18 years for the following five risks: sex, alcohol, drugs, cigarettes, and violence. Of the total profiles, 27.7% contained risk-related content: 15.8% sexual behavior, 13.8% alcohol use, 1.6% drug use, 6.8% cigarette smoking, and .9% violence activity. Being female, "single" relationship status, and use of profanity (p cyberbullies and sexual predators). Stronger universal Internet policies and education are needed to help protect adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of Effective Caregiver Communication After Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury. (United States)

    Hobart-Porter, Laura; Wade, Shari; Minich, Nori; Kirkwood, Michael; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, Hudson Gerry


    To characterize the effects of caregiver mental health and coping strategies on interactions with an injured adolescent acutely after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Multi-site, cross-sectional study. Outpatient setting of 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals and 2 tertiary general medical centers. Adolescents (N = 125) aged 12-17 years, 1-6 months after being hospitalized with complicated mild to severe TBI. Data were collected as part of a multi-site clinical trial of family problem-solving therapy after TBI. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of caregiver and environmental characteristics to the dimensions of effective communication, warmth, and negativity during caregiver-adolescent problem-solving discussions. Adolescent and caregiver interactions, as measured by the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales. Caregivers who utilized problem-focused coping strategies were rated as having higher levels of effective communication (P teen interactions. Problem-focused coping strategies are associated with higher levels of effective communication and lower levels of caregiver negativity during the initial months after adolescent TBI, suggesting that effective caregiver coping may facilitate better caregiver-adolescent interactions after TBI. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome. (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju


    The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. Health Disparities in Adolescent Bariatric Surgery: Nationwide Outcomes and Utilization. (United States)

    Nunez Lopez, Omar; Jupiter, Daniel C; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Bowen-Jallow, Kanika A


    Bariatric surgery represents an appropriate treatment for adolescent severe obesity, but its utilization remains low in this patient population. We studied the impact of race and sex on preoperative characteristics, outcomes, and utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery. Retrospective analysis (2007-2014) of adolescent bariatric surgery using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database, a national database that collects bariatric surgical care data. We assessed the relationships between baseline characteristics and outcomes (weight loss and remission of obesity-related conditions [ORCs]). Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and U.S. census data, we calculated the ratio of severe obesity and bariatric procedures among races and determined the ratio of ratios to assess for disparities. About 1,539 adolescents underwent bariatric surgery. Males had higher preoperative body mass index (BMI; 51.8 ± 10.5 vs. 47.1 ± 8.7, p adolescents underwent bariatric surgery at a higher proportion than blacks and Hispanics (2.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively). Preoperative characteristics vary according to race and sex. Race and sex do not impact 12-month weight loss or ORC's remission rates. Minority adolescents undergo bariatric surgery at lower-than-expected rates. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital Self-Harm Among Adolescents. (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W; Hinduja, Sameer


    Despite increased media and scholarly attention to digital forms of aggression directed toward adolescents by their peers (e.g., cyberbullying), very little research has explored digital aggression directed toward oneself. "Digital self-harm" is the anonymous online posting, sending, or otherwise sharing of hurtful content about oneself. The current study examined the extent of digital self-harm among adolescents. Survey data were obtained in 2016 from a nationally representative sample of 5,593 American middle and high school students (12-17 years old). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of participation in digital self-harm. Qualitative responses were also reviewed to better understand motivations for digital self-harm. About 6% of students have anonymously posted something online about themselves that was mean. Males were significantly more likely to report participation (7.1% compared to 5.3%). Several statistically significant correlates of involvement in digital self-harm were identified, including sexual orientation, experience with school bullying and cyberbullying, drug use, participation in various forms of adolescent deviance, and depressive symptoms. Digital self-harm is a new problem that demands additional scholarly attention. A deeper inquiry as to the motivations behind this behavior, and how it correlates to offline self-harm and suicidal ideation, can help direct mental health professionals toward informed prevention approaches. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Older adolescents' views regarding participation in Facebook research. (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Grant, Alison; Kacvinsky, Lauren; Moreno, Peter; Fleming, Michael


    Facebook continues to grow in popularity among adolescents as well as adolescent researchers. Guidance on conducting research using Facebook with appropriate attention to privacy and ethics is scarce. To inform such research efforts, the purpose of this study was to determine older adolescents' responses after learning that they were participants in a research study that involved identification of participants using Facebook. Public Facebook profiles of older adolescents aged 18-19 years from a large state university were examined. Profile owners were then interviewed. During the interview, participants were informed that they were identified by examining publicly available Facebook profiles. Participants were asked to discuss their views on this research method. A total of 132 participants completed the interview (70% response rate); the average age was 18.4 years (SD = .5); and our sample included 64 male participants (48.5%). Participant responses included endorsement (19.7%), fine (36.4%), neutral (28.8%), uneasy (9.1%), and concerned (6.1%). Among participants who were uneasy or concerned, the majority voiced confusion regarding their current profile security settings (p = .00). The majority of adolescent participants viewed the use of Facebook for research positively. These findings are consistent with the approach taken by many U.S. courts. Researchers may consider these findings when developing research protocols involving Facebook. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenting style as a predictor of adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    Current research indicates that specific parenting styles are associated with adolescent overweight, dietary intake, and physical activity; but most of the research has been cross-sectional, making it difficult to determine the temporal order of these associations. The current study adds to the previous research by examining 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. Data from Project EAT, a population-based study with adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, were used. Adolescents (N = 2,516) from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of adolescent outcomes at Time 2 from parenting style at Time 1. Time 1 maternal authoritative parenting style predicted lower body mass index in adolescent sons and daughters at Time 2. Time 1 paternal permissive parenting style predicted more fruits and vegetables intake in daughters at Time 2. Significant associations were not found between parenting style and adolescent physical activity. Findings suggest that authoritative parenting style may play a protective role related to adolescent overweight and that the dimension of warmth and/or caring in the parent-adolescent relationship may be important in relation to female adolescent healthy dietary intake. Further exploration of opposite sex parent-adolescent dyad patterns related to parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors is warranted. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Resident Education Curriculum in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: The Short Curriculum 2.0. (United States)

    Talib, Hina J; Karjane, Nicole; Teelin, Karen; Abraham, Margaret; Holt, Stephanie; Chelvakumar, Gayaythri; Dumont, Tania; Huguelet, Patricia S; Conner, Lindsay; Wheeler, Carol; Fleming, Nathalie


    The degree of exposure to pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) varies across residency programs in obstetrics and gynecology and pediatrics. Nevertheless, these programs are responsible for training residents and providing opportunities within their programs to fulfill PAG learning objectives. To that end, the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology has taken a leadership role in PAG resident education by creating and systematically updating the Short Curriculum. This curriculum outlines specific learning objectives that are central to PAG education and lists essential resources for learners' reference. This updated curriculum replaces the previous 2014 publication with added content, resources, and updated references. Additionally, attention to the needs of learners in pediatrics and adolescent medicine is given greater emphasis in this revised North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Short Curriculum 2.0. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Educational Attainment at Age 10-11 Years Predicts Health Risk Behaviors and Injury Risk During Adolescence. (United States)

    Demmler, Joanne C; Hill, Rebecca A; Rahman, Muhammad A; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Healy, Melanie A; Paranjothy, Shantini; Murphy, Simon; Fletcher, Adam; Hewitt, Gillian; John, Ann; Lyons, Ronan A; Brophy, Sinead T


    To examine the effect of educational attainment in primary school on later adolescent health. Education data attainments at age 7 and 11 were linked with (1) primary and secondary care injury consultation/admissions and (2) the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Cox regression was carried out to examine if attainment in primary school predicts time to injury in adolescence. Pupils that achieve attainment at age 7 but not at age 11 (i.e., declining attainment over time in primary school) are more likely to have an injury during adolescence. These children are also more likely to self-report drinking in adolescence. Interventions aimed at children with declining attainment in primary school could help to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium and vitamin D requirements for optimal bone mass during adolescence (United States)

    There remains very strong interest in the calcium and vitamin D requirements of adolescents related to bone health. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released new dietary guidelines in late 2010 for these nutrients. These guidelines were primarily based on literature published in 2009 and earlier and ...

  13. Suicide among Children and Adolescents: Data from Cukurova, Turkey (United States)

    Arslan, Mustafa; Akcan, Ramazan; Hilal, Ahmet; Batuk, Hulya; Cekin, Necmi


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the general properties of suicide among children and adolescents in our region, and to evaluate the results in the light of the literature. The autopsy records of the morgue of the Adana branch of the Turkish Forensic Medicine Council were investigated retrospectively. Focus of the study was shaped by…

  14. Parent Preferences for Communicating With Their Adolescent's Provider Using New Technologies. (United States)

    Rand, Cynthia M; Blumkin, Aaron; Vincelli, Phyllis; Katsetos, Viki; Szilagyi, Peter G


    Because adolescents make few health care visits, we assessed the views of parents of adolescents on various means to communicate with their adolescents' physicians about vaccine reminders and appointments, medication refills and test results-including phone, mail, e-mail, text messages, and personal health records (PHRs). We performed a cross-sectional survey of 400 parents of adolescents presenting to four pediatric offices (two urban, two suburban) in Rochester, NY in 2011 before vaccine reminders occurring in these practices. Roughly half of parents (60% urban, 52% suburban, p = .11) were accepting of teens receiving their own vaccine reminders. Urban parents preferred communicating with the provider via telephone, whereas suburban parents preferred e-mail for most issues and a PHR for receipt of test results. In adjusted analyses, being younger was associated with preferring text message vaccine reminders (41 to parent was associated with preferring e-mail reminders (aRR = 1.6, p parents are ready for electronic (text message, e-mail, PHR) communications for their adolescents' health care and that a parent age and socioeconomic divide exists. Providing options in the means in which parents communicate with an adolescent's provider is ideal. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lunchtime School Water Availability and Water Consumption Among California Adolescents. (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Babey, Susan H; Patel, Anisha I; Wang, Pan; Schuster, Mark A


    To examine the potential impact of California SB 1413, which required school districts to provide free, fresh drinking water during mealtimes in food service areas by July 1, 2011, on greater water consumption among California adolescents. Data were drawn from the 2012 and 2013 state-representative California Health Interview Survey. A total of 2,665 adolescents aged 12-17 years were interviewed regarding their water consumption and availability of free water during lunchtime at their school. Three-fourths reported that their school provided free water at lunchtime, mainly via fountains. In a multivariate model that controlled for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and school type, adolescents in schools that provided free water consumed significantly more water than adolescents who reported that water was not available, bivariate (standard error) = .67 (.28), p = .02. School water access did not significantly vary across the 2 years. Lunchtime school water availability was related to water consumption, but a quarter of adolescents reported that their school did not provide free water at lunch. Future research should explore what supports and inducements might facilitate provision of drinking water during school mealtimes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological indicators of pathologic video game use in adolescence. (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Dyer, W Justin; Densley, Rebecca; Money, Nathan M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M


    Pathologic video game use (PVGU) has been associated with a host of negative psychological, physical, and social outcomes during adolescence; however, little research has examined physiological predictors of such use. The purpose of the study was to examine physiological predictors of the development of PVGU across adolescence. The article involves a 1-year longitudinal study across midadolescence. Participants were 374 adolescents and their parents from a large metropolitan area in the Northwest United States. PVGU was assessed via questionnaire, as were a number of control variables. A number of physiological indicators including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and galvanic skin conductance (indices of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity, respectively) were measured during baseline, a cognitively stimulating task (Rubik's cube), and a family problem-solving task. Less RSA withdrawal to a cognitively simulating task was related to greater pathologic video game symptoms, but less RSA withdrawal to a family problem-solving task was associated with the presence of pathologic video game symptoms (p video game symptoms (p < .01). These findings suggest that adolescents who do not find cognitive tasks stimulating physiologically have a greater severity of PVGU. Additionally, adolescents who show physiological signs of stress in a family task were more likely to have PVGU symptoms and only girls have more severe PVGU levels. This study is the first to show that physiological indicators predict PVGU over time in adolescence and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of PVGU in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin D3 supplementation in obese, African-American, vitamin D deficient adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela N. Magge


    Conclusions: Cholecalciferol dosing in excess of the current Institute of Medicine dietary reference intakes was required to achieve 25OHD levels ≥20 ng/mL in obese, AA adolescents. Supplementation of 5000 IU may be required to achieve the desired goal.

  18. Ethical Barriers in Adolescent Oncofertility Counseling. (United States)

    Runco, Daniel V; Taylor, Julia F; Helft, Paul R


    Adult survivors of pediatric cancers are at substantial risk for infertility. Oncofertility is an emerging field in medicine that has focused on the fertility preservation of these patients. As the field continues to develop, there are several areas in which our practice has improved. However, several ethical concerns still exist involving beneficence, nonmaleficence, informed consent, adolescent assent, and posthumous use of reproductive tissues. Because the field is still developing, great disparities exist in available options depending on age, ability to pay, and geographic location. Such discrepancies in access may lead to health disparities in the adolescent patient population. As the science continues to make future fertility more feasible, the ethical questions will continue to be more complex. The purpose of this article is to review some of the developments regarding oncoferility and address future directions for research and inquiry in specific areas.

  19. Use of MenACWY-CRM in adolescents in the United States. (United States)

    Black, Steven; Block, Stan L


    Adolescents constitute a high-risk group for invasive meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis Vaccines, Cambridge, MA) is a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine indicated to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. It has been approved for use in persons age 2-55 years. The tolerability and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in adolescents have been ascertained in phase 2 and 3 trials against MPSV4 (Menomune, sanofi pasteur, Swiftwater, PA), an unconjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine, and MenACWY-D (Menactra, sanofi pasteur), another conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine. Clinical trials also have demonstrated that MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to adolescents concomitantly with the combined tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) and the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil, Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ). Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anxiety Among Adolescent Survivors of Pediatric Cancer. (United States)

    McDonnell, Glynnis A; Salley, Christina G; Barnett, Marie; DeRosa, Antonio P; Werk, Rachel S; Hourani, Allison; Hoekstra, Alyssa B; Ford, Jennifer S


    The purpose of this review was to synthesize current knowledge about anxiety among adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer and highlights areas for future research. Systematic literature searches were conducted in five databases for articles published anytime before December 28, 2015. Manuscripts were reviewed by a team of six coders. Included manuscripts reported outcomes relevant to anxiety, worry, and post-traumatic stress in survivors of pediatric cancer (age at the time of study: 10-22 years) who were off treatment. Twenty-four articles met inclusion criteria. Included results were categorized into the following domains: post-traumatic stress, anxiety, cancer-related worry, and interventions. With the exception of post-traumatic stress, there was little research about anxiety in this population; however, studies generally indicated that adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer are at elevated risk for anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and cancer-related worry. This review provides preliminary evidence that anxiety is a relevant, but understudied, psychosocial outcome for adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer. More research is needed to better understand the presentation of anxiety in this population, its effect on survivors' quality of life, and possible areas for intervention. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Meta analysis on clinical effectiveness of Chinese medicine physiotherapy combined with tropicamide eye drops for pseudomyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li


    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the curative effect of Chinese medicine physiotherapy combined with tropicamide eye drops to treat pseudomyopia in children and adolescent. METHODS: We collected randomized controlled trials from CNKI, CBM, Wanfang database, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library in 2000-2015, and the improved Jadad scale was used to evaluate the methodology of the literature, and the data was extracted. The Review Manager 5.3 statistical software was used for meta analysis. RESULTS: A total of 5 articles were included in the analysis, with a total sample size of 836 cases. The curative effect of experimental group on pseudomyopia was better than that of control group, and the differences are statistically significant(Z=6.39, PCONCLUSION: Compared with topiramine eye drops alone, combined with traditional Chinese medicine therapy for treating pseudomyopia in children and adolescent is more effective, and is safe and reliable.

  2. School Disciplinary Style and Adolescent Health. (United States)

    Lau, Claudia; Wong, Mitchell; Dudovitz, Rebecca


    Parenting style is strongly associated with adolescent health. However, little is known about how school disciplinary style relates to health. We categorized adolescents' perceptions of their schools as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful, and test whether perceived school disciplinary style is associated with health. We analyze data from the RISE Up study (Reducing Health Inequities Through Social and Educational Change Follow-up), comprised of baseline (eighth grade) and 2-year follow-up surveys (10th grade) from 1,159 low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles attending 157 schools. At 10th grade, students' ratings of school support and structure were used to categorize perceived school disciplinary style as authoritative (highest tertile for support and structure), authoritarian (low support, high structure), permissive (high support, low structure), neglectful (low on both dimensions), and average (middle tertile on either dimension). Mixed effects logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic factors, parenting style, grades, and baseline health tested whether school disciplinary style was associated with substance use, violence, bullying, and depression symptoms. Risky behaviors varied by school disciplinary style. After adjusting for covariates, compared with an average school disciplinary style, a neglectful school was associated with higher odds of substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3, p authoritative school was associated with lower odds of substance use (AOR .6, p = .049), violence (AOR .6, p = .03), and bullying (AOR .5, p = .001). Structured and supportive school environments may impact the health of vulnerable adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood. (United States)

    Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I


    Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among Adolescents: A Training Priority for Primary Care Providers (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne; Borowsky, Iris W.


    Primary care providers were surveyed to determine how prepared they feel to address nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, their interest in training on NSSI, and factors associated with routinely asking about NSSI when providing health supervision. Participants included family medicine physicians ("n" = 260), pediatricians…

  5. A Multimodal Counseling-Based Adolescent Physical Activity Intervention. (United States)

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Perrin, James M; Robinson, Alyssa I; Goodman, Elizabeth


    National guidelines recommend adolescents achieve 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)/day, yet few adolescents meet these guidelines. We piloted a novel quasi-randomized physical activity intervention to promote adolescent's use of their surrounding built environment among 30 intervention and 30 control overweight/obese adolescents aged 10-16 years living in greater Boston from 2013 to 2015. Location-specific MPVA was measured by accelerometry and global positioning system for three one-week periods (Time 1 [T1], Time 2 [T2], and Time 3 [T3]). One month after T1, intervention participants received individualized counseling on how to use their surrounding built environment to increase MVPA, and control participants received standard-of-care lifestyle modification counseling; both groups received their T1 physical activity data. T2 assessment occurred the week after the counseling visit and T3 assessment 3-4 months later. The main outcome was change in average daily minutes of MVPA; the secondary outcome was meeting national MVPA guidelines. Multivariable modeling accounted for covariates (baseline MVPA, body mass index, age, sex, race/ethnicity) and clustering by study group and town. Among the 60 adolescents recruited, 55 (92%) completed data collection. Short-term (T2) intervention effects included increased average MVPA of +13.9 minutes intervention versus -.6 minutes control (p group; p = .0006). The proportion of adolescents in the intervention group who achieved 60 minutes/day of MVPA increased from 11% (T1) to 21% (T2), whereas declining (7%-0%) among controls. Individualized counseling about the built environment can help increase MVPA among overweight and obese adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha

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    Maliye C


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of rural adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried in four adopted villages of the Department of Community Medicine, M.G.I.M.S., Sewagram. A household survey was carried out in the villages. A list of all the adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years was prepared by enumeration through house-to-house visit. All adolescent girls were included in the study. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and anthropometric variables. A 24 h recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. Data generated was entered and analyzed using epi_info 2000. Nutrient intake was compared with ICMR Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI for age. Results: The mean height of the adolescent girls was 142.9 cm. Overall, 57% of the adolescents were thin (BMI for age <5 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference and 43% of the adolescents were normal (BMI for age between 5 th - 85 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference. The average energy intake, which was 1239.6±176.4 kcal/day, was deficient of RDA by 39%. The average protein intake was 39.5±7 gm/day. It was deficient by 36% and the average iron intake, which was 13.2±2.5 mg/day, was deficient by 48%. Conclusion: The findings reiterate the dietary deficiency among adolescent girls which adversely affects the nutritional status. If the poor nutritional status is not corrected promptly before they become pregnant, it adversely affects the reproductive outcome. If we have to meet out the goals of Reproductive and Child Health Program, intervention strategies to improve the dietary intake of adolescent girls are needed so that their requirements of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.

  7. Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Bishop


    Full Text Available Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in early onset schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. Studies to date indicate that risperidone is an effective treatment for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mania symptoms of bipolar disorder. In young patient populations, side effects such as weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects, and prolactin elevation require consideration when evaluating the risk benefit ratio for individual patients. Here we review published studies of risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents to provide practitioners with an overview of published data on the efficacy and safety of risperidone in these patient populations.Keywords: risperidone, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, children, adolescents

  8. Playing it Safe: Legal and Clandestine Abortions Among Adolescents in Ethiopia. (United States)

    Sully, Elizabeth; Dibaba, Yohannes; Fetters, Tamara; Blades, Nakeisha; Bankole, Akinrinola


    The 2005 expansion of the Ethiopian abortion law provided minors access to legal abortions, yet little is known about abortion among adolescents. This paper estimates the incidence of legal and clandestine abortions and the severity of abortion-related complications among adolescent and nonadolescent women in Ethiopia in 2014. This paper uses data from three surveys: a Health Facility Survey (n = 822) to collect data on legal abortions and postabortion complications, a Health Professionals Survey (n = 82) to estimate the share of clandestine abortions that resulted in treated complications, and a Prospective Data Survey (n = 5,604) to collect data on abortion care clients. An age-specific variant of the Abortion Incidence Complications Method was used to estimate abortions by age-group. Adolescents have the lowest abortion rate among all women below age 35 (19.6 per 1,000 women). After adjusting for lower levels of sexual activity among adolescents however, we find that adolescents have the highest abortion rate among all age-groups. Adolescents also have the highest proportion (64%) of legal abortions compared with other age-groups. We find no differences in the severity of abortion-related complications between adolescent and nonadolescent women. We find no evidence that adolescents are more likely than older women to have clandestine abortions. However, the higher abortion and pregnancy rates among sexually active adolescents suggest that they face barriers in access to and use of contraceptive services. Further work is needed to address the persistence of clandestine abortions among adolescents in a context where safe and legal abortion is available. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological Support, Puberty Suppression, and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria. (United States)

    Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco


    Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported. This study aimed to assess GD adolescents' global functioning after psychological support and puberty suppression. Two hundred one GD adolescents were included in this study. In a longitudinal design we evaluated adolescents' global functioning every 6 months from the first visit. All adolescents completed the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS), a self-report measure of GD-related discomfort. We used the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) to assess the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. At baseline, GD adolescents showed poor functioning with a CGAS mean score of 57.7 ± 12.3. GD adolescents' global functioning improved significantly after 6 months of psychological support (CGAS mean score: 60.7 ± 12.5; P puberty suppression had significantly better psychosocial functioning after 12 months of GnRHa (67.4 ± 13.9) compared with when they had received only psychological support (60.9 ± 12.2, P = 0.001). Psychological support and puberty suppression were both associated with an improved global psychosocial functioning in GD adolescents. Both these interventions may be considered effective in the clinical management of psychosocial functioning difficulties in GD adolescents. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Re-Visit to the School Nurse and Adolescents' Medicine Use (United States)

    Borup, Ina K.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.


    Objective: To examine if students who re-visit the school nurse use medicines differently than other students when exposed to aches and psychological problems. Methods: The study includes all 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students from a random sample of schools in Denmark, response rate 87 per cent, n = 5,205. The data collection followed the…

  11. Adolescents' perception of causes of obesity: unhealthy lifestyles or heritage? (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; González, David A; Araújo, Cora P; Muniz, Ludmila; Tavares, Patrícia; Assunção, Maria C; Menezes, Ana M B; Hallal, Pedro C


    To evaluate adolescents' perception of the causes of obesity, with emphasis on differences according to nutritional status and socioeconomic position. We conducted qualitative research including 80 adolescents belonging to the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, and their mothers. We classified adolescent boys and girls into four groups (girls-obese, girls-eutrophic, boys-obese, and boys-eutrophic) according to body mass index for age and sex, and systematically selected them according to family income at age 15 years. Research techniques included semistructured interviews and history of life. Topics covered in the interviews included early experiences with weight management, effect of weight on social relationships, family history, eating habits, and values. Low-income obese adolescents and their mothers perceive obesity as a heritage, caused by family genes, side effects of medication use, and stressful life events. However, low-income eutrophic adolescents emphasize the role of unhealthy diets on obesity development. Among the high-income adolescents, those who are obese attribute it to genetic factors and emotional problems, whereas those who are eutrophic mention unhealthy diets and lack of physical activity as the main causes of obesity. Perceptions of the causes of obesity in adolescents from a middle-income setting vary by gender, socioeconomic position, and nutritional status. Whereas some blame genetics as responsible for obesity development, others blame unhealthy diets and lifestyles, and others acknowledge the roles of early life experiences and family traditions in the process of obesity development. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficiency of training for doctors of general practice — family medicine concerning to features work of teenagers at risk

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    Bobkova O.V.


    Full Text Available Medical personnel provide assistance to teenagers and young people because of understanding their problems and a common search for ways to resolve them to change risky behavior and health. A major problem for doctors of general practice — family medicine is the condition of adolescent morbidity diseases that are transmitted mainly through sexual contact, HIV infection, which requires the formation of the teenagers responsible attitude to their own health. Doctor of general practice — family medicine should actively influence on health status, including reproductive health specified target group of patients. The aim of the study was analysis of the effectiveness of educational training on( monitoring and evaluation M & E within the scientific support project «HIV prevention among young women of sex business, people who inject drugs and young people who live or work on the street» and development of an effective system of improving professional qualification of doctors of general practice — family medicine relative characteristics of health care among risk adolescents. During 2015 there were trainings for doctors, psychologists, social workers and nurses. Investigation of the effectiveness of the activities performed on a specially designed questionnaire monitoring and evaluation (M & E. 53 respondents were interviewed — doctors of general practice — family medicine of the Zaporozhye region and the city. Zaporozhye. Questioning was conducted before and after training exercises investigated by experts of department of medical care teenagers and youth KU «Zaporozhye Regional Children Clinical Hospital.» The rating was given on a 5-point scale. The study made the following findings: therapeutic and preventive work with teenagers and young people, is one of the major problems of medical and social work in Ukraine and practice of general practitioner — family medicine; training on the basis of a single M & E system is an effective means

  13. Synchronizing Education to Adolescent Biology: "Let Teens Sleep, Start School Later" (United States)

    Kelley, Paul; Lockley, Steven W.; Foster, Russell G.; Kelley, Jonathan


    Arne Duncan, US Secretary of State for Education, tweeted in 2013: "let teens sleep, start school later". This paper examines early starts and their negative consequences in the light of key research in the last 30 years in sleep medicine and circadian neuroscience. An overview of the circadian timing system in adolescence leading to…

  14. Physician communication about adolescent vaccination: How is human papillomavirus vaccine different? (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Moss, Jennifer L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Hall, Megan E; Shah, Parth D; Brewer, Noel T


    Low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage stands in stark contrast to our success in delivering other adolescent vaccines. To identify opportunities for improving physicians' recommendations for HPV vaccination, we sought to understand how the communication context surrounding adolescent vaccination varies by vaccine type. A national sample of 776 U.S. physicians (53% pediatricians, 47% family medicine physicians) completed our online survey in 2014. We assessed physicians' perceptions and communication practices related to recommending adolescent vaccines for 11- and 12-year-old patients. About three-quarters of physicians (73%) reported recommending HPV vaccine as highly important for patients, ages 11-12. More physicians recommended tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) (95%) and meningococcal vaccines (87%, both pCommunication strategies are needed to support physicians in recommending HPV vaccine with greater confidence and efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl


    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  16. Rhabdomyolysis in adolescent athletes: review of cases. (United States)

    Hummel, Kevin; Gregory, Andrew; Desai, Neerav; Diamond, Alex


    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria and ranges in severity from asymptomatic to life threatening with acute kidney failure. While a common condition in adult populations, it is understudied in pediatrics and the majority of adolescent cases are likely exercise-induced, caused by strenuous exercise in athletes. Recently, in our pediatric sports medicine practice, we have seen numerous cases of late adolescent high school athletes who present with severe muscle pain and were found to have elevated creatine kinase levels. The cases review potential contributing factors including characteristics of the workout, use of supplements, caffeine, medication, and metabolic or genetic predisposition. Treatment for exercised-induced rhabdomyolysis rarely requires more than rehydration. Return to play should be progressive, individualized, and include acclimatization and monitoring of hydration status, though guidelines require further review.

  17. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility across Early Adolescence (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl


    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035

  18. Impact of Marijuana Legalization in Colorado on Adolescent Emergency and Urgent Care Visits. (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Davies, Sara Deakyne; Halmo, Laurie Seidel; Sass, Amy; Mistry, Rakesh D


    Approximately 6%-8% of U.S. adolescents are daily/past-month users of marijuana. However, survey data may not reliably reflect the impact of legalization on adolescents. The objective was to evaluate the impact of marijuana legalization on adolescent emergency department and urgent cares visits to a children's hospital in Colorado, a state that has allowed both medical and recreational marijuana. Retrospective review of marijuana-related visits by International Classification of Diseases codes and urine drug screens, from 2005 through 2015, for patients ≥ 13 and marijuana-related visits were identified. Behavioral health evaluation was obtained for 2,813 (67%); a psychiatric diagnosis was made for the majority (71%) of these visits. Coingestants were common; the most common was ethanol (12%). Marijuana-related visits increased from 1.8 per 1,000 visits in 2009 to 4.9 in 2015. (p = marijuana use, our data demonstrate a significant increase in adolescent marijuana-associated emergency department and urgent cares visits in Colorado. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Harsh Parenting and Food Insecurity in Adolescence: The Association With Emerging Adult Obesity. (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J; Gillette, Meghan T; Neppl, Tricia K


    As the first study of its kind, the overall purpose of this article was to examine the relationships and interactions between harsh parenting (HP) and food insecurity (FI) in adolescence on the development of overweight/obesity (OW/OB) in emerging adulthood. Data came from the Iowa Youth and Families Project, a longitudinal study of 451 adolescent youth and their families that began in 1989 in the rural Midwest. Adolescents were aged 13 years at the initial assessment, and weight status in emerging adulthood was measured 10 years later at age 23. Experiencing HP in adolescence predicted greater odds of OW/OB at 23 years old. Higher body mass indexes of the adolescent and his or her father in adolescence also increased the odds of being OW/OB at 23 years. Having parents with higher levels of education lowered the odds of being OW/OB in emerging adulthood. Finally, females who experienced high levels of FI and HP in adolescence had higher odds of OW/OB at 23 years in comparison to males. HP, in combination with FI in adolescence, predicted OW/OB for females in emerging adulthood but not for males. This study contributes to an understanding of the interplay between multiple influences in adolescence: namely, parenting and economic influences. Assessing antecedents to OW/OB in emerging adulthood via multiple pathways provides a more complex understanding of how and why adolescents turn into OW/OB adults. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparison of peer influence measures as predictors of smoking among predominately hispanic/latino high school adolescents. (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Fujimoto, Kayo; Soto, Daniel; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Unger, Jennifer B


    Consistent evidence has shown that one of the most significant influences on adolescent smoking is peer influence. There is considerable variation, however, in how peer influence is measured. This study constructs social network influence and selection variables from egocentric and sociometric data to compare their associations with smoking, with considerations of perceived smoking norms and adolescent popularity. Longitudinal data were collected in the 9th and 10th grades in October 2006 and 2007 from predominantly Hispanic/Latino adolescents in seven Southern California schools; among these adolescents, 1,950 completed surveys at both waves. Both cross-sectional (separately for 9th and 10th graders) and longitudinal models were estimated. An egocentric measure of perceived friend smoking was strongly and consistently associated with individual smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ≈ 1.80, p peer influence and underscores the importance of perceptions and popularity as mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-medication: frequent practice in adolescence? Study on a sample of high school students in Sorocaba

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    Inês Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo


    bjectives: self-medication is a practice that has been widely discussed around the world, becoming the target of several studies, including Brazil. Self-medication can cause harm. Children and adolescents are the group most inclined to irrational use of medications. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of high school students about self-medication. Methods: a cross-sectional sample of 79 high school teenagers, aged 14 - 18 years old of both genders. The questionnaire included the following variables: age, gender, grade, frequency of use of medications, who guided the consumption and self-medication, which were evaluated using dichotomous questions, specifying the(s drug(s used and their purpose. Results: the self-medication occurred in 96.2% of the sample, with no difference between genders (p = 0.19 or age (p = 0.61. Among those who self-medicated on their own, 55.88% based on old prescriptions. The most consumed pharmacological groups were analgesics, followed by medicines for colds or flu. Almost half (48.1% participants reported using nonprescription medicines. There was association between adolescents' self-medication and maternal self-medication (p = 0.02. Conclusion: it is extremely worrying the large percentage of adolescents who engage in self-medication, in view of the potential health risks. The consumption of drugs without medical advice by mothers proved to be an influencing factor in adolescents' self-medication.

  2. An investigation of adolescent health from China. (United States)

    Liu, G R


    In a senior high school in the Weicheng District of Weifang City, we studied the health of a total 445 students. The age of the first emission was 15.22 +/- 2.24 years, and the age of menarche was 13.56 +/- 2.26 years. Because 47.9% of boys and 63.8% of girls did not have previous knowledge about puberty, 39.9% of boys and 52.2% of girls felt puzzled and disgusted with the onset of puberty. About 18% of boys and about 2% of girls reported masturbation. The average frequency of masturbation was 3.5 times a month in the boys and two times monthly in girls. Adolescents acquired sexual knowledge and information predominantly from magazines (25.8% of boys and 28.0% of girls). About 64% of boys and 44% of girls wanted to be given educational programs on sex. About 43% of boys and 1% of girls smoked cigarettes and 83.5% of boys and 54.9% of girls drank alcohol. The survey suggested that it is essential to teach the senior high school students about the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of adolescence and promote research on adolescent medicine.

  3. Exploration of Gender Norms and Socialization Among Early Adolescents: The Use of Qualitative Methods for the Global Early Adolescent Study. (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert W; Atnafou, Rebkha; Chilet, Elisa; de Meyer, Sara; El-Gibaly, Omaima; Basu, Sharmistha; Bello, Bamidele; Maina, Beatrice; Zuo, Xiayun


    study, but also were a successful way of engaging the adolescent participants across sites. While the narrative interviews produced extremely rich data, researchers did notice that there were a few challenges among the younger adolescents. Challenges were related to the length of the interview, comprehension of questions, as some of the questions were either too abstract or asked adolescents about an experience they had not yet had and therefore could not address or articulate. Conducting the first phase of GEAS revealed important insights for research with participants who are in this developmental phase of early adolescence. Methods that involve greater engagement and those that are visual were shown to work well irrespective of the cultural setting. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


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    Tushar Rai


    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases?  Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel.  Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted.

  5. Difficulties of familes in caring for children and adolescents with mental disorders: an integrative review

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    Lany Leide de Castro Rocha Campelo


    Full Text Available Objective To identify the difficulties of families with children and/or adolescents with mental disorder. Method This is an integrative review. In December 2013, an electronic search was performed on Latin American Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences databases (LILACS and on Electronic Medicus Index of the National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE indexed in the Health Virtual Library (BVS using a combination of descriptors and boolean operators as follows: mental disorders and child or adolescent and caregivers and/not health staff. Results 557 studies were identified, of which 15 were selected for this study. The findings indicated difficulties related to the care for or to interaction with children/adolescents with mental disorder. Conclusion The studies revealed difficulties related to everyday practices of care and feelings expressed during care practices, as well as in relationships with children or adolescents with mental disorder.

  6. Monitoring and management of hypertension with obesity in adolescents

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    Falkner B


    Full Text Available Bonita Falkner Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Largely due to the childhood obesity epidemic, there has been an increase in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents. Obesity associated hypertension is the most common hypertension phenotype among adolescents. Approximately 30% of obese adolescents have elevated blood pressure (BP or hypertension. Updated definitions of elevated BP and hypertension in adolescents are now similar to definitions of BP status in adults. For adolescents ≥13 years of age, elevated BP is 120 to 129/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension, stage 1, is ≥130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg, and hypertension, stage 2, is ≥140/90 mm Hg. BP measurements over separate clinic visits are necessary to verify the diagnosis of elevated BP or hypertension. Ambulatory BP monitoring, when available, provides confirmatory data on BP status. Causal mechanisms for obesity associated hypertension include increased sympathetic nervous system activity, increased renal sodium retention secondary to insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, and obesity mediated inflammation. The primary treatment for obesity associated hypertension is weight reduction with lifestyle changes in diet and physical activity. Although difficult to achieve, even modest weight reduction can be beneficial. The diet should be rich in fruits, vegetables, fiber, and low-fat dairy with reduction in salt intake. When lifestyle changes are insufficient to achieve BP control, pharmacologic therapy is indicated to achieve a goal BP of <130/80 mm Hg or <90th percentile, whichever is lower. Regular BP monitoring is necessary for ongoing management of obesity associated hypertension in adolescents. Keywords: adolescents, obesity, blood pressure, hypertension

  7. Percentage body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is associated with menstrual recovery in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. (United States)

    Pitts, Sarah; Blood, Emily; Divasta, Amy; Gordon, Catherine M


    To evaluate mediators of resumption of menses (ROM) in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). Anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hormonal studies, and responses to mental health screens were obtained at 6-month intervals for 18 months in 37 adolescents with AN randomized to the placebo arm of a double-blind treatment trial. Outcomes were compared between subjects with menstrual recovery and those without. Twenty-four subjects (65%) had ROM. Higher percentage body fat was associated with ROM (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.06, 1.33; p adolescents with AN. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary amenorrhea in adolescent girls: normal coitus or not? Always take a look in the physician's office. (United States)

    Bacopoulou, Flora; Creatsas, George; Chrousos, George P; Papanikolaou, Nikoleta; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios


    Primary care physicians are frequently faced with the challenge of evaluating primary amenorrhea in adolescent girls. Approximately 15% of these women have abnormal genital examination, with Müllerian agenesis being the second most frequent cause. We report two cases of adolescents with Müllerian agenesis that presented to a tertiary adolescent medicine center with primary amenorrhea and the very rare sexual phenomenon of urethral coitus. The aim of this report is to emphasize the importance of performing a genital examination in girls who present with amenorrhea in the primary care setting, even if 'normal' vaginal sexual activity is assumed. A 19-year-old Caucasian and a 16-year-old Filipino girl presented to a tertiary adolescent medicine center with primary amenorrhea and a history of 'normal' vaginal coitus. Investigation revealed Müllerian agenesis in association with urethral coitus in both cases; neither patient suffered significant urethral damage to require urethra reconstruction. However, the first adolescent had recurrent pyelonephritis and renal scarring and the second had dysuria.To the best of our knowledge, Case 1 also represents the second reported case of pituitary prolactinoma in association with Müllerian agenesis. The first adolescent underwent a hernia repair and vaginoplasty, whereas the second had vaginal dilatations. Our cases highlight the need for careful assessment of the external genitalia and vagina patency in all girls with amenorrhea, even if they report 'normal' vaginal sexual activity. Early identification of anatomic disorders such as Müllerian agenesis, will allow provision of proper care according to the patient's needs and the existing abnormalities, and prevention of rare, unintentional but potentially physically and emotionally harmful, patterns of sexual intercourse.

  9. Adolescent health problems in India: A review from 2001 to 2015

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    Punyatoya Bej


    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period in which all the habits and behaviour like high risk behaviour, substance abuse and eating habits develop that have lifelong impact. In India, programmes have been launched to address all the problems faced during adolescent period, still then adolescents are facing problems. In this review the problems faced by Indian adolescents were highlighted from the past 14 years’ studies. The studies were searched from 2001 to 2015 from Pub Med, Google scholar and other community medicine and public health related journals. The problems included were sexual health and teenage pregnancy, problems related to menstruation, illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol use. Anaemia, eating problems, obesity, behavioural problems and oral health among adolescent were also reviewed. Nineteen abstracts and 52 full texts were available. Sexual health knowledge among adolescent varies from 41% to poor. Knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and sexuality is less. Prevalence of dysmenorrhoea varies from 67.2% to 56.15% among adolescent girls. Prevalence of tobacco use varies from 25.1 to 12%. Prevalence of obesity varies from 3.4% to 0.35% and overweight varies from 5.5% to 5.84%. Prevalence of anaemia varies from 29% to 41.1%. Adolescents are facing depressive problems, physical fights, worry and loneliness. Prevalence of depression varies from 18.4% to 13.3%. Prevalence of dental problems varies from 18.2 to 41%. The review revealed that adolescents in India are facing problems of sexually transmitted infections, dysmenorrhea, tobacco and alcohol use, depression, physical fights, worry, loneliness and oral health problems. This needs a participation of family, community and government to resolve the issue.

  10. Teachers' assessments of children aged eight predict life satisfaction in adolescence. (United States)

    Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen


    The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children.

  11. Multicontextual correlates of adolescent leisure-time physical activity. (United States)

    Graham, Dan J; Wall, Melanie M; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    Adolescent moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is influenced by many factors. MVPA-promotion interventions would fare better if these multiple determinants were better understood. To simultaneously assess overall and relative contributions of factors from personal, family, friend, school, and neighborhood contexts to adolescent MVPA. It was hypothesized that (1) key correlates would emerge in each context and (2) factors from more- versus less-proximal contexts would relate more strongly to MVPA. Students in grades 6-12 (n=2,793; mean age=14.4 [SD=2.0] years; 53% girls) were recruited from 20 Minnesota public schools in 2009-2010 to participate in the Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 study. Regression analyses conducted in 2013 examined factors related to weekly MVPA. Data were collected from adolescent participants, their parents and friends, school teachers and administrators, and GIS sources. Fifty multicontextual factors explained 25% of MVPA variance for boys and 27% for girls. Personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy) were most predictive of MVPA, followed by social factors (e.g., support for PA); environmental factors (e.g., access to PA resources) were least predictive of adolescent PA. Gender differences emerged for several predictors (e.g., in mutually adjusted analyses, MVPA among girls, but not boys, related positively to distance to trails and MVPA among female friends and fathers, and related negatively to perceived barriers). Stronger linkages exist between adolescent MVPA and more-proximal (personal, family, and friend) factors compared to more-distal (school and neighborhood) factors, suggesting the importance of working with adolescents, their families, and friends to promote PA. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Concurrent and longitudinal associations between diurnal cortisol and body mass index across adolescence. (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Javaras, Kristin N; Klein, Marjorie H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Burk, Linnea R; Essex, Marilyn J


    Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels; however, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings of obesity in youth and whether these differ from the mechanisms identified in adults. The current study examines concurrent (i.e., measured at the same point in time) and longitudinal (i.e., using earlier cortisol measures to predict later body mass index [BMI]) associations between diurnal cortisol and BMI across adolescence. Adolescent diurnal cortisol was measured over 3 days at each 11, 13, and 15 years. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to extract average measures of predicted morning, afternoon, evening levels of cortisol and the diurnal slope at each assessment. Adolescent BMI (kg/m(2)) was measured at 11, 13, 15, and 18 years. Sex, family socioeconomic status, mother's BMI, pubertal status, and adolescent mental health were examined as possible confounding variables. Linear regressions revealed that blunted patterns of adolescent cortisol were associated with increased measures of BMI across adolescence both concurrently and longitudinally, particularly when examining measures of cortisol in early adolescence. Multinomial logistic regressions extended the linear regression findings beyond BMI scores to encompass categories of obesity. The current study builds on previous research documenting diurnal cortisol-obesity findings in adults by demonstrating similar findings exist both concurrently and longitudinally in adolescents. Findings suggest the association between cortisol and BMI is developmentally influenced and that blunted diurnal cortisol patterns can be identified in overweight individuals at a younger age than previously thought. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth. (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A


    The purpose of the current article was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a statewide representative sample in Grade 5 (age, 10-11 years) in 2002 and followed-up to age 18-19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization and young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyberbullying perpetration only, 5.0% reported cyberbullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyberbullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyberbullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure that they set clear rules and monitor adolescents' behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents

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    Prieto-Hicks X


    Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression

  15. Adolescents with mental disorders while serving time and being subjected to socio-educative measures

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    Natália Pereira Gonçalves Vilarins


    Full Text Available This article examines how adolescent offenders with mental disorders are treated by socio-educative internment treatment. These adolescents come under the aegis of medicine and justice in a contradictory relationship between full protection, vulnerability of a developing person with a mental disorder and a juvenile delinquency offense. In this respect, the legal punishment prevails to the detriment of health care. After approval of the research project by an Ethics Research Committee, field research was conducted in the Youth Detention Unit of the Pilot Plan of the Brazilian Federal District. Data were collected through research of documents involving 35 medical records of adolescent users of psychotropic drugs in 2010, as well as participant observation and semi-structured interviews with professionals from the Youth Detention Unit and adolescent judiciary. In the review of the care provided to adolescent offenders with mental disorders under the childhood and youth policy and the mental health policy, it was revealed that the mental health care provided in the Youth Detention Unit or in the external mental health care services involved the prescription of medication.

  16. Longitudinal Latent Cognitive Profiles and Psychosocial Well-being in Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Zilanawala, Afshin; Sacker, Amanda; Kelly, Yvonne


    Engaging in exploratory risky behaviors and experiencing poor mental health during early adolescence are important markers for poor health during adulthood. Prior research suggests protective effects from cognition, but less is known about the associations between early childhood cognition and early adolescent psychosocial well-being, as identified by self-esteem, mental health, and exploratory risky behaviors. This article investigates the extent that early adolescent psychosocial well-being at the age of 11 years is associated with patterns of cognitive skills measured across the first decade of a child's life. We used data collected from the four follow-up sweeps of the UK Millennium Cohort Study and utilized latent profile analysis to identify three discernible cognitive profiles (n = 16,899). We find cohort members in low-achieving profiles to be more likely to engage in exploratory risky behaviors-drinking, smoking, and antisocial conduct-and to have poor self-esteem and more problem behaviors, compared with their peers in high-achieving profiles. Socioeconomic and family psychosocial markers considerably attenuated these disadvantages. Understanding which adolescents have adverse psychosocial well-being has implications for the prevention of chronic diseases and for clinical care and policy. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of outcome at 1 year in adolescents with DSM-5 restrictive eating disorders: report of the national eating disorders quality improvement collaborative. (United States)

    Forman, Sara F; McKenzie, Nicole; Hehn, Rebecca; Monge, Maria C; Kapphahn, Cynthia J; Mammel, Kathleen A; Callahan, S Todd; Sigel, Eric J; Bravender, Terrill; Romano, Mary; Rome, Ellen S; Robinson, Kelly A; Fisher, Martin; Malizio, Joan B; Rosen, David S; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Buckelew, Sara M; Jay, M Susan; Lindenbaum, Jeffrey; Rickert, Vaughn I; Garber, Andrea; Golden, Neville H; Woods, Elizabeth R


    The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative evaluated data of patients with restrictive eating disorders to analyze demographics of diagnostic categories and predictors of weight restoration at 1 year. Fourteen Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs participated in a retrospective review of 700 adolescents aged 9-21 years with three visits, with DSM-5 categories of restrictive eating disorders including anorexia nervosa (AN), atypical AN, and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Data including demographics, weight and height at intake and follow-up, treatment before intake, and treatment during the year of follow-up were analyzed. At intake, 53.6% met criteria for AN, 33.9% for atypical AN, and 12.4% for ARFID. Adolescents with ARFID were more likely to be male, younger, and had a longer duration of illness before presentation. All sites had a positive change in mean percentage median body mass index (%MBMI) for their population at 1-year follow-up. Controlling for age, gender, duration of illness, diagnosis, and prior higher level of care, only %MBMI at intake was a significant predictor of weight recovery. In the model, there was a 12.7% change in %MBMI (interquartile range, 6.5-19.3). Type of treatment was not predictive, and there were no significant differences between programs in terms of weight restoration. The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative provides a description of the patient population presenting to a national cross-section of 14 Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs and categorized by DSM-5. Treatment modalities need to be further evaluated to assess for more global aspects of recovery. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Affective network and default mode network in depressive adolescents with disruptive behaviors

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    Kim SM


    Full Text Available Sun Mi Kim,1 Sung Yong Park,1 Young In Kim,1 Young Don Son,2 Un-Sun Chung,3,4 Kyung Joon Min,1 Doug Hyun Han1 1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 4School Mental Health Resources and Research Center, Kyungpook National University Children’s Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Aim: Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network and the default mode network (DMN have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors.Methods: Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions ­including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors.Results: The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively

  19. Technology Use and Sleep Quality in Preadolescence and Adolescence. (United States)

    Bruni, Oliviero; Sette, Stefania; Fontanesi, Lilybeth; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baumgartner, Emma


    The purpose of this study was to analyze differences between preadolescents and adolescents on the use of technology and to test the contribution of using Internet and mobile phone, and circadian preference on sleep quality. We recruited a sample of 850 (364 males) preadolescents and adolescents. Self-report questionnaires about sleep schedule, sleep wake behavior problems, circadian preferences, and the use of technology (e.g., Internet and mobile phone) were administered. Students were asked to fill out the School Sleep Habits Survey, a self-report questionnaire on the use of technology, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ), and the Shorter Promis Questionnaire (SPQ). Adolescents reported more sleep problems, a tendency toward eveningness, and an increase of Internet and phone activities, as well as social network activities, while preadolescents were more involved in gaming console and television viewing. The regression analysis performed separately in the two age groups showed that sleep quality was affected by the circadian preference (eveningness) in both groups. Adolescents' bad sleep quality was consistently associated with the mobile phone use and number of devices in the bedroom, while in preadolescents, with Internet use and turning-off time. The evening circadian preference, mobile phone and Internet use, numbers of other activities after 21:00, late turning off time, and number of devices in the bedroom have different negative influence on sleep quality in preadolescents and adolescents. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  20. Adolescents with congenital heart disease: the importance of perceived parenting for psychosocial and health outcomes. (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Missotten, Lies; Moons, Philip


    : Little is known about how parenting relates to psychosocial functioning and health behavior in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Different parenting styles were identified through relying on adolescent perceptions of multiple dimensions (regulation, responsiveness, and psychological control). The degree to which parents were perceived as consistent in their rearing style was assessed. : Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven; control individuals were recruited at secondary schools. A total of 429 adolescents (14-18 years) with CHD participated; 403 were matched on gender and age with control individuals. Adolescents completed questionnaires on maternal and paternal regulation, psychological control, and responsiveness. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, loneliness, quality of life, health status, alcohol, cigarette, and drug use. : No significant differences emerged between adolescents with CHD and controls in perceived parenting styles. Democratic parenting was accompanied by the most optimal pattern of outcomes in adolescents with CHD, whereas psychologically controlling parenting by the least optimal pattern. Overprotective parenting was related to high patient substance use. Perceiving both parents as democratic turned out most favorably for psychosocial functioning and quality of life, whereas parental consistency was unrelated to substance use in adolescents with CHD. : By building bridges between the fields of adolescent medicine and family studies, the present study generated important information on the role of parents in psychosocial and behavioral functioning of adolescents with CHD. Future longitudinal studies could inform family-based interventions for this population.

  1. Revictimization After Adolescent Dating Violence in a Matched, National Sample of Youth. (United States)

    Exner-Cortens, Deinera; Eckenrode, John; Bunge, John; Rothman, Emily


    To assess if adolescent dating violence was associated with physical intimate partner violence victimization in adulthood, using a comprehensive propensity score to create a matched group of victims and nonvictims. Secondary analysis of waves 1 (1994-1995), 2 (1996), 3 (2001-2002) and 4 (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative sample of US high schools and middle schools. Individuals aged 12-18 reporting adolescent dating violence between the wave 1 and 2 interviews (n = 732) were matched to nonvictimized participants of the same sex (n = 1,429) using propensity score matching. These participants were followed up approximately 5 (wave 3) and 12 (wave 4) years later. At both follow-up points, physical violence victimization by a current partner was assessed. Data were analyzed using path models. Compared with the matched no victimization group, individuals reporting adolescent dating violence were more likely to experience physical intimate partner violence approximately 12 years later (wave 4), through the experience of 5-year (wave 3) victimization. This path held for males and females. Results from this sample matched on key risk variables suggest that violence first experienced in adolescent relationships may become chronic, confirming adolescent dating violence as an important risk factor for adult partner violence. Findings from this study underscore the critical role of primary and secondary prevention for adolescent dating violence. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Time for an Adolescent Health Surveillance System in Saudi Arabia: Findings From "Jeeluna". (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Tamim, Hani; Al Dubayee, Mohammad; AlDhukair, Shahla; Al Shehri, Sulieman; Tamimi, Waleed; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Magzoub, Mohi Eldin; de Vries, Nanne; Al Alwan, Ibrahim


    With the increasing burden of noncommunicable disease, adolescence is viewed as an opportune time to prevent the onset of certain behaviors and promote healthy states. Although adolescents comprise a considerable portion of Saudi Arabia's population, they have received insufficient attention and indicators of their health status, as a first step in a prevention cycle are unavailable. This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the health risk behaviors and health status of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional, school-based study was carried out in all 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. Through multistage, cluster, random sampling, intermediate, and secondary school students were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire addressing health risk behaviors and health status, clinical anthropometric measurements, and laboratory investigations. A total of 12,575 adolescents participated. Various health risk behaviors, including dietary and sedentary behaviors, lack of safety measures, tobacco use, bullying, and violence were highly prevalent. Twenty-eight percent of adolescents reported having a chronic health condition, 14.3% reported having symptoms suggestive of depression, 30.0% were overweight/obese, and 95.6% were vitamin D deficient. Behaviors and conditions known to persist into adulthood and result in morbidity and premature mortality are prevalent among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Preventive measures and local health policies are urgently needed and can impact adolescents and future adults. Establishing adolescent health surveillance is necessary to monitor trends and impacts of such measures. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Weightism, racism, classism, and sexism: shared forms of harassment in adolescents. (United States)

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    To document the prevalence of harassment on the basis of weight, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, as well as sexual harassment, among a diverse population of adolescents. Specifically, this study examined rates of each type of harassment reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category (e.g., racial/ethnic category differences in prevalence of racial harassment), and also explored patterns of "cross-harassment" (i.e., differences in prevalence of each harassment type across all other sociodemographic characteristics). We used data from Project Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 for the study. The sample was composed of 2,793 adolescents (53% female; 81% nonwhite). We conducted regression analyses to yield prevalence estimates of each type of harassment in each demographic and body mass index category. Weight- and race-based harassment (35.3% and 35.2%, respectively) was most prevalent, followed by sexual harassment (25.0%) and socioeconomic status-based harassment (16.1%). Overweight and obese adolescents reported disproportionately higher rates of all forms of harassment than did normal-weight and underweight adolescents. In addition, Asian and mixed-/other race adolescents were more vulnerable to harassment overall compared with those from other racial/ethnic groups. Harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent boys and girls. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category, but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each type of harassment emerge across a variety of sociodemographic characteristics. Adolescents from various intersecting sociodemographic and weight-status groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescent Mental Health Literacy: Young People's Knowledge of Depression and Social Anxiety Disorder. (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Ravid, Ariel; Gibb, Brandon; George-Denn, Daniel; Bronstein, Laura R; McLeod, Sue


    Understanding why nearly 80% of youth ages 6-18 years with a mental disorder fail to receive treatment represents an important public health priority. International data suggest that underrecognition of mental illness and the need for treatment are barriers to service utilization. This study extends work to a U.S. sample of 1,104 adolescents. High School students were invited to participate in a self-report study assessing knowledge and beliefs regarding mental illness. Participants completed the survey in groups at school and read vignettes portraying peers experiencing major depression, social anxiety disorder, and a situation where the individual has to cope with a common life stressor followed by a series of questions in reference to each vignette. Adolescents had better recognition of depression than social anxiety disorder and were more likely to recommend seeking help for it. However, mental health literacy of American adolescents and suggest potential points for intervention. Pending replication of the findings herein, efforts to help adolescents recognize mental health problems and to increase the likelihood of recommending professional help will be important. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Online communication among adolescents: an integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen


    Adolescents far outnumber adults in their use of e-communication technologies, such as instant messaging and social network sites. In this article, we present an integrative model that helps us to understand both the appeal of these technologies and their risks and opportunities for the psychosocial development of adolescents. We first outline how the three features (anonymity, asynchronicity, and accessibility) of online communication stimulate controllability of online self-presentation and self-disclosure among adolescents. We then review research on the risks and opportunities of online self-presentation and self-disclosure for the three components of adolescents' psychosocial development, including identity (self-unity, self-esteem), intimacy (relationship formation, friendship quality, cyberbullying), and sexuality (sexual self-exploration, unwanted sexual solicitation). Existing research suggests several opportunities of online communication, such as enhanced self-esteem, relationship formation, friendship quality, and sexual self-exploration. It also yields evidence of several risks, including cyberbullying and unwanted sexual solicitation. We discuss the shortcomings of existing research, the possibilities for future research, and the implications for educators and health care professionals. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Correlation between adolescents psychical disorders and their difficulties of psychosocial adaptation]. (United States)

    Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Kalkyte, Rūta; Adomaitiene, Virginija; Gudiene, Devika; Velaviciene, Dalia


    To study the correlation between adolescents' psychical disorders and their difficulties of psychosocial adaptation. There were 63 adolescent participants in our study (47 girls and 16 boys) who were hospitalized in Department of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital (Lithuania) during the period from September to December, 2005. Twenty-seven adolescents (19 girls and 8 boys) had suicidal and self-harming behavior. Psychical disorders were diagnosed according to ICD-10 diagnostic criterions. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ-lit adapted for Lithuania. While comparing the mean scores in both sexes of adolescents with diagnoses of depressive, behavioral and adaptation disturbances, we found a statistically significant difference only in emotionally disturbance scale results (p=0.016). Analyzing groups of girls and boys separately, girls showed to be worse psychosocially adapted and had more emotional problems. Girls who tried to commit suicide had more emotional (p=0.006) and psychosocial problems (padaptation (p=0.031) difficulties. Parents noted that those who committed a suicide and had behavior disturbances had more expressed emotional (p=0.007) and general adaptation (p=0.053) problems. 1. Adolescent girls who were diagnosed depressive illnesses had more emotional and general adaptation problems than girls who were diagnosed behavior or adaptation disorders. 2. Adolescent girls who tried to commit suicide had more expressed behavior problems and difficulties of emotional, general adaptation. 3. Most expressed difficulties of emotional and general adaptation were typical to girls who were diagnosed with depression and who tried to commit a suicide.

  7. Adolescent Physical Activity: Moderation of Individual Factors by Neighborhood Environment. (United States)

    D'Angelo, Heather; Fowler, Stephanie L; Nebeling, Linda C; Oh, April Y


    Less than a third of U.S. adolescents meet federal physical activity (PA) guidelines. Understanding correlates of PA at multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model could improve PA interventions among youth. This study examines (1) associations between factors across the Social Ecological Model including psychosocial factors, perceived neighborhood physical and social environment characteristics, and adolescent moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and (2) whether perceived neighborhood characteristics moderate associations between psychosocial factors and MVPA. A national sample of adolescents (aged 12-17 years) in the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study was used to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics, perceived neighborhood social and physical characteristics, and self-reported weekly minutes of MVPA. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Interaction terms between psychosocial and neighborhood variables were added to multiple linear regression models to examine moderation hypotheses. Significant two-way interactions revealed that neighborhoods with features perceived as supportive of PA strengthened several psychosocial-MVPA associations. The positive associations between MVPA and friend norms, friend support, and attitudes were strengthened for adolescents living in neighborhoods with high versus low PA resource availability (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the association between controlled and autonomous motivation and MVPA was strengthened under conditions of shops/stores near (versus distant from) adolescents' homes (p<0.05). The association between some psychosocial factors and adolescent MVPA may be environment dependent. Neighborhood physical and social environments supportive of PA are important to consider when developing targeted PA interventions and may strengthen the association between psychosocial-level factors and adolescent MVPA. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. "Facebook depression?" social networking site use and depression in older adolescents. (United States)

    Jelenchick, Lauren A; Eickhoff, Jens C; Moreno, Megan A


    To evaluate the association between social networking site (SNS) use and depression in older adolescents using an experience sample method (ESM) approach. Older adolescent university students completed an online survey containing the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screen (PHQ) and a week-long ESM data collection period to assess SNS use. Participants (N = 190) included in the study were 58% female and 91% Caucasian. The mean age was 18.9 years (standard deviation = .8). Most used SNSs for either 2 hours (n = 16, 8%). The mean PHQ score was 5.4 (standard deviation = 4.2). No associations were seen between SNS use and either any depression (p = .519) or moderate to severe depression (p = .470). We did not find evidence supporting a relationship between SNS use and clinical depression. Counseling patients or parents regarding the risk of "Facebook Depression" may be premature. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Stability of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration From Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood in Sexual Minorities. (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R


    The objective of this study was to examine the stability of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration from adolescence to emerging adulthood among sexual minorities. Adolescents who identified as a sexual minority (N = 135; 71.1% female; mean age = 15.02, standard deviation=.77; 34.1% African-American/black, 26.7% white, 22.2% Hispanic) from southeast Texas were assessed annually for 6 years on their IPV perpetration. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that physical IPV perpetration was modestly stable across years 1-4 (24.6%, 24.6%, 26.4%, and 21.6%, respectively), decreased in year 5 (18.6%), and increased in year 6 (24.5%). The stability of sexual IPV perpetration was high across all 6 years (14.3%, 13%, 14.9%, 10.8%, 12.4%, and 14.4%). This is the first study to examine the stability of IPV perpetration among sexual minority adolescents. Findings suggest that the development of interventions for IPV among sexual minority adolescents is needed, as IPV is unlikely to desist from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Familiarity with Long-acting Reversible Contraceptives among Obstetrics and Gynecology, Family Medicine, and Pediatrics Residents: Results of a 2015 National Survey and Implications for Contraceptive Provision for Adolescents. (United States)

    Davis, Susan A; Braykov, Nikolay P; Lathrop, Eva; Haddad, Lisa B


    To assess familiarity with long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) among current obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN), family medicine (FM), and pediatrics senior residents in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We selected 156 OB/GYN, FM, and pediatrics residency programs using the American Medical Association Freida database. Senior residents completed a survey addressing any training they had received on LARC, and rated their comfort level counseling about and inserting LARC. Residents rated their likelihood of recommending LARC to an adolescent, nulliparous patient, and indicated whether they would like additional training on LARC. Descriptive and analytic statistics were generated using R statistical software (The R Project for Statistical Computing; The survey was completed by 326 of 1,583 residents (20.6% response rate); at least 1 resident completed the survey at 105 (67.3%) of the residency programs contacted. Most programs (84.8%) provided some training on LARC. Residents in OB/GYN programs were comfortable counseling about and inserting contraceptive implants (97%, 83%), copper intrauterine devices (IUDs; 100%, 86%), and levonorgestrel (LNG) IUDs (100%, 86%). In FM programs, fewer residents were comfortable counseling about and inserting contraceptive implants (71%, 47%), copper IUDs (68%, 21%), and LNG IUDs (79%, 18%). Residents in pediatrics programs had low comfort levels counseling about contraceptive implants (14%), copper IUDs (14%), and LNG IUDs (25%); no pediatrics residents were comfortable inserting LARC. OB/GYN residents were significantly more likely to recommend a LARC to an adolescent, nulliparous patient (P = .019). Most pediatric and FM residents desired additional training on LARC (82.7% and 60.7%, respectively). This study shows that knowledge gaps exist regarding LARC among FM and pediatrics residents. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for

  11. Characteristics of Mexican children and adolescents who died by suicide: A study of psychological autopsies. (United States)

    González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Hernández-Díaz, Yazmín; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; León-Garibay, Alejandra Giovanna; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe; López-Narváez, Lilia; Frésan, Ana


    In recent years, suicide in children and adolescents has increased considerably, becoming the second cause of death in this age group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that could precipitate deaths by suicide in children and adolescents. Using the psychological autopsy method, we studied 28 suicide cases of children and adolescents between 10 and 17 years old. Socio-demographic factors, characteristics of the suicide and family history were documented. The proportion of deaths by suicide was the same in females and males (50% each). Most of the suicides were performed at the child/adolescent's home (78.6%) and no history of previous suicide attempts were registered (85.7%). Also, the majority of suicidal individuals came from a dysfunctional family (60.7%). Our results identified characteristics of children and adolescents that had died by suicide, such as dying at their homes and coming from dysfunctional families. Knowing the characteristics of children and adolescents that had ended their lives by suicide should be considered in future studies to help developing preventive programs and strategies for treating suicidal behaviors in Mexican children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescent-Parent Dyad Descriptions of the Decision to Start the HPV Vaccine Series. (United States)

    Chang, Jane; Ipp, Lisa S; de Roche, Ariel M; Catallozzi, Marina; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Rosenthal, Susan L


    To examine how adolescent-parent dyads describe decision-making regarding initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series, specifically who they viewed as making the final decision. Semistructured interviews with adolescent-parent dyads were audio-recorded and transcribed. Responses to the question: "How did you make a decision about whether or not to receive the HPV vaccine series?" were content-coded for each individual member of the dyad. Adolescent medicine clinics of 2 large urban medical centers and through snowball sampling. Adolescents 14-17 years of age and a parent (N = 262). Qualitative analyses were conducted for those who agreed that they were offered and started the HPV vaccine series (n = 109). None. Descriptions of the decision-making included 1 person (adolescent or parent) making the decision or joint decision-making by the adolescent and parent together. More than half of the dyads did not agree on who made the decision to start the vaccine. Most adolescents and parents described a similar account about when they were offered the HPV vaccine, although the interpretation of the event in terms of the decision-maker might have differed. More than half of adolescents and parents individually mentioned the health care provider in their description of the HPV vaccine decision-making process even though they were not queried about the role of the provider. Understanding the range of descriptions of these dyads is helpful to guide interventions to promote vaccine uptake in a manner that balances provider expertise, adolescent autonomy, and parental involvement. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescent girls in Denmark use oral contraceptives at an increasingly young age, and with more pauses and shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Nielsen, A. K.


    was to describe the use of hormonal contraceptives among the Danish adolescent female population, focusing on age, period and cohort effects and including types of hormonal contraceptives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All women aged 14-50 years during the 1995-2012 period were identified through the Central Person...... Register. Furthermore, the National Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics provided information on redeemed prescriptions for hormonal contraceptives characterised by Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical (ATC) classification codes. RESULTS: At the age of 17 years, more than 50% of the Danish adolescent......, adolescent girls have more pauses and shifts between types of hormonal contraceptives. Since 2010 there has been a shift toward use of second generation oral contraceptives away from third and fourth generation contraceptives. CONCLUSION: Adolescent girls tend to initiate their use of oral contraceptives...

  14. [Adolescent confronting cancer and its place in the family]. (United States)

    Chavand, Aurélie; Grandjean, Hélène; Vignes, Michel


    Adolescent medicine is expanding in Europe with particular attention being given to cancer of adolescents and its treatment. At a time where specialised units for adolescents are being born, it is essential to collect the current knowledge on the pathological impact of the illness in this age period whose limits themselves are often blurred (13-21 years or 15-25 years). Adolescence is a transition between childhood and adulthood, during which one seeks psychological and emotional development. Cancer, by its direct repercussion on the adolescent and also by the disorganisation of the family, can involve risks impending the process of maturation and can also be a purveyor of psychological after-affects. The occurrence of the illness can isolate the adolescent and leak to a restriction of the psychological investment. The reality of possible death can hinder the ill adolescent from developing his natural opposition to the adults who represent authority such as parents or nurses, thereby hindering access to autonomy, independence and identity construction. One can find oneself locked in a state of trouble, confusion, becoming a stranger to oneself, with an impression of distance waxing between the young patient and others. The parents find themselves weakening and must make calls on their supporters. The siblings see their daily life becoming more unsettled and find themselves confronted by parents less available and reassuring. The impact on the brothers and sisters vary depending on their age and the capacity of the parent's adaptation. From the onset, adolescents struck by cancer necessitate an adaptation of the medical staff. The medical information, the treatment and the aid-care contracts must be approved by the adolescent himself but the parent's involvement remains essential. It is necessary to create an alliance of three. Conflicts and rivalry occur frequently between parents and the medical staff. One must study the possibility of creating a place adapted to

  15. Orphan Drug Regulation: A missed opportunity for children and adolescents with cancer. (United States)

    Vassal, Gilles; Kearns, Pam; Blanc, Patricia; Scobie, Nicole; Heenen, Delphine; Pearson, Andy


    Oncology represents a major sector in the field of orphan drug development in Europe. The objective was to evaluate whether children and adolescents with cancer benefited from the Orphan Drug Regulation. Data on orphan drug designations (ODDs) and registered orphan drugs from 8th August 2000 to 10th September 2016 were collected from the Community Register of medicinal products for human use. Assessment history, product information and existence of paediatric investigation plans were searched and retrieved from the European Medicine Agency website. Over 16 years, 272 of 657 oncology ODDs (41%) concerned a malignant condition occurring both in adults and children. The five most common were acute myeloid leukaemia, high-grade glioma, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, graft-versus-host disease and soft-tissue sarcomas. 74% of 31 marketing authorisations (MAs) for an indication both in adults and children (26 medicines) had no information for paediatric use in their Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) at the time of the first MA. Furthermore, 68% still have no paediatric information in their most recently updated SmPC, at a median of 7 years after. Only 15 ODDs (2%) pertained to a malignancy occurring specifically in children and only two drugs received an MA: Unituxin for high-risk neuroblastoma and Votubia for sub-ependymal giant-cell astrocytoma. The Orphan Drug Regulation failed to promote the development of innovative therapies for malignancies occurring in children. Major delays and waivers occurred through the application of the Paediatric Medicines Regulation. The European regulatory environment needs to be improved to accelerate innovation for children and adolescents dying of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescent Sports Participation, E-cigarette Use, and Cigarette Smoking. (United States)

    Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J


    Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Geography of Adolescent Obesity in the U.S., 2007-2011. (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Raskind, Ilana G; Van Dyke, Miriam E; Matthews, Stephen A; Cook-Smith, Jessica N


    Obesity remains a significant threat to the current and long-term health of U.S. adolescents. The authors developed county-level estimates of adolescent obesity for the contiguous U.S., and then explored the association between 23 conceptually derived area-based correlates of adolescent obesity and ecologic obesity prevalence. Multilevel small area regression methods applied to the 2007 and 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health produced county-level obesity prevalence estimates for children aged 10-17 years. Exploratory multivariable Bayesian regression estimated the cross-sectional association between nutrition, activity, and macrosocial characteristics of counties and states, and county-level obesity prevalence. All analyses were conducted in 2015. Adolescent obesity varies geographically with clusters of high prevalence in the Deep South and Southern Appalachian regions. Geographic disparities and clustering in observed data are largely explained by hypothesized area-based variables. In adjusted models, activity environment, but not nutrition environment variables were associated with county-level obesity prevalence. County violent crime was associated with higher obesity, whereas recreational facility density was associated with lower obesity. Measures of the macrosocial and relational domain, including community SES, community health, and social marginalization, were the strongest correlates of county-level obesity. County-level estimates of adolescent obesity demonstrate notable geographic disparities, which are largely explained by conceptually derived area-based contextual measures. This ecologic exploratory study highlights the importance of taking a multidimensional approach to understanding the social and community context in which adolescents make obesity-relevant behavioral choices. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Strategies for increasing adolescent immunizations in diverse ethnic communities. (United States)

    Greenfield, Lauren S; Page, Libby C; Kay, Meagan; Li-Vollmer, Meredith; Breuner, Cora C; Duchin, Jeffrey S


    well-child visits, 55% at acute visits, and 35% at injury visits. Eighty percent reported that they would be more likely to recommend HPV vaccine after our on-site presentation. A strong recommendation from the physician is a critical factor influencing parents' decision to vaccinate, even when hesitancy exists. Other factors (such as personal experiences with these diseases and religious and cultural beliefs) also influence parents' decisions regarding vaccination. Knowledge of beliefs, misperceptions, and concerns can help inform strategies to improve adolescent vaccine uptake among specific ethnic populations, including the availability of culturally tailored, translated information. Additionally, HCPs may benefit from guidance on communicating with ethnic populations to support meaningful dialogue with families about the risks and benefits of adolescent vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in Off-Label Prescribing of Sedatives, Hypnotics and Antidepressants among Children and Adolescents - A Danish, Nationwide Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Skovslund; Rasmussen, Lotte; Poulsen, Maja Hellfritzsch


    In recent years, psychotropic drug use among children and adolescents in Europe and USA has increased. However, the majority of psychotropic drugs are not formally approved for use in children and adolescents, and consequently, use is often off-label. The objectives were to describe time trends...... in off-label prescribing rates and the most commonly used types of psychotropic drugs by age and gender in Danish children and adolescents. Using the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, we identified all prescriptions for sedatives, hypnotics and antidepressants filled for children and adolescents......, we found decreasing trends in off-label rates over time [range 94.5-65.6% (girls), 93.8-71.2% (boys)]. Off-label prescribing of psychotropic drugs to Danish children and adolescents is common. Off-label rates for sedatives and hypnotics increased in the period of 2006-2012, whereas off-label rates...

  20. Family Food Preparation and Its Effects on Adolescent Dietary Quality and Eating Patterns. (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    may benefit from interventions/programs that teach cooking skills in order to increase the likelihood of participating in food preparation for the family. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of mandibular bone density to predict osteoporosis in adolescents with constitutional delayed growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dural, Sema; Ozbek, Murat; Kanli, A.; Kanbur, Nuray O.; Derman, O.; Orhan, Kaan; Delilbasi, C.


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between constitutional delayed growth (CDG) and mandibular bone trabeculation as well as bone density on panoramic radiographs using a computer software program. Panoramic radiographs obtained from 25 patients with CDG and 25 healthy adolescents were evaluated for this study. Patients were selected from admission to Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Section of Adolescent Medicine in the first half of the year 2002. All panoramic radiographs were taken under standard conditions, and were randomized and then converted to digital images for density analysis using a scanner. The images were transferred to Osiris computer software program for the evaluation of bone density from 4 different regions on the mandible (right and left mandibular angle and condyle). The CDG group had higher values for the risk of osteoporosis considering the right (t=3.360, p=0.002) and the left condyle (t=3.620, p=0.001) (t-test for independent samples). It was also seen that the CDG group was again at higher risk in comparison to the control group when left mandibular angle values were measured (z= -2.447, p=0.014) (Mann Whitney - U test). We suggest that panoramic radiographs, which are transformed into digital format, can be valuable and economic tools for detecting the risk of osteoporosis in adolescents with CDG. (author)

  2. Caregiver and adolescent responses to food and beverage marketing exposures through an online survey. (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Zytnick, Deena; Onufrak, Stephen; Harris, Jennifer L; Wethington, Holly; Kingsley, Beverly; Park, Sohyun


    The Institute of Medicine noted that current food and beverage marketing practices promote unhealthful diets. However, little public health research has been conducted on food marketing directed toward adolescents, especially using caregiver- and adolescent-reported data. We assessed perceived frequency of food/beverage advertising exposure and common locations of food/beverage marketing exposure for adolescents using 2012 Summer ConsumerStyles and YouthStyles survey data on US adults ≥18 years of age and their children ages 12-17 (n=847), respectively. Exposure to advertisements for fast food, soda, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water were categorized as food/beverage categories with the highest, at least daily, exposure reported for fast food. Caregivers more frequently reported that adolescents viewed all food/beverage advertisements ≥1 time/day than the adolescents reported (chi-square tests, pfood/beverage marketing most frequently on television followed by at the supermarket. Our study showed that adolescents reported lower frequency of food and beverage advertising exposure than their caregivers. Further research may be needed to verify self-reported exposure data on food and beverage advertising as a way to obtain data for use in research on its relationship with diet quality and obesity.

  3. Stress moderates the relationship between problematic Internet use by parents and problematic Internet use by adolescents. (United States)

    Lam, Lawrence T; Wong, Emmy M Y


    Based on the theoretical framework of Problem Behavior and Stress Reduction theories for problematic Internet use (PIU), this study aimed to investigate the relationship between parental PIU and the PIU among adolescents taking into consideration the stress levels of young people. This was a population-based parent and adolescent dyad health survey utilizing a random sampling technique. PIU for both parents and adolescents was measured by the Internet addiction test designed by Young. The stress level of adolescents was assessed using the stress subscale of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Data were analyzed using logistic regression modeling techniques with adjustment for potential confounding factors with analysis on the modification effect of stress levels on the relationship between parent and adolescent PIU. Of the total 1,098 parent and adolescent dyads with usable information, 263 adolescents (24.0%) and 62 parents (5.7%) could be classified as moderate and severe problematic users of the Internet. About 14% (n = 157) of adolescents could be classified with moderate-to-severe stress. Regression analysis results suggested a significant interaction between parental PIU and adolescents' stress levels on adolescent PIU. Stratified regression analyses by stress level resulted in a significant parent and adolescent PIU relationship in the low stress group (odds ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval 1.65-6.14). However, the association between parent and adolescent PIU in the high stress group became insignificant. There was a significant parent and adolescent PIU relationship; however, this relationship is differentially affected by the stress status of the adolescent. The direct implication of the results is that parental Internet use should also be assessed and included as part of the treatment regime for adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Body Image Self-Discrepancy and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents. (United States)

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie


    This study examined whether body image self-discrepancy was a correlate of depressive symptoms among 556 early adolescents (45% girls; M age  = 11.65, SD = .94 years). Participants completed self-report measures of their self-perceived actual and ideal body shapes and depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified polynomial regressions were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and (1) agreement (i.e., similar actual and ideal body shapes); (2) discrepancy (i.e., different actual and ideal body shapes); (3) direction of discrepancy (i.e., actual > ideal or actual self-perceptions are). For both sexes, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the direction of the discrepancy was such that participants perceived their actual body was larger than their ideal body. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the degree of the discrepancy between actual and ideal body shape perceptions was larger. Based on these findings, body image self-discrepancy may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Facilitators and Barriers to Implementing Church-Based Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Baltimore City. (United States)

    Powell, Terrinieka W; Weeks, Fiona H; Illangasekare, Samantha; Rice, Eric; Wilson, James; Hickman, Debra; Blum, Robert W


    Black churches are an important community resource and a potentially powerful actor in adolescent health promotion. However, limited research exists describing the factors that may influence the successful implementation of evidence-based adolescent sexual health programs in churches. In the present study, a multi-informant approach was used to identify facilitators and barriers to implementing adolescent sexual health programs in black churches. Nine Black churches located in Baltimore, MD, were recruited to participate in this study. The senior pastor and youth minster from each congregation participated in an in-depth interview (N = 18). A total of 45 youth (ages 13-19 years) and 38 parents participated in 15 focus groups. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a qualitative content analytic approach. Participants agreed that comprehensive adolescent sexual health education should be available for youth in black churches. They also believed that abstaining from sex should be discussed in all adolescent sexual health programs. Three facilitators were discussed: widespread endorsement of church-based adolescent sexual health education, positive influence of youth ministers on youth, and life lessons as teaching tools. Four barriers are described: perceived resistance from congregants, discomfort among youth, lack of financial resources, and competing messages at home about sexual health. Our findings suggest that churches are a preferred place for adolescent sexual health education among some parents and youth. Study findings also reinforce the feasibility and desirably of church-based adolescent sexual health programs. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Body modification and substance use in adolescents: is there a link? (United States)

    Brooks, Traci L; Woods, Elizabeth R; Knight, John R; Shrier, Lydia A


    To describe the characteristics of body modification among adolescents and to determine whether adolescents who engage in body modification are more likely to screen positive for alcohol and other drug problems than those who do not. Adolescents aged 14 to 18 years presenting to an urban adolescent clinic for routine health care completed a questionnaire about body modification and a substance use assessment battery that included the 17-item Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers Alcohol/Drug Use and Abuse Scale (POSIT-ADS). Body modification was defined as piercings (other than one pair of bilateral earlobe piercings in females), tattoos, scarification, and branding. Problem substance use was defined as a POSIT-ADS score > or =1. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to determine whether the presence of body modification was an independent predictor of problem substance use. The 210 participants had a mean (+/- SD) age of 16.0 (+/- 1.4) years and 63% were female. One hundred adolescents (48%) reported at least one body modification; girls were more likely than boys to have body modification (59% vs. 28%, p branding; 21 (10%) had more than one type of body modification. These were in a variety of locations, most commonly the ear and the nose (piercings) or the extremities (tattoos). One-third of the sample (33%) screened positive for problem substance use on the POSIT-ADS questionnaire. Controlling for age, adolescents with body modification had 3.1 times greater odds of problem substance use than those without body modification (95% CI 1.7, 5.8). Body modification was associated with self-reported problem alcohol and other drug use among middle adolescents presenting for primary care. More research is needed to determine the clinical and sociocultural significance of body modification and its relationship to substance use in this population. Copyright Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2003

  7. Secular trends in new childhood epidemics: insights from evolutionary medicine. (United States)

    Brüne, Martin; Hochberg, Ze'ev


    In the last few decades, pediatric medicine has observed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of hitherto rare illnesses, among which obesity, diabetes, allergies and other autoimmune diseases stand out. In addition, secular trends towards earlier onset of puberty and sexual activity contribute to the psychological problems of youth and adolescents. All this has occurred in spite of the improved health care provision for children, yet traditional concepts of medicine have failed to explain these new "epidemics". A recent conference and science school of the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) in Acre, Israel, has taken up this challenge. Experts across disciplines including medicine, anthropology and developmental psychology discussed potential causes of childhood ill-health from an evolutionary point-of-view. Seen from an evolutionary vantage point, the "epidemics" of childhood obesity, diabetes and psychological dysfunction appear, in part, to be related to a mismatch between ancestral adaptations and novel environmental contingencies. These include changing exposures to pathogens, which impact on the function of the immune system, as well as changing patterns of parenting, which influence the timing of puberty and the risk for developing psychopathology.

  8. The effects of resistance training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent basketball players. (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S


    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a lower- and upper-body 10-week in-season resistance training program on explosive strength development in young basketball players. Twenty-five adolescent male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 10). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test, drop jump, and seated medicine ball throw (MBT). The EG showed significant increases (p training program with moderate volume and intensity loads increased vertical jump and MBT performance in adolescent male basketball players. Coaches should know that such a short resistance training program specifically designed for young basketball players induce increased explosivity levels, which are essential to a better basketball performance, with no extra overload on adolescents' skeletal muscle development.

  9. Mapping the Views of Adolescent Health Stakeholders. (United States)

    Ewan, Lindsay A; McLinden, Daniel; Biro, Frank; DeJonckheere, Melissa; Vaughn, Lisa M


    Health research that includes youth and family stakeholders increases the contextual relevance of findings, which can benefit both the researchers and stakeholders involved. The goal of this study was to identify youth and family adolescent health priorities and to explore strategies to address these concerns. Stakeholders identified important adolescent health concerns, perceptions of which were then explored using concept mapping. Concept mapping is a mixed-method participatory research approach that invites input from various stakeholders. In response to prompts, stakeholders suggested ways to address the identified health conditions. Adolescent participants then sorted the statements into groups based on content similarity and rated the statements for importance and feasibility. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis were then applied to create the concept maps. Stakeholders identified sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and obesity as the health conditions they considered most important. The concept map for STIs identified 7 clusters: General sex education, support and empowerment, testing and treatment, community involvement and awareness, prevention and protection, parental involvement in sex education, and media. The obesity concept map portrayed 8 clusters: Healthy food choices, obesity education, support systems, clinical and community involvement, community support for exercise, physical activity, nutrition support, and nutrition education. Ratings were generally higher for importance than for feasibility. The concept maps demonstrate stakeholder-driven ideas about approaches to target STIs and obesity in this context. Strategies at multiple social ecological levels were emphasized. The concept maps can be used to generate discussion regarding these topics and to identify interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bullying as a longitudinal predictor of adolescent dating violence. (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Chang, Ling-Yin; Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan T


    One suggested approach to preventing adolescent dating violence is to prevent behavioral precursors to dating violence, such as bullying. However, no longitudinal study has examined bullying as a behavioral precursor to dating violence. In this study, longitudinal data were used to examine (1) whether direct and indirect bullying perpetration in the sixth grade predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade and (2) whether the associations varied by sex and race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Data were collected in school from sixth graders in three primarily rural counties and then again when students were in the eighth grade. Analyses were conducted with 1,154 adolescents who had not perpetrated dating violence at the sixth-grade assessment. The sample was 47% male, 29% black, and 10% of another race/ethnicity than black or white. Direct bullying, defined as hitting, slapping, or picking on another kid in the sixth grade, predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade, controlling for indirect bullying and potential confounders. Although indirect bullying, defined as spreading false rumors and excluding students from friendship groups, was associated with the onset of physical dating violence perpetration in bivariate analyses, it did not predict the onset of physical dating violence when controlling for direct bullying. None of the associations examined varied by sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescents. Our findings suggest that efforts targeted at preventing direct bullying may also prevent the onset of physical dating violence. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and its association with lower medication literacy and substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsien Lee

    Full Text Available While self-medication is common, inappropriate self-medication has potential risks. This study assesses inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and examines the relationships among medication literacy, substance use, and inappropriate self-medication.In 2016, a national representative sample of 6,226 students from 99 primary, middle, and high schools completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors related to inappropriate self-medication.The prevalence of self-medication in the past year among the adolescents surveyed was 45.8%, and the most frequently reported drugs for self-medication included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain relievers (prevalence = 31.1%, cold or cough medicines (prevalence = 21.6%, analgesics (prevalence = 19.3%, and antacids (prevalence = 17.3%. Of the participants who practiced self-medication, the prevalence of inappropriate self-medication behaviors included not reading drug labels or instructions (10.1%, using excessive dosages (21.6%, and using prescription and nonprescription medicine simultaneously without advice from a health provider (polypharmacy (30.3%. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for school level, gender, and chronic diseases, the participants with lower medication knowledge, lower self-efficacy, lower medication literacy, and who consumed tobacco or alcohol were more likely to engage in inappropriate self-medication.Lower medication literacy and substance use were associated with inappropriate self-medication among adolescents.

  12. Longitudinal Associations Between Cyberbullying Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health. (United States)

    Fahy, Amanda E; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Smuk, Melanie; Smith, Neil R; Cummins, Steven; Clark, Charlotte


    Cyberbullying differs from face-to-face bullying and may negatively influence adolescent mental health, but there is a lack of definitive research on this topic. This study examines longitudinal associations between cyberbullying involvement and adolescent mental health. Participants were 2,480 teenagers taking part in the Olympic Regeneration in East London study. We collected information from participants when they were 12-13 years old and again 1 year later to examine links between involvement in cyberbullying and future symptoms of depression and social anxiety, and mental well-being. At baseline, 14% reported being cybervictims, 8% reported being cyberbullies, and 20% reported being cyberbully-victims in the previous year. Compared to uninvolved adolescents, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims were significantly more likely to report symptoms of depression (cybervictims: odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.00, 2.06]; cyberbully-victims: OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.13, 2.09]) and social anxiety (cybervictims: OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.11, 2.07]; cyberbully-victims: OR = 1.44, 95% CI [1.10, 1.89]) but not below average well-being (cybervictims: relative risk ratio = 1.28, 95% CI [.86, 1.91]; cyberbully-victims: relative risk ratio = 1.38, 95% CI [.95, 1.99]) at 1 year follow-up, after adjustment for confounding factors including baseline mental health. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of cyberbullying and the potential of cybervictimization as a risk factor for future depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and below average well-being among adolescents. Future research should identify protective factors and possible interventions to reduce adolescent cyberbullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol consumption and psychological distress in adolescents: a multi-country study. (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi; Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji


    To examine the association between alcohol use and psychological distress among adolescents in a range of developing countries. Secondary data analysis of the Global School-Based Student Health Survey was conducted using nationally representative data from 12 developing countries: Botswana, Grenada, Indonesia, Kenya, Myanmar, the Philippines, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Seychelles, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uganda. The surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2008 and involved 32,001 adolescents primarily aged 13-15 years. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the association between alcohol use and psychological distress. The prevalence of past 30-day alcohol use and lifetime drunkenness varied widely across countries, as did the occurrence of psychological distress (anxiety-induced sleeplessness and/or depression). The risk of psychological distress was significantly higher among adolescents when using alcohol in all countries except Myanmar. In nine of the 12 countries, past 30-day alcohol use was associated with psychological distress, while students who had been drunk at least once in their lifetime had an increased risk of experiencing psychological distress in 11 of the study countries. The high prevalence of alcohol use among adolescents and the strength of the association with psychological distress present a major public health challenge in developing countries. The urgent need to reduce adolescent alcohol use necessitates the implementation of context- and culture-specific strategies that reduce the physical availability of alcohol. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Safe sext: adolescents' use of technology to communicate about sexual health with dating partners. (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Nesi, Jacqueline; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J


    This study examined adolescents' technology-based sexual communication with dating partners, and evaluated associations between technology-based communication and condom use. Participants were 176 high school students who indicated their use of technology to communicate with partners about condoms, birth control, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Sexually active youth also reported their frequency of condom use. Many adolescents (49%) used technology to discuss sexual health with partners, with rates varying by topic. Girls were more likely than boys to discuss HIV, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Ethnic minorities were more likely than whites to discuss condoms, STIs, HIV, pregnancy, and birth control. Importantly, rates of consistent condom use were three times higher among youth using technology to discuss condoms and birth control. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding adolescents' use of technology to discuss sexual health and demonstrate links between technology-based communication and condom use among sexually active youth. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gestational Weight Gain and Interpregnancy Weight Change in Adolescent Mothers. (United States)

    Whelan, Emily; Armson, B Anthony; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; MacSween, Kayla; Woolcott, Christy


    To examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and interpregnancy weight change (IPWC) in adolescent mothers (younger than 20 years), and to determine if this association differs from adult women (aged 20-35 years). Retrospective cohort study. We included 3055 adolescents and 17,090 adult women with singleton pregnancies recorded in the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database with a subsequent pregnancy occurring between 2003 and 2014. GWG in the first pregnancy was categorized as below, within, or above the current Institute of Medicine recommendations. IPWC was defined as the difference between the prepregnancy weights of the 2 pregnancies. Analyses were adjusted for parity, body mass index in the first pregnancy, and time between pregnancies. Relative to adolescents with GWG within the recommendations, those who gained below had a 2.7 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9) lower mean IPWC whereas those who gained above had a 4.2 kg (95% CI, 3.3-5.1) higher mean IPWC. Smaller differences in IPWC between GWG categories were observed in adult women; relative to those with GWG within the recommendations, adults who gained below had a 1.3 kg (95% CI, 0.9-1.7) lower mean IPWC and those who gained above had a 2.9 kg (95% CI, 2.6-3.2) higher mean IPWC. Mean IPWC differed across GWG categories and the differences were greater in adolescents than in adult women. This difference should be considered when assessing whether specific GWG recommendations are needed for adolescents. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tracking Adolescents With Global Positioning System-Enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Wiebe, Douglas J; Morrison, Christopher N; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E


    Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents' activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 years carried global positioning system (GPS)-enabled smartphones for 1 week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting global positioning system points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained nine times more alcohol outlets than that of residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low-socioeconomic status exposure was related to marijuana use. Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Counseling About Skin Cancer Prevention Among Adolescents: What Do Parents Receive From Health Care Providers? (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Mays, Darren; Kornides, Melanie L; Gilkey, Melissa B


    Adolescence is a high-risk period for ultraviolet radiation exposure, a primary cause of skin cancer later in life. We sought to characterize receipt of health care provider-delivered counseling about skin cancer prevention (SCP) among parents of adolescents. In 2016, we conducted an online survey with a national sample of parents of adolescents aged 11-17 years (n = 1,253). Multivariable logistic regression assessed correlates of receiving counseling from a health care provider about any of the six skin cancer prevention (SCP) topics. Only half (49%) of parents recalled discussing any SCP topic with their child's provider; the prevalence was highest for sunscreen (39%) and lowest for indoor tanning (3%). Parents had greater odds of receiving counseling if they had a child with more sun-reactive skin (odds ratio [OR] = 1.53); a family history of skin cancer (OR = 1.38); or a higher quality relationship with the provider (OR = 1.47; all p attention to SCP counseling is needed, especially for exposures such as indoor tanning that remain prevalent among adolescents but are rarely addressed in clinical encounters. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescents' Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of Conventional Cigarettes, E-cigarettes, and Marijuana: A Qualitative Analysis. (United States)

    Roditis, Maria L; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie


    Although rates of adolescent cigarette use have remained constant or decreased, rates of marijuana and e-cigarette use are rising. Knowledge and perceptions of risks and benefits of tobacco products impact adolescents' decisions to use these products. However, little is known regarding adolescents' knowledge and perceptions of risks of e-cigarettes and marijuana nor how these perceptions are formed. This study uses qualitative techniques to assess and compare adolescents' perceptions of the risks and benefits of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and marijuana. Twenty-four adolescents (nine females and 15 males) from Northern California participated in six small-group discussions. Adolescents were asked what good or bad things might happen from using these products. To assess how perceptions and knowledge of risks and benefits were formed, participants were asked where and from whom they had learned about these products. Adolescents described negative consequences of cigarette use but were much less sure regarding risks of marijuana and e-cigarette use. Conversely, they described few benefits of cigarettes but described a number of benefits of e-cigarette and marijuana use. Adolescents described learning about these products from the media, from family and friends, and from the school environment. Adolescents have learned from multiple sources about risks of using cigarettes, but they receive much less and often incorrect information regarding marijuana and e-cigarettes, likely resulting in their positive and often ambivalent perceptions of marijuana and e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (United States)

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather


    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  20. Sleep Efficiency Modulates Associations Between Family Stress and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms and Negative Affect. (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Kim, Joanna J; Almeida, David M; Bower, Julienne E; Dahl, Ronald E; Irwin, Michael R; McCreath, Heather; Fuligni, Andrew J


    The goal of this study was to determine whether sleep moderates the associations between family-related stress and depressive symptoms and negative affect outcomes during adolescence. We combined traditional survey measures of stress and depressive symptoms with daily assessments of stress and negative affect to examine whether sleep differentially impacts the link between chronic and acute experiences of stress and affect. Participants were 316 adolescents from ethnically diverse backgrounds. Primary caregivers and adolescents reported on stressful family events during the past 12 and 3 months, respectively. Adolescents also reported on their daily experiences of family demands for 15 days and wore actigraph watches for the assessment of sleep during the first eight nights. Regression analyses revealed that more stressful family events were related to more depressive symptoms. This relation was stronger among adolescents with lower sleep efficiency. The same pattern emerged for the relation between daily family demands and negative affect aggregated across the 15 days. Daily-level analyses indicated that daily negative affect was related to daily family demands when sleep efficiency was higher than usual, but only among European American adolescents. These findings suggest that chronic experiences of lower sleep efficiency, but not sleep duration, may render adolescents more vulnerable to the negative effects of family stress on emotional adjustment. A more complex picture emerged for the role of prior night's sleep in the day-to-day variation in negative affect reactivity to family stress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in the association between health complaint frequency and medicine use among adolescents in Scotland between 1998 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Whitehead, Ross; Andersen, Anette


    and understand the mechanisms behind these changes METHODS: Data from the 1998, 2006 and 2010 Scotland Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey were modelled using multilevel logistic regression, modelling medicine use for: headache, stomachache, sleeping difficulties and nervousness, as well...... as a combined medicine use measure. Models adjusted for year and frequency of health complaints to measure trends in medicine use, and an interaction term to measure the relationship between medicine use and health complaint frequency. RESULTS: Medicine use reduced between 1998 and 2010. Hownever having...... the majority of the reduction was observed between 1998 and 2006 for all five outcomes. Adjustment for health complaint frequency only explained some of this reduction. When an interaction term was added between year and health complaint frequency this was significant for boys' medicine use, suggesting...

  2. Adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brand image: does plain packaging make a difference? (United States)

    Germain, Daniella; Wakefield, Melanie A; Durkin, Sarah J


    To examine the effect of plain packaging on adolescents' perceptions of cigarette packs, attributes of smokers, and expectations of cigarette taste, and to identify the effect of increasing the size of pictorial health warnings on appraisal of plain packs. We used a 5 (degree of plain packaging and graphic health warning)x 3 (brand type) between-subjects experimental design, using a Web-based methodology to expose adolescents to one randomly selected cigarette pack, during which respondents completed ratings. When brand elements such as color, branded fonts, and imagery were progressively removed from cigarette packs, adolescents perceived packs to be less appealing, rated attributes of a typical smoker of the pack less positively, and had more negative expectations of cigarette taste. Pack appeal was reduced even further when the size of the pictorial health warning on the most plain pack was increased from 30% to 80% of the pack face, with this effect apparent among susceptible nonsmokers, experimenters, and established smokers. Removing as much brand information from cigarette packs as possible is likely to reduce positive cigarette brand image associations among adolescents. By additionally increasing the size of pictorial health warnings, positive pack perceptions of those who are at greater risk of becoming regular addicted adult smokers are most likely to be reduced. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dream recall and its relationship to sleep, perceived stress, and creativity among adolescents. (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith


    To explore associations between dream recall, gender, sleep, perceived stress, and creativity in a large sample of adolescents. In adults, women report a higher frequency of dream recall than men. Moreover, increased awakenings seem to increase dream recall, whereas low sleep quality is associated with low dream recall. In addition, there is some evidence that dream recall is associated with personality traits such as creativity. For adolescents, comparable data from larger samples are missing to date. A total of 5,580 adolescents (mean age: 18.23 years; 3,711 females and 1,869 males) participated in the present study. Participants completed an Internet-administered questionnaire related to dreaming, sleep, perceived stress, and creativity. As compared with males, female adolescents reported a higher dream recall rate and felt a stronger impact of dreams on the subsequent day. Female adolescents also described themselves as more creative, and reported suffering more from sleep complaints and perceived stress. Multiple regression analyses further revealed that increased dream recall was independently predicted by factors such as female gender, sleep quality, and creativity, whereas perceived stress, awakenings during the night, and sleep duration had no predictive value. Similar to the findings of studies conducted on adults, dream recall was also associated with female gender in a large sample of adolescents. Additionally, it seemed that several different factors such as good mood, increased sleep quality, and creativity influenced dream recall. These results can provide a basis for better understanding the psychology of dreams in adolescence. In contrast to nightmares, recalling dreaming is associated with health and well-being. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Depression screening and management among adolescents in primary care: factors associated with best practice. (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne R; Borowsky, Iris W


    To compare depression identification and management perceptions and practices between professions and disciplines in primary care and examine factors that increase the likelihood of administering a standardized depression screening instrument, asking about patients' depressive symptoms, and using best practice when managing depressed adolescents. Data came from an online survey of clinicians in Minnesota (20% response rate). Analyses involved bivariate tests and linear regressions. The analytic sample comprised 260 family medicine physicians, 127 pediatricians, 96 family nurse practitioners, and 54 pediatric nurse practitioners. Overall, few differences emerged between physicians and nurse practitioners or family and pediatric clinicians regarding addressing depression among adolescents. Two factors associated with administering a standardized instrument included having clear protocols for follow-up after depression screening and feeling better prepared to address depression among adolescents. Enhancing clinicians' competence to address depression and developing postscreening protocols could help providers implement universal screening in primary care.

  5. Preference for Solitude, Social Isolation, Suicidal Ideation, and Self-Harm in Adolescents. (United States)

    Endo, Kaori; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Yamasaki, Syudo; Usami, Satoshi; Okazaki, Yuji; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Richards, Marcus; Hatch, Stephani; Nishida, Atsushi


    Social isolation is associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and self-harm (SH) among adolescents. However, the association between preference for solitude (PfS), SI, and SH is unknown. The prevalence of adolescents who have both of PfS and social isolation and the risks for SI and SH among them are also unknown. Information on PfS, social isolation, SI, and SH was collected in a large-scale school-based survey on adolescents, using a self-report questionnaire. Associations between PfS, SI, and SH were examined by logistic regression analysis. The interactions between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH were also investigated. The odds of SI and SH were examined for groups defined by presence of PfS and social isolation. Responses from 17,437 students (89.3% of relevant classes) were available. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and social isolation, PfS was associated with increased odds of SI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1) and SH (OR = 1.9). There was no interaction between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the odds for SI (OR = 8.6) and SH (OR = 3.8) were highest among adolescents with both PfS and social isolation (8.4% of all respondents). PfS was associated with increased odds of SI and SH in adolescents. No interaction effect between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH was found, but adolescents with PfS and social isolation had the highest risk for SI and SH. Parents and professionals should pay attention to suicide risk in adolescents with PfS. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship among Translational Medicine, Evidence-Based Medicine and Precision Medicine


    Xin-en HUANG


    Translational medicine is a new concept in international medical field. It integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Based on people’s higher demand for medicine and health, appearance of translational medicine changes the mode of medical research.Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to cautious and accurate application of the current best research evidence and com...

  7. Decomposing the components of friendship and friends' influence on adolescent drinking and smoking. (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W


    Friendship networks are an important source of peer influence. However, existing network studies vary in terms of how they operationalize friendship and friend's influence on adolescent substance use. This study uses social network analysis to characterize three types of friendship relations: (1) mutual or reciprocated, (2) directional, and (3) intimate friends. We then examine the relative effects of each friendship type on adolescent drinking and smoking behavior. Using a saturated sample from the Add Health data, a nationally representative sample of high school adolescents (N = 2,533 nested in 12 schools), we computed the level of exposure to drinking and smoking of friends using a network exposure model, and their association with individual drinking and smoking using fixed effect models. Results indicated that the influence from mutual or reciprocated type of friendship relations is stronger on adolescent substance use than directional, especially for smoking. Regarding the directionality of directional type of friendship relations, adolescents are equally influenced by both nominating and nominated friends on their drinking and smoking behavior. Results for intimate friends friendship relations indicated that the influence from "best friends" was weaker than the one from non-"best friends," which indicates that the order of friend nomination may not matter as much as nomination reciprocation. This study demonstrates that considering different features of friendship relationships is important in evaluating friends' influence on adolescent substance use. Related policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education


    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather


    During 2012, the USDHHS?s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center esta...

  9. Unnatural causes of death and suicide among former adolescent psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Chang Yoon; Hong, Jin Pyo


    Compared with the general population, adolescent psychiatric patients are subject to premature death from all causes, but suicide-specific mortality rates in this population have not been carefully investigated. Therefore, we examined the high mortality due to unnatural causes, particularly suicide, using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) relative to sex, diagnosis, and type of psychiatric service. A total of 3,029 patients aged 10-19 years presented to the outpatient clinic of a general hospital in Seoul, Korea, or were admitted to that hospital for psychiatric disorders from January 1995 to December 2006. Unnatural causes mortality risk and suicide mortality risk in these patients were compared with those in sex- and age-matched subjects from the general Korean population. The SMR for unnatural causes was 4.6, and for suicide it was 7.8. Female subjects, the young, and inpatients had the highest risks for unnatural causes of death or suicide. Among the different diagnostic groups, patients with psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and personality disorders had significantly increased SMRs for unnatural causes, and those with psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and disruptive behavioral disorders had significantly increased SMRs for suicide. The risks of unnatural death and suicide are high in adolescent psychiatric inpatients in Korea, but not as high in adolescent outpatients. Effective preventative measures are required to reduce suicide mortality in adolescent psychiatric patients, particularly female patients admitted for general psychiatric care. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical Students' Acquisition of Adolescent Interview Skills after Coached Role Play. (United States)

    Kaul, Paritosh; Fisher, Jennifer H; Hanson, Janice L


    To develop and evaluate an educational activity designed to teach the adolescent Home, Education and employment, Eating, Activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression, and Safety (HEADS) examination. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were third-year medical students in their pediatric clerkships. Students received an article on the HEADS interview and attended an adolescent medicine educational session. The session included individualized goal-setting and coached role play. Students' skills in doing a HEADS interview were evaluated through a standardized patient encounter (SPE) with a checklist and a retrospective pre- and post-test survey. The SPE checklist was used to assess whether the students included questions in 6 key areas of a HEADS interview. One hundred fifty-two students participated. During the SPE, 90% of students queried the adolescent's home life, 91% education, 82% activities, 84% drug/substance abuse, 95% sexual history, and 61% symptoms of depression. Pre- and postintervention data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and showed a statistically significant difference in the students' ability to list key topic areas of the HEADS exam (P interview using the HEADS exam (P interview during a SPE. Only three-fifths of the students, however, included questions about symptoms of depression. Coached role play with goal-setting facilitated effective learning of this approach to adolescent interviewing. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescents' media exposure may increase their cyberbullying behavior: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    den Hamer, Anouk H; Konijn, Elly A


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of adolescents' exposure to media portraying antisocial and risk behavior on cyberbullying behavior over time. Previous research established relatively high prevalence of cyberbullying behavior among adolescents, although not much is known about the possible predictors of cyberbullying behavior. This study examines the long-term effects of media exposure herein. Furthermore, we examined whether boys and girls differ in this respect. The long-term effects were tested in a longitudinal design with three waves (N = 1,005; age range, 11-17 years; 49% boys). Measured variables: cyberbullying behavior and exposure to media with antisocial and risk behavior content. Results of mixed-model analyses showed that higher levels of exposure to media with antisocial and risk behavior content significantly contributed to higher initial rates of cyberbullying behavior. Moreover, an increase in exposure to antisocial media content was significantly related to an increase in cyberbullying behavior over time. For both boys and girls, higher exposure to antisocial and risk behavior media content increases cyberbullying behavior over time though more clearly for boys than for girls. This study provided empirical support for the amplifying effect of exposure to antisocial media content on adolescents' cyberbullying behavior over time. Results are discussed in view of adolescents' media use and the larger theoretical framework. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [The treatment needs of migrant children according to child and adolescent psychiatrists from medical clinics and in private practice]. (United States)

    Siefen, Georg; Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Adam, Hubertus; Schepker, Renate


    How does the German child and adolescent psychiatry system respond to the increasing number of migrant children and adolescents? Senior doctors from German child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals (Association of Medical Hospital Directors in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy in Germany, BAG) completed a specially constructed questionnaire about the treatment needs of migrant children, while a «random, representative» sample of child and adolescent psychiatrists in private practice (German Professional Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, BKJPP) was administered a slightly modified version. The 100 psychiatrists in private practice represented only about one-eighth of their group, whereas the 55 medical directors comprised a representative sample. One-third of the hospitals has treatments tailored to the specific needs of migrants. In both settings, however, competent interpreters were rarely found, despite the treatment problems arising from the understanding the illness by the parents, language problems, and the clinical knowledge of the patient. Cultural diversity is perceived as enriching. The migration background and the sex of child and adolescent psychiatrists influence the treatment of migrants. Facilitating the process of «cultural opening» in child and adolescent psychiatry involves enacting concrete steps, such as the funding of interpreter costs.

  13. Sexual Activity and Condom Use among Israeli Adolescents. (United States)

    Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar


    In Israel, as in other industrialized countries, the age of sexual debut among adolescents has declined, and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STI) has risen, but the motivations and attitudes of Israeli adolescents toward carrying condoms have yet to be studied. The aims of this study were to establish the associations (if any) between demographic characteristics and the knowledge held by Jewish Israeli adolescents about HIV transmission, their attitudes toward condom use and sexual experience, and to explore their recommendations to increase condom use. The method used was an analysis of sexual experience and practices, attitudes toward condom carrying and condom use among a national representative sample of Jewish adolescents aged 15-18. Two dichotomized measures were assessed: (i) sexual experience (defined as having had previous consensual oral/vaginal/anal sex); and (ii) the practice of carrying a condom on a regular basis. Of all 410 participants, 14.6% carried condoms, 18.3% had sexual experience, and 70.7% of those used condoms. Those who thought condoms to be protective against HIV, and those who thought they are difficult to wear, were more likely to have sexual experience. The perception of condom use as important, and the perception that condoms are difficult to wear, were predictors of condom carrying. The participants' knowledge of the risk of HIV in vaginal intercourse was deficient. Participants did not consider school sex education to be effective in promoting condom use, and recommended the use of graphic, deterrent personal accounts told by youths to encourage wider use of condoms. Health educators should consider the barriers cited by adolescents and the deterrent techniques they recommend when planning interventions to encourage condom use. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Primary hypertension and special aspects of hypertension in older children and adolescents


    Ellis, Demetrius; Miyashita, Yosuke


    Demetrius Ellis, Yosuke MiyashitaChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USAAbstract: The prevalence of hypertension has increased at an accelerated rate in older children and adolescents. This has raised great concern about premature development of cardiovascular disease, which has major long-term health and financial implications. While obesity and sedentary habits largely explain this phenomenon, there are other social and cultu...

  15. Comparability and feasibility of wrist- and hip-worn accelerometers in free-living adolescents. (United States)

    Scott, Joseph J; Rowlands, Alex V; Cliff, Dylan P; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lubans, David R


    To determine the comparability and feasibility of wrist- and hip-worn accelerometers among free-living adolescents. 89 adolescents (age=13-14years old) from eight secondary schools in New South Wales (NSW), Australia wore wrist-worn GENEActiv and hip-worn ActiGraph (GT3X+) accelerometers simultaneously for seven days and completed an accelerometry behavior questionnaire. Bivariate correlations between the wrist- and hip-worn out-put were used to determine concurrent validity. Paired samples t-test were used to compare minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Group means and paired sample t-tests were used to analyze participants' perceptions of the wrist- and hip-worn monitoring protocols to assist with determining the feasibility. Wrist-worn accelerometry compared favorably with the hip-worn in average activity (r=0.88, phip-worn accelerometer (n=152, 24.4%). Participants reported they liked to wear the device on the wrist (phip (phip-worn accelerometer out-put among adolescents in free-living conditions. Adolescent compliance was significantly higher with wrist placement, with participants reporting that it was more comfortable and less embarrassing to wear on the wrist. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors and health consequences of screen-time change during adolescence--1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. (United States)

    Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Hallal, Pedro Curi


    To investigate screen-time change from early to mid adolescence, its predictors, and its influence on body fat, blood pressure, and leisure-time physical activity. We used data from a longitudinal prospective study, conducted among participants of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. At baseline, adolescents were, on average, 11 years old. They were later visited at age 15 years. Screen time was self-reported, accounting for the time spent watching television, playing video games, and using the computer. Several predictors were examined. The effect of screen-time change on some health outcomes was also analyzed. Screen time increased on average 60 min/d from 11 to 15 years of age, for the 4,218 adolescents studied. The groups that presented the highest increases in screen time were male, wealthiest, those whose mothers had higher education, and adolescents with a history of school failure. There were positive associations between screen-time change and body mass index, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and leisure-time physical activity at 15 years of age. Screen time increased from early to mid adolescence. This increment was higher among boys and the wealthiest adolescents. Increases in screen time affected body composition, with negative implications on adiposity. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Homicides against infants, children and adolescents in Budapest (1960-2005). (United States)

    Töro, Klára; Fehér, Szilvia; Farkas, Katalin; Dunay, György


    The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics and trends of fatal child abuse that would assist family doctors in detecting signs of maltreatment. There were 363 (193 males, 170 females) such cases autopsied at the Department of Forensic and Insurance Medicine at Budapest from 1960 to 2005. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records. Data were analyzed according to age, gender, type of abuse, injured body region, and seasonal distribution. The first detection of fatal injuries and death certification were usually done by GPs or ambulance at the scene of the homicide or hospital paediatricians in cases with survival period between the injuries and death. Our results suggest a definitive decrease in fatal child abuse cases during the investigated period. In the first part of study period suffocation of infants represent a great number of cases. Infanticide rapidly dropped after the mid 1970s. In this material 89.3% of fatal cases was detected and reported by family doctors. Rate of homicides against infants, children and adolescents reflect the effectiveness of the preventative strategies, the child protection policy and the unique primary health care system for youth. GPs have an important role in the investigation of infanticides and homicide cases against children and adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. The application of observational data in translational medicine: analyzing tobacco-use behaviors of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siciliano Valeria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational Medicine focuses on “bench to bedside”, converting experimental results into clinical use. The “bedside to bench” transition remains challenging, requiring clinicians to define true clinical need for laboratory study. In this study, we show how observational data (an eleven-year data survey program on adolescent smoking behaviours, can identify knowledge gaps and research questions leading directly to clinical implementation and improved health care. We studied gender-specific trends (2000–2010 in Italian students to evaluate the specific impact of various anti-smoking programs, including evaluation of perceptions of access to cigarettes and health risk. Methods The study used, ESPAD-Italia® (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs, is a nationally representative sample of high-school students. The permutation test for joinpoint regression was used to calculate the annual percent change in smoking. Changes in smoking habits by age, perceived availability and risk over a 11-year period were tested using a gender-specific logistic model and a multinomial model. Results Gender-stratified analysis showed 1 decrease of lifetime prevalence, then stabilization (both genders; 2 decrease in last month and occasional use (both genders; 3 reduction of moderate use (females; 4 no significant change in moderate use (males and in heavy use (both genders. Perceived availability positively associates with prevalence, while perceived risk negatively associates, but interact with different effects depending on smoking patterns. In addition, government implementation of public policies concerning access to tobacco products in this age group during this period presented a unique background to examine their specific impact on behaviours. Conclusion Large observational databases are a rich resource in support of translational research. From these observations, key clinically relevant issues can be

  19. Dim Light Melatonin Onset and Affect in Adolescents With an Evening Circadian Preference. (United States)

    Dolsen, Michael R; Harvey, Allison G


    A shift toward an evening circadian preference and the onset of mood problems often occur during adolescence. Although these changes are linked to poorer outcomes, few studies have considered how positive and negative affect are related to the circadian rhythm during adolescence. This study examined the relationship between evening and morning affect ratings and dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a measure of endogenous circadian rhythm. Age and sex were tested as moderators. This study is based on a subset of 163 (94 female, age = 14.7) adolescents with an evening circadian preference from a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-funded study. Participants provided saliva for melatonin analysis and rated evening and morning affect. Higher evening negative affect was related to a later DLMO. Evening positive affect was not significantly related to DLMO timing. Age but not sex was a significant moderator such that higher negative and lower positive affect were related to a later DLMO for 10- to 13-year-olds, whereas higher positive affect was related to a later DLMO for 17- to 18-year-olds. DLMO was not significantly related to morning affect ratings. There is evidence that higher negative and lower positive affect may be related to the shift toward an evening circadian preference observed in adolescents, particularly for younger adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood Bereavement and Lower Stress Resilience in Late Adolescence. (United States)

    Kennedy, Beatrice; Chen, Ruoqing; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Montgomery, Scott; Fang, Fang; Fall, Katja


    Although childhood traumatic experiences are recognized as important determinants for adolescent psychiatric health in general, our objective was to explore the specific influence of childhood bereavement on the stress resilience development trajectory. In this national register-based cohort study, we identified 407,639 men born in Sweden between 1973 and 1983, who underwent compulsory military enlistment examinations in late adolescence, including measures of psychological stress resilience. We defined exposure as loss of a first-degree family member in childhood, and estimated relative risk ratios (RRRs) for reduced (moderate or low), compared with high, stress resilience with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multinomial logistic regression. Loss of a parent or sibling in childhood conferred a 49% increased risk of subsequent low stress resilience (RRR, 1.49, 95% CI, 1.41-1.57) and an 8% increased risk of moderate stress resilience (RRR, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13) in late adolescence. There was also a graded increase in risk with increasing age at loss; teenagers were at higher risk for low resilience (RRR, 1.64, 95% CI, 1.52-1.77) than children aged 7-12 (RRR, 1.47, 95% CI, 1.34-1.61) and ≤6 years (RRR, 1.16 95% CI, 1.02-1.32). The excess risk was observed for all causes of death, including suicide and unexpected deaths as well as deaths due to other illnesses. The associations remained after exclusion of parents with a history of hospitalization for psychiatric diagnoses. The long-term consequences of childhood bereavement may include lower stress resilience in late adolescence. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mediators of Psychological Well-being in Adolescent Boys. (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Beauchamp, Mark R; Miller, Andrew; Lonsdale, Chris; Parker, Philip; Dally, Kerry


    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention on psychological well-being in adolescent boys and to examine the potential mediating mechanisms that might explain this effect. ATLAS was evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 secondary schools located in low-income communities (N = 361 adolescent boys, mean age = 12.7 ± .5 years). The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and involved: professional development for teachers, provision of fitness equipment to schools, enhanced school sport sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies for reducing screen time. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately post intervention (8 months). Psychological well-being was measured using the Flourishing Scale. Motivational regulations (intrinsic, identified, introjected, controlled, and amotivation) and basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in school sport, muscular fitness, resistance training skill competency, and recreational screen time were examined as potential mediating mechanisms of the intervention effect. The intervention effect on well-being was small but statistically significant. Within a multiple mediator model, changes in autonomy needs satisfaction, recreational screen time, and muscular fitness significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on psychological well-being. In addition to the physical health benefits, targeted physical activity programs for adolescent boys may have utility for mental health promotion through the mechanisms of increasing autonomy support and muscular fitness and reducing screen time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder treated with risperidone

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    Hongkaew Y


    Full Text Available Yaowaluck Hongkaew,1,2 Nattawat Ngamsamut,3 Apichaya Puangpetch,1,2 Natchaya Vanwong,1,2 Pornpen Srisawasdi,4 Montri Chamnanphon,1,2 Bhunnada Chamkrachchangpada,3 Teerarat Tan-kam,3 Penkhae Limsila,3 Chonlaphat Sukasem1,2 1Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Laboratory for Pharmacogenomics, Somdech Phra Debaratana Medical Center (SDMC, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 3Yuwaprasart Waithayopathum Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital, Department of Mental Health Services, Ministry of Public Health, 4Division of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD during pharmacotherapy with risperidone. The main aim of this study was to investigate important clinical factors influencing the prolactin response in risperidone-treated Thai ASD. A total of 147 children and adolescents (127 males and 20 females aged 3–19 years with ASD received risperidone treatment (0.10–6.00 mg/day for up to 158 weeks. Prolactin levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The clinical data of patients collected from medical records – age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone, duration of treatment, and drug-use pattern – were recorded. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 66 of 147 (44.90% subjects. Median prolactin level at the high doses (24.00, interquartile range [IQR] 14.30–29.20 of risperidone was significantly found to be higher than at the recommended (16.20, IQR 10.65–22.30 and low (11.70, IQR 7.51–16.50 doses of risperidone. There was no relationship between prolactin levels and duration of risperidone treatment. Dose-dependence is identified as a main factor associated with hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with ASD treated with

  3. The Characteristics and Short-Term Surgical Outcomes of Adolescent Gynecomastia. (United States)

    Choi, Byung Seo; Lee, Sung Ryul; Byun, Geon Young; Hwang, Seong Bae; Koo, Bum Hwan


    Most adolescent gynecomastia is resolved spontaneously in 3 years. But, persistent gynecomastia could have a negative influence on psychoemotional development on adolescence. The purpose of this study is to report the characteristics of adolescent gynecomastia patients who received the surgeries, and discuss the short-term surgical outcomes. Of the 1454 patients who underwent gynecomastia surgery at Damsoyu hospital from January 2014 to May 2016, 71 were adolescents. Subcutaneous mastectomy with liposuction was performed for adolescent patients who had gynecomastia for more than 3 years and showed psychosocial distress. Demographic and outcome variables were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age was 17.5 ± 0.77 years old. All gynecomastia cases were bilateral. Simon's grade IIa (35 patients, 49.3%) was the most common, and grade III was not observed. Fifty-one patients (71.8%) were classified as having a glandular-type breast component. Fourteen patients (19.7%) had complications, but only 3 cases (4.2%) required revision. Most of the patients (70 patients, 98.6%) were satisfied with the esthetic results, and the average 5-point Likert score was 4.85 ± 0.40. Recurrence was not observed. As the Simon's grade increased from I to IIA, a higher BMI, larger amounts of breast tissue, and longer operation times were observed. Gynecomastia that did not regress spontaneously was mostly the glandular type, so not only liposuction but also surgical removal of glandular tissue is necessary. Surgical treatment, selectively performed in patients who have had gynecomastia for 3 years, and have experienced psychosocial distress, could be an acceptable treatment for adolescent gynecomastia. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the table of contents or the online instructions to authors .

  4. Transitions in Friendship Attachment During Adolescence are Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Depression Through Adulthood. (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Heinze, Justin E; Miller, Alison L; Zimmerman, Marc A


    Forming secure friendship attachments during adolescence are important for mental health; few, however, have specifically examined the ways in which the transitions in attachment during adolescence may influence future mental health outcomes among African Americans. The present study examines how transitions in attachment in adolescence predicted changes in depression symptoms from late adolescents through adulthood in an African-American sample. We used growth curve modeling to examine the association between transitions in friendship attachment and changes in depression symptoms in adulthood. At age 16 years, 346 (64.0%) adolescents reported secure attachment with 195 (36.0%) reporting either avoidant or resistant attachment. At age 17 years, 340 (62.9%) reported secure attachment and 201 (37.2%) reported avoidant or resistant attachment. The largest percentage of participants (46.2%) reported stable-secure attachment across the two time points. Results of the growth model indicated that adolescents who reported a stable-secure attachment style had lower levels of depression symptoms during adulthood than those individuals who transitioned from secure-to-insecure, from insecure-to-secure, or were in the stable-insecure group. Interestingly enough, individuals in both the attachment transition groups had a faster declining rate of depression symptoms over time compared to the two stability groups. Data support existing research showing an association between transitions in attachment during adolescence and depression through adulthood. Furthermore, these study findings suggest there may be protective features associated with transitioning between attachment styles during adolescence on later depression, compared to African Americans who remain stable in their attachment style. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Benefits of a transfer clinic in adolescent and young adult kidney transplant patients. (United States)

    McQuillan, Rory F; Toulany, Alene; Kaufman, Miriam; Schiff, Jeffrey R


    Adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients have worse graft outcomes than older and younger age groups. Difficulties in the process of transition, defined as the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents with chronic health conditions from child to adult-centered health care systems, may contribute to this. Improving the process of transition may improve adherence post-transfer to adult care services. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a kidney transplant transfer clinic for adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients transitioning from pediatric to adult care improves adherence post-transfer. We developed a joint kidney transplant transfer clinic between a pediatric kidney transplant program, adult kidney transplant program, and adolescent medicine at two academic health centers. The transfer clinic facilitated communication between the adult and pediatric transplant teams, a face-to-face meeting of the patient with the adult team, and a meeting with the adolescent medicine physician. We compared the outcomes of 16 kidney transplant recipients transferred before the clinic was established with 16 patients who attended the clinic. The primary outcome was a composite measure of non-adherence. Non-adherence was defined as either self-reported medication non-adherence or displaying two of the following three characteristics: non-attendance at clinic, non-attendance for blood work appointments, or undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels within 1 year post-transfer. The two groups were similar at baseline, with non-adherence identified in 43.75 % of patients. Non-adherent behavior in the year post-transfer, which included missing clinic visits, missing regular blood tests, and undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels, was significantly lower in the cohort which attended the transfer clinic (18.8 versus 62.5 %, p = 0.03). The median change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the year following transfer

  6. Benefits of a Transfer Clinic in Adolescent and Young Adult Kidney Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory F. McQuillan


    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients have worse graft outcomes than older and younger age groups. Difficulties in the process of transition, defined as the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents with chronic health conditions from child to adult-centered health care systems, may contribute to this. Improving the process of transition may improve adherence post-transfer to adult care services. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a kidney transplant transfer clinic for adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients transitioning from pediatric to adult care improves adherence post-transfer. Methods: We developed a joint kidney transplant transfer clinic between a pediatric kidney transplant program, adult kidney transplant program, and adolescent medicine at two academic health centers. The transfer clinic facilitated communication between the adult and pediatric transplant teams, a face-to-face meeting of the patient with the adult team, and a meeting with the adolescent medicine physician. We compared the outcomes of 16 kidney transplant recipients transferred before the clinic was established with 16 patients who attended the clinic. The primary outcome was a composite measure of non-adherence. Non-adherence was defined as either self-reported medication non-adherence or displaying two of the following three characteristics: non-attendance at clinic, non-attendance for blood work appointments, or undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels within 1 year post-transfer. Results: The two groups were similar at baseline, with non-adherence identified in 43.75 % of patients. Non-adherent behavior in the year post-transfer, which included missing clinic visits, missing regular blood tests, and undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels, was significantly lower in the cohort which attended the transfer clinic (18.8 versus 62.5 %, p = 0.03. The median change in estimated glomerular

  7. Caregiver and adolescent mental health in Ethiopian Kunama refugees participating in an emergency education program. (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Yudron, Monica; Wheaton, Wendy; Smith-Fawzi, Mary C


    To examine the role of caregiver mental health and risk and protective factors in influencing levels of internalizing and externalizing emotional and behavioral symptoms over time among a sample of refugee adolescents. Prospective study of 153 Kunama refugee adolescents receiving an emergency education intervention while living in a camp in Ethiopia. Surveys were collected in 2001 (T1) and 2002 (T2). Adolescent and caregiver mental health were assessed using a Kunamenga adaptation of the Youth Self Report; caregiver mental health was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Attitudes toward education, satisfaction with education programming, socioeconomic status, and perceptions of access to services were also explored as variables potentially influencing adolescent mental health at follow-up. Caregiver distress was significantly associated with youth externalizing behavior symptoms (β = 8.34, p effect on externalizing behaviors (β = -7.54, p effect on internalizing symptoms. In terms of modifying effects, among youth with distressed caregivers, those who were satisfied with the International Rescue Committee education intervention had a lower internalizing score (β = -6.34, p refugee displacement. Results suggest that programs targeting mental health in refugee children should consider children within the larger family system, including caregiver influence on child and adolescent mental health adjustment over time. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors predicting changes in physical activity through adolescence: the Young-HUNT Study, Norway. (United States)

    Rangul, Vegar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Bauman, Adrian; Bratberg, Grete H; Kurtze, Nanna; Midthjell, Kristian


    The purpose of this prospective population-based study was to analyze predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) levels from early to late adolescence. Data presented are from 2,348 adolescents and their parents who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997) and at follow-up in Young-HUNT 2, 2000-2001 Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire and participated in a clinical examination that included measurements of height and weight. Four patterns of PA emerged in the study: active or inactive at both time points (active maintainers, 13%; inactive maintainers, 59%), inactive and became active (adopters, 12%), active and became inactive (relapsers, 16%). Being overweight, dissatisfied with life, and not actively participating in sports at baseline were significant predictors of change regarding PA among boys at follow-up. For girls, smoking, drinking, low maternal education, and physical inactivity predicted relapsers and inactive maintainers. Higher levels of education and more physically active parents at baseline seemed to protect against decreased PA during follow-up for both genders. Predictors of change in, or maintaining PA status during adolescence differed by gender. These results suggest that PA-promoting interventions should be tailored by gender and focus on encouraging activity for inactive adolescents and maintenance of PA in those already active. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of acute sleep restriction on adolescents' pedestrian safety in a virtual environment. (United States)

    Davis, Aaron L; Avis, Kristin T; Schwebel, David C


    Over 8,000 American adolescents ages 14-15 years require medical attention owing to pedestrian injury annually. Cognitive factors contributing to pedestrian safety include reaction time, impulsivity, risk taking, attention, and decision making. These characteristics are also influenced by sleep restriction. Experts recommend that adolescents obtain 8.5 hours of uninterrupted sleep each night, but most American adolescents do not. Inadequate sleep may place adolescents at risk for pedestrian injury. Using a within-subjects design, 55 14- and 15-year-olds engaged in a virtual reality pedestrian environment under two conditions, scheduled a week apart: sleep-restricted (4 hours' sleep the previous night) and adequate sleep (8.5 hours). Sleep was assessed using actigraphy and pedestrian behavior via four outcome measures: time to initiate crossing, time before contact with vehicle while crossing, virtual hits or close calls and attention to traffic (looks left and right). While acutely sleep restricted, adolescents took more time to initiate pedestrian crossings, crossed with less time before contact with vehicles, experienced more virtual hits or close calls, and looked left and right more often compared with when adequately rested. Results were maintained after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and average total sleep duration before each condition. Adolescent pedestrian behavior in the simulated virtual environment was markedly different, and generally more risky, when acutely sleep restricted compared with adequately rested. Inadequate sleep may influence cognitive functioning to the extent that pedestrian safety is jeopardized among adolescents capable of crossing streets safely when rested. Policy decisions might be educated by these results. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Active and non-active video gaming among Dutch adolescents: who plays and how much? (United States)

    Simons, Monique; de Vet, Emely; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; Chinapaw, Mai J M


    The aim of study was to determine prevalence and identify demographic correlates of active and non-active gaming among adolescents. Cross-sectional. A survey, assessing game behavior and correlates, was conducted among adolescents (12-16 years, n = 373), recruited via schools. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine demographic correlates of active gaming (≥ 1 h per week) and non-active gaming (>7h per week). Of all participants (n=373), 3% reported to play exclusively active games, 40% active games and non-active games, 40% exclusively non-active games, and 17% not playing video games at all. Active gaming adolescents played active games on average on 1.5 (sd = 1.2) days per school week for 36 (sd = 32.9)min and 1 (sd = 0.54) day per weekend for 42 (sd = 36.5)min. Non-active gaming adolescents played on average on 3.3 (sd = 1.6) days per school week for 65 (sd = 46.0)min and 1.4 (sd = 0.65) days per weekend for 80 (sd = 50.8)min. Adolescents attending lower levels of education were more likely to play active games ≥ 1 h per week than adolescents attending higher educational levels. Boys and older adolescents were more likely to play non-active games >7h per week, than girls or younger adolescents. Many adolescents play active games, especially those following a lower educational level, but time spent in this activity is relatively low compared to non-active gaming. To be feasible as a public health strategy, active gaming interventions should achieve more time is spent on active gaming at the expense of non-active gaming. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between parent-adolescent communication and adolescents' premarital sex risk. (United States)

    Widyatuti; Hafilah Shabrina, Citra; Yuni Nursasi, Astuti


    Previous studies have indicated the parent-adolescent relationship has a correlation to adolescents' premarital sex behavior risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to discover the influence of parent-adolescent communication on adolescents' risk of sexual issues. This was a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. The population of this study consisted of students from a high school in Jakarta. A purposive sampling technique was used, which resulted in the selection of 253 students as samples. A PACS (Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale) questionnaire was applied. The results showed that 59.3% of the adolescents studied were at risk for engaging in premarital sex, while the risk for adolescents with positive communication with their parents was 56.5%. Bivariate analysis also showed a significant correlation between gender and parent-adolescent communication and the risk of adolescent premarital sex behavior (α adolescents. Communication must align with adolescents' developmental tasks. Nurses can also create a promotion program on the topic of communication for parents and adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Problems in Sexual Functioning and Related Sexual Distress Among Middle to Late Adolescents. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Brotto, Lori A; Majerovich, Jo Ann; Fletcher, Jason


    Rates of sexual dysfunctions are high among adults, but little is known about problems in sexual functioning among adolescents. We completed a comprehensive assessment of problems in sexual functioning and related distress over a 2-year period among adolescents (16-21 years). A sample of 405 adolescents completed five online surveys over 2 years. The main outcome measures were clinical cutoff scores on the International Index of Erectile Function and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool for male adolescents and the Female Sexual Function Index for female adolescents. A secondary outcome was clinical levels of distress. The majority of sexually active adolescents (78.6% of the male and 84.4% of the female) reported a sexual problem over the course; rates did not differ significantly by gender. Common problems for males were low sexual satisfaction (47.9%), low desire (46.2%), and problems in erectile function (45.3%). Common problems for females were inability to reach orgasm (59.2%), low satisfaction (48.3%), and pain (46.9%). Models predicting problems over time showed increased odds among those not in a sexual relationship. Odds of reporting a distressing sexual problem decreased over time for female but not male adolescents. Problems in sexual functioning emerge early in individuals' sexual lives, are often distressing, and appear not to fluctuate over time. Additional efforts to identify key factors linked to onset will help elucidate possible mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pediatric and Gynecologic Rates of Documentation of Last Menstrual Period in Female Adolescents. (United States)

    Tomlin, Kristl; Mirea, Lucia; Williamson, Amy


    The American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have identified the menstrual cycle as essential in assessing overall health of adolescent girls. Menses should be considered a "vital sign" and documentation of last menstrual period (LMP) is recommended at every patient encounter. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare LMP documentation among adolescent and pediatric health care providers. A retrospective cohort study identified a random sample of 50 female patients seen in the general pediatrics (PEDS), adolescent medicine (AM), and pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) ambulatory clinics at Phoenix Children's Hospital between January 1, 2016 and March 31, 2016. Rates of LMP documentation were compared between clinics using the Pearson χ 2 test. Multivariable logistic regression analyses quantified the association of clinic and LMP documentation, with adjustments for visit reason, provider gender, and age at presentation. Rates of LMP documentation were 100% for adolescent gynecologists, but significantly lower for general pediatricians (14%) and AM (60%) providers (P < .0001). These findings were confirmed in multivariable analyses (PAG vs PEDS: odds ratio [OR], 280; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32-2331; PAG vs AM: OR, 34; 95% CI, 4.4-270; AM vs PEDS: OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-11.0). Adolescent gynecologists document LMP routinely. In contrast, LMP documentation rates in AM, and especially in PEDS, were significantly lower. Quality improvement methods such as incorporation of an LMP section into the vitals portion of an electronic medical record could help improve rates of compliance. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III


    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  15. Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality. (United States)

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A


    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment.

  16. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience. (United States)

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga


    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  17. Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Use: Associations With Conventional Cigarette and Hookah Smoking. (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric K; Forrest, Jamie R; Porter, Lauren; Tomar, Scott L


    The emerging trends and rapid growth of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents are being monitored closely. The trends are critical as policy to prevent uptake among adolescents is considered. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of e-cigarette use and potential correlates for use. Associations between e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and hookah are assessed. This study used data from the 2013 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated in 2014 and differences were determined based on CIs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of e-cigarette use among participants based on demographic and other tobacco products used. There were no sex differences in middle school, whereas male high school students reported higher use than their female counterparts. Cigarette smoking and hookah use were significantly associated with ever and current e-cigarette use among both middle and high school students. Although e-cigarettes are being assessed as a potential replacement product for traditional tobacco, evidence from this study indicates the possibility of multiple product use among adolescents. E-cigarettes are not only associated with traditional cigarettes, but also with hookahs, a similar emerging product that offer tobacco flavors that may appeal to adolescents. Notably, many e-cigarette users also reported no cigarette or hookah use. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality of Parent/Adolescent Attachment and Aggression in Young Adolescents. (United States)

    Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia


    Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…

  19. The moderating role of close friends in the relationship between conduct problems and adolescent substance use. (United States)

    Glaser, Beate; Shelton, Katherine H; van den Bree, Marianne B M


    Conduct problems and peer effects are among the strongest risk factors for adolescent substance use and problem use. However, it is unclear to what extent the effects of conduct problems and peer behavior interact, and whether adolescents' capacity to refuse the offer of substances may moderate such links. This study was conducted to examine relationships between conduct problems, close friends' substance use, and refusal assertiveness with adolescents' alcohol use problems, tobacco, and marijuana use. We studied a population-based sample of 1,237 individuals from the Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins aged 11-18 years. Adolescent and mother-reported information was obtained. Statistical analyses included cross-sectional and prospective logistic regression models and family-based permutations. Conduct problems and close friends' substance use were associated with increased adolescents' substance use, whereas refusal assertiveness was associated with lower use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Peer substance use moderated the relationship between conduct problems and alcohol use problems, such that conduct problems were only related to increased risk for alcohol use problems in the presence of substance-using friends. This effect was found in both cross-sectional and prospective analyses and confirmed using the permutation approach. Reduced opportunities for interaction with alcohol-using peers may lower the risk of alcohol use problems in adolescents with conduct problems. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of Early Childbirth Among Female Adolescents in Foster Care. (United States)

    King, Bryn; Van Wert, Melissa


    Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interventions for Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Overview of Systematic Reviews. (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Arshad, Ahmed; Finkelstein, Yaron; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    Many unhealthy behaviors often begin during adolescence and represent major public health challenges. Substance abuse has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities, as its effects are cumulative, contributing to costly social, physical, and mental health problems. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. We report findings from a total of 46 systematic reviews focusing on interventions for smoking/tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and combined substance abuse. Our overview findings suggest that among smoking/tobacco interventions, school-based prevention programs and family-based intensive interventions typically addressing family functioning are effective in reducing smoking. Mass media campaigns are also effective given that these were of reasonable intensity over extensive periods of time. Among interventions for alcohol use, school-based alcohol prevention interventions have been associated with reduced frequency of drinking, while family-based interventions have a small but persistent effect on alcohol misuse among adolescents. For drug abuse, school-based interventions based on a combination of social competence and social influence approaches have shown protective effects against drugs and cannabis use. Among the interventions targeting combined substance abuse, school-based primary prevention programs are effective. Evidence from Internet-based interventions, policy initiatives, and incentives appears to be mixed and needs further research. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific interventions components with standardized intervention and outcome measures. Various delivery platforms, including digital platforms and policy initiative, have the potential to improve substance abuse outcomes among adolescents; however, these require further research. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  2. Peer influences: the impact of online and offline friendship networks on adolescent smoking and alcohol use. (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W


    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication among adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examined the use of SNSs among friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 10th-grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed-effects models. The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNSs were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends' online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β = .11, p < .001) and alcohol use (β = .06, p < .05). Whereas adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by higher exposure to risky online pictures (β = -.10, p < .05). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and differential effects on risk behaviors. Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents' risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends' online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescent rationality. (United States)

    Moshman, David


    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  4. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Treatment of Children

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    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available We believe a holistic approach to problems in childhood and adolescence will benefit the child, adolescent, and the whole family. As a rule, children have far less to say in the family than their parents. Therefore, it is the parents who set the agenda and decide how things are done at home and in relation to the child. Most often, it is also the parents who have a problem when the child is not thriving. The child thus acts as the thermometer of the family. When children are not feeling well or are sick, the parents are not doing well either. Most problems arising from dysfunctional patterns are almost impossible for the parents to solve on their own, but with help and support from the holistically oriented physician, we believe that many problems can be discovered and solved. Not only can health problems be addressed, but also problems of poor thriving in the family in general. With the physician in the role of a coach, the family can be provided with relevant exercises that will change the patterns of dysfunction. Consciousness-based medicine also seems to be efficient with children and adolescents, who are much more sensitive to the psychosocial dimensions than adults. Five needs seem to be essential for the thriving and health of the child: attention, respect, love, acceptance (touch, and acknowledgment. The physician should be able to see if the child lacks fulfillment in one or more of these needs, and he can then demonstrate to the parents how these needs should be handled. This should be followed by simple instructions and exercises for the parents in the spirit of coaching. This approach is especially relevant when the child is chronically ill.

  5. Conflict Resolution in Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescent Delinquency (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.


    This study examines the relation between conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent delinquency. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles were completed by 284 early adolescents (mean age 13.3) and their parents. Adolescents also completed a questionnaire on delinquency. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  6. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations. (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Prinstein, Mitchell J


    One consistent predictor of adolescents' engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk taking. Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage = 12.6 years; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed (1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior and (2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an Internet chat room in which youth believed that they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these "peers" were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than those in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African-American boys. Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recommendations on Arresting Global Health Challenges Facing Adolescents and Young Adults. (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    The health challenges faced by young people are more complex than adults and can compromise their full growth and development. Attention must be paid to the health of this age group, yet adolescents and youth remain largely invisible and often disappear from the major global datasets. The aim of this paper is to discuss the global health challenges faced by adolescents and youth, global legislations and guidelines pertaining to this particular age group, recommendations to arrest these challenges, and research priorities. Major direct and indirect global health risks faced by adolescents include early pregnancy and childbirth, femicide, honor killing, female genital mutilation, nutritional habits and choices, social media, and peer pressure. There are no standard legal age cut-offs for adulthood; rather, the age varies for different activities, such as age of consent or the minimum age that young people can legally work, leave school, drive, buy alcohol, marry, be held accountable for criminal action, and make medical decisions. This reflects the fact that the existing systems and structures are focused on either children or adults, with very few investments and interventions directed specifically to young people. Existing legislation and guidelines need transformation to bring about a specific focus on adolescents in the domains of substance use and sexual behaviors, and the capacity for adolescent learning should be exploited through graduated legal and policy frameworks. Sustainable development goals provide an opportunity to target this neglected and vulnerable age group. A multisectoral approach is needed to bring about healthy change and address the challenges faced by adolescents and youth, from modifications at a broader legislative and policy level to ground-level (community-level) implementations. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence. (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Wellman, Robert J; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N; Chagnon, Miguel; Dutczak, Hartley; Laguë, Johanne; McGrath, Jennifer J


    Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 1,801 children recruited at age 10-11 years from 29 elementary schools in Montreal, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework was used to identify predictors among never smokers across three 2-year windows: age 11-13 years (n = 1,221); age 13-15 years (n = 737); and age 15-17 years (n = 690). Among the 18 risk factors investigated, two differed across age. Friends' smoking, a strong risk factor in early adolescence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 5.78 [3.90-8.58]), lost potency in late adolescence (1.83 [1.31-2.57]). Depressive symptoms, a risk factor in early and middle adolescence (1.60 [1.26-2.02] and 1.92 [1.45-2.54], respectively), were inversely associated in late adolescence (.76 [.58-1.00]). Sex, TV viewing, and weight-related goals were not associated with initiation at any age. All other factors were significant in two or three age groups. Most risk factors for smoking initiation were stable across age. Tobacco control interventions may be robust for risk factors across age groups and may not need adjustment. At all ages, interventions should focus on eliminating smoking in the social environment and on reducing the availability of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  10. The association of alcohol outlet density with illegal underage adolescent purchasing of alcohol. (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Livingston, Michael


    Although previous studies have suggested that greater community densities of alcohol sales outlets are associated with greater alcohol use and problems, the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined whether density was associated with increased purchasing of alcohol by adolescents younger than the legal purchase age of 18 in Australia. The number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 population was identified within geographic regions in Victoria, Australia. A state-representative student survey (N = 10,143) identified adolescent reports of purchasing alcohol, and multilevel modeling was then used to predict the effects for different densities of outlet types (packaged, club, on-premise, general, and overall). Each extra sales outlet per 10,000 population was associated with a significant increase in the risk of underage adolescent purchasing. The strongest effect was for club density (odds ratio = 1.22) and packaged (takeaway) outlet density (odds ratio = 1.12). Males, older children, smokers, and those with substance-using friends were more likely to purchase alcohol. One mechanism by which alcohol sales outlet density may influence population rates of alcohol use and related problems is through increasing the illegal underage purchasing of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

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    Diogo F Guerreiro


    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  12. Effect of homocysteinemia on the development of diabetic nephro- and retinopathy in adolescents

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    Zh V Shutskaya


    Full Text Available Aim. To consider homocysteinemia in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus (DM1 as an independent risk factor of diabetic nephro- and retinopathy (DN and DR. Materials and methods. Twenty nine adolescents (19 girls and 10 boys with DM1 were examined. DN and DR were diagnosed in conformity with medical aid standards for DM1patients. Plasma homocysteine level was measured by IEA. Results. Plasma homocysteine level in DN patients was higher (6.4?1.6, n=10 than in DR group (5.3?1.7, n=9 and controls (5.6?1.8, n=10. Patients of all study groups werecomparable in terms of age, DM duration, and HbA1c level. Conclusion. Plasma homocysteine level in DN patients was higher than in DR and control groups. It gives reason to consider this parameter as an independent risk factor alongwith some others in pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathies (in the first place, nephropathy. Adolescents with DM1 and elevated plasma homocysteine level need additionalcorrection by specific medicines.

  13. Characteristics of a Favorable Weight Status Change From Adolescence to Young Adulthood. (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Loth, Katie A; Peterson, Colleen; Boutelle, Kerri N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    the transition to young adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. First- and second-born adolescents' decision-making autonomy throughout adolescence. (United States)

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Short, Stephen D; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Drotar, Scott D


    First- and second-born adolescents' and their parents' perceptions of adolescents' decision-making autonomy were compared from ages 12 to 19 in a longitudinal sample of 145 predominantly White, middle class families. Utilizing a multivariate, multilevel modeling approach, differences in perceptions of adolescents' autonomy between parents and each adolescent, as well as by social-cognitive domain were examined. The present study found that when comparing parents' perceptions of their children at the same age, second-borns were granted more autonomy regarding conventional issues than first-borns during early adolescence, but by later adolescence first-borns were granted more autonomy regarding prudential issues than second-borns. However, comparisons between adolescents' and siblings' perceptions showed no differences. Potential reasons for, and implications of, differences in perceptions of adolescent autonomy are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Confronting zoonoses through closer collaboration between medicine and veterinary medicine (as 'one medicine'). (United States)

    Kahn, Laura H; Kaplan, Bruce; Steele, James H


    In the 19th century, the concept of 'one medicine' was embraced by leaders in the medical and veterinary medical communities. In the 20th century, collaborative efforts between medicine and veterinary medicine diminished considerably. While there have been some notable exceptions, such as Calvin W. Schwabe's proposal for unifying human and veterinary medicine and joint efforts by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization to control zoonotic diseases, 'one medicine' has languished in the modern milieu of clinical care, public health, and biomedical research. Risks of zoonotic disease transmission are rarely discussed in clinical care which is of particular concern if humans and/or animals are immunosuppressed. Physicians and veterinarians should advise their patients and pet-owning clients that some animals should not be pets. The risk of zoonotic disease acquisition can be considerable in the occupational setting. Collaborative efforts in biomedical research could do much to improve human and animal health. As the threat of zoonotic diseases continues to increase in the 21st century, medicine and veterinary medicine must revive 'one medicine' in order to adequately address these challenges. 'One medicine' revival strategies must involve medical and veterinary medical education, clinical care, public health and biomedical research.

  16. Do Savings Mediate Changes in Adolescents' Future Orientation and Health-Related Outcomes? Findings From Randomized Experiment in Uganda. (United States)

    Karimli, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred M


    This present study tests the proposition that an economic strengthening intervention for families caring for AIDS-orphaned adolescents would positively affect adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes through increased asset accumulation (in this case, by increasing family savings). Using longitudinal data from the cluster-randomized experiment, we ran generalized estimating equation models with robust standard errors clustering on individual observations. To examine whether family savings mediate the effect of the intervention on adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes, analyses were conducted in three steps: (1) testing the effect of intervention on mediator; (2) testing the effect of mediator on outcomes, controlling for the intervention; and (3) testing the significance of mediating effect using Sobel-Goodman method. Asymmetric confidence intervals for mediated effect were obtained through bootstrapping-to address the assumption of normal distribution. Results indicate that participation in a matched Child Savings Account (CSA) program improved adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes by reducing hopelessness, enhancing self-concept, and improving adolescents' confidence about their educational plans. However, the positive intervention effect on adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes was not transmitted through saving. In other words, participation in the matched CSA program improved adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes regardless of its impact on reported savings. Further research is necessary to understand exactly how participation in economic strengthening interventions, for example, those that employ matched CSAs, shape adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes: what, if not savings, transmits the treatment effect and how? Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived and Police-Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status. (United States)

    Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and body mass index (BMI). Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N = 2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 study. BMI was measured by research staff. Participants' mean age was 14.6 (standard deviation = 2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents' safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Adolf Lorenz's decision to study medicine]. (United States)

    Holzer, Gerold


    The childhood and adolescence years are decisive in life. It was the aim of this study to analyze the pubertal years of Adolf Lorenz, the founder of Austrian orthopedics who left his mark in all parts of the world, with respect to his choice of profession. As the son of poor people from the former frontier region of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy with Poland, then known as Austrian-Silesia, he was provided with a scholarship in a boys' choir at a Carinthian monastery and then continued his studies at a college in Klagenfurt, capital of Carinthia. He spent the last year at college as a private teacher in Transylvania and passed his maturity examination as an extraordinary pupil. During this time he decided to study medicine. The people he then met and the events leading to this decision are illustrated in this article.

  19. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products

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    Haidan Yuan


    Full Text Available Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  20. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products. (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun


    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  1. Clinical Hypnosis, an Effective Mind–Body Modality for Adolescents with Behavioral and Physical Complaints


    Anju Sawni; Cora Collette Breuner


    Mind?body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t?ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind?body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate th...

  2. Family-based treatment of eating disorders in adolescents: current insights

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    Rienecke RD


    Full Text Available Renee D Rienecke1–3 1Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, College of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Eating disorders are serious illnesses associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Family-based treatment (FBT has emerged as an effective intervention for adolescents with anorexia nervosa, and preliminary evidence suggests that it may be efficacious in the treatment of adolescents with bulimia nervosa. Multifamily therapy for anorexia nervosa provides a more intensive experience for families needing additional support. This review outlines the three phases of treatment, key tenets of family-based treatment, and empirical support for FBT. In addition, FBT in higher levels of care is described, as well as challenges in the implementation of FBT and recent adaptations to FBT, including offering additional support to eating-disorder caregivers. Future research is needed to identify families for whom FBT does not work, determine adaptations to FBT that may increase its efficacy, develop ways to improve treatment adherence among clinicians, and find ways to support caregivers better during treatment. Keywords: eating disorders, adolescents, family-based therapy, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  3. Mental health outcomes of developmental coordination disorder in late adolescence. (United States)

    Harrowell, Ian; Hollén, Linda; Lingam, Raghu; Emond, Alan


    To assess the relationship between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and mental health outcomes in late adolescence. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Moderate-to-severe DCD was defined at 7 to 8 years according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Mental health was assessed at 16 to 18 years using self-reported questionnaires: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Logistic and linear regressions assessed the associations between DCD and mental health, using multiple imputation to account for missing data. Adjustments were made for socio-economic status, IQ, and social communication difficulties. Adolescents with DCD (n=168) had an increased risk of mental health difficulties (total Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score) than their peers (n=3750) (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.83, adjusted for socio-economic status and IQ). This was, in part, mediated through poor social communication skills. Adolescent females with DCD (n=59) were more prone to mental health difficulties than males. Greater mental well-being was associated with better self-esteem (β 0.82, pcommunication skills and self-esteem. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.

  4. Adolescência e contracepção de emergência: Fórum 2005 Adolescence and emergency contraception: Forum 2005

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    Maria Ignez Saito


    ethical issues involved in the emergency contraception; the risks and efficiency of this method. DATA SOURCES: Discussion based on current literature on the theme in the Forum held in 2005, which included pediatricians, obstetricians, gynecologists, members of bioethics committees, members of the Federal Council of Medicine, delegates from the Ministry of Health, lawyers and judges. DATA SYNTHESIS: Adolescence includes change, transformation and experimenting, all of which lead to vulnerability and risk. Some of these are related to unoriented or unthought sexuality, whose consequences are well known: early pregnancy, abortion and sexually transmitted diseases, among which are HPV and HIV infections. Therefore, the medical assistance to adolescents must be focused on prevention, in which sexual education includes contraception orientation, particularly in emergency situations. CONCLUSIONS: This review presents the conclusions that were achieved during the meeting. Its main consequence was a resolution by the Federal Council of Medicine stating that emergency contraception is not abortive and may be used at any stage of the reproductive life.

  5. Help-seeking behavior among Japanese school students who self-harm: results from a self-report survey of 18,104 adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furukawa TA


    Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,* Atsushi Nishida,2,* Shinji Shimodera,3 Ken Inoue,4 Norihito Oshima,5 Tsukasa Sasaki,6 Shimpei Inoue,3 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Yuji Okazaki81Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Schizophrenia Research, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, 4Department Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, 5Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 6Health Service Center, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 7Department of Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, 8Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with poor help-seeking among adolescents who self-harm and to explore the resources used for help.Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted in 47 junior and 30 senior high schools in Japan. Adolescent self-harm was defined as an adolescent who had harmed himself or herself in the previous year, as in previous studies reported in Western countries. Poor help-seeking was defined as not consulting anyone despite reporting current psychological or somatic complaints. Information about sociodemographic and psychological factors possibly associated with help-seeking, such as suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like experiences, was also collected. Regression analyses were performed to examine associated factors.Results: A total of 18,104 students (8620 aged 12–15 years, 9484 aged 15–18 years, accounting for 93% of all students in the relevant student classes, participated in the study. Two hundred and

  6. Thinking and practice of accelerating transformation of traditional Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine. (United States)

    Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Yanhong; Hu, Jingqing; He, Liyun; Zhou, Xuezhong


    The gradual development of Chinese medicine is based on constant accumulation and summary of experience in clinical practice, but without the benefit of undergoing the experimental medicine stage. Although Chinese medicine has formed a systematic and unique theory system through thousands of years, with the development of evidence-based medicine, the bondage of the research methods of experience medicine to Chinese medicine is appearing. The rapid transition and transformation from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine have become important content in the development of Chinese medicine. According to the features of Chinese medicine, we propose the research idea of "taking two ways simultaneously," which is the study both in the ideal condition and in the real world. Analyzing and constructing the theoretical basis and methodology of clinical research in the real world, and building the stage for research technique is key to the effective clinical research of Chinese medicine. Only by gradually maturing and completing the clinical research methods of the real world could we realize "taking two ways simultaneously" and complementing each other, continuously produce scientific and reliable evidence of Chinese medicine, as well as transform and develop Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine.

  7. Medicines (United States)

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  8. Comparison of resilience in adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents. (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Mi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Wong, Tai-Tong


    Resilience is essential for the psychological adjustment of adolescents experiencing difficulty. Comparing differences in resilience between adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents may help identify factors related to resilience in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to clarify how illness impacts the normative development of adolescent survivors of brain tumors by comparing them to healthy adolescents in terms of resilience and how it is affected by various health problems. This cross-sectional, case-control study used convenience sampling to recruit 13- to 18-year-old adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents matched by school level, gender, and living area. Data were collected by structured questionnaires. The sample included 60 adolescent survivors and 120 healthy adolescents. Participants in both groups were predominantly male adolescents (63.3%) and junior high school students (55%). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in resilience, but survivors without emotional problems had a higher mean resilience score than did healthy adolescents and survivors with emotional problems (F = 8.65, P adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents. In addition, the impact of emotional problems on resilience was more severe in brain tumor survivors than in healthy adolescents. Our results suggest that pediatric oncology nurses design interdisciplinary school-based interventions to reduce the impact of emotional problems on resilience in both healthy adolescents and those who survived brain tumors.

  9. Factors associated with bullying victimization among Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo HJ


    Full Text Available Hye-Jin Seo,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Won-Myong Bahk3 1Department of Psychiatry, Ansan Shinwoo Hospital, Ansan, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 3Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of bullying victimization among Korean adolescents by sex and age and to investigate the correlates of this phenomenon. Methods: Of 3,200 eligible subjects, 2,936 (91.8% adolescents were recruited from four elementary schools (6th grade, age range: 10–12 years, five middle schools (8th grade, age range: 13–14 years, and three high schools (10th grade, age range: 15–17 years located in the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Republic of Korea. This study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and experiences of bullying victimization and employed the Korean form of the Children’s Depression Inventory to evaluate depressive symptoms. Results: Of the total sample of 2,936 students, 1,689 were boys (57.5% and 1,247 were girls (42.5%. The prevalence of bullying victimization by age group was as follows: 10–12 years, 9.5%; 13–14 years, 8.3%; and 15–17 years, 6.4%. A significant difference in the prevalence of bullying victimization was observed by sex (boys: 45.0%, girls: 55.0%. Overall, the prevalence decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, bullying victimization was significantly associated with lower socioeconomic status (odds ratio [OR] =1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–2.67, lower than average academic achievement (OR =1.77; 95% CI 1.25–2.50, more depressive symptoms (OR =1.88; 95% CI 1.38–2.55, and poorer perceived relationship with parents (OR =1.46; 95% CI 1.00–2.14. Conclusion: Our findings will provide researchers and public health practitioners with data on the prevalence of

  10. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence. (United States)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A


    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The protective value of parental sex education: a clinic-based exploratory study of adolescent females. (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Hanson, Amy; Rager, Kristin


    This exploratory study compared the impact of sex education provided by parents to female adolescents against the same education provided in formal settings to female adolescents. Females, 16-24 years old, attending an adolescent medicine clinic in an urban area of the South were recruited prior to examination. Each patient completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Data from 110 respondents were analyzed to compare those indicating they had learned about each of four topics from parents to those not indicating learning about all four topics from a parent. The same process was repeated relative to learning about the four topics in formal educational settings. In controlled, multivariate, analyses, adolescents not communicating with parents on all four topics were nearly five times more likely to report having multiple sex partners in the past three months. Further, these adolescents were 3.5 times more likely to have low self-efficacy for condom negotiation, 2.7 times more likely to report ever using alcohol or drugs before sex, and about 70% less likely to have ever talked about HIV prevention with a partner before engaging in sex. Differences relative to learning about the four topics in formal settings were not found. Findings suggest that teen females (attending teen clinics) may experience a protective benefit based on communication with parents. This protective effect was not observed for education delivered in formal settings.

  12. Built environment predictors of active travel to school among rural adolescents. (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Gibson, Lucinda; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Swain, Karin; Xie, Haiyi; Owens, Peter M


    Most studies of active travel to school (ATS) have been conducted in urban or suburban areas and focused on young children. Little is known about ATS among rural adolescents. To describe adolescent ATS in two predominantly rural states and determine if school neighborhood built environment characteristics (BECs) predict ATS after adjusting for school and individual characteristics. Sixteen BECs were assessed through census data and onsite observations of 45 school neighborhoods in 2007. ATS and individual characteristics were assessed through telephone surveys with 1552 adolescents and their parents between 2007 and 2008. Active travelers were defined as those who walked/cycled to/from school ≥1 day/week. Hierarchic linear modeling was used for analysis, conducted in 2009. Slightly less than half (n=735) of the sample lived within 3 miles of school, of whom 388 (52.8%) were active travelers. ATS frequency varied by season, ranging from a mean of 1.7 (SD=2.0) days/week in the winter to 3.7 (SD=1.6) in the spring. Adolescents who attended schools in highly dense residential neighborhoods with sidewalks were most likely to be active travelers. ATS frequency was greater in school neighborhoods with high residential and intersection densities, on-street parking, food outlets, and taller and continuous buildings with small setbacks. The BECs that support safe travel may be necessary to allow for ATS, whereas ATS frequency among adolescents may be influenced by a wider variety of design characteristics. Additional strategies to promote ATS and physical activity are needed in rural areas because of long commuting distances for many students. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Meta analysis on clinical effectiveness of Chinese medicine physiotherapy combined with tropicamide eye drops for pseudomyopia


    Dan Li; Ling Shen; En-Li Deng


    AIM:To evaluate the curative effect of Chinese medicine physiotherapy combined with tropicamide eye drops to treat pseudomyopia in children and adolescent. METHODS: We collected randomized controlled trials from CNKI, CBM, Wanfang database, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library in 2000-2015, and the improved Jadad scale was used to evaluate the methodology of the literature, and the data was extracted. The Review Manager 5.3 statistical software was used for meta analysis. RESULTS: A total of 5...

  14. Lifestyle in children and adolescents with obesity: results of the survey of patients and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa V. Vitebskaya


    Full Text Available Introduction. Growth of obesity prevalence in children and adolescents is a serious problem of modern medicine. To learn characteristics of patient’s behaviour, their dietary preference, feeding time and physical loads one can use specialized questionnaires. Aim. Evaluation of lifestyle, physical activity, dietary regimen and consumption of some meals according to results of questioning children and adolescents with obesity and their parents. Materials and methods. Hundreds of children and adolescents with obesity 10–17 years and their parents answered the questionnaire on age of obesity onset, its causes, physical activity and nutrition. Results and conclusion. Obesity develops more often at the age of 7–10 years. The most commonly insufficient physical activity and heredity. Specific characteristics of sedentary lifestyle and impared dietary regimen were identified. Comparison of patients’ and parents’ answers allowed to demonsrate the differense in attitude to the problem of obesity and to diminish the influence of not transparant answers on the results of investigation.

  15. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sunmi cho


    Full Text Available Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&#8211;20% of children and adolescents worldwide. Despite their relevance as a leading cause of health-related disability and their long lasting consequences, the mental health needs of children and adolescents are neglected. Early intervention can help reduce the significant impacts that children and adolescents with serious mental health problems may experience. Screening is the first step in early intervention, recognizing emotional and behavioral problems and providing help at an early stage. It is essential to implement early intervention in a sensitive and ethical manner to avoid any of the negative outcomes.

  16. Assessment of nutritional status and eating disorders in female adolescents with fibromyalgia. (United States)

    da Silva, Simone Guerra L; Sarni, Roseli O S; de Souza, Fabíola I S; Molina, Juliana; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A


    To assess eating disorders, nutritional status, body composition, and food intake in adolescents presenting with fibromyalgia. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the nutritional status (z score of body mass index [ZBMI]), waist circumference, body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance analysis, symptoms of disordered eating, and possible eating disorders (Kids' Eating Disorders Survey [KEDS]) of 23 female adolescents with fibromyalgia and 23 matched healthy control subjects. Median age for both groups was 15 years. In the fibromyalgia group, the median time for diagnosis was 13.5 months. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the control and fibromyalgia groups in relation to ZBMI, fat mass percentage, food intake, and symptoms of disordered eating (KEDS). In the fibromyalgia group, there was a significant correlation between fat mass percentage and the total KEDS score (r = .587, p = .003); the same correlation was observed for ZBMI (r = .0778, p fibromyalgia that, in addition to the correlation between adiposity indexes and KEDS total score, emphasizes the importance of nutritional and body composition assessment, allowing an early and adequate nutritional intervention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rural adolescents' access to adolescent friendly health services. (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly A; Randall, Brandy A; Brennan, Alison L; Anderson, Melinda K; Gross, Dean A


    The purpose of this study was to assess rural North Dakota adolescents' experiences in accessing adolescent-friendly health services and to examine the relationship between rural adolescents' communication with health care providers and risk behaviors. Data are from the Rural Adolescent Health Survey (RAHS), an anonymous survey of 14- to 19-year-olds (n = 322) attending secondary schools in four frontier counties of North Dakota. Descriptive statistics were used to assess participants' access to adolescent-friendly health services characterized as accessible, acceptable, and appropriate. Logistic regressions were used to examine whether participant-reported risk behaviors predicted communication with health care providers about individual health risk behaviors. Rural adolescents reported high access to acceptable primary health care services but low levels of effective health care services. Participant report of engaging in high-risk behaviors was associated with having received information from health care providers about the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. These findings reveal missed opportunities for primary care providers in rural settings to provide fundamental health promotion to adolescents. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of Metabolic Syndrome, Elevated C-Reactive Protein, and Physical Activity in U.S. Adolescents. (United States)

    Williams, Bethany D; Richardson, Michael R; Johnson, Tammie M; Churilla, James R


    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and physical activity (PA) as well as the odds of MetS criteria in those active versus inactive utilizing a representative sample of U.S. adolescents. The study sample (n = 676) included male and female adolescent (12-17 years) participants in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The criteria analyzed were based on a modified definition of MetS using the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Current adult cut points were used to determine elevated CRP. Activity was estimated using reported days per week and minutes per day of moderate/vigorous PA. The MetS criteria with the highest and lowest overall prevalence estimates were elevated fasting glucose and elevated blood pressure (20.7% [95% confidence interval, 17.02-24.38] and 5.7% [95% confidence interval, 3.70-7.70], respectively). The prevalence of elevated CRP was 7.1% (6.3% and 7.8% in males and females, respectively; p = .42). The prevalence of insufficient PA was 75.0%. Odds of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower in active adolescents when compared with inactive adolescents (odds ratio = .39, p < .05). In a representative sample of U.S. adolescents, elevated fasting glucose is the most prevalent MetS criterion. One out of five U.S. adolescents has elevated fasting glucose, and three out four do not meet the daily federal PA recommendations. Adolescents meeting the federal PA recommendation demonstrate approximately 60% lower odds of having low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use Medicines Safely (United States)

    ... Prescription Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ... medicine are prescription and over-the-counter (OTC). Prescription medicines Prescription medicines are medicines you can get only ...

  20. Parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent internet addiction: A moderated mediation model. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Sun, Wenqiang; Zhao, Liyan; Qiu, Lilan


    Substantial research has found that positive parent-adolescent relationship is associated with low levels of adolescent Internet addiction (IA). However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. The present study examined a moderated mediation model that included the parent-adolescent relationship (predictor variable), emotion regulation ability (mediator), stressful life events (moderator), and IA (outcome variable) simultaneously. A total of 998 (M age  = 15.15 years, SD = 1.57) Chinese adolescents completed the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, Emotion Regulation Ability Scale, Adolescent Stressful Life Events Scale, and Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire. After controlling for adolescent gender, age, and family socioeconomic status, results revealed that good parent-adolescent relationship was positively associated with adolescent emotion regulation ability, which in turn was negatively associated with their IA. Moreover, stressful life events moderated the second part of the mediation process. In accordance with the reverse stress-buffering model, the relation between emotion regulation ability and adolescent IA was stronger for adolescents who experienced lower levels of stressful life events. The findings and their implications are discussed and a resilient contextual perspective proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (United States)

    ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Common Questions & Glossary Resources ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed ...

  2. Family meal frequency among children and adolescents with eating disorders. (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel


    Previous studies on family meals and disordered eating have mainly drawn their samples from the general population. The goal of the current study is to determine family meal frequency among children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and feeding or eating disorder not elsewhere classified (FED-NEC) and to examine whether family meal frequency is associated with eating disorder psychopathology. Participants included 154 children and adolescents (M = 14.92 ± 2.62), who met criteria for AN (n = 60), BN (n = 32), or FED-NEC (n = 62). All participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the Family Meal Questionnaire prior to treatment at the University of Chicago Eating Disorders Program. AN and BN participants significantly differed in terms of family meal frequency. A majority of participants with AN (71.7%), compared with less than half (43.7%) of participants with BN, reported eating dinner with their family frequently (five or more times per week). Family meal frequency during dinner was significantly and negatively correlated with dietary restraints and eating concerns among participants with BN (r = -.381, r = -.366, p meal frequency may be explained by their parents' relatively greater vigilance over eating, whereas families of BN patients may be less aware of eating disorder behaviors and hence less insistent upon family meals. Additionally, children and adolescents with AN may be more inhibited and withdrawn and therefore are perhaps more likely to stay at home and eat together with their families. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight. (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward


    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  4. The Brazilian medicinal chemistry from 1998 to 2008 in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [A química medicinal brasileira de 1998 a 2008 nos periódicos Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters e European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry


    Bárbara Vasconcellos da Silva; Renato Saldanha Bastos; Angelo da Cunha Pinto


    In this article we present the Brazilian publications, the research groups involved, the contributions per states and the main diseases studied from 1998 to 2008 in the following periodicals: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

  5. Heart failure - medicines (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  6. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (United States)

    ... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY ...

  7. Gender and the effects of an economic empowerment program on attitudes toward sexual risk-taking among AIDS-orphaned adolescent youth in Uganda. (United States)

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Ismayilova, Leyla; McKay, Mary; Sperber, Elizabeth; Bannon, William; Alicea, Stacey


    This article examines gender differences in attitudes toward sexual risk-taking behaviors of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda. Adolescents (average age 13.7 years) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS from 15 comparable schools were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=135) or a control condition (n=142). Adolescents in the experimental condition, in addition to usual care, also received support and incentives to save money toward secondary education. Findings indicate that although adolescent boys and girls within the experimental condition saved comparable amounts, the intervention appears to have benefited girls, in regard to the attitudes toward sexual risk-taking behavior, in a different way and to a lesser extent than boys. Future research should investigate the possibility that adolescent girls might be able to develop equally large improvements in protective attitudes toward sexual risk taking through additional components that address gendered social norms. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple types of harassment: associations with emotional well-being and unhealthy behaviors in adolescents. (United States)

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    To explore relationships between harassment (i.e., race-, weight-, socioeconomic-status (SES)-based, and sexual) and health-related outcomes, including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behavior, among diverse adolescents. Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study of adolescents participating in Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 (EAT 2010) (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4 years). Sample was socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse (81% racial/ethnic minority; 54% low or low-middle income). Having experienced any type of harassment was significantly associated with poor self-esteem, depressive symptoms, low body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behaviors. After mutually adjusting for other types of harassment, weight-based harassment was consistently associated with lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction in both genders (standardized βs ranged in magnitude from .39 to .48); sexual harassment was significantly associated with self-harm and substance use in both genders (ORs: 1.64 to 2.92); and both weight-based and sexual harassment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms among girls (standardized βs = .34 and .37). Increases in the number of different harassment types reported by adolescents were associated with elevated risk for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, and self-harm (ORs: 1.22 to 1.42) as well as emotional well-being (standardized βs: .13 to .26). Having had any harassment experience was significantly associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes among adolescents, and risk for these outcomes increases with the number of harassment types an adolescent experiences. Early detection and intervention to decrease harassment experiences may be particularly important in mitigating psychological and behavioral harm among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Seizure Induced by Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in an Adolescent with Depression. (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R; Jasberg, Suzanne; Nelson, Brent; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Lim, Kelvin O; Croarkin, Paul E


    Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with an H-1 coil was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in adults. Studies assessing the safety and effectiveness of deep TMS in adolescent TRD are lacking. The purpose of this brief report is to provide a case history of an adolescent enrolled in an investigational deep TMS protocol. A case history is described of the first participant of a sham-controlled clinical trial who had a seizure in the course of deep TMS with parameter settings extrapolated from the adult studies that led to US FDA approval (H-1 coil, 120% target stimulation intensity, 18 Hz, 55 trains of 2-second duration, total 1980 pulses). The participant was a 17-year-old unmedicated female, with no significant medical history and no history of seizures or of drug or alcohol use. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no structural abnormalities. She initially received sham, which was well tolerated. During active treatment sessions, titration began at 85% of motor threshold (MT) and increased by 5% per day. Her weekly MT measurements were stable. On her first day of 120% MT (8th active treatment), during the 48th train, the participant had a generalized, tonic-clonic seizure that lasted 90 seconds and resolved spontaneously. She had an emergency medicine evaluation and was discharged home without anticonvulsant medications. There were no further seizures reported at a 6-month follow-up. We report a deep TMS-induced generalized tonic-clonic seizure in an adolescent with TRD participating in a clinical trial. Given the demonstrated benefits of deep TMS for adult TRD, research investigating its use in adolescents with TRD is an important area. However, in light of this experience, additional precautions for adolescents should be considered. We propose that further dose-finding investigations are needed to refine adolescent-specific parameters that may be safe and effective for

  10. Adolescent patient preferences surrounding partner notification and treatment for sexually transmitted infections. (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Huppert, Jill S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Taylor, Regina G; Holland, Carolyn K; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Kahn, Jessica A


    barriers to partner notification. In an ED setting, using HCPs to provide partner notification of STI exposures is acceptable to adolescent patients; however, the feasibility of this type of program needs further exploration. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  11. Adolescent social media use and mental health from adolescent and parent perspectives. (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Sidoti, Chloe L; Briggs, Shanelle M; Reiter, Shari R; Lindsey, Rebecca A


    This study investigated adolescent and parent reports of adolescent social media use and its relation to adolescent psychosocial adjustment. The sample consisted of 226 participants (113 parent-adolescent dyads) from throughout the United States, with adolescents (55 males, 51 females, 7 unreported) ranging from ages 14 to 17. Parent and adolescent reports of the number of adolescents' social media accounts were moderately correlated with parent-reported DSM-5 symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as adolescent-reported fear of missing out (FoMO) and loneliness. Lastly, anxiety and depressive symptoms were highest among adolescents with a relatively high number of parent-reported social media accounts and relatively high FoMO. The implications of these findings and need for related longitudinal studies are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of reconsent in a national evaluation of adolescent reproductive health programs. (United States)

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber; Jones, Sarah B; Lyons, Jeffrey D; Derecho, Azucena A; Kan, Marni L; Richmond Scott, Alicia


    Reconsent involves asking research participants to reaffirm their consent for study participation when there have been significant changes in the study's procedures, risks, or benefits. We described the reconsent process, identified the reconsent rate, and examined the comparability of youths enrolled via consent and reconsent in a national evaluation of adolescent reproductive health programs. Evaluation participants from five abstinence education projects (N = 2,176) and nine projects serving pregnant or parenting adolescents (N = 878) provided either parent or youth consent or reconsent to participate in the national evaluation. Participants completed surveys that included demographic characteristics; sexual intentions, norms and behaviors; and pregnancy history. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between consent status, demographic characteristics, and risk indicators. The reconsent rates in the abstinence education and pregnant or parenting samples were 45% and 58%, respectively. Participant's age was positively associated with reconsent. Hispanic adolescents (and, for abstinence education, other racial/ethnic minorities) were underrepresented among youth with reconsent. Among abstinence education study participants, risk indicators were not associated with consent status. Among pregnant or parenting teens, those who had experienced repeat pregnancy were less likely than those who had experienced only one pregnancy to have been enrolled via reconsent. Reconsent can bolster sample size but may introduce bias by missing some racial/ethnic and age-groups. Among high-risk adolescents, reconsent may also yield a sample that differs from consented samples on risk characteristics, necessitating statistical adjustments when analyzing data. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Precision medicine and traditional chinese medicine of dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Xin


    Full Text Available The precision medicine is more precise individualized medicine, based on the patient’s genes or physiological to formulate the specific treatment plan, for the realization of individualized treatment of various diseases to provide valuable information.But with the progress of modern science and technology, modern medicine dependence on medical instruments are too serious, traditional ways are gradually forgotten.If the machine depends on the instrument test results too serious which don’t combined with the actual diagnosis, the cause of misdiagnosis, so we should pay attention to the overall analysis of diseases and systematic diagnosis and examination, use of the overall treatment concept traced back to find the cause of Traditional Chinese Medicine, finally decide to select a best treatment plan.We should use the dialectical attitude to look at the precise medical. Not blindly requirements according to the road of precision medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine to go, to shine in himself field, form of self characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Can learn some of the advantages of accurate concept, the good and rejecting the bad, hope the Traditional Chinese Medicine in the modern environment more walk more far.

  14. Parental Monitoring, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Adolescents' Trust in Their Parents in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhua Ying

    Full Text Available Trust is an important aspect of interpersonal relationships, but little is known about adolescents' interpersonal trust. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescents' trust in their parents in China.Data in this study were collected as part of the cross-sectional study of children in China. 3349 adolescents (female 48.6%, age range of 12-15 years were randomly selected from 35 secondary schools in April, 2009 and administered to the Adolescent Interpersonal Trust Scale, the Parental Monitoring Scale, and the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale.Adolescents' trust in their parents was positively related to parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication. Furthermore, parent-adolescent communication mediated the association between parental monitoring and adolescents' trust in their parents. The mediation model fit data of both genders and three age groups equally well.Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication play an importance role in fostering adolescents' trust in their parents.

  15. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the adolescents' and young adults' perspectives. (United States)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten


    When suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF), a number of problems may arise during adolescence; for example, poor adherence. The problems may be attributed to the adolescent being insufficiently prepared for adult life. Research on different ways of parenting adolescents with CF and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents' adherence to treatment is still limited. The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Sixteen Danish adolescents with CF, aged 14-25, participated in the study. Two focus group interviews were carried out, one for 14-18-year-olds and one for 19-25-year-olds. Individual interviews were conducted, with three subjects. Using interpretive description strategy, a secondary analysis of the interview data was conducted. The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally, the adolescents noted that meeting other parents may be beneficial for the parents. The findings of this study suggest that adolescents and young adults with CF want their parents to be educated about how to handle adolescents with CF and thereby sufficiently prepare them for adult life.

  16. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence? (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia


    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  17. Personalized medicine: a confluence of traditional and contemporary medicine. (United States)

    Jafari, Samineh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Saeidnia, Soodabeh


    Traditional systems of medicine have attained great popularity among patients in recent years. Success of this system in the treatment of disease warrants consideration, particularly in cases for which conventional medicine has been insufficient. This study investigates the similarities in principles and approaches of 3 traditional systems and explores whether conventional medicine is able to exploit the advantages of traditional systems. This study first identifies and explores the advantages of 3 well-known systems-traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), ayurveda, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-that are similar in their basic principles and methods. Second, it clarifies whether and how conventional medicine could exploit the advantages of traditional systems as it modernizes, to become more personalized. Finally, this study investigates the possibility that conventional medicine could benefit from traditional typology to improve its personalization. The acknowledgment of the unity of humans and nature, applying rational methods, and personalized approaches is fundamentally similar in the 3 systems. Additionally, they all promote the holistic view that health is harmony and disease is disharmony of the body. Other similarities include their recognition of the unique nature of every person and their categorization of people into different body types. Although conventional medicine has mostly failed to incorporate the advantages of traditional medicine, its integration with traditional medicine is achievable. For instance, exploiting traditional typologies in genomic and other studies may facilitate personalization of conventional medicine. From its review, the research team concludes that prospects are bright for the integration of traditional and conventional medicines and, consequently, for a dramatic improvement in health systems.

  18. Self-Care Strategies among Chinese Adolescent Girls with Dysmenorrhea: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Lam, Lai Wah


    Little is known about how Chinese adolescent girls manage dysmenorrhea. This study aims to explore self-care strategies among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. The study uses a mixed methods design with two phases: a cross-sectional survey in phase I and semistructured interviews in phase II. This paper reports phase II. In line with the phase I findings, 28 adolescent girls with different characteristics (high or low levels of self-care behavior and pain intensity, who did or did not self-medicate, and who had or had not received menstrual education) were recruited for interviews. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Four categories emerged from the data: lifestyle changes, symptom management, communicating dysmenorrhea with others, and seeking medical advice. Girls selected their diets carefully and reduced physical activity during menstruation to avoid aggravating symptoms. Heat therapy commonly was employed for symptom management. A few girls self-medicated to obtain immediate relief from pain, but the majority expressed reservations about using medication because they worried about dependence and side effects. Some girls communicated dysmenorrhea with their family and friends, but the majority did not seek medical advice. The present study showed that girls employed various self-care strategies for dysmenorrhea, including some strategies stemming from traditional Chinese medicine. The findings revealed menstrual etiquette among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea, and demonstrated that self-medication was not part of most girls' self-care. Understanding the self-care strategies of these girls is important, as it can help nurses develop a culturally-specific intervention to promote self-care among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethnoveterinary Medicine: The prospects of integrating medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants products are part of the natural products that have been in use in traditional medicine and also a source of novel drugs. Therefore, the use of medicinal plant products would be a rational alternative to synthetic drugs. Ethnobotanical surveys carried out in many parts of Kenya have revealed a lot of plants ...

  20. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept. (United States)

    Deković, M; Meeus, W


    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.

  1. Game on… girls: associations between co-playing video games and adolescent behavioral and family outcomes. (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Stockdale, Laura; Day, Randal D


    Video game use has been associated with several behavioral and health outcomes for adolescents. The aim of the current study was to assess the relationship between parental co-play of video games and behavioral and family outcomes. Participants consisted of 287 adolescents and their parents who completed a number of video game-, behavioral-, and family-related questionnaires as part of a wider study. Most constructs included child, mother, and father reports. At the bivariate level, time spent playing video games was associated with several negative outcomes, including heightened internalizing and aggressive behavior and lowered prosocial behavior. However, co-playing video games with parents was associated with decreased levels of internalizing and aggressive behaviors, and heightened prosocial behavior for girls only. Co-playing video games was also marginally related to parent-child connectedness for girls, even after controlling for age-inappropriate games played with parents. This is the first study to show positive associations for co-playing video games between girls and their parents. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical activity and its related motivational attributes in adolescents with different BMI. (United States)

    Hwang, J; Kim, Y H


    A number of obesity studies have been focused on identifying the relationships between socioeconomic status and physical activity involvement. In behavioral medicine, the limited data are available on obese people's physical activity and its related psychological predictors based on psychological theories. To identify the differences in physical activity and its related motivational attributes among normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and to find the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) constructs in predicting physical activity. One thousand seventy-one students ranging from seventh to ninth grades were randomly selected from three junior high schools in Seoul (359 normal weight students, 468 overweight students, and 244 obese students). A Korean version of Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire were applied to measure the participants' motivational attributes and physical activity. Overweight and obese adolescents showed higher scores on amotivation and externally motivated regulations for physical activity than their normal weight counterparts. Internal regulation was more significant for physical activity in normal weight adolescent. However, there was no difference in physical activity among the three groups. Additionally, the findings identified that BMI and the SDT constructs were significant to explain physical activity. This study offers fundamental knowledge in gaining a clearer understanding of the types of motivation most likely to contribute to the initiation and promotion of physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents.

  3. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim


    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  4. Herbal Medicines: from Traditional Medicine to Modern Experimental Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Rasoulian


    Full Text Available Academic writings indicate that the medicinal use of plants dates back to 4000 - 5000 B.C. (1. Utilization of medicinal herbs has indeed a long history not only in human's life, but also in animals and there are some interesting evidences about the animals' self-medication, in both the prevention and treatment of diseases (2-5. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the importance of traditional medicines and created strategies, guidelines and standards for botanical medicines (6, 7. A significant part of those traditional text dealing with medicine, which were appreciated by ancient scientific communities worldwide, such as The Canon of Medicine by Persian physician–philosopher Ibn Sina (or Avicenna, 980 to 1032 AD, is allocated to herbal medicines. The Canon explores nearly 500 medicinal plants and herbal drugs. It should be noted that this book was used as a medical textbook in Europe until the 17th century AD (8, 9. Although there are important evidences about using some kinds of experimental approaches in traditional medicine (8, the efficacy of such approaches is in doubt because it is generally agreed that they might have been part of physicians' personal experiences. Not only the demand for herbal drugs is growing in developing countries, but also there are some evidences that consumers in developed countries are becoming disillusioned with modern healthcare; hence, the demand for traditional alternatives including herbal medicines is increasing in developing countries (10. On the one hand, the increased interest in herbal medicines throughout the world (10, 11, on the other hand, the need for direct empirical evidence about the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the proper statistical society with the appropriate number and method, denote the significance of new studies about medicinal plants and publishing their results. Herbal Medicines Journal (eISSN: 2538-2144 reports valuable research results for researchers all

  5. Network pharmacology of medicinal attributes and functions of Chinese herbal medicines: (IV Classification and network analysis of medicinal functions of Chinese herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang


    Full Text Available In present study I used the data from CHM-DATA, the interactive database of 1127 Chinese herbal medicines with 78 medicinal functions (attributes. The relational network for medicinal functions of Chinese herbal medicines was constructed using my earlier data and methods. Results of network analysis showed that the network is a scale-free complex network at the significance level of alpha=0.01. It was demonstrated that Clear away heat, Detoxification, Remove lung-heat or nourish lung, Promote secretion of saliva or body, Relieve pain, Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, Nourish or warm spleen / stomach / Qi, and Dispel endogenous wind, are the most influential medicinal functions. Seven main modules, corresponding links and module functions were identified and three of them were (Clear away heat, Detoxification, Relieve pain, Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, (Loosen the bowels, Moisten dryness, Tonify blood, Nourish essential fluid (Yin, Inhibit or break energy flow (Qi, and (Relieve external syndrome, Induce perspiration, Relieve muscular spasm, Expose exthanthema or promote eruption. PCA of 78 medicinal functions demonstrated that the medicinal functions 1-50 accounted for 79% of the total variance. There were not absolutely significant components and medicinal functions. The 78 components from PCA were substantially 78 independent and comprehensive medicinal functions. Major medicinal functions for every component can be simply determined by their importance and contribution coefficients in the component. New medicinal definition for some the most important principal components were given. Category characteristics of medicinal functions were described. At a certain level, for example, the medicinal functions -Consolidate or warm kidney, -Whet the appetite or reinforce stomach, Cool blood, -Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, -Nourish or warm spleen / stomach / Qi, Clear away heat, Detoxification, and Dispel endogenous cold, are the

  6. Spirituality in adolescent patients. (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Wratchford, Dale


    Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, represents a time of rapid biological, neurocognitive, and psychosocial changes. These changes have important implications for the development and evolution of adolescent spirituality, particularly for adolescents with chronic or life-limiting illnesses. To contribute positively to adolescent spiritual formation, palliative care teams benefit from understanding the normative changes expected to occur during adolescence. This paper provides a narrative review of adolescent spirituality while recognizing the role of religious, familial, and cultural influences on spiritual development during the teenage years. By giving explicit attention to the contextual norms surrounding adolescence and still recognizing each adolescent-aged patient as unique, palliative care teams can help adolescents transition toward meaningful and sustainable spiritual growth. This paper reviews the clinical and research implications relevant to integrating adolescent spiritual health as part of comprehensive palliative care.

  7. ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and information sources: perspectives from a community sample of adolescents and their parents. (United States)

    Bussing, Regina; Zima, Bonnie T; Mason, Dana M; Meyer, Johanna M; White, Kimberly; Garvan, Cynthia W


    The chronic illness model advocates for psychoeducation within a collaborative care model to enhance outcomes. To inform psychoeducational approaches for ADHD, this study describes parent and adolescent knowledge, perceptions, and information sources and explores how these vary by sociodemographic characteristics, ADHD risk, and past child mental health service use. Parents and adolescents were assessed 7.7 years after initial school district screening for ADHD risk. The study sample included 374 adolescents (56% high and 44% low ADHD risk) aged, on average, 15.4 (standard deviation = 1.8) years, and 36% were African American. Survey questions assessed ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and cues to action and elicited used and preferred information sources. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine potential independent predictors of ADHD knowledge. McNemar tests compared information source utilization against preference. Despite relatively high self-rated ADHD familiarity, misperceptions among parents and adolescents were common, including a sugar etiology (25% and 27%, respectively) and medication overuse (85% and 67%, respectively). African American respondents expressed less ADHD awareness and greater belief in sugar etiology than Caucasians. Parents used a wide range of ADHD information sources, whereas adolescents relied on social network members and teachers/school. However, parents and adolescents expressed similar strong preferences for the Internet (49% and 51%, respectively) and doctor (40% and 27%, respectively) as ADHD information sources. Culturally appropriate psychoeducational strategies are needed that combine doctor-provided ADHD information with reputable Internet sources. Despite time limitations during patient visits, both parents and teens place high priority on receiving information from their doctor. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: What Are the Reasons for Nonvaccination Among U.S. Adolescents? (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Rosen, Brittany L; Vamos, Cheryl A; Kadono, Mika; Daley, Ellen M


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for 11- to 12-year-old U.S. adolescents. Unfortunately, HPV vaccine rates have been suboptimal. Parents are key decision agents regarding their adolescents' health; thus, it is necessary to understand their reasons for not vaccinating their adolescents. The purpose of this study was to compare parents' primary reasons for non-HPV vaccination by calendar year, sex of the child, and level of vaccine hesitancy. The National Immunization Survey-Teen 2012-2015 was subset to parents who did not intend for their adolescent to receive the HPV vaccine in the next 12 months (N = 59,897). Survey-weighted logistic regression models assessed the impact of year, sex, and level of hesitancy on main reasons for nonvaccination. Not receiving a recommendation and lack of knowledge were significantly more likely to be the reasons for nonvaccination in 2012 and 2013 compared with 2015. The following reasons were significantly less likely to be reported for females compared with males: not recommended (odds ratio [OR] = .63, 95% confidence interval [CI], .58-.69) and lack of knowledge (OR = .86, 95% CI, .79-.94). In contrast, parents of females were more likely to state they were concerned about safety and side effects (OR = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.98-2.41). Differences in reasons for nonvaccination were observed between those who were unlikely and unsure regarding receiving the HPV vaccine. Findings indicate that U.S. parental attitudes about HPV vaccination have changed over time and reasons for nonvaccination vary based on the sex of the adolescent and the level of hesitancy of the parent. This information can shape how providers respond to parental concerns and HPV vaccine hesitancy. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and predictors of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in adolescent ballet dancers. (United States)

    Longworth, Brooke; Fary, Robyn; Hopper, Diana


    To determine any differences between the prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in ballet dancers who are girls compared with age-matched nondancers, and to establish if any relations exist between the presence of scoliosis and generalized joint hypermobility, age of menarche, body mass index (BMI), and the number of hours of dance training per week. Cross-sectional, matched pair study. Dance school. Dancers (n=30) between the ages of 9 and 16 years were recruited from a certified dance school in Western Australia; each dancer provided a consenting age-matched nondancer (n=30). Not applicable. Measurements were taken for angle of trunk rotation using a scoliometer (presence of scoliosis) and for height and weight to produce generalized joint hypermobility using Beighton criteria and an age-adjusted BMI, respectively. A subjective questionnaire regarding age of menarche and participation in dance and other sports was completed. Thirty percent of dancers tested positive for scoliosis compared with 3% of nondancers. Odds ratio calculations suggest that dancers were 12.4 times more likely to have scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. There was a higher rate of hypermobility in the dancer group (70%) compared with the nondancers (3%); however, there were no statistically significant relations between scoliosis and hypermobility, age of menarche, BMI, or hours of dance per week. Adolescent dancers, similar to adult dancers, are at significantly higher risk of developing scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. Vigilant screening and improved education of dance teachers and parents of dance students may be beneficial in earlier detection and, consequently, reducing the risk of requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnin R


    Full Text Available Ran Jinnin,1 Yasumasa Okamoto,1 Koki Takagaki,1 Yoshiko Nishiyama,1 Takanao Yamamura,1 Yuri Okamoto,2 Yoshie Miyake,2 Yoshitake Takebayashi,3 Keisuke Tanaka,4 Yoshinori Sugiura,5 Haruki Shimoda,6 Norito Kawakami,6 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Shigeto Yamawaki1 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 2Health Service Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan; 4Graduated School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan; 5Graduated School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 6Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year.Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50, who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II. We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling.Results: First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained

  11. Effects of a Behavioral Sleep Medicine Intervention on Trauma Symptoms in Adolescents Recently Treated for Substance Abuse (United States)

    Stevens, Sally; Haynes, Patricia L.; Ruiz, Bridget; Bootzin, Richard R.


    This study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were…

  12. Chinese American adolescents: perceived parenting styles and adolescents' psychosocial health. (United States)

    Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C


    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Topical Yunnan Baiyao administration as an adjunctive therapy for bleeding complications in adolescents with advanced cancer. (United States)

    Ladas, E J; Karlik, J B; Rooney, D; Taromina, K; Ndao, D H; Granowetter, L; Kelly, K M


    Yunnan Baiyao (White Medicine from Yunnan, YNB) is a Chinese herbal medicinal powder used to stop bleeding and improve circulation in traumatic injuries. We describe the use of YNB in adolescents with cancer as an adjunct to uncontrolled bleeding in the palliative care setting. Through a retrospective chart review of all patients receiving integrative medicine consultations at the Integrative Therapies Program at Columbia University from January 1, 2007 to January 31, 2012, we describe the outcome of patients treated with YNB for management of uncontrolled bleeding. Four patients were identified who received topical YNB for uncontrolled bleeding; patients included two males and two females with diagnoses of solid tumors (n = 3) and Burkitt's lymphoma (n = 1). Mean age was 15.5 years (range 15-17). Fifty percent had life-threatening bleeding from the tumor site and 50 % experienced uncontrollable epistaxis. All patients received preceding therapy with packed red blood cells and platelet transfusions, topical thrombin, and oral aminocaproic acid. Two patients used YNB in the inpatient setting, and all four patients used YNB as outpatients. In all patients, bleeding control improved with the addition of YNB to conventional hemostatic interventions. Two patients using YNB in their home reported control of bleeding episodes. There were no adverse events reported. YNB may be an efficacious agent for uncontrolled bleeding in conjunction with conventional hemostatic agents in adolescents with advanced cancer. It is well accepted by patients. YNB may be especially valuable in the outpatient setting to prevent the recurrence of hemorrhage.

  14. Are patients who use alternative medicine dissatisfied with orthodox medicine? (United States)

    Donnelly, W J; Spykerboer, J E; Thong, Y H


    Approximately 45% of asthmatic families and 47% of non-asthmatic families had consulted an alternative-medicine practitioner at some time. The most popular form of alternative medicine was chiropractic (21.1% and 26.4%, respectively), followed by homoeopathy/naturopathy (18.8% and 12.7%, respectively), acupuncture (9.4% and 10.9%, respectively), and herbal medicine (4.7% and 6.4%, respectively), while the remainder (20.3% and 11.8% respectively) was distributed among iridology, osteopathy, hypnosis, faith healing and megavitamin therapy. More families were satisfied with orthodox medicine (87.1% and 93.6%, respectively) than with alternative medicine (84.2% and 75.1%, respectively). Crosstabulation analysis of pooled data both from asthma and from non-asthma groups showed that 76.4% were satisfied both with orthodox and with alternative medicine, and 16.4% were satisfied with orthodox, but not with alternative, medicine. In contrast, only 2.7% were dissatisfied with orthodox medicine and satisfied with alternative medicine (chi2 = 9.33; P less than 0.01). These findings do not support the view that patients who use alternative medicine are those who are disgruntled with orthodox medicine.

  15. Medicines by Design (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A Medicine's Life Inside ... hunt for drugs of the future. Medicines By Design in PDF | E-PUB Tell Us What You ...

  16. General Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  17. Victimization experiences of adolescents in Malaysia. (United States)

    Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin


    There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekokotla MA


    Full Text Available Morongwe Annah Sekokotla,1 Nandu Goswami,2 Constance Rufaro Sewani-Rusike,1 Jehu Erapu Iputo,3 Benedicta Ngwenchi Nkeh-Chungag4 1Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa; 2Gravitational Physiology and Medicine Research Unit, Institute of Physiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 3Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, 4Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, defined as the clustering of three of five risk factors (hypertension, obesity, triglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, is being increasingly mentioned among children and adolescents despite there being no consensus on how it should be defined in this set of population. Furthermore, very few studies have focused on MetS in children and adolescents in sub-Saharan populations. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the prevalence of the MetS and contributing risk in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa.Research design and methods: Four hundred and ten adolescents (age range: 13–18 years, both sexes were recruited into this cross-sectional study. In addition to a lifestyle questionnaire being administered, anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumferences were carried out for each participant. Fasting venous blood was collected for lipid profile and blood glucose assessments. Blood pressure was also measured. MetS was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents.Results: Complete data sets were collected from 371 participants. Females showed an elevation in the risk factors for MetS. Of the 371 participants, 40.2% were overweight/obese (47.5% females; 22.5% males. MetS was diagnosed in 3.1% female participants compared with 6.0% in male participants.Conclusions: More risk

  19. System of actions for health promotion to contribute to the sexual education in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez Martínez


    Full Text Available A descriptive longitudinal study was made with the aim of designing a system of actions to contribute to the promotion of sexual education in adolescents in Cabaiguan Municipality, period from 2009 until the first half of 2013. Population was constituted by 203 pregnant adolescents who entered into the palace of motherhood, coinciding with the sample. Data were collected in the book of hospital and impact surveys to diagnose the factors that influence in the appearances of teenage pregnancy. Interview was conducted to comprehensively Specialists General Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialists know their views and proposals on the subject. As a result of the work it confirms that there are deficiencies in the information that have teenagers about this theme which leads the author to the design of actions for promoting health in the municipality, to improve this situation.

  20. Echocardiographic findings in children and adolescents with heart murmurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Yazdanparast


    Full Text Available Background: Heart disease in infants and children may often lead to rapid decompensation. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential because modern medicine and surgery can cure many heart defects. A cardiac murmur can be the first sign of a serious structural cardiac disease. Abnormal auscultatory findings, usually murmurs, are the most common reason for referral to the pediatric cardiologist. Methods: In a case series study, children and adolescents with heart murmurs, referred to or admitted at Fatemeh Zahra (S Hospital of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, were evaluated between 2001 and 2006. The age range of participants was from birth to 18 years old. Chest x-ray, ECG, and echocardiography were done for them in addition to history taking and physical examination. Results: A total of 715 (56.2% male and 43.8% female children and adolescents were included in our study (33.6% adolescents, 27.4% neonates, 22.7% infants and 16.3% children. A total of 59% of the cases had structural heart defects (organic, 27.3% had functional murmurs, and 13.7 % had acquired diseases. The most prevalent malformations were ventricular septal defects (26.2%, tetrology of Fallot (9.1%, and patent ductus arteriosus (8.7% 23.3% of participants had growth retardation. Conclusion: Heart murmur may be the first sign of an underlying heart disease, and timely referral of children with a murmur for echocardiography is essential for diagnosis.

  1. Parental influences on adolescent fruit consumption: the role of adolescent self-efficacy. (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David


    The aims of this study were to examine whether adolescent self-efficacy mediates the associations between parental control, perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption using a theoretically derived explanatory model. Data were drawn from a community-based sample of 1606 adolescents in Years 7 and 9 of secondary school and their parents, from Victoria, Australia. Adolescents completed a web-based survey assessing their fruit consumption and self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption. Parents completed a survey delivered via mail assessing parental control, perceptions and barriers to buying fruit and vegetables. Adolescent self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption mediated the positive associations between parental control and perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and adolescent fruit consumption. Furthermore, adolescent self-efficacy mediated the negative association between parental barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption. The importance of explicating the mechanisms through which parental factors influence adolescent fruit consumption not only relates to the advancement of scientific knowledge but also offers potential avenues for intervention. Future research should assess the effectiveness of methods to increase adolescent fruit consumption by focussing on both improving adolescents' dietary self-efficacy and on targeting parental control, perceptions and barriers.

  2. Friends' Alcohol-Related Social Networking Site Activity Predicts Escalations in Adolescent Drinking: Mediation by Peer Norms. (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, W Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M; Jackson, Kristina M


    Adolescents' increased use of social networking sites (SNS) coincides with a developmental period of heightened risk for alcohol use initiation. However, little is known regarding associations between adolescents' SNS use and drinking initiation nor the mechanisms of this association. This study examined longitudinal associations among adolescents' exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS postings, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms, and initiation of drinking behaviors. Participants were 658 high-school students who reported on posting of alcohol-related SNS content by self and friends, alcohol-related injunctive norms, and other developmental risk factors for alcohol use at two time points, 1 year apart. Participants also reported on initiation of three drinking behaviors: consuming a full drink, becoming drunk, and heavy episodic drinking (three or more drinks per occasion). Probit regression analyses were used to predict initiation of drinking behaviors from exposure to alcohol-related SNS content. Path analyses examined mediation of this association by peer injunctive norms. Exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS content predicted adolescents' initiation of drinking and heavy episodic drinking 1 year later, controlling for demographic and known developmental risk factors for alcohol use (i.e., parental monitoring and peer orientation). In addition, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms statistically mediated the relationship between alcohol-related SNS exposure and each drinking milestone. Results suggest that social media plays a unique role in contributing to peer influence processes surrounding alcohol use and highlight the need for future investigative and preventive efforts to account for adolescents' changing social environments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sport club participation of adolescents with asthma: maternal factors and adolescent cognitions. (United States)

    Tiggelman, Dana; van de Ven, Monique O M; van Schayck, Onno C P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E


    Sport participation is especially important for patients with asthma in that it decreases psychosocial and physiological problems associated with inactivity. However, adolescents with asthma seem to participate less in sports compared to their non-asthmatic peers. The current study tested the direct associations between maternal sport-specific factors and sport club participation of early adolescents with asthma and the indirect effect through adolescent's sport-specific cognitions. During home visits, 261 adolescents (aged 10-15) completed questionnaires about self-efficacy, beliefs regarding sport participation, and their actual sport club participation. Their mothers reported their sport-specific support, beliefs about offspring's and own sport participation, their own levels of physical activity, and their self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports. Path analyses were used to examine the direct and indirect associations of maternal sport-specific factors with adolescents sport club participation via adolescent sport-specific cognitions. Analyses showed that maternal sport-specific support (β = 0.20, P = 0.007) and self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports (β = 0.20, P = 0.027) related positively to adolescents' sport club participation. Adolescents' self-efficacy (indirect effect = 0.09, SE = 3.01, P adolescents' participation in sport clubs. Maternal sport-specific factors related to adolescents' sport club participation directly and indirectly through adolescents' sport-specific cognitions. Intervention programs should focus on maternal sport-specific support and self-efficacy and adolescents' self-efficacy to increase sport participation of adolescents with asthma. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [The impact of some bad habits and environmental factors on the somatic status of male adolescents]. (United States)

    Lalić, Hrvoje; Kalebota, Natasa; Kabalin, Milena


    The aim of the study was to investigate whether some bad habits of sedentary lifestyle influence the occurrence of diagnoses in male adolescents, divided according to their environment into urban, rural and and island groups. A total of 437 male adolescents underwent physical examination and functional diagnostic tests at Occupational Medicine Clinic in Rijeka, in order to evaluate their fitness for military service. The method of physical examination and anthropologic measurements was used. The results were analyzed by the Stat Soft, Statistics 6.0 software. Pearson chi-squared-test test and correlation matrices were used. The results showed obesity to be present in a relatively high percentage of subjects from urban area (10.94%) and rural area (13.19%), whereas asthenia was more pronounced in islanders (8.69%), yielding a statistically significant between-group difference (p<0.05). In contrast to asthenia, the islanders had the lowest percentage of flatfoot, with a significant difference from the two other groups (p<0.05). Refraction errors, primarily myopia, were not influenced by the place of residence. The incidence of myopia in all three groups was slightly over 20%. Contrary to our expectation, bronchial asthma was most common in the islanders (5.43%), however, there data could not be considered representative because of the rather big rate of migration from the inland to prevent relapses of respiratory diseases. The incidence of mild kyphoscoliosis ranged from 5.55% in the subjectss from rural settings up to 11.95% in the islanders, without a statistically significant between-group difference. It is difficult to identify the causes of differences in body weight among adolescents from urban, rural and island settings. It is not so easy to criticize the former for predominantly sedentary life, watching TV, video or Internet. Physical activity cannot be readily performed in towns because of the increasing presence of pollutants in the atmosphere. The

  5. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.


    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  6. Parent abuse by adolescents with first-episode psychosis in Egypt. (United States)

    Fawzi, Mounir H; Fawzi, Mohab M; Fouad, Amira A


    To determine the rate of parent abuse in a sample of Egyptian adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and to identify the association between parent abuse and a number of sociodemographic and clinical factors of interest in these patients. As yet, the abuse of parents by their children, especially mentally ill children, in contrast to child abuse, has remained a research taboo. In a cross-sectional study in Zagazig (Egypt), a sample of 150 adolescent outpatients (82 boys; 68 girls), presenting with FEP, was assessed for the occurrence of parent abuse using both interview and questionnaire methods (Abused Parent Questionnaire, APQ). Univariate analyses were used to compare parent abusers and nonabusers along a number of sociodemographic and clinical variables. Variables that were associated with parent abuse were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis model. We found that 61 patients (40.7%) perpetrated abuse against parents, mostly mothers (55/61; 90.2%). Five significant risk factors for parent abuse were identified by multivariate analysis. These were parent's female gender (95% CI = 7.82-45.56), patient's male gender (95% CI = 3.15-37.14), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form total score (95% CI = 1.48-14.91), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive subscale score (95% CI = 1.26-9.59), and duration of untreated psychosis (95% CI = 1.01-4.72). The study indicates that parent abuse, particularly mother abuse, in untreated adolescents with FEP is an issue calling for increased awareness of the problem. The findings may have important implications for parental psychoeducation and support, and earlier access to treatment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Special considerations for adolescent athletic and asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuestenfeld JC


    Full Text Available Jan C Wuestenfeld,1,2 Bernd Wolfarth1,21Department of Preventive and Rehabilitative Sports Medicine, Technical University Munich (TUM, Munich, Germany; 2Institute for Applied Training Science (IAT, Leipzig, GermanyAbstract: Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with bronchial hyperresponsiveness and variable bronchoconstriction, and is one of the most common diseases in childhood and adolescence. Exercise-induced asthma-like symptoms and asthma are also frequently seen in highly trained athletes. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB are found in 8%–10% of healthy school-aged children and in 35% of children with asthma. Highly increased ventilation, inhalation of cold, dry air and air pollutants (eg, chlorine are thought to be important triggers for EIA and EIB. EIA is often experienced concurrently with vocal cord dysfunction, which needs to be considered during the differential diagnosis. The pharmacological treatment of EIA is similar to the treatment of asthma in nonexercising adolescents. The therapy is based on anti-inflammatory drugs (eg, inhaled glucocorticosteroids and bronchodilators (eg, β2-agonists. The treatment of EIB is comparable to the treatment of EIA and leukotriene modifiers offer a new and promising treatment option, particularly in EIB. Generally, athletes may not use β2-agonists according to the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA. However, the WADA list contains specific β2-agonistic substances that are permitted to be used by inhalation.Keywords: exercise-induced asthma, exercise-induced bronchospasm, adolescents, asthma, athletes

  8. Does adolescents' religiousness moderate links between harsh parenting and adolescent substance use? (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher J; Longo, Gregory S


    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents' psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (n = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control.

  9. Atypical major depressive episode as initial presentation of intracranial germinoma in a male adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YT


    Full Text Available Yi-Ting Chen,1,3,4 Kuan-Pin Su,2–5 Jane Pei-Chen Chang2–5 1Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Neural and Cognitive Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: A 17-year-old adolescent boy presented with atypical major depressive episode (MDE without specific focal neurological signs for 6 months. He had a diagnosis of intra­cranial germinoma, and the atypical MDE symptoms subsided after the operation. However, he had a relapse of atypical MDE 7 months after the first surgery. His mood and binge eating symptoms subsided, but intractable body weight gain only partially improved after treatment. When encountering manifestations of depression with atypical features, especially with binge eating symptoms in male children and adolescents, with early onset age, no family history, and prolonged depressive episodes, clinicians should consider not only mood disorders including bipolar spectrum disorders but also organic brain lesions such as intracranial germinoma. Keywords: intracranial germinoma, atypical major depressive episode, binge eating behavior, body weight gain

  10. [Suicide in children and adolescents - a 13-year study with 78 cases]. (United States)

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Albowitz, Marius; Oddo, Silvia; Toennes, Stefan W; Schmidt, Peter H; Freitag, Christine M; Kettner, Mattias


    Updated and regional data about the circumstances of death and the psychosocial backgrounds of suicides can be helpful for improving suicide-preventive strategies in childhood and adolescence. All known cases of completed suicide in the period from 1996 to 2008 in persons ≤ 21 years of age from the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Frankfurt/Main were analysed in a retrospective study. We included 78 cases and matched them with a comparative sample of 1,797 adult suicides of persons > 21 years of age. Within the chosen period there was a 44 % decrease in incidence of suicide in the group of ≤ 21-year-olds. The fraction of incarcerated persons in this group was 8.0 % compared to 2.56 % in the adult group. Differences from suicide in adulthood were also demonstrated in terms of suicide-related substance abuse (less detection of alcohol, more frequent detection of illicit drugs) and choice of methods (more deaths by being hit by a train). Incarcerated adolescents are an important risk group for suicidal tendency and need increased, well-directed preventive measures. Clinical adolescent psychiatry should pay special attention to the indications in this study of an age-dependent association of drug use in suicide.

  11. Primary hypertension and special aspects of hypertension in older children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis D


    Full Text Available Demetrius Ellis, Yosuke MiyashitaChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USAAbstract: The prevalence of hypertension has increased at an accelerated rate in older children and adolescents. This has raised great concern about premature development of cardiovascular disease, which has major long-term health and financial implications. While obesity and sedentary habits largely explain this phenomenon, there are other social and cultural influences that may unmask genetic susceptibility to hypertension in the pediatric population. While it is essential to exclude numerous causes of secondary hypertension in every child, these disorders are not discussed in this review. Rather, the aim of this review is to familiarize pediatricians with casual and ambulatory blood pressure measurement, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of several common conditions that play a role in the development of hypertension in children and adolescents. Besides primary hypertension and obesity-related hypertension, emphasis is given to epidemiology, measurement of blood pressure, including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, hypertension associated with drug use, teenage pregnancy, and video and computer games. Lastly, because pediatricians are increasingly confronted with special issues concerning the management of the hypertensive athlete, this topic is also addressed.Keywords: hypertension, adolescents, obesity, drugs, pregnancy, athletes

  12. Longitudinal spillover effects of conflict resolution styles between adolescent-parent relationships and adolescent friendships. (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Vandervalk, Inge E; De Goede, Irene H A; Meeus, Wim H J


    This study longitudinally investigated spillover effects of conflict resolution styles in adolescent-parent relationships and adolescent friendships. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles with parents and best friends were completed by adolescents from two age cohorts: 559 early adolescents (mean age 13.4) and 327 middle adolescents (mean age 17.7). Path analyses on two waves, with a three-year interval, indicated that in the early-to-middle adolescent group positive problem solving and conflict engagement spilled over from adolescent-parent relationships to adolescent friendships and not from adolescent friendships to adolescent-parent relationships. In the middle-to-late adolescent group, we found bidirectional spillover effects for these two conflict resolution styles. For withdrawal, we found bidirectional spillover effects in both cohorts. This study showed that both parents and friends set the stage for exercising and learning conflict resolution styles and thereby shape adolescents' future conflict behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. The Association Between Sexual Health and Physical, Mental, and Social Health in Adolescent Women. (United States)

    Hensel, Devon J; Nance, Jennifer; Fortenberry, J Dennis


    Developmental models link sexual well-being to physical, mental/emotional, and social well-being, yet little empirical literature evaluates these relationships in adolescents. Better understanding of how and when sexuality complements other aspects of health may yield important points to enhance existing health education and prevention efforts. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships and sexual behavior among adolescent women (N = 387; 14-17 years at enrollment). Sexual health data were drawn from quarterly partner-specific interviews and were linked to physical, mental/emotional, and social health information in annual questionnaires. Random intercept, mixed effects linear, ordinal logistic, or binary logistic regression were used to estimate the influence of sexual health on health and well-being outcomes (Stata, v.23, StataCorp, College Station, TX). All models controlled for participant age and race/ethnicity. Higher sexual health was significantly associated with less frequent nicotine and substance use, lower self-reported depression, lower thrill seeking, higher self-esteem, having fewer friends who use substances, higher religiosity, better social integration, lower frequency of delinquent behavior and crime, and more frequent community group membership. Sexual health was not associated with the number of friends who used cigarettes. Positive sexually related experiences in romantic relationships during adolescence may complement physical, mental/emotional, and social health. Addressing specific aspects of healthy sexual development during clinical encounters could dually help primary prevention and health education address other common adolescent health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Islamic medicine and evolutionary medicine: a comparative analysis. (United States)

    Saniotis, Arthur


    The advent of evolutionary medicine in the last two decades has provided new insights into the causes of human disease and possible preventative strategies. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is that it follows a multi-disciplinary approach. Such an approach is vital to future biomedicine as it enables for the infiltration of new ideas. Although evolutionary medicine uses Darwinian evolution as a heuristic for understanding human beings' susceptibility to disease, this is not necessarily in conflict with Islamic medicine. It should be noted that current evolutionary theory was first expounded by various Muslim scientists such as al-Jāḥiẓ, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Ibn Maskawayh centuries before Darwin and Wallace. In this way, evolution should not be viewed as being totally antithetical to Islam. This article provides a comparative overview of Islamic medicine and Evolutionary medicine as well as drawing points of comparison between the two approaches which enables their possible future integration.

  15. Adolescent murderers. (United States)

    Labelle, A; Bradford, J M; Bourget, D; Jones, B; Carmichael, M


    Clinical, developmental and environmental factors were retrospectively studied in 14 adolescent murderers who had been referred to a forensic psychiatric clinic over an 11 year period. Results of these analyses were compared with findings from previous reports. The majority of subjects came from split families. There was a greater than expected degree of psychiatric illness in the adolescents. Previous psychiatric contact, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse were common among these adolescents. A tentative profile of adolescents who are likely to commit murder can therefore be drawn up, which may suggest direction for preventive action and rehabilitation.

  16. Aerospace Medicine (United States)

    Michaud, Vince


    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  17. Differences in serum zinc levels in acutely ill and remitted adolescents and young adults with bulimia nervosa in comparison with healthy controls – a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepf FD


    Full Text Available Florian D Zepf,1,2 Pradeep Rao,1,3 Kevin Runions,3,4 Richard M Stewart,1 Julia K Moore,1,5 Janice WY Wong,1,4 Maike Linden,1,2,6 Idil Sungurtekin,7 Franziska Glass,8 Linda Gut,8 Dirk Peetz,9,10 Gudrun Hintereder,11 Michael Schaab,12 Fritz Poustka,8 Lars Wöckel8,13 1Centre and Discipline of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Western Australia, 2Specialised Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS, Department of Health in Western Australia, 3Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, Department of Health in Western Australia, 4Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, 5Paediatric Consultation-Liaison Program, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, Department of Health in Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 6Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, 7Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, 8Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 9Institute of Laboratory Medicine, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Berlin, 10Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, 11Department of Laboratory Medicine, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 12Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 13Center of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Clienia Littenheid AG, Littenheid, Switzerland Background: Research has implicated that changes in zinc (Zn metabolism may be associated with the biological underpinnings of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa. However, to date research on the role of Zn in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN is scarce.Objective: We aimed to explore serum Zn

  18. Support network of adolescents with chronic disease: adolescents' perspective. (United States)

    Kyngäs, Helvi


    The purpose of this study was to describe the support network of adolescents with a chronic disease from their own perspective. Data were collected by interviewing adolescents with asthma, epilepsy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The sample consisted of 40 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years. Interview data were examined using content analysis. Six main categories were established to describe the support network of adolescents with a chronic disease: parents, peers, school, health care providers, technology and pets. Peers were divided into two groups: fellow sufferers and peers without a chronic disease. At school, teachers, school nurses and classmates were part of the support network. Health care providers included nurses, physicians and physiotherapists. Technology was also part of the support network and included four techniques that may be used to communicate: computers, mobile telephones, television and videos. The results provided a useful insight into the social network of adolescents with chronic disease and serve to raise awareness of the problems and opinions experienced by adolescents with this condition.

  19. Community-based adolescent health services in Israel: from theory to practice. (United States)

    Wilf-Miron, Rachel; Sikron, Fabienne; Glasser, Saralee; Barell, Vita


    Despite their engagement in health-risk behaviors and their health-related concerns, adolescents have the lowest rate of health service utilization of any age group. Time constraints during routine medical encounters generally leave little opportunity for professional screening for health-risk behaviors or for discussing psychosocial problems. In addition, providers express low levels of perceived competency in areas such as sexuality, eating disorders or drug abuse. To address these needs, a walk-in Adolescent Health Service was established by the Sheba Medical Center to provide diagnosis and short-term treatment for individual adolescents, as well as counseling and support for local care providers. A three-way model of cooperation and partnership was developed and implemented. A professional and financial partnership with local authorities were established to help define the particular needs of the community's youth and to improve the ability to reach youth with special health needs. The partnership along with the main medical provider (Kupat Holim Clalit) helped define local health needs, served as a referral source of patients with unmet health needs, and improved the continuity of care. The regional medical center (Sheba Medical Center) provided supervision and consultation for the medical staff of the service, as well as a referral center for patients. It was emphasized that the service staff was intended as a professional source for the primary physician and should not be considered a rival. The core staff included a specialist in adolescent medicine, gynecologist, mental health specialist and social worker. A structured intake procedure was developed for assessing health concerns and problems of adolescents in the context of a community clinic. Findings from the first years of services showed that the first 547 female adolescents demonstrated that a majority of adolescents presented with primary complaints of a somatic nature, while one third were diagnosed

  20. Clinical Hypnosis, an Effective Mind-Body Modality for Adolescents with Behavioral and Physical Complaints. (United States)

    Sawni, Anju; Breuner, Cora Collette


    Mind-body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t'ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind-body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate the mind-body connection, leading to positive emotional and physical well-being. There are many similarities between clinical hypnosis and other mind-body/self-regulatory modalities such as visual imagery, mindfulness meditation, yoga, and biofeedback that incorporate experiential learning and mechanisms for change. They may be viewed as subtypes of the hypnotic experience and share the common experience of trance as the entrée into self-empowered change in physiologic and psychological states. Clinical hypnosis can be used by health care providers to teach adolescents coping skills to deal with a wide variety of conditions such as chronic headaches, recurrent abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, grief and bereavement, phobias, anger, family stressors, sleep disorders, or enuresis. Clinical vignettes are given to help illustrate the effectiveness of hypnosis in adolescents.

  1. Comment to: The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radtke T


    Full Text Available Thomas Radtke,1 Bruno H Knöpfli,2 Johannes H Wildhaber,3 Jürg Hammer4 1Division of Cardiovascular Prevention, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, Swiss Cardiovascular Center, Inselspital, University Hospital and University of Bern, Bern, 2Kinder und Jugendmedizin, Zurich, 3Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Fribourg, Fribourg, 4Division of Intensive Care and Pulmonology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, SwitzerlandWe note with surprise a recent paper entitled "The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents" by Karner-Rezek et al1 published in the International Journal of General Medicine concerning the effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents. We would like to take this opportunity to comment on the study findings and, in particular, address the methodological inconsistencies and ambiguities in this study.View original paper by Karner-Rezek and colleagues.

  2. Tipepidine in adolescent patients with depression: a 4 week, open-label, preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T


    Full Text Available Tsuyoshi Sasaki,1,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masumi Tachibana,1 Tsutomu Kurata,1 Hiroshi Kimura,2 Hideki Komatsu,2 Masatomo Ishikawa,2 Tadashi Hasegawa,2 Akihiro Shiina,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,2 Nobuhisa Kanahara,4 Tetsuya Shiraishi,2 Masaomi Iyo1–41Department of Child Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 4Division of Medical Treatment and Rehabilitation, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Inohana, Chiba, JapanDepression in children and adolescents is a common, recurrent, and debilitating condition associated with increased psychosocial, and medical morbidity and mortality.1The global prevalence of depression in children and adolescents is 1%–2% and 3%–8%, respectively.2 Depressive symptoms are also associated with significant functional impairment in school and the work place (often requiring legal interventions,1–5 and an increased risk for substance abuse and suicide.6–9 Clinical guidelines suggest the use of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, namely fluoxetine and escitalopram, both of which are effective with generally acceptable safety profiles in the treatment of adolescent depression.10 Additionally, combination treatment with an SSRI and psychotherapy, typically cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, has shown benefit in this cohort.10 However, caution is warranted since antidepressants therapy in children and adolescents is associated with increased rates of suicidal ideation11–13 and adverse effects, characterized by excessive emotional arousal or behavioral activation.14 These results highlight the need for new therapies in adolescent patients with depression, particularly therapies with fewer side effects.View original paper by Brent and Maalouf.

  3. Effect of weight loss on menstrual function in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome. (United States)

    Ornstein, Rollyn M; Copperman, Nancy M; Jacobson, Marc S


    To compare the effects of a hypocaloric low-fat diet with those of a very low carbohydrate diet on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and menstrual function in overweight adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Randomized pilot trial of two diets in a prospective, 12-week study. A hospital-based, academic adolescent medicine division. 24 females, age 12-22 years (mean 15.8 ± 2.2), with PCOS and a BMI above the 85(th) percentile for age (mean 35.7 ± 6.0 kg/m(2)). Nutrition counseling was given biweekly, and dietary compliance, menstrual history, and weight were recorded. WC was measured at the beginning and end of the study. Changes in weight, BMI, WC, and improvement in menstrual function over the course of the study period. 16 participants completed the study. 12 completers menstruated during the study period, 8 with regularity. The number of periods over 3 months increased from 0.6 ± 0.6 pre-treatment to 1.6 ± 1.3 post-treatment (P = 0.003). Overall, weight loss averaged 6.5% (P weight were 3.4 times more likely to have improved menstrual function (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Weight loss is feasible in adolescents with PCOS and results in significant improvements in BMI, WC, and menstrual function. Weight management may be preferable as first-line treatment in adolescents, because it targets both the menstrual dysfunction and risk factors for long-term morbidity associated with PCOS. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender differences in the association between family conflict and adolescent substance use disorders. (United States)

    Skeer, Margie R; McCormick, Marie C; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Buka, Stephen L; Gilman, Stephen E


    The objectives of this study were (1) to examine whether the association between childhood family conflict and the risk of substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence differs by gender, and (2) to determine whether anxious/depressive symptoms and conduct problems explain this association among adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from 1,421 children aged 10-16 years at the time of enrollment in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. We assessed gender differences in the association between childhood family conflict and adolescent SUDs by fitting a logistic regression model that included the interaction of gender and family conflict. We also investigated whether conduct problems and anxious/depressive symptoms explained the association between family conflict and SUDs differently for males and females through gender-specific mediation analyses. The association between childhood family conflict and SUDs in adolescence differed by gender (p = .04). Family conflict was significantly associated with SUDs among females (OR: 1.61; CI: 1.20-2.15), but not among males (OR: 1.00; CI: .76-1.32). The elevated risk of SUDs among females exposed to family conflict was partly explained by girls' conduct problems, but not by anxious/depressive symptoms. Females living in families with elevated levels of conflict were more likely to engage in acting out behaviors, which was associated with the development of SUDs. Future epidemiologic research is needed to help determine when this exposure is most problematic with respect to subsequent mental health outcomes and the most crucial time to intervene. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent. (United States)

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell


    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Mothers? human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria


    Ezenwa, Beatrice N; Balogun, Mobolanle R; Okafor, Ifeoma P


    Beatrice N Ezenwa,1 Mobolanle R Balogun,2 Ifeoma P Okafor2 1Department of Pediatrics, 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the...

  7. [Exploration of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by western medicine]. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-jing


    "Microcosmic syndrome", "treatment based on syndrome differentiation", and "combination of disease identification and syndrome differentiation" generally refer to a mode: following the syndrome if with no disease identified, following the disease if with no syndrome type differentiated. For example, Chinese medical treatment of hypertension, high blood lipids, increased transaminase, and so on candirectly use Chinese recipes, but no longer with syndrome differentiation. Clinical application of Chinese patent medicine can also obtain favorable clinical. Western doctors need not follow syndrome differentiation. The invention of artemisinin was screened from more than 40 000 kinds of compounds and herbs, but with no reference of any traditional Chinese medical theory. A lot of folk remedy and empirical recipes have obtained effective efficacy but unnecessarily with profound Chinese medical theories. Various evidences showed that disease can also be cured without syndrome differentiation. I held that it might be associated with the same mechanism of Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Any disease can be cured or alleviated by Chinese medicine is a result from its modern pharmacological effect, which is achieved by improving etiologies, and pathogeneses. I was inspired by whether we can directly use traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological effects to treat symptomatic disease. So I raised an idea of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by Western medicine, i.e., we find and use Chinese herbs with relatively effective modern pharmacological effect to treat diseases targeting at patients' clinical symptoms and signs, as well as various positive laboratory results (collectively called as microscopic dialectical indicators). More Western doctors would use it to treat disease due to omission of complicated and mysterious syndrome differentiation. This will promote extensive application and expansion of Chi- nese medicine and pharmacy, enlarge the team of

  8. Chiropractic care for paediatric and adolescent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonello Rod


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychostimulants are first line of therapy for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD. The evidence suggests that up to 30% of those prescribed stimulant medications do not show clinically significant outcomes. In addition, many children and adolescents experience side-effects from these medications. As a result, parents are seeking alternate interventions for their children. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies for behavioural disorders such as AD/HD are increasing with as many as 68% of parents having sought help from alternative practitioners, including chiropractors. Objective The review seeks to answer the question of whether chiropractic care can reduce symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD. Methods Electronic databases (Cochrane CENTRAL register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Index to Chiropractic Literature were searched from inception until July 2009 for English language studies for chiropractic care and AD/HD. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select studies. All randomised controlled trials were evaluated using the Jadad score and a checklist developed from the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. Results The search yielded 58 citations of which 22 were intervention studies. Of these, only three studies were identified for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD cohorts. The methodological quality was poor and none of the studies qualified using inclusion criteria. Conclusions To date there is insufficient evidence to evaluate the efficacy of chiropractic care for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD. The claim that chiropractic care improves paediatric and adolescent AD/HD, is only supported by low levels of scientific evidence. In the interest of paediatric and adolescent health, if chiropractic care for AD/HD is to continue, more rigorous

  9. Problem-solving skills, parent-adolescent communication, dyadic functioning, and distress among adolescents with cancer. (United States)

    Viola, Adrienne; Taggi-Pinto, Alison; Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Alderfer, Melissa A; Devine, Katie A


    Some adolescents with cancer report distress and unmet needs. Guided by the disability-stress-coping model, we evaluated associations among problem-solving skills, parent-adolescent cancer-related communication, parent-adolescent dyadic functioning, and distress in adolescents with cancer. Thirty-nine adolescent-parent dyads completed measures of these constructs. Adolescents were 14-20 years old on treatment or within 1 year of completing treatment. Better problem-solving skills were correlated with lower adolescent distress (r = -0.70, P communication problems and dyadic functioning were not significantly related to adolescent distress (rs < 0.18). Future work should examine use of problem-solving interventions to decrease distress for adolescents with cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents. (United States)

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly


    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction. (United States)

    Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M; Noori, Hamid R; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M


    According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents and treatment of alcoholism are major unmet challenges affecting our health-care system and society alike. Our newly formed German SysMedAlcoholism consortium is using a new systems medicine approach and intends (1) to define individual neurobehavioral risk profiles in adolescents that are predictive of alcohol use disorders later in life and (2) to identify new pharmacological targets and molecules for the treatment of alcoholism. To achieve these goals, we will use omics-information from epigenomics, genetics transcriptomics, neurodynamics, global neurochemical connectomes and neuroimaging (IMAGEN; Schumann et al. ) to feed mathematical prediction modules provided by two Bernstein Centers for Computational Neurosciences (Berlin and Heidelberg/Mannheim), the results of which will subsequently be functionally validated in independent clinical samples and appropriate animal models. This approach will lead to new early intervention strategies and identify innovative molecules for relapse prevention that will be tested in experimental human studies. This research program will ultimately help in consolidating addiction research clusters in Germany that can effectively conduct large clinical trials, implement early intervention strategies and impact political and healthcare decision makers. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy. (United States)

    Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E


    The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reciprocal Effects between Parental Solicitation, Parental Control, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Delinquency (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim


    This two-wave multi-informant study examined the bidirectional associations of parental control and solicitation with adolescent disclosure and delinquency. Participants were 289 adolescents (150 females and 139 males, modal age 14) and both parents. Parental solicitation and control did not predict adolescent delinquency, but adolescents'…

  14. Marching to a Different Drummer: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Young Adolescents Who Challenge Gender Norms. (United States)

    Yu, Chunyan; Zuo, Xiayun; Blum, Robert W; Tolman, Deborah L; Kågesten, Anna; Mmari, Kristin; De Meyer, Sara; Michielsen, Kristien; Basu, Sharmistha; Acharya, Rajib; Lian, Qiguo; Lou, Chaohua


    Little is known about how gender norms regulate adolescents' lives across different cultural settings. This study aims to illustrate what is considered as violating gender norms for boys and girls in four urban poor sites as well as the consequences that follow the challenging of gender norms. Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study, a 15-country collaboration to explore gender norms and health in early adolescence. The current study analyzed narrative and in-depth interviews conducted in urban poor sites in two middle-income (Shanghai, China; and New Delhi, India) and two high-income countries (Baltimore, U.S.; and Ghent, Belgium). A total of 238 participants, 59 boys and 70 girls aged 11-13 years old and 109 of their parents/guardians (28 male adults and 81 female adults), were interviewed. A thematic analysis was conducted across sites using Atlas.Ti 7.5 software. Findings revealed that although most perceptions and expressions about gender were regulated by stereotypical norms, there was a growing acceptability for girls to wear boyish clothes and engage in stereotypical masculine activities such as playing soccer/football. However, there was no comparable acceptance of boys engaging in traditional feminine behaviors. Across all sites, challenging gender norms was often found to lead to verbal, physical, and/or psychological retribution. While it is sometimes acceptable for young adolescents to cross gender boundaries, once it becomes clear that a behavior is socially defined as typical for the other sex, and the adolescent will face more resistance. Researchers, programmers, and clinicians working in the field of adolescent health need not only attend to those who are facing the consequences of challenging prevailing gender norms, but also to address the environment that fosters exclusion and underscores differences. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents. (United States)

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S


    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  16. [Evaluated treatment approaches in child and adolescent psychiatry I]. (United States)

    Baving, L; Schmidt, M H


    The principle of evidence-based medicine is to integrate data concerning the efficacy of interventions into clinical practice. This article assesses the level of evaluation of psychosocial, psychopharmacological and combined interventions for mental disorders in childhood and adolescence (autistic disorders, hyperkinetic disorders, conduct disorders, tic disorders, enuresis, and encopresis). Three different levels of evaluation were defined for both psychosocial and psychopharmacological interventions: A (> or = 2 randomized controlled studies), B (1 randomized controlled study), and C (open studies and case studies). The level of evaluation was judged on the basis of original papers found in a comprehensive literature search. For most disorders presented in this article there are several A-level treatments. The efficacy of both psychosocial and psychopharmacological interventions that target specific problem behaviors or symptoms, respectively, has been repeatedly demonstrated with regard to autistic disorders. Many studies have evaluated treatment approaches for hyperkinetic disorders and conduct disorders. With regard to the treatment of tic disorders in children and adolescents, far more studies evaluated the efficacy of pharmacotherapy than of psychotherapy. Further research should compare the efficacy of different treatment approaches, examine specific and differential treatment effects and investigate combined treatment approaches.

  17. Associations Between Neural Reward Processing and Binge Eating Among Adolescent Girls. (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Wildes, Jennifer E; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Lepage, Rachel; Keenan, Kate E; Guyer, Amanda E; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Forbes, Erika E


    Neuroimaging studies suggest that altered brain responses to food-related cues in reward-sensitive regions characterize individuals who experience binge-eating episodes. However, the absence of longitudinal data limits the understanding of whether reward-system alterations increase vulnerability to binge eating, as theorized in models of the development of this behavior. Adolescent girls (N = 122) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging monetary reward task at age 16 years as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Self-report of binge eating was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test at ages 16 and 18 years. Regression analyses examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response to anticipating and winning monetary rewards and the severity of binge eating while controlling for age 16 depressive symptoms and socioeconomic status. Greater ventromedial prefrontal cortex and caudate responses to winning money were correlated with greater severity of binge eating concurrently but not prospectively. This study is the first to examine longitudinal associations between reward responding and binge eating in community-based, mostly low-socioeconomic status adolescent girls. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex response to reward outcome-possibly reflecting an enhanced subjective reward value-appears to be a state marker of binge-eating severity rather than a predictor of future severity. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between Observed Mother-Adolescent Interactions and Adolescent Information Management (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M.; Smetana, Judith G.; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Villalobos, Myriam; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina


    Associations between observed mother-adolescent interactions during a conflict task and adolescents' information management strategies were examined in 108 primarily middle class, European-American adolescents (M = 13.80 years, SD = 1.52) and their mothers. Teens who communicated more clearly disclosed more about personal and multifaceted…

  19. Adolescents' with congenital heart disease and their parents' experiences of a nurse-led transition program. An interpretive phenomenological (United States)

    Thomet, Corina; Lindenberg, Carina; Schwerzmann, Markus; Spichiger, Elisabeth


    Background: Up to 90 % of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) now reach adulthood. To avoid lapses in care during the change from pediatric to adult care, a nurse-led transition program (TP) was implemented at a Swiss University Hospital. Aim: This study explored the experiences and expectations of adolescents with CHD and their parents regarding a nurse-led TP. Method: This qualitative study used an interpretive, phenomenological approach. Individual interviews were conducted with seven adolescent CHD patients in the transition period and their parents (six mothers, two fathers). Analysis followed an iterative process. Results: For most study participants, the transfer from pediatric to adult medicine as part of the TP went smoothly. They experienced the TP positively. Patients valued the provision of a constant contact person to provide CHD-related information; parents welcomed the support of an informed, neutral clinician for their children. To varying degrees, adolescents were willing to take over self-responsibility; conversely, parents found it difficult to turn their responsibility over to their children. Parents wished to give the adolescent as much time as needed to act responsibility on their own. Conclusions: A transition program is a key element for establishing a continuous care in adolescents with a chronic disease. It facilitates the parents' process of allowing their youths to assume increasing responsibility for their own health.

  20. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani


    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  1. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam


    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  2. Recommended integrative medicine competencies for family medicine residents. (United States)

    Locke, Amy B; Gordon, Andrea; Guerrera, Mary P; Gardiner, Paula; Lebensohn, Patricia


    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and Integrative Medicine (IM) has grown steadily over the past decade. Patients seek physician guidance, yet physicians typically have limited knowledge and training. There is some coverage of IM/CAM topics in medical schools and residencies but with little coordination or consistency. In 2008, the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) group on Integrative Medicine began the process of designing a set of competencies to educate Family Medicine residents in core concepts of IM. The goal was creation of a set of nationally recognized competencies tied to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) domains. These competencies were to be achievable by diverse programs, including those without significant internal resources. The group compiled existing curricula from programs around the country and distilled these competencies through multiple reviews and discussions. Simultaneously, the Integrative Medicine in Residency program run by the University of Arizona underwent a similar process. In 2009, these competencies were combined and further developed at the STFM annual meeting by a group of experts. In 2010, the STFM Board approved 19 measurable competencies, each categorized by ACGME domain, as recommended for Family Medicine residencies. Programs have implemented these competencies in various ways given individual needs and resources. This paper reviews the development of IM competencies for residency education in Family Medicine and presents those endorsed by STFM. By educating physicians in training about IM/CAM via competency-based curricula, we aim to promote comprehensive patient-centered care. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Adolescent Relationships


    de Goede, I.H.A.


    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations between these types of relationships, this dissertation provides more information on the processes taking place in relationships during adolescence. Findings indicate that parent-adolescent relationsh...

  4. What has traditional Chinese medicine delivered for modern medicine? (United States)

    Wang, Jigang; Wong, Yin-Kwan; Liao, Fulong


    The field of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) represents a vast and largely untapped resource for modern medicine. Exemplified by the success of the antimalarial artemisinin, the recent years have seen a rapid increase in the understanding and application of TCM-derived herbs and formulations for evidence-based therapy. In this review, we summarise and discuss the developmental history, clinical background and molecular basis of an action for several representative TCM-derived medicines, including artemisinin, arsenic trioxide, berberine and Salvia miltiorrhiza or Danshen. Through this, we highlight important examples of how TCM-derived medicines have already contributed to modern medicine, and discuss potential avenues for further research.

  5. Nuclear Medicine and Application of Nuclear Techniques in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiharto, Kunto


    The use of nuclear techniques medicine covers not only nuclear medicine and radiology in strict sense but also determination of body mineral content by neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence technique either in vitro or in vivo, application of radioisotopes as tracers in pharmacology and biochemistry, etc. This paper describes the ideal tracer in nuclear medicine, functional and morphological imaging, clinical aspect and radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Nuclear technique offers facilities and chances related to research activities and services in medicine. The development of diagnostic as well as therapeutic methods using monoclonal antibodies labeled with radioisotope will undoubtedly play an important role in the disease control

  6. Evidence-based medicine: the fourth revolution in American medicine? (United States)

    Chung, Kevin C; Ram, Ashwin N


    The use of evidence has become a force in American medicine to improve the quality of health care. Funding decisions from payers will demand studies with high-level evidence to support many of the costly interventions in medicine. Plastic surgery is certainly not immune to this national tidal wave to revamp the health care system by embracing evidence-based medicine in our practices. In scientific contributions of plastic surgery research, application of evidence-based principles should enhance the care of all patients by relying on science rather than opinions. In this article, the genesis of evidence-based medicine is discussed to guide plastic surgery in this new revolution in American medicine.

  7. Parent and adolescent reports in assessing adolescent sleep problems: results from a large population study. (United States)

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah Al


    To compare parent and adolescent reports in exploring adolescent sleep problems and to identify the factors associated with adolescent sleep problem disclosures. Parent (n = 5185) and adolescent reports (n = 5171, age=13.9 ± 0.3 years), from a birth cohort were used to explore adolescent sleep problems. Kappa coefficients were used to assess the agreement, whereas, conditional agreement and disagreement ratios were used to identify the optimal informant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors affecting adolescent sleep problem disclosure. Parental reports identified only about one-third of the sleep problems reported by adolescents. Whereas adolescent reports identified up to two-thirds of the sleep problems reported by parents. Combined reports of parents and adolescent did not show any considerable difference from the adolescent report. Adolescent and parent health, maternal depression, and family communication were significantly associated with adolescents sleep problem disclosures. Adolescent reports could be used as the preferred source to explore adolescent sleep problems. Parental reports should be used when parents as observers are more reliable reporters, or where adolescents are cognitively unable to report sleep problems. Additionally, the impact of poor health, maternal depression and family communication on sleep problems disclosure should be considered for adolescent sleep problem diagnosis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Evolutionary medicine]. (United States)

    Wjst, M


    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Depression and serum adiponectin and adipose omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in adolescents. (United States)

    Mamalakis, George; Kiriakakis, Michael; Tsibinos, George; Hatzis, Christos; Flouri, Sofia; Mantzoros, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate for a possible relationship between depression and serum adiponectin and adipose tissue omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA. The sample consisted of 90 healthy adolescent volunteers from the island of Crete. There were 54 girls and 36 boys, aged 13 to 18. The mean age was 15.2 years. Subjects were examined by the Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic of the University of Crete. Depression was assessed through the use of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in adipose tissue. CES-D correlated with dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that BDI was negatively associated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), while CES-D was positively associated with DGLA in adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin was not significantly associated with depression. The negative relationship between adipose EPA and depression in adolescents, is in line with findings of previous studies involving adult and elderly subjects, demonstrating negative relations between depression and adipose omega-3 PUFA. This is the first literature report of a relationship between depression and an individual omega-3 fatty acid in adolescents. The inverse relationship between adipose EPA and depression indicates that a low long-term dietary intake of EPA is associated with an increased risk for depression in adolescents.

  10. Leadership in adolescent health: developing the next generation of maternal child health leaders through mentorship. (United States)

    Blood, Emily A; Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S Jean


    Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011-2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were "very satisfied" with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles.

  11. The incidence of sexual violence among children and adolescents in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. (United States)

    Sena, Cláudia Alves de; Silva, Maria Arleide da; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois


    The scope of this study was to establish the incidence of sexual violence against children and adolescents in Recife, State of Pernambuco (Brazil) between 2012 and 2013. Data was collected from the records of rape examination reports carried out at the Recife Institute of Forensic Medicine. Of the 867 cases recorded, 328 of the victims were children and adolescents. An incidence of 3.67 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in the 0 to 18 age range was identified. The majority of the victims were female (92.1%) between 10 and 14 years of age (59.2%). In two thirds of the cases, rape was the most frequent type of sexual abuse and the majority of perpetrators were known to the victim (57.8%). An association between the type of sexual violence and the age and sex of the victim and perpetrator (p < 0.001) was determined. The most common type of sexual violence was rape among adolescents and sexual abuse not involving rape among children. The cases of sexual violence against children and adolescents shown in this study increase the visibility of this serious health problem and the need for preventive public policies.

  12. Gender stereotypes in occupational choice: a cross-sectional study on a group of Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaci T


    Full Text Available Tiziana Ramaci,1 Monica Pellerone,1 Caterina Ledda,2 Giovambattista Presti,1 Valeria Squatrito,1 Venerando Rapisarda2 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, 2Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Background: Gender beliefs represent cultural schemas for interpreting or making sense of the social and employment world, as they can influence attitudes, career aspirations, and the vocational decision process of young people, especially the adolescence.Materials and methods: This study examined the influence of gender stereotypes on the choice of career in adolescents. A group of 120 students were recruited to complete an ad hoc questionnaire, Scale of Perceived Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Semantic Differentials. The objectives of the study were to analyze the relationship between occupational self-efficacy and professional preference; to measure the influence of independent variables, such as age and gender, on the representation that students have of themselves and of the profession; and to identify the predictor variables of self-efficacy in the vocational decision.Results: Data showed that the distance between professional identity and social identity increases with age. Results underline that males seem to perceive themselves more self-efficient in military, scientific–technological, and agrarian professions than females. Furthermore, the type of job performed by parents appears to be a self-efficacy predictor variable in the choice of professions in the services area.Conclusion: Individuals’ perceived occupational self-efficacy, gender, age, and parents’ profession have implications for exploratory behavior. The conditions that make gender differences salient are more likely to favor self-representations of the career and consistent assessments with these representations. Keywords: adolescent, gender stereotypes, occupational

  13. In-home virtual reality videogame telerehabilitation in adolescents with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Golomb, Meredith R; McDonald, Brenna C; Warden, Stuart J; Yonkman, Janell; Saykin, Andrew J; Shirley, Bridget; Huber, Meghan; Rabin, Bryan; Abdelbaky, Moustafa; Nwosu, Michelle E; Barkat-Masih, Monica; Burdea, Grigore C


    cerebellum). Use of remotely monitored virtual reality videogame telerehabilitation appears to produce improved hand function and forearm bone health (as measured by DXA and pQCT) in adolescents with chronic disability who practice regularly. Improved hand function appears to be reflected in functional brain changes. Copyright (c) 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of the Online Game Shutdown Policy on Internet Use, Internet Addiction, and Sleeping Hours in Korean Adolescents. (United States)

    Choi, Jiyun; Cho, Hyunseok; Lee, Seungmin; Kim, Juyeong; Park, Eun-Cheol


    Internet addiction has emerged as a major public health problem worldwide. In November 2011, the South Korean government implemented an online game shutdown policy, lasting from 12:00 to 6:00 am, as a means of preventing Internet addiction in adolescents aged 15 or below. This study analyzed the effect of this shutdown policy on adolescent Internet use, addiction, and sleeping hours. We analyzed data collected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2011 to 2015. Respondents were divided into two groups by age: aged 15 or below (male = 76,048, female = 66,281) and aged 16 or above (male = 52,568, female = 49,060). A difference-in-difference analysis was used to evaluate the effect of this shutdown policy. In 2012, which is immediately following policy enforcement, daily amount of Internet use (in minutes) decreased more in adolescents affected by the policy (i.e., the aged 15 or below group). However, it steadily increased in 2013, 2014, 2015, and showed no meaningful long-term improvements 4 years after policy implementation (-3.648 minutes in 2012 [p = .001], -3.204 minutes in 2013 [p = .011], -1.140 minutes in 2014 [p = .384], and 2.190 minutes in 2015 [p = .107]). The shutdown policy did not alter Internet addiction or sleeping hours. Interestingly, female adolescents, adolescents with low academic performance, and adolescents with low exercise levels exhibited comparatively stronger and longer lasting initial declines in Internet usage. The shutdown policy had practically insignificant effects in reducing Internet use for target adolescents. Thus, policymakers aiming to reduce or prevent Internet addiction should use different strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Medicine in sports or sport medicine?] ]. (United States)

    Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M


    Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.

  16. Who accepts a rapid HIV antibody test? The role of race/ethnicity and HIV risk behavior among community adolescents. (United States)

    Swenson, Rebecca R; Hadley, Wendy S; Houck, Christopher D; Dance, S Kwame; Brown, Larry K


    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening in health care settings for all individuals aged 13-64 years; however, overall testing rates among adolescents still continue to remain low. This study examined factors related to the acceptance of HIV testing among an at-risk sample of ethnically/racially diverse community adolescents. Adolescents aged 15-21 (N = 81) years were recruited from community-based youth organizations to complete HIV risk assessment surveys. After the completion of the survey, participants were offered a free OraQuick rapid HIV antibody test. More than half (53.1%) of the participants accepted the test, with the black population being more likely to accept testing as compared to Latinos (75% vs. 39%). After controlling for race/ethnicity, significant predictors of test acceptance included history of sexual intercourse (OR = 5.43), having only one sexual partner in the past 3 months (OR = 4.88), not always using a condom with a serious partner (OR = 3.94), and not using a condom during last sexual encounter (OR = 4.75). Given that many adolescents are willing to know their HIV status, policies that support free or low-cost routine testing may lead to higher rates of case identification among youth. However, approaches must be developed to increase test acceptance among Latino adolescents and teenagers with multiple sexual partners. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality and related factors in three Asian cities. (United States)

    Feng, Yongliang; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Tu, Xiaowen; Cheng, Yan; Emerson, Mark R; Zabin, Laurie S


    -and to efforts aimed at instilling more liberal attitudes to improve adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality. This could then reduce the marginalization and stigmatization of the homosexual, and thus improve his/her health. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic seizure therapy in an adolescent with refractory bipolar depression: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Y


    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Noda,1,2 Zafiris J Daskalakis,1–3 Jonathan Downar,4 Paul E Croarkin,5 Paul B Fitzgerald,6 Daniel M Blumberger1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 2Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, 3Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 4MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 6Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Monash University Central Clinical School, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Magnetic seizure therapy (MST has shown efficacy in adult patients with treatment-resistant depression with limited impairment in memory. To date, the use of MST in adolescent depression has not been reported. Here we describe the first successful use of MST in the treatment of an adolescent patient with refractory bipolar depression. This patient received MST in an ongoing open-label study for treatment-resistant major depression. Treatments employed a twin-coil MST apparatus, with the center of each coil placed over the frontal cortex (ie, each coil centered over F3 and F4. MST was applied at 100 Hz and 100% machine output at progressively increasing train durations. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. This adolescent patient achieved full remission of clinical symptoms after an acute course of 18 MST treatments and had no apparent cognitive decline, other than some autobiographical memory impairment that may or may not be related to the MST treatment. This case report suggests that MST may be a safe and well tolerated intervention for adolescents with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Pilot studies to further evaluate the effectiveness and safety of

  19. Sexually Transmitted Infection Services for Adolescents and Youth in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Perceived and Experienced Barriers to Accessing Care. (United States)

    Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman


    Access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001 and 2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10-24 years) and/or health service providers. Nineteen studies were identified for inclusion from 15 countries. Thematic analyses identified key themes across the studies. Findings suggest that youth lacked knowledge about STIs and services. In addition, youth experienced barriers related to service availability and a lack of integration of services. The most reported barriers were related to acceptability of services. Youth reported avoiding services or having confidentiality concerns based on provider demographics and some behaviors. Finally, experiences of shame and stigma were common barriers to seeking care. Adolescents in low- and middle-income countries experience significant barriers in obtaining STI and SRH services. Improving uptake may require efforts to address clinic systems and provider attitudes, including confidentiality issues. Moreover, addressing barriers to STI services may require addressing cultural norms related to adolescent sexuality. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Adolescents' Competence and the Balance of Adolescent Autonomy and Adolescent and Parent Well-Being in the Context of Type 1 Diabetes (United States)

    Butner, Jonathan; Berg, Cynthia A.; Osborn, Peter; Butler, Jorie M.; Godri, Carine; Fortenberry, Katie T.; Barach, Ilana; Le, Hai; Wiebe, Deborah J.


    This study examined whether intrafamily discrepancies in perceptions of the adolescent's competence and independence were associated with autonomy and well-being for adolescents and parents. The ways in which mothers and fathers consistently differed from their adolescent across measures of independence and competence regarding Type 1 diabetes, a…

  1. Fathers who abuse drugs and their adolescent children: longitudinal predictors of adolescent aggression. (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Duan, Tao; Brook, David W


    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between earlier paternal drug abuse, environmental factors, paternal child-rearing practices, and adolescent vulnerable personality attributes and later adolescent aggressive behavior. Data were collected at two points in time, one year apart, via individual, structured interviews. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to assess the interrelationship of the earlier factors with respect to later adolescent aggression. Interviews took place in an inner-city community, within the schools and the participants' homes. Participants included low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic adolescents (N = 296) whose fathers abused drugs. The fathers were recruited from drug-abuse treatment programs in several U.S. cities. The outcome measure was adolescent aggressive behavior at Time 2 (T2). The findings showed that paternal drug abuse, environmental factors, and paternal child-rearing practices were mediated by the adolescent's vulnerable personality attributes. The adolescent's vulnerable personality attributes were the most proximal constructs to later adolescent aggressive behavior. Both paternal drug abuse and environmental factors were mediated by paternal child-rearing practices. The findings suggest that earlier environmental stresses, paternal drug abuse, paternal child-rearing practices, and adolescent vulnerable personality attributes are associated with later adolescent aggression.

  2. Sasang constitutional medicine as a holistic tailored medicine. (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc


    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal-external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  3. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim


    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii physical features and (iv psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  4. Validation of the scale on Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management-idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadra C


    Full Text Available Christelle Khadra,1–3 Sylvie Le May,1,2 Ariane Ballard,1,2 Jean Théroux,1,4 Sylvie Charette,5 Edith Villeneuve,6,7 Stefan Parent,2,8,9 Argerie Tsimicalis,10,11 Jill MacLaren Chorney12,13 1Faculty of Nursing, Université de Montréal, 2CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, 3Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4School of Health Professions, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 5Direction of Nursing, 6Department of Anesthesia, CHU Sainte-Justine, 7Department of Anesthesia, 8Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 9Orthopaedic Service, Department of Surgery, CHU Sainte-Justine, 10Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, 11Shriners Hospitals for Children, Montreal, QC, 12Pediatric Complex Pain Team, IWK Health Centre, 13Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management, and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: Spinal fusion is a common orthopedic surgery in children and adolescents and is associated with high pain levels postoperatively. If the pain is not well managed, negative outcomes may ensue. To our knowledge, there is no measure in English that assesses patient’s satisfaction with postoperative pain management following idiopathic scoliosis surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the satisfaction subscale of the English version of the Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management – idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S scale.Methods: Eighty-two participants aged 10–18 years, who had undergone spinal fusion surgery, fully completed the SAP-S scale at 10–14 days postdischarge. Construct validity was assessed through a principal component analysis using varimax rotation.Results: Principal component analysis indicated a three-factor structure of the 13-item satisfaction subscale of the SAP-S scale. Factors referred to satisfaction regarding current

  5. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

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    Lynn DD


    Full Text Available Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds remains lacking. Objective: To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design: Database summary study. Setting: Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants: Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures: Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance: Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous

  6. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same? (United States)

    Beran, Roy G


    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  7. Differences in adolescent relationship abuse perpetration and gender-inequitable attitudes by sport among male high school athletes. (United States)

    McCauley, Heather L; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; Tancredi, Daniel J; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Austin, S Bryn; Jones, Kelley; Miller, Elizabeth


    School-based athletic programs remain an important context for violence prevention efforts although a better understanding of how gender attitudes and abuse perpetration differ among athletes is needed. We analyzed baseline survey data from the "Coaching Boys into Men" study-a school-based cluster-randomized trial in 16 high schools in Northern California. We describe relationships among gender-inequitable attitudes, sport type, and recent adolescent relationship abuse perpetration among a sample of male athletes (n = 1,648). Gender-inequitable attitudes (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.56, 4.15), participation in both high school football and basketball (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.37, 3.18), and participation in football only (AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02, 2.22) emerged as independently associated with recent ARA perpetration. Findings warrant targeted violence prevention efforts among male high school athletes that incorporate discussions of gender attitudes and healthy relationships, especially among sports teams at greater risk of adolescent relationship abuse perpetration. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of neighborhood income inequality in adolescent aggression and violence. (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro


    Being a perpetrator or victim of assaults can have detrimental effects on the development and health of adolescents. Area-level income inequality has been suggested to be associated with crime and aggressive behavior. However, most prior research on this association has been ecological. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to describe the association between neighborhood-level income inequality and aggression and violence outcomes. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to estimate the association between neighborhood income inequality and attacking someone with a weapon, being attacked by someone with a weapon, being physically assaulted, being shown a gun by someone in the neighborhood, shot at by someone in the neighborhood, witnessing someone getting murdered in the past year, and having a close family member or friend murdered. Race and income inequality cross-level interactions were tested. Analyses were stratified by sex. Among nonblack boys, after adjusting for nativity, age, neighborhood-level income, crime, disorder, and proportion of the neighborhood that is black, income inequality was associated with an increased risk for committing acts of aggression and being a victim of violence. Among nonblack girls, those living in neighborhoods with high-income inequality were more likely to witness someone die a violent death in the previous year, in comparison to those in more equal neighborhoods. Income inequality appears to be related to aggression and victimization outcomes among nonblack adolescents living in Boston. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anorexia nervosa of the restrictive type and celiac disease in adolescence

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    Nacinovich R


    Full Text Available Renata Nacinovich,1 Lucio Tremolizzo,2 Fabiola Corbetta,1 Elisa Conti,2 Francesca Neri,1 Monica Bomba1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, 2Neurology Unit and Lab of Neurobiology, San Gerardo Hospital, School of Medicine and Surgery and Milan Center for Neuroscience (Neuro-MI, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN is usually present in adolescence with symptoms partially overlapping celiac disease (CD, but the relationship between these two conditions has received little attention in the literature. The aim of this work was to explore this relationship, considering if CD could be associated with specific baseline AN-related clinical features. Methods: In this retrospective study, 82 adolescent female out- and inpatients with AN of the restrictive type (ANr, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, were recruited. CD diagnosis and related serology were recorded, including tissue transglutaminase type-2 antibodies, endomysial antibodies, and antibodies against deamidated forms of gliadin peptides. Eating disorder inventory-3, Children’s Depression Inventory, body mass index, age, and disease duration data recorded at the time of blood withdrawal were also obtained from each patient. Results: Five (6.1% subjects presented a CD disorder associated with AN: none of the collected psychometric measures was significantly correlated with any CD-related parameter or characterized as a specific subgroup. Conclusion: CD diagnosis or serology does not relate to ANr clinical or demographic characteristics. However, a slight increase in prevalence with respect to the general population might be hypothesized and possibly elucidated by further studies with an appropriate design. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, celiac disease, adolescence, celiac disease antibody, gluten

  10. Precision medicine, an approach for development of the future medicine technologies

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    Iraj Nabipour


    Full Text Available Precision medicine is an approach in medicine that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyle. This field of medicine redefines our understanding of disease onset and progression, treatment response, and health outcomes through the more precise measurement of molecular, environmental, and behavioral factors that contribute to health and disease. Undoubtedly, the advances in omics technologies including genomics, data collection and storage, computational analysis, and mobile health applications over the last decade produced significant progress for precision medicine. In fact, precision medicine is a platform for the growth of personalized medicine, wearable biosensors, mobile health, computational sciences, genomic singularity, and other omics technologies. In the pathway of precision medicine, mathematics and computational sciences will be revolutionized to overcome the challenges in Big Data. By the birth of precision medicine, novel therapeutic strategies for chronic complex diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancers would be designed in Systems Medicine.

  11. Contraception and Adolescent Males: An Opportunity for Providers. (United States)

    Richards, Molly J; Peters, Marissa; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Kaul, Paritosh


    To examine young men's awareness of emergency contraception (EC) and its association with their contraceptive decision-making contributions within a relationship. A convenience sample of English-speaking male patients aged 13-24 years were surveyed regarding their childbearing intentions, contraceptive awareness (including EC), perceived contraceptive knowledge, and communication about birth control with providers and within a relationship. An ethnically diverse sample of adolescent males was recruited with a mean age of 18.9 years. Most had previously been sexually active (75%) and felt it was important to avoid pregnancy (84%) and 61% reported ever having spoken to a health care provider about birth control (other than condoms), but only 42% had heard of EC. Participants who had heard of EC were more likely to have spoken to a health care provider about contraception in the past (51.5% vs. 29.8%; p = .050), to feel they should participate in contraceptive decisions in a relationship (97.4% vs. 76.5%; p = .006), and to have discussed contraception with a partner (76.9% vs. 29.2%; p contraceptive decisions within a relationship if they do not desire fatherhood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  13. Comparison of Leiomyoma of Modern Medicine and Traditional Persian Medicine. (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Tajadini, Haleh


    Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the pelvic that is associated with reproductive problems such as infertility, frequent abortions, and undesirable prenatal outcomes. High prevalence of leiomyoma and its relation with important gynecological complications, especially during reproductive ages, on the one hand, and high medical expenses and significant complications of common treatments, on the other, made us search traditional Persian medicine texts for a similar disease. In traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to leiomyoma (Oram-e-rahem). In this article, by collecting materials from traditional medicine texts on leiomyoma, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topic, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to leiomyoma. When modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment, reviewing of traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Quality of life and parental styles assessed by adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases and their parents


    Jelenova, Daniela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Karaskova, Eva; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Mihal, Vladimir


    Daniela Jelenova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Eva Karaskova,2 Radovan Hruby,3 Dana Kamaradova,1 Vladimir Mihal21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University, University Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 3Private Practice, Martin, Slovak RepublicBackground: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in adolescents are chronic medical conditions with a substantial influence on the quality of life (QoL) of the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino Caputo


    Full Text Available Despite the increasing popularity of primary care sports medicine fellowships, as evidenced by the more than two-fold increase in family medicine sports medicine fellowships from a total of 31 accredited programs during the 1998/1999 academic year (ACGME, 1998 to 63 during the 2003/2004 academic year (ACGME, 2006, there are few empirical studies to support the efficacy of such programs. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been conducted to assess the impact of primary care sports medicine fellowships on family medicine residents' learning of non-musculoskeletal sports medicine topics. Rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of such programs are helpful to document the value of such programs to both the lay public and interested medical residents. In order to evaluate such programs, it is helpful to apply the same objective standards to residents trained across multiple programs. Hence, we would like to know if there is a learning effect with respect to non-musculoskeletal sports medicine topics identified on yearly administered American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM in-training exams (ITE to family medicine residents in family medicine residency programs in the United States with and without primary care sports medicine fellowship programs. Review and approval for the research proposal was granted by the ABFM, who also allowed access to the required data. Permission to study and report only non-musculoskeletal sports medicine topics excluding musculoskeletal topics was granted at the time due to other ongoing projects at the ABFM involving musculoskeletal topics. ABFM allowed us access to examinations from 1998 to 2003. We were given copies of each exam and records of responses to each item (correct or incorrect by each examinee (examinees were anonymous for each year.For each year, each examinee was classified by the ABFM as either (a belonging to a program that contained a sports medicine fellowship, or (b not belonging to a program

  16. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho N


    Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC

  17. Core Content for Wilderness Medicine Training: Development of a Wilderness Medicine Track Within an Emergency Medicine Residency. (United States)

    Schrading, Walter A; Battaglioli, Nicole; Drew, Jonathan; McClure, Sarah Frances


    Wilderness medicine training has become increasingly popular among medical professionals with numerous educational opportunities nationwide. Curricula for fellowship programs and for medical student education have previously been developed and published, but a specific curriculum for wilderness medicine education during emergency medicine (EM) residency has not. The objective of this study is to create a longitudinal wilderness medicine curriculum that can be incorporated into an EM residency program. Interest-specific tracks are becoming increasingly common in EM training. We chose this model to develop our curriculum specific to wilderness medicine. Outlined in the article is a 3-year longitudinal course of study that includes a core didactic curriculum and a plan for graduated level of responsibility. The core content is specifically related to the required EM core content for residency training with additions specific to wilderness medicine for the residents who pursue the track. The wilderness medicine curriculum would give residencies a framework that can be used to foster learning for residents interested in wilderness medicine. It would enhance the coverage of wilderness and environmental core content education for all EM residents in the program. It would provide wilderness-specific education and experience for interested residents, allowing them to align their residency program requirements through a focused area of study and enhancing their curriculum vitae at graduation. Finally, given the popularity of wilderness medicine, the presence of a wilderness medicine track may improve recruitment for the residency program. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends. (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude


    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment. (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.


    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  20. Out-of-School Time and Adolescent Substance Use. (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth T H; Vandell, Deborah Lowe


    High levels of adolescent substance use are linked to lower academic achievement, reduced schooling, and delinquency. We assess four types of out-of-school time (OST) contexts--unsupervised time with peers, sports, organized activities, and paid employment--in relation to tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use at the end of high school. Other research has examined these OST contexts in isolation, limiting efforts to disentangle potentially confounded relations. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 766) examined associations between different OST contexts during high school and substance use at the end of high school. Unsupervised time with peers increased the odds of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, whereas sports increased the odds of alcohol use and decreased the odds of marijuana use. Paid employment increased the odds of tobacco and alcohol use. Unsupervised time with peers predicted increased amounts of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, whereas sports predicted decreased amounts of tobacco and marijuana use and increased amounts of alcohol use at the end of high school. Although unsupervised time with peers, sports, and paid employment were differentially linked to the odds of substance use, only unsupervised time with peers and sports were significantly associated with the amounts of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use at the end of high school. These findings underscore the value of considering OST contexts in relation to strategies to promote adolescent health. Reducing unsupervised time with peers and increasing sports participation may have positive impacts on reducing substance use. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Internet gaming disorder in early adolescence: Associations with parental and adolescent mental health. (United States)

    Wartberg, L; Kriston, L; Kramer, M; Schwedler, A; Lincoln, T M; Kammerl, R


    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Currently, associations between IGD in early adolescence and mental health are largely unexplained. In the present study, the relation of IGD with adolescent and parental mental health was investigated for the first time. We surveyed 1095 family dyads (an adolescent aged 12-14 years and a related parent) with a standardized questionnaire for IGD as well as for adolescent and parental mental health. We conducted linear (dimensional approach) and logistic (categorical approach) regression analyses. Both with dimensional and categorical approaches, we observed statistically significant associations between IGD and male gender, a higher degree of adolescent antisocial behavior, anger control problems, emotional distress, self-esteem problems, hyperactivity/inattention and parental anxiety (linear regression model: corrected R 2 =0.41, logistic regression model: Nagelkerke's R 2 =0.41). IGD appears to be associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Moreover, the findings of the present study provide first evidence that not only adolescent but also parental mental health is relevant to IGD in early adolescence. Adolescent and parental mental health should be considered in prevention and intervention programs for IGD in adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Convulsive syncope related to a small dose of quetiapine in an adolescent with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai J


    Full Text Available Jianbo Lai,1,2 Qiaoqiao Lu,3 Tingting Huang,3 Shaohua Hu,1,2 Yi Xu1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder Management in Zhejiang Province, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China Abstract: Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been extensively used in patients with bipolar disorder. Overdose of quetiapine can result in severe complications, such as coma, seizure, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, and even death. However, the paucity of toxicological evaluation in adolescence causes more potential risks in this population. Herein, we present a case of hypotension and convulsive syncope after exposure to a small dose of quetiapine in a 16-year-old who was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. After cessation of quetiapine, no additional convulsive movements were reported. This case indicates that even in young patients without predisposing factors, close monitoring of adverse effects should be warranted for safety concerns, especially at the initiation of quetiapine treatment. Keywords: quetiapine, bipolar disorder, hypotension, convulsive syncope

  3. Child and Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Suicidal Behavior, and Adverse Childhood Experiences in South Africa: A Prospective Study. (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine


    This is the first known prospective study of child suicidal behavior in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims were to determine whether (1) cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predicts later suicidality and (2) heightened risks are mediated by mental health disorder and drug/alcohol misuse. Longitudinal repeated interviews were conducted 1 year apart (97% retention) with 3,515 adolescents aged 10-18 years in South Africa (56% female; areas from urban/rural sites within two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all homes with a resident adolescent. Measures included past-month suicide attempts, planning, and ideation, mental health disorders, drug/alcohol use, and ACE, for example, parental death by AIDS or homicide, abuse, and exposure to community violence. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression and multiple mediation tests. Past-month suicidality rates were 3.2% of adolescents attempting, 5.8% planning, and 7.2% reporting ideation. After controlling for baseline suicidality and sociodemographics, a strong, graded relationship was shown between cumulative ACE and all suicide behaviors 1 year later. Baseline mental health, but not drug/alcohol misuse, mediated relationships between ACE and subsequent suicidality. Suicide attempts rose from 1.9% among adolescents with no ACE to 6.3% among adolescents with >5 ACEs (cumulative odds ratio [OR], 2.46; confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.05); for suicide planning, from 2.4% to 12.5% (cumulative OR, 4.40; CI, 2.08-9.29); and for suicide ideation, from 4.2% to 15.6% (cumulative OR, 2.99; CI, 1.68-5.53). Preventing and mitigating childhood adversities have the potential to reduce suicidality. Among adolescents already exposed to adversities, effective mental health services may buffer against future suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth


    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  5. The Effects of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Parental Separation on Adolescent Well-Being. (United States)

    Videon, Tami M.


    Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to investigate the effects of parental separation on adolescent delinquency and depression. Parent-adolescent relationship prior to marital dissolution moderated the effects of parental separation on adolescent delinquency. Opposite-sex parents had a significant influence on…

  6. Injuries across adolescence: an investigation using the extended adolescent injury checklist (E-AIC). (United States)

    Chapman, Rebekah; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary


    Injuries are the leading cause of death among adolescents. The current research examined a measure of adolescent injury in terms of whether it encompasses the diverse injury experiences of Australian adolescents, including high-risk and normative adolescents, and thus determine its utility as a tool for health promotion research. Grade 9 students from two Brisbane high schools (n=202, aged 13-14 years) and adolescents recruited from the Emergency Department waiting rooms of four Brisbane hospitals (n=98, aged 16-18 years) completed the Extended Adolescent Injury Checklist (E-AIC). The most common cause of injury among adolescents was a sports activity, followed by fights for all participants except school-based males, who experienced more bicycle injuries. Alcohol use was most frequently reported in association with interpersonal violence injuries. A broad variety of injuries, occurring in context of multiple risk as well as normative behaviours, were reported by adolescents in both school and ED settings, and were captured by the E-AIC.

  7. Drug Therapy in Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Salem


    Full Text Available Background: The behavior and dietary treatments are not so successful for extremely obese adolescents. Therefore, using drugs to treat extremely obese children and adolescents are among the modern approaches. This research aims to study the pharmaceutical interventions performed for treatment of obese children. Materials and Methods: The strategy of research was using of key words ‘obesity’, ‘adolescence’, ‘treatment’ and ‘anti-obesity drugs’ were searched in websites of PubMed, Iranian Medical Digital Library, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran. This study reviewed all the available published papers in English and Farsi languages during 2000-2010. The Criteria for exclusion was The papers that had been published on interventions and treatment of eating disorders, type II diabetes or the obesity caused by the secondary syndromes. Results: Twelve papers were found as short-term clinical trials and/or long-term follow-ups. In these studies, the positive effects of ‘sibutramine’ in some studies are shown; although some other side effects are reported as well. A significant weight-loss had been reported on ‘orlistat’ medicine, but digestive complications had been observed as well. None of the studies had followed up patients for more than one year. Apparently, ‘Metformin’ requires further studies.Conclusion: The FDA has only approved ‘sibutramine’ and ‘orlistat’ drugs. But side effects of long-term these drugs have already been unknown. However, it seems that ‘orlistat’ is applied for ≥12-year-old children and ‘sibutramine’ for ≥ 16-year-old children.

  8. Adolescent mothers' sexual, contraceptive, and emotional relationship content with the fathers of their children following a first diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection. (United States)

    Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis


    A sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis may profoundly change the meaning of adolescent women's relationships, particularly when the relationship involves a shared child. This study explored the sexual, contraceptive, and emotional characteristics of sexual partners with whom adolescent women had and did not have children in the 3 months after the first STI diagnosis. Adolescent women (n = 387; age: 14-17 years at enrollment) were tested quarterly for STI and completed partner-specific items on emotional and sexual relationship content. We used nonparametric statistics (SPSS/18.0) to compare these characteristics between partners with whom these adolescent women did (n = 20) or did not (n = 118) share a child. Rates of condom use at last sex, overall condom use, and condom insistence were lower with sexual partners involving shared children as compared with childless sexual partners. Relationship status, commitment to partner, and using no method of contraception were more common in parous sexual relationships as compared with nulliparous sexual relationships after an STI. After an STI, adolescent women have different sexual risk behaviors with the fathers of their children, even after a signal event such as a recent STI diagnosis. Tailored counseling may specifically address the challenges of STI prevention with partners who have the unique status of being the "father of the baby." Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrative medicine is a future medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, I.Z.; Chukhraev, N.V.


    An analysis is given of the modern integrative medicine basis which is the synthesis of: 1. Theology, philosophy and sociology; 2. Physico-mathematical sciences, cybernetics, chemistry and astrology; 3. Medico-biological and clinical experience; 4. Traditional and scientific medicine; 5. Use of traditional and new medical technologies. Problems of 'holistic' medicine which considers Man as a unity of biological, emotional, psychological and social phenomena are exposed. Advantages in combining the drug therapy with modern physiotherapy and physioacupuncture methods seem to be obvious. All visible effects of a disease can de represented in the following forms of changes: information-energy - biochemical - ultrastructure - tissue - clinical diseases. Self-regulation of functional systems has a multilevel structure and needs application of different methods for body recovery. Short-wave irradiation (lasers, magnetotherapy) can be used for energy restoration in functional systems or meridians, and acupuncture plays the role of a 'trigger' which activises the body recovery. Integration of Western and Oriental medicines is the way for achieving the qualitative new level of health protection


    Thigpen, Chuck


    Introduction: Adolescents ranging in age from 11–15 (early‐mid adolescence) comprise the largest percentage of baseball and softball athletes in the United States. Shoulder and elbow injuries are commonly experienced by these athletes with baseball pitchers and softball position players most likely to be injured. Common Injuries: Physeal injury often termed “Little League” shoulder or elbow is common and should be differentiated from soft tissue injuries such as biceps, rotator cuff, or UCL injuries. Regardless of diagnosis, rehabilitation of these athletes’ shoulder and elbow injuries provide a unique challenge given their rapidly changing physical status. Treatment: Common impairments include alterations in shoulder range of motion, decreased muscle performance, and poor neuromuscular control of the scapula, core, and lower extremity. A criterion based, progressive rehabilitation program is presented. Discharge from formal rehabilitation should occur only when the athlete has demonstrated a resolution of symptoms, acceptable ROM, muscle performance, and neuromuscular control while progressing through a symptom free return to sport. Prevention of Reinjury: Reintegration into the desired level of sport participation should be guided by the sports medicine professional with a focus on long‐term durability in sport performance as well as injury prevention. A prevention program which includes parent, coach, and athlete education, regular screening to identify those athletes at the highest risk, and monitoring athletes for the development of risk factors or warning signs of injury over the course of participation is indicated. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175142

  11. Tripling use of electronic cigarettes among New Zealand adolescents between 2012 and 2014. (United States)

    White, Joanna; Li, Judy; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Walton, Darren


    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adults has flourished in recent years. However, little is known about their use among adolescents. This article reports on data collected from a New Zealand national youth tobacco use survey in 2012 and 2014. The Youth Insights Survey is a biennial self-complete survey of Year 10 students (predominately aged 14-15 years), with a sample size of 3,127 in 2012 and 2,919 in 2014. Ever-use of e-cigarettes was self-reported by participants in both years, and in 2014, e-cigarette ever-users also reported their reasons for first trying e-cigarettes. The rate of e-cigarette ever-use tripled from 7.0% in 2012 to 20.0% in 2014. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, smoking status (including susceptibility), and other factors associated with tobacco smoking uptake, e-cigarette ever-use was associated with gender, smoking status, close friends' smoking behavior, and risky substance use. Among smokers, desire for a cigarette, quit intention, or past-year quit attempts did not predict e-cigarette ever-use. Irrespective of smoking status, curiosity was the most commonly cited reason for trying e-cigarettes. In 2014, one in five 14- to 15-year-olds had used e-cigarettes. Our data suggest that for adolescent smokers, cessation was not the main reason for trying e-cigarettes. Instead, most adolescents (smokers and nonsmokers) tried e-cigarettes out of curiosity. Our findings signal a need to continue monitoring the uptake of e-cigarettes among adolescents, including both experimental and long-term use. Controlling access and exposure to e-cigarettes among this young age group is also required. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Counseling and Use for Older Adolescents and Nulliparous Women. (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah E; Rocca, Corinne H; Bednarek, Paula; Thompson, Kirsten M J; Darney, Philip D; Harper, Cynthia C


    The majority of pregnancies during adolescence are unintended, and few adolescents use long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) due in part to health care providers' misconceptions about nulliparous women's eligibility for the intrauterine device. We examined differences in LARC counseling, selection, and initiation by age and parity in a study with a provider's LARC training intervention. Sexually active women aged 18-25 years receiving contraceptive counseling (n = 1,500) were enrolled at 20 interventions and 20 control clinics and followed for 12 months. We assessed LARC counseling and selection, by age and parity, with generalized estimated equations with robust standard errors. We assessed LARC use over 1 year with Cox proportional hazards models with shared frailty for clustering. Women in the intervention had increased LARC counseling, selection, and initiation, with similar effects among older adolescent and nulliparous women, and among young adult and parous women. Across study arms, older adolescents were as likely as young adults to receive LARC counseling (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = .85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .63-1.15), select LARC (aOR = .86; 95% CI: .64-1.17), and use LARC methods (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = .94; 95% CI: .69-1.27). Nulliparous women were less likely to receive counseling (aOR = .57; 95% CI: .42-.79) and to select LARC (aOR = .53; 95% CI: .37-.75) than parous women, and they initiated LARC methods at lower rates (aHR = .65; 95% CI: .48-.90). Nulliparous women had similar rates of implant initiation but lower rates of intrauterine device initiation (aHR = .59; 95% CI: .41-.85). Continued efforts should be made to improve counseling and access to LARC methods for nulliparous women of all ages. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship Between Predictors of Incident Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts Among Adolescents. (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Hui-Ching; Sun, Fang-Ju; Tsai, Fang-Ju; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Chen, Ting-Chun; Huang, Yo-Ping; Liu, Shen-Ing


    Data on the incidence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicide attempts (SAs) are lacking in non-Western adolescents, and no studies have investigated differences in incident DSH and SA worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the incidence rates and relationships between predictors in DSH and SA. The Taiwanese Adolescent Self-Harm Project was a longitudinal study of DSH among adolescents. We recruited 5,879 students from 14 senior high schools in northern Taiwan. Online questionnaires on sociodemographic data, suicidality, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, social support, family discord, impulsivity, and alcohol and tobacco use were assessed at baseline (T1) and at 1 year of follow-up (T2). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the predictors of incident DSH and SA. The mean age was 16.02 years, and 56.73% of the cohort was female. At T1, the lifetime prevalence rates of DSH and SA were 25.04% and 3.50%, respectively. At T2, 4,331 (73.67%) students had completed follow-up assessments. The 1-year incidence rates of DSH and SA were 4.04% and 1.53%, respectively. The predictors of incident DSH included perceived family discord and more depressive symptoms at T1. The predictors of incident SA were lifetime suicide ideation, more depressive symptoms, and tobacco use at T1. The incidence rates of DSH and SA were similar to those reported in Western countries. The predictors of incident DSH and SA were similar but not identical. Our results highlight the risk factors which should be considered in terms of early identification and intervention among adolescents to prevent suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: an interpretive description of the adolescent point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten


    , we conducted a secondaryanalysis of the interview data. Results: The adolescents wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust the adolescents, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility......Background: Decreases in disease-related physiological and quality of life parameters are often seen in adolescents with cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents with cystic fibrosis find helpful in terms of preventing these decreases...... for the adolescents’ medical treatment. Conclusion: Parenting an adolescent with cystic fibrosis is a challenge, and the adolescents felt that their parents need to learn skills to help the adolescents better manage their disease. These findings indicate that health professionals may need to educate parents about...

  15. Parent-Adolescent Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study in a Chinese Context. (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Hing Keung


    Examined the relationships between parent-adolescent conflict and antisocial and prosocial behavior in Chinese adolescents. Results showed that father-adolescent conflict and mother-adolescent conflict were concurrently related to adolescent antisocial and prosocial behavior. Findings suggest that the linkage between father-adolescent conflict and…

  16. Folk Medicine (United States)

    ... lead’s effects on health. How to tell if herbal medicines or folk medicines contain lead You only can ... as high as 90%. Ghasard, an Indian folk medicine, has also been found to contain lead. It is a brown powder used as a tonic. Ba-baw-san is a Chinese herbal remedy that contains lead. It is used to ...

  17. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Cláudio F.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  18. Can programmed or self-selected physical activity affect physical fitness of adolescents? (United States)

    Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R


    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  19. [Holistic integrative medicine: the road to the future of the development of burn medicine]. (United States)

    Fan, D M


    Holistic integrative medicine is the road to the future of the development of burn medicine. Not only burn medicine, but also human medicine gradually enters the era of holistic integrative medicine. Holistic integrative medicine is different from translational medicine, evidence-based medicine or precision medicine, which integrates the most advanced knowledge and theories in medicine fields with the most effective practices and experiences in clinical specialties to form a new medical system.

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile-Revised 2 for Middle Adolescents. (United States)

    Scoloveno, Robert


    The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile-Revised 2 (ALP-R2) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with a sample of middle adolescents. A sample of 311 urban middle adolescents responded to the ALP-R2, to the Adolescent General Well-Being Questionnaire, and to the Anticipation of a Personal Future subscale on the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Data obtained on the ALP-R2 were subjected to principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation. A 5-factor solution was accepted. Construct validity was provided by statistically significant positive correlations between the ALP-R2 and two theoretically relevant variables. Based on the results of this study, the ALP-R2 is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing health-promoting lifestyle in adolescents.

  1. Different perceptions of narrative medicine between Western and Chinese medicine students. (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Da; Liao, Kuo-Chen; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Tseng, Hsu-Min; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Lii, Shu-Chung; Kuo, Han-Pin; Yeh, San-Jou; Lee, Shih-Tseng


    Western medicine is an evidence-based science, whereas Chinese medicine is more of a healing art. To date, there has been no research that has examined whether students of Western and Chinese medicine differentially engage in, or benefit from, educational activities for narrative medicine. This study fills a gap in current literature with the aim of evaluating and comparing Western and Chinese Medicine students' perceptions of narrative medicine as an approach to learning empathy and professionalism. An initial 10-item questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale was developed to assess fifth-year Western medical (MS) and traditional Chinese medical (TCMS) students' perceptions of a 4-activity narrative medicine program during a 13-week internal medicine clerkship. Exploratory factor analysis was undertaken. The response rate was 88.6% (412/465), including 270 (65.5%) MSs and 142 (34.5%) TCMSs, with a large reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.934). Three factors were extracted from 9 items: personal attitude, self-development/reflection, and emotional benefit, more favorable in terms of enhancement of self-development/reflection. The perceptions of narrative medicine by scores between the two groups were significantly higher in TCMSs than MSs in all 9-item questionnaire and 3 extracted factors. Given the different learning cultures of medical education in which these student groups engage, this suggests that undertaking a course in Chinese medicine might enhance one's acceptance to, and benefit from, a medical humanities course. Alternatively, Chinese medicine programmes might attract more humanities-focused students.

  2. Self-reported balance status is not a reliable indicator of balance performance in adolescents at one-month post-concussion. (United States)

    Rochefort, Coralie; Walters-Stewart, Coren; Aglipay, Mary; Barrowman, Nick; Zemek, Roger; Sveistrup, Heidi


    To determine if self-reported balance symptoms can be used as a proxy for measures of the center of pressure (COP) to identify balance deficits in a group of concussed adolescents. Case-control. Thirteen adolescents 1-month post-concussion who reported ongoing balance problems (Balance+), 20 adolescent 1-month post-concussion who reported no balance problems (Balance-), and 30 non-injured adolescents (control) completed a series of balance tests. Participants completed two 2-min trials standing on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board™ during which the COP under their feet was recorded: i) double-leg stance, eyes open; ii) double-leg stance, eyes closed. Participants also completed a dual-task condition combining a double-leg stance and a Stroop Colour-word test. Participants in both the Balance+ and Balance- group swayed over a larger ellipse area compared to the control group while completing the Eyes Closed (Balance+, p=0.002; Balance-, p=0.002) and Dual-Task (Balance+, p=0.001; Balance-, p=0.004) conditions and performed the Dual-Task condition with faster medio-lateral velocity (Balance+, p=0.003; Balance-, p=0.009). The participants in the Balance- group also swayed over a larger ellipse area compared to the control group while completing the Eyes Open condition (p=0.005). No significant differences were identified between the Balance+ and Balance- groups. At 1-month post-concussion, adolescents demonstrated balance deficits compared to non-injured adolescents regardless of whether they reported balance problems. These results suggest that self-reported balance status might not be an accurate reflection of balance performance following a concussion in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a novel sports medicine rotation for emergency medicine residents. (United States)

    Waterbrook, Anna L; Pritchard, T Gail; Lane, Allison D; Stoneking, Lisa R; Koch, Bryna; McAtee, Robert; Grall, Kristi H; Min, Alice A; Prior, Jessica; Farrell, Isaac; McNulty, Holly G; Stolz, Uwe


    Musculoskeletal complaints are the most common reason for patients to visit a physician, yet competency in musculoskeletal medicine is invariably reported as a deficiency in medical education in the USA. Sports medicine clinical rotations improve both medical students' and residents' musculoskeletal knowledge. Despite the importance of this knowledge, a standardized sports medicine curriculum in emergency medicine (EM) does not exist. Hence, we developed a novel sports medicine rotation for EM residents to improve their musculoskeletal educational experience and to improve their knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine by teaching the evaluation and management of many common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries that are encountered in the emergency department. The University of Arizona has two distinct EM residency programs, South Campus (SC) and University Campus (UC). The UC curriculum includes a traditional 4-week orthopedic rotation, which consistently rated poorly on evaluations by residents. Therefore, with the initiation of a new EM residency at SC, we replaced the standard orthopedic rotation with a novel sports medicine rotation for EM interns. This rotation includes attendance at sports medicine clinics with primary care and orthopedic sports medicine physicians, involvement in sport event coverage, assigned reading materials, didactic experiences, and an on-call schedule to assist with reductions in the emergency department. We analyzed postrotation surveys completed by residents, postrotation evaluations of the residents completed by primary care sports medicine faculty and orthopedic chief residents, as well as the total number of dislocation reductions performed by each graduating resident at both programs over the last 5 years. While all residents in both programs exceeded the ten dislocation reductions required for graduation, residents on the sports medicine rotation had a statistically significant higher rate of satisfaction of their educational

  4. [Vitamin D in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease: an integrative review]. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jacqueline Faria; Vicente, Natália Gomes; Santos, Juliana Pereira Pontes; Weffort, Virgínia Resende Silva


    To review the literature about the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its consequences in children and adolescents with sickle-cell disease. The literature survey was performed through the bibliographic databases Medline; U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health (PubMed); Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs), and the Cochrane Library. The keywords were selected using Medical Heading Terms (MeSH): "Vitamin D" OR "Vitamin D deficiency" AND "Anemia, Sickle Cell" AND "Child" AND "Adolescent". The search was limited to articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese, published until April 2014. Eleven articles were selected among the 18 found. In 6 of the 11 studies, serum levels of vitamin D in children and/or adolescents with sickle-cell anemia were low. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with sickle-cell anemia exceeded that of the comparison group. The low intake of vitamin D, seasonality, exposure to sun, increased metabolism associated with the hemoglobinopathy, and age increase were factors associated with the deficiency. There was an association between a significant vitamin D deficiency and bone weakness and painful crises. There was a positive correlation between increased levels of vitamin D by supplementation and functional, physical capacity. The vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with sickle-cell disease is prevalent and requires further studies to demonstrate its association with comorbidities and possible benefits of vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Parent-adolescent interaction: influence on the academic achievement of African American adolescent males. (United States)

    Shearin, Sherin A


    As the achievement gap between African American and while students persists, an examination of factors outside the school setting are essential. Acknowledging the dynamics of family environment as perceived by African American adolescent males is apposite to understanding the relationship between family environment and academic achievement. Utilizing an ecological perspective, this study describes the characteristics of family process variables and analyzes the adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent interaction and its influence on their psychological well-being. Results indicate that a substantial proportion of the 179 adolescent males who perceived parent-adolescent interaction as positive and were identified as having a stable psychological well-being, were more likely to have average to above-average grade point averages, high Stanford Nine scores and high achievement group membership, than those adolescent males who did not perceive parent-adolescent interaction as positive.

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  7. Parents as moderators of longitudinal associations between sexual peer norms and Dutch adolescents' sexual initiation and intention. (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; de Graaf, Hanneke; Reitz, Ellen; Deković, Maja


    The present study investigated how parents and peers interact in promoting or delaying Dutch adolescents' sexual initiation and intention and focused specifically on parents as moderators of peer influence. Using a longitudinal design, two waves of online questionnaire data were collected among 900 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.8 years at T1), who were sexually inexperienced at baseline. At T1, participants reported on three types of perceived sexual peer norms: friends' sexual behaviors (descriptive norms), friends' sexual attitudes (injunctive norms), and experienced peer pressure to have sex. They also rated two parenting aspects at T1: the general quality of their relationship with parents and the frequency of sexuality-specific communication with their parents. Six months later, the participants reported on their experience with different sexual behaviors ranging from naked touching or caressing to intercourse and their intention to have sex in the next school year. Relationship quality with parents was significantly associated with both outcomes, with a higher relationship quality predicting smaller odds of sexual initiation and less intention to have sex. Two significant interaction effects showed that frequent sexual communication with parents significantly reduced the effects of sexually active friends and experienced peer pressure on adolescents' intention to have sex. Our findings show that different types of sexual peer norms and both general and sexuality-specific parenting play an important role in the early stages of Dutch adolescents' sexual trajectories. Moreover, parent-adolescent communication about sexuality can function as a buffer for the sex-stimulating effects of sexual peer norms. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent alcohol use and parental and adolescent socioeconomic position in six European cities. (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Espelt, Albert; Richter, Matthias; Rimpelä, Arja; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Brugal, M Teresa; Lorant, Vincent; Kunst, Anton E


    Many risk behaviours in adolescence are socially patterned. However, it is unclear to what extent socioeconomic position (SEP) influences adolescent drinking in various parts of Europe. We examined how alcohol consumption is associated with parental SEP and adolescents' own SEP among students aged 14-17 years. Cross-sectional data were collected in the 2013 SILNE study. Participants were 8705 students aged 14-17 years from 6 European cities. The dependent variable was weekly binge drinking. Main independent variables were parental SEP (parental education level and family affluence) and adolescents' own SEP (student weekly income and academic achievement). Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance and random intercept were fitted to estimate the association between adolescent drinking and SEP. Prevalence of weekly binge drinking was 4.2% (95%CI = 3.8-4.6). Weekly binge drinking was not associated with parental education or family affluence. However, weekly binge drinking was less prevalent in adolescents with high academic achievement than those with low achievement (PR = 0.34; 95%CI = 0.14-0.87), and more prevalent in adolescents with >€50 weekly income compared to those with ≤€5/week (PR = 3.14; 95%CI = 2.23-4.42). These associations were found to vary according to country, but not according to gender or age group. Across the six European cities, adolescent drinking was associated with adolescents' own SEP, but not with parental SEP. Socio-economic inequalities in adolescent drinking seem to stem from adolescents' own situation rather than that of their family.

  9. [Adolescent pathological gambling]. (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M


    Although experts have long thought that the problems of gambling involved only adults, recent studies tend to show that teenagers are also affected. The objective of this paper is to show the characteristics of pathological gambling in adolescents. This review focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, psychopathology, prevention and treatment of this disorder. A review of the medical literature was conducted, using PubMed, using the following keywords alone or combined: pathological gambling, dependence, addiction and adolescents. We selected 12 English articles from 1997 to 2014. Recent work estimate that between 4 and 8% of adolescents suffer from problem gambling, and the prevalence of pathological gambling is 2-4 times higher in adolescents than in adults. The term adolescent pathological gambler starts early around the age of 10-12 years, with a quick change of status from casual to that of problem gambler and player. Complications appear quickly and comorbidities are common. There is no curative pharmacological treatment approved by health authorities. Pathological gambling among adolescents has grown significantly in recent years and should be promptly taken care of. Further studies must be performed to improve our understanding of this problem among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. How does traditional Confucian culture influence adolescents' sexual behavior in three Asian cities? (United States)

    Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Wang, Li; Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Zabin, Laurie S


    traditional values were more likely to have premarital sexual intercourse, except with regard to family values among female youth in Taipei. The findings suggest that different aspects of Confucian values eroding unevenly in different Asian cities may have distinct association with adolescent or young adults' sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China. (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei


    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  12. A longitudinal study of parenting and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage. (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L


    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between parenting behavior and adolescent adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behavior) in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that parenting characteristics were concurrently and longitudinally related to measures of adolescent adjustment, particularly adolescent problem behavior. Compared with the norm based on adolescents of a community sample, poor adolescents perceived parenting characteristics to be more negative and they had relatively lower life satisfaction. Paternal parenting was perceived to be more negative than maternal parenting and parenting behavior was perceived to deteriorate over time.

  13. Teaching evidence based medicine in family medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Vrdoljak


    Full Text Available The concept of evidence based medicine (EBM as the integrationof clinical expertise, patient values and the best evidence was introduced by David Sackett in the 1980’s. Scientific literature in medicine is often marked by expansion, acummulation and quick expiration. Reading all important articles to keep in touch with relevant information is impossible. Finding the best evidence that answers a clinical question in general practice (GP in a short time is not easy. Five useful steps are described –represented by the acronym “5A+E”: assess, ask, acquire, appraise, apply and evaluate.The habit of conducting an evidence search “on the spot’’ is proposed. Although students of medicine at University of Split School of Medicine are taught EBM from the first day of their study and in all courses, their experience of evidence-searching and critical appraisal of the evidence, in real time with real patient is inadequate. Teaching the final-year students the practical use of EBM in a GP’s office is different and can have an important role in their professional development. It can positively impact on quality of their future work in family practice (or some other medical specialty by acquiring this habit of constant evidence-checking to ensure that best practice becomes a mechanism for life-long learning. Conclusion. EBM is a foundation stone of every branch of medicine and important part of Family Medicine as scientific and professional discipline. To have an EB answer resulting from GP’s everyday work is becoming a part of everyday practice.

  14. The consequences of chronic cannabis smoking in vulnerable adolescents. (United States)

    Iede, Montaha Al; Nunn, Kenneth; Milne, Bronwyn; Fitzgerald, Dominic A


    Cannabis, like the mythic shape-shifter, presents in various guises, morphing with the perspective and context of the observer. Arguments about cannabis are confused by a myriad of debates-medical, social, ethical and political-as if a single conceptual umbrella can capture the variety and granularity of marijuana-related issues. This paper responds to marijuana use as it is commonly practised by youth in Australia. It has little to say about synthetic cannabinoids, specific medicinal cannabinoids, or medicinal properties of marijuana. We address those adolescents genetically and environmentally vulnerable to mental illness, with specific emphasis on indigenous and neurodevelopmentally impaired young people who show patterns of usage and response very different to adults and more resilient members of the population. Specifically, the practice of mixing tobacco with marijuana by aboriginal youth, and the resultant coalition of dependencies, will likely presage a rise in pulmonary and central nervous system pathology over the coming decades. Aboriginal youth begin using earlier, persist longer, and take greater quantities of cannabis than non-indigenous youth. This paper recommends practical interventions to reduce the multiple health consequences of chronic cannabis use in young people, especially indigenous young people. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Monographs for medicines on WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines. (United States)

    Roth, Lukas; Adler, Melissa; Jain, Tanvi; Bempong, Daniel


    To raise awareness about the importance of public pharmaceutical standards, identify if and, if so, where current pharmacopeias are falling short in the development of new and complete monographs and foster collaboration among the various pharmacopeias, to prioritize, develop and make available standards for those key medicines for which no complete monographs exist. In August 2017, we mined eight pharmacopeias to identify which of the 669 medicines in the 20th edition of the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines were covered by complete or incomplete monographs. The pharmacopeias we included were the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, the British Pharmacopoeia, the Indian Pharmacopeia Commission, the International Pharmacopoeia, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, the Mexican Pharmacopoeia, the Pharmacopeia of the People's Republic of China and the United States Pharmacopeia. For 99 (15%) of the medicines on the Model List, no monographs were available in any of the eight pharmacopeias investigated. Only 3% (1/30) of the cardiovascular medicines listed, but 28% (9/32) of the antiretroviral medicines and 23% (6/26) of the antimalarial medicines lacked monographs. There appear to be no public standards for many so-called essential medicines. To address this shortfall, a greater collaboration in the global health community is needed.

  16. Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Parental Concern and Concordance Between Parent and Adolescent Reports. (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A

    We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parent-adolescent relationships and its association to adolescents' self-esteem. (United States)

    Yaacob, Mohd Jamil Bin


    Psychoanalysts believed that early mother-child relationships form the prototype of all future relationships and the outcome of adolescents development depends on their ego-strength. Object relations theory believed that intrapsychic process mediates interpersonal interaction to develop a sense of secure self and adolescents must relinquish the internalized other in order to develop a more mature sense of self. Social-relation theory believed that mothers and fathers provide different socialization experiences. Self-esteem depends on the functioning of the whole family in which adolescent is intimately related to the dyadic relationship in a family. There is an association between interparental conflict and adolescent's self-esteem and problem behaviour.

  18. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: Longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Keijsers, L.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.


    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys)

  19. The neglected role of adolescent emotional well-being in national educational achievement: bridging the gap between education and mental health policies. (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Reisel, Liza; Romer, Daniel


    Although child poverty is recognized as a critical determinant of poor educational achievement in the United States, policy discussions on raising academic achievement rarely include the importance of the effects of poverty on the mental health of adolescents. This article examines the role of adolescent emotional well-being (indicators of depression) as a mediator of the effects of poverty on differences in educational achievement at the national and U.S. state levels. Differences in standardized adolescent</