As abstract reasoning increases in complexity, adolescents may face dissonance between new thoughts and prior beliefs. Students in the health professions may be forced to resolve these dissonances in order to execute their professional responsibilities. In developing an undergraduate interdisciplinary course on adolescent health, the authors anticipated challenges in teaching adolescents about adolescence. Over the course of the semester, the anticipated challenges became reality. The author discusses pertinent developmental theories and their application in facilitating late adolescent identity formation and professional role development.
Ferreira Júnior, Antonio Rodrigues; de Barros, Erineide Melo Albuquerque; Sousa, Rosalice Araújo de; Souza, Luiza Jane Eyre de
This paper describes an experience that occurred in the municipality of Uruoca-CE, Brazil, where nurses from the Family Health Strategy involved a group of teenagers in practices of health promotion. Pregnant women were chosen as priority because of their resistance to perform dental consultation and small family participation in prenatal care. It was built up a play for the pregnant women and their families, focusing on the theme, in which the adolescents were the writers, set designers and ...
Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M
Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.
Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…
Soon, Christine N; Kaida, Angela; Nkala, Busi; Dietrich, Janan; Cescon, Angela; Gray, Glenda; Miller, Cari L
Communication about sexual health between parents and adolescents has been shown to have a protective influence on behaviours that reduce the risk of HIV transmission. This study explored experiences of HIV and sexual health (HSH) communication between parents and/or caregivers and adolescents in an urban HIV-endemic community in Southern Africa. Adolescents (aged 14-19 years) were recruited from the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Centre and the Kliptown community between June and August 2009. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions (n=10 adolescents) and semi-structured interviews (n=31 adolescents). In total, 41 adolescents (56% female, 44% male, mean age=17.2) participated in the study. Adolescent participants identified emotional, physical and sociocultural barriers to initiating HSH communication with parents and caregivers including fear of verbal warnings, threats and physical assault. Adolescents also expressed a desire for mentorship around HSH communication beyond abstinence and peer-based information. Public health interventions need to support adolescents' access to bi-directional HSH information from adult mentors that address the lived realities of adolescents beyond expectations of abstinence.
This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated inc
Fazel, Mina; Garcia, Jo; Stein, Alan
Access to needed mental health services can be particularly difficult for newly arrived refugee and asylum-seeking adolescents, although many attend school. This study examined young refugees' impressions and experience of mental health services integrated within the school system. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 adolescent refugees discharged by three school-based mental health services across the United Kingdom. Two-thirds preferred to be seen at school. Rumination and worry about insecurity in the asylum process had a negative impact particularly on the adolescents' social functioning and ability to focus at school. The important role played by teachers in supporting and mediating contact with mental health services was valued by those interviewed. The study confirms that schools offer an important location for mental health services for adolescent refugees and provide an important portal for integration of services.
Full Text Available A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress.
Full Text Available As the field of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH evolves, further discussion and documentation of national policy and aspects of its implementation is needed to ensure effectiveness of interventions. Further research is required to foster beneficial shifts in policy advocacy, including resource allocation, and in the prioritization of adolescent programs in health and education systems, in communities and in workplaces. Adolescents are exposed to diverse interventions across all the countries under discussion; however there exist obstacles to realization of ASRH goals. In some countries, there exist a conflict of interest between national laws and global policy guidelines on ASRH; moreover national laws and policies are ambiguous and inconsistent. In addition, there have been strong negligence of vulnerable groups such as HIV positive adolescents, pregnant street youth; young sex workers; orphans; adolescents in conflict areas; adolescent refugees; adolescent girls working in the informal sectors and very young adolescents, likewise many adolescents in rural areas remain largely underserved. Furthermore there are consistently less disaggregated data available on adolescents’ key indicators for comparative purposes signifying considerable knowledge gaps. There are multiple obstacles to the realization of ASRH and need for research combining both qualitative and quantitative approaches to determine the extent to which factors are either conducive or impeding to consistency between global guidelines, national ASRH policies, and actual policy implementation.
Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff
In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.
Full Text Available Adolescents represent a large proportion of the population. As they mature and become sexually active, they face more serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility and multiple barriers to accessing health care. A typical descriptive and explanatory design was used to determine what the characteristics of an accessible adolescent health service should be. Important results and conclusions that were reached indicate that the adolescent want a medical doctor and a registered nurse to be part of the health team treating them and they want to be served in the language of their choice. Family planning, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and psychiatric services for the prevention of suicide are services that should be included in an adolescent accessible health service. The provision of health education concerning sexual transmitted diseases and AIDS is a necessity. The service should be available thought out the week (included Saturdays and within easy reach. It is recommended that minor changes in existing services be made, that will contribute towards making a health delivery service an adolescent accessible service. An adolescent accessible health service can in turn make a real contribution to the community’s efforts to improve the health of its adolescents and can prove to be a rewarding professional experience to the health worker.
Burusic, Josip; Sakic, Marija; Koprtla, Natalija
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore parental perceptions of adolescent health behaviours and to examine to what extent parents' perceptions of their children's health behaviours are determined by the family's socio-demographic characteristics. Method: Participants in the study were 605 parents. They completed questionnaires in which…
Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian
This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…
Joffe, A; Radius, S M
Health counseling is a fundamental aspect of health care for adolescents and is a natural extension of the concept of anticipatory guidance. It is a dynamic process involving active participation by adolescents. Pediatricians are a valued source of health-relevant information, but must also recognize how their attitudes and beliefs can affect the counseling process. Knowledge of the multitude of changes occurring during adolescence and an understanding of the role of health-risking behaviors in meeting various developmental needs are critical to successful counseling. Particular attention must be focused on ways to help adolescents develop the skills necessary to maintain health-promoting lifestyles and to resist peer pressure to engage in health-risking behaviors.
Størksen, Ingunn; Røysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjørn; Tambs, Kristian
**This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, self-esteem, and school problems. Considering boys separately, parental divorce was prospectively associated only with school problems. Among the girls, divorce was prospectively associated with all variables. The effect of divorce on relative change was partially mediated by paternal absence.
Hacker, K.; Drainoni, M. L.
In 1999, the Boston Public Heath Commission used data from a variety of sources to explore the level of mental health disturbance in Boston's children and adolescents. Data for 1997 from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that about 20% of Boston public high school students had ever experienced suicidal ideation, while approximately 10% had actually attempted suicide. About one in five teenage respondents to the Boston Youth Survey said they were frequently depressed. While females were mo...
Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge
Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years.
Chang Ho Hong
Full Text Available During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risktaking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues.
Margolis, Amy Lynn; Roper, Allison Yvonne
After 3 years of experience overseeing the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in a diversity of populations and settings across the country, the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has learned numerous lessons through practical application and new experiences. These lessons and experiences are applicable to those working to implement evidence-based programs on a large scale. The lessons described in this paper focus on what it means for a program to be implementation ready, the role of the program developer in replicating evidence-based programs, the importance of a planning period to ensure quality implementation, the need to define and measure fidelity, and the conditions necessary to support rigorous grantee-level evaluation.
Background Evidence suggests that in spite of some adolescents being sexually active, many parents do not discuss sex-related issues with them due to lack of age-appropriate respectful vocabulary and skills. The likelihood of parent-adolescent communication improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes appears plausible. The desire to understand parent-adolescent communication and how to improve it for promotion of healthy sexual behaviours inspired this research. The paper is meant to de...
Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Björk, Maria
Background: In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter.…
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
Gans, Janet E.; And Others
Many adolescent health problems are linked with educational performance, family relationships, poverty, and the general lifestyles that adolescents experience in their communities. Although serious, chronic medical and psychiatric disorders affect about 6 percent of the adolescent population, many more adolescents are at risk for death and for…
Ferreira Junior A.R.; de Barros E.M.; de Sousa R.A.; de Souza L.J.
This paper describes an experience that occurred in the municipality of Uruoca-CE, Brazil, where nurses from the Family Health Strategy involved a group of teenagers in practices of health promotion. Pregnant women were chosen as priority because of their resistance to perform dental consultation and small family participation in prenatal care. It was built up a play for the pregnant women and their families, focusing on the theme, in which the adolescents were the writers, set designers and ...
Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.
Ahmet Reşit Ersay
Full Text Available In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD, teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.
Eklund, Pernilla Garmy; Sivberg, Bengt
To improve the well-being of adolescents with epilepsy, research is needed on how adolescents cope. In this study, Lazarus' model of stress and coping and Antonovsky's Theory of Sense of Coherence were used as the theoretical framework. The aim was to describe the lived experience of adolescents with epilepsy and their coping skills. The participants were 13-19 years old with an epilepsy diagnosis but without mental retardation or cerebral palsy. The study was performed in southern Sweden at the pediatric department of a university hospital. Semistructured and open-ended interviews were conducted with 13 adolescents. The transcripts were analyzed with manifest and latent content analysis. All the adolescents had developed strategies to cope with the emotional strains caused by epilepsy. They experienced strains from the seizures, limitation of leisure activities, side effects of medication, and feelings of being different. The coping strategies described were finding support, being in control, and experimenting.
Cunnien, Keith A; Martinrogers, Nicole; Mortimer, Jeylan T
PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER: To assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: OLS regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. FINDINGS: The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms, Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy than steady workers. Supervisory support may be especially important in enhancing adolescents' confidence as they anticipate their future family lives, community participation, personal health, and economic achievements. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This research includes only a small set of the work dimensions that may be important for adolescents. Ethnography and in-depth interviews are recommended to further explore the subjective and emotional dimensions of youth work experiences. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In developing policies and guidance, educators, parents, and employers should be aware that steady employment and supervisory support enhance the development of adolescent self-efficacy. ORIGINAL VALUE OF PAPER: This paper finds evidence that adolescent work experiences spill over to influence youth's developing confidence in the realms of family life, community and personal health. It also suggests that sporadic and occasional work patterns can impair the development of self-efficacy in adolescence.
Randell, Eva; Jerdén, Lars; Öhman, Ann; Flacking, Renée
Few qualitative studies have explored adolescent boys’ perceptions of health. Aim: The aim of this study was therefore to explore how adolescent boys understand the concept of health and what they find important for its achievement Methods: Grounded theory was used as a method to analyse interviews with 33 adolescent boys aged 16 to 17 years attending three upper secondary schools in a relatively small town in Sweden. Results: There was a complexity in how health was perceived, experienced, dealt with, and valued. Although health on a conceptual level was described as ‘holistic’, health was experienced and dealt with in a more dualistic manner, one in which the boys were prone to differentiate between mind and body. Health was experienced as mainly emotional and relational, whereas the body had a subordinate value. The presence of positive emotions, experiencing self-esteem, balance in life, trustful relationships, and having a sense of belonging were important factors for health while the body was experienced as a tool to achieve health, as energy, and as a condition. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that young, masculine health is largely experienced through emotions and relationships and thus support theories on health as a social construction of interconnected processes. PMID:27347252
Koller, Theadora; Morgan, Antony; Guerreiro, Ana
their health. Each Forum process consists of case studies produced by interdisciplinary teams in countries and regions, cross-country evidence reviews, a European consultation, an outcomes statement within a final publication, and a Web-based knowledge platform. In addition to emphasizing the translation...... process revealed that national-level impacts of involvement were: brokering new or strengthening existing working relationships among members of case study drafting teams and national delegations to events; feeding into the formulation of national policy or practice design; and enabling the comparison...... systematic, appropriate and meaningful youth involvement; maximization of the usefulness of the European consultation; and definition of a budget line and framework for evaluation of the process' impact at country level....
Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.
Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…
Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J
This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.
Sara Mota Borges Bottino; Cássio M. C. Bottino; Caroline Gomez Regina; Aline Villa Lobo Correia; Wagner Silva Ribeiro
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrator...
Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry
This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse family experiences in early life are associated with subsequent psychopathology. This study adds to the growing body of work exploring the nature and associations between adverse experiences over the childhood years. Methods Primary carers of 1143 randomly recruited 14-year olds in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK were interviewed using the Cambridge Early Experiences Interview (CAMEEI to assess family-focused adversities. Adversities were recorded retrospectively in three time periods (early and later childhood and early adolescence. Latent Class Analysis (LCA grouped individuals into adversity classes for each time period and longitudinally. Adolescents were interviewed to generate lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses using the K-SADS-PL. The associations between adversity class and diagnoses were explored. Results LCA generated a 4-class model for each time period and longitudinally. In early childhood 69% were allocated to a low adversity class; a moderate adversity class (19% showed elevated rates of family loss, mild or moderate family discord, financial difficulties, maternal psychiatric illness and higher risk for paternal atypical parenting; a severe class (6% experienced higher rates on all indicators and almost exclusively accounted for incidents of child abuse; a fourth class, characterised by atypical parenting from both parents, accounted for the remaining 7%. Class membership was fairly stable (~ 55% over time with escape from any adversity by 14 years being uncommon. Compared to those in the low class, the odds ratio for reported psychopathology in adolescents in the severe class ranged from 8 for disruptive behaviour disorders through to 4.8 for depressions and 2.0 for anxiety disorders. Only in the low adversity class did significantly more females than males report psychopathology. Conclusions Family adversities in the early years occur as multiple rather than single experiences. Although some children escape
Full Text Available The paper deals with the phenomenon of loneliness, the emotional state which is characterized by the feeling of emptiness and isolation, exclusion and isolation from other people. It is the state connected with many psychological troubles, behavioral and social problems and can seriously threaten mental and physical health of the adolescents and grown-up young people. The goal of the research is to examine the frequency of the experience of loneliness in the population of the adolescents, the connection of loneliness with other psychological difficulties, and also with the effects of socialization. A modified questionnaire about the ways of the expression of the crisis in the adolescence (Kondić and co., the short form of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale and the battery of the tests of socializations (Momirović and co. are used in this research. The research is conducted on the sample of 300 first year students from the Faculty of Pedagogy in Jagodina, Medical Faculty in Belgrade, Faculty of Philology and Arts in Kragujevac and College of Health Studies in Ćuprija, of the average age 19.1 years. The results received by the application of the same questionnaire on the sample of the students in the final year of high schools in the interval of 5 years starting from 1985 until 2010 are used for the comparison (100 adolescents for each researched year. The results of the research have shown that 32% of the adolescents in the researched sample declare as lonely (the comparison points to the trend of the increase of loneliness in the population of the adolescents in relation to the previous year, that the loneliness is statistically significantly connected to other psychological difficulties (depression, self-image disorders, eating disorders, sleep disorders and with the emphasized effects of socialization, that is, exaggerated socialization (where the solution of this serious problem can be searched.
Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank
Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…
Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica L.
This investigation examined acculturation risk factors and cultural assets, internalizing behavioral problems, and self-esteem in 323 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina. Multiple regression analyses revealed two risk factors--perceived discrimination and parent-adolescent conflict--as highly significant predictors of adolescent…
Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…
Shulman, S; Seiffge-Krenke, I
This concluding and integrative paper calls attention to several features and conceptual issues addressed by the contributors of this special issue. The first issue pertains to developmental perspectives in the study of how adolescent romance evolves. The second deals with the various features and concepts of adolescent romance. The third topic discusses the association of adolescent romance with other close relationships occurring during this time span. The fourth topic highlights the importance of the diversity of developmental contexts in shaping romantic relationships. Finally, conceptual issues in the study of adolescent romance are reviewed and the need for future studies of early adolescent romantic experiences is discussed.
Brown, E F; Hendee, W R
During adolescence, teenagers are expected to develop standards of behavior and reconcile them with their perceptions of adult standards. In this context, music, a powerful medium in the lives of adolescents, offers conflicting values. The explicit sexual and violent lyrics of some forms of music often clash with the themes of abstinence and rational behavior promoted by adult society. Identification with rock music, particularly those styles that are rejected by adults, functions to separate adolescents from adult society. Some forms of rock music extend well beyond respectability in fulfilling this definitional role. Total immersion into a rock subculture, such as heavy metal, may be both a portrait of adolescent alienation and an unflattering reflection of an adolescent's perception of the moral and ethical duplicity of adult society. Physicians should be aware of the role of music in the lives of adolescents and use music preferences as clues to the emotional and mental health of adolescents.
Sawyer, Susan M; Afifi, Rima A; Bearinger, Linda H; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Dick, Bruce; Ezeh, Alex C; Patton, George C
Adolescence is a life phase in which the opportunities for health are great and future patterns of adult health are established. Health in adolescence is the result of interactions between prenatal and early childhood development and the specific biological and social-role changes that accompany puberty, shaped by social determinants and risk and protective factors that affect the uptake of health-related behaviours. The shape of adolescence is rapidly changing-the age of onset of puberty is decreasing and the age at which mature social roles are achieved is rising. New understandings of the diverse and dynamic effects on adolescent health include insights into the effects of puberty and brain development, together with social media. A focus on adolescence is central to the success of many public health agendas, including the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce child and maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS, and the more recent emphases on mental health, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. Greater attention to adolescence is needed within each of these public health domains if global health targets are to be met. Strategies that place the adolescent years centre stage-rather than focusing only on specific health agendas-provide important opportunities to improve health, both in adolescence and later in life.
... Updates March 2013 March 2013 Health Snapshot - Hispanic Adolescents in the United States Our nation’s adolescents are ... care and more positive health outcomes. 5 Hispanic adolescents in the U.S... Increasingly have health care coverage. ...
Shin, Jin Y.; D'Antonio, Emily; Son, Haein; Kim, Seong-A.; Park, Yeddi
The bullying experiences of Korean-American adolescents (N = 295) were explored in relation to discrimination and mental health outcomes. Bullying experiences were assessed by the "Bully Survey" (Swearer, 2005), discrimination by the "Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination Scale" (Way, 1997) and depression by the "Center for Epidemiological…
Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F
Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team.
Laurie Schwab Zabin
@@ The field of reproductive health has had long experience negotiating challenging environments in ways that other health fields have not -- perhaps because other health fields usually deal with illness which everyone agrees is not a good thing. Or maybe because we have all been born, we all think we know something about reproduction. Whatever the reason,we have over the years seen bitter political and ideological debates over population and family planning, abortion, the treatment of HIV/AIDS, in vitro fertilization, new contraceptive technologies--and now adolescent reproductive health. We shouldn't be surprised.But just as we have had to prevail in those debates in the past, they are crucial today: the numbers of young people entering their reproductive years throughout the world, especially the developing world, make it essential that youth be reached not only with messages and services crafted in the last 40 years but also with new messages, new ideas and new services.
Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R
Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.
Faustino R Pérez-López
Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-López, Gonzalo Pérez-Roncero, María T López-BaenaGrupo de Investigación sobre Salud de la Mujer en Aragón (GRISAMAR, Universidad de Zaragoza, Hospital Clínico Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter–the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20–30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the
Family support has been demonstrated to be essential for successful long-term outcomes of low-income, African American adolescent mothers and their children [Apfel, N., & Seitz, V. (1996). Urban girls: Resisting stereotypes, creating identities. NY: New York University Press]. Family support may also be essential for the continued paternal involvement of unmarried, low-income, African American adolescent fathers. Twenty mothers of unmarried, low-income, African American adolescent parents were individually interviewed for this qualitative study to describe the experiences of paternal grandmothers (mothers of adolescent fathers) and maternal grandmothers (mothers of adolescent mothers) during transition to fatherhood for unmarried, low-income, African American adolescent fathers. Findings are presented according to the six factors of transition conditions from the nursing model of transitions [Schumacher, K., & Meleis, A. I. (1994). Image, 26, 119-127]: meanings, expectations, level of knowledge and skill, the environment, level of planning, and emotional and physical well-being. Findings indicate that transition to parenthood and grandparenthood is often abrupt and complicated for unmarried, low-income, African American adolescent parents and their families. Paternal and maternal grandmothers continue to act as primary parents for their adolescents while compensating for the lack of skills and attributes for the adolescents' children. Findings from this study can be used to design developmentally and culturally appropriate health care interventions that can support these families during this complex process.
Meier, Ann; Allen, Gina
Theories on romantic relationship development posit a progression of involvement and intensity with age, relationship duration, and experience in romantic relationships. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests these propositions by considering relationship type and patterns of relationships over the course of adolescence and their influence on relationship formation in young adulthood. Findings indicate that relationships become more exclusive, dyadic, of longer duration, and more emotionally and sexually intimate over the course of adolescence. Moreover, relationship experience in adolescence is associated with an increased likelihood of cohabitation and marriage in young adulthood. These findings indicate that instead of being trivial or fleeting, adolescent romantic relationships are an integral part of the social scaffolding on which young adult romantic relationships rest.
Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Oh, Jean-Yin; Rajasegaran, Kumudhini
The introduction of adolescent medicine as a medical subspecialty in Singapore was a welcome in an evolving health care system that is unique in terms of both efficiency, in financing and the results achieved in community health outcomes. The Ministry of Health (MOH) already recognized the need to accommodate the health care concerns related to adolescent psychosocial health risk behaviors and an increased prevalence of young people living with chronic illness. The challenge for the pioneer team of physicians trained in adolescent medicine was to develop and sustain a model of care that integrated (i) core clinical services that include quality measures of care to adolescents; (ii) professional development and capacity building needing an expansive teaching agenda at every level of health education; (iii) strong inter-sectorial collaborations within hospital and community partners; and (iv) robust research and evaluation strategies that keep clinical practice relevant and evidence based.
Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed
The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.
Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew
This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.
Mental health is an essential component of adolescent health and wellbeing. Mental health practitioners assess adolescents' mental health status to identify possible issues that may lead to mental health problems. However, very few of the tools used to assess the mental health status of adolescents include assessment for grieving and coping patterns. The current tools used for assessing an individual's mental health are lengthy and not comprehensive. The purpose of this study was to assess grieving patterns of adolescents orphaned by AIDS and to appraise the usefulness of an event history calendar as an assessment tool for identifying grieving experiences, in order to guide and support these adolescents through the grieving process. One hundred and two adolescents aged 14-18 years, who had been orphaned by AIDS, completed an event history calendar, reviewed it with the researcher and reported their perceptions of it. Thematic analysis of the event history calendar content revealed that it is an effective, time-efficient, adolescent-friendly tool that facilitated identification and discussion of the orphaned adolescents' grieving patterns. Crying, isolation, silence and violent outbursts were the main grieving patterns reported by adolescents orphaned by AIDS. The researcher recommends use of the event history calendar for identification of orphaned adolescents' grieving experiences. Early identification would enable mental health practitioners to support them in order to prevent the occurrence of mental illness due to maladaptive grieving.
Moreno, Megan A; Kolb, Jennifer
Social networking sites are popular among and consistently used by adolescents. These sites present benefits as well as risks to adolescent health. Recently, pediatric providers have also considered the benefits and risks of using social networking sites in their own practices.
Merrick, Joav; Birnbaum, Liora; Kandel, Isack; Morad, Mohammed
Obesity in adolescence has increased significantly over the past 30-40 years and a recent international comparison study (13 European countries, Israel and the US) showed that the highest prevalence in adolescents was found in the US (12.6% in 13 year old boys, 10.8% in girls; 13.9% in 15 year old boys and 15.1% in 15 year old girls) and the lowest in Lithuania. This increase in adolescence is a public health concern, because most obese adolescents continue their obesity into adulthood with serious risk for chronic disease. Focus should therefore be on prevention programs that increase healthier patterns of lifestyle and physical activity.
Abernathy, Thomas J.; Webster, Greg; Vermeulen, Marian
Examines data on 1,759 adolescents to assess the effect of low socioeconomic status on their health. Results confirm the relationship between income and health. Explains how the pathway to poor health care operates through the social environment, lifestyle differences, access to care, and self-esteem problems. Findings do suggest that physical…
Tse, Cheryl; Sahhar, Margaret; Wallace, Jane; Duncan, Rony E
Adolescence is a developmental period marked by unique physical, psychological and social changes. Guidelines about working with adolescents are available to health professionals in other fields, yet few resources are tailored specifically to genetic counselors. The current qualitative study explored the experiences of genetic counselors who work with adolescent clients to determine whether challenges exist and if further training and support are needed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 genetic counselors from Australia. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis from which 7 key themes emerged: 1) Adolescents: A distinct client group? 2) Characteristics of adolescents; 3) Strategies for working with adolescents; 4) Confidentiality; 5) Parental involvement and presence in sessions; 6) Benefits of working with adolescents; and 7) The effectiveness of past training and education. The findings hold important implications for clinical practice and may inform future training programs and guidelines for genetic counselors internationally.
Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears
This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…
Tanner, Alicia; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham
Co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in adolescence typically marks more severe psychopathology and poorer psychosocial functioning than engagement in a single problem behavior. We examined the negative life events, emotional and behavioral problems, substance use, and suicidality of school-based adolescents reporting both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and repetitive firesetting, compared to those engaging in either behavior alone. Differences in NSSI characteristics among self-injurers who set fires, compared to those who did not, were also assessed. A total of 384 at-risk adolescents aged 12-18 years (58.8% female) completed self-report questionnaires measuring NSSI, firesetting, and key variables of interest. Results suggest that adolescents who both self-injure and deliberately set fires represent a low-prevalence but distinct high-risk subgroup, characterized by increased rates of interpersonal difficulties, mental health problems and substance use, more severe self-injury, and suicidal behavior. Implications for prevention and early intervention initiatives are discussed.
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Hirani, Kajal; Payne, Donald; Mutch, Raewyn; Cherian, Sarah
Adolescent refugees are a vulnerable population with complex healthcare needs that are distinct from younger and older age groups. Physical health problems are common in this cohort with communicable diseases being the focus of attention followed by an emphasis on nutritional deficiencies and other chronic disorders. Adolescent refugees have also often experienced multiple traumatic stressors and are at a heightened risk of developing mental health problems. Navigating these problems at the time of pubertal development adds further challenges and can exacerbate or lead to the emergence of health risk behaviours. Educational difficulties and acculturation issues further compound these issues. Adolescents who have had experiences in detention or are unaccompanied by parents are particularly at risk. Despite a constantly growing number of adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries, knowledge regarding their specific healthcare needs is limited. Research data are largely extrapolated from studies conducted within paediatric and adult cohorts. Holistic management of the medical and psychological issues faced by this group is challenging and requires an awareness of the socioeconomic factors that can have an impact on effective healthcare delivery. Legal and ethical issues can further complicate their management and addressing these in a culturally appropriate manner is essential. Early identification and management of the healthcare issues faced by adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries are key to improving long-term health outcomes and future healthcare burden. This review article aims to increase knowledge and awareness of these issues among paediatricians and other health professionals.
Yong-liang LIU; Jin WANG
Objective To make a exploration of the function of advocacy in the promotion of sex and reproductive health education for adolescents.Methods The advocacy played a key role on the promotion of adolescent sex and reproductive education by taking "International cooperation project to promote Chinese youth reproductive health "(YRH project) as example.Results The successful experience of YRH project indicated advocacy's important function in the promotion of sex and reproductive health education for adolescents.Conclusion Advocacy is a crucial element in promoting adolescent sex and reproductive health education.
Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith L.; Powers, Sally I.
Research on adolescent emotion has generally focused on expressions of emotion; however, there are reasons to believe that adolescents' experiences of emotion may be related to adolescent development in unique and important ways. This study examined the relation of adolescents' emotional experiences of conflict with their mothers to their…
This study examines health information about adolescent bodies from the perspective of young middle-class women, with the aim of determining ways in which health and education professionals could better serve young women. This qualitative study comprised "memory work" with eight Finnish women students. The findings suggest that young women prefer the information on menstruation that is given by public health professionals, because of its impersonal form, rather than personal encounters with relatives and peers. The information provided by public health professionals does not, however, meet the women's needs. This discrepancy can be explained by the gap between the narrow medical discourse on women's bodies held by the professionals and the experiences of young women. It is argued that public health representatives need to accommodate their knowledge to the everyday life interests and needs of adolescent women.
Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga
The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.
Albdour, Maha; Lewin, Linda; Kavanaugh, Karen; Hong, Jun Sung; Wilson, Feleta
In 2012, 20% of high school students were bullied in the United States. Bullying is more prevalent among minority populations. Arab American adolescents receive little research attention and are described as the invisible population. This descriptive qualitative study was conducted with 10 Arab American adolescent bullying victims to describe their bullying experiences and related stress. In addition to being bullied because of health problems or social disadvantages, Arab American adolescents reported that they were bullied because of their ethnic/racial background and religious affiliation. Victims described high stress levels and anxiety which compromised their ability to function. They reported feeling sad, angry, overwhelmed, helpless, and hurt when they were bullied. They also lost control over their lives and self-confidence. Family and friends were sources of support but school administrators and teachers were not supportive. Implications for practice and future research were discussed.
Shrivastava, Saurabh Rambiharilal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh
Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mental health services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mental health services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mental health institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mental health services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mental health in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.
Conclusions: Effectively planning, implementation and also evaluation of health programs in adolescent health is required to change attitude of adolescents, the health providers and also that of the setting where adolescents are addressed. Health professionals have their credibility towards adolescents, and the advice they give may be important for teenage behavior. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 2968-2972
Lee, Hyejung; Choi, Jihea; Hwang, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung Hyun
Background Young adolescents with scoliosis are more likely than adults to experience psychological distress affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Adolescence is a sensitive period of psychological development, and thus physical deformity from scoliosis can negatively affect body image and appearance of adolescents. The present study evaluated HRQoL in young Korean adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and identified related factors. Methods One hundred and ten adolescents with id...
Pichini, Amanda; Shuman, Cheryl; Sappleton, Karen; Kaufman, Miriam; Chitayat, David; Babul-Hirji, Riyana
Adolescence is a complex period of development that involves creating a sense of identity, autonomy, relationships and values. This stage of adjustment can be complicated by having a genetic condition. Genetic counseling can play an important role in providing information and support to this patient population; however, resources and guidelines are currently limited. In order to appropriately establish genetic counseling approaches and resource development, we investigated the experiences and perspectives of adolescents with a genetic condition with respect to their genetic counseling interactions. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents diagnosed with a genetic condition who received genetic counseling between the ages of 12 and 18 years at The Hospital for Sick Children. Transcripts were analyzed thematically using qualitative content analysis, from which three major interrelated themes emerged: 1) understanding the genetic counselor's role; 2) increasing perceived personal control; and 3) adolescent-specific factors influencing adaptation to one's condition. Additionally, a list of suggested tools and strategies for genetic counseling practice were elucidated. Our findings can contribute to the development of an adolescent-focused framework to enhance emerging genetic counseling approaches for this patient population, and can also facilitate the transition process from pediatric to adult care within patient and family-centered contexts.
Liu, Ting; Fuller, Jeffrey; Hutton, Alison; Grant, Julian
Chinese adolescents are increasingly engaging in romantic experiences and high-risk sexual behaviors within a rapidly-changing cultural and socio-economic context. Parental communication about sexuality has been recognized as protective for adolescents to make informed decisions about sexual practice. In this study, we explored what was discussed about adolescent romantic experience between parents and adolescents in China. Twenty-seven parents and 38 adolescents from a northern-eastern city of China were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using a social constructionism framework. Four themes were identified: (i) detriments of romantic experience to education and future prospect; (ii) health and sociocultural risks of romantic and sexual engagement; (iii) ways of handling romantic experience; and (iv) marriage and family building. The messages were mainly prohibitive and consequence oriented in nature, and lacked specific romantic and sexual information. These messages reflected sociocultural beliefs in education, sexuality, marriage, and family in China, but did not meet the needs of current adolescents. External support from health professionals, such as nurses, is important for parents and adolescents to improve their sexual knowledge and communication skills.
Beop-Rae Roh; Yoewon Yoon; Ahye Kwon; Seunga Oh; Soyoung Irene Lee; Kyunghee Ha; Yun Mi Shin; Jungeun Song; Eun Jin Park; Heejung Yoo; Hyun Ju Hong
Objective This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents. Method This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer...
de Graaf, J.C.
Although sexual development is a lifelong process, it is especially striking during adolescence. This dissertation contains one literature review and three empirical studies. It provides insight into sexual trajectories and its correlates, associations between parenting and a broad range of sexual h
Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok
Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939
Full Text Available Mental health is an essential component of adolescent health and wellbeing. Mental health practitioners assess adolescents’ mental health status to identify possible issues that may lead to mental health problems. However, very few of the tools used to assess the mental health status of adolescents include assessment for grieving and coping patterns. The current tools used for assessing an individual’s mental health are lengthy and not comprehensive. The purpose of this study was to assess grieving patterns of adolescents orphaned by AIDS and to appraise the sefulness of an event history calendar as an assessment tool for identifying grieving experiences, in order to guide and support these adolescents through the grieving process. One hundred and two adolescents aged 14–18 years, who had been orphaned by AIDS, completed an event history calendar, reviewed it with the researcher and reported their perceptions of it. Thematic analysis of the event history calendar content revealed that it is an effective, time-efficient, adolescent-friendly tool that facilitated identification and discussion of the orphaned adolescents’ grieving patterns. Crying, isolation, silence and violent outbursts were the main grieving patterns reported by adolescents orphaned by AIDS. The researcher recommends use of the event history calendar for identification of orphaned adolescents’ grieving experiences. Early identification would enable mental health practitioners to support them in order to prevent the occurrence of mental illness due to maladaptive grieving.
Jacobs, Myrthe; Downie, Helen; Kidd, Gill; Fitzsimmons, Lorna; Gibbs, Susie; Melville, Craig
Background: Children and young people with learning disabilities experience high rates of mental health problems. Methods: The present study reviewed the literature on mental health services for children with learning disabilities, to identify known models of service provision and what has been experienced as effective or challenging in providing…
Vicki A Nejtek
Full Text Available Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient’s mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother’s actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.Keywords: adolescent, suicide, maternal treatment noncompliance, maternal neglect
Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J. Kelly; Østbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Shields, Cleveland G.
Importance Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. Objective To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Main Outcomes and Measures Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. Results One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant
Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen
Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce.
Gilman, Rich; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne; Dewall, C Nathan; Adams, Ryan E; Carboni, Inga
This study validates a new self-report measure, the Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents (OES-A). Nineteen items were tested on a sample of 876 high school seniors to assess 2 of the most common ostracism experiences: being actively excluded from the peer group and being largely ignored by others. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, bivariate correlations, and hierarchical regression provided support for the construct validity of the measure. The findings provided psychometric support for the OES-A, which could be used in research into the nature and correlates of social ostracism among older adolescents when a brief self-report measure is needed. Further, the OES-A may help determine how social ostracism subtypes differentially predict health-compromising behaviors later in development, as well as factors that protect against the most pernicious effects of ostracism.
Boone, Tanya L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.
Fifty-two mother-adolescent dyads (mean adolescent age = 16.3) participated in an observational study of communication about health topics. The aim of the study was to examine mother-adolescent conversations about health issues--drugs/alcohol, sexuality, nutrition/exercise--to determine the extent to which the mothers treat these issues similarly.…
... allows youth to text live with a mental health professional. Crisis Text Line : help is available 24 hours a day throughout the US by texting START to 741741 More ... that cover a variety of mental health topics! An expert in scientific and health issues ...
Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan
Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…
Nixon, Charisse L
Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed.
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…
Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok
Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents ...
Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley
This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…
Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh
Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...
Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving mental health treatment (N = 893, M age = 14.9). Significant indirect effects from internalizing symptoms to safe sex intentions varied according sexual experience: for sexually non-active adolescents, HIV worry and knowledge mediated this link, whereas for sexually active adolescents, HIV self-efficacy was the significant mediator. Increasing both HIV knowledge and self-efficacy for HIV prevention are important targets for HIV prevention with adolescents with internalizing symptoms, and careful attention should be paid towards targeting these interventions to sexually experienced and inexperienced youth. PMID:25284921
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From the answers to the questionnaire on mental health of adolescents by 4366 middle school students in Beijing, we can see that the knowledge about masturbation, emission, menstruation, the easiest time period of pregnancy and at which age males get fertile is very limited, especially to the question "at which time females are easy to be pregnant," only 7.21% of the students answered correctly. The % of girls who had advanced preparation at menarche, knowing that menstruation is a normal phenomenon is 55.7%. As for the resources of knowledge of emission and menstruation, almost half of the girls' knowledge on menstruation is from their mothers, followed by friends and peers. Newspapers and magazines rank 1st of the resources of knowledge emission, followed by friends and peers. Only 10% of the knowledge is learned from teachers. It suggests that school sex education has a long way to go. What we must pay attention to is that some of the students are ignorant of emission and menstruation, some of them have totally erroneous views. For example, 5.2% of the rural girls believed that menstruation is "bleeding from the urethra" while 15 students answered that menstruation is "bleeding from the anus." About 1.4 to 1.3 of the students knew that syphilis and gonorrhea were sexually transmitted diseases; fewer students knew that AIDS was a sexually transmitted disease. 25% were not afraid of AIDS; 30% did not know that AIDS could be transmitted through sexual intercourse. The results suggest that sex education needs to be strengthened. With regard to the behavior of adolescents, 42.14% of boys and 30.29% of girls have the experience of masturbation. 52.8% of male senior high schools students had masturbated once. The rate of students who are in love is 10-12% for boys and girls. The % of students who consider that dating is not necessarily bad while studying are: 36.9% for junior high school boys; 42.12% for girls; 63.54% for senior high school boys and 65.94% for the
Mitchell, A K
This paper reports preliminary results of interviews with 71 divorced parents and 50 of their adolescent children. The interviews took place five to six years after divorce, and the sample was reasonably representative of divorced Edinburgh families having children aged 10-13 at divorce. Qualitative analysis shows a lack of explanations to children about the reasons for their parents' separation. The children's feelings are described, together with their experiences of custody and of access or lack of access. Finally, the children's reactions are given to their parents' new partners. Some of the children remain unconvinced of the need for their parents to separate, and some are still sad and hurt.
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar
We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.
Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun
This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.
Charisse L Nixon Pennsylvania State University, the Behrend College, Erie, PA, USA Abstract: Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health...
Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth
A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…
Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe
Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future.
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.
Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (m...
Girard, Gustavo A
Although poverty is not a new phenomenon, currently it has peculiar characteristics: globalization, inequity, new features in education, exclusion, gender inequalities, marginalization of native peoples and migrations, difficulties found by different sectors to have access to technology, and unemployment. These characteristics are seen not only in countries considered to be developing nations, but affect the whole world. The present international financial crisis, this time originating in industrialized countries, represents an aggravating factor, the consequences of which are still difficult to estimate. It has a particular impact on adolescents and young people in terms of health as a whole, mortality rates, violence, nutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, mental health, and disabilities, all being aggravated by the difficulties of access to ap propriate health services. Social capital is seriously affected, and this entails a strong and deleterious impact not only on present generations but also on future ones. It is a challenge that cannot be ignored.
Full Text Available Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity. The World Health Organization defines an adolescent as a person between ages 10 and 19 years. A dramatic shift in thinking from concrete to abstract gives adolescents a whole new set of mental tools, to analyze situations logically in terms of cause and effect, appreciate hypothetical situations, evaluate alternatives, introspection, decision making and cognitive abilities. Adolescents experience intense physical, psychological changes as they make transition from childhood to adulthood. This period of transition is the most vulnerable time. Adolescents are at risk of developing behavioral problems like school failure and drop outs, substance abuse, delinquency and violence, sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, domestic violence, stress and depression and risk-taking behaviour. It is the responsibility of the society to utilize this period constructively through education, counseling, mass media, awareness programmes and address the reproductive health needs of adolescents. The present study analyzes the psychosocial risk status and knowledge of reproductive health in adolescents in Raipur city. The study recommends implementation of provisions by government to provide continuous education and economic security for adolescents. Programmes like age-appropriate reproductive health curriculum should be introduced in schools and colleges with counseling facilities at school and primary health care levels.
Clark, Geoffrey; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen
This study reports findings from a survey of Papua New Guinean registered nurse who completed the Integrated Management of Adult and Adolescent Illness (IMAI) Chronic HIV Care training conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. The survey conducted is one component of a mixed method evaluation of the IMAI program in Papua New Guinea. Data from the questionnaires were entered into version 16 of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software program. The responses on the effect of the IMAI training program had on various aspects of how care is provided, learning needs and other program outcomes were analysed with a chi-square test being applied to detect any difference in the response given by the different demographic subgroups in terms of gender, age, care status, current employer and past educational attainment. The survey revealed that all thirty-five respondents have a positive impression of the IMAI program and expressed the view that the IMAI program had a positive effect on various aspects of patient care and their learning and experience. Overall, the survey identified that registered nurses who participated in the IMAI Chronic HIV Care training program perceive the program to be beneficial for improving the way HIV care is provided.
Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan
The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents.
Corrêa, Ana Cândida Lopes; Meincke, Sonia Maria Könzgen; Schwartz, Eda; Oliveira, Adriane Maria Netto de; Soares, Marilu Corrêa; Jardim, Vanda Maria da Rosa
Objective to know the perception of men of the experience of parenting during adolescence. Method a qualitative study conducted with five men who experienced paternity during adolescence. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews at the homes of the subjects in August 2013, in a city of southern Brazil. The data were analysed with the theoretical model of Urie Bronfenbrenner. Results paternity in adolescence was a coming of age experience that triggered reflection on the role of the father and his duties. The referenced microsystem was the family and it influenced the development of parenthood. Paternity has implications during adolescence and repercussions throughout the lives of the subjects. Conclusion it is important to introduce the topic of fatherhood in the health and education systems in order for adolescents to exercise parenting in a healthy manner. Nursing plays an important role because it can assist this population and target attention toward the singularities of parenthood.
Dow, Dorothy E; Turner, Elizabeth L; Shayo, Aisa M; Mmbaga, Blandina; Cunningham, Coleen K; O'Donnell, Karen
AIDS-related mortality among HIV-positive adolescents has risen by 50% despite the scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART maladherence likely plays a role in the increase of AIDS-related deaths among adolescents and has shown to be associated with psychosocial and mental health difficulties. Addressing the specific mental health needs of HIV-positive adolescents is critical to ending the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive adolescents (12-24 years) in Moshi, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was administered that included questions about home, school, adherence, and measures of stigma (Berger Stigma Scale) and mental health. Mental health measures included depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), emotional/behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and traumatic experiences/post-traumatic stress symptoms (The University of California Los Angeles-post-traumatic stress disorder-Reaction Index). Mental health difficulties were prevalent among HIV-positive adolescents and were associated with incomplete adherence and stigma. Resources are needed to reduce HIV stigma and address mental health among HIV-positive adolescents in low-resource settings. This will improve not only mental health, but may also improve ART adherence and virologic suppression, improving overall health of the individual and reducing the risk of HIV transmission to others.
Childhood and adolescent mental health is a major public health concern. Childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem can predispose children to future depression. Mental health issues often emerge in adolescence making examination of potential early modifiable risk factors for these three mental health indicators crucial. Potential risk factors for mental health issues often reflect findings from Western settings where confounding by low socioeconomic position may occur, making it diffi...
McGuerty, Amber B.; Cater, Melissa; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tuuri, Georgianna
Interventions to increase adolescents' healthful food and beverage consumption often fail to demonstrate change. An alternative is to measure a shift in willingness to consume these items as an indicator of movement toward change. A survey was developed to estimate willingness to consume a variety of foods and beverages. Twenty items were…
Su, Jing Jing; Lindell, Deborah
In China, nurses have limited presence in schools, thus, adolescent girls often lack accurate information about menstrual health, which may lead to incorrect and unhealthy menstrual-related behavior. This study investigated the effects of a culturally and developmentally tailored nursing intervention on the menstrual health of adolescent girls in China. Following institutional review board approval, adolescent girls aged 12-15 were recruited from two schools. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design examined the effects of five interactive education sessions on menstrual health. The final sample included 116 adolescent girls. Significant improvement was observed in the intervention group regarding menstrual knowledge, confidence in performing menstrual healthcare behavior, and dysmenorrhea related self-care behavior. A nurse-managed education program improved adolescent girls' menstrual knowledge, promoted a more positive attitude, encouraged confidence, and improved pain relief practice. We recommend that professional nurses globally advocate for school nursing and routine menstrual health education for adolescent girls.
Bennett, David L; Chown, Peter; Kang, Melissa S-L
In Australia, where about 16% of young people are born overseas and 24% are from a non-English-speaking background, adolescent health care is a multicultural challenge. "Cultural competency" involves challenging one's own cultural assumptions and beliefs, developing empathy for people from other cultures, and applying specific communication and interaction skills in clinical encounters. For health professionals, sensitivity to the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and social diversity among young people helps to avert problems and misunderstandings, improves satisfaction for all concerned and leads to better outcomes. Engaging the family and gaining the trust of parents is critical in treating young people from cultural backgrounds in which participation in health care is a family concern rather than an individual responsibility.
Nixon, Charisse L
Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents’ health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. PMID:25177157
Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P
Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at risk for regular energy drink consumption and to explore the association of regular energy drinks consumption with health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences in adolescents. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were analysed. We assessed socio-demographic characteristics, energy drink consumption, health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences based on self-reports from 8977 adolescents aged 11-15 years (mean age/standard deviation 13/1.33; 50.0% boys). The prevalence of regular energy drink consumption in the present sample was 20.6% (95%CI: 20%-21%). Regular energy drink consumption was more frequent among boys and older adolescents. Adolescents with a medium-level family affluence were less likely to drink energy drinks regularly. Adolescents who consumed energy drinks regularly had more health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences.
Austin, S B; Rich, M
Marketplace practices are integral to the larger economic and social context of adolescent health risk behaviors. To corporations and marketers, adolescents represent a gold mine of current and future profits. Adolescent incomes increased by almost a third in the 1990s. The annual spending of the U.S. adolescent population is estimated now to have reached 155 billion US dollars. The sheer size of the adolescent population and its spending power are of keen interest to corporations and marketers. This chapter presents a brief history of youth-targeted marketing and examines the major avenues in the media and inside schools that marketers and corporations use today to reach adolescents with their messages and products. It outlines the impact of consumerism and marketing on adolescent health using five case examples: tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic surgery, laxatives, and diet pills. It then concludes with a discussion of resistance efforts, led by health advocates, policy makers, parents, and youth themselves to restrict sales of harmful products to youth and curtail advertisers' access to adolescents in schools. A critical role for adolescent health researchers and advocates is to contribute a public health perspective into ongoing debates over regulating business practices that negatively affect the health of young people.
Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…
Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay
The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…
Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor
Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents' awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.
Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC
Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea
Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.
Smith, Scott R; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hauser, Peter C
Deaf individuals have more cardiovascular risks than the general population that are believed to be related to their cardiovascular health knowledge disparities. This phenomenological study describes where 20 deaf sign language-using adolescents from Rochester, New York, many who possess many positive characteristics to support their health literacy, learn cardiovascular health information and their lived experiences accessing health information. The goal is to ultimately use this information to improve the delivery of cardiovascular health education to this population and other deaf adolescents at a higher risk for weak health literacy. Deaf bilingual researchers interviewed deaf adolescents, transcribed and coded the data, and described the findings. Five major sources of cardiovascular health information were identified including family, health education teachers, healthcare providers, printed materials, and informal sources. Despite possessing advantageous characteristics contributing to stronger health literacy, study participants described significant challenges with accessing health information from each source. They also demonstrated inconsistencies in their cardiovascular health knowledge, especially regarding heart attack, stroke, and cholesterol. These findings suggest a great need for additional public funding to research deaf adolescents' informal health-related learning, develop accessible and culturally appropriate health surveys and health education programming, improve interpreter education, and disseminate information through social media.
Full Text Available Charisse L Nixon Pennsylvania State University, the Behrend College, Erie, PA, USA Abstract: Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. Keywords: cyberbullying, adolescent health, prevention, intervention
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid
to school performance and subsequent educational achievements. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of health measures on school performance at the end of compulsory school (9 years of school). Methods Information from a birth cohort study of adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3058) living...... years has between 0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 0.40] and 0.34 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.48) lower grades, adjusted for a range of other factors influencing school performance. Specific symptoms leading to poorer school performance includes frequent headaches, high levels of perceived stress...... and depressive symptoms. If parents report health problems for the participant between ages 7 and 14, grades decrease with 0.89 (95% CI 0.44 to 1.32). Conclusions Frequent headache, perceived stress and depressive symptoms contributes to lower grades at the end of compulsory school, thereby indicating...
Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy
Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…
Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.
The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…
Jeng Yi-Jong; Wang Edward K; Chen Mei-Yen
Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly) is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency o...
Bushong, C; Coverdale, J; Battaglia, J
Over the past 30 years, adolescents represent the only age group in the United States whose health status has not improved significantly. In this population, major health problems that are becoming increasingly important in regard to preventive intervention include substance abuse, depression, teenage pregnancy, and AIDS. Research in adolescent mental health during the past decade has focused on both the etiology and the prevention of problem behaviors. We review the development and application of various preventive intervention approaches in the field of adolescent mental health and discuss implications for future directions.
Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.
This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin
The objectives of this study were: to describe perceived dental health status and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Chinese urban adolescents; to assess the associations of oral health variables with socio-economic status and school performance; and to analyse the relative...
The major threats to the health of American teenagers are behavioral-risky and reckless things adolescents do that threaten their well-being and that of others. The primary approach to preventing adolescent risk taking has been classroom-based health education. Yet, most systematic research indicates that even the best programs are successful mainly at changing adolescents' knowledge but not in altering their behavior. Research on adolescent brain development has revolutionized our understanding of this stage of life, but our approach to deterring adolescent risk taking remains grounded in old, antiquated, and erroneous views of the period. Classroom-based health education is an uphill battle against evolution and endocrinology, and it is not a fight we are likely to win. Instead of trying to change teenagers into something they are not, we should try to reduce the risks they are exposed to. We should spend less money and effort trying to influence how adolescents think, and focus more on limiting opportunities for their inherently immature judgment to hurt themselves or others. Although there is evidence that some programs aimed at strengthening adolescents' self-regulation may also deter risky behavior, our public health policies should emphasize changing the context in which adolescents live, rather than solely attempting to change adolescents themselves.
English, Abigail; Ford, Carol A; Kahn, Jessica A; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Middleman, Amy B
Vaccines currently recommended for adolescents by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have the potential to improve the health of youth by preventing conditions such as: tetanus, pertussis, meningococcal disease, influenza, and genital warts, as well as later adult outcomes such as cervical and other human papillomavirus-related cancers. Adolescent vaccine coverage lags behind that for younger age groups. A requirement to obtain parental consent for vaccination can present a significant barrier to improving adolescent vaccine uptake across all health care settings in which adolescents access care. The ability of minors to consent to vaccination can influence whether adolescents receive indicated vaccines during adolescent health care visits when parents are absent and when adolescents are seen for confidential services. State laws govern consent for the delivery of health care to minors. All states have some laws that allow minors to consent to health care based either on their status or on the services they are seeking. Some of these laws would allow them to consent to vaccination. It is the Position of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine that, within ethical and legal guidelines, it will be important to develop strategies that maximize opportunities for minors to receive vaccinations when parents are not physically present, including opportunities for them to give their own consent.
Montgomery, Kristen S
A guiding theoretical framework in research serves not only to guide a single research study, but also to link previous and future research that is guided by the same framework. Existing theoretical perspectives appropriate for use with adolescent health promotion research were reviewed. Instead of randomly selecting several theories for comparison, an intensive review of the literature was conducted to identify which theories were most commonly used with adolescent health promotion research. The results of this review revealed some interesting and noteworthy information regarding the state of theory use in adolescent health research for the last decade. Information is provided on theoretical perspectives by journal and year of publication. Trends are analyzed so that nurses can evaluate the current state of the science. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), the health belief model (Becker, 1978), and the health promotion model (Pender, 1996) emerged as the most significant theories for adolescent health promotion research and thus are discussed at the end of the article.
JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.
Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori
A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…
Shahabuddin, Asm; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Delvaux, Thérèse; Sarker, Malabika; Delamou, Alexandre; Bardají, Azucena; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.; De Brouwere, Vincent
Background The huge proportion of child marriage contributes to high rates of pregnancies among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Despite substantial progress in reducing maternal mortality in the last two decades, the rate of adolescent pregnancy remains high. The use of skilled maternal health services is still low in Bangladesh. Several quantitative studies described the use of skilled maternal health services among adolescent girls. So far, very little qualitative evidence exists about attitudes and practices related to maternal health. To fill this gap, we aimed at exploring maternal health care-seeking behavior of adolescent girls and their experiences related to pregnancy and delivery in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings A prospective qualitative study was conducted among thirty married adolescent girls from three Upazilas (sub-districts) of Rangpur district. They were interviewed in two subsequent phases (2014 and 2015). To triangulate and validate the data collected from these married adolescent girls, key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with different stakeholders. Data analysis was guided by the Social-Ecological Model (SEM) including four levels of factors (individual, interpersonal and family, community and social, and organizational and health systems level) which influenced the maternal health care-seeking behavior of adolescent girls. While adolescent girls showed little decision making-autonomy, interpersonal and family level factors played an important role in their use of skilled maternal health services. In addition, community and social factors and as well as organizational and health systems factors shaped adolescent girls’ maternal health care-seeking behavior. Conclusions In order to improve the maternal health of adolescent girls, all four levels of factors of SEM should be taken into account while developing health interventions targeting adolescent girls. PMID:28095432
De Sanctis, V; Filati, G; Fiscina, B; Marsciani, A; Piacentini, G; Timoncini, G; Reggiani, L; Zucchini, A
The purpose of this mini-review is to present the National Health System and services available for adolescents in Italy, and to review the most relevant data on morbidity and mortality in Italian teens. Adolescent medicine in Italy is not a separate speciality, but there are some distinct services for adolescents in paediatric departments or gynaecologic wards, mostly in large cities where university hospitals or hospital of national relevance are located. Primary health care in Italy is provided mainly by general practitioners (GPs) and pediatricians, and on-call physicians (Guardia Medica) for after-hours medical care and services. The number of centres providing care for adolescents in Italy is 4097 (50% of these are in the North of Italy, 20% in the Central regions and 20% in the South and Islands). The population of Italy on January 1st 2011 was approximately 60,477,881 and the number of adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years, was 6,214,000. The most frequent causes of death in adolescents are motor vehicle accidents - more than half of which are related to drug or alcohol use - followed by cancer and suicide. In primary care, adolescents present with a large number of issues, particularly upper respiratory infections, musculoskeletal problems, pain syndromes, obesity, eating disorders, dermatological issues, mood and somatoform disorders, school and mental health problems, and chronic fatigue, many of which require a coordinated, multidisciplinary management approach. The estimated population with a chronic illness is 8%. There are no specific protocols for the transition to adult medicine physicians for patients with chronic diseases or special health needs. In order to improve the quality and quantity of education in adolescent health for paediatricians and GPs, the Study Group of Emilia and Romagna Region for Adolescent Health Care (SGA-ER) is going to organize, beginning in 2012, a two year educational intervention course in adolescent health.
Bezerra, Camilla Pontes; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag
The combination between transformations in adolescence, the indefiniteness they are accompanied by and the visual impairment justifies a study about the sexual experience of female, visually impaired adolescents included in society and in the school community. Five adolescents were interviewed at a Pedagogical Support Center. Questions attempted to find out their knowledge and understanding about the cause of their visual impairment, family composition and orientations, affective-sexual experience, level of knowledge about sexuality-related issues, including contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. Results revealed that these adolescents display the same sexuality development characteristics of their age group, though they have particular characteristics. It was observed there is a lack of knowledge regarding contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases, of which the adolescents have superficial information. Making knowledge on the referred issues accessible to this population is indispensible.
Castaño, Paula M; Martínez, Raquel Andrés
Sexually active adolescents are at risk for unintended pregnancy. Teen pregnancies can be prevented by consistent use of birth control, such as oral contraceptives. However, many teens forget their daily doses and eventually stop using oral contraceptives altogether. Teen pregnancies are more likely to be medically complicated and can adversely impact the teen, her child, and their community. Cell-phone use is becoming widespread, and teen cell-phone users frequently use text messaging. We describe a study in which we use cell-phone text-messaging technology in a novel way: we provide daily oral contraceptive dosing reminders and educational messages and evaluate oral contraceptive continuation at 6 months. We will use the information we obtain to develop specific, practice-based interventions to improve reproductive health programs and policies.
Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes.
Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K
Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult
Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic scoliosis is a chronic illness with several different braces used for its treatment. Brace treatment during childhood/adolescence can produce stress. There are studies supporting that it can decrease body-image perception while other studies support that it has no such effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis. The aim was to investigate which feelings are created by the bracing experience in children/adolescents with scoliosis and what are the children/adolescents' with scoliosis opinions of the support provided to them by health-care professionals and by their families. Methods We conducted interviews with the help of a semi-structured interview guide in order to address the topic of the experience of brace treatment. A convenient sample of twelve children and adolescents with scoliosis was selected from patients attending follow-up appointments at the Outpatient Scoliosis Clinics of two Greek hospitals. The data was analysed using the method of content analysis. Results Patients in the sample were 10–16 years old and they were mainly females (71%. Almost all of the participants reported having to deal with stress, denial, fear, anger, and shame. They were satisfied with the information they received regarding their condition and therapy. However, the information was not accompanied by support from the health care professionals. They reported that they were receiving support mainly from their families, friends, and classmates. Conclusion The present study is contributing to the development of a better understanding of significant issues related to the experience of bracing therapy. It is clear that scoliosis children/adolescents have to be provided with support during the long period of bracing. It is apparent that those children/adolescents have unmet needs for care and health professionals and policy makers should try to find a
The differential impacts of episodic, chronic, and cumulative physical bullying and cyberbullying: the effects of victimization on the school experiences, social support, and mental health of rural adolescents.
Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L
Few studies have examined the impacts of past, current, and chronic physical bullying and cyberbullying on youth, especially in rural settings. This study augments this scant literature by exploring the school experiences, social support, and mental health outcomes for rural, middle school youth. The participants for this 2-year longitudinal study were 3,127 youth from 28 middle schools. Participants were classified as nonvictims, past victims (i.e., victimized during Year 1 but not Year 2), current victims (i.e., victimized during Year 2 but not Year 1), and chronic victims (i.e., victimized during both Year 1 and Year 2). Findings illustrated that chronic victimization resulted in the lowest levels of school satisfaction, social support, future optimism, and self-esteem. Chronic victims also reported the highest levels of school hassles, perceived discrimination, peer rejection, anxiety, depression, and externalizing behaviors. In terms of episodic victimization, current year victimization was associated with worse outcomes than past year victimization. Implications and limitations were discussed.
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary
Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…
de Wit, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Pouwer, F
Particularly in chronic conditions, monitoring health related quality of life (HRQoL) of adolescents in clinical practice is increasingly advocated. We set out to identify and review the clinical utility of available generic and diabetes specific HRQoL questionnaires suitable for use in adolescents...
Tilahun Mesfin; Mengistie Bezatu; Egata Gudina; Reda Ayalu A
Abstract Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010....
Currently being developed by the Thoughtshop Foundation in collaboration with the Child In Need Institute in West Bengal, this kit is intended to help peer educators in generating awareness about reproductive health issues among rural adolescent boys and men through discussions and other activities. The central theme is men's responsibility for their sexual behavior and the reproductive and sexual health of their partners. In five modules, the kit tells the story of Shankar, a boy 13 years old. Each module consists of a flip chart and accompanying visual aids/activities. The modules are as follows: 1) Puberty, self-esteem, responsibility; 2) Knowledge of changes which girls experience during puberty; 3) Childbirth; 4) Contraception--why/how; 5) Safer sex, hygiene, STD/HIV/AIDS.
Fleischman, Katie; Smothers, Melissa K.; Christianson, Heidi F.; Carter, Laura; Hains, Anthony A.; Davies, W. Hobart
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) as they transitioned into high school in order to understand the contextual factors that impact diabetic health-related behaviors and self-identity. A qualitative interviewing methodology called consensual qualitative research (CQR) was…
Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…
Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J
The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.
The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings.
Valerie J. Lewis
Full Text Available Adolescents, like adults, frequently experience discrimination, which can be particularly salient in the context of reproductive health care. We examined urban Black adolescent females’ perceived experiences of racial discrimination during reproductive health care encounters. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with female African American patients, from age 13 through 20, who obtained reproductive health care services at a single site. Twenty-four participants were enrolled. All were in or graduated from high school, with a mean age of 16.8 years. These young Black women reported infrequent race-based discrimination in the health care setting; however, many reported commonly experiencing discrimination in other places. An awareness of the discrimination that minority young women experience in non–health care settings can help providers demonstrate cultural humility when addressing such concerns with their patients. With this information, providers can provide anticipatory guidance and the tools necessary to navigate complex social systems.
Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Sung, Connie
Recent advances in technology and neuroscience have increased our understanding of human neurodevelopment. In particular, research on neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics lends compelling support to a biopsychosocial perspective by elucidating mechanisms through which psychosocial forces and environments shape neurobiology. This article summarizes selected results from recent investigations of neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics, which demonstrate complex interaction between genes, epigenetic processes, and environmental experience that confers neural growth into adulthood. Counseling psychologists working with children and adolescents need to be familiar with recent literature to be more effective in their work so that they can provide developmentally appropriate counseling services. Social cognitive theory and resilience theory are introduced to illustrate how counseling psychologists can incorporate neuroscience research findings in a counseling context and hypotheses are proposed for future counseling psychology research.
Othman, N A A; Sockalingam, S N M P; Mahyuddin, A
This case-controlled study aimed to evaluate the existing oral health status in children and adolescents with haemophilia. A total of 50 haemophilia patients and 50 matched controls aged seven to 16 years were recruited into the study. Clinical examination was carried out to determine dental caries experience, oral hygiene status and gingival condition in these two groups. Information regarding previous dental history, oral hygiene practices and dietary habits were also obtained. No significant difference was found in mean caries experience in primary and secondary dentitions (P = 0.86 and 0.32) and in Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, P = 0.20) between both groups. However, a significantly higher proportion of haemophilia patients (24%) had better oral hygiene status as compared to the controls (2%, P = 0.004). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in Modified Gingival Index (MGI, P = 0.02) between the two groups with the study group having less gingival inflammation. A total of 88% (n = 44) of the haemophilia patients were registered and received dental treatment in specialist dental clinics. More than half (56%, n = 28) had frequent dental visits and only one-third of the haemophilia patients had history of hospitalization due to oral problems. There was no significant difference in oral hygiene practices and dietary habits between both groups. In general, haemophilia children and adolescents in this study had similar caries experience, a significantly better oral hygiene status and gingival health as compared to healthy controls. The main reason for this is the multidisciplinary approach implemented by medical health-care professionals as primary care provider and the dental team.
Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole
Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students' sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment.
Crutzen, Rik; De Nooijer, Jascha
Mental health problems are highly prevalent among adolescents, but a majority of adolescents is reluctant to seek help at mental health services because of shame and lack of anonymity. Intervening via chat (i.e. offering online support) could be a solution to remove these barriers and to reach adolescents. The dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) served as a guiding principle for discussing the potential of offering online support via chat. It appeared that the use of chat may be an appropriate way to reach adolescents and may have a positive impact on outcome measures related to mental health. Additional efforts are needed to stimulate adoption at the individual level (target group, intermediaries) and the organizational level. Future research needs to focus on the dissemination of chat-based interventions, differences between online peer support and online professional support, and the content of conversations via chat about mental health problems.
Many mental health disorders emerge in late childhood and early adolescence and contribute to the burden of these disorders among young people and later in life. We systematically reviewed literature published up to December 2015 to identify systematic reviews on mental health interventions in adolescent population. A total of 38 systematic reviews were included. We classified the included reviews into the following categories for reporting the findings: school-based interventions (n = 12); c...
Full Text Available AiM: This study was planned as a descriptive study in order to investigate risky health behaviors of immigrant and non immigrant adolescents. METHODS: The study was performed in a high school situated Izmir between the dates of October and November 2008. Sample group of this research was included 293 immigrant and 813 non immigrant adolescents. Data were collected by using Socio-demographic question form and and Health Risk Behaviors Scale. Data were collected from students with a technical pencil-paper by researcher in classroom. Frequencies, one way anova (post-hoc bonferroni and independent t test were used with Stastical Package for Social Science 13.0 program for statistical analysis of data. Written consent was taken from Izmir Directorate of Education to carry out the study. Oral consent was taken from the school manager and the students. RESULTS: Mean age of adolescents was 15.42+/-0.03. It was determined that risky health behaviors mean score (t: 2.161, p: 0.031 and physical activity (t: 2.132, p: 0.033, nutrition (t:3.030, p: 0.003, hygiene (t: 3.850, p: 0.000 sub-scales mean scores of immigrant adolescent were statistically higher than non immigrant adolescents (p<0.05. CONCLUSiONS: Consequently, this study was important to health professionals worked primary health services and school health services The study have significant data about migration affects on health behaviors of adolescent to show health professionals worked primary care and school health services and to plan health services towards adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 289-294
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M.; Heeren, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or ...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study was done to assess the educational needs of the adolescent girl students regarding their reproductive health. METHODS: The data were collected by administering an open-ended self-administered questionnaire to the participating students seeking their opinion on several issues related to adolescent reproductive health. RESULTS: The students preferred their teachers next only to doctors as health educator. Their health problems included menstrual problems, weakness, eye problems, headache and weight gain. Other problems were tension with studies, inability to concentrate, depression and irritability. Two most important areas of their concern are safe motherhood and AIDS. CONCLUSIONS: Need exists for reproductive health education. Keywords: adolescent, reproductive health education, school.
Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca Domingos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the experience of women who induced an abortion during adolescence as demanded by their mothers. METHOD: qualitative study with a social phenomenology approach conducted in 2010 with three women through interviews with open questions. RESULTS: the participants tried to hide their pregnancies from their mothers and when the mothers found out about the pregnancies they decide to interrupt it, demanding that their daughters have an abortion, which was performed in an unsafe manner, regardless of the adolescents' desire. After the abortion, the adolescents experienced suffering, guilt, and regret for not having fought against their mothers' decisions. These women expect to be autonomous to make their own decisions, take care of their own health and become pregnant again. CONCLUSION: the study evidenced the decision for an abortion was centered on the adolescents' mothers, a result that deserves to be further explored in future research deepening the relationship established between daughter and mother in the situation of an induced abortion. We suggest the creation of opportunities for the triad of health professional/adolescent/family to dialogue, especially the mother, who in the context of family relations, can help the daughter to safely deal with an early pregnancy and prevent it instead of influencing the adolescent to induce an abortion.
Farideh K Abadi Farahani
Full Text Available Objective: Parents are believed to be among the most influential adults who have a deterministic role in the success of interventional programs on adolescents' reproductive health. The aim of this study is to describe parents' perceptions and attitudes towards adolescent reproductive needs, experiences and associated factors. Method: A population-based study of 539 parents of adolescent boys, aged 15-18 in Tehran was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with parents' attitudes and their reports of adolescent heterosexual relationships. Results: Higher education, higher income, access to satellite programs and internet were associated with a liberal attitude among parents. Some demographic factors including adolescents' age, lack of adolescents' endorsement to religion, access to satellite programs, parents' drinking, and various family factors such as poor parent-adolescent relationship, conflict, parental low valuation on education, parents' low endorsement to morals, difficult parent-adolescent communication on important issues and finally easy communication about sex, were all among the factors associated with more frequent reports of having a girlfriend over the last year for the adolescent males. Parents' reports on their adolescents' sexual relationships with the opposite sex highlighted a significant gap with the figure reported for the adolescents aged 15-18 in a preceding study in 2002(3% vs. 28%. Conclusion: Parents should be advised to build a good relationship with teens, to maintain a close parent-teen communication, and to discuss morals and values with teens .
Pérez-Wilson, Patricia; Hernán, Mariano; Morgan, Antony R; Mena, Angel
This study uses a health asset (HA) framework to explore current perspectives on health, wellbeing and their determinants amongst a group of 15-18-year-old adolescents living in the neighbourhood of Zaidin (Granada, Spain). The study was carried out in Summer 2011 using a qualitative approach. It included 20 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups with adolescents and 4 semi-structured interviews with key informants (adults who work with adolescents). Narrative data were analysed by means of content analysis methodology, considering the concept of health, HAs and how they are prioritized as dimensions for the analysis. The concept of health defined by adolescents involves physical, psychological and social dimensions. According to them, health is associated with happiness and quality of life. A range of HAs were identified and classified as internal (belonging to the adolescents) and external or contextual. Internal assets are classified into three types: personal traits (assets of 'being'), behaviour (assets of 'doing') and social resources which contribute to their feeling of health and well-being (assets of 'having'). The latter connects internal and external assets. The classification of HAs ('being', 'doing' and 'having') proposed in this study provides a useful starting framework of thinking about how these assets could be organized to support the development of health promotion programmes. The study highlights the opportunity for public policy to contribute to the improvement of the conditions and local scenarios that improve the possibilities for positive connections at the community level.
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid
adult educational achievement. Data are taken from a birth cohort study of all adolescents born in 1989 (n=3,058) living in a rural county in Denmark. Information was obtained from questionnaires (sent to the adolescents and their parents) and from different national registers (e.g. hospitalization...
Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Ward, Britney L.; Welch, Philip J.
Background: This study examined the prevalence of oral sexual activity in rural Midwestern adolescents. We also examined the correlates of a series of risk behaviors with oral sexual activity. Methods: A questionnaire based on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was distributed to 2121 rural middle and high school students in grades 6-12…
Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.
Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…
Aiming to investigate adolescents' perceptions of oral health, with a focus on gender differences, quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in Skaraborg County, Sweden. Adolescents (13-18 years; n = 17,280) answered a school questionnaire, epidemiological indices on oral health were collected, and 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Most adolescents perceived their oral health as good, girls more often than boys. The oral behavior of girls was also more often healthy (floss usage: girls 31%, boys 21%), and they were consistently less satisfied with the appearance of their teeth than boys. Girls considered their own consumption of candy to be too high more often than boys. Acknowledging the importance of sound teeth was strongly associated with self-perceived oral health: boys, odds ratio (OR) 8.58 [confidence interval (CI) 7.12-10.34]; girls, OR 5.56 [CI 4.23-7.30]. Adolescents living with a single mother (13-15-yr-olds OR 1.37 [CI 1.20-1.57], 16-18-yr-olds OR 1.51 [CI 1.28-1.77]), or with neither parent, more often reported bleeding gums than those who lived with both parents, while adolescents who lived with a single father did not. Weak correlations between epidemiological indices and self-perceived oral health were found at the school level. In the interviews, adolescents perceived the possibilities to influence their own oral health as limited. Perceptions of influences on oral health were related to personal and professional care, social support, social impact, and external factors such as time and economy. Support from the mother--more than from the father--was emphasized. This thesis showed that positive oral health attitudes and parental support are of great importance if oral health is to be perceived as good. There were gender differences in all issues related to self-perceived oral health.
Agampodi Thilini C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners
Full Text Available This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents.This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer bullying was examined using latent class analysis (LCA to classify participants' relevant experiences. Then, a binomial logistic regression adjusted by propensity scores was conducted to identify relationships between experiences of being bullied and suicidal behaviors.The LCA of experiences with bullying revealed two distinct classes of bullying: physical and non-physical. Adolescents who experienced physical bullying were 3.05 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were not bullied. Victims of (non-physical cyber bullying were 2.94 times more likely to attempt suicide than were those who were not bullied.Both physical and non-physical bullying were associated with suicide attempts, with similar effect sizes. Schools and mental health professionals should be more attentive than they currently are to non-physical bullying.
Parker, Edith A.; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Objectives We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4) previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment) to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among white men and women. Methods We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis. Results Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase. Conclusion Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles
Jensen, Bente; Jensen, B. B.
The publication presents for the first time selected data from a survey of the attitudes of 13 to 15 year olds in Denmark. The survey indicates that the adolescents know that health is inequitably distributed. In addition. they strongly believe that everyone should have the sam opportunities...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.
Overweight and obesity are pandemic health problems, not just among the adult population, but in children and adolescents as well. This article presents information on the prevalence, causes, prevention, and treatment of overweight and obesity in young people, with particular focus on the medical and psychological complications associated with the diseases. In addition, the challenges of imaging the obese pediatric population are discussed, and public policy changes that could help reverse obesity trends in children and adolescents are introduced.
Coverdale, J H; Battaglia, J; Bushong, C P
This paper describes a school-based program in which psychiatry residents educate adolescents about a variety of mental health topics. Adolescents responded positively to the program and were principally concerned about drugs, depression, suicide, and family problems. Residents also liked presenting in the schools. Participation in this program allowed residents to learn about agency consultation and secondary prevention. Possibilities for program expansion are discussed.
Brekke, Idunn; Reisel, Liza
This article examines the relationship between birthweight, adolescent health (general health and psychological distress) and high school completion in Norway, using survey data linked to longitudinal registry data (n = 5,354). The findings show that the positive association between birthweight and high school completion can be attributed to…
Brugman, E.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Spee-Wekke, A. van der; Beuker, R.J.; Zaadstra, B.M.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, P.S.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of dieting and the relationship between dieting, nutritional habits, and health among young adolescents in the Netherlands. METHODS: Out of 1359 secondary school children, aged 13 through 15 y, who were invited for a routine health assessment by school doctors o
Full Text Available The AMA Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS has been the cornerstone of preventive care for teenagers since its publication in 1994. Despite this, there has been little documentation of their implementation in the family medicine literature. This article gives an overview of a family practice–based adolescent preventive health program based on GAPS recommendations, and reports on compliance, feasibility and health issues. A Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC program targeted all adolescent patients aged 12—18 years in two Israeli family practices. 321 teenagers were invited to participate. Every 7th and 10th grader was invited for a preventive health visit with the family physician and nurse. The visits included a medical evaluation, screening and counseling regarding health issues recommended by GAPS, and counseling regarding personal health concerns. Parents were also invited to meet with the staff. 184 (57% of the adolescents invited for health visits attended. The overall visit time was 47 minutes, including 12 minutes for a questionnaire and 35 minutes with providers. Common biomedical problems included overweight, acne and dysmenorrhea. Health risk behaviors and psychosocial problems included cigarette or alcohol use, dieting, infrequent/never seat belt use, and feeling depressed. 78% wanted to discuss at least one personal health issue. 27% were invited for follow-up visits. Only 3% of the parents came for visits. A community-oriented approach facilitates bringing adolescents for preventive health visits. Many previously undetected health issues, particularly psychosocial and behavioral, are revealed during these visits. A concerns checklist aids in addressing personal health concerns.
... Grants Awards and Honors Outstanding Achievement in Adolescent Medicine New Investigator Millar Award for Innovative Approaches Hofmann Visiting Professor Litt Visiting Professor DuRant Award for Statistical Rigor Regional Chapter Recognition Award Career Development Award ...
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness…
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Abstract Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experi
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; van Nieuwenhuizen, C.
Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.
Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with
Kimberly K. McClanahan
Full Text Available HAIR-AN syndrome is a subphenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome and is characterized by acne, obesity, hirsutism, and acanthosis nigricans. It usually manifests in early adolescence, a time of significant developmental change in females across physical, cognitive, social, and emotional domains. We contend that adolescent development for females is difficult, even in the best of circumstances, and having a chronic health condition, like HAIR-AN syndrome, will likely impact the afflicted individuals development and psychological well-being. While many researchers have discussed the long-term health effects of HAIR-AN and similar disorders, little has been written about the potential psychological sequelae of HAIR-AN on the adolescent girl. We discuss the normal developmental sequence for adolescent girls across early, middle, and late adolescence; discuss common mental health problems that adolescents experience; define HAIR-AN syndrome and its clinical manifestations; and discuss its likely psychological impact on adolescent girls. We also make suggestions for future clinical interventions and research in the area of HAIR-AN syndrome and its psychological sequelae.
Machado, Daisy Maria; Galano, Eliana; de Menezes Succi, Regina Célia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro
The main objective of this work is to describe the formation of the Transition Adolescent Clinic (TAC) and understand the process of transitioning adolescents with HIV/AIDS from pediatric to adult care, from the vantage point of individuals subjected to this process. A qualitative method and an intentional sample selected by criteria were adopted for this investigation, which was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. An in-depth semi-structured interview was conducted with sixteen HIV-infected adolescents who had been part of a transitioning protocol. Adolescents expressed the need for more time to become adapted in the transition process. Having grown up under the care of a team of health care providers made many participants have reluctance toward transitioning. Concerns in moving away from their pediatricians and feelings of disruption, abandonment, or rejection were mentioned. Participants also expressed confidence in the pediatric team. At the same time they showed interest in the new team and expected to have close relationships with them. They also ask to have previous contacts with the adult health care team before the transition. Their talks suggest that they require slightly more time, not the time measured in days or months, but the time measured by constitutive experiences capable of building an expectation of future. This study examines the way in which the adolescents feel, and help to transform the health care transition model used at a public university. Listening to the adolescents' voices is crucial to a better understanding of their needs. They are those who can help the professionals reaching alternatives for a smooth and successful health care transition.
Højen, Anette Arbjerg; Dreyer, Pia S; Lane, Deirdre A;
BACKGROUND: Long-term, mental well-being of adolescence and young adults diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (VTE) as experienced by the patients has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the essential meaning of adolescents' and young adults' lived...... experiences following VTE to gain an in-depth understanding of their long-term, mental well-being. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 Danish patients who were diagnosed with VTE in adolescence or young adulthood. Interviews were analyzed according to a phenomenological hermeneutical...... approach inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricœur's theory of interpretation. RESULTS: Four themes emerged. Participants described an experience of a creeping loss of youth immortality, a perception of being different, to live with a body in a state of alarm, and feel symptom management insecurity...
Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B;
To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities.......To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities....
Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvinsson, Helena
Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were inclu...
Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm
To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…
van der Velde, J. L.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Hamp, A.; Knibb, R. C.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.
Background: Food-allergic adolescents are at highest risk for food allergy fatalities, which may be partly due to compromised self-management behavior. Such behavior may be negatively influenced by conflictual situations caused by adolescent-parent disagreement on the adolescent's health-related qua
Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207 and low risk (n = 167 for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care.
Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Ross, David A; Viner, Russell M; Santelli, John S
In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement.
Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber
Background: Depression is often characterized as a disorder of affect regulation. However, research focused on delineating the key dimensions of affective experience (other than valence) that are abnormal in depressive disorder has been scarce, especially in child and adolescent samples. As definitions of affect regulation center around processes…
Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza
The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…
Crowe, Paul A.; Philbin, John; Richards, Maryse H.; Crawford, Isiaah
Studied alcohol involvement (AI) in high school adolescents. Found that AI was related to spending more time with peers and less time with family. Indicated that greater AI was related to lower affect, greater negative mood, and feelings of social isolation with family; almost no difference in the experience of time spent with peers; and lower…
Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline
Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…
Lustig, Stuart L.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Knight, Wanda Grant; Geltman, Paul; Ellis, Heidi; Kinzie, J. David; Keane, Terence; Saxe, Glenn N.
Objective: To review stressful experiences and stress reactions among child and adolescent refugees, as well as interventions and ethical considerations in research and clinical work, within the framework of the chronological experiences of child refugees; namely, the phases of preflight, flight, and resettlement. Highlighted are special refugee…
Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…
Sarah E Wiehe
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. METHODS: Girls (N = 52, aged 14-17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points. Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. RESULTS: Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04 and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01. Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health.
Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.
Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate
Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
Mobile applications or 'apps' have significant potential for use in mental health interventions with adolescents. However, there is a lack of research exploring end users' needs from such technologies. The aim of this study was to explore adolescents' needs and concerns in relation to mental health mobile apps. Five focus groups were conducted with young people aged 15-16 years (N = 34, 60% male). Participants were asked about their views in relation to the use of mental health mobile technologies and were asked to give their responses to a mental health app prototype. Participants identified (1) safety, (2) engagement, (3) functionality, (4) social interaction, (5) awareness, (6) accessibility, (7) gender and (8) young people in control as important factors. Understanding end users' needs and concerns in relation to this topic will inform the future development of youth-oriented mental health apps that are acceptable to young people.
Gray, Nicola J; Klein, Jonathan D; Noyce, Peter R; Sesselberg, Tracy S; Cantrill, Judith A
The internet is one of a range of health information sources available to adolescents. It is recognised that young people have difficulties accessing traditional health services; in theory, the internet offers them confidential and convenient access to an unprecedented level of information about a diverse range of subjects. This could redress adolescents' state of relative health 'information poverty', compared to adults. This paper seeks to explore United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) adolescents' perceptions and experiences of using the internet to find information about health and medicines, in the context of the other health information sources that are available to them. The study involved a series of 26 single-gender focus groups with 157 English-speaking students aged 11-19 years from the UK and the US. Many students reported that the internet was their primary general information source. Information sources were defined during analysis in terms of previous experience of the source, saliency of the available information, and credibility of the source (defined in terms of expertise, trustworthiness and empathy). Most focus group participants had extensive personal experience with the internet and some information providers therein (notably search engines). Internet health information was regarded generally as salient. Its saliency was increased through active searching and personalisation. Perceived credibility of the internet varied because expertise and trustworthiness were sometimes difficult to determine, and empathy could be facilitated through online communities but the individual could control disclosure. The internet combines positive features of traditional lay and professional, personal and impersonal sources. Although it is unlikely to supplant the role of trusted peers and adults, the internet has found an important place among adolescents' repertory of health information sources.
Busza, Joanna; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Chirawu, Petronella; Cowan, Frances
Adolescence, migration and sex work are independent risk factors for HIV and other poor health outcomes. They are usually targeted separately with little consideration on how their intersection can enhance vulnerability. We interviewed ten women in Zimbabwe who experienced sex work and migration during adolescence, exploring implications for their health and for services to meet their needs. For most, mobility was routine throughout childhood due to family instability and political upheaval. The determinants of mobility, e.g. inability to pay school fees or desire for independence from difficult circumstances, also catalysed entry into sex work, which then led to further migration to maximise income. Respondents described their adolescence as a time of both vulnerability and opportunity, during which they developed survival skills. While these women did not fit neatly into separate risk profiles of "sex worker" "migrant" or "adolescent", the overlap of these experiences shaped their health and access to services. To address the needs of marginalised populations we must understand the intersection of multiple risks, avoiding simplified assumptions about each category.
This article presents selected results of qualitative research into perceptions of health among adolescents. Pupils (N = 108) in the age 13-15 years from nine schools in four different municipalities in Denmark have been interviewed. An analytic strategy that combines knowledge research with syst......This article presents selected results of qualitative research into perceptions of health among adolescents. Pupils (N = 108) in the age 13-15 years from nine schools in four different municipalities in Denmark have been interviewed. An analytic strategy that combines knowledge research...... really relate to the diseases, and it is therefore difficult for them to actively affect the different determinants. The adolescents feel that a lot of information and teaching is being directed towards them. They face an abundance of communication about health and information directed at their presumed...... and personally relevant for them. Finally, the adolescents are aware that they are influenced by their friends both positively and negatively. Indeed, they are concerned about the way they are being taught about health in school and desirous to learn more. (Global Health Promotion, 2010; 17(2): pp. 16-24)...
Smith, Carolyn R; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A
Adolescent workers may not be aware that violence is a safety concern in the workplace. As part of a larger mixed-methods pilot study, investigators used a self-administered survey and individual interviews with 30 adolescent workers from a chain of food service stores in a Midwestern metropolitan area to explore experiences of workplace violence (WPV) and ways of learning WPV-specific information. Participants reported experiencing verbal and sexual harassment and robberies. Most participants reported awareness of WPV-specific policies and procedures at their workplace; the ways participants reported learning WPV-specific information varied. Findings support the need for occupational safety training to assist adolescent workers prevent and mitigate potential WPV.
Staa, A.L. van; Jedeloo, S.; Latour, J.M.; Trappenburg, J.M.
Adolescents with chronic conditions are major users of paediatric hospitals, but seldom participate in the evaluation of services or in research. Little is known about the usefulness of the participatory approach in adolescent health research.
David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman
Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs.
Andersen, Johan Hviid; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas
in a cohort study of Danish adolescents. Methods: The cohort comprised 3,681 individuals born in 1989, 3058 individuals answered the baseline questionnaire in 2004, and 2400 responded to a follow-up questionnaire in 2007, with 2181 individuals participating in both rounds (59% of the original cohort). Social......) deteriorated slightly in adolescents (-0.24; 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19) across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups and depressive symptoms increased (0.64; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.75). High household income was protective for decrease in SRH (0.62; 0.43 - 0.91). Negative life-style changes were associated...... with poorer SRH and more depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Self-rated health and depressive symptoms changed to the worse among Danish adolescents from age 15 to 18 years. Negative changes in several lifestyle factors were found to accompany the deterioration of health. This result stresses the intrinsic...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular breakfast eating (RBE is an important contributor to a healthy lifestyle and health status. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relationships among irregular breakfast eating (IRBE, health status, and health promoting behavior (HPB for Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate a cluster sample of 1609 (7th -12th grade adolescents located in the metropolitan Tao-Yuan area during the 2005 academic year. The main variables comprised breakfast eating pattern, body weight, and health promoting behaviors. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 1609 participants were studied, 64.1% in junior high school and 35.9% in high school, boys (47.1% and girls (52.9% ranging in age from 12–20 years. Of the total participant population, 28.8% were overweight and nearly one quarter (23.6% reported eating breakfast irregularly during schooldays. The findings indicated that adolescents with RBE had a lower risk of overweight (OR for IRBE vs. RBE = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.04, and that the odds of becoming overweight were 51% greater for IRBE than for RBE even after controlling for demographical and HPB variables. IRBE also was a strong indicator for HPB. However, the profile of the high-risk IRBE group was predominantly junior high schoolchildren and/or children living without both parents. Conclusion This study provides valuable information about irregular breakfast eating among adolescents, which is associated with being overweight and with a low frequency of health promoting behavior. School and family health promotion strategies should be used to encourage all adolescents to eat breakfast regularly.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the risky health behaviors and to raise the awareness of adolescents (attending high school education about prevention of risky behaviors and solutions by the effect of module-based training courses (about reproductive health and birth control, sexually transmitted infections, harmful habits, psychosocial behavior. Being planned as cross-sectional, this study was performed between September 2013-June 2014 in three states and a private high school in Zonguldak and conducted with a group of students aged between 14 and 19.926 students have participated before the training and 534 students have participated after training. It was seen that the mean scores of ‘The Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire', ‘The Adolescent's Attitudes Towards Violence Scale' and ‘taking risk about social status', ‘traffic', ‘subtance use' subscales have decreased after the risk prevention trainings. The means scores of ‘Adolescent Coping with Problems Scale', ‘Nutrition Behaviour Scale' and ‘Nutrition Attitude Scale' have raised. Hence, the scores of domains reflecting adolescent health perception such as hygiene, sleep and exercise have raised while the scores of somatic symptoms domain, such as abdominal pain, headache, and fatigue have been failed. Consequently, it was determined that the training courses about risky health behaviours were effective in preventing risky health behaviors and creating positive health perceptions of adolescents.
Wickrama, K A S; Kaspar, Violet
Using survey data from 325 Tsunami-exposed adolescents and mothers from two villages in southern Sri Lanka, this pilot study investigated influences of Tsunami exposure and subsequent psychosocial losses on adolescent depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Findings generally support the study hypotheses: disaster exposure (for example experiences of property destruction and deaths of close others) contributes to depressive and PTSD symptoms in adolescents. Findings also show that psychosocial losses associated with Tsunami exposure, such as prolonged displacement, social losses, family losses, and mental health impairment among mothers, contribute to depressive and PTSD symptoms in adolescents. Results suggest that the influence of Tsunami exposure on adolescent mental health operates partially through Tsunami-related psychosocial losses. As expected, positive mother-child relationships provide a compensatory influence on both depressive and PTSD symptoms of adolescents. In addition, high levels of depressive symptoms among mothers increases the detrimental influence of other Tsunami-related psychosocial losses on adolescent mental health. These preliminary findings suggest ways to improve ongoing recovery and reconstruction programs and assist in formulating new programs for families exposed to both the Tsunami and other natural disasters. More importantly, findings from this pilot study emphasize the urgent need for larger systematic studies focusing on mental health following disaster exposure.
Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Choudary, Wendie; Kearney, Anne; Piko, Bettina F.
This study examined the relationship between risk, assets, and negative health behaviors among a large sample of Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from over 1,000 Hispanic youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 attending school in a moderate size school district in Northwest Arkansas. Logistic regression models examined the variation in the odds…
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011
This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…
Obstfeld, Lisa S.; Meyers, Andrew W.
This article addresses the issue of adolescent sex education as a means of preventing sexuality-related disorders, including: sexual dysfunction; sexual deviance; physical health problems often contracted from sexual activity; and various psychological and sociological ill effects resulting from unplanned pregnancies. (Author/CJB)
Garralda, Elena M
Outcome auditing of specialist child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) is now well under way internationally. There is, however, debate about objectives and tools. A case is made for the achievable goal of enhancing service accountability through user satisfaction information and clinician-rated contextualised measures of improvements in symptoms and impairment.
Daisy Maria Machado
Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this work is to describe the formation of the Transition Adolescent Clinic (TAC and understand the process of transitioning adolescents with HIV/AIDS from pediatric to adult care, from the vantage point of individuals subjected to this process. A qualitative method and an intentional sample selected by criteria were adopted for this investigation, which was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. An in-depth semi-structured interview was conducted with sixteen HIV-infected adolescents who had been part of a transitioning protocol. Adolescents expressed the need for more time to become adapted in the transition process. Having grown up under the care of a team of health care providers made many participants have reluctance toward transitioning. Concerns in moving away from their pediatricians and feelings of disruption, abandonment, or rejection were mentioned. Participants also expressed confidence in the pediatric team. At the same time they showed interest in the new team and expected to have close relationships with them. They also ask to have previous contacts with the adult health care team before the transition. Their talks suggest that they require slightly more time, not the time measured in days or months, but the time measured by constitutive experiences capable of building an expectation of future. This study examines the way in which the adolescents feel, and help to transform the health care transition model used at a public university. Listening to the adolescents’ voices is crucial to a better understanding of their needs. They are those who can help the professionals reaching alternatives for a smooth and successful health care transition.
Full Text Available Most smokers start young. Initiation of cigarette smoking at an earlier age leads to more life-years for tobacco use, makes quitting harder, and increases the risk of serious health consequences. Despite these challenges, research focusing on smoking behavior among adolescent boys in Taiwan is rare. Although the Taiwanese government enacted the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in 2009, aimed at prevention and reducing the rate of smoking, the percentage of high school students who smoke has continued to increase. In 2006, 7.5% of adolescent boys engaged in smoking. By 2012 the rate had increased to 24.6%. This paper explores the experiences that contribute to adolescent Taiwanese boys making the decision to smoke. A phenomenological approach to inquiry was used as the philosophical foundations for this study with twelve adolescent boys who engaged in smoking behaviors. Data was gathered through two face-to-face semi-structured interviews and a focus group. Data analysis was performed using Colaizzi’s analysis method. Findings indicated that decisions to begin smoking were motivated by curiosity and as a means of establishing friendships while decisions to continue smoking were linked to the addictive nature of smoking and as a means of coping with stress and passing the time. The findings can be used to inform the prevention of tobacco use and to reduce the high smoking rates among adolescent boys.
Delfini, Patricia Santos de Souza; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advincula
The objective of this paper was to describe and analyze the articulation between children and adolescent mental health care interventions undertaken by teams working under the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and Psychosocial Care Centers for Children and Adolescents (CAPSI). In order to achieve these objectives, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five CAPSI and 13 FHS managers from five different regions of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The 18 interviews were transcribed and analyzed froma hermeneutic perspective. It was found that interactions between the FHS and CAPSI occur mainly through referral of cases, matrix support or partnerships in cases concerning CAPSI. Obstacles, such as a lack of human resources, productivity goals and lack of training in mental health of FHS professionals were mentioned. The referral system and passing responsibility for mental health cases to specialized services and the hegemonic biomedical model and the fragmentation of care are common place in these services.
Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R; Fiellin, Lynn E
Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents' experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions.
Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.
Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…
Introduction: For families of children with mental illness, adolescence is a major struggle and few parents find service systems to be helpful during this period . These difficulties seem to span across various dimensions such as availability of health, educational and community resources, barriers to accessing services, understanding of health care providers and specially those related to the transition to adult healthcare service system and the restrictions imposed by confidentially. Par...
Full Text Available : Adolescence is a time when the body prepares itself for the nutritional demands of pregnancy, lactation and heavy workloads that girls will soon experience. Good nutrition is essential for good health, physical growth and development, body composition and mental development In recent years, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth is increasing due to the early onset of puberty, the declining age of menarche and early sexual activity. They need to earn to cope with the future demands of life. Nutritional needs during adolescence are increased because of the increased growth rate and changes in the body composition associated with puberty. The dramatic increase in energy and nutrient requirements coincides with other factors that may affect adolescents’ food choices and nutrient intake and thus nutritional status. National and population based surveys have found that adolescents often fail to meet dietary recommendations for over all nutritional status and for specific nutrient intakes. Nutritional requirements in relation to body size are more during adolescence. In a country like India with varying social customs and common beliefs against females there is a high prevalence of malnutrition amongst girls. Adolescents are tomorrow’s adult population and their health and well-being are crucial. Yet, interest in adolescents’ health is relatively recent and a focus on nutrition is even more recent. Nutrition influences growth and development throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence; it is, however, during the period of adolescence that nutrient needs are the greatest. A questionnaire-based study was undertaken in Jaipur city of Rajasthan with 500 respondents divided equally between government schools and private schools populations. Adolescent girl is subjected to more physical and mental challenges on a day –to-day basis due to ever increasing pressure of modernization. Hence they have to work hard physically as well as
Iadevaia, Cheree; Roiger, Trevor; Zwart, Mary Beth
Context Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries can negatively influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescent patients. The effect of sport-related concussion on adolescent HRQOL remains unclear. Objective To investigate the perceptions of adolescent student-athletes and their parents regarding the adolescents' HRQOL 1 year after sport-related concussion. Design Qualitative study. Setting Secondary school. Patients or Other Participants Seven adolescent student-athletes (age range, 12–16 years) who sustained a sport-related concussion at least 1 year (15.3 ± 2.8 months) before the study participated along with their primary care-giving parents (n = 7). Data Collection and Analysis Fourteen semistructured face-to-face interviews (7 adolescents, 7 parents) were completed. Interviews were transcribed and inductively analyzed by a team of 3 athletic trainers with 32 combined years of professional experience. Themes were negotiated through a consensual review process. Participant checks were completed to ensure trustworthiness of the results. Results Four major themes emerged from the interviews: (1) significant effect of symptoms, (2) feelings of frustration, (3) influence on school attendance and activities, and (4) nature of interpersonal and team relationships. Participants indicated that the physical symptoms of the concussion substantially affected their emotional and academic function. The influence of the concussion on social interactions seemed to depend on the nature of interpersonal relationships. Conclusions Sport-related concussion can negatively influence physical and emotional function, academics, and interpersonal interactions as perceived by adolescent student-athletes and their parents. Education of parents and their children, school professionals, coaches, and teammates remains critical to effectively recognize and manage sport-related concussion. Secondary school districts also play a critical role in the concussion
Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.
Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…
Silva,Julyana Gall da; Teixeira,Maria Luiza de Oliveira; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção
This study aims to identify the contents of teenagers' representations about eating and to analyze the relations established among feeding, weight and health. Social Representations Theory was applied in combination with the Convergent-Care Method. The participants were 27 teenagers of both genders between 13 and 19 years old who attended a group of young people from an evangelical church. The thematic content analysis organized categories that clarified the contents of the representations ab...
Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677 adolescent
Honeyman, Cheryl; Davison, Jean
Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional curvature of the spine of unknown cause that occurs in often otherwise fit young people. A complex surgical procedure is required for the most severe curves. Quantitative literature suggests scoliosis surgery improves patients' lives, while qualitative literature focuses on patients' concerns rather than their experience. Aims To explore how adolescents interpret their perioperative experience. Method Six participants, aged 15-18, were interviewed and transcripts were analysed. Findings Four themes were identified: shock, fears and worries; parental interaction; coping; and motivation and positivity. Conclusion Participants were reluctant to share concerns, however those they shared related more to fear of the unknown and lack of control than specific issues such as pain. Participants depended on their parents, especially their mothers, during the perioperative period, and they recognised their parents' stress. Participants coped well, were motivated and had a positive outlook.
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Abstract Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness of adolescents’ sexual experience may influence communication and education about sex and sexuality in families. These findings have impli...
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.
Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness of adolescents’ sexual experience may influence communication and education about sex and sexuality in families. These findings have implications f...
Palisano, Robert J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Stewart, Debra; Lawless, John J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.
The purpose of this study was to describe how youth with cerebral palsy experience mobility in their daily lives using a phenomenological approach. The participants were 10 youth with cerebral palsy, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling with maximum variation strategies. A total of 14 interviews were completed. Transcripts…
Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative ho...
Choate, Peter W.
Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents’ experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in the...
Mostafa Abdel-Monhem Amr
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Increased life expectancy due to recent medical advances has increased the need to understand more fully the quality of life (QoL in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD and factors predicting disease adaptation .The objectives of this study were to assess the impairment of health related quality of life (HRQoL domains in a sample of Saudi Arabian adolescents with SCD. METHODS: A non-probability sample composed of Saudi adolescents with SCD (n=180 aged 14-18 years and comparable age and gender matched healthy controls (n=202. Socio-demographics and disease related data were obtained through personal interview with parents/legal guardians and reviewing patients medical records. Self-administered "Short Form-36" questionnaire was used to assess HRQoL of the included groups. RESULTS: HRQoL showed significant deterioration in adolescents with SCD especially in role physical, general health, and bodily pain domains irrespective of the gender, while female adolescents with SCD demonstrated significant deterioration in emotional wellbeing. Those with SCD-complications showed worse scores along the physical, general health, and emotional wellbeing domains. HRQol scores were negatively associated with increasing age, female gender, rural residence, low family income, presence of disease-related complications and frequent hospital admissions as revealed by multivariate regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Saudi adolescents with SCD experience deterioration along all domains of HRQoL especially the physical. Disease related complications and socio-demographic correlates are significant determinants to worse HRQoL among the included adolescents with SCD.
Baroun, Khader A
The present study investigated correlations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for 941 Kuwaiti adolescents. A convenience sample of male (n=408) and female (n=533) students (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.2 yr.) was randomly selected from secondary school students of different districts of the State of Kuwait. The Intrinsic Religious Motivation scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and six self-rating scales assessing religiosity, strength of religious belief, physical health, mental health, happiness, and life satisfaction were applied to assess correlations among Kuwaiti adolescents. Analysis showed boys had significantly higher mean scores than girls on all measures except anxiety, on which girls scored significantly higher than boys. There also were significant and positive correlations among the variables, except for anxiety, which was significant and negative.
Maria Cristina Barbaro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: evaluate prenatal care for adolescents in health units, in accordance with the attributes of Primary Health Care (PHC guidelines. METHOD: quantitative study conducted with health professionals, using the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Brazil to assess the presence and extent of PHC attributes. RESULTS: for all the participating units, the attribute Access scored =6.6; the attributes Longitudinality, Coordination (integration of care, Coordination (information systems and Integrality scored =6.6, and the Essential Score =6.6. Comparing basic units with family health units, the attribute scores were equally distributed; Accessibility scored =6.6, the others attributes scored =6.6; however, in the basic units, the Essential Score was =6.6 and, in the family health units, =6.6. CONCLUSION: expanding the coverage of family health units and the training of professionals can be considered strategies to qualify health care.
Kelly, Sarah; Anderson, Debra; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann; Cerel, Julie
Gang violence is a growing public health concern in the United States, and adolescents are influenced by exposure to gang violence. This study explored the influence of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health using a multi-method design. A semi-structured interview guide and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to collect data from adolescents. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees completed the Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form. Ten adolescent boys, their parents or primary caregivers, and six community center employees participated in the study. Exposure to gang violence was common among these adolescents and they had a variety of reactions. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees had differing perceptions of adolescents' exposure to violence and their mental health. Adolescent boys' exposure to gang violence in the community is alarming. These adolescents encountered situations with violence that influenced their mental health.
Lincoln, Alisa K; Lazarevic, Vanja; White, Matthew T; Ellis, B Heidi
Refugee adolescents often immigrate to a new society because of experiences of persecution and trauma, which can have profound effects on their mental health. Once they immigrate, many refugees experience stressors related to resettlement and acculturation in the new society. The current study examined relationships among acculturation styles and hassles and the well-being of young refugees as well as the role of gender. Data were collected from 135 young refugees (M age = 15.39, SD = 2.2; 62 % male) from Somalia resettled in the United States The findings from our study indicate that in addition to trauma history, acculturative hassles and acculturation style impact the wellbeing of Somali refugee adolescents. These findings indicate the need to understand both past experiences as well as current challenges. Potential areas for intervention are discussed.
Anny Giselly Milhome da Costa
Full Text Available This qualitative exploratory-descriptive study was performed by means of the Community Based Participant Research. The main objective was to understand the health perception of adolescents from a rural community. The focal group and field journal techniques were used to collect data from 26 adolescents of a rural community. The results were analyzed and qualitatively interpreted, expressed through two thematic categories that showed the ideal and real health conception of the adolescents. From this group’s perspective, the health of rural community adolescents is determined by positive and negative aspects, with reveal their perception of health and disease. It is concluded that nursing can reduce the distance between the ideal and real health in the rural community by taking hold of the sociocultural approach of becoming adolescent and developing intersectoral interventions to promote satisfactory sanitary conditions and encourage the adolescent’s potential as a social actor. Descriptors: Adolescent; Rural Population; Public Health; Health Education; Community Health Nursing.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience of common health symptoms without a clear physical or psychological cause, such as headache or dizziness, is often reported in adolescence. The present study attempted to investigate associations of self-reported subjective health complaints (SHC with a number of sociodemographic factors of Greek adolescents. Methods Questionnaires were administered to a Greek nationwide random school-based sample of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their parents in 2003. Data from 922 adolescent-parent pairs were analyzed (response rate = 63%. Adolescents’ reported subjective health complaints were assessed for their association with a number of sociodemographic factors: age, sex, type of area of residence according to level of urbanization, immigration background, parental education and employment status, family socioeconomic status and perceived quality of financial resources (PQFR. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of the aforementioned factors with subjective health complaints as the dependent variable. Results Most sociodemographic variables, apart from area of residence and immigration background, were independently associated with subjective health complaints in the univariate analyses. The multiple linear regression analysis, however, limited the factors that could predict adolescents’ subjective health complaints to four (age, sex, Family Affluence Scale score and perceived quality of financial resources. Some considerations regarding parental employment status and immigration background are highlighted. Conclusions Our study highlights the sociodemographic components of subjective health complaints in the Greek adolescent population. The need to include adolescent-specific measures when collecting information on adolescents’ social background is underlined. Identifying vulnerable adolescent populations could lead to effective health promoting and preventive interventions.
R. Bannink (Rienke)
markdownabstract__abstract__ A high percentage of adolescents suffer from mental health problems and many health-risk behaviors, such as excessive alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and drug (mis)use, are acquired during adolescence. These mental health problems and health-risk behaviors often
Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok
Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents.Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models.Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33-2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54-2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61-3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81-4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35-4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27-3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19-13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03-1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06-1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26-1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16-1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37-2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34-2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents.Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities.
Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea; Johnson, Dayna; Joseph, Christine
(P=0.701), after adjustment for other risk factors. Conclusions CVD risk factors in youth track into adulthood, thus early-life experiences represent important and potentially modifiable predictors of adult disease. In this study, self-reported experiences of cyberbullying were not associated with being overweight/obese or with elevated BP. Continued study of psychosocial risk factors, including cyberbullying, with adolescent CVD health is warranted.
Darmanin Ellul R
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate self-reported health complaints and the use of medicines among adolescents in Malta.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to survey self-reported health complaints, the use and the sources of medicines that had been accessed, during the preceding 3 months among adolescents attending secondary schools in Malta. A stratified random sample design generated a sample size of 514 students. The health complaints and use of medicines that were investigated included ear problems/hay fever/cold/cough, headache, skin problems, sport injuries, indigestion/diarrhoea/constipation, eye problems and menstrual pain (for girls. The use of vitamins and antibiotics was also investigated. Results: A total of 477 students participated in the final data collection. Correct information was submitted by 474 students, (aged 14-16 years, who formed the analytical sample, of which 53.8% were girls. The students reported a mean number of 2.70 (SD = 1.39 out of a total of 7 health complaints and 90.3% reported using at least 1 medicine during the preceding 3 months. The community pharmacy was cited as the most commonly accessed source for most of the medicines that were investigated. A proportion of 24.3% of the students had taken at least 1 medicine without adult guidance during the preceding 3 months. Almost 10% of those who had taken antibiotics, had accessed them from the home medicine cabinet.Conclusion: A high proportion of adolescents in Malta reported the use of medicines to alleviate the symptoms of common health complaints. This result is concordant with previous research carried out in the United Kingdom, Germany, Slovakia and Kuwait. A considerable proportion of students in this study had obtained medicines without adult guidance and accessed antibiotics from the home medicine cabinet. This highlights the importance of carefully designed education programs for adolescents that will integrate information about the proper use
Geckova, AM; van Dijk, JP; Honcariv, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D
Aim. To investigate the role of health risk behavior, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, in the explanation of socio-economic health differences among adolescents. The hypothesis of different exposure and the hypothesis of different vulnerability were explored. Method. In the study carried out
Thwaite, P; Bennett, D L; Pynor, H; Zigmond, H
Feeling effective as a young person depends on a capacity to draw upon one's own resources in the service of healthy living and development. In adolescent health care, there is the need to call upon the talents and creativity of young people, to introduce new and exciting experiences, and to facilitate involvement in their own care in order to nurture optimal growth and development on a physical and psychological level. While hospitalisation can represent a major crisis point in adolescence, the provision of a stimulating environment and the opportunity for creative activities offers an exciting, transformative and healing experience. Art allows adolescents to use alternative languages beyond illness, to engage in endeavours that are distanced from overt therapeutic intent, and to embrace attributes of self-esteem and resilience. Through the process and production of art, and the inclusion of music, poetry, film or theatre, young people can experience personal growth, acquire skills, develop socially and contribute to environmental change. In seeking to illustrate the value and importance of such approaches, this paper draws upon the experiences of a youth arts program attached to an adolescent ward. In a project called Art Injection, art students worked with adolescents to make sculptures from old hospital equipment, with startling results. More recently, the development of personal totem poles and an imaginative mosaic mural has powerfully engaged creativity and community in care. Group and individual art sessions, including the media arts project Creative Well, are offered on weekdays as part of the general hospital routine, enabling hospitalised young people to experience creativity as a daily part of their lives.
To inform students of health risks (posed by behavior, environment, and genetics) and provide schools with collective risk appraisal information as a basis for planning/evaluating health and wellness initiatives, New Mexico administered the Teen Wellness Check in 1985 to 1,573 ninth-grade students from 7 New Mexico public schools. Subjects were…
Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth
As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.
T. S. Pavlova
Full Text Available Our aim was to study the relationship of coping strategies choice and anti-vital experiences and the overall emotional well-being in adolescents. In October 2012, we surveyed 145 students of Moscow secondary school (54 boys, 91 girls aged 12 to 16 years. The survey was conducted by a block of psychodiagnostic methods, testing emotional disadaptation, presence of suicidal thoughts and ways of coping with stressful situations. It was found that 22,8% of the participants reported presence of suicidal thoughts. Specific to adolescents with suicidal attitude were high social and interpersonal anxiety and severity of non-adaptive coping strategies, such as “self-incrimination” and “comparing oneself with the others”.
Schooler, Deborah; Impett, Emily A; Hirschman, Celeste; Bonem, Lathem
This study uses a mixed-method approach to examine the relationship between body image and sexual health among adolescent boys. In Study 1, eight 12th-grade boys participated in semistructured interviews focusing on dating and sexuality. Qualitative analyses revealed several differences between boys who were satisfied with their bodies and boys who were not. Specifically, boys who were satisfied with their bodies indicated that they were clear about what they wanted sexually and were comfortable communicating those wants with partners. In contrast, boys with low body satisfaction were often unclear about their sexual choices and resisted talking about sexuality with partners. Study 2 examined these same themes using quantitative data from 149 boys from the 12th grade who completed surveys assessing body image, sexual experiences, and sexual attitudes. Body satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual agency and with clarity of personal sexual values. Implications for promoting adolescent sexual health are discussed.
Chng, Chwee Lye
Approaches for teaching about homosexuality as part of the school health curriculum are offered. Suggestions include discussion of popular values and stereotypes, teaching by example, and teaching through role playing. (JMF)
Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise
The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…
Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko
The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…
Full Text Available Fadia S AlBuhairan,1–3 Tina M Olsson3,4 1Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Adolescent health is regarded as central to global health goals. Investments made in adolescent health and health services protect the improvements witnessed in child health. Though Saudi Arabia has a large adolescent population, adolescent health-care only began to emerge in recent years, yet widespread uptake has been very limited. Health-care providers are key in addressing and providing the necessary health-care services for adolescents, and so this study was conducted with the aim of identifying opportunities for the advancement of knowledge transfer for adolescent health services in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This Web-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at four hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses were invited to participate in an online survey addressing their contact with adolescent patients, and training, knowledge, and attitudes towards adolescent health-care. Results: A total of 232 professionals participated. The majority (82.3% reported sometimes or always coming into contact with adolescent patients. Less than half (44%, however, had received any sort of training on adolescent health during their undergraduate or postgraduate education, and only 53.9% reported having adequate knowledge about the health-care needs of adolescents. Nurses perceived themselves as having more knowledge in the health-care needs of adolescents and reported feeling more comfortable in communicating with adolescents as compared with physicians. The majority of participants were interested in gaining further skills and knowledge in adolescent health-care and agreed or strongly agreed that adolescents have
Sexualidade, reprodução e saúde: experiências de adolescentes que vivem em município do interior de pequeno porte Sexuality, reproduction and health: experiences of adolescent students living in a small city of the interior
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é escrever experiências de adolescentes escolares de ambos os sexos, de um município do interior do Rio de Janeiro, referentes à vida afetivo-sexual, à reprodução e à saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Estudo transversal com 200 adolescentes de escolas públicas de Silva Jardim, de 15 a 19 anos, com aplicação de questionário estruturado. A iniciação sexual das meninas ocorreu entre 15 e 19 anos e dos meninos entre 12 a 14 anos. Eles se iniciaram com parceiros de 12 a 19 anos e elas com parceiros mais velhos. Meninas receberam mais informações sobre relações sexuais do que meninos e conversaram mais com parceiros sobre prevenção de gravidez na ocasião da iniciação sexual. Fontes de informações sobre sexualidade e contracepção são principalmente os pais. A farmácia é o principal local de aquisição de contraceptivos. Informações sobre doenças sexualmente transmissíveis provêm principalmente da escola. A comparação desses resultados com os de outros estudos com adolescentes escolares de grandes centros urbanos e populações que incluem jovens fora da escola evidencia aproximações e distanciamentos entre suas experiências. Fatores relacionados ao contexto sociocultural e institucional de pequenos municípios, diferenciais de gênero e escolaridade ajudam a compreendê-las.This article aims to describe experiences of school adolescents of both sexes, living in a small city in the interior of the State of Rio de Janeiro, concerning affective-sexual life and sexual and reproductive health. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a structured questionnaire among 200 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 from public schools in Silva Jardim,. The girls' sexual initiation occurred between 15 and 19 and boys between 12 and 14. Boys started with partners from 12 to 19 years of age and girls with older partners. Girls received more information about sex than boys and talked more with partners about
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Twetman, Svante; Sundby, Annette
OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of dental caries in children and adolescents and to relate these findings to the subject's socio-cultural and socio-economic backgrounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 12 706 children aged 5, 7, 12 and 15 years was conducted...... in 2006. Data on children's caries experience were collected from public oral health registers and pooled with socio-cultural and socio-economic data obtained from official statistics. The study population represented 76% of all registered inhabitants. RESULTS: Among 5- and 7-year-old children with non......-Danish mothers, the mean caries experience was three to four times higher than among children of Danish mothers, and a doubled rate was seen among the adolescents (p analysis showed that the level...
Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne I; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze he...... health professionals' experiences from coaching-what coaching meant to them and how it influenced different aspects of their lives....
Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H
Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.
Baxter, Leslie; Egbert, Nichole; Ho, Evelyn
Objective: The authors examined college students' day-to-day health communication experiences. Participants: A convenience sample of 109 midwestern university students participated in the study. Methods: The participants completed health communication diaries for 2 weeks, generating 2,185 records. Frequent health topics included nutrition and…
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of international research with an original approach anchored in health geography, which illustrates the importance of place as a dimension in community health. The aim of the research is to identify the success factors in the processes used to build community health initiatives at the local level. The study is based on interviews encoded and analysed using the framework of the grounded theory. Three main themes—the place, the community and healthcare supply—and two cross-cutting issues referring to 18 explanatory dimensions are identified. These findings are then put to the test in France through an action research approach. Overall, the work suggest avenues to enable the transferability of successful elements of community health initiatives.
Sleskova, M.; Salonna, F.; Geckova, A.M.; Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.
Purpose: To explore the associations between mother's and father's employment status separately and together and the subjective health of children; and how parental education and financial strain can modify these associations. Methods: Data were obtained from 2836 respondents aged 14 to 22 years (me
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on
Sentse, Miranda; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
The potential effect of parental separation during early adolescence on adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems was investigated in a longitudinal sample of adolescents (n = 1274; mean age = 16.27; 52.3% girls). Pre-separation mental health problems were controlled for. Building on a lar
Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret
Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…
Willoughby, Colleen; Polatajko, Helene; Currado, Catherine; Harris, Kathryn; King, Gillian
Comparison of the self-esteem of 39 adolescents with mental health problems to that of a normative sample for the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results indicate no difference between the two groups' self-esteem following participation in a prevocational program. Dimensions of self-concept that are most important to the adolescent will…
Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…
Begoray, Deborah L.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Wilmot, Robin
The commercial media is an influential sociocultural force and transmitter of health information especially for adolescents. Instruction in critical media health literacy, a combination of concepts from critical health literacy and critical media literacy, is a potentially effective means of raising adolescents' awareness about commercial…
Begoray, Deborah L.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Wilmot, Robin
The commercial media is an influential sociocultural force and transmitter of health information especially for adolescents. Instruction in critical media health literacy, a combination of concepts from critical health literacy and critical media literacy, is a potentially effective means of raising adolescents' awareness about commercial media…
de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent
de Winter, Andrea F.; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
BackgroundMost studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PurposeTo examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. M
Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank
Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…
Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Deshpande, Anita; Kaur, Jasleen
Despite the significant growth in the South Asian population in the United States over the past 2 decades, the experiences of South Asian adolescents have remained largely invisible. Guided by a socioecological perspective (American Psychological Association, 2012; García Coll & Marks, 2012), this study examined South Asian adolescents' experiences of acculturative stress and approaches to coping with this stress across home and school contexts. A semistructured interview was completed by 16 participants (9 girls, 7 boys; ages 14-18 years) from different South Asian backgrounds, attending an urban public high school in the Northeastern part of the United States. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the interview data, and revealed 4 broad categories or domains related to participants' experiences as young South Asians in the U.S. These domains include the following: (a) Connection to family, community, and heritage; (b) Challenges to acculturation; (c) Stress accompanying the navigation across cultural contexts; and (d) Coping and resilience. Participants' narratives reflect acculturative stress experienced in home and school contexts which can inhibit psychological well-being and bicultural identity development. The findings have important implications for culturally informed research, intervention, and policy. (PsycINFO Database Record
Larson, Reed W.; Moneta, Giovanni; Richards, Maryse H.; Wilson, Suzanne
This longitudinal study examined change in 220 adolescents' daily range of emotional states between early and late adolescence. Findings showed that emotional states became less positive across early adolescence; this downward change in average emotions ceased in grade 10. The greatest relative instability was during early adolescence; stability…
Chávez, Noé Rubén; Williams, Camille Y; Ipp, Lisa S; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki
Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent (dyadic) discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other's altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14-17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, a majority (61%) of dyadic discussions included a statement reflecting altruism. Parents responded to adolescents' statements of altruism more frequently than adolescents responded to parents' statements. Responses included: expresses concern, reiterates altruistic reasoning, agrees with altruistic reasoning, and adds to/expands altruistic reasoning. Since an altruistic perspective was often balanced with concerns about risk or study procedures, researchers cannot assume that altruism will directly lead to study participation. Optimizing the informed consent process for early phase clinical trials involving healthy adolescents may include supporting parents to have conversations with their adolescents which will enhance their capacity to consider all aspects of trial participation.
Blood, Emily A; Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S Jean
Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011-2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were "very satisfied" with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles.
Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena
Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13-18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls' experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to "claim space." Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.
Full Text Available Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1 An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2 Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3 Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4 Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5 Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.
Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents.
Elvinia Pinilla G
Full Text Available Adolescents face different dilemmas, which may happen tobe not timely solved, pose major risks to health. Objective:To characterize the basic needs and expectations of maleadolescents in Bucaramanga, Colombia, from its perception with respect to services for sexual and reproductive health(SRH. Methodology: qualitative ethnographic study, using astrategy of discussion groups. We used informal discussions,interviews and focal point. Was selected by a conveniencesample of male adolescents in Bucaramanga, 2-6 strata, frompublic and private institutions, and school, between 13 and 18years, with a total of 52 participants and 7 focus groups.Results: Despite the cultural and socioeconomic differences,young people are consistent in their perceptions, needs andexpectations about sexuality and SRH services. The finalanalysis showed four categories: service experiences SSR, SSR ideal services, pornography and sexuality. Conclusions:It is apparent invisibility of the SSR and the perception ofunfavorable, from the experience of those who know her.Nevertheless, adolescents need to consider this type of service.This research leads to reflection on the ignorance of youngboys from their being, their feelings and their wish to be.
Fararouei, M; Brown, I J; Akbartabar Toori, M; Estakhrian Haghighi, R; Jafari, J
This study was conducted to examine the association of happiness in adolescent females with leisure time and health related behaviours namely diet, physical activity and first or second hand smoking. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from 8159 female high school students ages 11-19 years. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations between happiness and weight, regular exercise, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, daily fruit or vegetable consumption and the way participants spent their leisure time. Happiness was associated with lower BMI, regular physical activity, absence of exposure to second-hand smoke, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and spending leisure time with family (all P < 0.005). These exploratory findings suggest that encouraging children and adolescents to adopt healthy behaviours, providing family time and a smoke-free environment may make them not only healthier but also happier.
O'Sullivan Peter B
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (mean age 14.1 years from the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine Study provided cross-sectional spinal pain and CBCL data. Results As predicted, there was a high prevalence of back and neck pain in this cohort. On the whole, females reported more mental health difficulties than males. There were strong relationships between the majority of symptom scales of the CBCL and back and neck pain. Scores on the CBCL were associated with higher odds of comorbid back and neck pain. Conclusions These findings strongly support the need to consider both psychological and pain symptoms when providing assessments and treatment for adolescents. Further research is required to inform causal models.
Full Text Available Background: An earthquake struck Ludian in Yunnan Province (China on 3 August 2014, resulting in 3143 injuries, 617 deaths, and 112 missing persons. Our study aimed at estimating the health status and associated determinants among adolescent survivors after the Ludian earthquake. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 845 was conducted at the Ludian No. 1 Middle School. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA and stepwise linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The mean scores on the physical component summary (PCS and mental component summary (MCS were 46.23 (SD = 7.10 and 36.34 (SD = 7.09, respectively. Lower PCS scores in the aftermath of an earthquake were associated with being trapped or in danger, being female, being an ethnic minority, injury to self and house damage, while lower MSC scores were associated with fear during the earthquake, Han ethnicity, death in the family, not being involved in the rescue and low household income. Conclusions: In our study, significant associations between demographic, socio-economic, and trauma-related experiences variables and overall physical and mental health of adolescent survivors were presented. The results of this study help expand our knowledge of health status among adolescent survivors after the Ludian earthquake.
Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N
Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.
Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K
A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles.
Fegran, Liv; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Aagaard, Hanne;
: To synthesize qualitative studies on how adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases experience transition from paediatric to adult care. Methods: Literature search in major databases covering the years from 1999 to November 2010 was performed. Further forward citation snowballing search was conducted...... responsibility. Conclusion: Young adults’ transition experiences seem to be commensurable across diagnoses and cultures. Feelings of not belonging and being redundant during the transfer process moving from paediatric to adult ward, is striking. Appreciating young adults’ need to be acknowledged and valued......Introduction: Despite research and implementation of transition models in the last decades, transfer from paediatric to adult care still poses great challenges. Predominantly studies on health care transition have been based on the perspective of experts or health care professionals. Aim...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate
Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.
We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%], res
Full Text Available Background: Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives: This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods: This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results: The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion: Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Teltschik, Anja; Ram, Mala; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Bajpai, Divya; Mutali, Beatrice
A rights-based approach in HIV service delivery for adults is increasingly taking root in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of greater availability of antiretroviral therapy. Yet there has been comparatively little progress in strengthening a rights-based approach to adolescent HIV services, which we learned during a qualitative study in 2010 among 111 adolescents living with HIV, 21 parents and 38 health providers in three districts in Zambia. Adolescents in the study expressed a range of information and support needs and wanted locally relevant interventions to meet those needs. They wanted greater access to HIV, sexual and reproductive health information, information on how to protect themselves, privacy and confidentiality in service sites, skills training so as to be able to earn money, and better control over disclosure of their HIV status to others. Both health workers and parents acknowledged that information and services needed to be improved to meet those needs far better. This paper provides examples of successful programmes in Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Botswana and South Africa and calls for adolescent services to be linked to both paediatric and adult services, peer networks to be established to increase adolescents' ability to collectively voice their concerns and support each other, interventions supporting adolescents' control over self-disclosure, and lastly that adolescent health should become a training specialty in sub-Saharan Africa.
Kulyk, O.; Gemert-Pijnen, van J.E.W.C.; David, Silke
Background: Nowadays adolescents primarily use modern, often web-based technology, such as social media and mobile applications to find the answers on all kinds of questions about their health and healthcare services (Kulyk et al., 2013; van Velsen et al., 2013). National program Sense in the Nether
Full Text Available Background Today, ensuring people’s health and well-being has become a concern for societies. Health status results from an interaction of an individuals’ various psychological, social, and physical aspects. Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship of parental mental health and dietary pattern with adolescent mental health. Patients and Methods In this study, 250 high school students in Shiraz were selected using random cluster sampling. The samples were analyzed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results According to the findings, parental mental health explains 22% of the variance in children’s mental health, so that in simultaneous regression, physical dimensions, anxiety, social functioning, and depression predicted 13%, 24%, 11%, and 24% of the variance of criterion variables, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and adolescent mental health dimensions. There was a significant negative relationship only between depression and vegetable intake. Moreover, fruit (r = 0.15, P < 0.05 and vegetable (r = 0.16, P < 0.05 intake had a significant relationship with parental mental health dimensions. Conclusions Parents’ mental health and their psychological characteristics can be related to children’s mental health and affect their dietary intake patterns.
Ms Marijeta Kurtin
Full Text Available BACKGROUND:Up to 20% of Australian adolescents experience the burden of having a mental health problem. Priorresearch has suggested that inhabitants of rural areas are at particular risk of mental healthmorbidity due to their location. The current study sought to investigate how ‘rurality’ influences themental health of adolescents in rural South Australia, and to explore the perceptions of the mentalhealth needs of adolescents as described by service providers in rural South Australia.METHODS:Four focus group discussions and 14 interviews were conducted with 38 human (allied health serviceproviders in the Eyre Peninsula, Spencer Gulf, Limestone Coast and Greater Green Triangle regions ofSouth Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were also conducted with three Victorianhuman service providers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed to identify emergentthemes.RESULTS:Ninety codes were developed and subsequently categorised into five major themes: Community andSociety Factors; Youth Issues, Indigeneity; Service Delivery and Utilisation; and Occupational Factors.Significant gaps in mental health service delivery were identified. Better utilisation of currentresources was identified as a greater concern than the absence of resources per se.CONCLUSIONS:This study provided a unique opportunity for rural allied and primary health care service providers todiscuss adolescent mental health issues in their communities and as part of their work. The datagenerated by these discussions identified areas where practice could be improved.
Smokowski, Paul; Buchanan, Rachel L; Bacallao, Martica L
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample consisted of 281 Latino/a youths and one of their parents in metropolitan, small town, and rural areas within North Carolina and Arizona. The length of time the adolescent was in the U.S. was positively related to humiliation, aggression, and school bonding. Adolescent U.S. cultural involvement and parent culture of origin involvement were not significantly related to adolescent mental health or school bonding. Parent U.S. involvement had an inverse association with adolescent social problems, aggression, and anxiety. Adolescent culture of origin involvement was positively related to adolescent self-esteem 1 year later. Inverse relationships were found for the link between adolescent culture of origin involvement and hopelessness, social problems, and aggression 1 year later. Implications for prevention programming and policy development are discussed.
Daniela de Assumpção
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.
Kayla de la Haye
Full Text Available PURPOSE: In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. METHODS: Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other. Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related. RESULTS: The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a 'substance use risk factor' and an 'unhealthy eating and sedentary factor'. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.
Bryant, Carol A; Mayer, Alyssa B; McDermott, Robert J; Panzera, Anthony D; Trainor, John K
Social marketing applies some of the same principles used in commercial marketing for the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to motivate voluntary behavioral change. It relies on consumer research for understanding the people they hope to change, including their values, aspirations, fears, lifestyle, and factors that motivate and deter them from adopting desired behaviors. Social marketing has been applied in public health settings since the 1980s for promoting such behaviors as safer sex, hypertension and cholesterol control, reduced occurrence of alcohol-impaired driving, improved utilization of public health prevention and screening services, and enactment of better school nutrition policies in schools. Although most evidence for social marketing's utility comes from interventions directed at adult audiences, its application with adolescents may help to address issues that have been challenging or unresponsive to health behavior change specialists. This article describes the basic tenets of social marketing as a behavior change process, identifies its previously successful applications with adolescent audience segments, and offers both lessons learned and projected future applications that employ emerging communication technologies.
Gisele Nepomuceno de Andrade
Full Text Available Objective: Understanding the experiences of health professionals in primary care with the Child Health Booklet in child health care. Method: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach, in which participated nurses and doctors from six teams of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Belo Horizonte, MG. In total, were carried out 12 non-directive interviews, using two guiding questions. Results: A comprehensive analysis of the speeches enabled the construction of three categories that signal the experiences of the professionals with the booklet. The experiments revealed difficulties arising from the limitations of knowledge about the instrument; incomplete filling out of the booklet by many professionals that care for children; the daily confrontations of the process and the organization of work teams; disinterest of families with the instrument. Conclusion: The research points possible and necessary ways to improve the use of booklets as an instrument of full child health surveillance.
Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a
Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Walsh, Sophie; Harel, Shirley; Shulman, Shmuel
Findings of this study, conducted on 142 adolescents (67 ninth graders and 75 eleventh graders), show that romantic experiences among adolescents are manifested in different forms: romantic fantasies, cross-gender friendships, and sustained interactions with a romantic partner. These three forms of experience are manifested differently across age…
Adolescents represent 19.6% of the Colombian population; this requires proper medical training to tackle health problems for this group of age. Violent mortality is high in Colombia but external causes are the most common cause of mortality among teenagers around the world. Invulnerability self-consciousness and exploratory behaviors are related to risk factors such as substance consumption (alcohol, 65%, and tobacco, 35,8%), unsafe sexual conducts (unexpected pregnancy, 21%), and lack of emo...
Susanne Börner; Juan Carlos Torrico Albino; Luz María Nieto Caraveo; Ana Cristina Cubillas Tejeda
The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believ...
Elgar, Frank J.; Pförtner, Timo Kolja; Moor, Irene; De Clercq, Bart; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Currie, Candace
Background Information about trends in adolescent health inequalities is scarce, especially at an international level. We examined secular trends in socioeconomic inequality in five domains of adolescent health and the association of socioeconomic inequality with national wealth and income inequalit
Brooks, Fiona; Magnusson, Josetine
Globally, low participation in physical activity by adolescent young women is a major health concern. While the barriers to activity for this group are well documented, little is known about the views and experiences of nonathlete, but active, young women. In order to gain an understanding of young women's lived experiences of the relationship between physical activity as leisure and health, data were collected through focus groups. Active nonathlete young women in the United Kingdom attached significant meaning to physical activity as a space for leisure, and used it to enhance their health and well-being.
Villadsen, Anna; Thorgaard, Mette V; Hybel, Katja A; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard; Thomsen, Per H; Rask, Charlotte U
Health anxiety (HA) is an overlooked area in paediatric research. Little is known about the occurrence of HA symptoms in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting, and there are no age-appropriate diagnostic criteria and only limited number of assessment tools. It is therefore likely that HA is seen as part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to construct overlap and the diagnostic uncertainty of HA in this age group. In the present study, the extent of HA symptoms was investigated in 94 children and adolescents with a primary ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD. Self-reported HA symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales. Clinician-rated OCD symptoms and severity were measured using the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Information on socio-demographics was obtained from the child's/adolescent's medical record. The distribution of HA symptoms resembled a normal curve shifted to the right compared with a normal population of Danish children, and 30 % presented with high HA symptoms. Chi-squared tests were used to examine the proportion of children and adolescents with high HA symptoms in relation to various clinical characteristics. Clinician-rated illness worries and comorbid anxiety disorder were associated with high self-reported HA symptoms. The results contribute to the understanding of how HA and OCD overlap conceptually in young patients and bring attention to the need for improved recognition of OCD patients dominated by illness worries. Further research in the description of childhood HA is important in order to understand whether HA is a distinct disorder early in life.
Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein
Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.
Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan
Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period when physical, psychological and social maturity is achieved. Therefore, reproductive health in adolescence is of great importance.Aims: This study was performed to determine the effects of training for reproductive health and behavior on knowledge of reproductive health and reproductive behavior in adolescents.Methodology: This is a semi-experimental study and included 700 adolescent from the city of Sanlıurfa, Turkey. The participants were selected from volunteers and aged 15-24 years. A questionnaire composed of questions about demographic features and reproductive health and behavior. The dependent variables tested were mean scores of the participants on reproductive health, breast self-examination of the female participants, testicular self-examination and use of condoms by the male participants. The independent variable tested was training for reproductive health. T-test was used to analyze data about dependent groups and Chi-square test (McNemar was used to compare between two dependent groups.Results: The mean age of the participants was 18.80 ± 2.82 years and 51.0% of the participants secondary school graduates. The total score of the participants on knowledge of reproductive health increased from 6.48 before training to 15.80 after training, with a significant difference (p=0.000. While the percentage of the female participants performing breast self-examination was 22.9% before training, it increased to 71.2% after training, with a significant difference (p=0.000. However, the percentage of the male participants performing testicular self-examination only rose from 14.7% to 29.4% (p=0.000. The use of condoms by the male participants increased from 12.2% to 18.3%, with a significant difference (p=0.000.Conclusion: Training for reproductive health did not only increase knowledge of reproductive health but also promote reproductive health behavior. It can be recommended that nurses should
Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François
The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.
Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S
Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways.
Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras
To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....
Hagen, Beverly Hartung
Reviews relevant literature on the subject of rural adolescent mental health. Discusses demographics, unique situations, and problems of rural youth. Presents impact of the rural economic crisis. Suggests treatment strategies to deal with mental health problems of rural adolescents: individual therapy, family therapy, and peer group programs. (NEC)
Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine;
Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami.......Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami....
Jensen, Hanne Irene; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik
The aim of this study was to examine the assessments and priorities by children and adolescents of health care in a paediatric outpatient clinic, to examine the influence of the time factor on the assessments and priorities by children and adolescents of health care, and to determine their prefer...
Zwaanswijk, M.; Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.
Background: Because most children and adolescents visit their general practitioner (GP) regularly, general practice is a useful setting in which child and adolescent mental health problems can be identified, treated or referred to specialised care. Measures to strengthen Dutch primary mental health
Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana
Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…
Pitel, Lukas y; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
BACKGROUND: Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential modificati
Tuinstra, J; Groothoff, JW; Van den Heuvel, WJA; Post, D
Socio-economic differences in risk behaviors in adolescence can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio-economic health differences in adulthood. We studied whether or not socio-economic differences in health risk behaviors are present in male and female adolescents in The Netherlands. The
Elbedour, S.; Bart, William; Hektner, Joel
Previous studies of polygamy and child mental health have primarily focused on younger children. The present studies are among the first to focus on adolescents. The first study involved 210 randomly selected Bedouin Arab adolescents (mean age 15.9), who were administered instruments assessing their family environment and mental health. The second…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…
Pitel, Lukas; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kolarcik, Peter; Halama, Peter; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background An inverse relationship between religiosity and adolescent health-related behaviour has been repeatedly documented, but evidence regarding gender is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between a wide range of adolescent health-related behaviours and religiosity as
Carroll, Ellen McLaughlin
Health care transition (HCT) describes the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents from child to adult-orientated care. The purpose of this qualitative study is to uncover the meaning of transition to adult-centered care as experienced by young adults with cerebral palsy (YA-CP) through the research question: What are the lived experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare? Six females and 3 males, aged 19-25 years of age, who identified as carrying the diagnosis of cerebral palsy without cognitive impairment, were interviewed. Giorgi's (1985) method for analysis of phenomenology was the framework for the study and guided the phenomenological reduction. The meaning of the lived experiences of YA-CPs transition to adult health care is expert novices with evidence and experience-based expectations, negotiating new systems interdependently and accepting less than was expected. More information and support is needed for the YA-CP during transition to ensure a well-organized move to appropriate adult-oriented health care that is considerate of the lifelong impact of the disorder. The nurses' role as advocate, mentor and guide can optimize the individual's response to the transition process.
Constanze Dorothee Pfeiffer
Full Text Available Visual research forms part of a growing field in participatory research. Lately new discussions among scientists evolved about conceptual considerations and methodological approaches related to the use of visual participatory methods. The following article presents a reflection on a participatory video project with adolescents aged 15 to 19 in Tanzania from the perspective of the adult researcher. On the one hand the project aimed at gaining visual insights into adolescents' realities related to teenage pregnancy. On the other hand, the young filmmakers were empowered to share their experiences and to use the film clips in order to reach policy makers and practitioners. While the use of an adolescent participatory video approach has great potential to represent different realities and to reach policy makers and practitioners in an appealing way, its drawbacks must also be considered. The methodological implications of this highlight the need to reflect about multiple subjectivities and related courses of action of all actors involved on various levels within society. It is argued that symbolic representations have the potential to create knowledge not only for policy and practice but also for science—as long as the research process, personal background, relationships and actions among involved actors, the socio-cultural context and related power dynamics are presented and unfolded in the final outcome of the visual participatory research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303189
War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf
The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences.
Benetti, Sílvia Pereira da Cruz; Ramires, Vera Regina Röhnelt; Schneider, Ana Cláudia; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Guzinski; Tremarin, Daniela
The objective of this work was to review the Brazilian scientific literature from 1995 to 2005 on mental health in adolescence, considering the priorities identified by the World Health Organization (depression, anxiety, substance abuse, behavioral disorders, eating disorders, psychosis, child abuse, and violence). 971 abstracts were identified in the LILACS, MEDLINE, INDEXPsi, and SciELO databases, using descriptors associated with the themes. After selection according to specified criteria, 267 abstracts were analyzed by year, focus, methodological design, and principal conclusions. A qualitative analysis was performed on the main findings. Brazilian publications in this area have increased in the last five years. The majority of the articles aimed to identify the problem, while a smaller proportion dealt with the development of intervention and prevention strategies.
This pilot study was an approach to determine the health outcomes (nutritional status, cognitive status, mental health and educational status), and the presence of health risk behaviors (aggressive behavior/ delinquency, hazardous/harmful drinking, substance use/abuse and tobacco use) of adolescents who have been exposed all their lives to lead. Besides, we could identify individual, familial and social factors, such as lead exposure, that were related to them. The sample included 40 adolesce...
Anderson, Ian; Maliqi, Blerta; Axelson, Henrik; Ostergren, Mikael
Most low- and middle-income countries face financing pressures if they are to adequately address the recommendations of the Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescent's Health. Negotiations between government ministries of health and finance are a key determinant of the level and effectiveness of public expenditure in the health sector. Yet ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries do not always have a good record in obtaining additional resources from key decision-making institutions. This is despite the strong evidence about the affordability and cost-effectiveness of many public health interventions and of the economic returns of investing in health. This article sets out 10 attributes of effective budget requests that can address the analytical needs and perspectives of ministries of finance and other financial decision-makers. We developed the list based on accepted economic principles, a literature review and a workshop in June 2015 involving government officials and other key stakeholders from low- and middle-income countries. The aim is to support ministries of health to present a more strategic and compelling plan for investments in the health of women, children and adolescents.
Frank, Reanne; Cerdá, Magdalena; Rendón, Maria
The increasing size of the Latino immigrant population in the United States underscores the need for a more complete understanding of the role that social context plays in influencing the health of immigrants and their children. This analysis explores the possibility that residential location influences the health-risk behaviors of Latino youth in Los Angeles County, California. The data come from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. We apply multivariate, multilevel Rasch models to two scales of adolescent health-risk behaviors (substance use and delinquency). The findings suggest that residence in Census tracts characterized by above-county-average levels of Latinos and above-county-average levels of poverty is associated with increased odds of health-risk behaviors for Latino adolescents, particularly for those born in the United States. The findings lend support to the contention, put forth in the segmented assimilation literature, that disadvantaged urban contexts increase the risk that U.S.-born children of immigrants will experience downward assimilation.
It is estimated that 20% of children experience psychological problems at any one time. 1 Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in Ireland are under-resourced. Recent economic downturn has hindered the possibility of increased funding to alleviative these deficits. It is now imperative that mental health professionals create innovative and cost effective solutions to promote positive mental health. Recent literature has focused on the benefits of self delivered parenting programmes, with minimal costs incurred. 2,3 Based on the developing evidence supporting self directed approaches, the Lucena Foundation has initiated a series of parent information evenings. These evenings are offered on a monthly basis, and are free to attend. To date 1,538 parents have attended. Feedback from parents has been very positive with 80.5% of them finding them useful or very useful.
Howard, Jo; Friend, Denise; Parker, Trish; Streker, Garry
This study explores the use of the short messaging service (SMS) to support parents who experience violence from their adolescent. The parents participated in the Inner South Community Health Service (ISCHS) Who's the Boss program, an 8-week parent psycho-educational program for parents abused by their adolescents. An ISCHS counsellor, Andrew Compton, was interested in exploring the benefits of SMS technology and how text messages could be used to support women who had experienced family violence. We decided to pilot the use of SMS with group participants of Who's the Boss who were interested in this 'value-added' strategy. This pilot used SMS technology to reinforce behavioural strategies that had been learnt in the groups to support parents in self-care. The project involved 19 consumers (through focus groups) to design the SMS messages that would most benefit them, decide how often and when they would be sent and evaluate their usefulness in supporting them to take a stand against their adolescent's abuse and violence in the home. Safety concerns were also explored with all participants before the commencement of the project. The project findings demonstrated that SMS messages were useful and supported parents to make changes and address their adolescent's abuse and violence. The use of SMS has applicability to a range of therapeutic programs including parenting programs, anxiety and depression programs and family violence programs. An extensive risk assessment must be undertaken ifthe use of SMS is to be considered to support women who have left violent partners to ascertain the safety of women and the likelihood that their partners may have access to their mobile phones. Women with violent partners are most at risk at the point of, or immediately following, separation and the use of SMS may in fact severely compromise the safety of these women. For this reason, SMS may not be appropriate in the support of women who have experienced family violence where there
Tokumbo, Bamise Cornelius; Oluniyi, Olusile Adeyemi; Adebanke, Kolawole Kikelomo; Ozovehe, Peter Augustine
AIM: The recent increase in consumption of acidic beverages is thought to be the leading cause of dental erosion observed among adolescents. The study assessed the drinking habits of Adolescent Secondary School Students and also evaluated their tooth sensitivity experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was conducted among adolescent secondary school students. Purposely, students in boarding hostels were excluded. The sample was selected from twelve public and private secondary schools th...
Kajula, Lusajo J; Sheon, Nicolas; De Vries, Hein; Kaaya, Sylvia F; Aarø, Leif E
Communication between parents and their adolescent children has been identified as one of the potential protective factors for adolescent sexual health. Qualitative exploration of sexual health communication with adolescents aged 12-15 (N = 114) and a sub-group of the parents (N = 20) was carried out. Four major themes emerged: reasons for parent-adolescent communications, or lack thereof; the focus of parental messages; the moral of the message; and the barriers to communication between parents and adolescents. Findings revealed similarities and discrepancies in views and perceptions between parents and adolescents. Adolescents and parents suggested that some sexual health communication was happening. Parents were reportedly likely to use fear to ensure that their children do not engage in risky sexual activities, while adolescents reported that conversations with their parents were mostly ambiguous and filled with warnings about the dangers of HIV/AIDS. Several communication barriers were reported by parents and adolescents. Parents of adolescents would benefit from HIV/AIDS specific communication skills.
Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan
Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (phealth behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.
Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A
The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models.
Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen
Objective This study examined gender differences in family, peer, partner, and mental health characteristics related to sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools, a population at elevated risk for negative sexual health outcomes. Methods A total of 417 13- to 20-year-old adolescents reported on their family functioning, peer and partner relationship characteristics, mental health problems, and self-reported sexual behavior. Results For boys and girls, peer influence and conduct problems predicted sexual experience, and family dysfunction was related to negative peer influence. Greater rejection sensitivity was related to less sexual experience for boys and girls. The final path model revealed indirect effects of family dysfunction on boys’ but not girls’ sexual experiences. Conclusions Findings underscore the utility of an ecological approach to understand social and personal mechanisms that increase risk and mitigate negative outcomes among emotionally and behaviorally disordered boys and girls in therapeutic day schools. PMID:22467883
Ashby, Bethany; Ranadive, Nikhil; Alaniz, Veronica; St John-Larkin, Celeste; Scott, Stephen
Purpose Mental health issues in perinatal adolescents are well documented and studies have shown high rates of depressive disorders among this population. Treatment is challenging because pregnant adolescents are poorly adherent with mental health services. We describe a novel integrated mental health care program for pregnant and parenting adolescent mothers and their children. Methods The Colorado Adolescent Maternity Program (CAMP) is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary teen pregnancy and parenting medical home program serving an ethnically diverse and low socioeconomic status population in the Denver metro area. We describe the Healthy Expectations Adolescent Response Team (HEART), an embedded mental health care program focused on improving identification of mental health symptoms and increasing rates mental health treatment in adolescent mothers. Results From January 1, 2011-January 16 2014, 894 pregnant adolescents were enrolled in CAMP and 885 patients were screened for mental health issues. Prior to HEART's inception, 20 % of patients were identified as having mood symptoms in the postpartum period. Successful referrals to community mental health facilities occurred in only 5 % of identified patients. Following the creation of HEART, 41 % of patients were identified as needing mental health services. Nearly half of the identified patients (47 %) engaged in mental health treatment with the psychologist. Demographic factors including age, parity, ethnicity, and parent and partner involvement did not have a significant impact on treatment engagement. Trauma history was associated with lower treatment engagement. Conclusion Our findings suggest that an embedded mental health program in an adolescent obstetric and pediatric medical home is successful in improving identification and engagement in mental health treatment. Key components of the program include universal screening, intensive social work and case management involvement, and ready access to onsite
Full Text Available Aims: From the developmental perspectives children acquire and widen their perceptions of health as they mature and grow up. The main purpose of this study was to describe health through the eyes of adolescents in immigrant Ethiopian families living in Finland.Methods: Ten boys and five girls participated. The adolescents’ ages ranged from 12 to17. Theme interviews were used in data collection. Snowball sampling technique was used. Consent was obtained from the adolescents and adolescents’ parents. Inductive content analysis technique was used to analyse the data.Results: Adolescents indicated that health is the wellbeing of all dimensions that make us intact and complete. Adolescents believed relaxation, physical activity, good hygiene, good social relationship, avoiding consumption of poison substances, green nature, hygienic environment and peace are health supportive elements. On the contrary adolescents said insufficient resting, violent behaviors, difficulty, irritation, being inactive physically, addiction to alcohol and smoking, eating fatty food, not respecting meal time and use of drugs are health damaging behaviors. Adolescents consumed soft drink and alcohol frequently ,were physical inactive, practiced unhealthy eating habits, felt lazy to go and grab food from food store, faced financial difficulty to pay for Gym and healthy food that threatened their health. Adolescents used sport, socialization, moderate alcohol intake, avoid eating unhealthy food and smoking as their strategies to enhance their health.Conclusions: Adolescents were able to identify unhealthy lifestyles and healthy lifestyles. However adolescents were engaged in healthy and unhealthy lifestyles simultaneously. Thus family, school, neighbours and health care workers should work together and vigilant in assessing and removing factors that prevent adolescents from adopting healthy lifestyles.
Full Text Available
Background: Oral health behaviour is essential for planning & evaluation of oral health promotion programmes. This study was conducted to assess the oral health behaviour among adolescents aged between 11 to 19 years in Kannur district, Kerala state in India, including their inter-dental cleaning habits.
Methods: 512 school children aged 11 to 1 9 years, studying from 6th to 12th standards formed the study subjects.
Results: 52.5% were females and remaining were males. 40.8% were Hindus. Brushing of teeth twice daily was practiced by 75% of students. A significant association was found between the correct brushing technique and male gender as well as students in upper primary school compared to high school and higher secondary school education level. The prevalence of inter-dental cleaning habit was observed to be 58%. 76.3% of males and 58.9% of females used coconut leaf toothpicks for inter-dental cleaning. Multivariate analysis revealed age, religion and positive attitude towards inter-dental cleaning as significant factors associated with the practice of inter-dental cleaning.
Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between gender, age, class of study and recommended method of tooth brushing. More than half of the study subjects practiced inter-dental cleaning and the materials used were locally and easily available those are not recommended by oral health professionals. Multivariate analysis shows age, religion and attitude were the factors significantly associated with regular practice of inter-dental cleaning. Oral health professionals can plan, propose and implement school oral health promotion activities as part of building up oral health promoting school.
Sabiston, C. M.; Sedgwick, W. A.; Crocker, P. R. E.; Kowalski, K. C.; Mack, D. E.
This study explored adolescent females' experiences of social physique anxiety (SPA) and related coping strategies. A final sample of 31 adolescent females ages 13 to 18 years discussed dealing with SPA during individual semistructured interviews. Resultant themes pertaining to the transactional experiences of SPA were coded using content…
Lai, D W
This study explores the impact of violence exposure on the mental health of the adolescents in a rural small town. A structured questionnaire was used to survey 347 adolescents. Violence experienced and witnessed by the adolescents at school, in the neighbourhood, and at home was measured. Mental health was represented by the psychiatric symptoms, depression level, and self-esteem. The level of violence perpetrated by the adolescents was also explored. Results of the multiple regression analysis show that adolescents who have been exposed to more violence, either as a victim or as a witness, report more psychiatric symptoms, higher levels of depression, and more problems of self-esteem. Being a witness of violence also contributes significantly to the variance of violence committed by the adolescents. The implications of the findings to violence prevention are discussed in the conclusion.
Bru, Lene; Solholm, Roar; Idsoe, Thormod
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been documented to be effective in treating depression in adolescence, but there is great variability in the clinical outcome of CBT trials. This may in part be due to variations in the content of, and emphasis on different CBT components. Moreover, little is known about adolescents' subjective experiences of…
Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate
This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…
Laporte, Lise; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra J.; Chamberland, Claire
This study examines whether experiences of familial victimization and aggression are potential risk factors for dating violence in male and female teenage relationships. The authors compare 471 adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the care of a youth protection agency and from a community sample. Results show that adolescents carry negative childhood…
Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; McWhirter, J. Jeffries
Individuals who perceive that they matter to others are likely to experience lower anxiety and depression levels. The effects of young adolescents' perceived mattering on their anxiety and depression levels were examined. Results indicated that female adolescents reported lower anxiety levels but greater depression levels than did male…
Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…
Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.
This study used a person-oriented approach to examine links between adolescents' experiences with parents and peers. Cluster analysis classified 361, White, working- and middle-class youth (mean age = 12.16 years) based on mothers' and fathers' reports of parental acceptance and adolescents' reports of perceived peer competence. Three patterns…
Peter W. Choate
Full Text Available Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents’ experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1 finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2 experiences as the problems escalated; (3 looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4 connecting to the parent’s own history; (5 trying to cope; (6 challenges of getting help; (7 impact on siblings; and (8 choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed.
Choate, Peter W
Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents' experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1) finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2) experiences as the problems escalated; (3) looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4) connecting to the parent's own history; (5) trying to cope; (6) challenges of getting help; (7) impact on siblings; and (8) choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed.
Toscano Sharyl E
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.
Full Text Available Adolescents and youth in South Africa comprise about 30% of the total population. This phenomenon is referred to as a youth bubble. Research shows that 52% of young people have had full penetrative sex by age 17, and yet 35% of teenagers who have sex say they only sometimes wear a condom, while 32% who have sex say they never wear a condom. Furthermore, studies show that more than half (52% of parents of teenagers and youth are unaware of their children’s sexual experiences. This situation is insignificantly different between the youth who frequently attend church and those who do not go to church. Responses by churches to the situation have ranged from denialism and hence only maintaining an abstinence stance to superficial youth sexuality discussions that only scratch on the surface. Data indicate that many adolescents seldom have an opportunity to discuss issues of sexual and reproductive health with a caring, knowledgeable adult and are often confronted with unresponsive health services. In response to the situation, there is growing awareness of the important role that religious communities play in adolescents and youth sexual health. The National Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Framework Strategy (2014–2019 encourage parents and faith-based organisations to bridge this gap by empowering adolescents and youth regarding sexuality issues. The fourth priority of the strategy advocates for a strengthening and scaling up of community networks aimed at supporting adolescents. The churches, however, are caught in a dilemma where on the one hand they have to uphold (teaching the biblical moral values of abstinence and at the same time respond to the realities of youth who are engaging in sex. With the church being a subsystem of society, a question that is posed is: how should a constructive engagement between church and society regarding youth sexual reproductive health be done? A practical theological response of the
Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Scholtz, Alexandra Scholtz; Norris, Shane A
Background: When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo (‘hope’) aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process.Objective: This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities ac...
van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Nahar, Papreen
This article explores the mismatch that exists between what unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh experience, want and need in regard to their sexuality and what they receive from their society, which negatively impacts on their understanding of sexuality and their well-being. The findings provide a picture of Bangladeshi adolescents' (12-18 years) sexual feelings, experiences, behaviours, anxieties and concerns - in particular in relation to desire, pleasure, sexual power, masturbation, virginity, romantic love and dating, and arranged marriage - and how socio-sexual norms and taboos influence these. Curiosity of boys and girls about sex was driven by a need and desire to know and understand, but also because it was exciting to read about and talk about sex. Young people are not just passive recipients of adult norms and messages around sexuality, but agents who actively construe meanings and navigate between what is expected from them and what they want, need and feel themselves. Adolescents have a need for information and support - long before they ever have sex. We call for a positive, rights-based approach to sexuality education for adolescents and a focus beyond health outcomes alone to support adolescents and young people to make sense of the multiplicity of messages they encounter and reduce unnecessary feelings of guilt and anxiety.
Madhav P Bhatta
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. RESULTS: Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval = 2.08-3.63 and homelessness (1.51; 1.17-1.94 were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22-4.08, homelessness (1.49; 1.12-1.98, and running away from home (1.38; 1.06-1.81 were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41-25.37 to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention.
Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H; Lariscy, Ruthann W
This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis results show that both interpersonal and media socialization agents are significantly and positively related to adolescent health literacy. Media socialization agents seem to play a strong role in health literacy orientation, not much weaker than those of interpersonal socialization agents. The proposed health socialization model could contribute to the literature on how adolescents acquire health-related information and channels through which they are most receptive.
N.C. van Wyk; M.D. Peu; A DH Botha
Health promotion is regarded as the cornerstone of good health. It is the action expected from individuals and families in order to better their own health situation. Health promotion is an art and science (Edelman & Mandle, 2002:16) that is integrated into the primary health care to reduce existing health problems. The purpose of the research on which this article is reporting, was to explore and describe the health promotion needs of families with adolescents orphaned by human immu...
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.
Gurpreet Singh Chhabra
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.
Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar
Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents.
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks in a row at least 2-3 times per month in the past year. Among those reporting any maltreatment, 12.4% reported binge drinking compared to 9.9% among those reporting no maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for adolescent binge drinking controlling for parental alcoholism. In particular, all types of or combinations of types of maltreatment were strongly associated with adolescent binge drinking, controlling for age, gender, race, parental alcoholism and monitoring. Research examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on later alcohol abuse needs to recognize the clustering effects of multiple types of childhood maltreatment on alcohol problems.
Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn
Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…
Glass, J. Scott; Benshoff, James M.
A study examined the effects of participation in a low-element challenge course on younger adolescents' perceptions of group cohesion. Pre- and post-tests of group cohesion were administered to 167 North Carolina adolescents aged 11-14. Participants perceived an increase in group cohesion after the daylong program, regardless of their age, race,…
van der Jagt-Jelsma, W.; de Vries-Schot, M. R.; de Jong, Rint; Hartman, C. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Klip, H.; van Deurzen, P. A. M.; Buitelaar, J. K.
Background: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. Method: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were as
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti
This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.
Brown, Jane D.; Bobkowski, Piotr S.
The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental…
De Graaf, Hanneke; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Meijer, Suzanne
Educational level is strongly associated with age of first intercourse and risk of unintended pregnancies. This study examined these associations in a large representative sample of Dutch adolescents and also included associations of educational level with other sexual health aspects. Adolescents ag
Ellis, B. Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z.; Lincoln, Alisa K.; Cabral, Howard J.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine relations between trauma exposure, post-resettlement stressors, perceived discrimination, and mental health symptoms in Somali adolescent refugees resettled in the U.S. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135) who had resettled in the U.S.…
Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.
Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…
Adolescent sexuality and its consequences weigh on the minds of adolescents. School environments play an important role in preventing these consequences because students' feelings of a sense of belonging within the school have been linked with decreased risky behavior. Acknowledging this link, the National Education Association Health Information…
Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher
Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents because they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults in the UK and to identify any developments in health education theory and practice relating to adolescent tobacco use since 2000. The implications of such research are discussed. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was…
Chen, Kun-Hu; Yao, Grace
The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between self-identity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescence. This study assumed that four aspects (i.e. personal, social, ability, and academic identity) of identity firmness could predict adolescent's HRQOL more than four aspects of identity importance. Meanwhile, this study…
Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Parental employment status is an important and often overlooked contextual factor that may influence parent adolescent relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of parental support on adolescents' health within the context of parental employment status. Data on perceived mother's
Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Brent, David A.; Apter, Alan
Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers.…
Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.
Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…
R. Bannink (Rienke); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractPurpose: The aim of this study was to examine the association of negative life events and parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality with mental health problems and to explore an interaction between the parent-adolescent attachment relationship and one or multiple negative life ev
Feizabad, Elham; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Ramezani, Majid; Hashemian, Roxana; Moattari, Syamak
The association between air pollution and bone health was evaluated in adolescents in the city of Tehran. This study is essentially ecological. Vitamin D deficiency among adolescents has been reported at higher rates in polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. Additionally, residence in polluted areas is associated with lower levels of bone alkaline phosphatase.
Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H.; Lariscy, Ruthann W.
This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis…
Valois Robert F
Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult quality of life (QOL research, the QOL construct appears to differ from self-rated health status. Although increased QOL continues to be recognized as an important outcome in health promotion and medical intervention, little research has attempted to explore adolescent perceptual differences between self-rated health and QOL. Methods Correlational analyses were performed between self-rated health, physical health days and mental health days, and QOL. Data were collected from two different public high school adolescent samples during two different time periods (1997 & 2003 in two different geographic regions in the USA (a southern & midwestern state with two different sample sizes (N = 5,220 and N = 140, respectively using the CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' health-related quality of life scale (HRQOL provided estimates of self-rated health, physical health days and mental health days, and QOL. Results All correlation coefficients were significant in both samples (p ≤ .0001, suggesting sample size was not a contributing factor to the significant correlations. In both samples, adolescent QOL ratings were more strongly correlated with the mean number of poor mental health days (r = .88, southern sample; r = .89, midwestern sample than with the mean number of poor physical health days (r = .75, southern sample; r = .79, midwestern sample, consistent with adult QOL research. However, correlation coefficients in both samples between self-rated health and the mean number of poor physical health days was slightly smaller (r = .24, southern, r = .32, midwestern than that between self-rated health and the mean number of poor mental health days (r = .25, southern, r = .39 midwestern, which is contrary to adult QOL research. Conclusion Similar to adults, these results suggest adolescents are rating two distinct constructs, and that self-rated health and QOL should not be
Palmberg, Allison A.; Stern, Marilyn; Kelly, Nichole R.; Bulik, Cynthia; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Trapp, Stephen K.; Hofmeier, Sara M.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.
Evidence suggests that adolescents’ experience of binge eating (BE) might differ in important ways from that of adults. Moreover, although BE appears more common in African American women than other disordered eating behaviors, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on this behavior in adolescents. The current investigation used qualitative methodology to examine the perceptions of White and African American adolescent girls and their mothers regarding experiences of binge an...
Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M; Wells, Melissa
This article assesses the utility of the Index of Problematic Online Experiences (I-POE) in a national sample of adolescents in the United States. The study was based on a cross-sectional national telephone survey of 1560 Internet users, ages 10 through 17. Data were collected between August, 2010 and January, 2011. The I-POE is an 18-item binary response index which can be used to assess problematic internet use across multiple behaviors and activities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a revised index with two factors: a 9-item "excessive use" scale and a 9-item "online social and communication problems" scale among this population. The I-POE showed favorable psychometric properties including adequate internal consistency for the overall scale and for the two subscales. Scores correlate with offline emotional and behavioral difficulties and the I-POE could have value for use as a part of broad mental health assessment procedures in clinical or school settings.
Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M
Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P < 0.001) reported in adulthood. Future research is needed to examine neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying these comorbidities.
Levin-Zamir, Diane; Lemish, Dafna; Gofin, Rosa
Increasing media use among adolescents and its significant influence on health behavior warrants in-depth understanding of their response to media content. This study developed the concept and tested a model of Media Health Literacy (MHL), examined its association with personal/socio-demographic determinants and reported sources of health information, while analyzing its role in promoting empowerment and health behavior (cigarette/water-pipe smoking, nutritional/dieting habits, physical/sedentary activity, safety/injury behaviors and sexual behavior). The school-based study included a representative sample of 1316 Israeli adolescents, grades 7, 9 and 11, using qualitative and quantitative instruments to develop the new measure. The results showed that the MHL measure is highly scalable (0.80) includes four sequenced categories: identification/recognition, critical evaluation of health content in media, perceived influence on adolescents and intended action/reaction. Multivariate analysis showed that MHL was significantly higher among girls (β = 1.25, P < 0.001), adolescents whose mothers had higher education (β = 0.16, P = 0.04), who report more adult/interpersonal sources of health information (β = 0.23, P < 0.01) and was positively associated with health empowerment (β = 0.36, P < 0.0005) and health behavior (β = 0.03, P = 0.05). The findings suggest that as a determinant of adolescent health behavior, MHL identifies groups at risk and may provide a basis for health promotion among youth.
Glozah, Franklin N
There is presently no internationally agreed upon set of indicators for assessing adolescent health and what "health and wellbeing" means to adolescents. The psychosocial context of family, friends, and school plays a crucial role in the construction of health and wellbeing by adolescents. In spite of this, not much is known about the meaning Ghanaian adolescents attach to their health and wellbeing and the role of stress and social support in the construction of this meaning. This study explores how perceived social support and stress influence the construction of the meaning of health and wellbeing to Ghanaian adolescents. Eleven respondents purposively selected from 770 males and females participated in semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed verbatim and analysed with thematic analysis. Findings pointed to the fact that health and wellbeing was largely construed as "ability to perform daily functions," such as ability to take critical decisions and a general sense of vitality and mental strength. These were influenced by perceived social support ("encouragement and advice" and "religiosity or spirituality") and stress ("teasing, strictness, quarrels, and arguments"). These findings suggest that effective communication, mutual respect, and support from significant others, in the midst of stressful life events, contribute substantially to a holistic construction and meaning of health and wellbeing by Ghanaian adolescents.
Healthy eating habits in adolescence support optimal health, growth and intellectual development of the individual. In Slovakia, the prevalence of unhealthy eating habits among adolescents is rather high. During the last decade, regular consumption of soft drinks and energy drinks has become very common in adolescents. This consumption has been found to be strongly associated with a wide range of health and behavioural problems in adolescents. To date only a few studies have explored this rel...
Full Text Available Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents’ awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT, for example encouraging text messages (SMS, and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.
Full Text Available The study explored experiences of adolescents aged 15–19 with alopecia areata (AA and investigated their accounts of coping behaviours. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to provide an in-depth and holistic perspective of their accounts. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a volunteer sample of eight respondents diagnosed with AA. Four key themes were identified: loss (self/social, concerns (physical/future, negative (emotions/thoughts, and coping styles (adaptive/maladaptive. Females experienced greater feelings of loss, were more concerned about their looks and their future, and reported more negative thoughts and emotions. Females felt angry and blamed God for their fate; males blamed both their fate and luck. Action-oriented and practical coping styles were adopted by all of them. After the realization that initial coping behaviours were ineffective, self-distraction, acceptance, and humour were used. Psychological relief followed with the practice of religion and planning for treatments to be undertaken in the future. The findings here are similar to research conducted in the West, though with more emphasis on religion. Health care providers and student counsellors need to understand the negative psychosocial consequences for adolescents living with a visible disfigurement and provide appropriate psychological and social support.
Rafique, Rafia; Hunt, Nigel
The study explored experiences of adolescents aged 15-19 with alopecia areata (AA) and investigated their accounts of coping behaviours. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to provide an in-depth and holistic perspective of their accounts. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a volunteer sample of eight respondents diagnosed with AA. Four key themes were identified: loss (self/social), concerns (physical/future), negative (emotions/thoughts), and coping styles (adaptive/maladaptive). Females experienced greater feelings of loss, were more concerned about their looks and their future, and reported more negative thoughts and emotions. Females felt angry and blamed God for their fate; males blamed both their fate and luck. Action-oriented and practical coping styles were adopted by all of them. After the realization that initial coping behaviours were ineffective, self-distraction, acceptance, and humour were used. Psychological relief followed with the practice of religion and planning for treatments to be undertaken in the future. The findings here are similar to research conducted in the West, though with more emphasis on religion. Health care providers and student counsellors need to understand the negative psychosocial consequences for adolescents living with a visible disfigurement and provide appropriate psychological and social support.
Nelson, Lance R; Stupiansky, Nathan W; Ott, Mary A
While adults are assumed to have the capacity to consent to medical research, and young children to have no capacity, adolescents' capacity to consent is not well described. Adapting the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), we describe adolescents' capacity to consent to medical research and factors influencing that capacity. Our pilot study included a community-based sample of 30 adolescents, 14 to 21 years of age, who completed the MacCAT-CR after undergoing a simulated informed consent process. We found that adolescents' capacity to consent to research was associated with age, health literacy, and family affluence. These findings suggest that investigators and institutional review boards should be aware that factors other than age may influence capacity to consent, and, for modifiable factors, such as health literacy, consent processes for medical research with adolescents can be modified.
Valdicleibe Lira de Amorim
Full Text Available Adolescence is expressed by biopsychosocial development, delimited by the age group of 10 to 19 years old that, in general, initiates with corporal changes of puberty and finishes with social, professional and economic insertion. The adolescents possess health necessities that are produced in the scope of the society, defining and changing themselves from the interaction with its several economic, institutional, political, ethical, cultural and physical ambient components. This study had as its objective to analyze the education practices aimed at adolescent heath promotion, by means of documental research in nursing publications, in the period of 1999 to 2005, emphasizing empirical studies and experience reports involving group formation; and to identify the main theoretical and methodological procedures in education actions adopted in these studies. The results disclosed that only six articles, in which the nurses had affirmed to base their education practice with adolescents on theoretic referential, had valued the active participation of the adolescents, the critical reflection, the creativity and formal and not formal knowledge aiming at reaching transformation in their relations. Thus, we infer that there is a restrict number of publications on the subject, considering the high vulnerability and dependence of this age group regarding its sexuality and exposure to conflict situations.
Sandeepkumar R Chauhan, Arohi P Dalal, Aparajita A Shukla
Full Text Available Background: Numerous health and information needs of adolescents remain ignored due to constraints at different levels of health care system. One of the effective measures can be strengthening Anganwadis to meet these needs, so that better health and health seeking behavior can be expected. So, the study was carried out with objectives to assess baseline knowledge and practices of AFHS in Anganwadi workers (AWWs, to impart skill-based training to AWWs, to evaluate improvement in knowledge and skills of AWWs at appropriate interval, to assess health status and KAP of Adolescent girls (AGs of Anganwadis. Methods: Pre-Intervention, a questionnaire was filled up to evaluate knowledge regarding AFHS of 111 AWWs. Training (lecture on importance of Adolescent health to all 111 AWWs was imparted. Evaluation after 1 & 6 months with same questionnaire was done. Intensive skill-based training to 8 AWWs at their respective Anganwadis was given. General health check-up of AGs of these Anganwadis initially by trainers and then by AWWs was carried out. Improvement in skills was evaluated by observation. Results: Mean age of AWWs was 39.04+7.815years. Mean work-experience was 8.57+8.93years. Mean score pre-intervention, post-intervention-1 month & post-intervention-6 months were 21.68, 34.12 & 36.33 (Total 56 respectively. (ANOVA-test:F=116.32,p<0.0001. 81.69% girls were undernourished, 57.04% showed pallor. Health seeking behavior was poor. Satisfactory improvement was observed in AWWs regarding health check-up of AGs. Communication skills also improved in form of better history taking regarding menstruation, diet and effective health education. Conclusion: Pre-induction & regular skill-based training of AWWs, regular meetings & focused-group discussions with AGs and their mothers are recommended.
Full Text Available Background. Despite the frequency of traumatic or stressful events experienced by refugee children and adolescents prior to migration and following resettlement, the majority do not experience mental health problems emphasising the critical nature of resilience. While a host of factors deemed to be protective of mental health in young refugees have been identified, there has been little research exploring the role of resilience as a distinct psychological construct. This study aimed to explore the nature of psychological resilience in refugee adolescents and the relationship between resilience and depression, other emotional and behavioural problems, and mental health service uptake. Method. One hundred and seventy multiethnic refugee adolescents aged 13–17 from South Australia were administered a survey comprising the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Results. Females tended to have higher resilience, as did those adolescents who had been living in Australia longer. Adolescents suffering from depressive symptoms or other emotional or behavioural problems had lower resilience. There was little evidence of an association between resilience scores and exposure to trauma or service utilisation. Discussion. Fostering resilience may be critical to efforts to prevent or reduce mental health problems in refugee adolescents.
Byford, M; Abbott, R A; Maughan, B.; Richards, M.; Kuh, D.
Background Adolescent mental health problems are associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adulthood but little is known about the effects on adult parenting practices. This study aimed to examine prospective associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and subsequent parenting behaviours in adulthood. Methods The study sample comprised 1110 members from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Prospective data were collected from teacher reports of conduct an...
Full Text Available The articles in this thematic issue suggest both opportunities and hazards for the health and development of adolescents in the digital age. We place these concerns in the context of improving health for young people in the US and elsewhere, and suggest that based on evidence uncovered to date, increasing digital connection may be having no less favorable than adverse effect on adolescents.
Merja Nikkonen; Paivi Kankkunen; Jembere Berhanu
Aims: From the developmental perspectives children acquire and widen their perceptions of health as they mature and grow up. The main purpose of this study was to describe health through the eyes of adolescents in immigrant Ethiopian families living in Finland.Methods: Ten boys and five girls participated. The adolescents’ ages ranged from 12 to17. Theme interviews were used in data collection. Snowball sampling technique was used. Consent was obtained from the adolescents and adolescents’ pa...
Smith, Leann E.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.
Health symptoms of mothers of adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 112) were compared to a nationally-representative sample of mothers of similarly-aged children without disabilities (n = 230) as well as to a sample of mothers of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 96). Health symptoms experienced in…
Caldeira,Sebastião; Merighi,Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; JESUS, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Oliveira,Deíse Moura de; Domingos,Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca; Gonçalves, Roselane
OBJECTIVE: To understand the typical actions of the mother during the pregnancy of her teenage daughter. METHODS: Qualitative study, based on the theoretical-methodological framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz. The data were collected in 2009, and the subjects were nine mothers of adolescent primigravidae. RESULTS: The mother of the pregnant adolescent is typified as one that reacts with surprise and disappointment to being notified of the pregnancy and who, subsequently, confor...
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the reproductive health issues associated with adolescence and their readiness to avail services like Adolescent Friendly Clinic (AFC among rural school going children. Materials and Methods: A quantitative survey was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire among 768 (428 boys and 340 girls students from 15 schools by systematic random sampling from schools (3 schools from 5 talukas. Focus group discussions, 5 each with adolescent boys and girls and teachers were held. Results and Discussion: Only 31% of the boys and 33% of the girls mentioned that they had heard about contraception. More than half of the adolescent boys and girls knew correctly about various modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. A large proportion of boys and girls have mentioned changes in the opposite sex such as increase in height, change in voice, breast development, and growth of facial hair, growth of hair in private parts, onset of menstruation in girls, etc. Nearly 70% of adolescents were ready to use AFC. Teachers perceived that adolescents become curious about the changes taking place in them, but they lack information and opportunities for open-discussions to get answers to their queries related to reproductive health. They are willing to take help from teachers but teachers are not equipped with knowledge nor are they comfortable discussing these issues with their students. Recommendations: Information on the human reproductive system and related issues on reproductive health need special attention. Teachers′ sensitization to "adolescent health care" is required.
Ackermann, Ronald T.; Duru, O. Kenrik; Albu, Jeanine B.; Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Soumerai, Stephen B.; Wharam, James F.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mangione, Carol M.; Gregg, Edward W.
The high prevalence and costs of type 2 diabetes makes it a rapidly evolving focus of policy action. Health systems, employers, community organizations, and public agencies have increasingly looked to translate the benefits of promising research interventions into innovative polices intended to prevent or control diabetes. Though guided by research, these health policies provide no guarantee of effectiveness and may have opportunity costs or unintended consequences. Natural experiments use pragmatic and available data sources to compare specific policies to other policy alternatives or predictions of what would likely have happened in the absence of any intervention. The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) Study is a network of academic, community, industry, and policy partners, collaborating to advance the methods and practice of natural experimental research, with a shared aim of identifying and prioritizing the best policies to prevent and control diabetes. This manuscript describes the NEXT-D Study group's multi-sector natural experiments in areas of diabetes prevention or control as case examples to illustrate the selection, design, analysis, and challenges inherent to natural experimental study approaches to inform development or evaluation of health policies. PMID:25998925
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence among adolescents has untoward psycho-social and physical health effects among this age group. Most of the literature on this topic has been from high-income nations, and little information has come from middle- and low-income nations. This study was done to assess the relationship between physical fighting and bullying victimization among Venezuelan school-going adolescents in Barinas. Method We used data from the 2003 Global School-Based Health Survey conducted among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. We estimated the prevalence of bullying victimization and physical fighting. We also conducted Logistic regression analysis to assess the association between a selected list of explanatory variables and physical fighting. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between physical fighting and number of times the adolescent reported being a bullied in the past 30 days. Results A total of 2,249 adolescent students participated in the survey. However data on sex (gender were available for only 2,229 respondents, of whom 31.2 (47.4% males and 17.0% females reported having been involved in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Some 31.5% (37.0% males and 27.0% females reported having been bullied in the past 30 days. There was a dose-response relationship between bullying victimization and physical fighting (p-trend < 0.001. Compared to subjects who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied were more likely to engage in physical fighting after controlling for age, sex, substance use (smoking, alcohol drinking or drug use, and parental supervision. Conclusion Physical fighting and bullying victimization experience is common among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. The fact that victims of bullying were more likely to have engaged in physical fighting may be evidence supporting the notion that "violence begets more violence".
Dorn, T.; Yzermans, J.C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Zee, J. van der
OBJECTIVE: Caregiving has been described in the literature as a risk factor for ill health in the carer. This controlled, prospective study examines the course of physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescent survivors of a mass burn incident. METHODS: Health information was extracted
Carrington, Suzanne; Lennox, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Michael; McPherson, Lyn; Selva, Gitta
The focus of this paper is on an Australian research project that evaluated the effectiveness of a resource called the "Ask Health Diary," which is used in the school curriculum to promote self-determination for better health and wellbeing for adolescents who have an intellectual disability. Education and health researchers used…
Berra, S.; Tebé, C.; Erhart, M.; Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Auquier, P.; Detmar, S.; Herdman, M.; Alonso, J.; Rajmil, L.
Objective: To examine the association between use of health care services and health status, sociodemographic, and health care system characteristics in children and adolescents from 11 European countries. Research Design: Cross-sectional surveys in representative samples included using phone or sch
Full Text Available This project arises from the need to sort out the different problems appearing in the process of growth and development of adolescents al school level. For this work we took into consideration four schools located in the Province of Córdoba. It refers to a transverse field work which was carried out in two stages during the year 2005. In the first stage, we made a diagnosis about the risk and protection factors in the young as well as the behaviors derived from them. We applied an anonymous survey based on the California Healthy Kids Survey - Bilingual version 2003. In order to select the subjects we made a stratified sample in each institution, with a total of 382 students of both sexes who attend the CBU (Unified Basic Level and the CE (Specialization Level. In the second stage, we worked with students of 4th and 5th year in workshops to train health promotion leaders and we also held workshops with teachers, proctors and principals. It is our goal to research about the factors and risk behaviors in the students. Our target is to improve the quality of life by reinforcing the health conditions and its determinants. The results conclude that the empowerment of the young and the educational community, trough their participation in the building of individual and collective capacities, brings about a higher knowledge of the risk and protection factors. These protection factors will generate resilience which influences in the maintenance, control and self-care of health. Through the dialogue, the educational institution supports the transference of subject matters together with the learning of problem solving strategies. Thus the school will promote critical thinking and creativity, the acknowledgment of the rights and duties as well as the recognition of the possibilities and limitations to promote a responsible autonomy.
Full Text Available Background Attachment is one of the more important developmental aspects for predicting a person’s level of adaptation and mental health. Previous research in this area suggests a relationship between insecure attachment and behavioural disorders, deviations as well as depression and other affective disorders. The goal of this study was to determine the relationships between adolescents’ attachment patterns and aggression as well as internalisation and externalisation of problems – expressed as a tendency to assume the role of the victim or the perpetrator. We hypothesised that insecure patterns of attachment foster both aggression (as a personality feature and a tendency towards mental health issues, through increasing the frequency of entering the role of a victim or a perpetrator. participants and procedure One hundred and twenty individuals aged 14-19 took part in the study, mainly high school and university students. The study was conducted in groups, with the consent of participants and their parents. The following methods were used to assess the variables: The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ and the Mini Direct and Indirect Aggression Inventory (Mini-DIA. Results Our results suggest that a relationship exists between aggressiveness and trust in the relationship with one’s mother, as well as between hostility and alienation with regards to one’s mother and father. Insecure attachment is a significant risk factor for mental health disorders, and it fosters both externalisation and internalisation behaviours. Conclusions We interpret the results as suggesting that attachment organisation plays an important role in a wide array of aspects of adolescent psychosocial development.
Wharf Higgins, Joan; Begoray, Deborah; MacDonald, Marjorie
With the rising concern over chronic health conditions and their prevention and management, health literacy is emerging as an important public health issue. As with the development of other forms of literacy, the ability for students to be able to access, understand, evaluate and communicate health information is a skill best developed during their years of public schooling. Health education curricula offer one approach to develop health literacy, yet little is known about its influence on neither students nor their experiences within an educational context. In this article, we describe our experience applying a social ecological model to investigating the implementation of a health education curriculum in four high schools in British Columbia, Canada. We used the model to guide a conceptual understanding of health literacy, develop research questions, select data collection strategies, and interpret the findings. Reflections and recommendations for using the model are offered.
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period in which all the habits and behaviour like high risk behaviour, substance abuse and eating habits develop that have lifelong impact. In India, programmes have been launched to address all the problems faced during adolescent period, still then adolescents are facing problems. In this review the problems faced by Indian adolescents were highlighted from the past 14 years’ studies. The studies were searched from 2001 to 2015 from Pub Med, Google scholar and other community medicine and public health related journals. The problems included were sexual health and teenage pregnancy, problems related to menstruation, illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol use. Anaemia, eating problems, obesity, behavioural problems and oral health among adolescent were also reviewed. Nineteen abstracts and 52 full texts were available. Sexual health knowledge among adolescent varies from 41% to poor. Knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and sexuality is less. Prevalence of dysmenorrhoea varies from 67.2% to 56.15% among adolescent girls. Prevalence of tobacco use varies from 25.1 to 12%. Prevalence of obesity varies from 3.4% to 0.35% and overweight varies from 5.5% to 5.84%. Prevalence of anaemia varies from 29% to 41.1%. Adolescents are facing depressive problems, physical fights, worry and loneliness. Prevalence of depression varies from 18.4% to 13.3%. Prevalence of dental problems varies from 18.2 to 41%. The review revealed that adolescents in India are facing problems of sexually transmitted infections, dysmenorrhea, tobacco and alcohol use, depression, physical fights, worry, loneliness and oral health problems. This needs a participation of family, community and government to resolve the issue.
Bianca Marques Santiago
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of contextual social capital (neighborhood empowerment and individual social capital (social support and social network with dental caries experience in adolescents and adults. METHODS: A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 573 subjects, 15-19 and 35-44 years of age, from 30 census tracts in three cities of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. Caries experience was assessed using the DMFT index (decayed, missing and filled teeth and participants were divided into two groups according to the median of the DMFT index in low and high caries experience. Demographic, socioeconomic, behaviors, use of dental services and social capital measures were collected through interviews. Neighborhood empowerment was obtained from the mean scores of the residents in each census tract. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression was used to test the relationship between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience. RESULTS: High caries experience was inversely associated with neighborhood empowerment (OR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.33 - 0.99. Individual social capital was not associated with caries experience. Other associated factors with caries experience were age (OR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.12 - 1.18 and being a female (OR = 1.72; 95%CI 1.08 - 2.73. CONCLUSION: The association between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience suggests that the perception of features of the place of residence should be taken into account in actions of oral health promotion.
Piko, Bettina F; Skultéti, Dóra; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Gibbons, Frederick X
Adolescent health behaviours are influenced by a variety of social factors, including social orientations, such as social comparison or competitiveness. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the role that these social orientations might play in health behaviours (both health-impairing and health-promoting). Data were collected from high school students (N = 548; ages 14-20 years; 39.9% males) in two counties of the Southern Plain Region of Hungary. The self-administered questionnaires contained items on sociodemographics, such as age, sex, parental schooling, and socioeconomic status (SES) self-assessment; school achievement, health behaviours, competitiveness and social comparison. Multiple regression analyses suggest that those who scored higher on competitiveness engaged in more substance use, a pattern that was not present for health-promoting behaviours. Social comparison, however, was associated with lower levels of substance use. In addition, in relation to health-impairing behaviours, both competitiveness and social comparison interacted with sex; both social orientation variables proved to be more important for boys. Social comparison also contributed to health-promoting behaviours among boys. Findings support the idea that the role of social orientations, such as competitiveness and social comparison, can be quite different depending on sex and the nature of the health behaviour. While competitiveness may act as a risk factor for substance use among boys, social comparison may act as a protection. It appears that social orientations play less of a role in girls' health-related behaviours. More focus is needed on gender differences in influences on adolescents' health-related behaviours. Les comportements de santé des adolescents sont influencés par une variété de facteurs sociaux, incluant les orientations sociales telles que la comparaison sociale ou la compétitivité. Le but principal de la présente étude était d'examiner le r
With this paper, five key domains of advocacy, clinical care and health promotion, education and health services delivery, workforce and professional development, and research are identified. All five require attention in order to reach the overarching goal of health equity for adolescents and young adults. SAHM believes that achieving health equity is related to its organizational mission and vision and is a key factor in driving excellence in adolescent health and medicine. SAHM will continue to expand its capacity, being introspective as an organization as well as make recommendations to others, in an effort to be collaborative and inclusive of professionals, programs, and systems that represent and serve the diverse populations for whom the Society advocates.
Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222
Gurgel, Maria Glêdes Ibiapina; Alves, Maria Dalva Santos; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Rego, Rita Maria Viana
Working with the development of skills in sexual and reproductive health of adolescents from the perspective of health promotion for the prevention of the precocious pregnancy is a challenge to the nurse. To attend the group on psychosocial and biological transformation, we must consider their particular demands and growth for the protagonists: nurse and adolescent. The study aims to analyze the practice of the nurse in the prevention of the precocious pregnancy in view of skills development. This is a descriptive and exploratory research, with a qualitative approach, developed in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, using the technique of the focal group, whose analysis was performed by means of discursive practices and maps of association of ideas. The results revealed that the promotion of adolescent health is worked out in the nursing consultation and adolescents groups, being this a creative, appropriate interactive space for the development of skills regarding sexuality and the prevention of precocious pregnancy.
There is a dearth of knowledge about the health outcomes of resilience during adolescence, making the study of health-related outcomes of resilience important. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based just-identified model and to test the direct and indirect effects of resilience on hope, well-being, and health-promoting lifestyle in middle adolescents. The study used a correlational design. The final sample consisted of 311 middle adolescents, aged 15 to 17, who were recruited from a public high school. Participants responded to instrument packets in classroom settings. The structural equation model was tested with the LISREL 8.80 software program. All seven hypotheses were supported at a statistically significant level (p resilience. Alternate models of outcomes of resilience need to be tested on adolescents.
Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C
The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses.
Levin, Kate; Inchley, Jo; Currie, Dorothy; Currie, Candace
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland were analysed using multilevel linear regression analyses for outcome measures: happiness, confidence,…
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to explore perceived posttraumatic growth (PTG and its associations with potentially traumatic events (PTEs, dispositional optimism, perceived social support, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, and satisfaction with life (SWL among adolescent refugees and asylum seekers. Method: A cross-sectional design was employed including 111 refugees, aged 12–17, that were recruited from asylum seeker centres throughout the Netherlands. Measurements included the revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children, Children's Impact of Event Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, The Life Orientation Test, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results: Participants reported mean PTG scores (20.2 indicating an average response of some perceived change, while reporting high levels of PTSD symptoms (30.6. PTG and PTSD symptoms were not related with each other (r=0.07, p=0.50. PTG was positively associated with dispositional optimism (r=0.41, p<0.01 and social support (r=0.43, p<0.01. A hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that dispositional optimism (β=0.33; p<0.05 and social support (β=0.27; p<0.05 positively predicted PTG, explaining 22% of the PTG variance above demographic variables and PTEs. PTG was also positively related with SWL (r=0.37, p<0.01. Conclusions: Perceived PTG and PTSD symptoms appear to be independent constructs, which co-occur in adolescent refugees and asylum seekers. The relationship between PTG and mental health remains inconclusive; PTG was positively related to SWL and not associated with PTSD symptoms. Longitudinal research is required to determine causality between PTG and mental health in this refugee population confronted with many traumatic experiences and challenging migration tasks.
Atwood, J D; Donnelly, J W
Presented is a multi-systemic theoretical model of adolescent pregnancy that incorporates the school-peer-family-community systems and defines a role for health educators. It is noted that teenagers receive conflicting messages from the adolescent socialization community--all the institutions, individuals, and mass media that influence and shape development. To cope with these multiple, inconsistent messages, many adolescents respond with inconsistent behavior given the impossibility of pleasing all sources of influence. Health educators must coordinate the school-peer-family-community systems to achieve more congruence and less competition surrounding inputs into the daily life of young people. The potential to disseminate sex education is greatest in the school context, where information can be provided on a systematic, regular basis to reinforce learning. Since peers are a major reference group during adolescence, per counseling can be used effectively to discuss factors that lead to unwanted pregnancy and help clarify values. Sex education programs are strengthened by the involvement of parents, and interventions aimed at promoting parent-child communication around sexual issues have been demonstrated to delay the onset of sexual activity. The availability of an adolescent health clinic, either in the school or close by, has been shown to reduce adolescent pregnancy. Overall, the most effective adolescent pregnancy prevention programs are those that are comprehensive in substance and duration.
Full Text Available This study was to determine the health knowledge, attitude, and practice of adolescence girls during puberty among 8th grade students in southern part of Tehran in 1996-1997. It also addressed the health needs and therefore the necessary steps to be taken to promote adolescent's health. Sample study consisted of 225 students, their mothers, and their teachers. Each person was interviewed by a trained personnel and special questionnaire. Analysis of the questionnaires showed that the girls' knowledge about physiological, psychological, and social aspects of puberty was low. Most of them (%75 reported that their first menstruation made them scared because they thought had a disease. The most reported source of information about puberty and menstruation was the mother, %36 reported their knowledge about adolescent's health is not enough and %33 reported having difficulties talking to their daughters about puberty and menstruation %19 of them were illiterate, %39 had primary school, %30 had secondary school, and %12 had higher education. The higher the mother's education level, the higher the age that they considered their daughters to be psychosocially matures. Most of the girls (%76 expected psychologically negative changes during puberty and (%72 experienced them based on this study, it can be suggested that health education programs for adolescent girls should focus their efforts on the mothers knowledge as their main practical method of meeting the girls need for information. Mothers were sensitive to moral and behavioural aspects of adolescent's health. The results show the importance of psychological aspects of adolescent's health Educating mothers will promote their knowledge, attitude, and practice about adolescent's health and therefore decrease their daughter’s mental and emotional problems during this period of time.
Emily Joy Callander
Full Text Available This paper assesses whether attaining a higher education improves the chances of employment in adulthood amongst those who had a chronic health condition in adolescence. Using longitudinal analysis of twelve waves of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, conducted between 2001 and 2012, a cohort of adolescents aged 15 to 21 in Wave 1 were followed through to age 24 (n=624. The results show that those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence were2.4 times more likely to not be employed at age 24 compared to those who did not have a chronic health condition (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.4, p=0.0024. The results were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment at age 24, health status at age 24 and household income poverty status at age 24. Amongst those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence there was no significant difference in the likelihood of being employed for those with a Year 12 and below (p=0.1087 level of education attainment or those with a Diploma, Certificate III or IV (p=0.6366 compared to those with a university degree. Education attainment was not shown to mitigate the impact of having a chronic health condition during adolescence on adult employment outcomes. Keywords: employment; chronic health conditions; poverty; living standards; longitudinal.
Singh, M M; Devi, R; Gupta, S S
A study was conducted on 130 girl students aged 13-17 years in Haryana to assess their awareness and health seeking behaviour regarding menstrual and reproductive health. Mean age at menarche of the girls was 13.6 +/- 0.83 years. Awareness about the process of menstruation was poor. Commonest reported menstrual problem was dysmenorrhoea (40.7%) followed by irregular menses (2.3%) of which only 5.3% consulted a doctor and 22.4% took over the counter medications from the chemist shops. Knowledge about normal duration of pregnancy and need for extra food during pregnancy was poor. Most of the girls knew about importance, duration of child spacing and need for three medical examinations during pregnancy. Major sources of information were television (73.1%), radio (37.1%) and parents (36.1%). Girls preferred to consult parents (49.2%) and doctors (44.6%) for help at times of having reproductive health problems. This study highlights the need for educating school girls about adolescent health, pregnancy and reproductive health problems through schools and parents by the health professionals.
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the role psychosocial factors play in promoting the health and academic success of adolescents. A total of 770 adolescent boys and girls in Senior High Schools were randomly selected to complete a self-report questionnaire. School reported latest terminal examination grades were used as the measure of academic success. Structural equation modelling indicated a relatively good fit to the posteriori model with four of the hypothesised paths fully supported and two partially supported. Perceived social support was negatively related to stress and predictive of health and wellbeing but not academic success. Stress was predictive of health but not academic success. Finally, health and wellbeing was able to predict academic success. These findings have policy implications regarding efforts aimed at promoting the health and wellbeing as well as the academic success of adolescents in Ghana.
Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin
Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.
Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risk factors associated with mental health issues in adolescents. Method: An integrative review was conducted in four databases with publications from 2007 to 2013. The terms Adolescent and Mental Health were used to search adequate articles as DeCs/MeSH bases. Results: Publications were found in different journals in different fields of knowledge and the quantitative research was the most frequent. The mental health issues were categorized as individual factors; drug related factors, school factors, family factors, social factors and STDs/Aids related factors. The most addressed category was individual factors, with 23 publications. Conclusion: The integrative review allowed to point important questions to be addressed in preventive actions by the health professional, including the nurse, to create a space that works with risk conditioning factors in adolescents for mental health aggravation.
The adolescent developmental phase has encouraged many research studies as a result of the diversity and dynamics of this period of life. This phase is characterised by a range of challenges on an intrapersonal level, in family life, peer group settings and school settings. Various studies confirm that every aspect of adolescent development is influenced by experiences at school. Secondary school (Grades 8 to 12) is also considered to be a critical time for creating healthy and cohesive socie...
This study examined the parental styles and psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and the relationship between them in gifted as compared to nongifted Arab adolescents. Five scales --The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents. Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and The Psychological…
Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O
A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort.......A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort....
Smith Paige Hall
Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have
Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were compared with…
Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn
Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E
PURPOSE: This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. FINDINGS: Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. IMPLICATIONS: These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development.
Burchard, Falk; Diebenbusch, Teresa
Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry In the past years the pressure in society and psychological problems in Germany have risen up. This can especially be verified by the great influx of utilization of child and adolescent psychiatric clinics through the admission of crisis. In this connection social disadvantaged female adolescents with a low socio-economic status, students of the secondary school, children in care and the ones whose parents have to manage their upbringing alone are preferentially affected. These developments require a fast adaptation of the supply system to the transformed demands, in particular in terms of outpatient treatment, as well as a closely and structured cooperation between the youth welfare and child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in their function as systems of help. In the script statistical data and adaptive approaches of a supply department of child and adolescent psychiatry are presented.
Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Bastos Lages, Elizabeth Maria; Paiva, Saul Martins
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of 120 Brazilian adolescents with the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for 11 to 14 year olds (CPQ11-14). Malocclusion was evaluated by 2 calibrated dentists using the Dental Aesthetic Index. Adolescents' sex and age and the families' monthly income were recorded and considered as confounding variables. A total of 117 adolescents completed the CPQ11-14, for a response rate of 97.5%. The multivariate model demonstrated that adolescents diagnosed with malocclusion (n=77) were significantly more likely to report a negative impact on the overall CPQ11-14 score (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-1.51; P adolescents with no malocclusion (n = 40).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs. The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP, a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population
You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom
This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…
Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Boivin, Michael J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan
Globally, there is a crucial need to prioritize research directed at reducing neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders in adolescence, which is a pivotal age for the development of self-control and regulation. In adolescence, behaviour optimally advances towards adaptive long-term goals and suppresses conflicting maladaptive short-lived urges to balance impulsivity, exploration and defiance, while establishing effective societal participation. When self-control fails to develop, violence, injury and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders can result, further challenging the development of self-regulation and impeding the transition to a productive adulthood. Adolescent outcomes, positive and negative, arise from both a life-course perspective and within a socioecological framework. Little is known about the emergence of self-control and regulation in adolescents in low- and middle-income countries where enormous environmental threats are more common (for example, poverty, war, local conflicts, sex trafficking and slavery, early marriage and/or pregnancy, and the absence of adequate access to education) than in high-income countries and can threaten optimal neurodevelopment. Research must develop or adapt appropriate assessments of adolescent ability and disability, social inclusion and exclusion, normative development, and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders. Socioecological challenges in low- and middle-income countries require innovative strategies to prevent mental health, neurological and substance-use disorders and develop effective interventions for adolescents at risk, especially those already living with these disorders and the consequent disability.
Fortes, P A; Kurita, G de P
In an effort to better understand some of the ethical and legal dilemmas that health professionals face in their daily activities, this study identified and analyzed the opinions and expectations of medical and nursing students at the University of São Paulo, Brazil, regarding the autonomy of adolescents in receiving health care services. Over the 1995-1996 period, interviews were done with students in the first and last years of their programs in the School of Medicine and the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo. The results from the first-year students were compared with those of the final-year students. The interview questions dealt with such issues as providing medical care to adolescents when a parent or guardian was not present, adolescents making their own decisions on health care services, the confidentiality of information that adolescents provide, the circumstances in which that information could be given to parents or guardians, and situations where there were conflicts between the decisions of parents and adolescents. Despite variations among the opinions and expectations of the students, the overall results suggest that most of the medical and nursing students do not accept the concept of "health adulthood" or autonomy for adolescents and that the students instead choose to rely on current legal definitions of adulthood.
Fortenberry, J. Dennis
This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The…
Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others
Examines the effect of unsupportive family relations and low self-esteem on teenage sexual activity and alcohol use. Data from a telephone survey of 301 male and 242 female adolescents in Iowa suggested significant gender differences, with young women in unsupportive contexts seeking compensatory intimacy outside the family. (JB)
Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares
Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence.
Jörg, Frederike; Visser, Ellen; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J
The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of adolescents with and without a psychiatric diagnosis receiving specialist mental health care and investigate their problem levels as well as utilization of other types of mental health care to detect possible over- and undertreatment. Care utilization data were linked to psychiatric diagnostic data of 2230 adolescents participating in the TRAILS cohort study, who were assessed biannually starting at age 11. Psychiatric diagnoses were established at the fourth wave by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Self-, parent- and teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems and self-reported mental health care use were assessed at all four waves. Of all diagnosed adolescents, 35.3 % received specialist mental health care. This rate increased to 54.5 % when three or more disorders were diagnosed. Almost a third (28.5 %) of specialist care users had no psychiatric diagnosis; teachers gave them relatively high ratings on attention and impulsivity subscales. Diagnosed adolescents without specialist mental health care also reported low rates of other care use. We found no indication of overtreatment. Half of the adolescents with three or more disorders do not receive specialist mental health care nor any other type of care, which might indicate unmet needs.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare perceived stress in general, stress due to pregnancy, and post partum complications between a group of unmarried adolescent first-time mothers and a group of married adolescent first-time mothers. Never-pregnant adolescents served as a comparison group on perceived stress. Health outcomes of infants of the two groups of adolescent mothers were also compared on birth weight, nutritional status (weight gain and immunization status.
Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E
Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators.
Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew
Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…
The present research involved two studies that considered "ecology-centered experiences" (i.e., experiences with living things) as a factor in children's environmental attitudes and behaviors and adolescents' ecological understanding. The first study (Study 1) examined how a community garden provides children in an urban setting the…
Otten, R.; Wanner, B.; Vitaro, F.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Aims - This study examined links of peer experiences (i.e. social status and affiliation with disruptive peers) throughout childhood with respect to adolescent smoking trajectories, after controlling for childhood disruptiveness. Specifically, we tested four models regarding links of peer experience
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health and social profile of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS living in the community. We conducted a study to describe the living, employment and psycho-social situation of a community sample of forty two adults and adolescents with AS, and to describe these indivdiuals' experiences of accessing health services and taking medication. Findings Most respondents (including those over eighteen years of age lived at home with their parents. Most had trouble reading and responding to other people's feelings, and coping with unexpected changes. Difficulties with life skills, such as cleaning, washing and hygiene were prevalent. The majority of respondents were socially isolated and a large minority had been sexually or financially exploited. Almost all respondents had been bullied. Mental health problems such as anxiety or depression were common. 30% of respondents said that they regularly became violent and hit other people and 15% had attempted suicide. More positively, the majority of respondents felt that they could access health services if they had a health problem. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a relatively poor social and health profile for many people with Asperger syndrome living in the community, with high levels of social problems and social exclusion, and difficulties managing day to day tasks such as washing and cleaning; these findings support the results of other studies that have examined psycho-social functioning in this group.
Sleep is a key element, both physiologically and psychologically, in adolescent development. The prevalence of sleep disorders in western countries is important, as with age the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents becomes irregular and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and waking time resulting in rhythm desynchronization. A large number of adolescents sleep for 7-8h instead of 9-10h per night, which can lead to a cumulative sleep debt with fatigue, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. The effect of electronic media use (such as television, mobile phone, computer, and electronic gaming) on sleep has been the object of several international studies, though pubertal changes may also impact adolescent sleep. Adolescents and their parents should be educated by professionals, including physicians and nurses, on the key role of sleep in adolescent well being and quality of life. A number of basic rules are proposed to improve sleep in adolescents. The permanent social jet lag experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health.
-version of the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The outcome measure emotional problems is defined as daily presence of at least one of four symptoms: feeling low; irritable or bad tempered; feeling nervous and having difficulties falling asleep. Items about children and adolescents´ Social competencies, Self...... health is an important public health issue and a goal in itself. Further, mental health and competencies in adolescence track into adulthood. Emotional health problems seem to be socially patterned as the prevalence of problems is approximately twice as high in lower compared to higher social classes...... but these inequalities are still vaguely documented among adolescents. Further, little research exist about the social patterning of social and personal competencies but some studies suggest that socioeconomic status is connected to the development of different aspects of competencies. Objectives: This study examines...
Henson, Michele; Sabo, Samantha; Trujillo, Aurora; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette
Exposure to protective factors, conditions that protect against the occurrence of an undesirable outcome or promote the occurrence of a desirable outcome within an adolescent's environment, can foster healthy adolescent behaviors and reduce adult morbidity and mortality. Yet, little is known about the nature and effect of protective factors on the positive social and health outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents. We conducted a review of the literature to identify the protective factors associated with positive health outcomes among AIAN adolescents. We consulted Elsevier Science Direct, ERIC EBSCOhost, PubMed, and the Web of Science databases. A total of 3421 articles were encountered. Excluded publications were those that did not focus on AIAN adolescents (n = 3341), did not identify protective factors (n = 56), were not original research studies (n = 8), or were not written in the English language. We identified nine categories of protective factors positively associated with health and social outcomes, including: current and/or future aspirations, personal wellness, positive self-image, self-efficacy, non-familial connectedness, family connectedness, positive opportunities, positive social norms, and cultural connectedness. Such factors positively influenced adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and substance use; delinquent and violent behavior; emotional health including depression, suicide attempt; resilience; and academic success. Protective factors spanned multiple domains of the socio-ecological model. Strengths-based health promotion efforts that leverage local, innate protective factors and work with AIANs to create environments rich in protective factors are key to improving the health and wellbeing of AIAN adolescents.
Busch, Vincent; van Stel, Henk F; Schrijvers, Augustinus JP; de Leeuw, Johannes RJ
Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these...
Verelst, A; De Schryver, M; De Haene, L; Broekaert, E; Derluyn, I
This study aims to explore the factors that explain the mental sequelae of war-related sexual violence and focuses in particular on the role of stigmatization. Drawing on a large-scale quantitative survey undertaken in the war-affected region of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, we analyze how stigmatization mediates the mental health impact of sexual violence on adolescent girls who were victims of rape. Twenty-two secondary schools were randomly selected out of a stratified sample in Bunia, Eastern Congo. In a cross-sectional, population-based survey, 1,305 school-going adolescent girls aged 11-23 completed self-report measures assessing war-related traumatic events, experiences of sexual violence, stigmatization, and mental health symptoms. Of the 1,305 participants, 38.2% (n=499) reported experiences of sexual violence. Victims of sexual violence reported more war-related traumatic events and more stigmatization experiences. Several hierarchical regression analyses examined the mediating impact of stigmatization on the relationship between sexual violence and mental health outcomes, thereby controlling for sociodemographics (age, parental availability, and socioeconomic status) and war-related traumatic exposure. Our findings show that this stigmatization largely explains the mental health impact of sexual violence, in particular, on adolescent girls' reported symptoms of depression (full mediation) and posttraumatic stress (avoidance and total PTSD: full mediation; hyperarousal: partial (40%) mediation). No evidence of mediation by stigmatization was found for symptoms of anxiety and intrusion. Stigmatization plays thus an important role in shaping the mental sequelae of sexual violence, a finding with major consequences for clinical practice.
This thesis deals with the evaluation of knowledge of healthy lifestyle and eating habits of students in adolescent schools in Czech Budejovice. The first part is the processed literature review, which aims to define health and related key words. It is based on the literature and scientific publications which are listed in the bibliography & was drawn to show clear characteristics of a healthy lifestyle and its problems especially during adolescence. The empirical part deals with the evaluati...
Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R
Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.
Mir M. Ali; Dwyer, Debra S.; Vanner, Elizabeth A.; Alexander Lopez
In this paper we create indices of resilience to identify adolescents at risk of smoking, drinking alcohol, and using illegal drugs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, three manifestations of resilience were identified: overall-resilience, self/family-resilience, and self-resilience. Our analysis reveals that the overall-resilient were less likely to engage in risky behaviors. The self/family resilient were more likely to engage in risky behaviors, but consu...
Gerhard-Burnham, Beth; Underwood, Lee A; Speck, Kathryn; Williams, Cyrus; Merino, Carrie; Crump, Yolanda
Treatment for adolescents with sexually maladaptive behaviors is a continuing intervention that is changing and developing as greater understanding about this population of adolescents is obtained. The majority of treatment programs for adolescent sexually maladaptive behavior contain programming components that include cognitive distortions/thinking errors. Interviews including a conceptual mapping exercise were conducted with four adolescents adjudicated to a secure care program for sexual behaviors. All four boys completed an interview and a conceptual map of their perceived experiences as an adolescent with sexual maladaptive behaviors. All interviews were audio recorded. Analysis of the interviews and conceptual mappings yielded five themes present in the boys' experience as well as a consideration of the role early trauma may have in the establishment of cognitive distortion development. Contributing environmental and familial factors also play an important part in sustaining cognitive distortion. Main themes include: loss of responsible father or father figure, inability to regulate emotion, lack of personal and parental boundaries, and early exposure to pornography. The contributing influence of responsible male father figures may play an even greater role in the lives of young males than originally thought. How the adolescent inaccurately perceives his environment--in essence what he tells himself and continues to tell himself to make sense of his world--are building blocks in the development and continuation of thinking errors/cognitive distortions used to commit and justify sexual offending behaviors.
Murty, Vishnu P; Calabro, Finnegan; Luna, Beatriz
Adolescence marks a time of unique neurocognitive development, in which executive functions reach adult levels of maturation. While many core facets of executive function may reach maturation in childhood, these processes continue to be refined and stabilized during adolescence. We propose that this is mediated, in part, by interactions between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we propose that development of this circuit refines adolescents' ability to extract relevant information from prior experience to support task-relevant behavior. In support of this model, we review evidence for protracted structural and functional development both within and across the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. We describe emerging research demonstrating the refinement of adolescents' ability to integrate prior experiences to support goal-oriented behavior, which parallel hippocampal-prefrontal integration. Finally, we speculate that the development of this circuit is mediated by increases in dopaminergic neuromodulation present in adolescence, which may underlie memory processing, plasticity, and circuit integration. This model provides a novel characterization of how memory and executive systems integrate throughout adolescence to support adaptive behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with IBD requiring ostomy surgery experience perioperative needs that may exceed those of patients experiencing other major abdominal surgery 1. This procedure requires ongoing and vigilant daily care and management. Gastrointestinal symptoms and complications impose psychological and social stresses on young patients 2, and the procedure results in body image changes and daily regimens of self-care. This study aimed to explore adolescents' experiences and quality of life following ostomy surgery. Methods Ethnographic interviews and a subsequent focus group were conducted with 20 adolescents with an ostomy or j-pouch being treated at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to theme generation. Results Findings suggest that adolescents are profoundly affected by their ostomy. Adolescents convey strength as well as adjustment struggles. Identified impacts include body intrusion and body image changes, decreased independence, secrecy about the ostomy, adjustment over time, challenges for the family, and strategies for constructively moving forward. Conclusion Implications address the importance of ensuring meaningful opportunities to understand and reframe the stresses of illness. An ongoing clinical challenge involves the promotion of a healthy self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment for these adolescents and their families. Finding effective ways to minimize stress and embarrassment and reframe personal shame, constitute important clinical priorities. Opportunities for peer support and family dialogue may assist in clarifying worries and easing the burden carried by these young persons. Flexible and adequately funded resources are advocated in fostering quality of life.
DeMairo, Pauline; Dischell, Jackie; Jouthe, Sorahya A.; Horner, Andrea
The Teen Outreach Reproductive CHallenge (TORCH) is a peer education program that provides information on various topics relevant to adolescent sexual health to a diverse audience, ranging from teens to health care providers. This information is disseminated through various projects by a group of New York City high-school students who are…
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Kerssens, J.J.; Yzermans, C.J.
OBJECTIVE:: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems
McCarthy, John; Bruno, Michelle; Fernandes, Teresa E.
The prevalence of depression increases markedly during adolescence, yet many youth are not receiving the support that they need. One factor that has been speculated as contributing to low rates of care is a lack of mental health literacy about depression and viable sources of support. This pilot study focused on mental health literacy as it…
Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Skinner, Timothy
Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N = 420; 188 males, 232 females) was 12.30 years (SD =…
Scull, Tracy Marie; Malik, Christina V.; Kupersmidt, Janis Beth
As states are moving toward comprehensive sexual health education, educators require engaging and effective curricula. This pre-post study (N = 64) examined the feasibility of a comprehensive, media literacy education program for influencing adolescents' sexual health and media literacy outcomes. After the program, participants were more…
Salonna, Ferdinand; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Zezula, Ivan; Sleskova, Maria; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Social support is assumed to be a protective social determinant of health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether social support from the father, mother and friends mediates or moderates the association between socioeconomic position and self-rated health among adolescents. The
Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.
Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…
Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.
Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…
Niu, Han-Jen; Wang, Yau-De
The interrelationships of three issues relevant to adolescents are the focus of this study, namely, work experience, idolatry, and impulsive buying. Many young people work at some time during their years at high school, which is part of the process of socialization in terms of both thinking and behavior. Idolatry is a common phenomenon among adolescents, and is the way adolescents develop their own values and ideals. Marketers have long recognized the significance of impulse buying, but most studies focus on adult consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine the part-time job effect on idolatry and impulsive buying tendencies of 13- to 20-year-old Taiwanese adolescents. A survey of 337 high school and college students was conducted and results indicate that it has a moderating effect.
Full Text Available Background: When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo (‘hope’ aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process. Objective: This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities according to key stakeholders, to align stakeholder and researcher priorities, and to form a stakeholder forum, which would be active throughout the intervention. Design: Thirty-two stakeholders were purposefully identified as community members interested in the health of adolescents. An adapted Delphi incorporating face-to-face discussions, as well as participatory visualisation, was used in a series of three workshops. Consensus was determined through non-parametric analysis. Results: Stakeholders and researchers agreed that peer pressure and lack of information, or having information but not acting on it, were the root causes of adolescent health problems. Pregnancy, HIV, school dropout, alcohol and drug abuse, not accessing health services, and unhealthy lifestyle (leading to obesity were identified as priority adolescent health issues. A diagram was developed showing how these eight priorities relate to one another, which was useful in the development of the intervention. A stakeholder forum was founded, comprising 12 of the stakeholders involved in the stakeholder involvement process. Conclusions: The process brought researchers and stakeholders to consensus on the most important health issues facing adolescents, and a stakeholder forum was developed within which to address the issues. Stakeholder involvement as part of a research engagement strategy can be of mutual benefit to the researchers and the community in which the research is taking place.
Tahereh Ziaian; Helena de Anstiss; Georgia Antoniou; Peter Baghurst; Michael Sawyer
Background. Despite the frequency of traumatic or stressful events experienced by refugee children and adolescents prior to migration and following resettlement, the majority do not experience mental health problems emphasising the critical nature of resilience. While a host of factors deemed to be protective of mental health in young refugees have been identified, there has been little research exploring the role of resilience as a distinct psychological construct. This study aimed to explor...
Ackerman, Kathryn E; Misra, Madhusmita
Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and lifelong fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical period for bone acquisition. This article discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, effects of physical activity, and nutritional contributions are included, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. We also review prevention and treatment strategies for the female athlete triad (ie, the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) in adolescents and athletic women. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed.
Elgar, Frank J.; McKinnon, Britt; Torsheim, Torbjorn
in adolescents and their implications for health surveillance and policy. We examined health inequalities in 1371 adolescents in seven European countries using four measures of SEP: youth-reported material assets and subjective social status and parent-reported material assets and household income. For each SEP...... variable. Moreover, health inequalities defined by subjective social status did not change after differences in assets and income were statistically controlled. Although material assets yielded similar health inequalities as household income, the results suggest that subjective and objective SEP relate......Socioeconomic differences in health are ubiquitous across age groups, cultures, and health domains. However, variation in the size and pattern of health inequalities appears to relate to the measure of socioeconomic position (SEP) applied. Little attention has been paid to these differences...
Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the population of juvenile offenders in the United States. Juveniles detained or confined in correctional care facilities have been shown to have numerous health problems. Such conditions may have existed before incarceration; may be closely associated with legal problems; may have resulted from parental neglect, mental health disorders, or physical, drug, or sexual abuse; or may develop within the institutional environment. Delinquent youths are often disenfranchised from traditional health care services in the community. For these adolescents, health care provided through correctional services may be their major source of health services. Pediatricians and correctional health care systems have an opportunity and responsibility to help improve the health of this underserved and vulnerable group of adolescents.
In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school.Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted.The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender-power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.
Matamura, Misato; Tochigi, Mamoru; Usami, Satoshi; Yonehara, Hiromi; Fukushima, Masako; Nishida, Atsushi; Togo, Fumiharu; Sasaki, Tsukasa
Several epidemiological studies have indicated that there is a relationship between sleep habits, such as sleep duration, bedtime and bedtime regularity, and mental health status, including depression and anxiety in adolescents. However, it is still to be clarified whether the relationship is direct cause-and-effect or mediated by the influence of genetic and other traits, i.e. quasi-correlation. To examine this issue, we conducted a twin study using a total of 314 data for monozygotic twins from a longitudinal survey of sleep habits and mental health status conducted in a unified junior and senior high school (grades 7-12), located in Tokyo, Japan. Three-level hierarchical linear model analysis showed that both bedtime and sleep duration had significant associations with the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) score, suicidal thoughts and the experience of self-harm behaviours when genetic factors and shared environmental factors, which were completely shared between co-twins, were controlled for. These associations were statistically significant even after controlling for bedtime regularity, which was also associated significantly with the GHQ-12 score. These suggest that the associations between sleep habits and mental health status were still statistically significant after controlling for the influence of genetic and shared environmental factors of twins, and that there may be a direct cause-and-effect in the relationship in adolescents. Thus, late bedtime and short sleep duration could predict subsequent development of depression and anxiety, including suicidal or self-injury risk. This suggests that poor mental health status in adolescents might be improved by health education and intervention concerning sleep and lifestyle habits.
Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull
Daniel Martínez Esquivel
Full Text Available Adolescence is a key stage of life to the empowerment that must have health, but it has many needs that healthteams still have not resolved. This article presents an analysis of the health situation of a group of teenagersattending a public institution of higher education and intervention by nursing students, focused on creatingconditions for health promotion and disease prevention. This research was conducted from a quantitative,descriptive and was performed in an institution of secondary education in the period from September toNovember 2012. We worked with students and students of eighth and ninth year with a convenience sample. Themain results indicated needs in sexuality, healthy lifestyles and conflict resolution. To address these issuesevolved different strategies planned, organized, directed and controlled by the individual. We conclude that healtheducation in adolescents is a public health problem and that nurses must meet.
Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.
Full Text Available Background This study deals with the link between forced migration and sexual abuse, with a special focus on adolescent girls. Existing literature associates forced migration with sexual abuse and identifies adolescent girls as the most vulnerable. However, little is known about the situation of sexual abuse among Congolese refugees in Rwanda since their arrival in 2012 due to the conflict between Congolese government forces and the M23 rebel group. This study was initiated to explore the situation of sexual abuse of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme camp and to suggest remedial strategies. Participants and procedure Qualitative data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescent girls. Interviews also involved parents, boys, camp authorities, and neighbouring citizens. Results The findings show that rape, unwanted physical touching, sexual exploitation, commercial sex, early marriage and girl trafficking are the main forms of sexual abuse. These are facilitated by the miserable life in the camp, shortcomings in the camp layout and security system, and adolescent developmental stage. They negatively impact girls’ reproductive health, social integration and mental health. Conclusions Existing strategies to address sexual abuse in the camp have had positive but insufficient results, and thus need to be improved and reinforced. Improvement is suggested in the areas of the abuse reporting system, the camp layout and security system, involvement of men and youth, and the consolidation of anti-GBV (gender-based violence clubs.
Full Text Available Unwelcoming behaviours and judgemental attitudes have long been recognised as a barrier to young people's access to reproductive health services. Over the last decade youth friendly reproductive health services have been promoted and implemented world-wide. However, long term evidence of the impact of these programmes is lacking. We report the results of a large mystery client evaluation of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Tanzania, a country that has had a long established youth friendly policy. Forty-eight visits made to thirty-three health facilities were conducted by twelve young people (six in each region trained to perform three different scripted scenarios (i.e., condom request, information on sexually transmitted infections and family planning. The study revealed barriers in relation to poor signage and reception for services. In addition health workers demonstrated paternalistic attitudes as well as lack of knowledge about adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. In some cases, health workers discouraged young people from using services such as condoms and family planning methods. Lack of confidentiality and privacy were also noted to be common challenges for the young people involved. Intervention strategies that focus on changing health workers' mind-set in relation to adolescent sexual and reproductive health are crucial for ensuring quality provision of sexual and reproductive health services to young people. The study identified the importance of reception or signs at the health units, as this can facilitate young people's efforts in seeking sexual and reproductive health services. Likewise, improvement of health workers knowledge of existing policy and practice on sexual and reproductive health services and youth friendly services is much needed.
Mchome, Zaina; Richards, Esther; Nnko, Soori; Dusabe, John; Mapella, Elizabeth; Obasi, Angela
Unwelcoming behaviours and judgemental attitudes have long been recognised as a barrier to young people's access to reproductive health services. Over the last decade youth friendly reproductive health services have been promoted and implemented world-wide. However, long term evidence of the impact of these programmes is lacking. We report the results of a large mystery client evaluation of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Tanzania, a country that has had a long established youth friendly policy. Forty-eight visits made to thirty-three health facilities were conducted by twelve young people (six in each region) trained to perform three different scripted scenarios (i.e., condom request, information on sexually transmitted infections and family planning). The study revealed barriers in relation to poor signage and reception for services. In addition health workers demonstrated paternalistic attitudes as well as lack of knowledge about adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. In some cases, health workers discouraged young people from using services such as condoms and family planning methods. Lack of confidentiality and privacy were also noted to be common challenges for the young people involved. Intervention strategies that focus on changing health workers' mind-set in relation to adolescent sexual and reproductive health are crucial for ensuring quality provision of sexual and reproductive health services to young people. The study identified the importance of reception or signs at the health units, as this can facilitate young people's efforts in seeking sexual and reproductive health services. Likewise, improvement of health workers knowledge of existing policy and practice on sexual and reproductive health services and youth friendly services is much needed.
Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.
Elliot, Diane L; Lindemulder, Susan J; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D; Smith, Jennifer
Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals' subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors.
Integrating insights from cultural sociology and identity theory, I explore the mental health consequences of adolescent romantic relationship inauthenticity--incongruence between thoughts/feelings and actions within romantic contexts. Applying sequence analysis to National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, I measure relationship inauthenticity by quantifying the extent to which the ordering of events of actual romantic relationships (e.g., holding hands, saying "I love you") diverges from the sequence of events within idealized relationship scripts among 5,316 adolescents. I then test its association with severe depression, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. I find that romantic relationship inauthenticity is positively associated with the risk of all three markers of poor mental health, but only for girls. This study highlights the importance of gender and culture in determining how early romantic involvement influences psychological well-being.
Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette
AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes....... Data were collected through questionnaires completed by the students and by their class teacher and information from the school physician. Multilevel analysis was used to indicate the relative significance of individual and school class characteristics. RESULTS: We find no consistent pattern between...... adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption...
Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane
Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.
Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Andersen, Lars L; Søndergaard, Lars;
OBJECTIVE: To assess benefit and harms of adding an eHealth intervention to health education and individual counseling in adolescents with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 158 adolescents aged 13-16years with no physical activity......%) fulfilled the compliance criteria of using the eHealth application for at least 2 consecutive weeks. In the control group, 61 patients (79%) completed both exercise tests. Adjusted for baseline values, the difference between the intervention group and the control group in mean VO2 peak at 1year was -0.65ml......·kg(-1)·min(-1) (95% CI -2.66 to 1.36). Between-group differences at 1year in physical activity, generic health-related quality of life, and disease-specific quality of life were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adding a tailored eHealth intervention to health education and individual...
Williams, Rebecca J; Knight, Rebecca
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an emerging phenomenon that is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents. Current e-cigarette use among adolescents has more than doubled in the past few years nationally and more than tripled in Hawai'i, despite the fact that safety in terms of health and injury from use is widely unknown. The use of e-cigarettes among adolescents is of particular concern because they may act as a gateway to smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes, substitute for cigarettes where smoking would normally not be allowed, and weaken the effect of clean air policies, and displace effective smoking cessation treatments. Additionally, the use of e-cigarettes may lead to the use of conventional cigarettes. There is special concern that e-cigarette companies are recruiting adolescents who would not have otherwise tried smoking by using tactics such as offering e-cigarettes in attractive flavorings and using the same successful strategies to market their product as tobacco companies have used for conventional cigarettes in past decades. It has been shown that exposure to cigarette marketing is related to initiation and progression in adolescent smoking. Yet, there remains no regulation on the marketing of e-cigarettes to adolescents. It can be extrapolated that expanded regulation that includes limits on the marketing of e-cigarettes may help decrease use among adolescents and prevent the possible increase of smoking rates.
Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert
This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…
Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56…
Jagt-Jelsma, W. van der; Vries-Schot, M. de; Jong, R de; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Veenstra, R.; Swinkels, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between parental religiosity, parental harmony on the subject of religiosity, and the mental health of pre-adolescents. In a community-based sample of 2,230 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report
van der Jagt-Jelsma, Willeke; de Vries-Schot, Margreet; de Jong, Rint; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Swinkels, Sophie; Buitelaar, Jan
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between parental religiosity, parental harmony on the subject of religiosity, and the mental health of pre-adolescents. In a community-based sample of 2,230 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report
Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.
The current study examined the relationship between belief-based barriers to seeking professional mental health care and help-seeking intentions in a sample of 1037 adolescents. From early adolescence to adulthood, for males and females, the need for autonomy was a strong barrier to seeking professional mental health care. Help-seeking fears were…
Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Robins, Richard W.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term…
Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.
Elbedour, S; Bart, William; Hektner, Joel
Previous studies of polygamy and child mental health have primarily focused on younger children. The present studies are among the first to focus on adolescents. The first study involved 210 randomly selected Bedouin Arab adolescents (mean age 15.9), who were administered instruments assessing their family environment and mental health. The second study involved 182 Bedouin Arab adolescents in which the student participants completed a single instrument about themselves and in which the teachers of the students completed the Teachers' Report Form of the Child Behaviour Checklist by Achenbach. The Bedouin Arab adolescents fell into two groups: (a) adolescents in monogamous family structures and (b) adolescents in polygamous family structures. The findings of the first study suggest that the two groups did not differ significantly in the majority of the assessed variables, even though there were significant differences obtained between groups for 4 of the 13 assessed variables. The two groups did not differ significantly in the second study. Results were discussed in terms of their cultural and developmental significance.
Ashby, Sarah L; Rich, Michael
Since its inception half a century ago, rock and roll has been the music of youth and rebellion, of freedom, and of idealism. Popular music has been a reflection of, and inspiration for, youth movements, fads, and lifestyles that can include health risk behaviors, such as sex, drugs, and interpersonal violence. This article summarizes the health-related content of music videos, and discusses associations between music videos and adolescent health risks.
Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate
Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions ("SSS-peer", "SSS-scholastic" and "SSS-sports") had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13-15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believed affected their personal health both at home and outside their homes. They were also asked to describe each photograph in writing. Photographs and written explanations were analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Risk perception plays a crucial role in the development of Risk Communication Programs (RCPs aimed at the improvement of community health. The photography technique opens up a promising field for environmental health research since it affords a realistic and concise impression of the perceived risks. Adolescents in both communities perceived different environmental health risks as detrimental to their well-being, e.g. waste, air pollution, and lack of hygiene. Yet, some knowledge gaps remain which need to be addressed.
Bodzioch, J; Roach, J W; Schkade, J
In the summer of 1982, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital (Dallas, TX, U.S.A.) sponsored a camp for paraplegic adolescents. Six patients, three boys and three girls 14-17 years of age, participated in a 2-week program that was designed to improve their self-esteem, independence, and eventual employability. In their pre- and postcamp psychological evaluations, the campers demonstrated improvement in social skills and self-concept testing as compared with the scores of a matched control group, although this improvement did not reach statistical significance. We believe the camp was immensely successful, an opinion that was shared by both the campers and their parents.
Cinar, Basak; Murtomaa, Heikki
This study aims to assess any clustering between obesity, number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), television (TV) viewing, and lifestyle factors among pre-adolescents living in 2 countries with different developmental status and oral health care systems - Turkey and Finland.......This study aims to assess any clustering between obesity, number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), television (TV) viewing, and lifestyle factors among pre-adolescents living in 2 countries with different developmental status and oral health care systems - Turkey and Finland....
Khansaheb, Hamda; Hussein, Ayman; Hamidi, Samer; Brown, David; Younis, Mustafa Z
The United Arab Emirate (UAE) of Dubai, faces significant adolescent health problems. In 2009, evidence based clinical guidelines were developed for primary health care professionals in Dubai to help reduce adolescent health problems. This research study explores adolescents' self-reports about health education services received between 2008 and 2010. The sample consisted of 730 public high school students in grades 10 through 12 between the ages of 15 and 19. 357 (48.9%) of the sample were males and 373 (51.1%) were female. The major language spoken in the home was Arabic (77.4%). All students completed a 27-item survey in Arabic that was adapted from the Young Adult Health Care Survey (YAHCS). The YAHCS is a 56-item research instrument traditionally administered in English and Spanish. The sample reported they had received little or no health education from their health care providers. 94.2% reported receiving no information about using a helmet for bicycle and motorbike safety; 88.2% reported receiving no information about drug use; and 81.9% reported that they received no information about smoking. The instrument also explored the health education material students received within the last 12 months. 65.5% of the sample reported seeing and/or hearing safety tips; 84.9% reported hearing and/or seeing health information about healthy diet, physical activity and exercise; and 79.2% reported seeing and/or hearing information about the risks of smoking and substance abuse.
Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Saldívar-González, Atenógenes H; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Córdova-Fernández, José A; Felizardo-Ávalos, Jorge; Sánchez-Márquez, Wilberto
Previous publications have suggested that living in a nonintact family household and socializing with girlfriends who smoke or who consume alcoholic beverages favor the development of health-risk habits and customs in adolescents. However, their relationship with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents has not been determined. We investigated the association between family structure, employed mother, and female friends with health-risk habits and behaviors with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents (n = 3,130). After adjusting for low maternal educational level and low family income, logistic regression analyses showed that having an employed mother and socializing with girlfriends who have health-risk habits or behaviors, rather than living in a nonintact family household, appear to be the most important health-risk factors for unplanned pregnancy in adolescents. It is important for health-care programs for adolescents to be revised and for their strategies be strengthened in order to reach the objectives for which they were created.