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Sample records for adolescent energy expenditure

  1. Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Khor, G L; Mirnalini, K; Norimah, A K; Ang, M

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To

  2. Energy expenditure in adolescents playing new generation computer games.

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    Graves, Lee; Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, N D; Cable, N T

    2008-07-01

    To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Setting Research laboratories. Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kl/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kl/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kl/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kl/kg/min) (Pgames. Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children.

  3. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN ADOLESCENT SPRINT ATHLETES

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    Dirk Aerenhouts

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD and SenseWear armband (SWA, were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113 without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007. Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training

  4. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Active Video Games in Children and Adolescents

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    Canabrava, Karina L. R.; Faria, Fernanda R.; de Lima, Jorge R. P.; Guedes, Dartagnan P.; Amorim, Paulo R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare the energy expenditure and intensity of active video games to that of treadmill walking in children and adolescents. Method: Seventy-two boys and girls (aged 8-13 years) were recruited from local public schools. Energy expenditure and heart rate were measured during rest, during 3-km/hr, 4-km/hr, and 5-km/hr…

  5. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Active Video Games in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabrava, Karina L R; Faria, Fernanda R; Lima, Jorge R P de; Guedes, Dartagnan P; Amorim, Paulo R S

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the energy expenditure and intensity of active video games to that of treadmill walking in children and adolescents. Seventy-two boys and girls (aged 8-13 years) were recruited from local public schools. Energy expenditure and heart rate were measured during rest, during 3-km/hr, 4-km/hr, and 5-km/hr walks, and during active games (Adventure, Boxing I, Boxing II, and Dance). During walking and active games, we also assessed physical activity using an accelerometer. The energy expenditure of the active games Adventure, Boxing I, Boxing II, and Dance was similar to that of treadmill walking at 5 km/hr in boys and girls. Heart rate was significantly higher for the game Adventure compared with walking at 3 km/hr, 4 km/hr, and 5 km/hr and the game Dance in both genders. The heart rate of girls during the games Adventure and Dance was significantly higher compared with boys. There was a statistically significant difference (p games provide energy expenditure and physical activity of moderate intensity for both genders. The use of active video games can be an interesting alternative to increase physical activity levels.

  6. Effect of exercise and protein intake on energy expenditure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, M; Recasens, M A; Martí-Henneberg, C; Salas-Salvadó, J

    1993-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of physical exercise and protein intake on Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and Postprandial Energy Expenditure (PEE), 16 healthy, normal-weight, 15 year-old, adolescent males at the same stage of pubertal development were studied. They were assigned to two dietary groups receiving the same energy intake (1.3 x by measured RMR) and different proportions of macronutrients (13% protein, 39% fat, 48% CHO in Group A; 30% protein, 32% fat, 38% CHO in Group B). An increase in postprandial energy expenditure, relative to basal, was observed in all individuals. The postprandial energy expenditure was higher in group B than in group A. Postprandial Post-exercise Thermogenesis (expressed as Kcal/3 h) was significantly higher in group B than group A (p hyperproteic diet followed by moderately-intensive exercise induces increases in EE and decreases in RQ in the postprandial post-exercise period and is accompanied by increase in the RMR the following day.

  7. Improving literacy around energy-related issues: The need for a better understanding of the concepts behind energy intake and expenditure among adolescents and their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Melissa C.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the need for effective obesity prevention strategies, little research is currently available to assess adolescents’ knowledge around basic concepts of energy intake, expenditure and balance. Using data from 349 adolescent-caregiver pairs (recruited from Minneapolis/St. Paul metro region, MN, 2006-2007), cross-sectional linear regression was used to assess adolescent and parental knowledge related to energy intake and expenditure as a predictor of adolescent weight-related behaviors an...

  8. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

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    Marc A. Briggs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035 was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ. Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012 and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016 elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

  9. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  10. Resting Energy Expenditure of Children and Adolescents With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

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    Martincevic, Inez; Mouzaki, Marialena

    2017-09-01

    The mainstay of treatment for pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is lifestyle modification, which includes dietary changes that lead to slow but sustained weight loss or weight stabilization in growing children. Accurate estimation of energy requirements is necessary to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of the most commonly used equations in predicting the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with NAFLD. This was a retrospective study performed in a single institution. The predictive accuracy of various equations was assessed by comparing their estimates against the measured REE obtained with indirect calorimetry. Accuracy was defined as an estimate within 10% of measured REE. Fifty-six children (70% male; 52% white and 36% Asian) with a median age of 13 years were included. The median measured REE was 1829 kcal/d. Of the equations studied, the Schofield had the smallest average bias (-32 kcal/d; confidence interval, -121 to 56). The Schofield and Molnar equations were the most accurate, providing REE estimates within 10% of measured in 59% of cases. The remaining equations had lower and variable predictive accuracy. The use of adjusted body weight in predictive equations did not improve the predictive accuracy. In a cohort of children and adolescents with NAFLD, the Schofield and Molnar equations performed best in predicting energy expenditure. However, predictive equations were often inaccurate, suggesting that clinicians should interpret their results with caution and consider using indirect calorimetry when available.

  11. Predictive equations underestimate resting energy expenditure in female adolescents with phenylketonuria

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    Quirk, Meghan E.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Singh, Rani H.

    2010-01-01

    Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often used to estimate total energy needs. The Schofield equation based on weight and height has been reported to underestimate REE in female children with phenylketonuria (PKU). The objective of this observational, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the agreement of measured REE with predicted REE for female adolescents with PKU. A total of 36 females (aged 11.5-18.7 years) with PKU attending Emory University’s Metabolic Camp (June 2002 – June 2008) underwent indirect calorimetry. Measured REE was compared to six predictive equations using paired Student’s t-tests, regression-based analysis, and assessment of clinical accuracy. The differences between measured and predicted REE were modeled against clinical parameters to determine to if a relationship existed. All six selected equations significantly under predicted measured REE (P< 0.005). The Schofield equation based on weight had the greatest level of agreement, with the lowest mean prediction bias (144 kcal) and highest concordance correlation coefficient (0.626). However, the Schofield equation based on weight lacked clinical accuracy, predicting measured REE within ±10% in only 14 of 36 participants. Clinical parameters were not associated with bias for any of the equations. Predictive equations underestimated measured REE in this group of female adolescents with PKU. Currently, there is no accurate and precise alternative for indirect calorimetry in this population. PMID:20497783

  12. Comparison of energy expenditure in adolescents when playing new generation and sedentary computer games: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Design Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Setting Research laboratories. Participants Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Procedure Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Main outcome measure Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kJ/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kJ/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kJ/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kJ/kg/min) (P<0.001). Predicted energy expenditure was at least 65.1 (95% confidence interval 47.3 to 82.9) kJ/kg/min greater when playing active rather than sedentary games. Conclusions Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children. PMID:18156227

  13. Comparison of energy expenditure in adolescents when playing new generation and sedentary computer games: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Lee; Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, N D; Cable, N T

    2007-12-22

    To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Research laboratories. Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Procedure Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kJ/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kJ/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kJ/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kJ/kg/min) (Pgames. Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children.

  14. Improving literacy about energy-related issues: the need for a better understanding of the concepts behind energy intake and expenditure among adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Lytle, Leslie A; Pasch, Keryn E

    2009-02-01

    Despite the need for effective obesity prevention strategies, little research has assessed adolescents' knowledge about basic concepts of energy intake, expenditure, and balance. Using data from 349 adolescent-caregiver pairs (recruited from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN metro region, 2006-2007), cross-sectional linear regression was used to assess adolescent and parental knowledge related to energy intake and expenditure as a predictor of adolescent weight-related behaviors and outcomes. Findings indicated that knowledge related to energy intake and expenditure was highly variable, with a substantial proportion of participants (particularly adolescents) lacking knowledge on a range of concepts. Adolescent knowledge was positively associated with moderate physical activity and negatively associated with television viewing (Pfast food intake, weight status, and/or body composition. Although overall parental knowledge was a significant predictor of adolescent knowledge (Phealth promotion strategies are insufficient to initiate long-term healthful behavior change. Educational strategies may be effective when combined with those also targeting familial, social, and environmental influences. The examination of interactive effects between individual-level and environmental influences on health behavior is an important area for future obesity-related research.

  15. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group.

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    Alexander R Gibson

    Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.

  16. Energy expenditure in caving.

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    Giorgia Antoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE was in the range 225-287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1, respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000-1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue.

  17. Physical activity energy expenditure in Dutch adolescents: contribution of active transport to school, physical education, and leisure time activities.

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    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2012-05-01

    Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from school, physical education (PE), and leisure time activities to total PAEE during a regular school week in adolescents. Seventy-three adolescents (mean age: 15.7 years) wore an individually calibrated combined heart rate-acceleration monitor and kept an activity diary during a regular school week. Branched equation modeling was used to calculate PAEE of the specific activity categories, and their relative contribution to total PAEE was determined. Active transport and PE contributed 30.0% and 17.4%, respectively, to school-related PAEE. Active transport to and from school contributed 15% to total PAEE. Youth with a high physical activity level (PAL) spent 4 hours less in sedentary behavior than subjects with a medium or low PAL (F = 77.415 (2.70), p activities (F = 10.583 (2.70), p Active transport and PE contribute significantly to PAEE during school hours in adolescents. To achieve an increase in total PAEE in the least active group of adolescents, promising strategies might be to reduce inactive behavior, increase participation in leisure time sports, and possibly to replace inactive for active jobs. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  18. Comparing Energy Expenditure in Adolescents With and Without Autism While Playing Nintendo(®) Wii(™) Games.

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    Getchell, Nancy; Miccinello, Dannielle; Blom, Michelle; Morris, Lyssa; Szaroleta, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Obesity rates are on the rise in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which underscores the importance of finding new ways in which to engage this population in physical activity. We wanted to explore the energetic expenditure of adolescents with and without ASD while playing Nintendo(®) Wii(™) (Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) games compared with more traditional exercise modalities. Specifically, we wanted to compare energy expenditure (EE) among the different activities and to see which activities lead to the greatest amount of time classified as "moderate to vigorous." Two groups of adolescents (15 with ASD [mean age, 17.50±2.4 years], 15 without ASD [mean age, 17.23±4.1 years]) participated in 20-minute bouts of walking, running, and playing Nintendo Wii "Sport(™)," Wii "Fit(™)," and "Dance Dance Revolution" (DDR) (Konami Digital Entertainment, Inc., El Segundo, CA). During each session, EE was calculated using an Actical (Mini Mitter Co., Bend, OR) accelerometer. Groups were compared using multiple t tests. Both groups expended similar amounts of kilcalories in all activities, except for Wii Fit, in which the ASD group expended significantly more kilocalories. For the ASD group, EE was greatest in running, followed by walking, DDR, Wii Fit, and Wii Sport. Walking, running, and DDR all had at least 75 percent of the total time spent in moderate to vigorous intensity levels. We suggest videogame systems, such as the Nintendo Wii, may be viable alternative for individuals with ASD to increase their daily physical activity and help alleviate the growing rates of obesity.

  19. Watching television or listening to music while exercising failed to affect post-exercise food intake or energy expenditure in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livock, Holly; Barnes, Joel D; Pouliot, Catherine; LeBlanc, Allana G; Saunders, Travis J; Tremblay, Mark S; Prud'homme, Denis; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-08-01

    Watching television or listening to music while exercising can serve as motivating factors, making it more pleasant to exercise for some people. However, it is unknown whether these stimuli influence food intake and/or physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) for the remainder of the day, potentially impacting energy balance and weight control. We examined the effects of watching television or listening to music while exercising on post-exercise energy intake and expenditure. Our study was a randomized crossover design, in which 24 male adolescents (mean age: 14.9 ± 1.1 years) completed three 30-min experimental conditions consisting of walking/jogging on a treadmill at 60% of heart rate reserve while (1) watching television; (2) listening to music; or (3) exercising with no other stimulus (control). An ad libitum lunch was offered immediately after the experimental conditions, and a dietary record was used to assess food intake for the remainder of the day. An Actical accelerometer was used to estimate PAEE until bedtime. The primary outcome measure was post-exercise energy intake and expenditure (kJ). We found that exercising while watching television or listening to music did not significantly affect post-exercise energy intake or energy expenditure. Exercising on a treadmill was found to be significantly more enjoyable while watching television than with no stimulus present. Ratings of perceived exertion were not significantly different between conditions. Overall, our results suggest that watching television or listening to music while exercising does not impact post-exercise energy intake or expenditure in male adolescents, which may have positive implications for adolescents who may need additional motivation to participate in physical activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of Resting Energy Expenditure: Validation of Previous and New Predictive Equations in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar-Tek, Nilüfer; Ağagündüz, Duygu; Çelik, Bülent; Bozbulut, Rukiye

    2017-08-01

    Accurate estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) in childrenand adolescents is important to establish estimated energy requirements. The aim of the present study was to measure REE in obese children and adolescents by indirect calorimetry method, compare these values with REE values estimated by equations, and develop the most appropriate equation for this group. One hundred and three obese children and adolescents (57 males, 46 females) between 7 and 17 years (10.6 ± 2.19 years) were recruited for the study. REE measurements of subjects were made with indirect calorimetry (COSMED, FitMatePro, Rome, Italy) and body compositions were analyzed. In females, the percentage of accurate prediction varied from 32.6 (World Health Organization [WHO]) to 43.5 (Molnar and Lazzer). The bias for equations was -0.2% (Kim), 3.7% (Molnar), and 22.6% (Derumeaux-Burel). Kim's (266 kcal/d), Schmelzle's (267 kcal/d), and Henry's equations (268 kcal/d) had the lowest root mean square error (RMSE; respectively 266, 267, 268 kcal/d). The equation that has the highest RMSE values among female subjects was the Derumeaux-Burel equation (394 kcal/d). In males, when the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had the lowest accurate prediction value (12.3%), the highest values were found using Schmelzle's (42.1%), Henry's (43.9%), and Müller's equations (fat-free mass, FFM; 45.6%). When Kim and Müller had the smallest bias (-0.6%, 9.9%), Schmelzle's equation had the smallest RMSE (331 kcal/d). The new specific equation based on FFM was generated as follows: REE = 451.722 + (23.202 * FFM). According to Bland-Altman plots, it has been found out that the new equations are distributed randomly in both males and females. Previously developed predictive equations mostly provided unaccurate and biased estimates of REE. However, the new predictive equations allow clinicians to estimate REE in an obese children and adolescents with sufficient and acceptable accuracy.

  1. Consumo alimentar e gasto energético em adolescentes obesos e eutróficos Food consumption and energy expenditure in obese and non-obese adolescents

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    Camila Dayrell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar, entre adolescentes obesos e eutróficos, variáveis relacionadas ao consumo alimentar e ao gasto energético. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 23 adolescentes recrutados em escolas e centros de recreação de São Paulo (SP, distribuídos em dois grupos: 11 obesos e 12 eutróficos. Foram avaliados: peso corporal, estatura, índice de massa corporal, circunferência da cintura, massa magra e massa gorda (estimados por bioimpedância elétrica, três recordatórios alimentares de 24 horas, estimativa do gasto energético diário a partir de três métodos (recordatórios de atividade física, fórmulas preditivas e calorimetria indireta, gasto energético de repouso e a potência aeróbia. RESULTADOS: O gasto energético diário dos obesos foi maior, porém a ingestão alimentar se assemelhou à dos eutróficos. Não foram encontradas diferenças no gasto energético de repouso entre os grupos, porém a potência aeróbia foi maior nos eutróficos. A dieta de ambos os grupos não foi considerada saudável, mas os obesos apresentaram menor consumo de vários alimentos considerados saudáveis, como hortaliças. Observou-se discrepância na análise do gasto energético diário, quando se adotaram diferentes métodos. CONCLUSÕES: Os adolescentes apresentaram padrão alimentar associado ao risco de obesidade e doenças crônicas. Mais estudos são necessários para identificar melhores métodos para avaliar seu gasto energético. É urgente a busca de estratégias de educação nutricional específicas para esse grupo etário.OBJECTIVE: To compare food consumption and energy expenditure between obese and non-obese adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 23 adolescents recruited from schools and recreation centers from São Paulo (SP, Brazil, distributed in two groups: 11 obese and 12 non-obese. The following variables were analyzed: body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, fat and lean mass

  2. Validation of the Actiheart Activity Monitor for Measurement of Activity Energy Expenditure in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The purpose of this study was to develop an activity energy expenditure (AEE) prediction equation for the Actiheart activity monitor (AH) for use in children with chronic disease. Methods: 63 children, aged 8-18 years with different types of chronic disease (Juvenile Arthritis, Hemophilia, Dermatomyositis, neuromuscular disease, Cystic Fibrosis or Congenital Heart Disease) participated in an activity testing session which consisted of a resting protocol, ...

  3. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  4. State energy price and expenditure report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1989 published in September 1991. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1990. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied

  5. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

  6. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs

  7. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    Background: Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE) and its

  8. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  9. Energy expenditure of genuine laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, MS; Majchrzak, KM; Blomquist, K; Chen, KY; Byrne, DW; Bachorowski, J-A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To measure energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) during genuine laughter. Design Experimental trial of viewing film clips in four cycles either intended to evoke laughter (humorous −10 min) or unlikely to elicit laughter (not humorous −5 min) under strictly controlled conditions of a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with audio recording system. Participants Forty five adult friend dyads in either same-sex male (n=7), same-sex female (n=21) and mix-sex male-female (n=17); age 18–34 years; body mass index 24.7±4.9 (range 17.9–41.1). Measurements Energy expenditure in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, HR using Polar HR monitor. Laugh rate, duration and type from digitized audio data using a computerized system and synchronized with HR and EE results. Results Laughter EE was 0.79±1.30 kJ/min (0.19±0.31 kcal/min) higher than resting EE (Plaughter segments increased above resting by 2.1±3.8 beats/min, ranging from −7.6 to 26.8 beats/min. Laughter EE was correlated with HR (rs=0.250, Plaughter EE and HR were positively correlated with laughter duration (rs=0.282 and 0.337, both Plaughter causes a 10–20% increase in EE and HR above resting values, which means that 10–15 min of laughter per day could increase total EE by 40–170 kJ (10–40 kcal). PMID:16652129

  10. Government expenditure and energy intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuxiang, Karl; Chen, Zhongchang

    2010-01-01

    The recent economic stimulus package of China has raised growing concern about its potential impact on energy demand and efficiency. To what extent does such expansion of government expenditure influence energy intensity? This question has not been well answered by the previous research. Using provincial panel data, this paper provides some evidence of a link between government expenditure and energy intensity in China. The empirical results demonstrate that the expansion of government expenditure since Asian financial crisis has exerted a significant influence on energy intensity. An increase in government expenditure in China leads to an increase in energy intensity. Further analysis compares such relationships in different economic situations. The comparison shows that such positive effect of government expenditure remains significant after the alteration in economic situation. Therefore, the results suggest introducing some measures to consolidate China's existing gains in energy efficiency. The analysis also explains why the downward trend in energy intensity is reversed in China since 2002. (author)

  11. State energy price and expenditure report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1995. Data for all years are available on a CD-ROM and via Internet. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1995, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in December 1997. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources.

  12. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The

  13. State energy price and expenditure report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs

  14. State energy price and expenditure report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs.

  15. Energy expenditure of acutely ill hospitalised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To measure energy expenditure of acutely ill elderly patients in hospital and following discharge in the community. Design Sixty-three consecutive hospitalised acutely ill elderly patients were recruited. Eight patients were studied to assess the reliability of the Delta Tract Machine as a measure of energy expenditure; 35 patients had their energy expenditure studied in hospital on two occasions and 20 patients had their energy expenditure measured in hospital and at 6 weeks in the community Results Men had higher basal energy expenditure (BMR values compared to women however the difference was not statistically significant [Men, mean (SD 1405 (321 Kcal, women 1238 (322 kcal; mean difference (95% CI 166 kcal (-17 to 531, p = 0.075]. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index both medication and C-reactive protein (CRP, concentrations showed significant correlation with measured energy expenditure in hospital, (r = -0.36, "p Conclusion Tissue inflammation and medications were associated with change in measured energy expenditure in acutely ill patients.

  16. Gasto energético e consumo calórico em adolescentes do sexo masculino com diferentes níveis de adiposidade corporal Energy expenditure and caloric intake among male adolescents with different levels of body adiposy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados o gasto energético e consumo calórico de adolescentes com diferentes níveis de gordura corporal. Estudo transversal com 40 adolescentes de 14 a 16 anos do sexo masculino. Os adolescentes foram divididos em dois grupos, cada um com 20 sujeitos, de acordo com o %G: baixo (%G 20%. O gasto energético foi mensurado por acelerômetros triaxiais e recordatório de atividades diárias. O consumo calórico foi avaliado pelo registro de 24 horas. Os jovens com baixo %G tiveram menor consumo calórico ( = 2408,1 ± 557,9 kcal.dia-1 em comparação aos jovens com alto %G ( = 2931,7 ± 679,2 kcal.dia-1, pEnergy expenditure and caloric intake were compared among adolescents with different levels of adiposity. A cross-sectional study was carried with 40 adolescent boys aged 14 to 16 years. The adolescents were divided into two groups of 20 subjects each, according to % body fat (%BF: low ( 20%. Energy expenditure was measured using accelerometer and daily activity diary. The dietary pattern was evaluated based on 24-h recall. Caloric intake was lower in adolescents with low %F ( = 2408.1 ± 557.9 kcal.day-1 compared to those with high %F ( = 2931.7 ± 679.2 kcal.day-1, p<0.05. In addition, they presented greater relative energy expenditure than adolescents with high %F (p<0.05. High %F adolescents showed larger caloric intake than expenditure, while the opposite was observed among low %F males.

  17. Hypocretin/orexin and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, J A; Billington, C J; Kotz, C M

    2010-03-01

    The hypocretins or orexins are endogenous neuropeptides synthesized in discrete lateral, perifornical and dorsal hypothalamic neurones. These multi-functional neuropeptides modulate energy homeostasis, arousal, stress, reward, reproduction and cardiovascular function. This review summarizes the role of hypocretins in modulating non-sleep-related energy expenditure with specific focus on the augmentation of whole body energy expenditure as well as hypocretin-induced physical activity and sympathetic outflow. We compare the efficacy of hypocretin-1 and 2 on energy expenditure and evaluate whether the literature implicates hypocretin signalling though the hypocretin-1 and -2 receptor as having shared and or functionally specific physiological effects. Thus far data suggest that hypocretin-1 has a more robust stimulatory effect relative to hypocretin-2. Furthermore, hypocretin-1 receptor predominantly mediates behaviours known to influence energy expenditure. Further studies on the hypocretin-2 receptor are needed.

  18. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  19. Aspects of marginal expenditures in energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojchev, D.; Kynev, K.

    1994-01-01

    Technical and economical problems of marginal analysis methodology, its application procedure in energy sector and marginal expenditures determination are outlined. A comparative characteristics of the application is made for different periods of time. The differences in calculation of the marginal expenditures and prices are discussed. The operational costs, investments and inflation are analyzed. The mechanism of application of this approach in different planing horizon is outlined. The role of the change in the costs in time, the time unit, volume, the scope of application, etc. are determined. The areas of transition from one to other form of marginal expenditures are shown. 4 refs. (orig.)

  20. Energy Expenditure in Rock/Pop Drumming

    OpenAIRE

    De La Rue, S; Draper, Stephen B; Potter, Christopher R; Smith, M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean +/- SD; age 27 +/- 8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate...

  1. Energy Expenditure in Vinyasa Yoga Versus Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sally A; Rogers, Renee J; Davis, Kelliann K; Minster, Ryan L; Creasy, Seth A; Mullarkey, Nicole C; O'Dell, Matthew; Donahue, Patrick; Jakicic, John M

    2017-08-01

    Whether the energy cost of vinyasa yoga meets the criteria for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity has not been established. To compare energy expenditure during acute bouts of vinyasa yoga and 2 walking protocols. Participants (20 males, 18 females) performed 60-minute sessions of vinyasa yoga (YOGA), treadmill walking at a self-selected brisk pace (SELF), and treadmill walking at a pace that matched the heart rate of the YOGA session (HR-Match). Energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry. Energy expenditure was significantly lower in YOGA compared with HR-Match (difference = 79.5 ± 44.3 kcal; P YOGA = 3.6 ± 0.6; P YOGA, showed energy expenditure was significantly lower in YOGA compared with HR-Match (difference = 68.0 ± 40.1 kcal; P YOGA meets the criteria for moderate-intensity physical activity. Thus, YOGA may be a viable form of physical activity to achieve public health guidelines and to elicit health benefits.

  2. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of ...

  3. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-04-01

    It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The objective of this work is to improve the performance of existing estimation models of energy expenditure by using machine learning algorithms and several data from different sensors and provide this estimation service in a cloud-based platform. In this study, we used input data such as breathe rate, and hearth rate from three sensors. Inputs are received from a web form and sent to the web service which applies a regression model on Azure cloud platform. During the experiments, we assessed several machine learning models based on regression methods. Our experimental results showed that our novel model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression in conjunction with the median aggregation technique provides the best result among other five regression algorithms. This cloud-based energy expenditure system which uses a web service showed that cloud computing technology is a great opportunity to develop estimation systems and the new model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression with the median aggregation provides remarkable results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating energy expenditure during front crawl swimming using accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Van Thiel, David H

    2014-01-01

    The determination of energy expenditure is of major interest in training load and performance assessment. Small, wireless accelerometer units have the potential to characterise energy expenditure during swimming. The correlation between absorbed oxygen versus flume swimming speed and absorbed oxy...

  5. Application of cross-sectional time series modeling for the prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) in children and adolescents is required for a better understanding of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance. Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) models, which account for correlation structure of repeated observati...

  6. [Adaptation of food ingestion to energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1987-01-01

    Body energy balance is regulated in adults. The accuracy of the phenomenon is particularly evident in laboratory animals under steady conditions. Moreover, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this balance is maintained in spite of fluctuations in food intake or energy expenditure. When animals such as rats, dogs or rabbits are presented with a diluted or concentrated version of familiar food, they compensate rapidly by increasing or decreasing their ponderal intake. This is achieved first by a change in meal frequency, then meal size adapts to the new caloric content and meal frequency returns to the original pattern. This adaptation is based on the learning of post-ingestive cues. Hypo or hyperphagia leads to reduced or increased energy expenditure, as the case may be; the basal metabolic rate is modulated by thyroid hormones and diet-induced thermogenesis by the sympathetic system. These variations are partly regulatory. In a cold environment, the increase in energy expenditure caused by increased thermogenesis is rapidly compensated by increased caloric intake. Physical activity activates the sympathetic system responsible for numerous hormonal changes, the most important of which is insulin hyposecretion. In animals or humans, moderate aerobic exercise induces a small weight loss; afterwards, weight gain is normalized and increased caloric intake compensates for energy expenditures such as exercise, increased basal metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Extreme changes in body weight and fat are produced by gestation and lactation; they are satisfactorily explained by concomitant hormonal changes. Especially during lactation, food intake is regulated so that it allows body weight to return to pregestation level. Studies on the mechanisms implicated in the regulation of body energy balance are still in progress. Friedman and Ramirez (1985) suggest that the way fatty acids are utilized is important. Kasser et al. (1985) show a striking difference in

  7. Energy expenditure in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteon, F J; Laidlaw, S A; Shaib, J K; Kopple, J D

    1986-11-01

    Although nondialyzed, chronically uremic patients and patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis often show evidence for wasting and calorie malnutrition and have low dietary energy intakes, their energy expenditure has never been systematically evaluated. It is possible that low energy intakes are an adaptive response to reduced energy needs; alternatively, energy expenditure could be normal or high and the low energy intakes would be inappropriate. Energy expenditure was therefore measured by indirect calorimetry in 12 normal individuals, 10 nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure, and 16 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Energy expenditure was measured in the resting state, during quiet sitting, during controlled exercise on an exercise bicycle, and for four hours after ingestion of a test meal. Resting energy expenditure (kcal/min/1.73 m2) in the normal subjects, chronically uremic patients and hemodialysis patients was, respectively, 0.94 +/- 0.24 (SD), 0.91 +/- 0.20, and 0.97 +/- 0.10. There was also no difference among the three groups in energy expenditure during sitting, exercise, or the postprandial state. Within each group, energy expenditure during resting and sitting was directly correlated. During bicycling, energy expenditure was directly correlated with work performed, and the regression equation for this relationship was similar in each of the three groups. These findings suggest that for a given physical activity, energy expenditure in nondialyzed, chronically uremic patients and maintenance hemodialysis patients is not different from normal. The low energy intakes of many of these patients may be inadequate for their needs.

  8. Energy expenditure in obesity associated with craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rachana; Tershakovec, Andy M.; Zemel, Babette S.; Sutton, Leslie N.; Grimberg, Adda; Moshang, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Obesity is a common yet incompletely understood complication of childhood craniopharyngioma. We hypothesized that craniopharyngioma is associated with specific defects in energy balance compared to obese control children. Methods Eleven craniopharyngioma patients were recruited for a study on body composition and energy balance. Eight subjects were obese. The obese craniopharyngioma patients had a mean age (±SD) of 11.2±1.7 years. The average body mass index z score was 2.33 (±0.32). A previously studied group of obese children (BMI z score 2.46±0.46) served as controls. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in all children. Results Obese craniopharyngioma patient subjects had increased mean (±standard error) fat-free mass compared to obese controls (57%±0.88 % vs 50.0%±0.87%, p=0.02). The obese craniopharyngioma patients had a 17% lower REE compared to values expected from the World Health Organization equation (1,541±112.6 vs 1,809±151.8 kcal; p=0.01). In contrast, the obese control children had measured REE within 1% of predicted (1,647±33.2 vs. 1,652±40.2; p=0.8). In a linear regression model, REE remained significantly lower than predicted after controlling for FFM. Conclusions Lower REE may be a factor contributing to obesity in children with craniopharyngioma. Further study is needed into the mechanisms for reduced energy expenditure in patients with craniopharyngioma. PMID:20107994

  9. Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...

  10. Productivity and Energy Expenditure by Sawyers When Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, based on overall results it is concluded that, the PLSP is technically more appropriate technology or method for reducing energy expenditure and for increasing productivity during timber harvesting in agroforestry farms. Keywords: Productivity, Energy expenditure, Pitsawing and Portable log sawing. Rwanda ...

  11. Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in technology, social influences and environmental attributes have resulted in substan-tial portions of the day spent in sedentary pursuits. Sedentary behavior may be a cause of many chronic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Research demonstrated that breaking up sedentary time was beneficially associated with markers of body composition, cardiovascular health and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total energy expenditure of three different durations of physical activity within a 30-minute sedentary period and to examine the potential benefits of interrupting sedentary behavior with physical activity for weight control. Methods Participants completed four consecutive 30-minute bouts of sedentary behavior (reading, working on the computer, or doing other desk activities with and without interruptions of walking at a self-selected pace. Bout one contained no walking interruptions. Bout two contained a 1-minute walking period. Bout three contained a 2-minute walking period. Bout four contained a 5-minute walking period. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were assessed. Result Twenty males and females (18-39 years completed this study. Results of the repeated measures analysis of variance with post-hoc testing showed that significantly more energy was expended during each 30 minute sedentary bout with a walking break than in the 30 minute sedentary bout (p Conclusions This study demonstrated that making small changes, such as taking a five minute walking break every hour could yield beneficial weight control or weight loss results. Therefore, taking breaks from sedentary time is a potential outlet to prevent obesity and the rise of obesity in developed countries.

  12. Effect of chewing speed on energy expenditure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Leelayuwat, Naruemon; Boonyawat, Nattawat; Parniangtong, Auddamar; Sripratoom, Jindamanee

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of rate of chewing on energy expenditure in human subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects (aged 18-24 years) within the normal range of BMI participated in a cross-over experiment consisting of two 6-min sessions of gum chewing, slow (∼60 cycles/min) and fast (∼120 cycles/min) chewing. The resting energy expenditure (REE) and during gum chewing was measured using a ventilated hood connected to a gas analyzer system. The normality of data was explored using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The energy expenditure rate during chewing and the energy expenditure per chewing cycle were compared between the two chewing speeds using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. The energy expenditure per chewing cycle during slow chewing (median 1.4, range 5.2 cal; mean 2.1±1.6 cal) was significantly higher than that during fast chewing (median 0.9, range 2.2 cal; mean 1.0±0.7 cal) (p chewing speeds (p > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that chewing at a slower speed could increase the energy expenditure per cycle and might affect the total daily energy expenditure.

  13. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  14. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  15. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Soo; Zakeri, Issa F; Butte, Nancy F

    2017-01-01

    Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of SEE and to discriminate SEE between obese and non-obese children. Minute-by-minute SEE in 109 children, ages 5-18, was measured in room respiration calorimeters. A smoothing spline method was applied to the calorimetric data to extract the true smoothing function for each subject. Functional principal component analysis was used to capture the important modes of variation of the functional data and to identify differences in SEE patterns. Combinations of functional principal component analysis and classifier algorithm were used to classify SEE. Smoothing effectively removed instrumentation noise inherent in the room calorimeter data, providing more accurate data for analysis of the dynamics of SEE. SEE exhibited declining but subtly undulating patterns throughout the night. Mean SEE was markedly higher in obese than non-obese children, as expected due to their greater body mass. SEE was higher among the obese than non-obese children (p0.1, after post hoc testing). Functional principal component scores for the first two components explained 77.8% of the variance in SEE and also differed between groups (p = 0.037). Logistic regression, support vector machine or random forest classification methods were able to distinguish weight-adjusted SEE between obese and non-obese participants with good classification rates (62-64%). Our results implicate other factors, yet to be uncovered, that affect the weight-adjusted SEE of obese and non-obese children. Functional data analysis revealed differences in the structure of SEE between obese and non-obese children that may contribute to disruption of metabolic homeostasis.

  16. Energy Expenditure in Infants in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Shepherd

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of energy balance represents a basic theoretical concept in the determination of nutritional and fluid requirements in humans in health and disease. Infants have special nutrient requirements, more limited reserves and relative immaturity of organ function. Energy requirements of infants have been based either retrospectively on intakes required to achieve normal growth or on equations derived from energy expenditure studies performed early this century. Recently, improved techniques for studying resting energy expenditure (REE, total energy expenditure (TEE and metabolically active body compartments in infants have facilitated more accurate estimates of energy requirements. Such studies indicated that current reference values for energy requirements are overestimates, and that compared with measured values, predicted values vary markedly between the various predictive equations with wide co-efficients of variation. In disease states with altered body composition, such as cystic fibrosis and end-stage liver disease, predictive equations markedly underestimate both energy and fluid requirements. In cystic fibrosis, both TEE and REE are 25% higher than values in healthy infants. In extrahepatic biliary atresia, energy expenditure per unit body cell mass is markedly elevated, suggesting that this is a catabolic condition in infants. Current estimates of energy and fluid requirements in both health and disease in infants need reappraisal. Bedside and free living energy expenditure methodology should be used to define accurately components of energy requirement in individual infants.

  17. Playing active video games increases energy expenditure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Diana L; Pratt, Lauren V; Hester, Casey N; Short, Kevin R

    2009-08-01

    To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.

  18. Circadian rhythm of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuck, Marlene; Levandovski, Rosa; Harb, Ana; Quiles, Caroline; Hidalgo, Maria Paz

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous and intermittent methods of enteral nutrition (EN) administration on circadian rhythm. Thirty-four individuals, aged between 52 and 80 years, were fed through a nasoenteric tube. Fifteen individuals received a continuous infusion for 24 hours/d, and 19 received an intermittent infusion in comparable quantities, every 4 hours from 8:00 to 20:00. In each patient, 4 indirect calorimetric measurements were carried out over 24 hours (A: 7:30, B: 10:30, C: 14:30, and D: 21:30) for 3 days. Energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were significantly higher in the intermittent group than in the continuous group (1782 ± 862 vs 1478 ± 817 kcal/24 hours, P = .05; 257 125 vs 212 117 ml/min, P = .048, respectively). The intermittent group had higher levels of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption at all the measured time points compared with the continuous group. energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in both groups were significantly different throughout the day for 3 days. There is circadian rhythm variation of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption with continuous and intermittent infusion for EN. This suggests that only one indirect daily calorimetric measurement is not able to show the patient's true needs. Energy expenditure is higher at night with both food administration methods. Moreover, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption are higher with the intermittent administration method at all times.

  19. Bike Desks in the Classroom: Energy Expenditure, Physical Health, Cognitive Performance, Brain Functioning, and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Tine; de Geus, Bas; Bailey, Stephen; Decroix, Lieselot; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; De Pauw, Kevin; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity is positively associated with physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of bike desks in the classroom on adolescents' energy expenditure, physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. Forty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). During 5 months, the IG used a bike desk for 4 class hours/week. Energy expenditure was measured during 6 consecutive days. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic fitness, academic performance, cognitive performance and brain functioning were assessed before (T0) and after (T1) the intervention. Energy expenditure of the IG was significantly higher during the class hours in which they used the bike desks relative to normal class hours. The CG had a significantly higher BMI at T1 relative to T0 while this was not significantly different for the IG. Aerobic fitness was significantly better in the IG at T1 relative to T0. No significant effects on academic performance cognitive performance and brain functioning were observed. As the implementation of bike desks in the classroom did not interfere with adolescents' academic performance, this can be seen as an effective means of reducing in-class sedentary time and improving adolescents' physical health.

  20. Energy expenditure, economic growth, and the minimum EROI of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fizaine, Florian; Court, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We estimate energy expenditure for the US and world economies from 1850 to 2012. Periods of high energy expenditure relative to GDP (from 1850 to 1945), or spikes (1973–74 and 1978–79) are associated with low economic growth rates, and periods of low or falling energy expenditure are associated with high and rising economic growth rates (e.g. 1945–1973). Over the period 1960–2010 for which we have continuous year-to-year data for control variables (capital formation, population, and unemployment rate) we estimate that, statistically, in order to enjoy positive growth, the US economy cannot afford to spend more than 11% of its GDP on energy. Given the current energy intensity of the US economy, this translates in a minimum societal EROI of approximately 11:1 (or a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level). Granger tests consistently reveal a one way causality running from the level of energy expenditure (as a fraction of GDP) to economic growth in the US between 1960 and 2010. A coherent economic policy should be founded on improving net energy efficiency. This would yield a “double dividend”: increased societal EROI (through decreased energy intensity of capital investment), and decreased sensitivity to energy price volatility. - Highlights: •We estimate energy expenditures as a fraction of GDP for the US, the world (1850–2012), and the UK (1300–2008). •Statistically speaking, the US economy cannot afford to allocate more than 11% of its GDP to energy expenditures in order to have a positive growth rate. •This corresponds to a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level. •In the same way, US growth is only possible if its primary energy system has at least a minimum EROI of approximately 11:1.

  1. Energy expenditure during sexual activity in young healthy couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Frappier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. METHODS: The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. RESULTS: Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal and in women (76.2 kCal when compared to measured energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise.

  2. Energy expenditure during ambulation with ortho crutches and axillary crutches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, C A; Cullen, K E

    1982-06-01

    Thirteen normal male college students were studied during unassisted ambulation and nonweight-bearing ambulation with Ortho crutches and axillary crutches to determine energy expenditure. Subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Energy expenditure was determined by analyzing expired air collected by a calorimeter. Heart rate was monitored by telemetry. During the first 2.5 minutes of walking, heart rate and energy expenditure were significantly greater for ambulation with axillary crutches than with Ortho crutches. After 11.5 minutes of walking, no difference in energy cost was found between crutch types; however, heart rate increased significantly (p less than .01) during ambulation with axillary crutches. Differences in energy cost and heart rate were attributed to increased upper extremity work performed when using axillary crutches. We concluded that during nonweight-bearing ambulation for short periods of time or over a short distance, the Ortho crutch is less taxing in terms of energy cost and heart rate demands.

  3. Relations of Nosological Factors and Energy Expenditure in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shmakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the aid of indirect calorimetry, to evaluate whether the nosological factors affect energy exchange in severely ill newborns.Materials and methods. Indirect calorimetry was employed to determine the true energy expenditure in new borns under the mechanical ventilation because of intranatal postanoxia encephalopathy (n=19, severe sepsis (n=18, and urgent surgery (n=19. Energy expenditure at rest was estimated at the beginning of intensive therapy and in in 48 hours. Sedation in groups was similar.Results. At the first stage, the energy exchange in all newborns was characterized by hypometabolism. In cases of damage of the central nervous system the anaerobic metabolism was increased, and the principal used substrate was glucose; the most prolonged hypometabolism was revealed in newborns with sepsis, in which the utilization of lactate was decreased, and the main energetic substrate were lipids; in early postoperative period, the decrease in energy expenditure was not associated with preferential oxidation of glucose or lipids, and disappeared due to elimination of anesthetics.Conclusion. Energetic hypometabolism can be considered as a main reaction of the newborn organism to previous invasion. Acute posthypoxic brain damage in newborns is characterized by high activity of peroxidation associated with hypometabolism. For newborns with severe sepsis a slow recovery of aerobic metabolism and intensity of energy expenditure were evident. Early postoperative period in newborns was characterized by profound iatrogenic hypometabolism with fast normalization of energy expenditure.

  4. Modelling energy expenditure of a brick layer at various postures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy utilisation at work in the labour-intensive building industry is of prime importance to contractors who match people to jobs. This paper provides an insight into modelling energy expenditure in a specific task, namely brick laying in various postures. It therefore takes previous “generic” biomechanical-energy prediction ...

  5. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) provides an important baseline for the determination of an individual's total energy requirement. The study sought to establish human energy expenditure of rural farmers in Magubike village in Tanzania, through determination of BMR, physical activity level (PAL) and total energy ...

  6. Energy expenditure in adults with cerebral palsy playing Wii Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkmans, Henri L; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J; Stam, Henk J

    2010-10-01

    To determine energy expenditure of adults with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy while playing Wii Sports tennis and boxing. Cross-sectional study. University medical center. Five men and 3 women with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and ambulatory ability (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. The mean participant age ± SD was 36±7 years. Exclusion criteria were comorbidities that affected daily physical activity and fitness, contraindications to exercise, or inability to understand study instructions owing to cognitive disorders or language barriers. Participants played Wii Sports tennis and boxing, each for 15 minutes in random order. By using a portable gas analyzer, we assessed energy expenditure by oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) while sitting and during Wii Sports game play. Energy expenditure is expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs), which were calculated as Vo(2) during Wii Sports play divided by Vo(2) during sitting. Mean ± SD energy expenditure during Wii Sports game play was 4.5±1.1METs for tennis and 5.0±1.1METs for boxing (P=.024). All participants attained energy expenditures greater than 3METs, and 2 participants attained energy expenditures greater than 6METs while playing Wii Sports tennis or boxing. Both Wii Sports tennis and boxing seem to provide at least moderate-intensity exercise in adults with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (GMFCS level I or II). These games, therefore, may be useful as treatment to promote more active and healthful lifestyles in these patients. Further research is needed to determine the energy expenditures of other physically disabled patient groups while playing active video games, and to determine the effectiveness of these games in improving health and daily activity levels. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  8. Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Marjolaine; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus

    2014-02-07

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to chronic respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic dysfunction, a major driver of dyspnea and mortality, is associated with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles, including neck muscles. Besides, energy expenditure is often abnormally high in ALS, and this is associated with a negative prognostic value. We hypothesized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would relieve inspiratory neck muscles and reduce resting energy expenditure (REE). Using indirect calorimetry, we measured REE during spontaneous breathing (REESB) and NIV (REENIV) in 16 ALS patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction, during the first 3 months of NIV. Measured values were compared with predicted REE (REEpred)(Harris-Benedict equation). NIV abolished inspiratory neck muscle activity. Even though our patients were not hypermetabolic, on the contrary, with a REESB that was lower than REEpred (average 11%), NIV did reduce energy expenditure. Indeed, median REENIV, in this population with a mean body mass index of 21.4 kg.m-2, was 1149 kcal/24 h [interquartile 970-1309], lower than REESB (1197 kcal/24 h, 1054-1402; mean difference 7%; p = 0.03, Wilcoxon). REESB and REENIV were correlated with forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure. NIV can reduce energy expenditure in ALS patients probably by alleviating the ventilatory burden imposed on inspiratory neck muscles to compensate diaphragm weakness. It remains to be elucidated whether or not, in which population, and to what extent, NIV can be beneficial in ALS through the corresponding reduction in energy expenditure.

  9. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Energy Expenditure of Trotting Gait Under Different Gait Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Bao; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Robots driven by batteries are clean, quiet, and can work indoors or in space. However, the battery endurance is a great problem. A new gait parameter design energy saving strategy to extend the working hours of the quadruped robot is proposed. A dynamic model of the robot is established to estimate and analyze the energy expenditures during trotting. Given a trotting speed, optimal stride frequency and stride length can minimize the energy expenditure. However, the relationship between the speed and the optimal gait parameters is nonlinear, which is difficult for practical application. Therefore, a simplified gait parameter design method for energy saving is proposed. A critical trotting speed of the quadruped robot is found and can be used to decide the gait parameters. When the robot is travelling lower than this speed, it is better to keep a constant stride length and change the cycle period. When the robot is travelling higher than this speed, it is better to keep a constant cycle period and change the stride length. Simulations and experiments on the quadruped robot show that by using the proposed gait parameter design approach, the energy expenditure can be reduced by about 54% compared with the 100 mm stride length under 500 mm/s speed. In general, an energy expenditure model based on the gait parameter of the quadruped robot is built and the trotting gait parameters design approach for energy saving is proposed.

  11. Measuring energy expenditure in sports by thermal video analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Larsen, Ryan Godsk; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of human energy expenditure in sports and exercise contributes to performance analyses and tracking of physical activity levels. The focus of this work is to develop a video-based method for estimation of energy expenditure in athletes. We propose a method using thermal video analysis...... to automatically extract the cyclic motion pattern, in walking and running represented as steps, and analyse the frequency. Experiments are performed with one subject in two different tests, each at 5, 8, 10, and 12 km/h. The results of our proposed video-based method is compared to concurrent measurements...

  12. Physical activity recommendations: an alternative approach using energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Lanay M; Rafferty, Ann P; Reeves, Mathew J; Pivarnik, James M

    2008-10-01

    Most adults do not meet the American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ACSM/CDC) physical activity recommendations. Even fewer meet the more extreme Institute of Medicine (IOM) physical activity recommendations. Compliance with either recommendation has been conventionally assessed by combining frequencies and durations of self-reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure is a cumulative measure of activity that offers an alternative method of defining compliance. To calculate the leisure-time energy expenditure of adults complying with the ACSM/CDC or the IOM physical activity recommendations determined by conventional measures and to reexamine compliance with the IOM recommendation using energy expenditure criteria. National, cross-sectional data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System determined the mode, frequency, and duration of up to two leisure-time activities performed by adults. Four mutually exclusive activity groups (Non-, Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active) were defined on the basis of frequencies and durations of reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure (kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1)) was calculated per respondent. The energy expenditure threshold for meeting the IOM recommendation was calculated as 21 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1). Of the 162,669 respondents included in the analyses, 29.9% were Nonactive, whereas 42.3%, 23.3%, and 4.5% were Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active, respectively. Median leisure-time energy expenditure values were 9.0, 27.4, and 63.0 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1) for Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active groups, respectively. When using energy expenditure criteria, compliance with the IOM recommendation rose to 27.7% of respondents. Compliance with the IOM physical activity recommendation dramatically increased when assessed by energy expenditure compared with conventional criteria, thereby highlighting the potential bias of conventional methods. A significant proportion of adults

  13. Role of leptin in energy expenditure : The hypothalamic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, R.; Beerens, S.; Adan, R. A.H.

    2017-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a peripheral signal that informs the brain about the metabolic status of an organism. Although traditionally viewed as an appetite-suppressing hormone, studies in the past decade have highlighted the role of leptin in energy expenditure. Leptin has been shown

  14. Energy expenditure in growing preterm infants receiving massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Sharon; Mimouni, Francis B; Ashbel, Gina; Dollberg, Shaul

    2007-08-01

    Massage therapy has been consistently shown to increase weight gain in preterm infants. The mechanism of this presumed improved metabolic efficiency is unknown. We conducted the following trial to test the hypothesis that massage therapy reduces energy expenditure in growing healthy preterm infants. A prospective, randomized, cross-over design study was conducted in 10 healthy, appropriate weights for gestational age, gavage fed preterm infants. Each infant was studied twice: after a period of either 5 days of massage therapy, or after a period of 5 days without massage therapy. Infants were randomized to 5 days of massage followed by 5 days of no massage (n = 5) or the opposite sequence (n = 5). During the massage therapy period, massage was provided daily for three 15 minute periods at the beginning of each 3 hour period every morning. Metabolic measurements were performed by indirect calorimetry, using the Deltatrac II Metabolic cart. Energy expenditure was significantly lower in infants after the 5 day massage therapy period (59.6 +/- 3.6 Kcal/Kg/ 24 hours) than after the period without (63.1 +/- 5.4 Kcal/Kg/ 24 hours) (p = 0.05). Energy expenditure is significantly lowered by 5 days of massage therapy in metabolically and thermally stable preterm infants. This decrease in energy expenditure may be in part responsible for the enhanced growth caused by massage therapy.

  15. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  16. [Energy expenditure at rest and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, D; Matĕjková, D; Rusavý, Z; Müller, L

    1998-01-01

    Adult human body has to have, because of every day fluctuating energy intake and energy needs, very precious adaptive mechanisms for maintenance of heat homeostasis in the body and nearly stable body weight and body composition, which are optimal for life and reproduction. These short term functioning adaptive mechanisms are called "empty biochemical mechanisms", where chemically bound energy is transformed to heat without work performance. These mechanisms are present on the cellular level (substrates cycles, uncoupling of respiration chain), on the interorgan metabolic level (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis between liver and adipose tissue-glucose-lactate cycle). Central nervous system controls them via many factors; the most important are catecholamines, leptin, insulin, thyroid hormones, cortisol, growth and sex hormones. Neurotransmitters and neuronal net influence energy intake and other behavior. Obesity seems to be associated with the amelioration or overcoming of possibilities of function short-term effective adaptive mechanisms.

  17. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataranni, P A; Harper, I T; Snitker, S

    2003-01-01

    Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited.......Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited....

  18. Energy expenditures of plasma method of isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The estimations are performed of specific energy expenditares in isotope separation of binary mixtures in different plasma systems with weak medium ionization (plasma centrifuge, gas discharge system with travelling magnetic field, direct current discharge). Potential advantages of plasma centrifuge over other gas discharge facilities are pointed out. The comparison of specific energy expenditure values in case of using plasma and conventional methods of isotope separation is carried out

  19. An empirical analysis for national energy R and D expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiutian Zhang; Ying Fan; Yiming Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the government R and D expenditures and analyses the dynamic reaction patterns of energy R and D in several countries to oil shocks and shows that the oil shocks served as a strong incentive to promote energy R and D. But on the other hand, it suggests the myopic behaviour of government in energy R and D. We further analyse the trends of energy R and D portfolio in both technology dimension and country. The result shows a trend of technological variety, but fewer countries have invested in energy R and D, and those countries tend to invest in their favoured technologies. (Author)

  20. 1997: BMBF expenditures for energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Departmental budget No. 30 in the 1997 draft federal budget covers the activities of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). It level of DM 15,000 million represents a 4.5% decrease from the funds earmarked for the current year of 1996. DM 72.600 million is to be spent on safety research for nuclear plants, and DM 239.978 million has been planned for decommissioning and demolition of nuclear experimental and demonstration plants. The operation of, and investements into, the research centers are funded to the tune of DM 1314.268 million and DM 325.728 million, respectively. Institutions of basic research will receive DM 444.088 million, and renewable energies, economical energy uses, conversion and combustion technologies will be funded in the amount of DM 328.100 million. (orig.) [de

  1. 1999: BMBF expenditures for energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Departmental budget No. 30 in the 1999 draft federal budget covers the activities of the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF). Its level of DM 15428 million represents a 3,34% increase from the funds earmarked for the current year of 1998. DM 66 million is to be spent on safety research for nuclear plants, and DM 220 million has been planned for decommissioning and demolition of nuclear experimental and demonstration plants. The operation of, and investments into, the research centers are funded to the tune of DM 1307 million and DM 350 million, respectively. Institutions of basic research will receive DM 471 million, and renewable energies, economical energy uses, conversion and combustion technologies will be funded in the amount of DM 234 million [de

  2. Estimating Energy Expenditure from Heart Rate in Older Adults: A Case for Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Schrack, Jennifer A.; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Goldsmith, Jeff; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of free-living energy expenditure is vital to understanding changes in energy metabolism with aging. The efficacy of heart rate as a surrogate for energy expenditure is rooted in the assumption of a linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure, but its validity and reliability in older adults remains unclear. Objective To assess the validity and reliability of the linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure in older adults using diffe...

  3. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  4. Energy expenditure and sex differences of golf playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzer, Stefan C; von Duvillard, Serge P; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mangus, Brent; Hofmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the average physical intensity and energy expenditure during a single round of golf on hilly and flat courses in a heterogeneous group of healthy men and women of varying age and golf handicap. Forty-two males and 24 females completed an incremental cycle-ergometer exercise test to determine exercise performance markers. The heart rate (HR), duration, distance, walking speed, ascent and descent were measured via a global positioning system (GPS)/HR monitor during the game and energy expenditure was calculated. Playing 9 or 18-holes of golf, independent of the golf course design, the average HR was not significantly different between sexes or the subgroups. The intensities were light with respect to the percentage of maximal HR and metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Total energy expenditure of all participants was not significantly different for hilly (834 ± 344 kcal) vs. flat courses (833 ± 295 kcal) whereas male players expended significantly greater energy than female players (926 ± 292 vs. 556 ± 180 kcal), but did not have significantly greater relative energy expenditure (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 2.2 ± 0.7 METs). As a high volume physical activity, playing golf is suggested to yield health benefits. Since the intensity was well below recommended limits, golf may have health related benefits unrelated to the intensity level of the activity.

  5. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2014-02-01

    Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Young adults aged 18-35 (N = 97, 50 female) game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterward. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ(2)(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sadie B; Wright, Jonathan C

    2010-07-02

    Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF) consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF) meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5-6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either 'whole' or 'processed' cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15-20%), carbohydrate (40-50%), and fat (33-39%) composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12) and men (n=5) studied in a crossover design. There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137+/-14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy) was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1+/-10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy). Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  7. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie B. Barr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%, carbohydrate (40–50%, and fat (33–39% composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12 and men (n=5 studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy. Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  8. Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Georges , Marjolaine; Morélot-Panzini , Capucine; Similowski , Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo , Jesus

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to chronic respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic dysfunction, a major driver of dyspnea and mortality, is associated with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles, including neck muscles. Besides, energy expenditure is often abnormally high in ALS, and this is associated with a negative prognostic value. We hypothesized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would relieve inspiratory nec...

  9. Energy expenditure in frontotemporal dementia: a behavioural and imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Collet, Tinh-Hai; van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Devenney, Emma; Henning, Elana; Kiernan, Matthew C; Piguet, Olivier; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Hodges, John R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract See Finger (doi:10.1093/aww312) for a scientific commentary on this article. Abnormal eating behaviour and metabolic parameters including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and body mass index are increasingly recognized as important components of neurodegenerative disease and may contribute to survival. It has previously been established that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with abnormal eating behaviour characterized by increased sweet preference. In this study, it was hypothesized that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia might also be associated with altered energy expenditure. A cohort of 19 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 13 with Alzheimer’s disease and 16 (age- and sex-matched) healthy control subjects were studied using Actiheart devices (CamNtech) to assess resting and stressed heart rate. Actiheart devices were fitted for 7 days to measure sleeping heart rate, activity levels, and resting, active and total energy expenditure. Using high resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging the neural correlates of increased resting heart rate were investigated including cortical thickness and region of interest analyses. In behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, resting (P = 0.001), stressed (P = 0.037) and sleeping heart rate (P = 0.038) were increased compared to control subjects, and resting heart rate (P = 0.020) compared to Alzheimer disease patients. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia was associated with decreased activity levels compared to controls (P = 0.002) and increased resting energy expenditure (P = 0.045) and total energy expenditure (P = 0.035). Increased resting heart rate correlated with behavioural (Cambridge Behavioural Inventory) and cognitive measures (Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination). Increased resting heart rate in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia correlated with atrophy involving the mesial temporal cortex, insula, and amygdala

  10. Energy expenditure during a single-handed transatlantic yacht race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S D; Leamon, S M; Nevola, V R; Llewellyn, M G L

    2008-04-01

    The popularity of sports that expose people to consecutive days of high-intensity physical activity continues to increase. The ability to adequately nourish the human body to sustain the required level of competitive performance may be a key contributor to success in such events. The energy expenditure of a male competitor in a single-handed, transatlantic race (Transat 2004) was assessed using the doubly-labelled water technique. Mean total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) during the race (13 days) was 14.5 MJ/day with a peak expenditure of 18.6 MJ during the most physically demanding 24-hour period. This mean TDEE was approximately 25% lower than that reported in a previous study (14.5 vs. 19.3 MJ/day) for a 13-day leg of a fully crewed offshore race. The difference in results was probably due to the fact that in the previous study, the crew operated in "watches" (work shifts), affording each crew member greater opportunity to eat, rest and sleep. Effective planning and efficient management of resources is essential to the success of the solo sailor. However, the extent to which maintenance of energy balance underpins competitive success remains to be established. To maintain energy balance during the race, a mean daily energy intake of 14.5 MJ/day was necessary for the subject in this study. However, this mean value for energy intake would have been inadequate to match the peak energy expended during the most physically demanding 24 hours of the race.

  11. Energy expenditure and activity among Hadza hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Raichlen, David A; Wood, Brian M; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Racette, Susan B; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Marlowe, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of total energy expenditure, (TEE; kcal/day) among traditional populations have challenged current models relating habitual physical activity to daily energy requirements. Here, we examine the relationship between physical activity and TEE among traditional Hadza hunter-gatherers living in northern Tanzania. Hadza adults were studied at two camps, with minimal intervention so as to monitor energy expenditure and activity during normal daily life. We measured daily walking distance and walking speed using wearable GPS units for 41 adults. For a subset of 30 adults, we measured TEE using doubly labeled water, three indices of work load (foraging return rate, maternal status, and number of dependent children), and urinary biomarkers of metabolic activity and stress (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, cortisol, and testosterone). Fat-free mass was the single strongest predictor of TEE among Hadza adults (r(2)  = 0.66, P < 0.001). Hadza men used greater daily walking distances and faster walking speeds compared with that of Hadza women, but neither sex nor any measure of physical activity or work load were correlated with TEE in analyses controlling for fat-free mass. Compared with developed, industrial populations, Hadza adults had similar TEE but elevated levels of metabolic stress as measured by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Our results indicate that daily physical activity may not predict TEE within traditional hunter-gatherer populations like the Hadza. Instead, adults with high levels of habitual physical activity may adapt by reducing energy allocation to other physiological activity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Sedentary lifestyle: physical activity duration versus percentage of energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María del C; Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Luis M; Anía-Lafuente, Basilio; Brito-Díaz, Buenaventura; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Almeida-González, Delia; Batista-Medina, Marta; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2007-03-01

    To compare different definitions of a sedentary lifestyle and to determine which is the most appropriate for demonstrating its relationship with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 5814 individuals was carried out. Comparisons were made between two definitions of a sedentary lifestyle: one based on active energy expenditure being less than 10% of total energy expenditure, and the other, on performing less than 25-30 minutes of physical activity per day. Reported levels of physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were recorded. The associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome and other risk factors were adjusted for gender, age and tobacco use. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was higher in women (70%) than in men (45-60%, according to the definition used). The definitions based on physical activity duration and on energy expenditure were equally useful: there were direct associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome, body mass index, abdominal and pelvic circumferences, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and inverse associations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity, which demonstrated the greatest percentage difference between sedentary and active individuals. An incidental finding was that both definitions of a sedentary lifestyle were more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria than by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Given that it is relatively easy to determine whether a patient performs less than 25 minutes of physical activity per day, use of this definition of a sedentary lifestyle is recommended for clinical practice. The serum paraoxonase activity level could provide a useful marker for studying sedentary lifestyles.

  13. Energy expenditure while playing active and inactive video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Woodruff, Sarah J; Manske, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    To examine energy expenditure (EE) when playing active and inactive videogames (VG). Predicted EE was measured among 51 undergraduate students while playing active and inactive VG (Ontario, Canada). Predicted EE was significantly higher playing the active VG compared to the inactive VG according to heart rate monitor (97.4 kcal vs 64.7 kcal) and SenseWear armband (192.4 kcal vs 42.3 kcal) estimates. Active VG may be a viable intervention tool for increasing EE among students who would otherwise be spending time in sedentary screen-based behaviors.

  14. Activity-related energy expenditure during lower limb cast immobilization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B; Martin, Xavier E; Ceroni, Dimitri

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity, which may result from immobilization, is recognized as a risk factor for the development of obesity. We aimed to quantify the decrease in activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) because of lower limb cast immobilization. We carried out a longitudinal matched case-control study: 34 adolescents with a first episode of lower limb fracture and 34 healthy cases. Physical activity was assessed during cast immobilization by an accelerometer from which we calculated the decrease in AEE. AEE in adolescents with lower limb fractures was estimated to be 16.0% lower than healthy controls. When converted into kcal per mean participants' weight, the difference in AEE amounted to 125 kcal/day, which corresponds to 5.2 h of slow walking. A significant reduction of AEE in adolescents with lower limb fractures may lead to a significantly positive energy balance as there is usually no compensatory reduction of energy intake. An increase of walking seems unrealistic in this situation and patients should be advised at the emergency unit to reduce their energy intake during the immobilization period. Level III, prospective case-control study.

  15. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew P Hills; Andrew P Hills; Najat eMokhtar; Nuala M Byrne

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity) and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activit...

  16. Does intra-abdominal fluid increase the resting energy expenditure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarling, E J; Grande, A; Hano, J

    1997-10-01

    In patients with intra-abdominal fluid collection, caloric needs are based on an estimated dry weight. This is done because intra-abdominal fluid has been assumed to be metabolically inactive. One recent study of patients with slowly resolving ascites suggested otherwise. In our study, the effect of intra-abdominal fluid on the resting energy expenditure (REE) and apparent lean body mass was determined in 10 stable patients requiring peritoneal dialysis. For each subject, in both the empty and full state, we measured REE by indirect calorimetry, and body composition by the bioelectric impedance method. In the full state, the VCO2 was significantly increased (210 +/- 11 versus 197 +/- 9 mL/min, P empty state. This caused an increase in the calculated resting energy expenditure (1531 +/- 88 kcal/d empty versus 1593 +/- 94 kcal/d full, P calories derived from glucose absorbed out of the dialysate. Estimates of body fat, lean body mass, and total water also were not affected by the intra-abdominal fluid. We conclude that intra-abdominal fluid will not affect the measured REE and hence may be considered to be metabolically inactive.

  17. Effects of robotic knee exoskeleton on human energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gams, Andrej; Petric, Tadej; Debevec, Tadej; Babic, Jan

    2013-06-01

    A number of studies discuss the design and control of various exoskeleton mechanisms, yet relatively few address the effect on the energy expenditure of the user. In this paper, we discuss the effect of a performance augmenting exoskeleton on the metabolic cost of an able-bodied user/pilot during periodic squatting. We investigated whether an exoskeleton device will significantly reduce the metabolic cost and what is the influence of the chosen device control strategy. By measuring oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, heart rate, blood oxygenation, and muscle EMG during 5-min squatting series, at one squat every 2 s, we show the effects of using a prototype robotic knee exoskeleton under three different noninvasive control approaches: gravity compensation approach, position-based approach, and a novel oscillator-based approach. The latter proposes a novel control that ensures synchronization of the device and the user. Statistically significant decrease in physiological responses can be observed when using the robotic knee exoskeleton under gravity compensation and oscillator-based control. On the other hand, the effects of position-based control were not significant in all parameters although all approaches significantly reduced the energy expenditure during squatting.

  18. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  19. Comparison of energy expenditure when moving on wet and dry clothes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrubý, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Title: Comparison of energy expenditure when moving on wet and dry clothes. Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare energy expenditure based on heart rate when moving in dryand wet clothes in different speeds. Methods: Quantitative research and subsequent intra-individual comparison of pulse frequency and energy expenditure when moving in dry and wet clothes. Movements were conducted on a treadmill and heart rate was measured by using sporttesters. Results: From the results we can ded...

  20. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2018-02-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  1. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  2. Graphical Calculation of Estimated Energy Expenditure in Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egro, Francesco M; Manders, Ernest C; Manders, Ernest K

    2018-03-01

    Historically, estimated energy expenditure (EEE) has been related to the percent of body surface area burned. Subsequent evaluations of these estimates have indicated that the earlier formulas may overestimate the amount of caloric support necessary for burn-injured patients. Ireton-Jones et al derived 2 equations for determining the EEE required to support burn patients, 1 for ventilator-dependent patients and 1 for spontaneously breathing patients. Evidence has proved their reliability, but they remain challenging to apply in a clinical setting given the difficult and cumbersome mathematics involved. This study aims to introduce a graphical calculation of EEE in burn patients that can be easily used in the clinical setting. The multivariant linear regression analysis from Ireton-Jones et al yielded equations that were rearranged into the form of a simple linear equation of the type y = mx + b. By choosing an energy expenditure and the age of the subject, the weight was calculated. The endpoints were then calculated, and a graph was mapped by means of Adobe FrameMaker. A graphical representation of Ireton-Jones et al's equations was obtained by plotting the weight (kg) on the y axis, the age (years) on the x axis, and a series of parallel lines representing the EEE in burn patients. The EEE has been displayed graphically on a grid to allow rapid determination of the EEE needed for a given patient of a designated weight and age. Two graphs were plotted: 1 for ventilator-dependent patients and 1 for spontaneously breathing patients. Correction factors for sex, the presence of additional trauma, and obesity are indicated on the graphical calculators. We propose a graphical tool to calculate caloric requirements in a fast, easy, and portable manner.

  3. Estimating activity energy expenditure: how valid are physical activity questionnaires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Heather K; Robson, Paula J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Csizmadi, Ilona

    2008-02-01

    Activity energy expenditure (AEE) is the modifiable component of total energy expenditure (TEE) derived from all activities, both volitional and nonvolitional. Because AEE may affect health, there is interest in its estimation in free-living people. Physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) could be a feasible approach to AEE estimation in large populations, but it is unclear whether or not any PAQ is valid for this purpose. Our aim was to explore the validity of existing PAQs for estimating usual AEE in adults, using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a criterion measure. We reviewed 20 publications that described PAQ-to-DLW comparisons, summarized study design factors, and appraised criterion validity using mean differences (AEE(PAQ) - AEE(DLW), or TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)), 95% limits of agreement, and correlation coefficients (AEE(PAQ) versus AEE(DLW) or TEE(PAQ) versus TEE(DLW)). Only 2 of 23 PAQs assessed most types of activity over the past year and indicated acceptable criterion validity, with mean differences (TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)) of 10% and 2% and correlation coefficients of 0.62 and 0.63, respectively. At the group level, neither overreporting nor underreporting was more prevalent across studies. We speculate that, aside from reporting error, discrepancies between PAQ and DLW estimates may be partly attributable to 1) PAQs not including key activities related to AEE, 2) PAQs and DLW ascertaining different time periods, or 3) inaccurate assignment of metabolic equivalents to self-reported activities. Small sample sizes, use of correlation coefficients, and limited information on individual validity were problematic. Future research should address these issues to clarify the true validity of PAQs for estimating AEE.

  4. Resting energy expenditure of rats acclimated to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation at 1 G has been advocated as a control condition during spaceflight and as a countermeasure to compensate for the adverse effects of spaceflight. Rodents are the primary animal model for the study of the effects of spaceflight and will be used in the evaluation of centrifugation as a countermeasure and means of control at 1 G during flight. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was designed to assess whether resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats was increased in relation to the magnitude of the level of gravity to which the animals were exposed. The influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats (n = 42, age 40-400 d) was determined following 2 wk of acclimation to 1, 2.3, or 4.1 G. Hypergravity environments were created by centrifugation. Measurements were made at the gravity level to which the animal was acclimated and during the lights-on period. RESULTS: In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g), mean O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher (18% and 27%, respectively) in the 2.3- and 4.1 -G groups than controls. Mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased from 0.80 to 0.87. EER was increased from 47 +/- 0.1 kcal x d(-1) at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 58 +/- 2.2 kcal x d(-1) at 2.3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference in EER between the hypergravity groups. When age differences were considered, EER (kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with increased gravity was 40% higher than at 1 G. The increase in EER was not proportional over gravity levels. CONCLUSION: Acclimation of rats to hypergravity increases their EER, dependent on body mass and age, and may alter substrate metabolism. The increase in EER was not related to the level of gravity increase.

  5. Impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation in twin-bearing ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    weeks of gestation. Whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and retained energy (RE) were calculated from respiratory gaseous exchange combined with nitrogen balance at 7, 5 and 2 weeks prepartum. Twin lamb birth weight was lower in the R group compared to those in the A group (7.9 ± 0.31 vs 9.3 ± 0.19 kg, P...

  6. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  7. Body Segment Kinematics and Energy Expenditure in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgit; Hartmann, Michael; Böhm, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) in active videogames (AVGs) is a component for assessing its benefit for cardiovascular health. Existing evidence suggests that AVGs are able to increase EE above rest and when compared with playing passive videogames. However, the association between body movement and EE remains unclear. Furthermore, for goal-directed game design, it is important to know the contribution of body segments to EE. This knowledge will help to acquire a certain level of exercise intensity during active gaming. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the best predictors of EE from body segment energies, acceleration, and heart rate during different game situations. EE and body segment movement of 17 subjects, aged 22.1 ± 2.5 years, were measured in two different AVGs. In randomized order, the subjects played a handheld-controlled Nintendo(®) Wii™ tennis (NWT) game and a whole body-controlled Sony EyeToy(®) waterfall (ETW) game. Body segment movement was analyzed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. From the video data, mean values of mechanical energy change and acceleration of 10 body segments were analyzed. Measured EE was significantly higher in ETW (7.8 ± 1.4 metabolic equivalents [METs]) than in NWT (3.4 ± 1.0 METs). The best prediction parameter for the more intense ETW game was the energy change of the right thigh and for the less intense hand-controlled NWT game was the energy change of the upper torso. Segment acceleration was less accurate in predicting EE. The best predictors of metabolic EE were the thighs and the upper torso in whole body and handheld-controlled games, respectively. Increasing movement of these body segments would lead to higher physical activity intensity during gaming, reducing sedentary behavior.

  8. Resting Energy Expenditure in Anorexia Nervosa: Measured versus Estimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study was to compare the resting energy expenditure (REE measured by the Douglas bag method with the REE estimated with the FitMate method, the Harris-Benedict equation, and the Müller et al. equation for individuals with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 in a severe group of underweight patients with anorexia nervosa (AN. Methods. 15 subjects with AN participated in the study. The Douglas bag method and the FitMate method were used to measure REE and the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition after one day of refeeding. Results. FitMate method and the Müller et al. equation gave an accurate REE estimation, while the Harris-Benedict equation overestimated the REE when compared with the Douglas bag method. Conclusion. The data support the use of the FitMate method and the Müller et al. equation, but not the Harris-Benedict equation, to estimate REE in AN patients after short-term refeeding.

  9. Modification of a whole room indirect calorimeter for measurement of rapid changes in energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Reed, G W; Hill, J O

    1994-06-01

    Whole room indirect calorimeters are among the most accurate devices for measurement of human energy expenditure and have provided useful data about determinants of total daily energy expenditure. However, a limitation of whole room indirect calorimeters has been the inability to detect acute (usually calorimeter (respiratory chamber) to allow accurate measurement of energy expenditure over time periods as short as 1 min. The modifications involve changes in the system design and use of signal processing techniques. With these modifications, we can measure energy expenditure in 1-min intervals throughout the day. This allows accurate study of the acute effects of food, exercise, or drugs on energy expenditure in subjects moving freely inside the respiratory chamber. The ability to use respiratory chambers for these types of studies should improve our understanding of how body weight is regulated.

  10. Field use of D218O to measure energy expenditure of soldiers at different energy intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLany, J.P.; Schoeller, D.A.; Hoyt, R.W.; Askew, E.W.; Sharp, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    To test the application of doubly labeled water under adverse field conditions, energy expenditures of 16 special operations soldiers were measured during a 28-day field training exercise. Subjects were matched by fat-free mass and divided equally between an ad libitum ready-to-eat meal diet and a 2,000 kcal/day lightweight ration. Subjects recorded intakes daily, and body composition was measured before and after the exercise. At the beginning of the study, subjects moved to a new northerly location and, therefore, a new water supply. To compensate for this, a group of soldiers who did not receive heavy water was followed to measure isotopic base-line changes. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was in agreement with intake/balance (3,400 ± 260 vs. 3,230 ± 520 kcal/day). The overall coefficient of variation of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was half that of intake/balance (7.6 vs. 16.1%). The coefficient of variation of repeat measures with doubly labeled water was 7.3%. Energy expenditure of the ready-to-eat meal group, 3,540 ± 180 kcal/day, was not significantly different from the lightweight ration group, 3,330 ± 301 kcal/day. Doubly labeled water was valid under field conditions

  11. Physical activity, sleep pattern and energy expenditure in double-handed offshore sailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, C; Ardigò, L P; Alberti, M; Daniele, F; Capelli, C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify total energy expenditure, activity energy expenditure and time spent at three levels of physical activity (low, moderate, high intensity) in four two-person crews during a 500-mile double-handed sailing regatta. Physical activity intensity and energy expenditure were assessed during a 500-nautical-mile double-handed offshore competition in eight male sailors (46.3±3.4 years; 180±13 cm; 85.4±12.5 kg). During the whole regatta, they wore an activity monitor that estimated energy expenditure and minutes spent at each level of intensity (sedentary, 6.0 METs). The sailors spent longer periods (Penergy expenditure was 14.26±1.89 MJ/day and the activity energy expenditure was 5.06±1.42 MJ/day. Activity energy expenditure was significantly correlated with total sleep time, boat speed, and distance covered each day (Penergy expenditure was more likely a consequence of the short and rare periods of sleep during the competition rather than of the bouts of moderate and vigorous physical activities.

  12. Body size, body composition, and metabolic profile explain higher energy expenditure in overweight children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower relative rates of energy expenditure (EE), increased energetic efficiency, and altered fuel utilization purportedly associated with obesity have not been demonstrated indisputably in overweight children. We hypothesized that differences in energy metabolism between nonoverweight and overweight...

  13. Energy expenditure and influence of physiologic factors during marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Mark; Sothern, Melinda; Koss, Cathie; Tuuri, Georgianna; Vanvrancken, Connie; Kontos, Anthony; Bonis, Marc

    2007-11-01

    This study examined energy expenditure and physiologic determinants for marathon performance in recreational runners. Twenty recreational marathon runners participated (10 males aged 41 +/- 11.3 years, 10 females aged 42.7 +/- 11.7 years). Each subject completed a V(.-)O2max and a 1-hour treadmill run at recent marathon pace, and body composition was indirectly determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The male runners exhibited higher V(.-)O2max (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) values (52.6 +/- 5.5) than their female counterparts (41.9 +/- 6.6), although ventilatory threshold (T-vent) values were similar between groups (males: 76.2 +/- 6.1 % of V(.-)O2max, females: 75.1 +/- 5.1%). The male runners expended more energy (2,792 +/- 235 kcal) for their most recent marathon as calculated from the 1-hour treadmill run at marathon pace than the female runners (2,436 +/- 297 kcal). Body composition parameters correlated moderately to highly (r ranging from 0.50 to 0.87) with marathon run time. Also, V(.-)O2max (r = -0.73) and ventilatory threshold (r = -0.73) moderately correlated with marathon run time. As a group, the participants ran near their ventilatory threshold for their most recent marathon (r = 0.74). These results indicate the influence of body size on marathon run performance. In general, the larger male and female runners ran slower and expended more kilocalories than smaller runners. Regardless of marathon finishing time, the runners maintained a pace near their T-vent, and as T-vent or V(.-)O2max increased, marathon performance time decreased.

  14. Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data

  15. Improvement of energy expenditure prediction from heart rate during running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, Keyne; Borne, Rachel; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Chapelot, Didier; Pichon, Aurélien; Cornolo, Jérémy; Brugniaux, Julien Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to develop new equations that predict exercise-induced energy expenditure (EE) more accurately than previous ones during running by including new parameters as fitness level, body composition and/or running intensity in addition to heart rate (HR). Original equations predicting EE were created from data obtained during three running intensities (25%, 50% and 70% of HR reserve) performed by 50 subjects. Five equations were conserved according to their accuracy assessed from error rates, interchangeability and correlations analyses: one containing only basic parameters, two containing VO 2max  or speed at VO 2max  and two including running speed with or without HR. Equations accuracy was further tested in an independent sample during a 40 min validation test at 50% of HR reserve. It appeared that: (1) the new basic equation was more accurate than pre-existing equations (R 2  0.809 versus. 0,737 respectively); (2) the prediction of EE was more accurate with the addition of VO 2max  (R 2  = 0.879); and (3) the equations containing running speed were the most accurate and were considered to have good agreement with indirect calorimetry. In conclusion, EE estimation during running might be significantly improved by including running speed in the predictive models, a parameter readily available with treadmill or GPS. (paper)

  16. Energy expenditure, aerodynamics and medical problems in cycling. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1992-07-01

    The cyclist's ability to maintain an extremely high rate of energy expenditure for long durations at a high economy of effort is dependent upon such factors as the individual's anaerobic threshold, muscle fibre type, muscle myoglobin concentration, muscle capillary density and certain anthropometric dimensions. Although laboratory tests have had some success predicting cycling potential, their validity has yet to be established for trained cyclists. Even in analysing the forces producing propulsive torque, cycling effectiveness cannot be based solely on the orientation of applied forces. Innovations of shoe and pedal design continue to have a positive influence on the biomechanics of pedalling. Although muscle involvement during a complete pedal revolution may be similar, economical pedalling rate appears to differ significantly between the novice and racing cyclist. This difference emanates, perhaps, from long term adaptation. Air resistance is by far the greatest retarding force affecting cycling. The aerodynamics of the rider and the bicycle and its components are major contributors to cycling economy. Correct body posture and spacing between riders can significantly enhance speed and efficiency. Acute and chronic responses to cycling and training are complex. To protect the safety and health of the cyclist there must be close monitoring and cooperation between the cyclist, coach, exercise scientist and physician.

  17. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Mendelsohn, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

    1998-09-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion.

  18. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion

  19. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  20. Acute effects of capsaicin on energy expenditure and fat oxidation in negative energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilou L H R Janssens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addition of capsaicin (CAPS to the diet has been shown to increase energy expenditure; therefore capsaicin is an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. AIM: We investigated the 24 h effects of CAPS on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure during 25% negative energy balance. METHODS: Subjects underwent four 36 h sessions in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. They received 100% or 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions '100%CAPS', '100%Control', '75%CAPS' and '75%Control'. CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units (SHU with every meal. RESULTS: An induced negative energy balance of 25% was effectively a 20.5% negative energy balance due to adapting mechanisms. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT and resting energy expenditure (REE at 75%CAPS did not differ from DIT and REE at 100%Control, while at 75%Control these tended to be or were lower than at 100%Control (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02 respectively. Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR at 75%CAPS did not differ from SMR at 100%CAPS, while SMR at 75%Control was lower than at 100%CAPS (p = 0.04. Fat oxidation at 75%CAPS was higher than at 100%Control (p = 0.03, while with 75%Control it did not differ from 100%Control. Respiratory quotient (RQ was more decreased at 75%CAPS (p = 0.04 than at 75%Control (p = 0.05 when compared with 100%Control. Blood pressure did not differ between the four conditions. CONCLUSION: In an effectively 20.5% negative energy balance, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal supports negative energy balance by counteracting the unfavorable negative energy balance effect of decrease in components of energy expenditure. Moreover, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal promotes fat oxidation in negative energy balance and does not increase blood pressure significantly. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  1. Resting energy expenditure in girls with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Gerhard; Frank, Laura; Ziegler, Julian; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Schweizer, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge concerning energy metabolism in Turner syndrome (TS) is lacking. We compared the resting energy expenditure per fat-free mass (REE/FFM) in TS with other girls with short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) and age-related controls. We measured prospectively REE by spirometry under fasting conditions in the morning in 85 short prepubertal girls at the start of GH treatment. Diagnoses were TS (n=20), GH deficiency (GHD) (n=38) and small for gestational age (SGA) short stature (n=27). Additionally, 20 age-related controls were studied. Mean ages were 8.3 (TS), 7.1 (GHD), 6.9 (SGA) and 8.5 years (controls). Mean heights were -2.90 (TS), -3.32 (GHD), -3.69 (SGA) and -0.03 standard deviation scores (SDS) (controls). FFM was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). At the start of GH girls with TS showed insignificantly higher REE per FFM (REE/FFM) (mean±SD; 65±9 kcal/kg×day) than did the other female patients (62±9 kcal/kg×day) (p>0.23). The healthy controls had significantly lower REE/FFM (35±4 kcal/kg×day) (p<0.001). Follow-up examination of the patients after 6 or 12 months revealed decreasing REE/FFM in TS (62±9 kcal/kg×day) resulting in comparable REE/FFM in all three patient groups. At baseline short girls with TS had insignificantly higher REE/FFM than short children with SGA or GHD, but in follow-up this difference was not detectable any more. Future studies are necessary to understand this observation.

  2. Maximal sustained levels of energy expenditure in humans during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jamie A; Nguyen, David D; Ruby, Brent C; Schoeller, Dale A

    2011-12-01

    Migrating birds have been able to sustain an energy expenditure (EE) that is five times their basal metabolic rate. Although humans can readily reach these levels, it is not yet clear what levels can be sustained for several days. The study's purposes were 1) to determine the upper limits of human EE and whether or not those levels can be sustained without inducing catabolism of body tissues and 2) to determine whether initial body weight is related to the levels that can be sustained. We compiled data on documented EE as measured by doubly labeled water during high levels of physical activity (minimum of five consecutive days). We calculated the physical activity level (PAL) of each individual studied (PAL = total EE / basal metabolic rate) from the published data. Correlations were run to examine the relationship between initial body weight and body weight lost with both total EE and PAL. The uppermost limit of EE was a peak PAL of 6.94 that was sustained for 10 consecutive days of a 95-d race. Only two studies reported PALs above 5.0; however, significant decreases in body mass were found in each study (0.45-1.39 kg·wk(-1) of weight loss). To test whether initial weight affects the ability to sustain high PALs, we found a significant positive correlation between TEE and initial body weight (r = 0.46, P body weight (r = 0.27, not statistically significant). Some elite humans are able to sustain PALs above 5.0 for a minimum of 10 d. Although significant decreases in body weight occur at this level, catabolism of body tissue may be preventable in situations with proper energy intake. Further, initial body weight does not seem to affect the sustainability of PALs.

  3. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Russell; Lifshitz, Fima

    2006-01-31

    Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN). In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight) and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 +/- 12.0 and 61.6 +/- 11.0 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 +/- 32.3 g). The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 +/- 10.5 g). Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 +/- 8.7 and 142.0 +/- 7.6 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 +/- 17.5 g) as compared with controls (201.6 +/- 33.4 g). Body fat (g) decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 +/- 5.3), 70% (15.3 +/- 3.5) and 60% (9.6 +/- 2.7) of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 +/- 6.7). EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 +/- 0.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 +/- 1.4 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 9.0 +/- 1.2 and 9.7 +/- 0.8; p vs. 4.1 +/- 0.9 and 2.4 +/- 0.4; p vs. 0.95 +/- 0.03 and 0.91 +/- 0.05 p light (7.1 +/- 1.4) and dark period (6.2 +/- 1.0) EE and PA (3.4 +/- 0.9 and 2.5 +/- 0.5 respectively) were reduced in rats fed 60% of ad-libitum energy intake. CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  4. Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity in Prader–Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G.; Theodoro, Mariana F.; Bittel, Douglas C.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, suck and feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, small hands and feet, developmental delay, hyperphagia and early childhood obesity and a particular facial appearance. The obesity associated with PWS is the result of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) due to hyperphagia, decreased physical activity, reduced metabolic rate and an inability to vomit. EE is affected by body composition as well as exercise. Individuals with PWS have a lower lean body mass (LBM) compared with controls which may contribute to reduced basal level EE. To determine the relationship among body composition, activity levels and metabolic rates, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and a whole-room respiration chamber were used to measure body composition, total EE (TEE), resting EE (REE), physical activity, and mechanical work (MW) during an 8 hr monitoring period. The chamber consisted of a live-in whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform floor to allow simultaneous measurement of EE, physical activity, and work efficiency during spontaneous activities and standardized exercise. Participants with PWS (27 with 15q11–q13 deletion and 21 with maternal disomy 15 with an average age of 23 years) had significantly decreased TEE by 20% and reduced LBM compared to 24 obese subjects. Similarly, REE was significantly reduced by 16% in the individuals with PWS relative to the comparison subjects. Total MW performed during the 8 hr monitoring period was significantly reduced by 35% in the PWS group. The energy cost of physical activity is related to the duration, intensity and type of activity and the metabolic efficiency of the individual. After adjusting group differences in LBM by analysis of variance, TEE and REE were no longer different between the two groups. Our data indicate that there is a significant reduction of EE in individuals with PWS

  5. Estimating energy expenditure from heart rate in older adults: a case for calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Goldsmith, Jeff; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurement of free-living energy expenditure is vital to understanding changes in energy metabolism with aging. The efficacy of heart rate as a surrogate for energy expenditure is rooted in the assumption of a linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure, but its validity and reliability in older adults remains unclear. To assess the validity and reliability of the linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure in older adults using different levels of calibration. Heart rate and energy expenditure were assessed across five levels of exertion in 290 adults participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Correlation and random effects regression analyses assessed the linearity of the relationship between heart rate and energy expenditure and cross-validation models assessed predictive performance. Heart rate and energy expenditure were highly correlated (r=0.98) and linear regardless of age or sex. Intra-person variability was low but inter-person variability was high, with substantial heterogeneity of the random intercept (s.d. =0.372) despite similar slopes. Cross-validation models indicated individual calibration data substantially improves accuracy predictions of energy expenditure from heart rate, reducing the potential for considerable measurement bias. Although using five calibration measures provided the greatest reduction in the standard deviation of prediction errors (1.08 kcals/min), substantial improvement was also noted with two (0.75 kcals/min). These findings indicate standard regression equations may be used to make population-level inferences when estimating energy expenditure from heart rate in older adults but caution should be exercised when making inferences at the individual level without proper calibration.

  6. Energy equivalents of CO2 and their importance in assessing energy expenditure when using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, M.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon dioxide production in free living animals and humans can be measured using tracer techniques, but the prediction of energy expenditure also requires an estimate of the energy equivalents of CO2 (energy expended/CO2 produced; EeqCO2). This work is concerned with assessing the variation in EeqCO2 with the use of dietary information, indirect calorimetry, and theoretical concepts. The EeqCO2 for diets (EeqCO2 diet) ingested by 63 individuals living in a Cambridgeshire village, UK, was found to vary by less than 10%. The EeqCO2 diet for different populations varied by greater than 10% and for artificial enteral feeds by approximately 20%. Alcohol increases this variability because it has a particularly high EeqCO2. Variation in the nitrogenous end products of metabolism may also have a substantial effect on the EeqCO2 for a subject (EeqCO2 body), especially when a large proportion of energy expenditure is derived from protein oxidation, as in strict carnivores. Nutrient/energy imbalances such as those associated with growth, hypercaloric feeding, or starvation may also have major effects on EeqCO2 body. It is concluded that the calculation of energy expenditure from CO2 production should not employ a universal value for EeqCO2 body. The value should take into account the physiological and clinical state under investigation. Practical recommendations are suggested

  7. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1, motor threshold (E2, and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3. Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  8. Energy expenditure of sedentary screen time compared with active screen time for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Jensen, Teresa B; Foster, Randal C; Redmond, Aoife B; Walker, Brian A; Heinz, Dieter; Levine, James A

    2006-12-01

    We examined the effect of activity-enhancing screen devices on children's energy expenditure compared with performing the same activities while seated. Our hypothesis was that energy expenditure would be significantly greater when children played activity-promoting video games, compared with sedentary video games. Energy expenditure was measured for 25 children aged 8 to 12 years, 15 of whom were lean, while they were watching television seated, playing a traditional video game seated, watching television while walking on a treadmill at 1.5 miles per hour, and playing activity-promoting video games. Watching television and playing video games while seated increased energy expenditure by 20 +/- 13% and 22 +/- 12% above resting values, respectively. When subjects were walking on the treadmill and watching television, energy expenditure increased by 138 +/- 40% over resting values. For the activity-promoting video games, energy expenditure increased by 108 +/- 40% with the EyeToy (Sony Computer Entertainment) and by 172 +/- 68% with Dance Dance Revolution Ultramix 2 (Konami Digital Entertainment). Energy expenditure more than doubles when sedentary screen time is converted to active screen time. Such interventions might be considered for obesity prevention and treatment.

  9. Effect of neuromuscular electrical muscle stimulation on energy expenditure in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories) in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE) model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender) associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females) participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1), motor threshold (E2), and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3). Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject's demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  10. Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Young, Kathleen M; Coit, Carissa; Clayton, Anna Marie; Spencer, Alexis; Wagner, Marissa

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that specific eating patterns (e.g., eating breakfast) may be related to favorable weight status. This investigation examined the relationship between eating patterns (i.e., skipping meals; consuming alcohol) and weight loss treatment outcomes (weight loss, energy intake, energy expenditure, and duration of exercise). Fifty-four overweight or obese adults (BMI> or =27 kg/m(2)) participated in a self-help or therapist-assisted weight loss program. Daily energy intake from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and alcoholic beverages, total daily energy intake, total daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weekly weight loss were assessed. On days that breakfast or dinner was skipped, or alcoholic beverages were not consumed, less total daily energy was consumed compared to days that breakfast, dinner, or alcoholic beverages were consumed. On days that breakfast or alcohol was consumed, daily energy expenditure (breakfast only) and duration of exercise were higher compared to days that breakfast or alcohol was not consumed. Individuals who skipped dinner or lunch more often had lower energy expenditure and exercise duration than individuals who skipped dinner or lunch less often. Individuals who consumed alcohol more often had high daily energy expenditure than individuals who consumed alcohol less often. Skipping meals or consuming alcoholic beverages was not associated with weekly weight loss. In this investigation, weight loss program participants may have compensated for excess energy intake from alcoholic beverages and meals with greater daily energy expenditure and longer exercise duration.

  11. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN. In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g. The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g. Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g. Body fat (g decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3, 70% (15.3 ± 3.5 and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7 of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7. EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  12. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization during whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravena Santos Raulino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of vibration during interval training would raise oxygen consumption VO2 to the extent necessary for weight management and to evaluate the influence of the intensity of the vibratory stimulus for prescribing the exercise program in question. METHODS: VO2, measured breath by breath, was evaluated at rest and during the four experimental conditions to determine energy expenditure, metabolic equivalent MET, respiratory exchange ratio RER, % Kcal from fat, and rate of fat oxidation. Eight young sedentary females age 22±1 years, height 163.88± 7.62 cm, body mass 58.35±10.96 kg, and VO2 max 32.75±3.55 mLO2.Kg-1.min-1 performed interval training duration = 13.3 min to the upper and lower limbs both with vibration 35 Hz and 2 mm, 40 Hz and 2 mm, 45 Hz and 2 mm and without vibration. The experimental conditions were randomized and balanced at an interval of 48 hours. RESULTS: the addition of vibration to exercise at 45 Hz and 2 mm resulted in an additional increase of 17.77±12.38% of VO2 compared with exercise without vibration. However, this increase did not change the fat oxidation rate p=0.42 because intensity of exercise 29.1±3.3 %VO2max, 2.7 MET was classified as mild to young subjects. CONCLUSION: despite the influence of vibration on VO2 during exercise, the increase was insufficient to reduce body weight and did not reach the minimum recommendation of exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population.

  13. Assessing the Energy Expenditure of Elite Female Soccer Players: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Jocelyn K; Thompson, Kevin G; Pumpa, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the total and exercise energy expenditure of elite female soccer players during a training week. Eight elite female soccer players wore SenseWear Mini Armbands (SWAs) for 7 consecutive days during the preseason phase of a national league competition. In addition, players wore 15-Hz GPSports tracking devices during 4 training sessions and a friendly game. Total energy expenditure, exercise energy expenditure, and training and game demands were collected from the SWA and GPSports devices. Mean daily energy expenditure for the game day, training days, and rest days were 12,242 kJ (SD = 603 kJ), 11,692 (SD = 274 kJ), and 9,516 (SD = 369 kJ), respectively, with significant differences shown between activities (p soccer players. Nutritional intake should be adjusted accordingly to avoid energy imbalances for optimal performance and recovery.

  14. The effects of Ramadan fasting on activity and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessan, Nader; Saadane, Ilham; Alkaf, Budour; Hambly, Catherine; Buckley, Adam J; Finer, Nick; Speakman, John R; Barakat, Maha T

    2018-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan entails abstinence from eating and drinking between dawn and sunset and a major shift in meal times and patterns with associated changes in several hormones and circadian rhythms; whether there are accompanying changes in energy metabolism is unclear. We have investigated the impact of Ramadan fasting on resting metabolic rate (RMR), activity, and total energy expenditure (TEE). Healthy nonobese volunteers (n = 29; 16 women) fasting during Ramadan were recruited. RMR was measured with the use of indirect calorimetry. In subgroups of participants, activity (n = 11; 5 women) and TEE (n = 10; 5 women) in free-living conditions were measured with the use of accelerometers and the doubly labeled water technique, respectively. Body composition was measured with the use of bioelectrical impedance. Measurements were repeated after a wash-out period of between 1 and 2 mo after Ramadan. Nonparametric tests were used for comparative statistics. Ramadan fasting did not result in any change in RMR (mean ± SD: 1365.7 ± 230.2 compared with 1362.9 ± 273.6 kcal/d for Ramadan and post-Ramadan respectively, P = 0.713, n = 29). However, controlling for the effects of age, sex, and body weight, RMR was higher in the first week of Ramadan than in subsequent weeks. During Ramadan, the total number of steps walked were significantly lower (n = 11, P = 0.001), while overall sleeping time was reduced and different sleeping patterns were seen. TEE did not differ significantly between Ramadan and post-Ramadan (mean ± SD: 2224.1 ± 433.7 compared with 2121.0 ± 718.5 kcal/d for Ramadan and post-Ramadan, P = 0.7695, n = 10). Ramadan fasting is associated with reduced activity and sleeping time, but no significant change in RMR or TEE. Reported weight changes with Ramadan in other studies are more likely to be due to differences in food intake. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02696421. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights

  15. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  16. Increased energy expenditure and glucose oxidation during acute nontraumatic skin pain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Greisen, Jacob; Grøfte, Thorbjørn; Jensen, Troels S; Hansen, Peter O; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2009-04-01

    Tissue injury is accompanied by pain and results in increased energy expenditure, which may promote catabolism. The extent to which pain contributes to this sequence of events is not known. In a cross-over design, 10 healthy volunteers were examined on three occasions; first, during self-controlled nontraumatic electrical painful stimulus to the abdominal skin, maintaining an intensity of 8 on the visual analogue scale (0-10). Next, the electrical stimulus was reproduced during local analgesia and, finally, there was a control session without stimulus. Indirect calorimetry and blood and urine sampling was done in order to calculate energy expenditure and substrate utilization. During pain stimulus, energy expenditure increased acutely and reversibly by 62% (95% confidence interval, 43-83), which was abolished by local analgesia. Energy expenditure paralleled both heart rate and blood catecholamine levels. The energy expenditure increase was fuelled by all energy sources, with the largest increase in glucose utilization. The pain-related increase in energy expenditure was possibly mediated by adrenergic activity and was probably to a large extent due to increased muscle tone. These effects may be enhanced by cortical events related to the pain. The increase in glucose consumption favours catabolism. Our findings emphasize the clinical importance of pain management.

  17. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  18. Energy expenditure and socioeconomic status in Guatemala as measured by the doubly labelled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, T.P.; Johnston, F.E.; Greiner, L.

    1988-01-01

    The energy expenditure of lower (group 1) and upper socioeconomic group females (group 2) from a marginal community in Guatemala City was determined by using the doubly labelled water method. Energy expenditure values were 1925 +/- 66 (mean, SEM) kcal/d (group 1) and 2253 +/- 145 kcal/d group 2 (p less than 0.03). About half of this difference can be attributed to size

  19. Labor and women's nutrition : a study of energy expenditure, fertility, and nutritional status in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Paul A; Alderman, Harold; DEC

    1992-01-01

    Economic approaches to health and nutrition have focused largely on measures of child nutrition and related variables (such as birth weight) as indicators of household production of nutritional outcomes. But when dealing with adult nutrition, economists have to address an issue that has generated tremendous controversy in the clinical nutrition literature. That issue is heterogeneity in an individual's energy expenditures. Preschoolers'energy expenditure also differs, but the differences are ...

  20. Analysis of temperature difference on the total of energy expenditure during static bicycle exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiono

    2016-04-01

    How to manage energy expenditure for cyclist is very crucial part to achieve a good performance. As the tropical situation, the differences of temperature level might be contributed in energy expenditure and durability. The aim of the paper is to estimate and to analysis the configuration of energy expenditure for static cycling activity based on heart rate value in room with air conditioning (AC)/no AC treatment. The research is started with study literatures of climate factors, temperature impact on human body, and definition of energy expenditure. The next step is design the experiment for 5 participants in 2 difference models for 26.80C - 74% relative humidity (room no AC) and 23,80C - 54.8% relative humidity (room with AC). The participants’ heart rate and blood pressure are measured in rest condition and in cycling condition to know the impact of difference temperature in energy expenditure profile. According to the experiment results, the reducing of the temperature has significantly impact on the decreasing of energy expenditure at average 0.3 Kcal/minute for all 5 performers. Finally, the research shows that climate condition (temperature and relative humidity) are very important factors to manage and to reach a higher performance of cycling sport.

  1. Inability to match energy intake with energy expenditure at sustained near-maximal rates of energy expenditure in older men during a 14-d cycling expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads; Morville, Thomas; Riis Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The upper rates of energy expenditure (EE) and the corresponding regulation of energy intake (EI), as described in younger trained subjects, are not well elucidated in older subjects. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate EE in older men during prolonged cycling and determine whether...... it is sufficiently matched by EI to maintain energy balance. In addition, we investigated appetite ratings and concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones. DESIGN: Six men (mean ± SE age: 61 ± 3 y) completed 2706 km of cycling, from Copenhagen to Nordkapp, in 14 d. EE was measured by using doubly labeled water......, and food and drink intake was recorded by the accompanying scientific staff. Energy balance was calculated as the discrepancy between EI and EE and from changes in body energy stores as derived from deuterium dilution. Fasting hormones were measured before and after cycling, and appetite ratings were...

  2. Variations in resting energy expenditure: impact on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, E K; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Lewis, S; Presley, L; De-Mouzon, S Hauguel; Catalano, P M

    2017-10-01

    There are significant variations in gestational weight gain, with many women gaining in excess of the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Unfortunately, efforts to improve appropriate gestational weight gain have had only limited success. To date, interventions have focused primarily on decreasing energy intake and/or increasing physical activity. Maternal resting energy expenditure, which comprises ∼60% of total energy expenditure compared with the ∼20% that comes from physical activity, may be an important consideration in understanding variations in gestational weight gain. Our objective was to quantify the changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy and their relationship to gestational weight gain and body composition changes among healthy women. We hypothesized that greater gestational weight gain, and fat mass accrual in particular, are inversely related to variations in resting energy expenditure. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort studied before conception and late pregnancy (34-36 weeks). Body composition (estimated using hydrodensitometry) and resting energy expenditure (estimated using indirect calorimetry) were measured. The relationship between the changes in resting energy expenditure and gestational weight gain and the change in fat mass and fat-free mass were quantified. Resting energy expenditure was expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass per day (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass -1 /day -1 ) and kilocalories per day. Correlations are reported as r. Among 51 women, preconception body mass index was 23.0 (4.7) kg/m 2 ; gestational weight gain was 12.8 (4.7) kg. Preconception and late pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) correlated positively with the change in fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = .008; r = 0.51, P = .001). Late-pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass -1 /day -1 ) was inversely associated with the change in fat

  3. The Impact of a Household Biogas Programme on Energy Use and Expenditure in East Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert); L. Tasciotti (Luca)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBiogas has been promoted as a renewable, cleaner and cheaper energy source.While there are several initiatives promoting the use of biogas, credible analyses of its effects on the use of alternative energy sources and energy related expenditure are limited. This study uses panel data

  4. The impact of a household biogas programme on energy use and expenditure in East Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedi, Arjun S.; Sparrow, Robert; Tasciotti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Biogas has been promoted as a renewable, cleaner and cheaper energy source. While there are several initiatives promoting the use of biogas, credible analyses of its effects on the use of alternative energy sources and energy related expenditure are limited. This study uses panel data from

  5. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-09-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that "the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy". However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  6. Doubly labelled water assessment of energy expenditure: principle, practice, and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2017-07-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the assessment of energy expenditure was first published in 1955, application in humans started in 1982, and it has become the gold standard for human energy requirement under daily living conditions. The method involves enriching the body water of a subject with heavy hydrogen ( 2 H) and heavy oxygen ( 18 O), and then determining the difference in washout kinetics between both isotopes, being a function of carbon dioxide production. In practice, subjects get a measured amount of doubly labelled water ( 2 H 2 18 O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18 O of 2000 ppm with at least 180 ppm and background enrichment of body water for 2 H of 150 ppm with 120 ppm. Subsequently, the difference between the apparent turnover rates of the hydrogen and oxygen of body water is assessed from blood-, saliva-, or urine samples, collected at the start and end of the observation interval of 1-3 weeks. Samples are analyzed for 18 O and 2 H with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The doubly labelled water method is the indicated method to measure energy expenditure in any environment, especially with regard to activity energy expenditure, without interference with the behavior of the subjects. Applications include the assessment of energy requirement from total energy expenditure, validation of dietary assessment methods and validation of physical activity assessment methods with doubly labelled water measured energy expenditure as reference, and studies on body mass regulation with energy expenditure as a determinant of energy balance.

  7. An Under-the-Table Leg-Movement Apparatus and Changes in Energy Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Koepp

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deskwork contributes substantially to sedentariness. Here, we evaluated an under-the-table apparatus that was designed to promote leg movement (fidgeting while seated. Our hypothesis was that the under-the-table apparatus would increase energy expenditure.Methods: We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 26 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, walked on a treadmill, and sat and worked using an under-the-desk apparatus that encouraged leg movement.Results: Energy expenditure increased significantly while using the under-the-table apparatus when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 81 ± 18 kcal/h; under-the-table apparatus, 96 ± 23 kcal/h (P < 0.001; representing an 18 ± 16% increase. The changes in energy expenditure were not as great as walking (1 mph, 168 ± 46 kcal/h, P < 0.001; 2 mph, 205 ± 51 kcal/, P < 0.001, representing 107 ± 37% and 155 ± 48% increases over baseline, respectively.Conclusions: An under-the-table apparatus that promotes leg movement can increase energy expenditure by approximately 20%. Dynamic sitting is promoted by this apparatus and may be among a lexicon of options to help people move more while seated at work.

  8. Accuracy of a novel multi-sensor board for measuring physical activity and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Glen E; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Goh, Jorming; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    The ability to relate physical activity to health depends on accurate measurement. Yet, none of the available methods are fully satisfactory due to several factors. This study examined the accuracy of a multi-sensor board (MSB) that infers activity types (sitting, standing, walking, stair climbing, and running) and estimates energy expenditure in 57 adults (32 females) 39.2 ± 13.5 years. In the laboratory, subjects walked and ran on a treadmill over a select range of speeds and grades for 3 min each (six stages in random order) while connected to a stationary calorimeter, preceded and followed by brief sitting and standing. On a different day, subjects completed scripted activities in the field connected to a portable calorimeter. The MSB was attached to a strap at the right hip. Subjects repeated one condition (randomly selected) on the third day. Accuracy of inferred activities compared with recorded activities (correctly identified activities/total activities × 100) was 97 and 84% in the laboratory and field, respectively. Absolute accuracy of energy expenditure [100 - absolute value (kilocalories MSB - kilocalories calorimeter/kilocalories calorimeter) × 100] was 89 and 76% in the laboratory and field, the later being different (P calorimeter. Test-retest reliability for energy expenditure was significant in both settings (P type in laboratory and field settings and energy expenditure during treadmill walking and running although the device underestimates energy expenditure in the field.

  9. Econometrics analysis of consumer behaviour: a linear expenditure system applied to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansante, C.; Ferrari, V.

    1996-12-01

    In economics literature the expenditure system specification is a well known subject. The problem is to define a coherent representation of consumer behaviour through functional forms easy to calculate. In this work it is used the Stone-Geary Linear Expenditure System and its multi-level decision process version. The Linear Expenditure system is characterized by an easy calculating estimation procedure, and its multi-level specification allows substitution and complementary relations between goods. Moreover, the utility function separability condition on which the Utility Tree Approach is based, justifies to use an estimation procedure in two or more steps. This allows to use an high degree of expenditure categories disaggregation, impossible to reach the Linear Expediture System. The analysis is applied to energy sectors

  10. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Blundell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that “the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy”. However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass (FM], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate, but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  11. Differences of energy expenditure while sitting versus standing: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidifard, Farzane; Medina-Inojosa, Jose R; Supervia, Marta; Olson, Thomas P; Somers, Virend K; Erwin, Patricia J; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    Background Replacing sitting with standing is one of several recommendations to decrease sedentary time and increase the daily energy expenditure, but the difference in energy expenditure between standing versus sitting has been controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine this difference. Designs and methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar for observational and experimental studies that compared the energy expenditure of standing versus sitting. We calculated mean differences and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. We conducted different predefined subgroup analyses based on characteristics of participants and study design. Results We identified 658 studies and included 46 studies with 1184 participants for the final analysis. The mean difference in energy expenditure between sitting and standing was 0.15 kcal/min (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.17). The difference among women was 0.1 kcal/min (95% CI 0.0-0.21), and was 0.19 kcal/min (95% CI 0.05-0.33) in men. Observational studies had a lower difference in energy expenditure (0.11 kcal/min, 95% CI 0.08-0.14) compared to randomised trials (0.2 kcal/min, 95% CI 0.12-0.28). By substituting sitting with standing for 6 hours/day, a 65 kg person will expend an additional 54 kcal/day. Assuming no increase in energy intake, this difference in energy expenditure would be translated into the energy content of about 2.5 kg of body fat mass in 1 year. Conclusions The substitution of sitting with standing could be a potential solution for a sedentary lifestyle to prevent weight gain in the long term. Future studies should aim to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of this strategy.

  12. Effects of PYY3-36 and GLP-1 on energy intake, energy expenditure and appetite in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Pedersen, Sue D

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of GLP-1 and PYY3-36, separately and in combination, on energy intake, energy expenditure, appetite sensations, glucose and fat metabolism, ghrelin and vital signs in healthy overweight men. Methods: 25 healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double...... of appetite sensations, energy expenditure and fat oxidation, vital signs and blood variables were collected throughout the infusion period. Results: No effect on energy intake was found after monoinfusions of PYY3-36 (-4.2±4.8%, P=0.8) or GLP-1 (-3.0±4.5%, P=0.9). However, the co-infusion reduced energy...

  13. Activity Energy Expenditure and Mobility Limitation in Older Adults: Differential Associations by Sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manini, T.M.; Everhart, J.E.; Patel, K.V.; Schoeller, D.A.; Cummings, S.; Mackey, D.C.; Bauer, D.C.; Simonsick, E.M.; Cobert, L.H.; Visser, M.; Tylavsky, F.; Newman, A.B.; Harris, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to determine whether higher activity energy expenditure, assessed by using doubly labeled water, was associated with a reduced decline in mobility limitation among 248 older community-dwelling US adults aged 70-82 years enrolled in 1998-1999. Activity energy

  14. Cost of living in free-ranging degus (Octodon degus) : seasonal dynamics of energy expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozinovic, F; Bacigalupe, LD; Vasquez, RA; Visser, GH; Veloso, C; Kenagy, GJ

    Animals process and allocate energy at different seasons at variable rates, depending on their breeding season and changes in environmental conditions and resulting physiological demands. Overall total energy expenditure, in turn, should either increase in some seasons due to special added demands

  15. Activity and energy expenditure in older people playing active video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne M; Maddison, Ralph; Pfaeffli, Leila A; Rawstorn, Jonathan C; Gant, Nicholas; Kerse, Ngaire M

    2012-12-01

    Tayl To quantify energy expenditure in older adults playing interactive video games while standing and seated, and secondarily to determine whether participants' balance status influenced the energy cost associated with active video game play. Cross-sectional study. University research center. Community-dwelling adults (N=19) aged 70.7±6.4 years. Participants played 9 active video games, each for 5 minutes, in random order. Two games (boxing and bowling) were played in both seated and standing positions. Energy expenditure was assessed using indirect calorimetry while at rest and during game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in kilojoules per minute and metabolic equivalents (METs). Balance was assessed using the mini-BESTest, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). Mean ± SD energy expenditure was significantly greater for all game conditions compared with rest (all P≤.01) and ranged from 1.46±.41 METs to 2.97±1.16 METs. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure, activity counts, or perceived exertion between equivalent games played while standing and seated. No significant correlations were observed between energy expenditure or activity counts and balance status. Active video games provide light-intensity exercise in community-dwelling older people, whether played while seated or standing. People who are unable to stand may derive equivalent benefits from active video games played while seated. Further research is required to determine whether sustained use of active video games alters physical activity levels in community settings for this population. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  17. Heart rate during basketball game play and volleyball drills accurately predicts oxygen uptake and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribbans, T D; Berg, K; Narazaki, K; Janssen, I; Gurd, B J

    2015-09-01

    There is currently little information regarding the ability of metabolic prediction equations to accurately predict oxygen uptake and exercise intensity from heart rate (HR) during intermittent sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and, cross-validate equations appropriate for accurately predicting oxygen cost (VO2) and energy expenditure from HR during intermittent sport participation. Eleven healthy adult males (19.9±1.1yrs) were recruited to establish the relationship between %VO2peak and %HRmax during low-intensity steady state endurance (END), moderate-intensity interval (MOD) and high intensity-interval exercise (HI), as performed on a cycle ergometer. Three equations (END, MOD, and HI) for predicting %VO2peak based on %HRmax were developed. HR and VO2 were directly measured during basketball games (6 male, 20.8±1.0 yrs; 6 female, 20.0±1.3yrs) and volleyball drills (12 female; 20.8±1.0yrs). Comparisons were made between measured and predicted VO2 and energy expenditure using the 3 equations developed and 2 previously published equations. The END and MOD equations accurately predicted VO2 and energy expenditure, while the HI equation underestimated, and the previously published equations systematically overestimated VO2 and energy expenditure. Intermittent sport VO2 and energy expenditure can be accurately predicted from heart rate data using either the END (%VO2peak=%HRmax x 1.008-17.17) or MOD (%VO2peak=%HRmax x 1.2-32) equations. These 2 simple equations provide an accessible and cost-effective method for accurate estimation of exercise intensity and energy expenditure during intermittent sport.

  18. Low-Force Muscle Activity Regulates Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Jessica R; Kimball, Amy L; Yen, Chu-Ling; Shields, Richard K

    2017-05-01

    Reduced physical activity is a primary risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. People with spinal cord injury (SCI) have reduced activity for a lifetime, as they cannot volitionally activate affected skeletal muscles. We explored whether low-force and low-frequency stimulation is a viable strategy to enhance systemic energy expenditure in people with SCI. This study aimed to determine the effects of low stimulation frequency (1 and 3 Hz) and stimulation intensity (50 and 100 mA) on energy expenditure in people with SCI. We also examined the relationship between body mass index and visceral adipose tissue on energy expenditure during low-frequency stimulation. Ten individuals with complete SCI underwent oxygen consumption monitoring during electrical activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings at 1 and 3 Hz and at 50 and 100 mA. We calculated the difference in energy expenditure between stimulation and rest and estimated the number of days that would be necessary to burn 1 lb of body fat (3500 kcal) for each stimulation protocol (1 vs 3 Hz). Both training frequencies induced a significant increase in oxygen consumption above a resting baseline level (P Energy expenditure positively correlated with stimulus intensity (muscle recruitment) and negatively correlated with adiposity (reflecting the insulating properties of adipose tissue). We estimated that 1 lb of body fat could be burned more quickly with 1 Hz training (58 d) as compared with 3 Hz training (87 d) if an identical number of pulses were delivered. Low-frequency stimulation increased energy expenditure per pulse and may be a feasible option to subsidize physical activity to improve metabolic status after SCI.

  19. Gait energy expenditure in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Mariana Angélica de; Ferreira, Marília Ester; Baptista, Cyntia Rogean de Jesus Alves de; Sverzut, Ana Claudia Mattiello

    2014-01-01

    This case study aimed to verify the model of Rose et al.1 as a feasible to assess energy expenditure in gait of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Three DMD patients aged 6, 7 and 8 years old participated of this study. It was obtained weight, height, leg length measurement (LLM), resting and gait heart rate (HR) held on as 55-meter oval circuit performed during a two-minute test at each speed. Energy expenditure was calculated using the HR. It was performed a descriptive analys...

  20. Resting Energy Expenditure of the Unhealthy Elderly in the “Roken”in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwabara, Hidemasa; Yamaoka, Noriko; Oomaki, Junko; Suzuki, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To know actual conditions and a balance between food intake and energy expenditure of each of theelderly in the super-aged society is very important.Aim:To determine the resting energy expenditure (REE) of the elderly residing in the“Roken”.M ethods:For Study 1,REEs of 47 elderly people in the Roken were measured. For Study 2,REEs of 22 patientswho were admitted to a general hospital were measured.Results:In Study 1, REE of the elderly people in the Roken ranged from 523 to 1,628 k...

  1. Energy expenditure and intake during Special Operations Forces field training in a jungle and glacial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caleb D; Simonson, Andrew J; Darnell, Matthew E; DeLany, James P; Wohleber, Meleesa F; Connaboy, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, 2 in a hot environment (n = 21) and 1 in a cool environment (n = 8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the 3 missions, mean energy expenditure (4618 ± 1350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2200 kcal/day. Macronutrient intakes (carbohydrates (g/(kg·day body weight (bw)) -1 ) = 3.2 ± 1.2; protein (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.3 ± 0.7; fat (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.2 ± 0.7) showed inadequate carbohydrate and possibly protein intake across the study period, compared with common recommendations. Total energy expenditures were found to be similar between hot (4664 ± 1399 kcal/day) and cool (4549 ± 1221 kcal/day) environments. However, energy intake was found to be higher in the cool (3001 ± 900 kcal/day) compared with hot (2200 ± 711 kcal/day) environments. Based on the identified energy deficit, high variation in energy expenditures, and poor macronutrient intake, a greater attention to feeding practices during similar training scenarios for Special Operations Forces is needed to help maintain performance and health. The differences in environmental heat stress between the 2 climates/environments had no observed effect on energy expenditures, but may have influenced intakes.

  2. Characterizing energy expenditure during sedentary behavior after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; de Haan, Femke; Mead, Gillian; Fengler, Ben; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To objectively measure and calculate the energy expended by people with stroke during near sedentary behaviors (lying, supported and unsupported sitting, standing, wheelchair propulsion and walking), under controlled laboratory conditions, and compare these values to the energy

  3. Energy intensities of the Netherlands consumer expenditures in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, R.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2001-03-01

    The Energy Analysis Programme (EAP) is a method developed to calculate the direct and indirect fossil fuel energy consumption of consumer products. EAP is based on both the analysis of the process as the analysis of the input and output. This report is an update of the 1990 data of EAP. The data concern energy indicators of basic materials and packages, industrial and other sectors, transport, trade and services, energy sources and waste processing in the Netherlands [nl

  4. Roles for gut vagal sensory signals in determining energy availability and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary J

    2018-08-15

    The gut sensory vagus transmits a wide range of meal-related mechanical, chemical and gut peptide signals from gastrointestinal and hepatic tissues to the central nervous system at the level of the caudal brainstem. Results from studies using neurophysiological, behavioral physiological and metabolic approaches that challenge the integrity of this gut-brain axis support an important role for these gut signals in the negative feedback control of energy availability by limiting food intake during a meal. These experimental approaches have now been applied to identify important and unanticipated contributions of the vagal sensory gut-brain axis to the control of two additional effectors of overall energy balance: the feedback control of endogenous energy availability through hepatic glucose production and metabolism, and the control of energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Taken together, these studies reveal the pleiotropic influences of gut vagal meal-related signals on energy balance, and encourage experimental efforts aimed at understanding how the brainstem represents, organizes and coordinates gut vagal sensory signals with these three determinants of energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy expenditure and enjoyment during video game play: differences by game type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Bowling, J Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2011-10-01

    Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Energy expenditure (METs) and enjoyment were measured across 10 games in 100 young adults age 18-35 yr (50 women). All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P games increased energy expenditure by 322% (mean ± SD = 3.10 ± 0.89 METs) and 298% (2.91 ± 0.87 METs), which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 ± 0.28 METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 ± 0.16 METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P game types (P games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior.

  6. Energy Expenditure and Enjoyment during Video Game Play: Differences by Game Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Methods Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents [METs]) and enjoyment were measured across ten games in 100 young adults aged 18 to 35 (50 females). Results All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P games increased energy expenditure by 322 (mean [SD] 3.10 [0.89] METs) and 298 (2.91 [0.87] METs) percent, which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 [0.28] METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 [0.16] METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P game types (P games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:21364477

  7. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2015-06-01

    We quantified the effect of environmental temperature on mouse energy homeostasis and body temperature. The effect of environmental temperature (4-33 °C) on body temperature, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake in various mice (chow diet, high-fat diet, Brs3 (-/y) , lipodystrophic) was measured using continuous monitoring. Body temperature depended most on circadian phase and physical activity, but also on environmental temperature. The amounts of energy expenditure due to basal metabolic rate (calculated via a novel method), thermic effect of food, physical activity, and cold-induced thermogenesis were determined as a function of environmental temperature. The measured resting defended body temperature matched that calculated from the energy expenditure using Fourier's law of heat conduction. Mice defended a higher body temperature during physical activity. The cost of the warmer body temperature during the active phase is 4-16% of total daily energy expenditure. Parameters measured in diet-induced obese and Brs3 (-/y) mice were similar to controls. The high post-mortem heat conductance demonstrates that most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms. At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  8. Modulation of Energy Intake and Expenditure Due to Habitual Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matoulek; Krystof, Slaby; Jiri, Radvansky; Martina, Dankova; Renata, Vetrovska; Ondrej, Mikes; Stepan, Svacina; Vladimir, Tuka

    2016-01-01

    The 20th and 21st centuries are marked by an increase in life expectancy on one hand and on the other hand by the increase of so called civilization diseases. Their share one common trait: the energy metabolism imbalance, with low energy expenditure and high energy uptake. Our age can be viewed as the age of inactivity and wealth. The aim of the present review is to highlight the influence of habitual physical activity on energy metabolism and balance. Energy balance is the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure, where energy expenditure further divides into resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of feeding and energy used by physical activity. In general population, resting metabolic rate remains constant and proportional to muscle body mass. Muscle mass increases with exercise, especially resistance exercise, concomitantly with increasing energy expenditure. The effect of exercise on appetite is very strong, proportional to exercise intensity. An acute bout of aerobic exercise suppresses appetite by decreasing ghrelin plasma levels, and increasing gut hormones. Different subgroups of patients respond differently to the same exercise or habitual activity and have thus distinct effects on energy balance. Different myokines plasma levels after exercise could explain these different reactions although most of their effect is still unclear. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of many disorders, like obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, psychiatric and neurologic disorders. It is evident, that physical activity has an effect not only on energy balance but also has a direct effect on other body organ via its own molecules - myokines. The pharmacological effect of myokines gives hope that one day we could have a "myokine drug" that could be used in patients who are unable to exercise. Until then we should use our "muscle-pharmacy" and try to convince

  9. Prediction Equations of Energy Expenditure in Chinese Youth Based on Step Frequency during Walking and Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Yu; Li, Jing Xian; Li, Haipeng; Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to examine the relationship between step frequency and velocity to develop a step frequency-based equation to predict Chinese youth's energy expenditure (EE) during walking and running. Method: A total of 173 boys and girls aged 11 to 18 years old participated in this study. The participants walked and ran on a…

  10. Energy expenditure in children with cerebral palsy and moderate / severe malnutrition during nutritional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, Andrea A; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Ibarra-Gutierrez, Ana I; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and moderate or severe malnutrition during nutritional recovery. In an intervention study, thirteen subjects with CP (10 females and 3 males with a mean age of 9y11m ± 2y3m), level V of the Gross Motor Function Classification System and moderate or severe malnutrition were included. Eight were fed by nasogastric tube and five by gastrostomy. They were compared with 57 healthy participants (31 females and 26 males with mean age of 8y7m ± 10m). Anthropometric measurements, body composition and energy expenditure by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and indirect calorimetry (IC) were performed in both groups. TEE and REE were higher in healthy children than in children with CP in kcal/d and kcal/cm/d but were lower in kcal/kg/d (p children with CP produced a significant increase in energy expenditure. TEE and REE, in children with CP, are lower than in healthy children. Estimating the REE in children with CP and malnutrition is better performed in kcal/kg/d than in kcal/cm/d. Fat-free mass (FFM) is a good predictor of the REE in healthy children and children with CP. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between basal metabolic rate and daily energy expenditure in birds and mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricklefs, RE; Konarzewski, M; Daan, S

    We examined the relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in birds and mammals. Two models of the relationship between DEE and BMR were distinguished: a ''shared pathways'' model in which DEE replaces BMR in the active organism and a ''partitioned pathways''

  12. Energy intake and expenditure in obese older adults with and without type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memelink, R.G.; Verreijen, A.M.; de Vogel-van den Bosch, J.; Weijs, P.J.; Deutz, N.E.P.; Mays, J.A.; Roeske, S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (DM2), however not all obese people develop DM2. We explored differences in energy intake and expenditure between obese older adults with and without DM2. Methods: Baseline data from 2 lifestyle interventions with a total of 202 obese older

  13. Relationship between overnight energy expenditure and BMR measured in a room-sized calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, J L; Conway, J M

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if overnight energy expenditure, the lowest energy expenditure sustained for 60 min during the night, measured and predicted basal metabolic rate are equivalent. Overnight energy expenditure (ON-EE), the lowest energy expenditure sustained for 60 min during sleep (LS-EE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured two to seven times in a room-sized indirect calorimeter in 69 adult subjects. Subjects' gender, age, weight and height were also used to predict BMR (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985) (BMR-WHO). Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA. The results from calorimetry measurements (mean +/- s.d.) included: ON-EE (6.87 +/- 0.99 MJ/d), LS-EE (6.18 +/- 0.94 MJ/d) and BMR (6.87 +/- 0.99 MJ/d). Predicted BMR mean was: BMR-WHO, 6.95 +/- 1.03. The mean within-subject difference for the calorimetry measurements were: ON-EE, 0.21 MJ/d; LS-EE, 0.16 MJ/d; and BMR, 0.34 MJ/d. Results indicate there was no significant difference between ON-EE, BMR and BMR-WHO. LS-EE was significantly lower (P BMR and BMR-WHO. These results indicate that while metabolic rate drops significantly below BMR during sleep, overnight metabolic rate and BMR are equivalent.

  14. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  15. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Epperson, DM; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRS) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult

  16. Energy expenditure and bone formation share a common sensitivity to AP-1 transcription in the hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, Glenn C; Vialou, Vincent; Sato, Kazusa

    2012-01-01

    ) whether these effects were due to antagonism to AP1. Our results show that stereotactic injection of an adeno-associated virus vector to restrict overexpression of ¿FosB to the ventral hypothalamus of wildtype mice induced a profound increase in both energy expenditure and bone formation and bone mass...

  17. Effect of undernutrition in foetal life on energy expenditure during gestation in ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, Malin P

    2008-01-01

    in three groups: Adequate-Adequate (AA, n = 5), Adequate-Restricted (AR, n = 5) and Restricted-Restricted (RR, n = 5). At two weeks pre-partum, EEgest were calculated from respiratory gaseous exchange and nitrogen excreted in urine and further it was partitioned to energy expenditure for conceptus...

  18. Energy expenditure of three public and three home based active computer games in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; de Vries, S.I.; Jongert, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy expenditure (EE) experienced by children when playing six active video games, which can be used in a home environment and in a public setting (e.g. game center), and to evaluate whether the intensity of playing these games can meet the threshold for

  19. Energy expenditure of three public and three home-based active video games in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323255639; De Vries, Sanne I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/333758412; Jongert, Tinus; Verheijden, Marieke W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy expenditure (EE) experienced by children when playing six active video games, which can be used in a home environment and in a public setting (e.g. game center), and to evaluate whether the intensity of playing these games can meet the threshold for

  20. Plasma Bile Acids Are Associated with Energy Expenditure and Thyroid Function in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockenga, Johann; Valentini, Luzia; Schuetz, Tatjana; Wohlgemuth, Franziska; Glaeser, Silja; Omar, Ajmal; Kasim, Esmatollah; duPlessis, Daniel; Featherstone, Karen; Davis, Julian R.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kroencke, Thomas; Biebermann, Heike; Koehrle, Josef; Brabant, Georg

    Background/Aims: Animal studies implicate a role of bile acids (BA) in thyroid-regulated energy expenditure (EE) via activation of the TGR-5/adenylate cyclase/deiodinase type 2 pathway. Here we investigated these possible associations in humans. Methods: EE, BA, and thyroid hormone status were

  1. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  2. Effect of photoperiod on body weight gain, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. Japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Effect of photoperiod and food duration on body weight gain, energy intake, energy expenditure, and sexual development were investigated in two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), bred for meat (broilers) or egg production (layers), from 7 to 71 days of age. In a first experiment

  3. Basal metabolic rate in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field vole, Microtus agrestis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Bolle, L; Visser, GH; Masman, D; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate in the field vole (Microtus agrestis) was studied in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field Daily energy expenditure was measured by means of doubly labelled water ((D2O)-O-18). In the same individuals, basal metabolic rate was subsequently

  4. Effect of Body Position on Energy Expenditure of Preterm Infants as Determined by Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward F; Johnson, Karen J; Dove, Edwin L

    2017-04-01

    Background  Indirect calorimetry is the standard method for estimating energy expenditure in clinical research. Few studies have evaluated indirect calorimetry in infants by comparing it with simultaneous direct calorimetry. Our purpose was (1) to compare the energy expenditure of preterm infants determined by these two methods, direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry; and (2) to examine the effect of body position, supine or prone, on energy expenditure. Study Design  We measured energy expenditure by simultaneous direct (heat loss by gradient-layer calorimeter corrected for heat storage) and indirect calorimetry (whole-body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) in 15 growing preterm infants during two consecutive interfeeding intervals, once in the supine position and once in the prone position. Results  The mean energy expenditure for all measurements in both positions did not differ significantly by the method used: 2.82 (standard deviation [SD] 0.42) kcal/kg/h by direct calorimetry and 2.78 (SD 0.48) kcal/kg/h by indirect calorimetry. The energy expenditure was significantly lower, by 10%, in the prone than in the supine position, whether examined by direct calorimetry (2.67 vs. 2.97 kcal/kg/h, p  Direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry gave similar estimates of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was 10% lower in the prone position than in the supine position. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Putting Desire on a Budget: Dopamine and Energy Expenditure, Reconciling Reward and Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates integration of dopamine function with metabolic signals, highlighting a potential role for dopamine in energy balance, frequently construed as modulating reward in response to homeostatic state. Though its precise role remains controversial, the reward perspective of dopamine has dominated investigation of motivational disorders, including obesity. In the hypothesis outlined here, we suggest instead that the primary role of dopamine in behavior is to modulate activity to adapt behavioral energy expenditure to the prevailing environmental energy conditions, with the role of dopamine in reward and motivated behaviors derived from its primary role in energy balance. Dopamine has long been known to modulate activity, exemplified by psychostimulants that act via dopamine. More recently, there has been nascent investigation into the role of dopamine in modulating voluntary activity, with some investigators suggesting that dopamine may serve as a final common pathway that couples energy sensing to regulated voluntary energy expenditure. We suggest that interposed between input from both the internal and external world, dopamine modulates behavioral energy expenditure along two axes: a conserve-expend axis that regulates generalized activity and an explore-exploit axes that regulates the degree to which reward value biases the distribution of activity. In this view, increased dopamine does not promote consumption of tasty food. Instead increased dopamine promotes energy expenditure and exploration while decreased dopamine favors energy conservation and exploitation. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic interpretation to an apparent paradox: the well-established role of dopamine in food seeking and the findings that low dopaminergic functions are associated with obesity. Our hypothesis provides an alternative perspective on the role of dopamine in obesity and reinterprets the ‘reward deficiency hypothesis’ as a

  6. The association between different types of exercise and energy expenditure in young nonoverweight and overweight adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Jakicic, John M.; Hebert, James R.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    With decades of trends for decreasing activity during work and travel, exercise becomes an important contributor to total physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of different types of exercise to the variability in energy expenditure and time spent at different PA intensities in young adults. Four hundred and seventeen adults (49.9% male; 46.2 overweight/obese) between 21 and 36 years of age provided valid objective PA and energy expenditure data, assessed via the SenseWear Armband (BodyMedia Inc.). Frequency and duration of participation in various exercise types was self-reported. Weight status was based on body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) with body weight and height being measured according to standard procedures. Eighty-four percent of the participants reported regular exercise engagement with no difference in participation rate by sex or BMI category. Exercise time along with sex and ethnicity explained roughly 60% of the variability in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) while the association between exercise and time spent in moderate to vigorous PA or being sedentary was low or nonsignificant. Engagement in endurance exercise and sports contributed predominantly to the variability in energy expenditure and PA in nonoverweight participants. In overweight/obese participants engagement in resistance exercise and swimming contributed significantly to variability in TDEE. Current exercise recommendations focus primarily on aerobic exercise, but results of the present study suggest that nonweight-bearing exercises, such as resistance exercise and swimming, contribute significantly to the variability in TDEE in overweight/obese adults, which would make these types of activities viable options for exercise interventions. PMID:25647557

  7. Effect of Diet Composition on Energy Expenditure during Weight Loss: The POUNDS LOST Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; DeJonge, Lilian; de Souza, Russell; Rood, Jennifer; Champagne, Catherine M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Obarzanek, Eva; Loria, Catherine M.; Anton, Stephen D.; Ryan, Donna H.; Greenway, Frank L.; Williamson, Donald; Sacks, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss reduces energy expenditure, but the contribution of different macronutrients to this change is unclear. Hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that macronutrient composition of the diet might affect the partitioning of energy expenditure during weight loss. Design A sub-study of 99 participants from the POUNDS LOST trial had total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labeled water and resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry at baseline and repeated at 6 months in 89 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 diets with either 15% or 25% protein and 20% or 40% fat. Results TEE and REE were positively correlated with each other and with fat free mass and body fat, at baseline and 6 months. The average weight loss of 8.1±0.65 kg (LSmean±SE) reduced TEE by 120±56 kcal/d and REE by 136±18 kcal/d. A greater weight loss at 6 months was associated with a greater decrease in TEE and REE. Participants eating the high fat diet lost significantly more fat free mass (1.52±0.55 kg) than the low fat diet group (p<0.05). Participants eating the low fat diet had significantly higher measures of physical activity than the high fat group. Conclusion A greater weight loss was associated with a larger decrease in both TEE and REE. The low fat diet was associated with significant changes in fat free body mass and energy expenditure from physical activity compared to the high fat diet. PMID:21946707

  8. Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, S.; Westerterp, K.R.; Brueck, K.

    1989-01-01

    Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energy expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake

  9. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO, Andressa S.; CHEDID, Marcio F.; GUERRA, Léa T.; ÁLVARES-DA-SILVA, Mario R.; ARAÚJO, Alexandre de; GUIMARÃES, Luciano S.; LEIPNITZ, Ian; CHEDID, Aljamir D.; KRUEL, Cleber R. P.; GREZZANA-FILHO, Tomaz J. M.; KRUEL, Cleber D. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost....

  10. Energy Expenditures of Caribou Responding to Low-Altitude Jet Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    collared female caribou of the Delta Herd , 5 controls and 5 treatments (i.e., overflown), carried animal noise monitors and were overflown in April... Porcupine Caribou Model (CARIBOU), predicted that, for the sound exposures of the field study, changes in energy expenditure, forage intake, energy balance...and consequent pregnancy rate were small. Although we project no significant decrease in fecundity and thus, herd productivity in response to the

  11. Resting sympathetic activity is associated with the sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Malterer, Katherine R; Matzek, Luke J; Levine, James A; Charkoudian, Nisha; Miles, John M; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with high plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels at rest have a smaller reduction in resting energy expenditure (REE) following β -adrenergic blockade. If this finding extends to the response to a meal, it could have important implications for the role of the sympathetic nervous system in energy balance and weight gain. We hypothesized high muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) would be associated with a low sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal. Fourteen young, healthy adults completed two visits randomized to continuous saline (control) or intravenous propranolol to achieve systemic β -adrenergic blockade. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and REE were measured (indirect calorimetry) followed by a liquid mixed meal (Ensure). Measures of energy expenditure continued every 30 min for 5 h after the meal and are reported as an area under the curve (AUC). Sympathetic support of energy expenditure was calculated as the difference between the AUC during saline and β -blockade (AUC P ropranolol -AUC S aline , β -REE) and as a percent (%) of control (AUC P ropranolol ÷AUC S aline  × 100). β -REE was associated with baseline sympathetic activity, such that individuals with high resting MSNA (bursts/100 heart beats) and plasma NE had the greatest sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal (MSNA: β -REE R  =   -0.58, P =  0.03; %REE R  = -0.56, P =  0.04; NE: β -REE R  = -0.55, P  = 0.0535; %REE R  = -0.54, P  = 0.0552). Contrary to our hypothesis, high resting sympathetic activity is associated with a greater sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a liquid meal. These findings may have implications for weight maintenance in individuals with varying resting sympathetic activity. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Fatty acid metabolism, energy expenditure and insulin resistance in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J; Kraegen, Edward W; Bruce, Clinton R

    2014-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are essential elements of all cells and have significant roles as energy substrates, components of cellular structure and signalling molecules. The storage of excess energy intake as fat in adipose tissue is an evolutionary advantage aimed at protecting against starvation, but in much of today's world, humans are faced with an unlimited availability of food, and the excessive accumulation of fat is now a major risk for human health, especially the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since the first recognition of the association between fat accumulation, reduced insulin action and increased risk of T2D, several mechanisms have been proposed to link excess FA availability to reduced insulin action, with some of them being competing or contradictory. This review summarises the evidence for these mechanisms in the context of excess dietary FAs generating insulin resistance in muscle, the major tissue involved in insulin-stimulated disposal of blood glucose. It also outlines potential problems with models and measurements that may hinder as well as help improve our understanding of the links between FAs and insulin action.

  13. Estimation of the fiscal year 1985 expenditures in nuclear energy relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In Japan, the electric power by nuclear energy accounts for about 20 % of the total power at present. Then, radiation is utilized extensively in such fields as industries, agriculture and medicine. The expenditures (budgets) estimated for the fiscal year 1985 are about 343.8 billion yen plus contract authorization limitation about 146.7 billion yen. In connection with the expenditures estimation (of which a breakdown is given in tables), the research and development plans for nuclear energy relation for fiscal year 1985 are presented: strengthening in nuclear energy safety, promotion of nuclear power generation, establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle, development of advanced power reactors, research on nuclear fusion, promotion of radiation utilizations, strengthening in the research and development infrastructure, promotion of international cooperation, etc. (Mori, K.)

  14. A Creatine-Driven Substrate Cycle Enhances Energy Expenditure and Thermogenesis in Beige Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T.; Jedrychowski, Mark P.; Erickson, Brian K.; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z.; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C.; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial Creatine Kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole body energy expenditure after administration of a β3-agonist and reduces the adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PMID:26496606

  15. Activity related energy expenditure, appetite and energy intake: potential implications for weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Partitioning of late gestation energy expenditure in ewes using indirect calorimetry and a linear regression approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, André; Nielsen, Mette O

    2007-01-01

    Late gestation energy expenditure (EE(gest)) originates from energy expenditure (EE) of development of conceptus (EE(conceptus)) and EE of homeorhetic adaptation of metabolism (EE(homeorhetic)). Even though EE(gest) is relatively easy to quantify, its partitioning is problematic. In the present...... study metabolizable energy (ME) intake ranges for twin-bearing ewes were 220-440, 350- 700, 350-900 kJ per metabolic body weight (W0.75) at week seven, five, two pre-partum respectively. Indirect calorimetry and a linear regression approach were used to quantify EE(gest) and then partition to EE......(conceptus) and EE(homeorhetic). Energy expenditure of basal metabolism of the non-gravid tissues (EE(bmng)), derived from the intercept of the linear regression equation of retained energy [kJ/W0.75] and ME intake [kJ/W(0.75)], was 298 [kJ/ W0.75]. Values of the intercepts of the regression equations at week seven...

  17. Effects of RYGB on energy expenditure, appetite and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture

    2016-01-01

    the effect of RYGB on glycaemic control per se. Here, we investigated the effect of RYGB on EE, appetite, glycaemic control, and specific signalling molecules compared to a control group in comparable negative energy balance. Subjects/Methods:Obese normal glucose tolerant participants were randomized...... to receive RYGB after 8 (n=14) or 12 weeks (n=14). The protocol included a visit at week 0 and three visits (week 7, 11 and 78) where 24 h EE, appetite and blood parameters were assessed. Participants followed a low-calorie diet from week 0-11, with those operated at week 12 serving as a control group...... response of GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin, CCK, FGF-19 and bile acids (all Pappetite. None of HOMA-IR, Matsuda Index, the Insulinogenic Index, the Disposition Index and fasting hepatic insulin clearance were...

  18. Knowledge in the energy sector : what research and development expenditures and patents reveal about innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bointner, R.

    2015-01-01

    This work is dealing with knowledge in the energy sector and structured in three main parts. Part I is dealing with energy research expenditures and patents in IEA countries. A broad literature review on innovation drivers and barriers is followed by an analysis of the knowledge induced by public research and development expenditures (R&D) and patents in the energy sector. The cumulative knowledge stock induced by public R&D expenditures in 14 investigated IEA-countries is 102.3 bn. EUR in 2013. Nuclear energy has the largest share of 43.9 bn. EUR, followed by energy efficiency accounting for 14.9 bn. EUR, fossil fuels with 13.5 bn. EUR, and renewable energy with 12.1 bn. EUR. A regression analysis indicates a linear relation between the GDP and the cumulative knowledge, with each billion EUR of GDP leading to an additional knowledge of 3.1 mil. EUR. However, linearity is not given for single energy technologies. Further, the results show that appropriate public R&D funding for research and development associated with a subsequent promotion of the market diffusion of a niche technology may lead to a breakthrough of the respective technology. Part II aims to examine public expenditures for energy R&D in the European Union and the resulting energy knowledge stock. The energy R&D distribution among technologies of the EU member states and the European Commission was similar in the 1980s with a strong focus on nuclear energy. Nowadays energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies are of growing importance. For instance, the new programme Horizon 2020 is expected to have an equal distribution between non-nuclear and nuclear R&D expenditures. The cumulative energy knowledge stock induced by public R&D expenditures amounts to 35.8 bn. EUR in 2013, whereupon the EU member states’ share is more than three times larger than the European Commission’s share. Moreover, knowledge stock scenarios for the next decade are provided, followed by an investigation, if there

  19. Contribution of price/expenditure factors of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zengming; Zhao, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis about energy prices and the residential expenditure on energy in China. • Though the prices of energy declined, the price effect was negative. • The effect of price was the strongest restraining contribution. • Discussion on the proportion of energy expenditure in residential incomes. - Abstract: Since the establishment of the market economy in 1993, the residential consumption of commodities, including energy, has been highly influenced by prices in China. However, the contribution of the factors related to prices in residential energy consumption is relatively unexplored. This paper extends the KAYA identity with price and expenditure factors and then applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011. Our results show the following: (1) Though the prices of a majority of residential energy sources in China declined, the effect of energy prices restrained residential energy consumption because the expenditure structure changed during the period. (2) During the research period, the urban energy expenditure proportion experienced two progresses of rising and falling, and the rural proportion, which was stable before 2002, sharply increased. (3) The energy consumption intensity effect, which is the negative of the average energy price effect, contributed to most of the decrease in energy consumption, whereas residential income played a key role in the growth of consumption. According to the conclusions, we suggest further marketization and deregulation of energy prices, the promotion of advanced energy types and guidance for better energy consumption patterns

  20. Investigating the correlation between paediatric stride interval persistence and gross energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdić Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stride interval persistence, a term used to describe the correlation structure of stride interval time series, is thought to provide insight into neuromotor control, though its exact clinical meaning has not yet been realized. Since human locomotion is shaped by energy efficient movements, it has been hypothesized that stride interval dynamics and energy expenditure may be inherently tied, both having demonstrated similar sensitivities to age, disease, and pace-constrained walking. Findings This study tested for correlations between stride interval persistence and measures of energy expenditure including mass-specific gross oxygen consumption per minute (, mass-specific gross oxygen cost per meter (VO2 and heart rate (HR. Metabolic and stride interval data were collected from 30 asymptomatic children who completed one 10-minute walking trial under each of the following conditions: (i overground walking, (ii hands-free treadmill walking, and (iii handrail-supported treadmill walking. Stride interval persistence was not significantly correlated with (p > 0.32, VO2 (p > 0.18 or HR (p > 0.56. Conclusions No simple linear dependence exists between stride interval persistence and measures of gross energy expenditure in asymptomatic children when walking overground and on a treadmill.

  1. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Sarcopenia in Black South African Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J; Tieland, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = -.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = -.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength. Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

  2. Validation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeller, D.A.; Kushner, R.F.; Jones, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The doubly labeled water method was compared with intake-balance for measuring energy expenditure in five patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Because parenteral solutions were isotopically different from local water, patients had to be placed on TPN at least 10 days before the metabolic period. Approximately 0.1 g 2H2O and 0.25 g H2(18)O per kg total body water were given orally. We collected saliva before, 3 h, and 4 h after the dose for measurement of total body water and urine before, 1 day, and 14 days after the dose for measurement of isotope eliminations. On day 14, total body weight was remeasured and change in body energy stores was calculated, assuming constant hydration. Intake was assessed from weights of TPN fluids plus dietary record for any oral intake. Energy expenditure from doubly labeled water (+/- SD) averaged 3 +/- 6% greater than intake-balance. Doubly labeled water method is a noninvasive, nonrestrictive method for measuring energy expenditure in patients receiving TPN

  3. Investigating the relationship between energy expenditure, walking speed and angle of turning in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A McNarry

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that changing direction is associated with significant additional energy expenditure. A failure to account for this additional energy expenditure of turning has significant implications in the design and interpretation of health interventions. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of walking speed and angle, and their interaction, on energy expenditure in 20 healthy adults (7 female; 28±7 yrs. On two separate days, participants completed a turning protocol at one of 16 speed- (2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5 km∙h-1 and angle (0, 45, 90, 180° combinations, involving three minute bouts of walking, interspersed by three minutes seated rest. Each condition involved 5 m of straight walking before turning through the pre-determined angle with the speed dictated by a digital, auditory metronome. Tri-axial accelerometry and magnetometry were measured at 60 Hz, in addition to gas exchange on a breath-by-breath basis. Mixed models revealed a significant main effect for speed (F = 121.609, P < 0.001 and angle (F = 19.186, P < 0.001 on oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] and a significant interaction between these parameters (F = 4.433, P < 0.001. Specifically, as speed increased, [Formula: see text] increased but significant increases in [Formula: see text] relative to straight line walking were only observed for 90° and 180° turns at the two highest speeds (4.5 and 5.5 km∙hr-1. These findings therefore highlight the importance of accounting for the quantity and magnitude of turns completed when estimating energy expenditure and have significant implications within both sport and health contexts.

  4. Estimation of Physiological Cost Index as an Energy Expenditure Index using MacGregor’s Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binaya SJB Rana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and energy expenditure can be quantified by measuring heart rate, oxygen uptake and respiratory quotient. The Physiological Cost Index (PCI proposed by MacGregor is a simple and straightforward method to estimate the energy expenditure index. Here, we aim to estimate the energy expenditure among young Asian population using MacGregor’s equation. Methods: A total of 50 young randomly selected healthy females performed 50m, 100m and 150m walking test at their self-selected preferred speed. The physiological cost index values for 100 m walk at speeds slower and faster than the preferred speed were also obtained. The physiological cost index during exercise was calculated using MacGregor’s equation considering heart rate and speed of walking over the varying distances. Results: The PCI values on three different distances are consistent during self selected preferred speed. The PCI estimation on second and third tests for all three distances walked consistently reproducible. However for each distance walked, the first test the PCI was significantly higher than the second and third test values. The PCI values increased significantly when subjects walked either slower (p = 0.02 or faster (p = 0.001 than their normal preferred speed. Conclusion: The physiological cost index values were similar for varying distances walks. The PCI was the least at the preferred speed of walking and increased when the subjects either walked slower or faster than the preferred speed. The first estimation was higher than subsequent estimations. Keywords: energy expenditure index; exercise; physiological cost index. | PubMed

  5. Relationship between Energy Expenditure Related Factors and Oxidative Stress in Follicular Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz Nejat; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI), total calorie intake and physical activity (PA) as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS) in follicular fluid (FF). Materials and Methods This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additional...

  6. Effect of calorie restriction on energy expenditure in overweight and obese adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Jaime, Teresa; Leiva Balich, Laura; Barrera Acevedo, Gladys; de la Maza Cave, María Pía; Hirsch Birn, Sandra; Henríquez Parada, Sandra; Rodríguez Silva, Juan; Bunout Barnett, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) may decrease in subjects on hypocaloric diets, in amounts that exceed body mass loss, favoring weight regain. To verify if a short-term caloric restriction lowers Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) more than predicted by changes in body composition, and if this reduction of EE is related with compliance to the diet. Twenty-two women aged 23-44 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-32 kg/m2, underwent a three-month calorie restriction treatment (20 kcal/kg initial weight) and were encouraged to increase their physical activity. At the beginning and end of the intervention, body composition (DEXA), REE, Physical Activity Energy Expenditure (PAEE) and TEE were assessed, through a combination of indirect calorimetry and actigraphy. Participants, who lost more or equal than 5% of their initial weight were considered compliant with the diet. In the compliant group, REE decreased, when expressed in absolute numbers or when adjusted by fat free mass (FFM) [-164 ± 168 kcal/day (10,6%) and -4,3 ± 4,6 kcal/kg FFM (10,5%)]. This decline was significantly greater than that observed in the non-compliant group [-6,2 ± 1.42 Kcal/day (0.16%) and -0,5 ± 3,4/Kg FFM (0.96%)]. FFM did not change in any of the two groups. At baseline, there was a significant correlation between FFM and REE (r = 0, 56 p women showed a significant reduction in both absolute and adjusted REE, which together with the loss of correlation between REE and FFM at the end of the intervention suggests a metabolic adaptation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; DeMello, Madison M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0???3.3?years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6?week...

  8. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  9. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25(th)-75(th)) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25(th)-75(th)) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual's heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p spend more time in moderate activity and less time in sedentary pursuits than overweight children.

  10. Total energy expenditure in burned children using the doubly labeled water technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goran, M.I.; Peters, E.J.; Herndon, D.N.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 15 burned children with the doubly labeled water technique. Application of the technique in burned children required evaluation of potential errors resulting from nutritional intake altering background enrichments during studies and from the high rate of water turnover relative to CO2 production. Five studies were discarded because of these potential problems. TEE was 1.33 +/- 0.27 times predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE), and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 +/- 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 +/- 0.10 times predicted BEE. TEE was significantly correlated with measured REE (r2 = 0.92) but not with predicted BEE. These studies substantiate the advantage of measuring REE to predict TEE in severely burned patients as opposed to relying on standardized equations. Therefore we recommend that optimal nutritional support will be achieved in convalescent burned children by multiplying REE by an activity factor of 1.2

  11. Effects of daily energy expenditure on academic performance of elementary students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Sheng; Huang, Yi-Ching; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the potential effects of daily energy expenditure on the academic performance (AP) of elementary schoolchildren, the results of which will be used as the basis of planning physical activity (PA) for children in the future. Participants were collected from 4th to 6th grade children at an elementary school in southern Taiwan. The effective sample data size was 1065 (79.8%; 528 boys and 537 girls). Daily mean energy expenditure was obtained using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3-DPAR), and the intensive activities degrees of physical activity were categorized into lowest PA, middle PA, and highest PA group, and academic performance assessed with weighted academic score. The significant effect on the academic performance of schoolchildren was only in energy expenditure but not for sexes and tutorials attended. All students in the middle PA group performed better academically than those in the highest PA group. After controlling sexes, male students in the middle PA group performed better than other groups; female students in the lowest PA group performed better than other groups. These results may be consulted by schools, academic faculties, and parents in setting up exercise plans for children. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  12. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  13. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjursell, Mikael; Wedin, Marianne; Admyre, Therése; Hermansson, Majlis; Böttcher, Gerhard; Göransson, Melker; Lindén, Daniel; Bamberg, Krister; Oscarsson, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR) is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  14. Energy expenditure and physiological responses during walking on a treadmill and moving on the Torqway vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Wiecek, Magdalena; Szymura, Jadwiga; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    One of the new products which can be used to increase physical activity and energy expenditure is the Torqway vehicle, powered by the upper limbs. The aim of this study was to (1) assess the usefulness and repeatability of the Torqway vehicle for physical exercise, (2) compare energy expenditure and physiological responses during walking on a treadmill and during physical effort while moving on the Torqway at a constant speed. The participants (11 men, aged 20.2 ± 1.3) performed the incremental test and submaximal exercises (walking on the treadmill and moving on the Torqway vehicle at the same speed). Energy expenditure during the exercise on the Torqway was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than during the walking performed at the same speed. The intensity of the exercise performed on the Torqway expressed as %VO2max and %HRmax was significantly ( p walking (respectively: 35.0 ± 6.0 vs. 29.4 ± 7.4 %VO2max and 65.1 ± 7.3 vs. 47.2 ± 7.4 %HRmax). Exercise on the Torqway vehicle allows for the intensification of the exercise at a low movement speed, comparable to walking. Moving on the Torqway vehicle could be an effective alternative activity for physical fitness and exercise rehabilitation programs.

  15. Relationship between tactics and energy expenditure according to level of experience in badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, Olivier; Blondeau, Thomas; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuân, Gilles; Mikulovic, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics). The physical activity of 99 players (47 beginners, 15 intermediates, 30 advanced, and 7 experts) was measured using a three-axis accelerometer during a badminton set (21 points, no extra scoring). The results showed that physical activity (counts/sec.) ranged between about 115 (Stage 1) and 155 (Stage 5), and differed significantly across the conative stages. For Stages 2 and 4, defined by an increase in use of tactics, physical activity increased substantially. For Stage 3, defined by a decrease in use of tactics, physical activity decreased significantly. Thus, tactically-oriented play appears to be closely related to physical activity.

  16. Dystropathology Increases Energy Expenditure and Protein Turnover in the Mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley-Crabb, Hannah G.; Marini, Juan C.; Sosa, Horacio A.; Castillo, Liliana I.; Grounds, Miranda D.; Fiorotto, Marta L.

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the dietary requirements for these macronutrients at different stages of the disease, are not well-understood. This study used juvenile (4- to 5- wk-old) and adult (12- to 14-wk-old) male dystrophic C57BL/10ScSn-mdx/J and age-matched C57BL/10ScSn/J control male mice to measure total and resting energy expenditure, food intake, spontaneous activity, body composition, whole body protein turnover, and muscle protein synthesis rates. In juvenile mdx mice that have extensive muscle damage, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were higher than in age-matched controls. Adaptations in food intake and decreased activity were insufficient to meet the increased energy and protein needs of juvenile mdx mice and resulted in stunted growth. In (non-growing) adult mdx mice with less severe dystropathology, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were also higher than in age-matched controls. Food intake was sufficient to meet their protein and energy needs, but insufficient to result in fat deposition. These data show that dystropathology impacts the protein and energy needs of mdx mice and that tailored dietary interventions are necessary to redress this imbalance. If not met, the resultant imbalance blunts growth, and may limit the benefits of therapies designed to protect and repair dystrophic muscles. PMID:24586653

  17. ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY. Exceptionally low daily energy expenditure in the bamboo-eating giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yonggang; Speakman, John R; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Hu, Yibo; Xia, Maohua; Yan, Li; Hambly, Catherine; Wang, Lu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jinguo; Wei, Fuwen

    2015-07-10

    The carnivoran giant panda has a specialized bamboo diet, to which its alimentary tract is poorly adapted. Measurements of daily energy expenditure across five captive and three wild pandas averaged 5.2 megajoules (MJ)/day, only 37.7% of the predicted value (13.8 MJ/day). For the wild pandas, the mean was 6.2 MJ/day, or 45% of the mammalian expectation. Pandas achieve this exceptionally low expenditure in part by reduced sizes of several vital organs and low physical activity. In addition, circulating levels of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) averaged 46.9 and 64%, respectively, of the levels expected for a eutherian mammal of comparable size. A giant panda-unique mutation in the DUOX2 gene, critical for thyroid hormone synthesis, might explain these low thyroid hormone levels. A combination of morphological, behavioral, physiological, and genetic adaptations, leading to low energy expenditure, likely enables giant pandas to survive on a bamboo diet. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Validation of five minimally obstructive methods to estimate physical activity energy expenditure in young adults in semi-standardized settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Gupta, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    We compared the accuracy of five objective methods, including two newly developed methods combining accelerometry and activity type recognition (Acti4), against indirect calorimetry, to estimate total energy expenditure (EE) of different activities in semi-standardized settings. Fourteen particip...

  19. The influence of vessel movements on the energy expenditure of fishermen in relation to activities and occupational tasks on board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Tomas; Christensen, Michael; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2015-01-01

    the activities carried out on board. This continuation of the study goes further by exploring the relation between the exposure to the ship’s movements and the fishermen’s energy expenditure during various physical activities on board. Materials and methods: Four fishermen on 2 contemporary steel trawlers...... demonstrated that vessel’s movements in calm weather increase the energy expenditure during navigation, fishing, and machine handling and that the relation differs in between these activities on board and rest.......Background: Previous studies of professional fishing activities have indicated that vessel movements correlate to fishermen’s energy expenditure. We have previously demonstrated that even in calm weather, the heel and pitch significantly increase the fishermen’s energy expenditure, ignoring...

  20. The energy expenditure of an activity-promoting video game compared to sedentary video games and TV watching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Naim; Foster, Randal C; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of television watching and the use of activity-promoting video games on energy expenditure in obese and lean children. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were watching television, playing a video game on a traditional sedentary video game console, and while playing the same video game on an activity-promoting video game console. Energy expenditure was significantly greater than television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console when children played the video game on the activity-promoting console. When examining movement with accelerometry, children moved significantly more when playing the video game on the Nintendo Wii console. Activity-promoting video games have shown to increase movement, and be an important tool to raise energy expenditure by 50% when compared to sedentary activities of daily living.

  1. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  2. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enhad A Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR, an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24 and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™. During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01. The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01. None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors

  3. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abreu-Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  4. Energy expenditure and body composition in children with Crohn's disease: effect of enteral nutrition and treatment with prednisolone

    OpenAIRE

    Azcue, M; Rashid, M; Griffiths, A; Pencharz, P

    1997-01-01

    Background—Malnutrition and growth retardation are common complications of Crohn's disease in children. The contribution of resting energy expenditure (REE) to malnutrition is unclear. 
Aims—To characterise the REE and body composition in children with Crohn's disease and compare them with normal controls and patients with anorexia nervosa; to compare the effects of prednisolone and enteral nutrition on energy expenditure and body composition. 
Subjects—Twenty four children wit...

  5. Early effects of neutering on energy expenditure in adult male cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfreda Wei

    Full Text Available The initial cause of post-neutering weight gain in male cats is not entirely known. There is evidence that energy intake (EI increases rapidly post-neutering, but it is not clear if neutering also decreases energy expenditure (EE prior to weight gain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if a decrease in EE contributes to the initial shift toward positive energy balance in neutered male cats. To determine the influence of neutering on EE independent of changes in EI and body weight (BW, male cats were fed at their pre-neutering maintenance EI and EE was measured at 4 days pre-neutering, 3-4 days post-neutering, and 9 days post- neutering. Ad libitum food access was then provided for 6 months. Body composition was measured and blood samples collected for serum chemistry at pre-neutering and 7 days, 13 days and 6 months post-neutering. Total energy expenditure (TEE adjusted for lean body mass (LBM did not change in cats from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. However, TEE adjusted for BW and resting energy expenditure adjusted for either LBM or BW showed a small, but significant (P<0.05 increase from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. When allowed free choice food access, cats showed significant increases of food intake (FI and BW. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin increased, while adiponectin levels decreased following neutering. The results of this study indicate that initial post-neutering weight gain in male cats results from increased FI and not decreased EE. Long-term control of FI should be initiated after neutering to prevent hyperphagia and weight gain in male cats.

  6. Longitudinal change in energy expenditure and effects on energy requirements of the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the longitudinal changes in energy requirements in late life. The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the energy requirements in late life and how they changed during a 7 year time-span, (2) determine whether changes in fat free mass (FFM) were related to changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), and (3) determine the accuracy of predicted total energy expenditure (TEE) to measured TEE. Methods TEE was assessed via doubly labeled water (DLW) technique in older adults in both 1999 (n = 302; age: 74 ± 2.9 yrs) and again in 2006 (n = 87 age: 82 ± 3.1 yrs). RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry, and body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results The energy requirements in the 9th decade of life were 2208 ± 376 kcal/d for men and 1814 ± 337 kcal/d for women. This was a significant decrease from the energy requirements in the 8th decade of life in men (2482 ± 476 kcal/d vs. 2208 ± 376 kcal/d) but not in women (1892 ± 271 kcal/d vs. 1814 ± 337 kcal/d). In addition to TEE, RMR, and activity EE (AEE) also decreased in men, but not women, while FFM decreased in both men and women. The changes in FFM were correlated with changes in RMR for men (r = 0.49, p < 0.05) but not for women (r = −0.08, ns). Measured TEE was similar to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) predicted TEE for men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2305 ± 35 kcal/d) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 1781 ± 20 kcal/d). However, measured TEE was different than the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted TEE in men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2915 ± 31 kcal/d (p < 0.05)) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 2315 ± 21 kcal/d (p < 0.05)). Conclusions TEE, RMR and AEE decreased in men, but not women, from the 8th to 9th decade of life. The DRI equation to predict TEE was comparable to measured TEE, while the WHO equation over-predicted TEE in our elderly population

  7. Energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity and with weight gain in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Montaurier, Christophe; Cano, Noël; Caillot, Nicolas; Blot, A; Meunier, Nathalie; Pereira, Bruno; Marceau, Geoffroy; Sapin, Vincent; Jouve, Christelle; Boirie, Yves; Deteix, Patrice; Morio, Beatrice

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in energy metabolism could trigger weight gain after renal transplantation. Nineteen transplanted non-diabetic men, 53 ± 1.6 years old, receiving calcineurin inhibitors but no corticosteroids were studied. They were compared with nine healthy men matched for height, age and lean body mass. Daily energy expenditure and its components (sleeping, basal and absorptive metabolic rates) were analyzed for 24 h in calorimetric chambers and for 4 days in free living conditions using calibrated accelerometry. Other variables known to influence energy expenditure were assessed: body composition, physical activity, 4-day food intake, drug consumption, serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, thyroid and parathyroid hormones, and epinephrine. Transplant recipients who gained more than 5% body weight after transplantation (n = 11, +11.0 ± 1.5 kg) were compared with those who did not (n = 8) and with the controls. Weight gain compared with non-weight gain patients and controls exhibited higher fat mass without change in lean body mass. Daily, sleeping and resting energy expenditure adjusted for lean body mass was significantly higher in non-weight gain (167.1 ± 4.2 kJ/kg/lean body mass/24 h, P controls (146.1 ± 4.6). Weight gain compared with controls and non-weight gain subjects had lower free living physical activity and a higher consumption of antihypertensive drugs and β-blockers. After kidney transplantation, weight gain patients were characterized by lower adjusted energy expenditure, reduced spontaneous physical activity but a more sedentary life style and a trend toward a higher energy intake explaining the reason they gained weight. The nWG KTR had increased resting and sleeping EE which protected them from weight gain. Such hypermetabolism was also observed in 24-h EE measurements. By comparison with the nWG patients, the WG transplant recipients were characterized by higher β-blocker consumption. These data could be helpful in the prevention of weight

  8. Funding of energy research: BMFT expenditures for energy research and energy technologies, 3rd program, a review and a forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacke, S.

    1990-01-01

    Between the early sixties and late 1989, the German Federal Government spent some DM 23 billion to support research and development of the entire field of nuclear technology (such as fundamental research, industrial applications, medicine, safety technology, advanced energy systems) in the Federal Republic of Germany. Of this amount, approx. DM 11 billion was spent on the technology of nuclear power plants equipped with light water reactors, on safety research, and on the nuclear fuel cycle. Comparing the expenditures of the Federal Government for the conversion of nuclear power into electricity with the savings achieved in electricity generating costs of approx. DM 58 billion by late 1989 (the cost advantage of nuclear power being approx. Pf 5/kWh), one arrives at a cost advantage to the whole economy of approx. DM 47 billion by the date shown above; by the year 2000, this advantage will have risen to some DM 150 billion. (orig.) [de

  9. Information on governmental and industrial energy RD and expenditures for the year 1997 in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1998-04-01

    Information on governmental and industrial energy RD and D expenditures for the year 1997 in Austria: The government (state and federal) energy RD and D budget in Austria was 137.6 Mio ATS in 1990, 245.0 Mio ATS in 1991, 210.7 Mio ATS in 1992, 286.9 Mio ATS in 1993, 324.6 Mio ATS in 1994, 332.1 Mio ATS in 1995, 334.3 Mio ATS in 1996 and 354.1 Mio ATS in 1997. The expenditures of the Austrian private industry for energy RD and D are estimated to be about 89 Mio ATS for the year 1990, about 122 Mio ATS for the year 1991, about 98 Mio ATS for the year 1992, about 124 Mio ATS for 1993, about 170 Mio ATS for 1994, about 128 Mio ATS for 1995, about 116 Mio ATS for 1996 and about 133 Mio ATS for 1997. The energy RD and D budget of the Austrian Electricity Companies was 133.3 Mio ATS for 1991, 181.1 Mio ATS for 1992, 192.4 Mio ATS for 1993, 126.6 Mio ATS for 1994, 191.0 Mio ATS for 1995, 207.3 Mio ATS for 1996 and 227.7 Mio ATS for 1997. (author)

  10. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND INTENSITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SOCCER REFEREES DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Inácio da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs. The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil, Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint. The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765, with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006, and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play

  11. Global Trends in Adolescent Fertility, 1990-2012, in Relation to National Wealth, Income Inequalities, and Educational Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Garbers, Samantha; Sharma, Vinit; Viner, Russell M

    2017-02-01

    National wealth, income inequalities, and expenditures on education can profoundly influence the health of a nation's women, children, and adolescents. We explored the association of trends in national socioeconomic status (SES) indicators with trends in adolescent birth rates (ABRs), by nation and region. An ecologic research design was employed using national-level data from the World Bank on birth rates per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, national wealth (per capita gross domestic product or GDP), income inequality (Gini index), and expenditures on education as a percentage of GDP (EduExp). Data were available for 142 countries and seven regions for 1990-2012. Multiple linear regression for repeated measures with generalized estimating equations was used to examine independent associations. ABRs in 2012 varied >200-fold-with the highest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and lowest rates in the Western Europe/Central Asia region. The median national ABR fell 40% from 72.4/1,000 in 1990 to 43.6/1,000 in 2012. The largest regional declines in ABR occurred in South Asia (70%), Europe/Central Asia (63%), and the Middle East/North Africa (53%)-regions with lower income inequality. In multivariable analyses considering change over time, ABRs were negatively associated with GDP and EduExp and positively associated with greater income inequality. ABRs have declined globally since 1990. Declines closely followed rising socioeconomic status and were greater where income inequalities were lower in 1990. Reducing poverty and income inequalities and increasing investments in education should be essential components of national policies to prevent adolescent childbearing. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding

  13. Comparison of methods to assess energy expenditure and physical activity in people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Tanhoffer, Aldre I P; Raymond, Jacqueline; Hills, Andrew P; Davis, Glen M

    2012-01-01

    To compare different methods of assessing energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) under community-dwelling conditions. A reference standard encompassing the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique, heart rate monitoring (FLEX-HR), a multi-sensor armband (SenseWear Armband (SWA)), and two PA recall questionnaires were employed in 14 people with SCI to estimate EE and leisure-time PA. Mean total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) assessed by DLW, FLEX-HR, and SWA were 9817 ± 2491 kJ/day, 8498 ± 1516 kJ/day, and 11414 ± 3242 kJ/day, respectively. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) quantified by DLW was 2841 ± 1626 kJ/day, 2935 ± 1732 kJ/day estimated from FLEX-HR, and 2773 ± 2966 kJ/day derived from SWA. After converting the PA recall questionnaire data to EE in kJ/day, PAEE for the Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury (PARA-SCI) was 2339 ± 1171 kJ/day and for Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) 749 ± 1026 kJ/day. DLW-quantified PAEE was moderately associated with PARA-SCI (R(2) = 0.62, P 0.05). Our findings revealed that the PARA-SCI recall questionnaire was the best estimate of PAEE compared to the reference standard DLW approach. Although the between-method variability for SWA, FLEX-HR, and PASIPD-derived PAEE was small, there was a weak association between these methods and the criterion DLW technique. The best estimate of DLW-quantified TDEE was by FLEX-HR. SWA significantly overestimated TDEE in this population.

  14. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p Abdominal fat distribution patterns are associated with varying levels of resting energy expenditure, potentially reflecting different metabolic rates of adipose sub-depots and providing an anatomic/anthropometric link to physiological obese sub-phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  16. Obesity therapy: altering the energy intake-and-expenditure balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Vivion E F; Yeo, Giles S H; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2002-04-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous health complications, which range from non-fatal debilitating conditions such as osteoarthritis, to life-threatening chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. The psychological consequences of obesity can range from lowered self-esteem to clinical depression. Despite the high prevalence of obesity and the many advances in our understanding of how it develops, current therapies have persistently failed to achieve long-term success. This review focuses on how fat mass can be reduced by altering the balance between energy intake and expenditure.

  17. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...

  18. Correlation between measured energy expenditure and clinically obtained variables in trauma and sepsis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfield, D C; Omert, L A; Badellino, M M; Wiles, C E; Bagley, S M; Goodarzi, S; Siegel, J H

    1994-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry is the preferred method for determining caloric requirements of patients, but availability of the device is limited by high cost. A study was therefore conducted to determine whether clinically obtainable variables could be used to predict metabolic rate. Patients with severe trauma or sepsis who required mechanical ventilation were measured by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter. Several clinical variables were obtained simultaneously. Measurements were repeated every 12 hours for up to 10 days. Twenty-six trauma and 30 sepsis patients were measured 423 times. Mean resting energy expenditure was 36 +/- 7 kcal/kg (trauma) vs 45 +/- 8 kcal/kg (sepsis) (p types.

  19. Energy expenditure in chronic stroke patients playing Wii Sports: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stam Henk J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability in modern western countries. Stroke survivors often have functional limitations which might lead to a vicious circle of reduced physical activity, deconditioning and further physical deterioration. Current evidence suggests that routine moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activity is essential for maintenance and improvement of health among stroke survivors. Nevertheless, long-term participation in physical activities is low among people with disabilities. Active video games, such as Nintendo Wii Sports, might maintain interest and improve long-term participation in physical activities; however, the intensity of physical activity among chronic stroke patients while playing Wii Sports is unknown. We investigated the energy expenditure of chronic stroke patients while playing Wii Sports tennis and boxing. Methods Ten chronic (≥ 6 months stroke patients comprising a convenience sample, who were able to walk independently on level ground, were recruited from a rehabilitation centre. They were instructed to play Wii Sports tennis and boxing in random order for 15 minutes each, with a 10-minute break between games. A portable gas analyzer was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2 during sitting and during Wii Sports game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs, calculated as VO2 during Wii Sports divided by VO2 during sitting. We classified physical activity as moderate (3-6 METs or vigorous (> 6 METs according to the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association Guidelines. Results Among the 10 chronic stroke patients, 3 were unable to play tennis because they had problems with timing of hitting the ball, and 2 were excluded from the boxing group because of a technical problem with the portable gas analyzer. The mean (± SD energy expenditure during Wii Sports game play was 3.7 (± 0.6 METs for tennis and 4.1 (

  20. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRs) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tortoises during the non-breeding season in south-central Mississippi, USA. Tortoise DEE ranged from 76.7-187.5 kj/day and WIR ranged from 30.6-93.1 ml H2O/day. Daily energy expenditure did not differ between the sexes, but DEE was positively related to body mass. Water influx rates varied with the interaction of sex and body mass. We used a log/log regression model to assess the allometric relationship between DEE and body mass for Gopher Tortoises, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), and Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina), the only chelonians for which DEE has been measured. The slope of this allometric model (0.626) was less than that previously calculated for herbivorous reptiles (0.813), suggesting that chelonians may expend energy at a slower rate per unit of body mass compared to other herbivorous reptiles. We used retrospective power analyses and data from the DLW isotope analyses to develop guidelines for sample sizes and duration of measurement intervals, respectively, for larger-scale energetic studies in this species. ?? 2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  1. A creatine-driven substrate cycle enhances energy expenditure and thermogenesis in beige fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Erickson, Brian K; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-10-22

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige-fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial creatine kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole-body energy expenditure after administration of a β3-agonist and reduces beige and brown adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using heart rate to predict energy expenditure in large domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, N; Ruoß, C; Dobenecker, B; Reese, S; Starck, J M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish heart rate as a measure of energy expenditure in large active kennel dogs (28 ± 3 kg bw). Therefore, the heart rate (HR)-oxygen consumption (V˙O2) relationship was analysed in Foxhound-Boxer-Ingelheim-Labrador cross-breds (FBI dogs) at rest and graded levels of exercise on a treadmill up to 60-65% of maximal aerobic capacity. To test for effects of training, HR and V˙O2 were measured in female dogs, before and after a training period, and after an adjacent training pause to test for reversibility of potential effects. Least squares regression was applied to describe the relationship between HR and V˙O2. The applied training had no statistically significant effect on the HR-V˙O2 regression. A general regression line from all data collected was prepared to establish a general predictive equation for energy expenditure from HR in FBI dogs. The regression equation established in this study enables fast estimation of energy requirement for running activity. The equation is valid for large dogs weighing around 30 kg that run at ground level up to 15 km/h with a heart rate maximum of 190 bpm irrespective of the training level. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients: Evaluation methods and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Soncini Sanches

    Full Text Available Summary Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis. The nutritional needs of this population are therefore complex, and determining the resting energy expenditure is essential to adjust the nutritional supply and to plan a proper diet, ensuring that energy requirements are met and avoiding complications associated with overfeeding and underfeeding. Several evaluation methods of EE in this population have been described, but all of them have limitations. Such methods include direct calorimetry, doubly labeled water, indirect calorimetry (IC, various predictive equations, and, more recently, the rule of thumb (kcal/kg of body weight. Currently, IC is considered the gold standard.

  4. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nathan

    Full Text Available Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks. Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the

  5. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  6. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  7. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  8. Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in Division I Field Hockey Players During Competitive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Katie M; Ledesma, Allison B

    2016-08-01

    Sell, KM and Ledesma, AB. Heart rate and energy expenditure in Division I field hockey players during competitive play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2122-2128, 2016-The purpose of this study was to quantify energy expenditure and heart rate data for Division I female field hockey players during competitive play. Ten female Division I collegiate field hockey athletes (19.8 ± 1.6 years; 166.4 ± 6.1 cm; 58.2 ± 5.3 kg) completed the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test to determine maximal heart rate. One week later, all subjects wore a heart rate monitor during a series of 3 matches in an off-season competition. Average heart rate (AvHR), average percentage of maximal heart rate (AvHR%), peak exercise heart rate (PExHR), and percentage of maximal heart rate (PExHR%), time spent in each of the predetermined heart rate zones, and caloric expenditure per minute of exercise (kcalM) were determined for all players. Differences between positions (backs, midfielders, and forwards) were assessed. No significant differences in AvHR, AvHR%, PExHR, PExHR%, and %TM were observed between playing positions. The AvHR% and PExHR% for each position fell into zones 4 (77-93% HRmax) and 5 (>93% HRmax), respectively, and significantly more time was spent in zone 4 compared with zones 1, 2, 3, and 5 across all players (p ≤ 0.05). The kcalM reflected very heavy intensity exercise. The results of this study will contribute toward understanding the sport-specific physiological demands of women's field hockey and has specific implications for the duration and schedule of training regimens.

  9. Loss of Akt1 in mice increases energy expenditure and protects against diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min; Easton, Rachael M; Gleason, Catherine E; Monks, Bobby R; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kahn, C Ronald; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2012-01-01

    Akt is encoded by a gene family for which each isoform serves distinct but overlapping functions. Based on the phenotypes of the germ line gene disruptions, Akt1 has been associated with control of growth, whereas Akt2 has been linked to metabolic regulation. Here we show that Akt1 serves an unexpected role in the regulation of energy metabolism, as mice deficient for Akt1 exhibit protection from diet-induced obesity and its associated insulin resistance. Although skeletal muscle contributes most of the resting and exercising energy expenditure, muscle-specific deletion of Akt1 does not recapitulate the phenotype, indicating that the role of Akt1 in skeletal muscle is cell nonautonomous. These data indicate a previously unknown function of Akt1 in energy metabolism and provide a novel target for treatment of obesity.

  10. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (pmetabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  11. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001 for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  12. [Upper extremity kinetics and energy expenditure during walker-assisted gait in children with cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Katherine A; Strifling, Kelly M B; Wang, Mei; Cao, Kevin; Eastwood, Daniel; Jackson, Scott; Ackman, Jeffrey; Altiok, Haluk; Schwab, Jeffrey; Harris, Gerald F

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relationships between upper extremity (UE) kinetics and the energy expenditure index during anterior and posterior walker-assisted gait in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Ten children (3 boys, 7 girls; mean age 12.1 years; range 8 to 18 years) with spastic diplegic CP, who ambulated with a walker underwent gait analyses that included UE kinematics and kinetics. Upper extremity kinetics were obtained using instrumented walker handles. Energy expenditure index was obtained using the heart rate method (EEIHR) by subtracting resting heart rate from walking heart rate, and dividing by the walking speed. Correlations were sought between the kinetic variables and the EEIHR and temporal and stride parameters. In general, anterior walker use was associated with a higher EEIHR. Several kinetic variables correlated well with temporal and stride parameters, as well as the EEIHR. All of the significant correlations (r>0.80; pwalker use and involved joint reaction forces (JRF) rather than moments. Some variables showed multiple strong correlations during anterior walker use, including the medial JRF in the wrist, the posterior JRF in the elbow, and the inferior and superior JRFs in the shoulder. The observed correlations may indicate a relationship between the force used to advance the body forward within the walker frame and an increased EEIHR. More work is needed to refine the correlations, and to explore relationships with other variables, including the joint kinematics.

  13. Comparison of energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, James B; Mullen, Nicholas J; Whyte, Douglas G; Cannon, Jack

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes (group resistance exercise [PUMP]; indoor stationary cycling [RIDE]; and step aerobics [STEP]). One-Way Repeated Measures incorporating a Latin Square Design for class randomisation. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed each group fitness class in random order with energy expenditure and heart rate determined using an Actiheart monitor. STEP and RIDE produced significantly (pheart rates (HR avg ) (85.8±5.1% and 86.4±4.3% of HR max , respectively) compared to PUMP (73.7±7% of HR max ). HR peak was also significantly (pexpenditure (TEE), both absolute and relative, were significantly (pexpenditure was highly comparable between RIDE and STEP, which suggests these group fitness classes are more effective for developing cardiovascular fitness and assisting with weight management compared with group resistance exercise classes when performed on a regular basis. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Elliott

    2013-04-01

    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field—and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements—we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia. Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR. RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  15. Predicted versus measured resting energy expenditure in patients requiring home parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławiński, Michał; Singer, Pierre; Gradowski, Łukasz; Gradowska, Aleksandra; Bzikowska, Agnieszka; Majewska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines from the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) recommend between 20 and 35 kcal/kg daily for patients requiring home parenteral nutrition (PN). Other guidelines use predictive equations. However, these equations have not been validated. Indirect calorimetry is recommended as the gold standard for determining resting energy expenditure (REE). The aim of this study was to compare the frequently used equations with measured REE. Seventy-six hospitalized patients suffering from intestinal failure (ages 21-85 y) were enrolled between January 2012 and May 2014. They were eligible for implementation of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) due to short bowel syndrome (54%), intestinal fistulae (24%), cancer obstruction (16%), and radiation-induced intestinal injury (6%). REE measurements were compared with predictive equations by Harris and Benedict (HB), Owen, Ireton-Jones, and Mifflin, as well as recommendations from ESPEN. In all, 152 calorimetry measurements (two per patient) were performed in 76 patients, after total PN administrations. An average result of REE measurement by indirect calorimetry was 1181 ± 322 kcal/d. Variability in momentary energy expenditure (MEE) from one measurement to the other was 8% ± 7%. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean bias of -192 ± 300 kcal/d between MEE and estimated energy expenditure using the HB equation, which means that the equation increased the score on average by 192 ± 300 kcal/d. Limits of agreement (LoA) between the two methods was -780 to +396 kcal/d. Estimation energy expenditure using the Ireton-Jones equation gave a mean bias of -359 ± 335 kcal/d. LoA between the two methods was -1015 to +297 kcal/d. For Owen equation, Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean bias of -208 ± 313 kcal/d and the LoA between the two methods was -822 to +406 kcal/d. Using the Mifflin equation, estimation energy expenditure gave a mean bias of -172 ± 312 kcal/d and the LoA between the

  16. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  17. The Addition of a Video Game to Stationary Cycling: The Impact on Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Bryan L; Siegel, Shannon R; Wikin, Linda D

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity in children has reached epidemic proportions with over 37% of children aged 6-11 years in the U.S. being classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight." Utilization of active video games has been proposed as one possible mechanism to help shift the tide of the obesity epidemic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if riding a stationary bike that controlled a video game would lead to significantly greater energy expenditure than riding the same bike without the video game connected. METHODS: Twenty children, 7-14 years old, with a BMI classification of "at risk for overweight" or "overweight" participated in this study. Following familiarization, energy expenditure was evaluated while riding a stationary bike for 20 minutes. One test was performed without the addition of a video game and one test with the bike controlling the speed of a car on the video game. RESULTS: Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure were significantly elevated above baseline in both conditions. Energy expenditure was significantly higher while riding the bike as it controlled the video game (4.4 ± 1.2 Kcal·min(-1)) than when riding the bike by itself (3.7 ± 1.1 Kcal·min(-1)) (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Using a stationary bike to control a video game led to greater energy expenditure than riding a stationary bike without the video game and without a related increase in perceived exertion.

  18. Active video games and energy balance in male adolescents: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbon, Aidan; McNeil, Jessica; Jay, Ollie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Active video games (AVGs) have been shown to acutely increase energy expenditure when compared with seated video games; however, the influence of AVGs on compensatory adjustments in energy intake and expenditure is largely unknown. The aim was to examine the acute effects of AVGs on energy intake and expenditure. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 26 male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 1.4 y) completed three 1-h experimental conditions: resting control, seated video game play (Xbox 360; Microsoft), and AVG play (Kinect Adventures on Xbox 360) followed by an ad libitum lunch. A validated food menu was used to assess food intake immediately after the conditions and for the remainder of the day, and a dietary record was used for the subsequent 3-d period. Energy expenditure was measured by using portable indirect calorimetry throughout each experimental condition, and an accelerometer was used to assess the subsequent 3-d period. Appetite sensations were assessed by using visual analog scales at different time points during the testing day. The primary outcomes were acute (immediately after the conditions and 24-h) and short-term (3-d) energy intake and expenditure. Energy expenditure was significantly higher (~145%; P 0.49) and 3 d after the experimental conditions (~3%; P > 0.82). No significant differences were observed in absolute energy intake immediately after the conditions (~2%; P > 0.94) or in absolute energy intake 24 h (~5%; P > 0.63) and 3 d (~9%; P > 0.53) after the experimental conditions. Finally, appetite sensations were similar between conditions at all time points (P > 0.05). The increase in energy expenditure promoted by a single session of Kinect AVG play is not associated with increased food intake but is compensated for after the intervention, resulting in no measurable change in energy balance after 24 h. These results suggest that the potential of Kinect to reduce the energy gap underlying weight gain is offset within 24 h in

  19. Validity of Multisensor Array for Measuring Energy Expenditure of an Activity Bout in Early Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Flora Kramer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke survivors use more energy than healthy people during activities such as walking, which has consequences for the way exercise is prescribed for stroke survivors. There is a need for wearable device that can validly measure energy expenditure (EE of activity to inform exercise prescription early after stroke. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the SenseWear-Armband (SWA to measure EE and step-counts during activity 0.75 for walking and sit-to-stand, respectively. However, agreement levels changed with increasing EE levels (i.e., proportional bias. The SWA did not accurately measure step-counts. Conclusion. The SWA should be used with caution to measure EE of activity of mild to moderate stroke survivors <1 month after stroke.

  20. Acute administration of capsaicin increases resting energy expenditure in young obese subjects without affecting energy intake, appetite, and circulating levels of orexigenic/anorexigenic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Antonello E; Casnici, Claudia; Marelli, Ornella; De Col, Alessandra; Tamini, Sofia; Lucchetti, Elisa; Tringali, Gabriella; De Micheli, Roberta; Abbruzzese, Laura; Bortolotti, Mauro; Cella, Silvano G; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Although capsaicin has been reported to reduce energy intake and increase energy expenditure in an adult (normal weight or overweight) population, thus resulting in a net negative energy balance and weight loss, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in young obese subjects. We hypothesize that capsaicin acutely administered in young obese subjects exerts the same effects on energy balance and that these effects are mediated by changes in gastrointestinal peptides regulating appetite. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of capsaicin (2 mg) or placebo on energy intake, hunger, and satiety in obese adolescents and young adults (female-male ratio: 4:6, age: 21.0 ± 5.8 years; body mass index: 41.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 ) provided an ad libitum dinner. Furthermore, circulating levels of some orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorexigenic (glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY) peptides were measured after a meal completely consumed (lunch), together with the evaluation of hunger and satiety and assessment of resting energy expenditure (REE) through indirect computerized calorimetry. When compared to placebo, capsaicin did not significantly change either energy intake or hunger/satiety 6 hours after its administration (dinner). No differences in circulating levels of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and peptide YY and in hunger/satiety were found in the 3 hours immediately after food ingestion among obese subjects treated with capsaicin or placebo (lunch). By contrast, the meal significantly increased REE in the capsaicin- but not placebo-treated group (capsaicin: from 1957.2 ± 455.1 kcal/d up to 2342.3 ± 562.1 kcal/d, P < .05; placebo: from 2060.1 ± 483.4 kcal/d up to 2296.0 ± 484.5 kcal/d). The pre-post meal difference in REE after capsaicin administration was significantly higher than that observed after placebo (385.1 ± 164.4 kcal/d vs 235.9 ± 166.1 kcal/d, P < .05). In conclusion, although capsaicin does not exert hypophagic

  1. The impacts of China’s household consumption expenditure patterns on energy demand and carbon emissions towards 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how China’s household consumption patterns over the period 2005–2050 influence the total energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in two baseline scenarios, and how it influences carbon prices as well as the economic cost in the corresponding carbon mitigation scenarios. To this end we first put forward two possible household consumption expenditure patterns up to 2050 using the Working–Leser model, taking into account total expenditure increase and urbanization. For comparison, both expenditure patterns are then incorporated in a hybrid recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The results reveal that as income level increases in the coming decades, the direct and indirect household energy requirements and CO 2 emissions would rise drastically. When household expenditure shifts from material products and transport to service-oriented goods, around 21,000 mtce of primary energy and 45 billion tons of CO 2 emissions would be saved over the 45-year period from 2005 to 2050. Moreover, carbon prices in the dematerialized mitigation scenario would fall by 13% in 2050, thus reducing the economic cost. - Highlights: ► Propose two household expenditure patterns considering income rise and urbanization. ► Much energy and CO 2 emissions would be saved in low-carbon consumption scenario. ► Carbon prices would reduce a lot in low-carbon consumption scenario.

  2. Misreporting of energy intake in the elderly using doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit R; Yu, Binbing; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B

    2010-02-01

    One of the major problems in dietary assessment is inaccuracy in reporting diet. To examine the association between self-reported energy intake (EI) by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and energy expenditure (EE), measured by doubly labeled water (DLW), among older persons. EE was assessed in 298 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (70-79 years of age) over a 2-week period using DLW. Dietary intake was assessed using a Block FFQ. The ratio between reported EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated. Misreporting was defined as follows: participants with an EI/TEE ratio of reporters, while participants with an EI/TEE ratio >1.28 were categorized as high energy reporters. Participants with an EI/TEE ratio of 0.77-1.28 were categorized as "true" energy reporters. One-year percent weight change prior to EE visit was used as another validation indicator. Participants who were low energy reporters but lost >2% of their body weight were categorized as undereaters. Two hundred ninety-six participants provided both FFQ and DLW measurements. Forty-three percent of participants were low energy reporters; among them, almost 30% lost weight and, therefore, were categorized as undereaters. The undereaters consumed significantly fewer calories. No difference in the frequency of low energy reporting was detected between genders or racial groups. Underreporters had significantly higher body weight than "true" or high reporters. Undereaters tended to have higher body mass index than the underreporters. Undereating is prevalent in the elderly and may be falsely perceived as underreporting. It should be further addressed and characterized in future studies.

  3. Low resting energy expenditure in middle-aged and elderly hemodialysis patients with poor nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogirima, Miho; Sakaguchi, Katsuhiko; Nishino, Kohsuke; Ichikawa, Yoko; Hiramatsu, Fumie; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2006-02-01

    Due to high resting energy expenditure (REE) in maintenance hemodialysis patients, an increase in energy intake is usually recommended to improve their nutritional status. However, some patients appear to have poor appetite and low energy intake. In such patients low energy metabolism is expected. We hypothesized that in maintenance hemodialysis patients there are two types of the energy metabolism, high and low. This study was aimed at finding the energy metabolism in maintenance hemodialysis patients, especially in those with poor nutritional status. Subjects were hemodialysis out-patients (34 males and 20 females, mean age 59.1+/-10.7 y). REE was measured by an indirect calorimeter. Protein intake was obtained from normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), and physical activity level (PAL) was obtained by time study. Nutritional status assessed by serum albumin concentration was poor (3.7+/-0.2 g/dL) in spite of the adequate protein intake (1.1+/-0.3 g/kg per day). Only 11% of the subjects had appropriate serum albumin concentration. Mean REE was 24.6 kcal/kg per day which was lower than that of healthy Japanese (26.5 kcal/kg per day). REE and PAL positively correlated with serum albumin concentration (p<0.01). The results suggest that maintenance hemodialysis patients with poor nutritional status may have low REE.

  4. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Braun, J.S.; Vetter, R.J.; Marsh, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  5. EFFECT OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND TRAINING STATUS ON LEPTIN RESPONSE TO SUB-MAXIMAL CYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Bouassida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR and 7 untrained (UTR subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP. Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01 and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively. [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05 in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01 and [GH] increased (p < 0.01 significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01 and higher (GH: p < 0.01 than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01 during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1 leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2 volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3 it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of

  6. Daily energy expenditure, cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Joseph Valletta

    Full Text Available Encouraging daily physical activity improves cardiorespiratory fitness and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, increasing physical activity often creates a challenge for people with type 1 diabetes, because of difficulties maintaining euglycemia in the face of altered food intake and adjustments to insulin doses. Our aim was to examine the triangular relationship between glucose control measured by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS, objective measures of total daily energy expenditure (TEE recorded by a multi-sensory monitoring device, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, in free-living subjects with type 1 diabetes.Twenty-three individuals (12 women with type 1 diabetes who were free from micro- and macrovascular complications were recruited. TEE and glucose control were monitored simultaneously for up to 12 days, using a multi-sensory device and CGMS respectively. CRF was recorded as V02 max from a maximal treadmill test with the Bruce protocol.Subjects (mean±SD were aged 37±11 years, with BMI = 26.5±5.1 kg.m⁻², HbA1c = 7.7±1.3% (61±14 mmol/mol and V02 max (ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹  = 39.9±8.4 (range 22.4-58.6. TEE (36.3±5.5 kcal.kg⁻¹.day⁻¹ was strongly associated with CRF(39.9±8.4 ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹ independently of sex (r = 0.63, p<0.01. However, neither TEE (r = -0.20, p = 0.36 nor CRF (r = -0.20, p = 0.39; adjusted for sex, were significantly associated with mean glycaemia measured by CGMS.Higher levels of energy expenditure (due to a more active lifestyle are associated with increased cardiorespiratory fitness, but not necessarily better glycaemic control. Since increased levels of energy expenditure and good glycaemic control are both needed to protect against diabetes-related complications our data suggest they need to be achieved independently.

  7. Increased lipolysis and energy expenditure in a mouse model with severely impaired glucagon secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing-How Lou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secretion of insulin and glucagon is triggered by elevated intracellular calcium levels. Although the precise mechanism by which the calcium signal is coupled to insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis is unclear, synaptotagmin-7 has been shown to be a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin and glucagon secretion, and may function as a calcium sensor for insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis. Deletion of synaptotagmin-7 leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and nearly abolished Ca(2+-dependent glucagon secretion in mice. Under non-stressed resting state, however, synaptotagmin-7 KO mice exhibit normal insulin level but severely reduced glucagon level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied energy expenditure and metabolism in synaptotagmin-7 KO and control mice using indirect calorimetry and biochemical techniques. Synaptotagmin-7 KO mice had lower body weight and body fat content, and exhibited higher oxygen consumption and basal metabolic rate. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER was lower in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice, suggesting an increased use of lipid in their energy production. Consistent with lower RER, gene expression profiles suggest enhanced lipolysis and increased capacity for fatty acid transport and oxidation in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice. Furthermore, expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 in skeletal muscle was approximately doubled in the KO mice compared with control mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the lean phenotype in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice was mostly attributed to increased lipolysis and energy expenditure, and suggest that reduced glucagon level may have broad influence on the overall metabolism in the mouse model.

  8. Predicting energy expenditure of physical activity using hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kong Y; Acra, Sari A; Majchrzak, Karen; Donahue, Candice L; Baker, Lemont; Clemens, Linda; Sun, Ming; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical activity and health, we need accurate and detailed free-living physical activity measurements. The determination of energy expenditure of activity (EEACT) may also be useful in the treatment and maintenance of nutritional diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Minute-to-minute energy expenditure during a 24-h period was measured in 60 sedentary normal female volunteers (35.4 +/- 9.0 years, body mass index 30.0 +/- 5.9 kg/m2), using a state-of-the-art whole-room indirect calorimeter. The activities ranged from sedentary deskwork to walking and stepping at different intensities. Body movements were simultaneously measured using a hip-worn triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, Hemokentics, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin) and a wrist-worn uniaxial accelerometer (ActiWatch AW64, MiniMitter Co., Sunriver, Oregon) on the dominant arm. Movement data from the accelerometers were used to develop nonlinear prediction models (separately and combined) to estimate EEACT and compared for accuracy. In a subgroup (n=12), a second 24-h study period was repeated for cross-validation of the combined model. The combined model, using Tritrac-R3D and ActiWatch, accurately estimated total EEACT (97.7 +/- 3.2% of the measured values, p=0.781), as compared with using ActiWatch (86.0 +/- 4.7%, ptypes and intensity of activities. This concept can be extended to develop valid models for the accurate measurement of free-living energy metabolism in clinical populations.

  9. Energy expenditure estimation in beta-blocker-medicated cardiac patients by combining heart rate and body movement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Jos J; Sartor, Francesco; Papini, Gabriele; Stut, Wim; Peek, Niels; Kemps, Hareld Mc; Bonomi, Alberto G

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of energy expenditure provides an opportunity to monitor physical activity during cardiac rehabilitation. However, the available assessment methods, based on the combination of heart rate (HR) and body movement data, are not applicable for patients using beta-blocker medication. Therefore, we developed an energy expenditure prediction model for beta-blocker-medicated cardiac rehabilitation patients. Sixteen male cardiac rehabilitation patients (age: 55.8 ± 7.3 years, weight: 93.1 ± 11.8 kg) underwent a physical activity protocol with 11 low- to moderate-intensity common daily life activities. Energy expenditure was assessed using a portable indirect calorimeter. HR and body movement data were recorded during the protocol using unobtrusive wearable devices. In addition, patients underwent a symptom-limited exercise test and resting metabolic rate assessment. Energy expenditure estimation models were developed using multivariate regression analyses based on HR and body movement data and/or patient characteristics. In addition, a HR-flex model was developed. The model combining HR and body movement data and patient characteristics showed the highest correlation and lowest error (r 2  = 0.84, root mean squared error = 0.834 kcal/minute) with total energy expenditure. The method based on individual calibration data (HR-flex) showed lower accuracy (i 2  = 0.83, root mean squared error = 0.992 kcal/minute). Our results show that combining HR and body movement data improves the accuracy of energy expenditure prediction models in cardiac patients, similar to methods that have been developed for healthy subjects. The proposed methodology does not require individual calibration and is based on the data that are available in clinical practice. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  10. The Energy Expenditure of an Activity-Promoting Video Game compared to Sedentary Video Games and TV Watching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Naim; Foster, Randal C; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Screen time continues to be a major contributing factor to sedentariness in children. There have been more creative approaches to increase physical over the last few years. One approach has been through the use of video games. In the present study we investigated the effect of television watching and the use of activity-promoting video games on energy expenditure and movement in lean and obese children. Our primary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement decreases while watching television, in lean and obese children. Our secondary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement increases when playing the same game with an activity-promoting video game console compared to a sedentary video game console, in lean and obese children. Methods Eleven boys (10 ± 1 year) and eight girls (9 ± 1 year) ranging in BMI from 14–29 kg/m2 (eleven lean and eight overweight or obese) were recruited. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were watching television, playing a video game on a traditional sedentary video game console, and while playing the same video game on an activity-promoting video game (Nintendo Wii) console. Results Energy expenditure was significantly greater than television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console when children played the video game on the activity-promoting console(125.3 ± 38.2 Kcal/hr vs. 79.7 ± 20.1 and 79.4 ±15.7, Pvideo games on a sedentary video game console is not different. Activity-promoting video games have shown to increase movement, and be an important tool to raise energy expenditure by 50% when compared to sedentary activities of daily living. PMID:22145458

  11. Novel Approaches to Obesity Prevention: Effects of Game Enjoyment and Game Type on Energy Expenditure in Active Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Komoski, Stephanie E.; Carr, Philip M.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some active video games have been found to promote physical activity adherence because of enjoyment. However, many active games are exercise themed, which may interfere with the distracting properties that make game-based exercise more enjoyable than traditional exercise. This study compared exercise-themed and game-themed active games to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment. Method Young adults (N = 100, 50 female, 55 overweight, aged 18–35 years) played two of four Wii Fit games (one aerobic game and one balance game per person) for 10 min each. Of the two aerobic games, one was exercise themed (jogging) and the other was game themed (hula hooping). Both balance games were game themed. Energy expenditure and enjoyment were measured. Results After adjustment for gender and weight, aerobic games produced 2.70 kcal/kg-1/h-1 (95% confidence interval 2.41, 3.00) greater energy expenditure than balance games (p games were more enjoyable (p games, jogging produced greater energy expenditure than hula hooping in normal-weight and male participants (p .17). Hula hooping was enjoyed more than jogging (p = .008). Enjoyment predicted energy expenditure in aerobic games (B = 0.767, p = .010). Conclusions Aerobic games produced greater energy expenditure but lower enjoyment than balance games, and a game-themed aerobic game was found more enjoyable than an exercise-themed aerobic game. Integrating more strenuous activity into entertaining games instead of games that simply simulate exercise may be a fruitful avenue for active game development. PMID:22920810

  12. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND INTAKE COMPARISONS IN CHILEAN CHILDREN 4-5 YEARS ATTENDING DAY-CARE CENTRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Gabriela; Vásquez, Fabián; Rodríguez, Maria P; Andrade, Ana M; Anziani, Maria A; Vio, Fernando; Coward, Williams

    2015-09-01

    the doubly labelled water (DLW) method has an accuracy of 1% and within-subject precision of 5-8%, depending on subject's age and environments issues. Energy intake assessment is prone to errors (>15- 20%) depending in the method utilized. to quantify DLW methodology errors in four to five year olds that could affect the comparison with energy intake. energy expenditure (TEE, by DLW), was assessed during 14 days in 18 preschool children, who attended eight hours daily to day-care centres. Energy intake was determined by a combined method: food weighing during weekdays and recall after leaving the Centre (17h to sleep time) plus 24 h recall, during the weekend. Several assumptions affecting DLW total error were assessed to determine their influence in the comparison to energy intake (i.e. background variability, space ratio, proportion of water subject to fractionation, food quotient value). the individual mean energy expenditure was 1 373 ± 177 kcal and the energy intake (1 409 ± 161 kcal). The overall difference between intake and expenditure was 42.9 kcal/day (limits of agreement + 259.1 to -112.3 kcal/day). TEE measurement error only explained a minor quantity (2.4%), between both measurements, and the observed mean isotope dilution space was 1.030 ± 0.010 confirming the value utilized in adults studies. energy expenditure data is similar to other studies in preschool children. The small difference found between energy intake and expenditure may be attributed to the applied energy intake methodology, the homogeneous diet at care centres during the week-days and the lower DLW methodology error. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  14. Comparison of equations for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometer counts in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Brage, S; Riddoch, C

    2008-01-01

    calorimeter-based (CAL) equation (mixture of activities). Predicted physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was the main outcome variable. In comparison with DLW-predicted PAEE, both laboratory-derived equations significantly (PPAEE by 17% and 83%, respectively, when based on a 24-h...... prediction, while the TM equation significantly (PPAEE by 46%, when based on awake time only. In contrast, the CAL equation agreed better with the DLW equation under the awake time assumption. Predicted PAEE differ substantially between equations, depending on time-frame assumptions......, and interpretations of average levels of PAEE in children from available equations should be made with caution. Further development of equations applicable to free-living scenarios is needed....

  15. Disruption of the Class IIa HDAC Corepressor Complex Increases Energy Expenditure and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Gaur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs that recapitulate aspects of the exercise adaptive response have the potential to provide better treatment for diseases associated with physical inactivity. We previously observed reduced skeletal muscle class IIa HDAC (histone deacetylase transcriptional repressive activity during exercise. Here, we find that exercise-like adaptations are induced by skeletal muscle expression of class IIa HDAC mutants that cannot form a corepressor complex. Adaptations include increased metabolic gene expression, mitochondrial capacity, and lipid oxidation. An existing HDAC inhibitor, Scriptaid, had similar phenotypic effects through disruption of the class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Acute Scriptaid administration to mice increased the expression of metabolic genes, which required an intact class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Chronic Scriptaid administration increased exercise capacity, whole-body energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, and reduced fasting blood lipids and glucose. Therefore, compounds that disrupt class IIa HDAC function could be used to enhance metabolic health in chronic diseases driven by physical inactivity.

  16. Is playing exergames really exercising? A meta-analysis of energy expenditure in active video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Lin, Jih-Hsuan; Crouse, Julia

    2011-11-01

    This article reports a meta-analysis of energy expenditure (EE) of playing active video games (AVGs). In particular, heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), and EE were assessed and three moderators for the effects of AVGs--types of AVG, player age, and player weight status--were analyzed. The results show that playing AVGs significantly increased HR, VO2, and EE from resting. The effect sizes of playing AVGs on HR, VO2, and EE were similar to traditional physical activities. AVG type and player age were significant moderators for the effects of AVGs. The finding suggests that AVGs are effective technologies that may facilitate light- to moderate-intensity physical activity promotion.

  17. Physical activity energy expenditure vs cardiorespiratory fitness level in impaired glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Lærke P; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Johansen, Nanna B

    2015-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis: Little is known about the relative roles of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as determinants of glucose regulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of PAEE and CRF with markers of glucose metabolism, and to test...... the hypothesis that CRF modifies the association between PAEE and glucose metabolism. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional data from 755 adults from the Danish ADDITION-PRO study. On the basis of OGTT results, participants without known diabetes were classified as having normal glucose tolerance, isolated...... impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG + IGT or screen-detected diabetes mellitus. Markers of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were determined. PAEE was measured using a combined heart rate and movement sensor. CRF (maximal oxygen uptake...

  18. Young Children's Energy Expenditure and Moderate-to-vigorous Physical Activity on Weekdays and Weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Stodden, David F; Gao, Zan

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have examined young children's leisure- and school-based energy expenditure (EE) and moderateto-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The purpose of this study was to explore children's estimated EE rates and time spent in MVPA in 3 time segments: at-school, after-school, and weekends. A total of 187 second and third grade children from 2 elementary schools participated in the study. Accelerometers were used to assess children's 5-day EE and MVPA. Multiple 2 (Grade) × 2 (Gender) ANOVAs with repeated measures (Time) were conducted to examine the differences in the outcome variables. Significant time effects on EE and MVPA were revealed. Children's EE rate and minutes in MVPA per day were higher during after school and weekends than at school. Although children were more active outside of school, their MVPA during weekdays and weekends still fell far short of the recommended level of 60 minutes/day.

  19. Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress Programs Expression of Genes Involved in Appetite Control and Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. L.; Al-Shayeb, B.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in the womb shapes neurobiological and physiological outcomes of offspring in later life, including body weight regulation and metabolic profiles. Our previous work utilizing a centrifugation-induced hyper-gravity demonstrated significantly increased (8-15%) body mass in male, but not female, rats exposed throughout gestation to chronic 2-g from conception to birth. We reported a similar outcome in adult offspring exposed throughout gestation to Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS). Here we examine gene expression changes and the plasma of animals treated with our UVPS model to identify a potential role for prenatal stress in this hypergravity programming effect. Specifically we focused on appetite control and energy expenditure pathways in prenatally stressed adult (90-day-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  20. Energy intake adaptations to acute isoenergetic active video games and exercise are similar in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J P; Schwartz, C; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Tremblay, A; Thivel, D

    2015-11-01

    Although the impact of passive video games (PVGs) on energy intake has been previously explored in lean adolescents, data are missing on the nutritional adaptations to passive and active video games (AVGs) in obese adolescents. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic AVGs and exercise (EX) differently affect food consumption in youth. Nineteen obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-hour sessions in a crossover manner: control (CON; sitting on a chair), PVG (boxing game on Xbox 360), AVG (boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and EX (cycling). The EX was calibrated to generate the same energy expenditure as the AVG session. Energy expenditure was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake (buffet-style meal) and appetite sensations (visual analogue scales) were assessed after the sessions. As expected, mean energy expenditure was similar between AVG (370±4 kcal) and EX (358±3 kcal), both of which were significantly higher than PVG (125±7 kcal) and CON (98±5 kcal) (P<0.001). However, ad libitum food intake after the sessions was not significantly different between CON (1174±282 kcal), PVG (1124±281 kcal), AVG (1098±265 kcal) and EX (1091±290 kcal). Likewise, the energy derived from fat, carbohydrate and protein was not significantly different between sessions, and appetite sensations were not affected. Energy intake and food preferences after an hour of AVG or PVG playing remain unchanged, and isoenergetic sessions of AVG and EX at moderate intensity induce similar nutritional responses in obese adolescent boys.

  1. Effects of intracerebroventricular and intra-accumbens melanin-concentrating hormone agonism on food intake and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, Benjamin; Paradis, Eric; Samson, Pierre; Richard, Denis

    2009-03-01

    The brain melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system represents an anabolic system involved in energy balance regulation through influences exerted on the homeostatic and nonhomeostatic controls of food intake and energy expenditure. The present study was designed to further delineate the effect of the MCH system on energy balance regulation by assessing the actions of the MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) agonism on both food intake and energy expenditure after intracerebroventricular (third ventricle) and intra-nucleus-accumbens-shell (intraNAcSH) injections of a MCHR1 agonist. Total energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were assessed following injections in male Wistar rats using indirect calorimetry. Food intake was also measured. Pair-fed groups were added to evaluate changes in thermogenesis that would occur regardless of the meal size and its thermogenic response. Using such experimental conditions, we were able to demonstrate that acute MCH agonism in the brain, besides its orexigenic effect, induced a noticeable change in the utilization of the main metabolic fuels. In pair-fed animals, MCH significantly reduced lipid oxidation when it was injected in the third ventricle. Such an effect was not observed following the injection of MCH in the NAcSH, where MCH nonetheless strongly stimulated appetite. The present results further delineate the influence of MCH on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation while confirming the key role of the NAcSH in the effects of the MCH system on food intake.

  2. The doubly-labelled water method for measuring energy expenditure. Technical recommendations for use in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The doubly-labelled water method using stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, is rapidly becoming established as an important new tool for investigating energy metabolism. It is the first genuinely non-invasive method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living people, providing estimates of habitual expenditure over a time period of 10-20 days. The accuracy and precision of these estimates should be superior to those obtained by traditional factorial methods. The DLW method involves several assumptions about the behaviour of the isotopes, the body water pool and the exchange rates within that pool in the labelled animal. These assumptions are: (1) The volume of the body water pool remains constant throughout the measurement period. (2) The rates of water influx, and water and CO 2 efflux are constant throughout the measurement period. (3) The isotopes label only the H 2 O and CO 2 in the body. (4) The isotopes leave the body only in the form of H 2 O and CO 2 . (5) The concentrations of the isotopes in H 2 O and CO 2 leaving the body are the same as those in body water at that time (i.e. there is no isotopic fractionation). (6) No H 2 O or CO 2 that has left the body re-enters the body. (7) The natural abundance, or ''background'' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. The recommendations presented in this document are based on a variety of criteria including: (a) which procedure among several is theoretically correct in a given application; (b) which procedure is simplest and least prone to methodological errors; and (c) which procedure yields the lowest error in validation studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 knockout mice exhibit enhanced energy expenditure through thermogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohsuke Hanaoka

    Full Text Available Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and maintain extracellular matrix homeostasis. Although TIMP-3 has multiple functions (e.g., apoptosis, inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor, and inhibition of TNFα converting enzyme, its roles in thermogenesis and metabolism, which influence energy expenditure and can lead to the development of metabolic disorders when dysregulated, are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether TIMP-3 is implicated in metabolism by analyzing TIMP-3 knockout (KO mice. TIMP-3 KO mice had higher body temperature, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production than wild-type (WT mice, although there were no differences in food intake and locomotor activity. These results suggest that metabolism is enhanced in TIMP-3 KO mice. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of PPAR-δ, UCP-2, NRF-1 and NRF-2 in soleus muscle, and PGC-1α and UCP-2 in gastrocnemius muscle, was higher in TIMP-3 KO mice than in WT mice, suggesting that TIMP-3 deficiency may increase mitochondrial activity. When exposed to cold for 8 hours to induce thermogenesis, TIMP-3 KO mice had a higher body temperature than WT mice. In the treadmill test, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were higher in TIMP-3 KO mice both before and after starting exercise, and the difference was more pronounced after starting exercise. Our findings suggest that TIMP-3 KO mice exhibit enhanced metabolism, as reflected by a higher body temperature than WT mice, possibly due to increased mitochondrial activity. Given that TIMP-3 deficiency increases energy expenditure, TIMP-3 may present a novel therapeutic target for preventing metabolic disorders.

  4. Chronic high-sucrose diet increases fibroblast growth factor 21 production and energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Ryuya; Seino, Yusuke; Ogata, Hidetada; Murase, Masatoshi; Iida, Atsushi; Hosokawa, Kaori; Joo, Erina; Harada, Norio; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Excess carbohydrate intake causes obesity in humans. On the other hand, acute administration of fructose, glucose or sucrose in experimental animals has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of anti-obesity hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which contribute to reducing body weight. However, the secretion and action of GLP-1 and FGF21 in mice chronically fed a high-sucrose diet has not been investigated. To address the role of anti-obesity hormones in response to increased sucrose intake, we analyzed mice fed a high-sucrose diet, a high-starch diet or a normal diet for 15 weeks. Mice fed a high-sucrose diet showed resistance to body weight gain, in comparison with mice fed a high-starch diet or control diet, due to increased energy expenditure. Plasma FGF21 levels were highest among the three groups in mice fed a high-sucrose diet, whereas no significant difference in GLP-1 levels was observed. Expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) and β-klotho (KLB) mRNA in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in high sucrose-fed mice, suggesting increases in FGF21 sensitivity and energy expenditure. Expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) mRNA in liver and brown adipose tissue was also increased in high sucrose-fed mice. These results indicate that FGF21 production in liver and brown adipose tissue is increased in high-sucrose diet and participates in resistance to weight gain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Telemedical assessment of the level of energy expenditure in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Tomasz; Owoc, Jakub; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the energy expenditure above the elementary level of metabolism by undertaking regular physical activity causes body mass reduction and its maintenance at a healthy level. To remote assessment of the level of physical activity in a group of overweight and obese individuals. The research was conducted in the Department of Rehabilitation at the Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland, and included a group of 514 volunteers of both genders (38 ±12 years). The examined group was divided into three subgroups depending on the body mass index (BMI) level (I - normal, II - overweight, III - obese). The level of physical activity at home was assessed based of the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), conducted by means of a mobile application, and was compared with data registered by the accelerometer of a smartphone. The IPAQ-assessed level of the physical activity expressed in MET-min/week amounted to the following values: group I: 5190.38 ±6629.84, group II: 5099.53 ±6380.97, group III: 3939.31 ±4000.73; and the caloric cost (cal × week -1 ) amounted to: group I: 5825.47 ±7512.99, group II: 7204.09 ±9187.96), and group III: 7002.10 ±7296.22. Registered levels of physical activity (MET-min/week) were lower than IPAQ-assessed: in group I (3741.24 ±3958.29), in group II (2447.72 ±2156.44) and in group III (1927.42 ±1790.85) (p < 0.05). The average values of energy expenditure showed a declining tendency, together with an increase in the BMI. On the other hand, the total weekly caloric cost showed the lowest average values in the group with normal body mass.

  6. Litter size influences milk composition and energy expenditure of rat pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorotto, M.L.; Burrin, D.G.; Perez, M.; Reeds, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors wished to determine whether differences in milk intake were solely responsible for differences in the weight gain of rat pups suckled in litters of varying sizes (S = 4, C = 10, L = 16 pups/litter; 9 litters/group). Milk intake was measured (by 3 H 2 O dilution) at 4-6, 8-10, and 14-16 d of age (3 litters of each size/time point). Pup (water, protein, and fat) and milk composition (water, fat, protein and lactose) were analyzed at 6, 10, and 16 d. Dam milk output was positively correlated with litter size and duration of lactation. Milk fat concentration was inversely related to dam milk output (r 2 = 0.79). Weight gain was highest in S litters and lowest in L litters. Weight gain was highly correlated to the volume of milk consumed in S and C pups (r 2 = 81%), but was poorly correlated among L pups (r 2 = 23%). The different correlations may have resulted from (1) the disparate relationship between volume and energy intake of L pups compared to S and C pups, or (2) a higher maintenance energy expenditure in L pups up to 10 d of age determined by a comparison of the composition of weight gain and energy intake. Thus, the reduced weight gain of pups suckled in large litters resulted from changes in both milk energy intake and the efficiency of its utilization

  7. Body composition, energy expenditure and food intake in brazilian fashion models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Magna Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p1   The objective of this study was to compare body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR and food intake between adolescent fashion models and non-models. Thirty-three models and 33 non-models ranging in age from 15 to 18 years and matched for age and BMI participated in the study. Body composition was evaluated by plethysmography. RMR was determined using an indirect calorimetry method and food intake was evaluated based on three-day food records obtained on alternate days. No significant difference in mean body fat percentage was observed between groups (p>0.05. However, when the adolescents were classified according to body fat percentage, none of the models presented a body fat percentage lower than 15%, whereas 15.2% of the non-models presented a low body fat percentage (p0.05. Mean energy intake was 1480.93 ± 582.95 kcal in models and 1973.00 ± 557.63 kcal in non-models (p=0.001. In conclusion, most models presented a body composition within the limits considered to be normal for this phase of life. RMR was similar in the two groups. However, energy intake was lower among adolescent models compared to non-models.

  8. Forecasting of Energy Expenditure of Induced Seismicity with Use of Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Tomasz; Banka, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Coal mining in many Polish mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is accompanied by high levels of induced seismicity. In mining plants, the methods of shock monitoring are improved, allowing for more accurate localization of the occurring phenomena and determining their seismic energy. Equally important is the development of ways of forecasting seismic hazards that may occur while implementing mine design projects. These methods, depending on the length of time for which the forecasts are made, can be divided into: longterm, medium-term, short-term and so-called alarm. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful for the design of seam exploitations. The paper presents a method of predicting changes in energy expenditure of shock using a properly trained artificial neural network. This method allows to make long-term forecasts at the stage of the mine’s exploitation design, thus enabling the mining work plans to be reviewed to minimize the potential for tremors. The information given at the input of the neural network is indicative of the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation occurring in the selected, thick, resistant rock layers (tremor-prone layers). Energy changes, taking place in one or more tremor-prone layers are considered. These indicators describe only the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation accumulating in the rock as a consequence of the mining operation, but does not determine the amount of energy released during the destruction of a given volume of rock. In this process, the potential energy of elastic strain transforms into other, non-measurable energy types, including the seismic energy of recorded tremors. In this way, potential energy changes affect the observed induced seismicity. The parameters used are characterized by increases (declines) of specific energy with separation to occur before the hypothetical destruction of the rock and after it. Additional input information is an index characterizing the rate of

  9. Studies on protein turnover and energy expenditure in chronically undernourished adults during stress of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Shetty, P.S.; Reeds, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Chronic undernutrition in man leads to adaptive responses which could reduce the requirements for dietary energy and protein. It is also possible that these adaptive responses, which are economical in nature, could lead to a decreased capacity for combating stress. Undernourished people are more susceptible to infections, and during these stresses, show different patterns of protein and energy metabolism from well-nourished subjects. Animal models have clearly shown a diminished response to tissue injury, in terms of the anabolic acute phase response. It is proposed to study the effect of prior nutritional status on the degree to which an infective stress stimulates the acute phase protein synthesis by the liver. In addition, the supply of amino acids to the liver in conditions of stress could come from the breakdown of body tissue proteins, particularly muscle. It is intended to study muscle protein turnover by the use of 13 C-leucine in undernourished subjects under conditions of stress. Since whole body protein turnover can be measured by two methods, using 15 N-glycine and 13 C-leucine, a comparison of these two methods will initially be made in chronically undernourished subjects. It is also intended to study daily energy expenditure in the subject by an isotopic method, i.e. the appearance of 13 CO 2 in the breath after the administration of 13 C-bicarbonate. (author). 8 refs

  10. Validation of Accelerometer-Based Energy Expenditure Prediction Models in Structured and Simulated Free-Living Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoye, Alexander H. K.; Conger, Scott A.; Connolly, Christopher P.; Imboden, Mary T.; Nelson, M. Benjamin; Bock, Josh M.; Kaminsky, Leonard A.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared accuracy of energy expenditure (EE) prediction models from accelerometer data collected in structured and simulated free-living settings. Twenty-four adults (mean age 45.8 years, 50% female) performed two sessions of 11 to 21 activities, wearing four ActiGraph GT9X Link activity monitors (right hip, ankle, both wrists) and a…

  11. OR25: Validity of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure for overweight older adults with and without diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, A. M.; Garrido, V.; Engberink, M.F.; Memelink, R. G.; Visser, M.; Weijs, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Predictive equations for resting energy expenditure (REE) are used in the treatment of overweight and obesity, but the validity of these equations in overweight older adults is unknown. This study evaluates which predictive REE equation is the best alternative to indirect calorimetry in

  12. Automatic heart rate normalization for accurate energy expenditure normalization : an analysis of activities of daily living and heart rate features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altini, M.; Penders, J.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Amft, O.D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". Background: Energy Expenditure (EE) estimation algorithms using Heart Rate (HR) or a combination of accelerometer and HR data suffer from large error due to

  13. Sensitivity analysis and comparison of two methods of using heart rate to represent energy expenditure during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate is an accurate and easy to use method to represent the energy expenditure during walking, based on physiological cost index (PCI). However, in some conditions the heart rate during walking does not reach to a steady state. Therefore, it is not possible to determine the energy expenditure by use of the PCI index. The total heart beat index (THBI) is a new method to solve the aforementioned problem. The aim of this research project was to find the sensitivity of both the physiological cost index (PCI) and total heart beat index (THBI). Fifteen normal subjects and ten patients with flatfoot disorder and two subjects with spinal cord injury were recruited in this research project. The PCI and THBI indexes were determined by use of heart beats with respect to walking speed and total distance walked, respectively. The sensitivity of PCI was more than that of THBI index in the three groups of subjects. Although the PCI and THBI indexes are easy to use and reliable parameters to represent the energy expenditure during walking, their sensitivity is not high to detect the influence of some orthotic interventions, such as use of insoles or using shoes on energy expenditure during walking.

  14. Validity and reproducibility of crutch force and heart rate measurements to assess energy expenditure of paraplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Baardman, Gert; van 't Hof, Martin A.; Boom, H.B.K.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the validity and reproducibility of heart rate (HR) and crutch force measurements to estimate energy expenditure during paraplegic walking. Usefulness of these outcome measures in comparative trials was assessed in terms of responsiveness. Design: Cross-sectional validity was

  15. Energy expenditure estimation in beta-blocker-medicated cardiac patients by combining heart rate and body movement data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraal, Jos J.; Sartor, Francesco; Papini, Gabriele; Stut, Wim; Peek, Niels; Kemps, Hareld Mc; Bonomi, Alberto G.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of energy expenditure provides an opportunity to monitor physical activity during cardiac rehabilitation. However, the available assessment methods, based on the combination of heart rate (HR) and body movement data, are not applicable for patients using beta-blocker medication.

  16. Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with 2-h insulin independently of obesity among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Bjerregaard, Peter; Brage, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous populations throughout the Arctic are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The role of physical activity in relation to glucose metabolism in Arctic populations is not well studied. We examined the association between objectively measured...... physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose metabolism in a population-based study of adult Inuit in Greenland....

  17. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  18. Energy expenditure, nestling age, and brood size : an experimental study of parental behavior in the great tit Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, JJ; Tinbergen, JM

    1999-01-01

    A brood manipulation experiment on great tits Parus major was performed to study the effects of nestling age and brood size on parental care and offspring survival. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of females feeding nestlings of 6 and 12 days of age was measured using the doubly-labeled water

  19. The contribution of body composition, substrates and hormones to the variability in energy expenditure and substrate utilization in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A.; Buemann, Benjamin; Christensen, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate use were measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers on a fixed physical program and related to body composition and plasma concentrations of various substrates and thermogenic hormones. Fifty premenopausal women with a wide range of ...

  20. Comparison of energy expenditure, body composition, metabolic disorders, and energy intake between obese children with a history of craniopharyngioma and children with multifactorial obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomer, Ilanit; Saure, Carola; Caminiti, Carolina; Ramos, Javier Gonzales; Zuccaro, Graciela; Brea, Mercedes; Bravo, Mónica; Maza, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a histologically benign brain malformation with a fundamental role in satiety modulation, causing obesity in up to 52% of patients. To evaluate cardiovascular risk factors, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and energy intake in craniopharyngioma patients and to compare the data with those from children with multifactorial obesity. All obese children and adolescents who underwent craniopharyngioma resection and a control group of children with multifactorial obesity in follow-up between May 2012 and April 2013. Anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance, indirect calorimetry, energy intake, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and dyslipidemia were evaluated. Twenty-three patients with craniopharyngioma and 43 controls were included. Children with craniopharyngioma-related obesity had a lower fat-free mass percentage (62.4 vs. 67.5; p=0.01) and a higher fat mass percentage (37.5 vs. 32.5; p=0.01) compared to those with multifactorial obesity. A positive association was found between %REE and %fat-free mass in subjects with multifactorial obesity (68±1% in normal REE vs. 62.6±1% in low REE; p=0.04), but not in craniopharyngioma patients (62±2.7 in normal REE vs. 61.2±1.8% in low REE; p=0.8). No differences were found in metabolic involvement or energy intake. REE was lower in craniopharyngioma patients compared to children with multifactorial obesity regardless of the amount of fat-free mass, suggesting that other factors may be responsible for the lower REE.

  1. Smoking is associated with increased resting energy expenditure in the general population: The NEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw, Lisanne L; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rosendaal, Frits R; de Mutsert, Renée; Gast, Karin B; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2015-11-01

    Animal studies and human studies in small selected populations have shown a positive association between nicotine smoking and resting energy expenditure (REE), but data in large cohorts are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association between smoking behavior and REE in a large, population-based study. Population-based cross-sectional study. In this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study (n=6673), we included participants with REE measurement by indirect calorimetry who were not using lipid or glucose lowering drugs (n=1189). We used linear regression analysis to examine the association of smoking status (never, former, occasional, current smoker) and smoking quantity (pack years) with REE per kilogram (kg) fat free mass (FFM) and with REE adjusted for FFM. Models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, physical activity, energy intake and body mass index (BMI). Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 55.2 (5.9) years and BMI was 26.3 (4.4) kg/m(2). 60% of the participants were women. Mean (SD) REE/FFM (kcal/day/kg FFM) was for male never smokers 25.1 (2.0), male current smokers 26.4 (2.8), female never smokers 28.9 (2.5) and female current smokers 30.1 (3.7). After adjustment, only current smokers had a higher REE/FFM (mean difference 1.28, 95% CI 0.64, 1.92), and a higher REE adjusted for FFM (mean difference 60.3 kcal/day, 95% CI 29.1, 91.5), compared with never smokers. There was no association between pack years and REE/FFM (mean difference -0.01, 95% CI -0.06, 0.04) or REE adjusted for FFM (mean difference 0.2, 95% CI -2.4, 2.8) in current smokers. Current smoking is associated with a higher resting energy expenditure compared with never smoking in a large population-based cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hatha Yoga Practices: Energy Expenditure, Respiratory Changes and Intensity of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Uday Sankar; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, Omveer Singh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically observe the energy expenditure, exercise intensity and respiratory changes during a full yoga practice session. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2), carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2), pulmonary ventilation (V˙E), respiratory rate (Fr) and tidal volume (VT), were measured in 16 physical posture (asanas), five yoga breathing maneuvers (BM) and two types of meditation. Twenty male (age 27.3 ± 3.5 years, height 166.6 ± 5.4 cm and body weight 58.8 ± 9.6 kg) yoga instructors were studied. Their maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) was recorded. The exercise intensity in asanas was expressed in percentage V˙O2max . In asanas, exercise intensity varied from 9.9 to 26.5% of V˙O2max . Highest energy cost was 3.02 kcal min−1. In BM highest V˙E was 53.7 ± 15.5 l min−1. VT was 0.97 ± 0.59, 1.41 ± 1.27 and 1.28 ± l/breath with corresponding Fr of 14.0 ± 5.3, 10.0 ± 6.35, 10.0 ± 5.8 breaths/min. Average energy expenditure in asanas, BM and meditation were 2.29, 1.91 and 1.37 kcal min−1, respectively. Metabolic rate was generally in the range of 1-2 metabolic equivalents (MET) except in three asanas where it was >2 MET. V˙O2 was 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.04 l min−1 in meditation and Shavasana, respectively. Although yogic practices are low intensity exercises within lactate threshold, physical performance improvement is possible owing to both better economy of breathing by BM and also by improvement in cardiovascular reserve. Other factors such as psycho-physiological and better relaxation may contribute to it. PMID:21799675

  3. 1996: BMBF expenditures for energy resrearch. Draft of the departmental federal budget 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Departmental budget 30 of the 1996 draft federal budget covers the activities of the German Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology (BMBF). The Ministry is the result of an amalgamation, in 1994, of the former Ministry for Education and Science (BMBW) and the former Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). For this reason, the total budget as indicated in the figures for 1995 and 1996 cannot be compared directly. The 1996 departmental budget No. 30 comprises a total of DM 15.62 (1995: 15.53) billion. Nuclear technology and nuclear research have desappeared almost completely as budgetary items and can be found only under the headings of Safety Research (DM 81/78 million) and Decommissioning (DM 259/232 million). A similar development was observed in recent years also with the change in names of German national research centers. However, this does not mean that the BMBF has completely withdrawn from nuclear research. These activities are now covered under more general items, such as 'Renewable Energies, Economical Use of Energy, Conversion and Combustion Technologies', for which expenditures of DM 290 (285) million have been earmarked in 1996. The BMBF makes available approx. DM 303 (290) million for investments into research centers, and approx. DM 1.32 (1.31) billion DM to cover their operating costs. The nuclear research share in these funds decreases steadily. DM 467 (472) million have been earmarked for basic research. (orig.) [de

  4. Evaluation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during changing nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.J.; Winthrop, A.L.; Schoeller, D.A.; Filler, R.M.; Swyer, P.R.; Smith, J.; Heim, T.

    1988-01-01

    Change in abundance of 2 H and 18 O in dietary water during a doubly labeled water energy period may introduce error into the calculated carbon dioxide production rate (RCO 2 ). To examine the accuracy of 2 H 2 ( 18 )O during changing nutritional regimens, we compared 2 H 2 ( 18 )O and periodic open-circuit respiratory gas exchange (RGE) in postsurgical infants who were changing from parenteral to alternative parenteral and/or oral nutrition. The two methods were compared before and after correction for shifts in isotopic abundance of the infant water pools during the energy-expenditure period. Baseline corrections were predicted using the difference between abundances of the initial body water and final nutrient solutions. Before isotopic correction, 2 H 2 ( 18 )O underestimated RCO 2 in eight subjects by 11.8 +/- 20.1% (mean +/- SD). After correction, agreement between the two methods improved; the underestimate was then -8.7 +/- 12.9%. To obtain maximum precision of 2 H 2 ( 18 )O, subjects should be maintained on the same nutritional regimen before and during the study unless valid correction formulae are used

  5. Exploration of Energy Metabolism in the Mouse Using Indirect Calorimetry: Measurement of Daily Energy Expenditure (DEE) and Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Reitmeir, Peter; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2015-09-01

    Current comprehensive mouse metabolic phenotyping involves studying energy balance in cohorts of mice via indirect calorimetry, which determines heat release from changes in respiratory air composition. Here, we describe the measurement of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in mice. These well-defined metabolic descriptors serve as meaningful first-line read-outs for metabolic phenotyping and should be reported when exploring energy expenditure in mice. For further guidance, the issue of appropriate sample sizes and the frequency of sampling of metabolic measurements is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  7. 45-Year trends in women's use of time and household management energy expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Archer

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Relationships between socio-environmental factors and obesity are poorly understood due to a dearth of longitudinal population-level research. The objective of this analysis was to examine 45-year trends in time-use, household management (HM and energy expenditure in women. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Using national time-use data from women 19-64 years of age, we quantified time allocation and household management energy expenditure (HMEE from 1965 to 2010. HM was defined as the sum of time spent in food preparation, post-meal cleaning activities (e.g., dish-washing, clothing maintenance (e.g., laundry, and general housework. HMEE was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. RESULTS: The time allocated to HM by women (19-64 yrs decreased from 25.7 hr/week in 1965 to 13.3 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women decreasing by 16.6 hr/week and employed women by 6.7 hr/week (P<0.001. HMEE for non-employed women decreased 42% from 25.1 Mj/week (6004 kilocalories per week in 1965 to 14.6 Mj/week (3486 kcal/week in 2010, a decrement of 10.5 Mj/week or 1.5 Mj/day (2518 kcal/week; 360 kcal/day (P<0.001, whereas employed women demonstrated a 30% decrement of 3.9 Mj/week, 0.55 Mj/day (923 kcal/week, 132 kcal/day (P<0.001. The time women spent in screen-based media use increased from 8.3 hr/week in 1965 to 16.5 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women increasing 9.6 hr/week and employed women 7.5 hr/week (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: From 1965 to 2010, there was a large and significant decrease in the time allocated to HM. By 2010, women allocated 25% more time to screen-based media use than HM (i.e., cooking, cleaning, and laundry combined. The reallocation of time from active pursuits (i.e., housework to sedentary pastimes (e.g., watching TV has important health consequences. These results suggest that the decrement in HMEE may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of obesity in women during

  8. Comparison of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure among patients with schizophrenia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori,1 Tetsu Tomita,1,2 Hanako Furukori,3 Kazutoshi Kubo,1,4 Taku Nakagami,1,4 Sunao Kaneko1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hirosaki-Aiseikai Hospital, Hirosaki, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kuroishi-Akebono Hospital, Kuroishi, 4Department of Psychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, Japan Background: Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. The prediction of resting energy expenditure (REE is important to determine the energy expenditure of patients with schizophrenia. However, there is a lack of research concerning the most accurate REE predictive equations among Asian patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of the study reported here was to compare the validity of four REE equations for patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotics. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we recruited patients (n=110 who had a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, diagnosis of schizophrenia and were admitted to four psychiatric hospitals. The mean (± standard deviation age of these patients was 45.9±13.2 years. Anthropometric measurements (of height, weight, body mass index were taken at the beginning of the study. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry. Comparisons between the measured and estimated REEs from the four equations (Harris–Benedict, Mifflin–St Jeor, Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University, and Schofield were performed using simple linear regression analysis and Bland–Altman analysis. Results: Significant trends were found between the measured and predicted REEs for all four equations (P<0.001, with the Harris–Benedict equation demonstrating the strongest correlation in both men and women (r=0.617, P<0.001. In all participants, Bland–Altman analysis revealed that the Harris–Benedict and

  9. Accelerometer output and its association with energy expenditure during manual wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Y C; Kinnett-Hopkins, D; Rice, I M; Dysterheft, J L; Motl, R W

    2016-02-01

    This is an experimental design. This study examined the association between rates of energy expenditure (that is, oxygen consumption (VO2)) and accelerometer counts (that is, vector magnitude (VM)) across a range of speeds during manual wheelchair propulsion on a motor-driven treadmill. Such an association allows for the generation of cutoff points for quantifying the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during manual wheelchair propulsion. The study was conducted in the University Laboratory. Twenty-four manual wheelchair users completed a 6-min period of seated rest and three 6-min periods of manual wheelchair propulsion on a motor-driven wheelchair treadmill. The 6-min periods of wheelchair propulsion corresponded with three treadmill speeds (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mph) that elicited a range of physical activity intensities. Participants wore a portable metabolic unit and accelerometers on both wrists. Primary outcome measures included steady-state VO2 and VM, and the strength of association between VO2 and VM was based on the multiple correlation and squared multiple correlation coefficients from linear regression analyses. Strong linear associations were established between VO2 and VM for the left (R=0.93±0.44; R2=0.87±0.19), right (R=0.95±0.37; R2=0.90±0.14) and combined (R=0.94±0.38; R2=0.88±0.15) accelerometers. The linear relationship between VO2 and VM for the left, right and combined wrists yielded cutoff points for MVPA of 3659 ±1302, 3630±1403 and 3644±1339 counts min(-1), respectively. We provide cutoff points based on the linear association between energy expenditure and accelerometer counts for estimating time spent in MVPA during manual wheelchair propulsion using wrist-worn accelerometry. The similarity across wrist location permits flexibility in selecting a location for wrist accelerometry placement.

  10. Energy intake over 2 days is unaffected by acute sprint interval exercise despite increased appetite and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Kristine; Olver, T Dylan; Abbott, Kolten C; Lemon, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    A cumulative effect of reduced energy intake, increased oxygen consumption, and/or increased lipid oxidation could explain the fat loss associated with sprint interval exercise training (SIT). This study assessed the effects of acute sprint interval exercise (SIE) on energy intake, subjective appetite, appetite-related peptides, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio over 2 days. Eight men (25 ± 3 years, 79.6 ± 9.7 kg, body fat 13% ± 6%; mean ± SD) completed 2 experimental treatments: SIE and recovery (SIEx) and nonexercise control. Each 34-h treatment consisted of 2 consecutive 10-h test days. Between 0800-1800 h, participants remained in the laboratory for 8 breath-by-breath gas collections, 3 buffet-type meals, 14 appetite ratings, and 4 blood samples for appetite-related peptides. Treatment comparisons were made using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA or t tests. An immediate, albeit short-lived (SIEx (P SIEx (P = 0.04), elicited by the 1491-kJ (22%) greater energy expenditure over the first 24 h (P = 0.01). Despite its effects on oxygen consumption, appetite, and PYY, acute SIE did not affect energy intake. Consequently, if these dietary responses to SIE are sustained with regular SIT, augmentations in oxygen consumption and/or a substrate shift toward increased fat use postexercise are most likely responsible for the observed body fat loss with this type of exercise training.

  11. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity : human and rodent perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garland, Theodore; Schutz, Heidi; Chappell, Mark A.; Keeney, Brooke K.; Meek, Thomas H.; Copes, Lynn E.; Acosta, Wendy; Drenowatz, Clemens; Maciel, Robert C.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Kotz, Catherine M.; Eisenmann, Joey C.; Garland, Jr.

    Mammals expend energy in many ways, including basic cellular maintenance and repair, digestion, thermoregulation, locomotion, growth and reproduction. These processes can vary tremendously among species and individuals, potentially leading to large variation in daily energy expenditure (DEE).

  12. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  13. Bioactive food stimulants of sympathetic activity: effect on 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, A; Jessen, A B

    2005-06-01

    Bioactive food ingredients influence energy balance by exerting weak thermogenic effects. We studied whether the thermogenic effect of a combination of capsaicin, green tea extract (catechins and caffeine), tyrosine, and calcium was maintained after 7-day treatment and whether local effects in the gastric mucosa were involved in the efficacy. The present study was designed as a 3-way crossover, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention. Department of Human Nutrition, RVAU, Denmark. A total of 19 overweight to obese men (BMI: 28.0+/-2.7 kg/m2) were recruited by advertising locally. The subjects took the supplements for a period of 7 days. The supplements were administrated as a simple supplement with the bioactive ingredients, a similar enterocoated version, or placebo. In all, 24-h energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidations, spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and heart rate were measured in respiration chambers on the seventh day of each test period. After adjustment for changes in body weight and SPA, 24-h EE was increased by 160 kJ/day (95% CI: 15-305) by the simple preparation as compared to placebo, whereas the enterocoated preparation had no such effect (53 kJ/day, -92 to 198); simple vs enterocoated versions (P=0.09). The simple preparation produced a deficit in 24-h energy balance of 193 kJ/day (49-338, P=0.03). Fat and carbohydrate oxidation were equally increased by the supplements. A supplement containing bioactive food ingredients increased daily EE by approximately 200 kJ or 2%, without raising the heart rate or any observed adverse effects. The lack of effect of the enterocoated preparation suggests that a local action of capsaicin in the gastric mucosa is a prerequisite for exerting the thermogenic effect.

  14. The difficulty with correlations: Energy expenditure and brain mass in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian K; Köhler, Meike

    2017-10-01

    Brain mass has been suggested to determine a mammal's energy expenditure. This potential dependence is examined in 48 species of bats. A correlation between characters may be direct or derived from shared correlations with intervening factors without a direct interaction. Basal rate of metabolism in these bats increases with brain mass: large brains are more expensive than small brains, and both brain mass and basal rate increase with body mass. Basal rate and brain mass also correlate with food habits in bats. Mass-independent basal rate weakly correlates with mass-independent brain mass, the correlation only accounting for 12% of the variation in basal rate, which disappears when the combined effects of body mass and food habits are deleted. The correlation between basal rate and brain mass seen in this and other studies usually accounts for bats. Most biological correlations are complicated and must be examined in detail before assurance can be given as to their bases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adipose Tissue CLK2 Promotes Energy Expenditure during High-Fat Diet Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatting, Maximilian; Rines, Amy K; Luo, Chi; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Sharabi, Kfir; Hall, Jessica A; Verdeguer, Francisco; Trautwein, Christian; Puigserver, Pere

    2017-02-07

    A promising approach to treating obesity is to increase diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but the regulation of this process remains unclear. Here we find that CDC-like kinase 2 (CLK2) is expressed in BAT and upregulated upon refeeding. Mice lacking CLK2 in adipose tissue exhibit exacerbated obesity and decreased energy expenditure during high-fat diet intermittent fasting. Additionally, tissue oxygen consumption and protein levels of UCP1 are reduced in CLK2-deficient BAT. Phosphorylation of CREB, a transcriptional activator of UCP1, is markedly decreased in BAT cells lacking CLK2 due to enhanced CREB dephosphorylation. Mechanistically, CREB dephosphorylation is rescued by the inhibition of PP2A, a phosphatase that targets CREB. Our results suggest that CLK2 is a regulatory component of diet-induced thermogenesis in BAT through increased CREB-dependent expression of UCP1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A stepwise validation of a wearable system for estimating energy expenditure in field-based research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumo, Martin; Mäder, Urs; Amft, Oliver; Tröster, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important contributor to a healthy lifestyle. Currently, standard sensor-based methods to assess PA in field-based research rely on a single accelerometer mounted near the body's center of mass. This paper introduces a wearable system that estimates energy expenditure (EE) based on seven recognized activity types. The system was developed with data from 32 healthy subjects and consists of a chest mounted heart rate belt and two accelerometers attached to a thigh and dominant upper arm. The system was validated with 12 other subjects under restricted lab conditions and simulated free-living conditions against indirect calorimetry, as well as in subjects' habitual environments for 2 weeks against the doubly labeled water method. Our stepwise validation methodology gradually trades reference information from the lab against realistic data from the field. The average accuracy for EE estimation was 88% for restricted lab conditions, 55% for simulated free-living conditions and 87% and 91% for the estimation of average daily EE over the period of 1 and 2 weeks

  18. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-06-30

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  19. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rogerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion. In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007. Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001 but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  20. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  1. National Energy Board 1992-93 estimates part III expenditure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Expenditure Plan is designed to be used as a reference document. As such, it contains several levels of detail to respond to the various needs of its audience. This Plan is divided into two sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the Program including a description, information on its background, objectives and planning perspective as well as performance information that forms the basis for the resources requested. Section 2 provides further information on costs and resources as well as special analyses that the reader may require to understand the Program more fully. Section 1 is preceded by details of Spending Authorities from Part 2 of the Estimates and Volume 2 of the Public Accounts. This is to provide continuity with other Estimates documents and to help in assessing the Program's financial performance over the past year. The format and organization of the document should be regarded as transitional. For the most part the document is organized to be consistent with the program structure approved for the National Energy Board. 16 figs

  2. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Relationship between Energy Expenditure Related Factors and Oxidative Stress in Follicular Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz Nejat; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI), total calorie intake and physical activity (PA) as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS) in follicular fluid (FF). This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients' BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001). The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03) and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02). MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  4. Effects of Active Video Games on Energy Expenditure in Adults: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Nirjhar; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the mean difference in energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adults between playing active video games (AVGs) compared with traditional video games (TVGs) or rest. A systematic search was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and Academic Search Premier between 1998 and April 2012 for relevant keywords, yielding 15 studies. EE and heart rate (HR) data were extracted, and random effects meta-analysis was performed. EE during AVG play was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29-2.34; I² = 94.2%) kcal/kg/hr higher, or about 108 kcal higher per hour for a 60-kg person, compared with TVG play. Mean HR was 21 (95% CI, 13.7-28.3; I² = 93.4%) beats higher per minute during AVG play compared with TVG play. There was wide variation in the EE and HR estimates across studies because different games were evaluated. Overall metabolic equivalent associated with AVG play was 2.62 (95% CI, 2.25-3.00; I² = 99.2%), equivalent to a light activity level. Most studies had low risk of bias due to proper study design and use of indirect calorimetry to measure EE. AVGs may be used to replace sedentary screen time (eg, television watching or TVG play) with light activity in healthy adults.

  5. Independent association of resting energy expenditure with blood pressure: confirmation in populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creber, Chloe; Cooper, Richard S; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Lambert, Estelle V; Forrester, Terrence E; Schoeller, Dale; Riesen, Walter; Korte, Wolfgang; Cao, Guichan; Luke, Amy; Dugas, Lara R

    2018-01-10

    Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, however, the physiologic mechanisms linking increased adiposity to elevations in blood pressure are not well described. An increase in resting energy expenditure (REE) is an obligatory consequence of obesity. Previous survey research has demonstrated that REE is an independent predictor of blood pressure, and eliminates the co-linear association of body mass index. This observation has received little attention and there have been no attempts to provide a causal explanation. At baseline in an international comparative study on obesity, 289 participants aged 25-44 were recruited from communities in the US, the Seychelles, Ghana and South Africa and had REE measured with indirect calorimetry. All participants were thought to be free of major illness. In multivariate regression models, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with REE (p < 0.01), while body mass index and fat mass were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01, and p < 0.05 respectively), but not diastolic blood pressure. These data confirm previous reports and suggest that a common physiologic abnormality links REE and blood pressure. Elevated catecholamines, a putative metabolic characteristic of obesity, is a possible candidate to explain this association. The direct role of excess adipose tissue is open to question.

  6. National Energy Board 1992-93 estimates part III expenditure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This Expenditure Plan is designed to be used as a reference document. As such, it contains several levels of detail to respond to the various needs of its audience. This Plan is divided into two sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the Program including a description, information on its background, objectives and planning perspective as well as performance information that forms the basis for the resources requested. Section 2 provides further information on costs and resources as well as special analyses that the reader may require to understand the Program more fully. Section 1 is preceded by details of Spending Authorities from Part 2 of the Estimates and Volume 2 of the Public Accounts. This is to provide continuity with other Estimates documents and to help in assessing the Program`s financial performance over the past year. The format and organization of the document should be regarded as transitional. For the most part the document is organized to be consistent with the program structure approved for the National Energy Board. 16 figs.

  7. Unobtrusive measurement of indoor energy expenditure using an infrared sensor-based activity monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bosun; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an unobtrusive energy expenditure (EE) measurement system using an infrared (IR) sensor-based activity monitoring system to measure indoor activities and to estimate individual quantitative EE. IR-sensor activation counts were measured with a Bluetooth-based monitoring system and the standard EE was calculated using an established regression equation. Ten male subjects participated in the experiment and three different EE measurement systems (gas analyzer, accelerometer, IR sensor) were used simultaneously in order to determine the regression equation and evaluate the performance. As a standard measurement, oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured by a portable metabolic system (Metamax 3X, Cortex, Germany). A single room experiment was performed to develop a regression model of the standard EE measurement from the proposed IR sensor-based measurement system. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were done to compare the performance of the IR system with that of the Actigraph system. We determined that our proposed IR-based EE measurement system shows a similar correlation to the Actigraph system with the standard measurement system.

  8. Effect of music by Mozart on energy expenditure in growing preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul; Reifen, Ram; Ashbel, Gina; Mandel, Dror

    2010-01-01

    The rate of weight gain in preterm infants who are exposed to music seems to improve. A potential mechanism could be increased metabolic efficiency; therefore, we conducted this study to test the hypothesis that music by Mozart reduces resting energy expenditure (REE) in growing healthy preterm infants. DESIGN. A prospective, randomized clinical trial with crossover was conducted in 20 healthy, appropriate-weight-for-gestational-age, gavage-fed preterm infants. Infants were randomly assigned to be exposed to a 30-minute period of Mozart music or no music on 2 consecutive days. Metabolic measurements were performed by indirect calorimetry. REE was similar during the first 10-minute period of both randomization groups. During the next 10-minute period, infants who were exposed to music had a significantly lower REE than when not exposed to music (P = .028). This was also true during the third 10-minute period (P = .03). Thus, on average, the effect size of music on REE is a reduction of approximately 10% to 13% from baseline, an effect obtained within 10 to 30 minutes. Exposure to Mozart music significantly lowers REE in healthy preterm infants. We speculate that this effect of music on REE might explain, in part, the improved weight gain that results from this "Mozart effect."

  9. Impact of metabolic syndrome on resting energy expenditure in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carolina Q D; Santos, Jacqueline A P; Quinto, Beata M R; Marrocos, Mauro S M; Teixeira, Andrei A; Rodrigues, Cássio J O; Batista, Marcelo C

    2016-10-01

    Resting energy expenditure (REE) changes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may contribute to mortality increase. The obesity and inflammation is associated with high REE and when not compensated by adequate intake, may determine an unfavorable clinical outcome in this population. We aimed to evaluate the influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on REE in CKD patients. One hundred eighty-three patients were stratified according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and divided in groups: without CKD (GFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) and CKD (GFR Patients without MetS, REE correlated with estimated GFR and the protein equivalent (r = 0.33, P patients, these correlations were not observed. The presence of CKD is independently associated with reduced REE. The observed decrease in REE is reversed in patients with MetS independent of renal function. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Subnormal energy expenditure: a putative causal factor in the weight gain induced by treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R; Lundsgaard, C; Lorenzen, J; Toubro, S; Perrild, H; Krog-Mikkelsen, I; Astrup, A

    2006-03-01

    To examine the causes of weight gain occurring as an adverse effect of treatment of hyperthyroidism. We measured 24-h energy expenditure (EE), body composition and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in eight patients before and 1 year after treatment of hyperthyroidism was initiated, and eight controls. One year after initiation of treatment thyrotropin was normalized, thyroid hormones had fallen to the lower end of the reference range and fat mass had increased by 3.5 kg (p hyperthyroid patients before treatment than in controls (p = 0.003), and treatment decreased 24-h EE by 1.9 MJ/day (p = 0.001). After treatment, 24-h EE, adjusted for FFM, was similar to the controls. Multiple regression analyses showed that the suppressed EE could partly be attributed to an iatrogenic suppression of thyroid hormones, resulting in lower sleeping EE. Twenty-four hour SPA was normal in the hyperthyroid state, but decreased after treatment by 21% (p = 0.045), to a level not significantly different, but still below that of the controls. The study suggests that weight gain during treatment of hyperthyroidism might be due to subnormal levels of EE and SPA caused by a suppression of the thyroid hormone to a level in the lower end of the normal range.

  11. An artificial neural network model of energy expenditure using nonintegrated acceleration signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothney, Megan P; Neumann, Megan; Béziat, Ashley; Chen, Kong Y

    2007-10-01

    Accelerometers are a promising tool for characterizing physical activity patterns in free living. The major limitation in their widespread use to date has been a lack of precision in estimating energy expenditure (EE), which may be attributed to the oversimplified time-integrated acceleration signals and subsequent use of linear regression models for EE estimation. In this study, we collected biaxial raw (32 Hz) acceleration signals at the hip to develop a relationship between acceleration and minute-to-minute EE in 102 healthy adults using EE data collected for nearly 24 h in a room calorimeter as the reference standard. From each 1 min of acceleration data, we extracted 10 signal characteristics (features) that we felt had the potential to characterize EE intensity. Using these data, we developed a feed-forward/back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) model with one hidden layer (12 x 20 x 1 nodes). Results of the ANN were compared with estimations using the ActiGraph monitor, a uniaxial accelerometer, and the IDEEA monitor, an array of five accelerometers. After training and validation (leave-one-subject out) were completed, the ANN showed significantly reduced mean absolute errors (0.29 +/- 0.10 kcal/min), mean squared errors (0.23 +/- 0.14 kcal(2)/min(2)), and difference in total EE (21 +/- 115 kcal/day), compared with both the IDEEA (P types under free-living conditions.

  12. Validation of Energy Expenditure Prediction Models Using Real-Time Shoe-Based Motion Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yun; Lai, Ying-Chih; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Su, Pei-Fang; Chang, Chih-Han

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to verify and compare the accuracy of energy expenditure (EE) prediction models using shoe-based motion detectors with embedded accelerometers. Three physical activity (PA) datasets (unclassified, recognition, and intensity segmentation) were used to develop three prediction models. A multiple classification flow and these models were used to estimate EE. The "unclassified" dataset was defined as the data without PA recognition, the "recognition" as the data classified with PA recognition, and the "intensity segmentation" as the data with intensity segmentation. The three datasets contained accelerometer signals (quantified as signal magnitude area (SMA)) and net heart rate (HR net ). The accuracy of these models was assessed according to the deviation between physically measured EE and model-estimated EE. The variance between physically measured EE and model-estimated EE expressed by simple linear regressions was increased by 63% and 13% using SMA and HR net , respectively. The accuracy of the EE predicted from accelerometer signals is influenced by the different activities that exhibit different count-EE relationships within the same prediction model. The recognition model provides a better estimation and lower variability of EE compared with the unclassified and intensity segmentation models. The proposed shoe-based motion detectors can improve the accuracy of EE estimation and has great potential to be used to manage everyday exercise in real time.

  13. A joint-space numerical model of metabolic energy expenditure for human multibody dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo H; Roberts, Dustyn

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic energy expenditure (MEE) is a critical performance measure of human motion. In this study, a general joint-space numerical model of MEE is derived by integrating the laws of thermodynamics and principles of multibody system dynamics, which can evaluate MEE without the limitations inherent in experimental measurements (phase delays, steady state and task restrictions, and limited range of motion) or muscle-space models (complexities and indeterminacies from excessive DOFs, contacts and wrapping interactions, and reliance on in vitro parameters). Muscle energetic components are mapped to the joint space, in which the MEE model is formulated. A constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm is established to estimate the model parameters from experimental walking data also used for initial validation. The joint-space parameters estimated directly from active subjects provide reliable MEE estimates with a mean absolute error of 3.6 ± 3.6% relative to validation values, which can be used to evaluate MEE for complex non-periodic tasks that may not be experimentally verifiable. This model also enables real-time calculations of instantaneous MEE rate as a function of time for transient evaluations. Although experimental measurements may not be completely replaced by model evaluations, predicted quantities can be used as strong complements to increase reliability of the results and yield unique insights for various applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Bach music in preterm infants: no 'Mozart effect' on resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, H Rosenfeld; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Lubetzky, R

    2014-02-01

    To study whether Johan Sebastian Bach music has a lowering effect on resting energy expenditure (REE) similar to that of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart music. Prospective, randomized clinical trial with cross-over in 12 healthy, appropriate weights for gestational age (GA), gavage fed, metabolically stable, preterm infants. Infants were randomized to a 30-min period of either Mozart or Bach music or no music over 3 consecutive days. REE was measured every minute by indirect calorimetry. Three REE measurements were performed in each of 12 infants at age 20±15.8 days. Mean GA was 30.17±2.44 weeks and mean birthweight was 1246±239 g. REE was similar during the first 10-min of all three randomization periods. During the next 10-min period, infants exposed to music by Mozart had a trend toward lower REE than when not exposed to music. This trend became significant during the third 10-min period. In contrast, music by Bach or no music did not affect significantly REE during the whole study. On average, the effect size of Mozart music upon REE was a reduction of 7.7% from baseline. Mozart music significantly lowers REE in preterm infants, whereas Bach music has no similar effect. We speculate that 'Mozart effect' must be taken into account when incorporating music in the therapy of preterm infants, as not all types of music may have similar effects upon REE and growth.

  15. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Energy Expenditure Evaluation in Humans and Non-Human Primates by SenseWear Armband. Validation of Energy Expenditure Evaluation by SenseWear Armband by Direct Comparison with Indirect Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Francesca; Chavez, Alberto O.; Davalli, Alberto M.; Naegelin, Terry; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Frost, Patricia; Musi, Nicolas; Folli, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare and validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA) placed on the arm (SWA ARM) and on the back (SWA BACK) in healthy humans during resting and a cycle-ergometer exercise and to evaluate the SWA to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) in healthy baboons. Methods We studied 26 (15F/11M) human subjects wearing SWA in two different anatomical sites (arm and back) during resting and a cycle-ergometer test and directly compared these results with indirect calorimetry evaluation (IC), performed at the same time. We then inserted the SWA in a metabolic jacket for baboons and evaluated the TEE and REE in free living condition for 6 days in 21 (8F/13M) non-human primates. Results In humans we found a good correlation between SWA place on the ARM and on the BACK with IC during the resting experiment (1.1±0.3 SWAs, 1±0.2 IC kcal/min) and a slight underestimation in the SWAs data compared with IC during the cycle-ergometer exercise (5±1.9 SWA ARM, 4.5±1.5 SWA BACK and 5.4±2.1 IC kcal/min). In the non-human primate (baboons) experiment SWA estimated a TEE of 0.54±0.009 kcal/min during free living and a REE of 0.82±0.06 kcal/min. Conclusion SWA, an extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus, provides quite accurate measurements of energy expenditure in humans and in baboons. Energy expenditure data obtained with SWA are highly correlated with the data obtained with “gold standard”, IC, in humans. PMID:24069218

  17. Energy expenditure evaluation in humans and non-human primates by SenseWear Armband. Validation of energy expenditure evaluation by SenseWear Armband by direct comparison with indirect calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Francesca; Lertwattanarak, Raweewan; Luzi, Livio; Chavez, Alberto O; Davalli, Alberto M; Naegelin, Terry; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Frost, Patricia; Musi, Nicolas; Folli, Franco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA) placed on the arm (SWA ARM) and on the back (SWA BACK) in healthy humans during resting and a cycle-ergometer exercise and to evaluate the SWA to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) in healthy baboons. We studied 26 (15F/11M) human subjects wearing SWA in two different anatomical sites (arm and back) during resting and a cycle-ergometer test and directly compared these results with indirect calorimetry evaluation (IC), performed at the same time. We then inserted the SWA in a metabolic jacket for baboons and evaluated the TEE and REE in free living condition for 6 days in 21 (8F/13M) non-human primates. In humans we found a good correlation between SWA place on the ARM and on the BACK with IC during the resting experiment (1.1±0.3 SWAs, 1±0.2 IC kcal/min) and a slight underestimation in the SWAs data compared with IC during the cycle-ergometer exercise (5±1.9 SWA ARM, 4.5±1.5 SWA BACK and 5.4±2.1 IC kcal/min). In the non-human primate (baboons) experiment SWA estimated a TEE of 0.54±0.009 kcal/min during free living and a REE of 0.82±0.06 kcal/min. SWA, an extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus, provides quite accurate measurements of energy expenditure in humans and in baboons. Energy expenditure data obtained with SWA are highly correlated with the data obtained with "gold standard", IC, in humans.

  18. Commercial porters of eastern Nepal: health status, physical work capacity, and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malville, N J; Byrnes, W C; Lim, H A; Basnyat, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare full-time hill porters in eastern Nepal with part-time casual porters engaged primarily in subsistence farming. The 50 porters selected for this study in Kenja (elevation 1,664 m) were young adult males of Tibeto-Nepali origin. Following standardized interviews, anthropometry, and routine physical examinations, the porters were tested in a field laboratory for physiological parameters associated with aerobic performance. Exercise testing, using a step test and indirect calorimetry, included a submaximal assessment of economy and a maximal-effort graded exercise test. Energy expenditure was measured in the field during actual tumpline load carriage. No statistically significant differences were found between full-time and part-time porters with respect to age, anthropometric characteristics, health, nutritional status, or aerobic power. Mean VO2 peak was 2.38 +/- 0.27 L/min (47.1 +/- 5.3 ml/kg/min). Load-carrying economy did not differ significantly between porter groups. The relationship between VO2 and load was linear over the range of 10-30 kg with a slope of 9 +/- 4 ml O2/min per kg of load. During the field test of actual work performance, porters expended, on average, 348 +/- 68 kcal/hr in carrying loads on the level and 408 +/- 60 kcal/hr in carrying loads uphill. Most porters stopped every 2 min, on average, to rest their loads briefly on T-headed resting sticks (tokmas). The technique of self-paced, intermittent exercise together with the modest increase in energy demands for carrying increasingly heavier loads allows these individuals to regulate work intensity and carry extremely heavy loads without creating persistent medical problems.

  19. Influence of water depth on energy expenditure during aquatic walking in people post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyosok; Azurdia, Daniel; Jeng, Brenda; Jung, Taeyou

    2018-05-11

    This study aimed to investigate the metabolic cost during aquatic walking at various depths in people post stroke. The secondary purpose was to examine the differences in metabolic cost between aquatic walking and land walking among individuals post stroke. A cross-sectional research design is used. Twelve participants post stroke (aged 55.5 ± 13.3 years) completed 6 min of walking in 4 different conditions: chest-depth, waist-depth, and thigh-depth water, and land. Data were collected on 4 separate visits with at least 48 hr in between. On the first visit, all participants were asked to walk in chest-depth water at their fastest speed. The walking speed was used as a reference speed, which was applied to the remaining 3 walking conditions. The order of remaining walking conditions was randomized. Energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), and minute ventilation (V E ) were measured with a telemetric metabolic system. Our findings showed statistically significant differences in EE, VO 2 , and V E among the 4 different walking conditions: chest-depth, waist-depth, and thigh-depth water, and land (all p stroke consume less energy in chest-depth water, which may allow them to perform prolonged duration of training. Thigh-depth water demonstrated greater EE compared with other water depths; thus, it can be recommended for time-efficient cardiovascular exercise. Waist-depth water showed similar EE to land walking, which may have been contributed by the countervailing effects of buoyancy and water resistance. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie L McKnight

    Full Text Available Mannoheptulose (MH, a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y. The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW, in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42. The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47. A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49 and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56 to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02 and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02. Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05 during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity.

  1. Municipal energy audit: a practical guide to the identification of energy expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This publication was designed to provide small- to medium-sized Canadian municipalities with a ready-to-use, practical guide to indentify energy consumption and costs in all those operations that normally fall under the control of municipal governments. The manual was based on 7 pilot audits conducted in Ottawa, Ontario, Montague and Summerside, Prince Edward Island, Granby, Quebec, Victoria, British Columbia, St. John, New Brunswick, and Winnipeg, Manitoba, from which summaries of energy consumption patterns were drawn. Audit analysis is explained for such municipal responsibilities as street lighting, water supply, sewage disposal, public transit, police and fire protection services, garbage collection and disposal, snow and ice control and road maintenance in general, with figures presented from the survey results. A description of the audit method and worksheet forms are also included. 3 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. Validating accelerometry estimates of energy expenditure across behaviours using heart rate data in a free-living seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Olivia; Burthe, Sarah; Daunt, Francis; Butler, Adam; Bishop, Charles; Green, Jonathan A

    2017-05-15

    Two main techniques have dominated the field of ecological energetics: the heart rate and doubly labelled water methods. Although well established, they are not without their weaknesses, namely expense, intrusiveness and lack of temporal resolution. A new technique has been developed using accelerometers; it uses the overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) of an animal as a calibrated proxy for energy expenditure. This method provides high-resolution data without the need for surgery. Significant relationships exist between the rate of oxygen consumption ( V̇ O 2 ) and ODBA in controlled conditions across a number of taxa; however, it is not known whether ODBA represents a robust proxy for energy expenditure consistently in all natural behaviours and there have been specific questions over its validity during diving, in diving endotherms. Here, we simultaneously deployed accelerometers and heart rate loggers in a wild population of European shags ( Phalacrocorax aristotelis ). Existing calibration relationships were then used to make behaviour-specific estimates of energy expenditure for each of these two techniques. Compared with heart rate-derived estimates, the ODBA method predicts energy expenditure well during flight and diving behaviour, but overestimates the cost of resting behaviour. We then combined these two datasets to generate a new calibration relationship between ODBA and V̇ O 2  that accounts for this by being informed by heart rate-derived estimates. Across behaviours we found a good relationship between ODBA and V̇ O 2 Within individual behaviours, we found useable relationships between ODBA and V̇ O 2  for flight and resting, and a poor relationship during diving. The error associated with these new calibration relationships mostly originates from the previous heart rate calibration rather than the error associated with the ODBA method. The equations provide tools for understanding how energy constrains ecology across the complex behaviour

  3. School beverage environment and children's energy expenditure associated with physical education class: an agent-based model simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-J; Xue, H; Kumanyika, S; Wang, Y

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity contributes to children's energy expenditure and prevents excess weight gain, but fluid replacement with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may diminish this benefit. The aim of this study was to explore the net energy expenditure (EE) after physical education (PE) class given the competition between water and SSB consumption for rehydration and explore environmental factors that may influence the net EE, e.g. PE duration, affordability of SSB and students' SSB preference. We built an agent-based model that simulates the behaviour of 13-year-old children in a PE class with nearby water fountains and SSB vending machines available. A longer PE class contributed to greater prevalence of dehydration and required more time for rehydration. The energy cost of a PE class with activity intensity equivalent to 45 min of jogging is about 300 kcal on average, i.e. 10-15% of average 13-year-old children's total daily EE. Adding an SSB vending machine could offset PE energy expenditure by as much as 90 kcal per child, which was associated with PE duration, students' pocket money and SSB preference. Sugar-sweetened beverage vending machines in school may offset some of the EE in PE classes. This could be avoided if water is the only readily available source for children's fluid replacement after class. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, M.B.; Prentice, A.M.; Coward, W.A.; Ceesay, S.M.; Strain, J.J.; McKenna, P.G.; Nevin, G.B.; Barker, M.E.; Hickey, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured simultaneously in 14 free-living adults over 15 d by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and for 2-4 separate days by heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Individual curves for HR vs oxygen consumption (VO2) were obtained and an HR (FLEX HR: 97 +/- 8 beats/min, range 84-113 beats/min) that discriminated between rest and activity was identified. Calibration curves were used to assign an energy value to daytime HR above FLEX HR. Below FLEX HR energy expenditure was taken as resting metabolism. Sleeping energy expenditure was assumed to be equal to basal metabolic rate. Average HR TEE (12.99 +/- 3.83 MJ/d) and average DLW TEE (12.89 +/- 3.80 MJ/d) were similar. HR TEE discrepancies ranged from -22.2% to +52.1%, with nine values lying within +/- 10% of DLW TEE estimates. The FLEX HR method provides a close estimation of the TEE of population groups. However, an increased number of sampling days may improve the precision of individual estimates of TEE

  5. The High Costs of Low-Grade Inflammation: Persistent Fatigue as a Consequence of Reduced Cellular-Energy Availability and Non-adaptive Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Tamara E; Vichaya, Elisabeth G; Chiu, Gabriel S; Dantzer, Robert; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2018-01-01

    Chronic or persistent fatigue is a common, debilitating symptom of several diseases. Persistent fatigue has been associated with low-grade inflammation in several models of fatigue, including cancer-related fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome. However, it is unclear how low-grade inflammation leads to the experience of fatigue. We here propose a model of an imbalance in energy availability and energy expenditure as a consequence of low-grade inflammation. In this narrative review, we discuss how chronic low-grade inflammation can lead to reduced cellular-energy availability. Low-grade inflammation induces a metabolic switch from energy-efficient oxidative phosphorylation to fast-acting, but less efficient, aerobic glycolytic energy production; increases reactive oxygen species; and reduces insulin sensitivity. These effects result in reduced glucose availability and, thereby, reduced cellular energy. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with increased willingness to exert effort under specific circumstances. Circadian-rhythm changes and sleep disturbances might mediate the effects of inflammation on cellular-energy availability and non-adaptive energy expenditure. In the second part of the review, we present evidence for these metabolic pathways in models of persistent fatigue, focusing on chronic fatigue syndrome and cancer-related fatigue. Most evidence for reduced cellular-energy availability in relation to fatigue comes from studies on chronic fatigue syndrome. While the mechanistic evidence from the cancer-related fatigue literature is still limited, the sparse results point to reduced cellular-energy availability as well. There is also mounting evidence that behavioral-energy expenditure exceeds the reduced cellular-energy availability in patients with persistent fatigue. This suggests that an inability to adjust energy expenditure to available resources might be one mechanism underlying persistent fatigue.

  6. Impacts of office design characteristics on human energy expenditure: developing a ''KINESIS'' model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassia, Stamatina T.; Baker, Nick V. [University of Cambridge, Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies, Department of Architecture, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Alexiou, Alexandros [University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Over the last few decades, research in public health has associated inactivity with a number of ailments and chronic diseases, such as colon cancer, type II diabetes, osteoporosis and coronary heart disease. In the belief that the office building substantially shapes occupant daily activity, this work draws upon qualitative and quantitative monitoring of human activity within office buildings during typical working weeks. This research is based on data collection results regarding the design of space in relation to energy expenditure and it presents a quantitative model (named KINESIS after the Greek word for activity) that, in the form of a set equation, can simulate and estimate the total energy expenditure per person per day in a given office layout. (orig.)

  7. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found.

  8. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Laura A; Robbins, Charles T; Shipley, Lisa A

    2003-01-01

    Many fruits contain high levels of available energy but very low levels of protein and other nutrients. The discrepancy between available energy and protein creates a physiological paradox for many animals consuming high-fruit diets, as they will be protein deficient if they eat to meet their minimum energy requirement. We fed young grizzly bears both high-energy pelleted and fruit diets containing from 1.6% to 15.4% protein to examine the role of diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis in dealing with high-energy-low-protein diets. Digestible energy intake at mass maintenance increased 2.1 times, and composition of the gain changed from primarily lean mass to entirely fat when the protein content of the diet decreased from 15.4% to 1.6%. Daily fat gain was up to three times higher in bears fed low-protein diets ad lib., compared with bears consuming the higher-protein diet and gaining mass at the same rate. Thus, bears eating fruit can either consume other foods to increase dietary protein content and reduce energy expenditure, intake, and potentially foraging time or overeat high-fruit diets and use diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis to deal with their skewed energy-to-protein ratio. These are not discrete options but a continuum that creates numerous solutions for balancing energy expenditure, intake, foraging time, fat accumulation, and ultimately fitness, depending on food availability, foraging efficiency, bear size, and body condition.

  9. Energy expenditure in adults living in developing compared with industrialized countries: a meta-analysis of doubly labeled water studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Lara R; Harders, Regina; Merrill, Sarah; Ebersole, Kara; Shoham, David A; Rush, Elaine C; Assah, Felix K; Forrester, Terrence; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Luke, Amy

    2011-02-01

    There is an assumption that people in developing countries have a higher total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) than do people in developed nations, but few objective data for this assertion exist. We conducted a meta-analysis of TEE and PAL by using data from countries that have a low or middle human development index (HDI) compared with those with a high HDI to better understand how energy-expenditure variables are associated with development status and population differences in body size. We performed a literature search for studies in which energy expenditure was measured by using doubly labeled water. Mean data on age, weight, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), TEE, and PAL were extracted, and HDI status was assessed. Pooled estimates of the mean effect by sex were obtained, and the extent to which age, weight, HDI status, and year of publication explained heterogeneity was assessed. A total of 98 studies (14 studies from low- or middle-HDI countries) that represented 183 cohorts and 4972 individuals were included. Mean (±SE) BMI was lower in countries with a low or middle HDI than in those with a high HDI for both men and women (22.7 ± 1.0 compared with 26.0 ± 0.7, respectively, in men and 24.3 ± 0.7 compared with 26.6 ± 0.4, respectively, in women). In meta-regression models, there was an inverse association of age (P developing and industrialized countries, which calls into question the role of energy expenditure in the cause of obesity at the population level.

  10. Does Renewable Energy Consumption and Health Expenditure Decrease Carbon Dioxide Emissions? Evidence for sub-Saharan Africa Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Apergis, Nicholas; Ben Jebli, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a number of panel methodological approaches to explore the link between per capita carbon dioxide emissions, per capita real income, renewable energy consumption and health expenditures for a panel of 42 sub-Saharan African countries, spanning the period 1995-2011. The empirical findings provide supportive of a long-run relationship among the variables. Granger causality reveals the presence of a short-run unidirectional causality running from real GDP to CO2 emissions, a b...

  11. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed duri...

  12. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Desiree D.; Walter, Cara; Dunham, Jason B.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: (1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; (2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and (3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution (grid spacing from 10 to 100 cm), reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  13. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.; Walter, C.; Dunham, J.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: 1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; 2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and 3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution, reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  14. An e-health intervention designed to increase workday energy expenditure by reducing prolonged occupational sitting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Scott J; Cooley, Paul D; Mainsbridge, Casey

    2014-01-01

    Desk-based employees face multiple workplace health hazards such as insufficient physical activity and prolonged sitting. The objective of this study was to increase workday energy expenditure by interrupting prolonged occupational sitting time and introducing short-bursts of physical activity to employees' daily work habits. Over a 13-week period participants (n=17) in the intervention group were regularly exposed to a passive prompt delivered through their desktop computer that required them to stand up and engage in a short-burst of physical activity, while the control group (n=17) was not exposed to this intervention. Instead, the control group continued with their normal work routine. All participants completed a pre- and post- intervention survey to estimate workplace daily energy expenditure (calories). There was a significant 2 (Group) × 2 (Test) interaction, F (1, 32)=9.26, p employee work-related energy expenditure. Engaging employees in regular short-bursts of physical activity during the workday resulted in reduced sitting time, which may have long-term effects on the improvement of employee health.

  15. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal A. Barwais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™ was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001 was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day. Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day, p < 0.001, moderate- (33% (1 h/day p < 0.001, vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day, p < 0.001, and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day, p < 0.001. Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns.

  16. Using GPS, accelerometry and heart rate to predict outdoor graded walking energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Müllenheim, P-Y; Chaudru, S; Emily, M; Gernigon, M; Mahé, G; Bickert, S; Prioux, J; Noury-Desvaux, B; Le Faucheur, A

    2018-02-01

    To determine the best method and combination of methods among global positioning system (GPS), accelerometry, and heart rate (HR) for estimating energy expenditure (EE) during level and graded outdoor walking. Thirty adults completed 6-min outdoor walks at speeds of 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0kmh -1 during three randomized outdoor walking sessions: one level walking session and two graded (uphill and downhill) walking sessions on a 3.4% and a 10.4% grade. EE was measured using a portable metabolic system (K4b 2 ). Participants wore a GlobalSat ® DG100 GPS receiver, an ActiGraph™ wGT3X+ accelerometer, and a Polar ® HR monitor. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were tested for EE predictions based on GPS speed and grade, accelerometer counts or HR-related parameters (alone and combined). Root-mean-square error (RMSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the models. Published speed/grade-, count-, and HR-based equations were also cross-validated. According to the LMMs, GPS was as accurate as accelerometry (RMSE=0.89-0.90kcalmin -1 ) and more accurate than HR (RMSE=1.20kcalmin -1 ) for estimating EE during level walking; GPS was the most accurate method for estimating EE during both level and uphill (RMSE=1.34kcalmin -1 )/downhill (RMSE=0.84kcalmin -1 ) walking; combining methods did not increase the accuracy reached using GPS (or accelerometry for level walking). The cross-validation results were in accordance with the LMMs, except for downhill walking. Our study provides useful information regarding the best method(s) for estimating EE with appropriate equations during level and graded outdoor walking. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy expenditure and affect responses to different types of active video game and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Javier; Murphy, Enda E; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG) and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses. Participants (N = 23) were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i) self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX), (ii) moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX), (iii) entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG) and (iv) fitness-themed video game (FT-VG). Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial. All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The [Formula: see text] (68.3±13.9%) and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min) was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05). No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively). The AVG's were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05) and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05). AVG's can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.

  18. Predicting physical activity energy expenditure in wheelchair users with a multisensor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, T E; Walhin, J P; Thompson, D; Bilzon, J L J

    2015-01-01

    To assess the error in predicting physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), using a multisensor device in wheelchair users, and to examine the efficacy of using an individual heart rate calibration (IC) method. 15 manual wheelchair users (36±10 years, 72±11 kg) completed 10 activities: resting, folding clothes, wheelchair propulsion on a 1% gradient (3456 and 7 km/h) and propulsion at 4 km/h (with an additional 8% of body mass, 2% and 3% gradient) on a motorised wheelchair treadmill. Criterion PAEE was measured using a computerised indirect calorimetry system. Participants wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart). They also performed an incremental arm crank ergometry test to exhaustion which permitted retrospective individual calibration of the Actiheart for the activity protocol. Linear regression analysis was conducted between criterion (indirect calorimetry) and estimated PAEE from the Actiheart using the manufacturer's proprietary algorithms (group calibration, GC) or IC. Bland-Altman plots were used and mean absolute error was calculated to assess the agreement between criterion values and estimated PAEE. Predicted PAEE was significantly (p<0.01) correlated with criterion PAEE (GC, r=0.76 and IC, r=0.95). The absolute bias ±95% limits of agreement were 0.51±3.75 and -0.22±0.96 kcal/min for GC and IC, respectively. Mean absolute errors across the activity protocol were 51.4±38.9% using GC and 16.8±15.8% using IC. PAEE can be accurately and precisely estimated using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor device, with integration of an IC. Interindividual variance in cardiovascular function and response to exercise is high in this population. Therefore, in manual wheelchair users, we advocate the use of an IC when using the Actiheart to predict PAEE.

  19. Influence of accelerometer type and placement on physical activity energy expenditure prediction in manual wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Tom Edward; Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Thompson, Dylan; Bilzon, James Lee John

    2015-01-01

    To assess the validity of two accelerometer devices, at two different anatomical locations, for the prediction of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in manual wheelchair users (MWUs). Seventeen MWUs (36 ± 10 yrs, 72 ± 11 kg) completed ten activities; resting, folding clothes, propulsion on a 1% gradient (3,4,5,6 and 7 km·hr-1) and propulsion at 4km·hr-1 (with an additional 8% body mass, 2% and 3% gradient) on a motorised wheelchair treadmill. GT3X+ and GENEActiv accelerometers were worn on the right wrist (W) and upper arm (UA). Linear regression analysis was conducted between outputs from each accelerometer and criterion PAEE, measured using indirect calorimetry. Subsequent error statistics were calculated for the derived regression equations for all four device/location combinations, using a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis. Accelerometer outputs at each anatomical location were significantly (p < .01) associated with PAEE (GT3X+-UA; r = 0.68 and GT3X+-W; r = 0.82. GENEActiv-UA; r = 0.87 and GENEActiv-W; r = 0.88). Mean ± SD PAEE estimation errors for all activities combined were 15 ± 45%, 14 ± 50%, 3 ± 25% and 4 ± 26% for GT3X+-UA, GT3X+-W, GENEActiv-UA and GENEActiv-W, respectively. Absolute PAEE estimation errors for devices varied, 19 to 66% for GT3X+-UA, 17 to 122% for GT3X+-W, 15 to 26% for GENEActiv-UA and from 17.0 to 32% for the GENEActiv-W. The results indicate that the GENEActiv device worn on either the upper arm or wrist provides the most valid prediction of PAEE in MWUs. Variation in error statistics between the two devices is a result of inherent differences in internal components, on-board filtering processes and outputs of each device.

  20. Estimation of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure during Free-Living from Wrist Accelerometry in UK Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom White

    Full Text Available Wrist-worn accelerometers are emerging as the most common instrument for measuring physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies, though little is known about the relationship between wrist acceleration and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE.1695 UK adults wore two devices simultaneously for six days; a combined sensor and a wrist accelerometer. The combined sensor measured heart rate and trunk acceleration, which was combined with a treadmill test to yield a signal of individually-calibrated PAEE. Multi-level regression models were used to characterise the relationship between the two time-series, and their estimations were evaluated in an independent holdout sample. Finally, the relationship between PAEE and BMI was described separately for each source of PAEE estimate (wrist acceleration models and combined-sensing.Wrist acceleration explained 44-47% between-individual variance in PAEE, with RMSE between 34-39 J•min-1•kg-1. Estimations agreed well with PAEE in cross-validation (mean bias [95% limits of agreement]: 0.07 [-70.6:70.7] but overestimated in women by 3% and underestimated in men by 4%. Estimation error was inversely related to age (-2.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per 10y and BMI (-0.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per kg/m2. Associations with BMI were similar for all PAEE estimates (approximately -0.08 kg/m2 per J•min-1•kg-1.A strong relationship exists between wrist acceleration and PAEE in free-living adults, such that irrespective of the objective method of PAEE assessment, a strong inverse association between PAEE and BMI was observed.

  1. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  2. Measuring Energy Expenditure in Sub-Adult and Hatchling Sea Turtles via Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G.; Jones, T. Todd; Jones, David R.; Liebsch, Nikolai; Booth, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the metabolic of sea turtles is fundamental to understanding their ecology yet the presently available methods are limited. Accelerometry is a relatively new technique for estimating metabolic rate that has shown promise with a number of species but its utility with air-breathing divers is not yet established. The present study undertakes laboratory experiments to investigate whether rate of oxygen uptake ( o 2) at the surface in active sub-adult green turtles Chelonia mydas and hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta correlates with overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), a derivative of acceleration used as a proxy for metabolic rate. Six green turtles (25–44 kg) and two loggerhead turtles (20 g) were instrumented with tri-axial acceleration logging devices and placed singly into a respirometry chamber. The green turtles were able to submerge freely within a 1.5 m deep tank and the loggerhead turtles were tethered in water 16 cm deep so that they swam at the surface. A significant prediction equation for mean o 2 over an hour in a green turtle from measures of ODBA and mean flipper length (R2 = 0.56) returned a mean estimate error across turtles of 8.0%. The range of temperatures used in the green turtle experiments (22–30°C) had only a small effect on o 2. A o 2-ODBA equation for the loggerhead hatchling data was also significant (R2 = 0.67). Together these data indicate the potential of the accelerometry technique for estimating energy expenditure in sea turtles, which may have important applications in sea turtle diving ecology, and also in conservation such as assessing turtle survival times when trapped underwater in fishing nets. PMID:21829613

  3. Prediction equation of resting energy expenditure in an adult Spanish population of obese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Romero, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of the equations to estimate REE in obese patents and develop a new equation in our obese population. A population of 200 obesity outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. The following variables were specifically recorded: age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. Basal glucose, insulin, and TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) were measured. An indirect calorimetry and a tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance were performed. REE measured by indirect calorimetry was compared with REE obtained by prediction equations to obese or nonobese patients. The mean age was 44.8 +/- 16.81 years and the mean BMI 34.4 +/- 5.3. Indirect calorimetry showed that, as compared to women, men had higher resting energy expenditure (REE) (1,998.1 +/- 432 vs. 1,663.9 +/- 349 kcal/day; p consumption (284.6 +/- 67.7 vs. 238.6 +/- 54.3 ml/min; p predicted by prediction equations showed the next data; Berstein's equation (r = 0.65; p prediction equation was REE = 58.6 + (6.1 x weight (kg)) + (1,023.7 x height (m)) - (9.5 x age). The female model was REE = 1,272.5 + (9.8 x weight (kg)) - (61.6 x height (m)) - (8.2 x age). Our prediction equations showed a nonsignificant difference with REE measured (-3.7 kcal/day) with a significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.67; p prediction equations overestimated and underestimated REE measured. WHO equation developed in normal weight individuals provided the closest values. The two new equations (male and female equations) developed in our study had a good accuracy. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Approximate time to steady state resting energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry in young, healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Popp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indirect calorimetry (IC measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE necessitate a stable measurement period, or steady state (SS. There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2 completed IC measurement for approximately 30-minutes while the volume of oxygen (VO2 and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2 were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV over a period of 5- consecutive minutes. The 30-minute IC measurement was divided into six 5-minute segments, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%, and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3= 8.07 ± 4.4%; S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%; S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%; S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%. The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 minutes. The first 5-minute segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-minute segment.

  5. Issues in characterizing resting energy expenditure in obesity and after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBosy-Westphal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normalization of resting energy expenditure (REE for body composition using the 2-compartment model (fat mass, FM and fat-free mass, FFM has inherent limitations for the interpretation of REE and may lead to erroneous conclusions when comparing people with a wide range of adiposity as well as before and after substantial weight loss. We compared different methods of REE normalization: (i for FFM and FM (ii by the inclusion of %FM as a measure of adiposity and (iii based on organ and tissue masses. Results were compared between healthy subjects with different degrees of adiposity as well as within subject before and after weight loss. Normalizing REE from an REE vs. FFM and FM equation that (i was derived in obese participants and applied to lean people or (ii was derived before weight loss and applied after weight loss leads to the erroneous conclusion of a lower metabolic rate (i in lean persons and (ii after weight loss. This is revealed by the normalization of REE for organ and tissue masses that was not significantly different between lean and obese or between baseline and after weight loss. There is evidence for an increasing specific metabolic rate of FFM with increasing %FM that could be explained by a higher contribution of liver, kidney and heart mass to FFM in obesity. Using REE vs. FFM and FM equations specific for different levels of adiposity (% fat mass eliminated differences in REE before and after weight loss in women. In conclusion, the most established method for normalization of REE based on FFM and FM may lead to spurious conclusions about metabolic rate in obesity and the phenomenon of weight loss-associated adaptive thermogenesis. Using % fat mass-specific REE prediction from FFM and FM in kg may improve the normalization of REE when subjects with wide differences in % fat mass are investigated.

  6. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m -2 BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 ml · kg -1 · min -1 VO 2max ). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The intersubject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min -1 per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p = .574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p = .032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p = .026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  7. Igfbp2 Deletion in Ovariectomized Mice Enhances Energy Expenditure but Accelerates Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMambro, Victoria E; Le, Phuong T; Guntur, Anyonya R; Maridas, David E; Canalis, Ernesto; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; Clemmons, David R; Rosen, Clifford J

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we reported sexually dimorphic bone mass and body composition phenotypes in Igfbp2(-/-) mice (-/-), where male mice exhibited decreased bone and increased fat mass, whereas female mice displayed increased bone but no changes in fat mass. To investigate the interaction between IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and estrogen, we subjected Igfbp2 -/- and +/+ female mice to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery at 8 weeks of age. At 20 weeks of age, mice underwent metabolic cage analysis and insulin tolerance tests before killing. At harvest, femurs were collected for microcomputed tomography, serum for protein levels, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (IWAT) adipose depots for histology, gene expression, and mitochondrial respiration analysis of whole tissue. In +/+ mice, serum IGFBP-2 dropped 30% with OVX. In the absence of IGFBP-2, OVX had no effect on preformed BAT; however, there was significant "browning" of the IWAT depot coinciding with less weight gain, increased insulin sensitivity, lower intraabdominal fat, and increased bone loss due to higher resorption and lower formation. Likewise, after OVX, energy expenditure, physical activity and BAT mitochondrial respiration were decreased less in the OVX-/- compared with OVX+/+. Mitochondrial respiration of IWAT was reduced in OVX+/+ yet remained unchanged in OVX-/- mice. These changes were associated with significant increases in Fgf21 and Foxc2 expression, 2 proteins known for their insulin sensitizing and browning of WAT effects. We conclude that estrogen deficiency has a profound effect on body and bone composition in the absence of IGFBP-2 and may be related to changes in fibroblast growth factor 21.

  8. Energy expenditure and affect responses to different types of active video game and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monedero

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses.Participants (N = 23 were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX, (ii moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX, (iii entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG and (iv fitness-themed video game (FT-VG. Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial.All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The [Formula: see text] (68.3±13.9% and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05. No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively. The AVG's were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05 and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05.AVG's can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.

  9. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  10. Validity and reliability of Nike + Fuelband for estimating physical activity energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Sawyer, Brandon J; Buman, Matthew P; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    The Nike + Fuelband is a commercially available, wrist-worn accelerometer used to track physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during exercise. However, validation studies assessing the accuracy of this device for estimating PAEE are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of the Nike + Fuelband for estimating PAEE during physical activity in young adults. Secondarily, we compared PAEE estimation of the Nike + Fuelband with the previously validated SenseWear Armband (SWA). Twenty-four participants (n = 24) completed two, 60-min semi-structured routines consisting of sedentary/light-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Participants wore a Nike + Fuelband and SWA, while oxygen uptake was measured continuously with an Oxycon Mobile (OM) metabolic measurement system (criterion). The Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.77) and SWA (ICC = 0.61) both demonstrated moderate to good validity. PAEE estimates provided by the Nike + Fuelband (246 ± 67 kcal) and SWA (238 ± 57 kcal) were not statistically different than OM (243 ± 67 kcal). Both devices also displayed similar mean absolute percent errors for PAEE estimates (Nike + Fuelband = 16 ± 13 %; SWA = 18 ± 18 %). Test-retest reliability for PAEE indicated good stability for Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.96) and SWA (ICC = 0.90). The Nike + Fuelband provided valid and reliable estimates of PAEE, that are similar to the previously validated SWA, during a routine that included approximately equal amounts of sedentary/light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  11. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Increases Respiratory Quotient and Energy Expenditure during Food Intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Werling

    Full Text Available The mechanisms determining long-term weight maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB remain unclear. Cross sectional studies have suggested that enhanced energy expenditure (EE may play a significant role and the aim of this study was to reveal the impact of RYGB on each major component constituting total EE.Six obese female subjects, without other co-morbidities, were assessed before and at 10 days, 3 and 20 months after RYGB. Indirect calorimetry in a metabolic chamber was used to assess 24 h EE at each study visit. Other measurements included body composition by DEXA, gut hormone profiles and physical activity (PA using high sensitivity accelerometers.Median Body Mass Index decreased from 41.1 (range 39.1-44.8 at baseline to 28 kg/m2 (range 22.3-30.3 after 20 months (p<0.05. Lean tissue decreased from 55.9 (range 47.5-59.3 to 49.5 (range 41.1-54.9 kg and adipose tissue from 61 (range 56-64.6 to 27 (range 12-34.3 kg (both p<0.05. PA over 24 h did not change after surgery whereas 24 h EE and basal metabolic rate (BMR decreased. EE after a standard meal increased after surgery when adjusted for total tissue (p<0.05. After an initial drop, RQ (respiratory quotient had increased at 20 months, both as measured during 24 h and after food intake (p<0.05.RYGB surgery up-regulates RQ and EE after food intake resulting in an increased contribution to total EE over 24 h when corrected for total tissue.

  12. Neural network versus activity-specific prediction equations for energy expenditure estimation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Nicole; Joss, Franziska; Jimmy, Gerda; Melzer, Katarina; Hänggi, Johanna; Mäder, Urs

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) estimations of activity-specific prediction equations (ASPE) and of an artificial neural network (ANNEE) based on accelerometry with measured EE. Forty-three children (age: 9.8 ± 2.4 yr) performed eight different activities. They were equipped with one tri-axial accelerometer that collected data in 1-s epochs and a portable gas analyzer. The ASPE and the ANNEE were trained to estimate the EE by including accelerometry, age, gender, and weight of the participants. To provide the activity-specific information, a decision tree was trained to recognize the type of activity through accelerometer data. The ASPE were applied to the activity-type-specific data recognized by the tree (Tree-ASPE). The Tree-ASPE precisely estimated the EE of all activities except cycling [bias: -1.13 ± 1.33 metabolic equivalent (MET)] and walking (bias: 0.29 ± 0.64 MET; P MET) and walking (bias: 0.61 ± 0.72 MET) and underestimated the EE of cycling (bias: -0.90 ± 1.18 MET; P MET, Tree-ASPE: 0.08 ± 0.21 MET) and walking (ANNEE 0.61 ± 0.72 MET, Tree-ASPE: 0.29 ± 0.64 MET) were significantly smaller in the Tree-ASPE than in the ANNEE (P < 0.05). The Tree-ASPE was more precise in estimating the EE than the ANNEE. The use of activity-type-specific information for subsequent EE prediction equations might be a promising approach for future studies.

  13. Comparison of energy expenditure between aquatic and overground treadmill walking in people post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Taeyou; Ozaki, Yoshi; Lai, Byron; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the cardiorespiratory responses between aquatic treadmill walking (ATW) and overground treadmill walking (OTW) in people with hemiparesis post-stroke. Eight participants post-stroke aged 58.5 ± 11.4 years and eight healthy adult controls aged 56.1 ± 8.6 years participated in a cross-sectional comparative study. Participants completed three 8-minute walking sessions separated by at least 72-hour rest. On the first visit, participants identified their comfortable walking speed on an aquatic and overground treadmill. The second and third visit consisted of either ATW or OTW at a matched speed. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2 ), minute ventilation (VE) and energy expenditure (EE) were measured at rest and during walking in both exercise modes. Mean steady-state cardiorespiratory responses during ATW showed a significant decrease compared with OTW at a matched speed. During ATW, mean VO2 values decreased by 39% in the stroke group and 21% in the control group, mean VCO2 values decreased by 42% in the stroke group and 30% in the control group, and mean EE decreased by 40% in the stroke group and 25% in the control group. Mean steady-state VE values and resting cardiorespiratory response values showed no significant change between the two conditions. This study demonstrated a decreased metabolic cost when ATW at matched speeds to that of OTW. Reduced metabolic cost during ATW may allow for longer durations of treadmill-induced gait training compared with OTW for improved outcomes. This knowledge may aid clinicians when prescribing aquatic treadmill exercise for people post-stroke with goals of improving gait and functional mobility. However, decreased metabolic cost during ATW suggests that to improve cardiovascular fitness, ATW may not be a time-efficient method of cardiovascular exercise for healthy adults and people post-stroke. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  15. Accuracy of Consumer Monitors for Estimating Energy Expenditure and Activity Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, James A; Crouter, Scott E; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Boyer, William R

    2017-02-01

    Increasing use of consumer-based physical activity (PA) monitors necessitates that they are validated against criterion measures. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of three consumer-based PA monitors for estimating energy expenditure (EE) and PA type during simulated free-living activities. Twenty-eight participants (mean ± SD: age, 25.5 ± 3.7 yr; body mass index, 24.9 ± 2.6 kg·m) completed 11 activities ranging from sedentary behaviors to vigorous intensities. Simultaneous measurements were made with an Oxycon portable calorimeter (criterion), a Basis Peak and Garmin Vivofit on the nondominant wrist, and three Withings Pulse devices (right hip, shirt collar, dominant wrist). Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to examine differences between measured and predicted EE. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine reliability of EE predictions between Withings placements. Paired samples t tests were used to determine mean differences between observed minutes and Basis Peak predictions during walking, running, and cycling. On average, the Basis Peak was within 8% of measured EE for the entire PA routine (P > 0.05); however, there were large individual errors (95% prediction interval, -290.4 to +233.1 kcal). All other devices were significantly different from measured EE for the entire PA routine (P types, Basis Peak correctly identified ≥92% of actual minutes spent walking and running (P > 0.05), and 40.4% and 0% of overground and stationary cycling minutes, respectively (P < 0.001). The Basis Peak was the only device that did not significantly differ from measured EE; however, it also had the largest individual errors. Additionally, the Basis Peak accurately predicted minutes spent walking and running, but not cycling.

  16. An original piecewise model for computing energy expenditure from accelerometer and heart rate signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ugalde, Hector M; Garnotel, M; Doron, M; Jallon, P; Charpentier, G; Franc, S; Huneker, E; Simon, C; Bonnet, S

    2017-07-28

    Activity energy expenditure (EE) plays an important role in healthcare, therefore, accurate EE measures are required. Currently available reference EE acquisition methods, such as doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, are complex, expensive, uncomfortable, and/or difficult to apply on real time. To overcome these drawbacks, the goal of this paper is to propose a model for computing EE in real time (minute-by-minute) from heart rate and accelerometer signals. The proposed model, which consists of an original branched model, uses heart rate signals for computing EE on moderate to vigorous physical activities and a linear combination of heart rate and counts per minute for computing EE on light to moderate physical activities. Model parameters were estimated from a given data set composed of 53 subjects performing 25 different physical activities (light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), and validated using leave-one-subject-out. A different database (semi-controlled in-city circuit), was used in order to validate the versatility of the proposed model. Comparisons are done versus linear and nonlinear models, which are also used for computing EE from accelerometer and/or HR signals. The proposed piecewise model leads to more accurate EE estimations ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] J kg -1 min -1 and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] J kg -1 min -1 on each validation database). This original approach, which is more conformable and less expensive than the reference methods, allows accurate EE estimations, in real time (minute-by-minute), during a large variety of physical activities. Therefore, this model may be used on applications such as computing the time that a given subject spent on light-intensity physical activities and on moderate to vigorous physical activities (binary classification accuracy of 0.8155).

  17. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  18. The public expenditure for the research and development on the energy in France. Synthesis of the study realized for the energy observatory; Les depenses publiques de recherche et developpement sur l'energie en France. Synthese de l'etude realisee a la demande de l'Observatoire de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a fine photography of the public expenditure on the energy, following the IEA format. This synthesis presents the study methodology and data on the expenditure in function of years 2002 to 2005. The repartition of the public expenditure by categories, by financing origin, and by the different sources or energy, are presented. (A.L.B.)

  19. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-10

    28th and 29th as well as non-mission activities on the 30th and 31st of August 2013. The environmental conditions the Marines operated in were warm and...expenditure in healthy individuals. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 51(2): 241-247. 12. Minard D, Belding HS, and Kingston JR (1957...expenditure in free-living humans by using doubly labeled water. The Journal of Nutrition , 118(11): 1278-1289. 18. Tharion WJ, Lieberman HR

  20. Validation and comparison of two methods to assess human energy expenditure during free-living activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Anastasopoulou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The measurement of activity energy expenditure (AEE via accelerometry is the most commonly used objective method for assessing human daily physical activity and has gained increasing importance in the medical, sports and psychological science research in recent years. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine which of the following procedures is more accurate to determine the energy cost during the most common everyday life activities; a single regression or an activity based approach. For this we used a device that utilizes single regression models (GT3X, ActiGraph Manufacturing Technology Inc., FL., USA and a device using activity-dependent calculation models (move II, movisens GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen adults (11 male, 8 female; 30.4±9.0 years wore the activity monitors attached to the waist and a portable indirect calorimeter (IC as reference measure for AEE while performing several typical daily activities. The accuracy of the two devices for estimating AEE was assessed as the mean differences between their output and the reference and evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: The GT3X overestimated the AEE of walking (GT3X minus reference, 1.26 kcal/min, walking fast (1.72 kcal/min, walking up-/downhill (1.45 kcal/min and walking upstairs (1.92 kcal/min and underestimated the AEE of jogging (-1.30 kcal/min and walking upstairs (-2.46 kcal/min. The errors for move II were smaller than those for GT3X for all activities. The move II overestimated AEE of walking (move II minus reference, 0.21 kcal/min, walking up-/downhill (0.06 kcal/min and stair walking (upstairs: 0.13 kcal/min; downstairs: 0.29 kcal/min and underestimated AEE of walking fast (-0.11 kcal/min and jogging (-0.93 kcal/min. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the activity monitor using activity-dependent calculation models is more appropriate for predicting AEE in daily life than the activity monitor using a single

  1. Sex difference in physical activity, energy expenditure and obesity driven by a subpopulation of hypothalamic POMC neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke K. Burke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity is one of the primary healthcare challenges of the 21st century. Signals relaying information regarding energy needs are integrated within the brain to influence body weight. Central among these integration nodes are the brain pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC peptides, perturbations of which disrupt energy balance and promote severe obesity. However, POMC neurons are neurochemically diverse and the crucial source of POMC peptides that regulate energy homeostasis and body weight remains to be fully clarified. Methods: Given that a 5-hydroxytryptamine 2c receptor (5-HT2CR agonist is a current obesity medication and 5-HT2CR agonist's effects on appetite are primarily mediated via POMC neurons, we hypothesized that a critical source of POMC regulating food intake and body weight is specifically synthesized in cells containing 5-HT2CRs. To exclusively manipulate Pomc synthesis only within 5-HT2CR containing cells, we generated a novel 5-HT2CRCRE mouse line and intercrossed it with Cre recombinase-dependent and hypothalamic specific reactivatable PomcNEO mice to restrict Pomc synthesis to the subset of hypothalamic cells containing 5-HT2CRs. This provided a means to clarify the specific contribution of a defined subgroup of POMC peptides in energy balance and body weight. Results: Here we transform genetically programed obese and hyperinsulinemic male mice lacking hypothalamic Pomc with increased appetite, reduced physical activity and compromised brown adipose tissue (BAT into lean, healthy mice via targeted restoration of Pomc function only within 5-HT2CR expressing cells. Remarkably, the same metabolic transformation does not occur in females, who despite corrected feeding behavior and normalized insulin levels remain physically inactive, have lower energy expenditure, compromised BAT and develop obesity. Conclusions: These data provide support for the functional heterogeneity of hypothalamic POMC neurons, revealing that Pomc

  2. Variability of resting energy expenditure in infants and young children with intestinal failure-associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Debora; Mitchell, Paul D; Mehta, Nilesh M; Bechard, Lori J; Yu, Yong-Ming; Jaksic, Tom; Duggan, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine, in a cohort of young children with intestinal failure (IF), whether the estimates of basal metabolic rate (BMR) by standard equations can approximate measured resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry (IC). IC was performed using the dilutional canopy technique. REE measurements were compared with standard, age-based estimation equations (World Health Organization) for BMR. Subjects were classified as hypermetabolic (REE > 110% BMR), hypometabolic (REE BMR), or normal (REE = 90%-110% BMR). Twenty-eight IF patients (11 girls, 17 boys) had an underlying diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 10) or a congenital gastrointestinal defect (n = 18). Median age was 5.3 months. Median interquartile range (IQR) REE was 46 (42-58) kcal · kg · day. Median (IQR) total energy intake provided 209% (172%-257%) of REE, with parenteral nutrition providing 76% (23%) of total energy intake. REE was variable, with 39% (n = 11) of measurements hypermetabolic, 39% (n = 11) hypometabolic, and the remaining 21% (n = 6) normal. Although REE was well correlated with estimated BMR (r = 0.82, P BMR was not consistently an adequate predictor of REE. BMR over- or underestimated REE by >10 kcal · kg · day in 15 of 28 (54%) patients. REE was not significantly correlated with severity of liver disease, nutritional status, total energy intake, or gestational age. Energy expenditure is variable among children with IF and IF-associated liver disease, with approximately 80% of our cohort exhibiting either hypo- or hypermetabolism. Standard estimation equations frequently do not correctly predict individual REE. Longitudinal studies of energy expenditure and body composition may be needed to guide provision of nutrition regimens.

  3. Two-point vs multipoint sample collection for the analysis of energy expenditure by use of the doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welle, S.

    1990-01-01

    Energy expenditure over a 2-wk period was determined by the doubly labeled water (2H2(18)O) method in nine adults. When daily samples were analyzed, energy expenditure was 2859 +/- 453 kcal/d (means +/- SD); when only the first and last time points were considered, the mean calculated energy expenditure was not significantly different (2947 +/- 430 kcal/d). An analysis of theoretical cases in which isotope flux is not constant indicates that the multipoint method can cause errors in the calculation of average isotope fluxes, but these are generally small. Simulations of the effect of analytical error indicate that increasing the number of replicates on two points reduces the impact of technical errors more effectively than does performing single analyses on multiple samples. It appears that generally there is no advantage to collecting frequent samples when the 2H2(18)O method is used to estimate energy expenditure in adult humans

  4. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljohara S Almeneessier

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  5. Survey of the Relationship Between Activity Energy Expenditure Metabolic Equivalents and Barrier Factors of Physical Activity in the Elderly in Kashan

    OpenAIRE

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Khalili, Zahra; Pour Nazari, Robab; Mohammadi, Majid; Ahmadi Khatir, Maryam; Mossadegh, Najima

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity in the elderly is influenced by aspects of aging that cause personal, mental, environmental, and social changes. Increases in factors that are barriers to activity cause physical energy expenditure to decrease. Objectives The aim of the present study was to survey the relationship between energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (MET) and factors that are barriers to physical activity in elderly people in Kashan, Iran Methods This is a descriptive analysis...

  6. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist, reduces body weight by decreasing energy intake without influencing energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Redman, Leanne M; Zhang, Jinkun; Sanchez, Matilde; Anderson, Christen M; Smith, Steven R; Ravussin, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Lorcaserin, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2C) receptor agonist, reduces body weight. It is unclear whether weight loss is due to reduced energy intake (EI) or also to enhanced energy expenditure (EE). This study tested the effect of lorcaserin on EI and EE. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 (39 women) overweight and obese (body mass index, 27-45 kg/m(2)) adults were randomized to placebo (n = 28) or 10 mg twice daily lorcaserin (n = 29) for 56 d. Weight maintenance was imposed during d 1-7. Beginning on d 8, participants followed a diet and exercise plan targeting a 600 kcal/d deficit. At baseline and after 7 and 56 d of treatment, we measured body weight, body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, heart rate, EI at lunch and dinner, subjective appetite ratings, and 24-h EE and 24-h-respiratory quotient (RQ), measured by indirect calorimetry in a respiratory chamber. After 7 d of weight maintenance, EI was significantly (P kcal; placebo, -147 ± 89 kcal). After 56 d, lorcaserin resulted in significantly larger reductions in body weight (lorcaserin, -3.8 ± 0.4 kg; placebo, -2.2 ± 0.5 kg; P kcal; placebo, -205 ± 91 kcal; P < .05), and appetite ratings than in placebo. Changes in 24-h EE and 24-h RQ did not differ between groups, even after 24-h EE was adjusted for body weight and composition. Compared with placebo, lorcaserin had no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure or heart rate after 56 d. Lorcaserin reduces body weight through reduced EI, not altered EE or RQ.

  7. Measurement of energy expenditure in healthy male adults using [14C] bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luscombe, N.; Tsopelas, C.; Kirkwood, I.; Bellon, M.; Wittert, G.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The use of double-labelled water (3HH 18 O) to measure total energy expenditure (TEE) in free-living humans is expensive and requires access to a mass spectrometer. A 48-hour infusion of [ 14 C]-bicarbonate with the measurement of [ 14 C]-carbon dioxide ( 14 CO 2 ) after urease digestion of the urine, has been shown to produce comparable results to whole body calorimetry. We have used [ 14 C]-bicarbonate to measure TEE and determined (i) it's comparability with the Schofield equation and (ii) the reproducibility of repeated measurements within an individual. On two occasions ∼ 14 days apart, measurements of TEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), energy intake, food quotient (FQ) and physical activity were made in eight healthy men (age 50 ± 3 yrs, wt 79 ± 3 kg, BMI 26 ± 1 kg/m2, fat mass 22.7 ± 2.5 kg, lean mass 56.5 ± 2.4 kg). Samples of each subjects' urine (collected for two consecutive 24 hour periods) were assayed in triplicate. RMR and RQ were determined by indirect calorimetry. Diet and activity patterns were recorded for four days during the infusion, and were analysed to determine energy intake and activity levels. There were no significant differences in any of the variables on the two study days. Data are expressed as mean ± SE. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the 14 CO 2 assay (within-assay CV) was 4.1 ± 0.4% (range 1.7 - 7.5%). The variation for the subjects between study days was 5.1 ± 0.9% (range 0.9 - 9.2%). TEE measured by 14 CO 2 (16,200 ± 780 KJ/day; range 13,400 - 19,387 KJ/day) was greater (14.7 ± 9% (% mean absolute difference ranged from -24.6 to 0.8%)) than the Schofield estimate of TEE (13,800 ± 710 KJ/day; range 12,100-15,500 KJ/day); the group means were significantly different (95% limits of agreement, T = 3.8, P = 0.007). Energy intake was 10,700 ± 535 KJ/day (range 7,970 - 12,600 KJ/day). Fasting RQ was 0.81 ± 0.01 (range 0.78 - 0.88), FQ was 0.84 ± 0.01 (range 0.78 - 0.87), and

  8. Does consuming breakfast influence activity levels? An experiment into the effect of breakfast consumption on eating habits and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Huber, Jörg W; Low, Tzetze; Ibeawuchi, Chinwe; Woodruff, Polly; Reeves, Sue

    2012-02-01

    To experimentally compare the effects of eating or skipping breakfast on energy expenditure, activity levels and dietary habits. A randomised cross-over trial, lasting 2 weeks. Participants were provided breakfast during one week and were required to fast until mid-day during the other week. University campus. Forty-nine participants (twenty-six female and twenty-three male participants) were recruited. Food intake was monitored using food diaries, and energy expenditure was assessed using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Morningness-eveningness, physical activity and health were assessed using validated questionnaires. Across all participants, daily energy expenditure did not differ between the two experimental conditions. Total energy intake over 24 h did not vary with condition (male participants: 8134 (sd 447) kJ/d and 7514 (sd 368) kJ/d; female participants: 7778 (sd 410) kJ/d and 7531 (sd 535) kJ/d, for the breakfast and no-breakfast conditions, respectively). However, when comparing habitual breakfast eaters with those with irregular or breakfast-skipping habits, it was found that male non-habitual breakfast eaters consumed significantly (P = 0·029) more energy during the breakfast condition. Furthermore, female participants who were habitual breakfast eaters were found to eat significantly (P = 0·005) more and later in the day under the no-breakfast condition. Although the suggestion that breakfast is a behavioural marker for appropriate dietary and physical activity patterns is not refuted by the present findings, our data suggest that the effect of breakfast may vary as a function of gender and morning eating habits, and thus there may be other mechanisms that link BMI and breakfast consumption behaviour.

  9. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  10. Influence of accelerometer type and placement on physical activity energy expenditure prediction in manual wheelchair users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Edward Nightingale

    Full Text Available To assess the validity of two accelerometer devices, at two different anatomical locations, for the prediction of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in manual wheelchair users (MWUs.Seventeen MWUs (36 ± 10 yrs, 72 ± 11 kg completed ten activities; resting, folding clothes, propulsion on a 1% gradient (3,4,5,6 and 7 km·hr-1 and propulsion at 4km·hr-1 (with an additional 8% body mass, 2% and 3% gradient on a motorised wheelchair treadmill. GT3X+ and GENEActiv accelerometers were worn on the right wrist (W and upper arm (UA. Linear regression analysis was conducted between outputs from each accelerometer and criterion PAEE, measured using indirect calorimetry. Subsequent error statistics were calculated for the derived regression equations for all four device/location combinations, using a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis.Accelerometer outputs at each anatomical location were significantly (p < .01 associated with PAEE (GT3X+-UA; r = 0.68 and GT3X+-W; r = 0.82. GENEActiv-UA; r = 0.87 and GENEActiv-W; r = 0.88. Mean ± SD PAEE estimation errors for all activities combined were 15 ± 45%, 14 ± 50%, 3 ± 25% and 4 ± 26% for GT3X+-UA, GT3X+-W, GENEActiv-UA and GENEActiv-W, respectively. Absolute PAEE estimation errors for devices varied, 19 to 66% for GT3X+-UA, 17 to 122% for GT3X+-W, 15 to 26% for GENEActiv-UA and from 17.0 to 32% for the GENEActiv-W.The results indicate that the GENEActiv device worn on either the upper arm or wrist provides the most valid prediction of PAEE in MWUs. Variation in error statistics between the two devices is a result of inherent differences in internal components, on-board filtering processes and outputs of each device.

  11. Energy expenditure estimation during normal ambulation using triaxial accelerometry and barometric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Redmond, Stephen J; Narayanan, Michael R; Wang, Ning; Lovell, Nigel H; Voleno, Matteo; Cerutti, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) is an important parameter in the assessment of physical activity. Most reliable techniques for EE estimation are too impractical for deployment in unsupervised free-living environments; those which do prove practical for unsupervised use often poorly estimate EE when the subject is working to change their altitude by walking up or down stairs or inclines. This study evaluates the augmentation of a standard triaxial accelerometry waist-worn wearable sensor with a barometric pressure sensor (as a surrogate measure for altitude) to improve EE estimates, particularly when the subject is ascending or descending stairs. Using a number of features extracted from the accelerometry and barometric pressure signals, a state space model is trained for EE estimation. An activity classification algorithm is also presented, and this activity classification output is also investigated as a model input parameter when estimating EE. This EE estimation model is compared against a similar model which solely utilizes accelerometry-derived features. A protocol (comprising lying, sitting, standing, walking, walking up stairs, walking down stairs and transitioning between activities) was performed by 13 healthy volunteers (8 males and 5 females; age: 23.8 ± 3.7 years; weight: 70.5 ± 14.9 kg), whose instantaneous oxygen uptake was measured by means of an indirect calorimetry system (K4b 2 , COSMED, Italy). Activity classification improves from 81.65% to 90.91% when including barometric pressure information; when analyzing walking activities alone the accuracy increases from 70.23% to 98.54%. Using features derived from both accelerometry and barometry signals, combined with features relating to the activity classification in a state space model, resulted in a .VO 2 estimation bias of −0.00 095 and precision (1.96SD) of 3.54 ml min −1 kg −1 . Using only accelerometry features gives a relatively worse performance, with a bias of −0.09 and precision (1.96SD

  12. Comparison of linear and non-linear models for predicting energy expenditure from raw accelerometer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoye, Alexander H K; Begum, Munni; Henning, Zachary; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2017-02-01

    This study had three purposes, all related to evaluating energy expenditure (EE) prediction accuracy from body-worn accelerometers: (1) compare linear regression to linear mixed models, (2) compare linear models to artificial neural network models, and (3) compare accuracy of accelerometers placed on the hip, thigh, and wrists. Forty individuals performed 13 activities in a 90 min semi-structured, laboratory-based protocol. Participants wore accelerometers on the right hip, right thigh, and both wrists and a portable metabolic analyzer (EE criterion). Four EE prediction models were developed for each accelerometer: linear regression, linear mixed, and two ANN models. EE prediction accuracy was assessed using correlations, root mean square error (RMSE), and bias and was compared across models and accelerometers using repeated-measures analysis of variance. For all accelerometer placements, there were no significant differences for correlations or RMSE between linear regression and linear mixed models (correlations: r  =  0.71-0.88, RMSE: 1.11-1.61 METs; p  >  0.05). For the thigh-worn accelerometer, there were no differences in correlations or RMSE between linear and ANN models (ANN-correlations: r  =  0.89, RMSE: 1.07-1.08 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.88, RMSE: 1.10-1.11 METs; p  >  0.05). Conversely, one ANN had higher correlations and lower RMSE than both linear models for the hip (ANN-correlation: r  =  0.88, RMSE: 1.12 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.86, RMSE: 1.18-1.19 METs; p  linear models for the wrist-worn accelerometers (ANN-correlations: r  =  0.82-0.84, RMSE: 1.26-1.32 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.71-0.73, RMSE: 1.55-1.61 METs; p  models offer a significant improvement in EE prediction accuracy over linear models. Conversely, linear models showed similar EE prediction accuracy to machine learning models for hip- and thigh

  13. Are predictive equations for estimating resting energy expenditure accurate in Asian Indian male weightlifters?

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    Mini Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accuracy of existing predictive equations to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE of professional weightlifters remains scarcely studied. Our study aimed at assessing the REE of male Asian Indian weightlifters with indirect calorimetry and to compare the measured REE (mREE with published equations. A new equation using potential anthropometric variables to predict REE was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: REE was measured on 30 male professional weightlifters aged between 17 and 28 years using indirect calorimetry and compared with the eight formulas predicted by Harris–Benedicts, Mifflin-St. Jeor, FAO/WHO/UNU, ICMR, Cunninghams, Owen, Katch-McArdle, and Nelson. Pearson correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out to study the agreement between the different methods, association with anthropometric variables, and to formulate a new prediction equation for this population. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients between mREE and the anthropometric variables showed positive significance with suprailiac skinfold thickness, lean body mass (LBM, waist circumference, hip circumference, bone mineral mass, and body mass. All eight predictive equations underestimated the REE of the weightlifters when compared with the mREE. The highest mean difference was 636 kcal/day (Owen, 1986 and the lowest difference was 375 kcal/day (Cunninghams, 1980. Multiple linear regression done stepwise showed that LBM was the only significant determinant of REE in this group of sportspersons. A new equation using LBM as the independent variable for calculating REE was computed. REE for weightlifters = −164.065 + 0.039 (LBM (confidence interval −1122.984, 794.854]. This new equation reduced the mean difference with mREE by 2.36 + 369.15 kcal/day (standard error = 67.40. Conclusion: The significant finding of this study was that all the prediction equations

  14. An artificial neural network to predict resting energy expenditure in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disse, Emmanuel; Ledoux, Séverine; Bétry, Cécile; Caussy, Cyrielle; Maitrepierre, Christine; Coupaye, Muriel; Laville, Martine; Simon, Chantal

    2017-09-01

    The resting energy expenditure (REE) determination is important in nutrition for adequate dietary prescription. The gold standard i.e. indirect calorimetry is not available in clinical settings. Thus, several predictive equations have been developed, but they lack of accuracy in subjects with extreme weight including obese populations. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are useful predictive tools in the area of artificial intelligence, used in numerous clinical fields. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of ANN in predicting REE in obesity. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network with a back propagation algorithm was created and cross-validated in a cohort of 565 obese subjects (BMI within 30-50 kg m -2 ) with weight, height, sex and age as clinical inputs and REE measured by indirect calorimetry as output. The predictive performances of ANN were compared to those of 23 predictive REE equations in the training set and in two independent sets of 100 and 237 obese subjects for external validation. Among the 23 established prediction equations for REE evaluated, the Harris & Benedict equations recalculated by Roza were the most accurate for the obese population, followed by the USA DRI, Müller and the original Harris & Benedict equations. The final 5-fold cross-validated three-layer 4-3-1 feed-forward back propagation ANN model developed in that study improved precision and accuracy of REE prediction over linear equations (precision = 68.1%, MAPE = 8.6% and RMSPE = 210 kcal/d), independently from BMI subgroups within 30-50 kg m -2 . External validation confirmed the better predictive performances of ANN model (precision = 73% and 65%, MAPE = 7.7% and 8.6%, RMSPE = 187 kcal/d and 200 kcal/d in the 2 independent datasets) for the prediction of REE in obese subjects. We developed and validated an ANN model for the prediction of REE in obese subjects that is more precise and accurate than established REE predictive

  15. Colorectal cancer: intrinsic characteristics modulate cancer energy expenditure and the risk of cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasco, Paula; Monteiro-Grillo, Isabel; Camilo, Maria

    2007-08-01

    To conduct a prospective longitudinal study in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients: 1) to evaluate resting energy expenditure (REE), weight/dietary intake changes, and response to treatment, taking into consideration cancer stage and histology; 2) to determine their potential interrelations; and 3) to quantify the relative contributions to REE of cancer/nutrition/treatment. 101 CRC patients proposed for neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT) were evaluated before and after RT: REE (indirect calorimetry measurements), percentage of weight loss, usual diet (diet history), current diet (24 hour recall), and treatment response. REE was higher in Stages III/IV versus I/II, at the RT onset (p < 0.002) and end (p = 0.02), and in moderately/poorly/undifferentiated cancers vs well differentiated (onset, p < 0.001) and (RT end, p = 0.01); weight/intake reductions were also greater in Stages III/IV versus I/II (p < 0.01) and in moderately/poorly/undifferentiated cancers versus well differentiated (p < 0.02). According to patients' response to treatment, REE was increased in Stage III/IV (p < 0.005) and Grade 2/3 histology (p < 0.003). In nonresponders, REE increased 7.2 +/- 1.3 kcal/kg/day and decreased 2.8 +/- 0.4 kcal/kg/day in responders. REE changes were not-significantly influenced by weight/intake. Relative contributions to baseline REE were determined in 25 percent by stage, in 25 percent by histology, in 3 percent by intake and in 4 percent by weight loss. At the end of RT, higher REE was attributed in 26 percent to stage, in 27 percent to histology, in 30 percent to nontreatment response, in 9 percent to intake, and in 8 percent to weight loss. In this CRC patient population, higher metabolic rates were mainly determined by the tumor burden and aggressiveness in association with response to treatment clearly disclaiming the effect of weight loss and/or dietary intake reductions.

  16. Artificial Light at Night Reduces Daily Energy Expenditure in Breeding Great Tits (Parus major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk A. M. H. Welbers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN is an increasingly recognized process that accompanies expanding urbanization. Yet, we have limited knowledge on the impact of ALAN on wild species, and on the potential to mitigate any negative effects by using different light sources and colors. In birds, effects of ALAN on activity levels are reported for several species and, hence, their daily energy expenditure (DEE may be affected. DEE is a potent mediator of life-history trade-offs and fitness and thus an important aspect to consider when examining the potential long-term ecological effects of ALAN. Previous work has suggested that birds exposed to ALAN show higher levels of provisioning and nocturnal activity, suggesting that white ALAN increases DEE. Other factors regulating DEE, such as provisioning behavior and food availability, might also respond to ALAN and thus indirectly affect DEE. We tested the hypothesis that ALAN increases DEE using an experimental setup where four previously unlit transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as a control treatment. This setup was replicated in eight locations across the Netherlands. We measured DEE of our focal species, the great tit (Parus major, using a novel doubly labeled water technique that uses breath rather than blood samples. Contrary to our expectations, birds feeding their offspring under white and green ALAN showed lower DEE compared to birds in the control dark treatment. Differences in chick provisioning activity did not explain this result, as neither visit rates nor daily activity timing was affected by light treatment. However, food availability under white and green light was much higher compared to red light and the dark control. This difference strongly suggests that the lower DEE under white and green ALAN sites is a consequence of higher food availability in these treatments. This result shows that there can be positive

  17. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

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    Jia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab, TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03. While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05, protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  18. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-26

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  19. Energy expenditure in people with transtibial amputation walking with crossover and energy storing prosthetic feet: A randomized within-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cody L; Kramer, Patricia A; Morgan, Sara J; Halsne, Elizabeth G; Cheever, Sarah M; Hafner, Brian J

    2018-05-01

    Energy storing feet are unable to reduce the energy required for normal locomotion among people with transtibial amputation. Crossover feet, which incorporate aspects of energy storing and running specific feet, are designed to maximize energy return while providing stability for everyday activities. Do crossover prosthetic feet reduce the energy expenditure of walking across a range of speeds, when compared with energy storing feet among people with transtibial amputation due to non-dysvascular causes? A randomized within-subject study was conducted with a volunteer sample of twenty-seven adults with unilateral transtibial amputation due to non-dysvascular causes. Participants were fit with two prostheses. One had an energy storing foot (Össur Variflex) and the other a crossover foot (Össur Cheetah Xplore). Other components, including sockets, suspension, and interface were standardized. Energy expenditure was measured with a portable respirometer (Cosmed K4b2) while participants walked on a treadmill at self-selected slow, comfortable, and fast speeds with each prosthesis. Gross oxygen consumption rates (VO 2  ml/min) were compared between foot conditions. Energy storing feet were used as the baseline condition because they are used by most people with a lower limb prosthesis. Analyses were performed to identify people who may benefit from transition to crossover feet. On average, participants had lower oxygen consumption in the crossover foot condition compared to the energy storing foot condition at each self-selected walking speed, but this difference was not statistically significant. Participants with farther six-minute walk test distances, higher daily step counts, and higher Medicare Functional Classification Levels at baseline were more likely to use less energy in the crossover foot. Crossover feet may be most beneficial for people with higher activity levels and physical fitness. Further research is needed to examine the effect of crossover feet on

  20. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  1. German Federal Ministry for Research: 1995 expenditures on energy research and national research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The draft departmental budget No. 30 covering the portfolio of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT) within the 1995 federal budget features total expenditures of DM 9470 million. DM 78 (68) million has been earmarked for reactor safety and general technical safety. The sums earmarked for risk sharing in the nuclear field by the Federal Government are DM 236.5 (205.0) million. This adds up to DM 314.5 (296.0) million. (orig.)

  2. Effects of T3 treatment on brown adipose tissue and energy expenditure in a patient with craniopharyngioma and hypothalamic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Hanneke M; Schouten-Meeteren, Antoinette Y; Serlie, Mireille; Meijneke, Ruud W H; van Trotsenburg, A S; Verberne, Hein; Holleman, Frits; Fliers, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Patients treated for childhood craniopharyngioma often develop hypothalamic obesity (HO), which has a huge impact on the physical condition and quality of life of these patients. Treatment for HO thus far has been disappointing, and although several different strategies have been attempted, all interventions had only transient effects. Since thyroid hormones increase energy expenditure metabolism (thyroid hormone induced thermogenesis), it was speculated that treatment with tri-iodothyronine (T3) may be beneficial. In 2002, a case report was published on reduction of body weight after T3 treatment for HO. No studies have been reported since. Recent experimental studies in rodents showed that T3 increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity via (pre)sympathetic pathways between the hypothalamus and BAT. Our aim was to investigate whether T3 treatment increases BAT activity in a patient with HO resulting from (treatment of) childhood craniopharyngioma. Thyroxine treatment for central hypothyroidism was switched to T3 monotherapy. Serum T3 and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations were measured twice weekly for 2 months. ¹²³I-MIBG and ¹⁸F-FDG-PET after induction of non-shivering thermogenesis for the assessment of sympathetic and metabolic activity of BAT as well as indirect calorimetry for assessment of resting energy expenditure were performed before and during T3 treatment. No change in sympathetic and metabolic BAT activity, energy expenditure, or BMI was seen during T3 treatment despite the expected changes in thyroid hormone plasma concentrations. We conclude that T3 monotherapy does not seem to be effective in decreasing HO in childhood craniopharyngioma.

  3. RAAAF's office landscape The End of Sitting: Energy expenditure and temporary comfort when working in non-sitting postures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R Caljouw

    Full Text Available An earlier study suggested that the activity-inviting office landscape called "The End of Sitting", designed by Rietveld Architecture Art Affordances (RAAAF, should be considered as an alternative working environment to prevent sedentary behavior. The End of Sitting lacks chairs and tables but consists instead of a myriad of sloped surfaces at different heights that afford workers to stand, lean or recline at different locations. In this study, we assessed the impact of four of its workspaces on physical intensity, temporary comfort and productivity of office work and compared the outcomes with sitting and standing behind a desk. Twenty-four participants worked for 10 minutes in each of the six test conditions. Energy expenditure, measured by indirect calorimetry, and heart rate were recorded. Questionnaires were used to assess the perceived comfort. The number of words found in the word search test was counted as a measure of productivity. The majority of The End of Sitting workspaces led to a significant increase in energy expenditure compared with sitting behind a desk (ps < .05. Average MET values ranged from 1.40 to 1.58 which is a modest rise in energy expenditure compared to sitting (1.32 METs and not significantly different from standing (1.47 METs. The scores on the general comfort scale indicated that some workspaces were less comfortable than sitting (ps < .05, but the vast majority of participants reported that at least one of The End of Sitting workspaces was equally or more comfortable than sitting. No differences in productivity between the test conditions were found. Further long-term studies are required to assess the behavioral adaptations, productivity and the level of comfort when using The End of Sitting as a permanent office.

  4. Simultaneous Validation of Seven Physical Activity Questionnaires Used in Japanese Cohorts for Estimating Energy Expenditure: A Doubly Labeled Water Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Yoshio; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Nakae, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shigeho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Yamada, Yosuke; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2018-04-28

    Physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) used in large-scale Japanese cohorts have rarely been simultaneously validated against the gold standard doubly labeled water (DLW) method. This study examined the validity of seven PAQs used in Japan for estimating energy expenditure against the DLW method. Twenty healthy Japanese adults (9 men; mean age, 32.4 [standard deviation {SD}, 9.4] years, mainly researchers and students) participated in this study. Fifteen-day daily total energy expenditure (TEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured using the DLW method and a metabolic chamber, respectively. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as TEE - BMR - 0.1 × TEE. Seven PAQs were self-administered to estimate TEE and AEE. The mean measured values of TEE and AEE were 2,294 (SD, 318) kcal/day and 721 (SD, 161) kcal/day, respectively. All of the PAQs indicated moderate-to-strong correlations with the DLW method in TEE (rho = 0.57-0.84). Two PAQs (Japan Public Health Center Study [JPHC]-PAQ Short and JPHC-PAQ Long) showed significant equivalence in TEE and moderate intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). None of the PAQs showed significantly equivalent AEE estimates, with differences ranging from -547 to 77 kcal/day. Correlations and ICCs in AEE were mostly weak or fair (rho = 0.02-0.54, and ICC = 0.00-0.44). Only JPHC-PAQ Short provided significant and fair agreement with the DLW method. TEE estimated by the PAQs showed moderate or strong correlations with the results of DLW. Two PAQs showed equivalent TEE and moderate agreement. None of the PAQs showed equivalent AEE estimation to the gold standard, with weak-to-fair correlations and agreements. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.

  5. Validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire: comparison with energy expenditure according to the doubly labeled water method

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    Peeters Petra HM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In epidemiological research, physical activity is usually assessed by questionnaires. Questionnaires are suitable for large study populations since they are relatively inexpensive and not very time consuming. However, questionnaire information is by definition subjective and prone to recall bias, especially among elderly subjects. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire, developed by Voorrips and coworkers, measures habitual physical activity in the elderly. The questionnaire includes questions on household activities, sports, and leisure time activities, over a time period of one year. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire results in a score to classify people as high, moderate, or low in daily physical activity, based on tertiles. Methods The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire score was assessed among 21 elderly men and women using the doubly labeled water method as the reference criterion. This method is considered to be the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure in free-living individuals. Energy expenditure on physical activity is estimated by the ratio of total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and resting metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry. This ratio is called the physical activity ratio. Results The Spearman correlation coefficient between the questionnaire score and the physical activity ratio (PAR was 0.54 (95% CI 0.22–0.66. Correct classification by the questionnaire occurred in 71% of participants who were in the lowest tertile of PAR, in 14% of participants in the middle tertile, and in 43% of participants in the highest tertile. Subjects were not wrongly classified in an opposite tertile. Conclusion The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire is fair-to-moderate. This study shows that the questionnaire can correctly classify individuals as low or high active, but does a poor job for moderately active individuals.

  6. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Impact of sit-stand desks at work on energy expenditure and sedentary time: protocol for a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzari, Eleni; Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Soren; Griffin, Simon J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged sitting, an independent risk factor for disease development and premature mortality, is increasing in prevalence in high- and middle-income countries, with no signs of abating. Adults in such countries spend the largest proportion of their day in sedentary behaviour, most of which is accumulated at work. One promising method for reducing workplace sitting is the use of sit-stand desks. However, key uncertainties remain about this intervention, related to the quality of existing studies and a lack of focus on key outcomes, including energy expenditure. We are planning a randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of sit-stand desks at work on energy expenditure and sitting time in the short and longer term. To reduce the uncertainties related to the design of this trial, we propose a preliminary study to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures. Five hundred office-based employees from two companies in Cambridge, UK, will complete a survey to assess their interest in participating in a trial on the use of sit-stand desks at work. The workspaces of 100 of those interested in participating will be assessed for sit-stand desk installation suitability, and 20 participants will be randomised to either the use of sit-stand desks at work for 3 months or a waiting list control group. Energy expenditure and sitting time, measured via Actiheart and activPAL monitors, respectively, as well as cardio-metabolic and anthropometric outcomes and other outcomes relating to health and work performance, will be assessed in 10 randomly selected participants. All participants will also be interviewed about their experience of using the desks and participating in the study. The findings are expected to inform the design of a trial assessing the impact of sit-stand desks at work on short and longer term workplace sitting, taking into account their impact on energy expenditure and the extent

  8. Effectiveness of prediction equations in estimating energy expenditure sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Rosado, Eliane; Santiago de Brito, Roberta; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the adequacy of predictive equations for estimation of energy expenditure (EE), compared with the EE using indirect calorimetry in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 92 obese adult women [26 Brazilian -G1- and 66 Spanish - G2- (aged 20-50)]. Weight and height were evaluated during fasting for the calculation of body mass index and predictive equations. EE was evaluated using the open-circuit indirect...

  9. Effect of Oxyntomodulin, Glucagon, GLP-1 and Combined Glucagon +GLP-1 Infusion on Food Intake, Appetite and Resting Energy Expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    Context: The gut hormone, oxyntomodulin, is a proglucagon product with body weight-lowering potential. It binds to both the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor and the glucagon receptor; however, the mechanism behind the body weight-lowering effect remains elusive. Objective: We wanted.......86 pmol × kg−1 × min−1), oxyntomodulin (3 pmol × kg−1 × min−1), or glucagon+GLP-1 (same doses). Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated resting energy expenditure (measured as oxygen uptake, gastric emptying (GE), composite appetite scores (CAS), and food intake. Results: Oxyntomodulin, GLP-1, and GLP-1...

  10. The effect of disease activity on body composition and resting energy expenditure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binymin K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available K Binymin1,3, AL Herrick1, GL Carlson2, SJ Hopkins21University of Manchester, Rheumatic Diseases Centre, 2Infection Injury and Inflammation Group, and Brain Injury Research Group, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre and University of Manchester Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford, UK; 3Southport District General Hospital, Southport, UKIntroduction: Cachexia is associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, but whether it is attributable primarily to reduced dietary intake or increased metabolism is unclear, as is the association with inflammation. To examine whether rheumatoid cachexia is related to increased energy expenditure, reduced food intake, or an inflammatory cytokine response we undertook a prospective, longitudinal study of patients with RA, during periods of relative relapse and remission of inflammation.Methods: Sixteen patients admitted to hospital with a flare of RA were assessed clinically to determine disease activity and were re-examined 6 weeks later. Their fat-free mass (FFM, dietary intake, resting energy expenditure (REE, and plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 were also measured. Data were compared with those from 16 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls.Results: At baseline the body weight, body mass index, and FFM of patients with RA were significantly lower than those of controls. Disease activity scores of patients (6.39 ± 0.8 were reduced when the patients were re-examined 6 weeks later (5.23 ± 1.26 and FFM was no longer statistically different from that of controls (visit 1 = 25.8 ± 10.1 and visit 2 = 26.8 ± 9.5 versus controls = 32.3 ± 10.9. There were no differences in food intake between patients and controls or between patients studied at the 2 time points, but REE was greater in patients after correcting for FMM (visit 1 = 62.2 ± 24.7, visit 2 = 59.7 ± 26.3 versus controls = 46.0 ± 13.7. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in

  11. The ‘39 steps’: an algorithm for performing statistical analysis of data on energy intake and expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemics of obesity and diabetes have aroused great interest in the analysis of energy balance, with the use of organisms ranging from nematode worms to humans. Although generating energy-intake or -expenditure data is relatively straightforward, the most appropriate way to analyse the data has been an issue of contention for many decades. In the last few years, a consensus has been reached regarding the best methods for analysing such data. To facilitate using these best-practice methods, we present here an algorithm that provides a step-by-step guide for analysing energy-intake or -expenditure data. The algorithm can be used to analyse data from either humans or experimental animals, such as small mammals or invertebrates. It can be used in combination with any commercial statistics package; however, to assist with analysis, we have included detailed instructions for performing each step for three popular statistics packages (SPSS, MINITAB and R. We also provide interpretations of the results obtained at each step. We hope that this algorithm will assist in the statistically appropriate analysis of such data, a field in which there has been much confusion and some controversy.

  12. Innovation in the energy sector: Lessons learnt from R and D expenditures and patents in selected IEA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bointner, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Long time series of the IEA and international patent offices offer a huge potential for scientific investigations of the energy innovation process. Thus, this paper deals with a broad literature review on innovation drivers and barriers, and an analysis of the knowledge induced by public research and development expenditures (R and D) and patents in the energy sector. The cumulative knowledge stock induced by public R and D expenditures in 14 investigated IEA-countries is 102.3 bn EUR in 2013. Nuclear energy has the largest share of 43.9 bn EUR, followed by energy efficiency accounting for 14.9 bn EUR, fossil fuels with 13.5 bn EUR, and renewable energy with 12.1 bn EUR. A regression analysis indicates a linear relation between the GDP and the cumulative knowledge, with each billion EUR of GDP leading to an additional knowledge of 3.1 mil EUR. However, linearity is not given for single energy technologies. Further, the results show that appropriate public R and D funding for research and development associated with a subsequent promotion of the market diffusion of a niche technology may lead to a breakthrough of the respective technology. - Highlights: • The cumulative energy knowledge stock in 14 IEA-countries is 102.3 bn EUR in 2013. • Each billion EUR of GDP lead to an additional knowledge of 3.1 mil EUR. • Medium IEA-countries may compete with large ones by promoting a niche strategy. • Patent knowledge grew 5.9 times in medium and 5.6 in large IEA-countries since 1990

  13. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m -2 ; maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  14. Effect of 3 modified fats and a conventional fat on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, H.; Flint, A.; Raben, A.

    2002-01-01

    energy intake, meal-induced thermogenesis, and postprandial substrate oxidation.Design: Eleven healthy, normal-weight men (mean age: 25.1 +/-0.5 y) consumed 4 different test fats [conventional fat (rapeseed oil) and 3 modified fats (lipase-structured fat, chemically structured fat, and physically mixed...... fat)] in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design.Results: No significant differences in appetite sensations or ad libitum energy intakes were observed between the 4 test fats. Overall, the 4 fats exerted different effects on energy expenditure (meal effect: P...

  15. Energy Intake and Expenditure of Professional Soccer Players of the English Premier League: Evidence of Carbohydrate Periodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.

  16. Hand-held indirect calorimeter offers advantages compared with prediction equations, in a group of overweight women, to determine resting energy expenditures and estimated total energy expenditures during research screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Karen E; Kim, Hyunsook; Behall, Kay M; Conway, Joan M

    2009-05-01

    To compare standardized prediction equations to a hand-held indirect calorimeter in estimating resting energy and total energy requirements in overweight women. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured by hand-held indirect calorimeter and calculated by prediction equations Harris-Benedict, Mifflin-St Jeor, World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations University (WHO), and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Physical activity level, assessed by questionnaire, was used to estimate total energy expenditure (TEE). Subjects (n=39) were female nonsmokers older than 25 years of age with body mass index more than 25. Repeated measures analysis of variance, Bland-Altman plot, and fitted regression line of difference. A difference within +/-10% of two methods indicated agreement. Significant proportional bias was present between hand-held indirect calorimeter and prediction equations for REE and TEE (Pvalues and underestimated at higher values. Mean differences (+/-standard error) for REE and TEE between hand-held indirect calorimeter and Harris-Benedict were -5.98+/-46.7 kcal/day (P=0.90) and 21.40+/-75.7 kcal/day (P=0.78); between hand-held indirect calorimeter and Mifflin-St Jeor were 69.93+/-46.7 kcal/day (P=0.14) and 116.44+/-75.9 kcal/day (P=0.13); between hand-held indirect calorimeter and WHO were -22.03+/-48.4 kcal/day (P=0.65) and -15.8+/-77.9 kcal/day (P=0.84); and between hand-held indirect calorimeter and DRI were 39.65+/-47.4 kcal/day (P=0.41) and 56.36+/-85.5 kcal/day (P=0.51). Less than 50% of predictive equation values were within +/-10% of hand-held indirect calorimeter values, indicating poor agreement. A significant discrepancy between predicted and measured energy expenditure was observed. Further evaluation of hand-held indirect calorimeter research screening is needed.

  17. German Federal Ministry for Research: 1994 expenditures on energy research and national research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The draft departmental budget No. 30 covering the portfolio of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT) within the 1994 federal budget features total expenditures of DM 9470 million (as against 9600 million in 1993). DM 68.0 (90.3) million has been earmarked for reactor safety and general technical safety. The sums earmarked for spent fuel and waste management R and D and investments are DM 23.0 (35.8) million; for risk sharing in the nuclear field by the Federal Government, DM 210.0 (191.6) million. This adds up to DM 310.0 (317.7) million. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-09-14

    Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (Penergy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.

  19. Food withdrawal lowers energy expenditure and induces inactivity in long-chain fatty acid oxidation-deficient mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Eugene F; van Weeghel, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Visser, Gepke; Houten, Sander M

    2014-07-01

    Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Patients with VLCAD deficiency may present with hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, cardiomyopathy, and myopathy. Although several mouse models have been developed to aid in the study of the pathogenesis of long-chain FAO defects, the muscular phenotype is underexposed. To address the muscular phenotype, we used a newly developed mouse model on a mixed genetic background with a more severe defect in FAO (LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/-)) in addition to a validated mouse model (LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/+)) and compared them with wild-type (WT) mice. We found that both mouse models show a 20% reduction in energy expenditure (EE) and a 3-fold decrease in locomotor activity in the unfed state. In addition, we found a 1.7°C drop in body temperature in unfed LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/+) mice compared with WT body temperature. We conclude that food withdrawal-induced inactivity, hypothermia, and reduction in EE are novel phenotypes associated with FAO deficiency in mice. Unexpectedly, inactivity was not explained by rhabdomyolysis, but rather reflected the overall reduced capacity of these mice to generate heat. We suggest that mice are partly protected against the negative consequence of an FAO defect.-Diekman, E. F., van Weeghel, M., Wanders, R. J. A., Visser, G., Houten, S. M. Food withdrawal lowers energy expenditure and induces inactivity in long-chain fatty acid oxidation-deficient mouse models. © FASEB.

  20. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Bahr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80 μg/day exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism.

  1. Will Nintendo "Wii Fit" Get You Fit? An Evaluation of the Energy Expenditure from Active-Play Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Kakinami, Lisa; Peterson, Eric D; Mustian, Karen M; Fernandez, I Diana

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine whether Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii Fit™" games can help individuals meet physical activity recommendations. Thirty young healthy volunteers were recruited for this randomized crossover study to evaluate the energy expenditure associated with (1) a 30-minute "Wii Fit Free Run," (2) three 10-minute bouts of "Wii Fit" aerobic games ("Rhythm Boxing," "Super Hula Hoop," and "Advanced Steps"), and (3) 30-minute treadmill running/walking. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry using breath-by-breath analyses of O2 consumption and CO2 production. The "Wii Fit" conditions produced a moderate exercise intensity (5.0, 4.1, 3.9, and 3.8 metabolic equivalents [METs] in "Free Run," "Rhythm Boxing," "Super Hula Hoop," and "Advanced Steps"), whereas the treadmill running/walking produced a vigorous exercise intensity (METs=8.0). Based on federal guidelines, an individual could achieve the minimum weekly goal of 500 MET-minutes by playing selected "Wii Fit" aerobics games for 20-26 minutes a day, 5 days a week. Although not as vigorous as the treadmill, active-play videogames such as "Wii Fit" may provide an alternative way to encourage exercise and increase adoption and adherence to the physical activity guidelines.

  2. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andressa S; Chedid, Marcio F; Guerra, Léa T; Álvares-DA-Silva, Mario R; Araújo, Alexandre de; Guimarães, Luciano S; Leipnitz, Ian; Chedid, Aljamir D; Kruel, Cleber R P; Grezzana-Filho, Tomaz J M; Kruel, Cleber D P

    2016-01-01

    Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients. Prospective cross-sectional study including dyslipidemic LT recipients in follow-up at a 735-bed tertiary referral university hospital. Comparisons of BEE measured through IC to BEE estimated through each of the three alternative methods (HBE, BI and MSJ) were performed using Bland-Altman method and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Forty-five patients were included, aged 58±10 years. BEE measured using IC was 1664±319 kcal for males, and 1409±221 kcal for females. Average difference between BEE measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and BI (1584±377 kcal) was +50 kcal (p=0.0384). Average difference between the BEE measured using IC (1534±300 kcal) and MSJ (1479.6±375 kcal) was -55 kcal (p=0.16). Average difference between BEE values measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and HBE (1521±283 kcal) was -13 kcal (p=0.326). Difference between BEE estimated through IC and HBE was less than 100 kcal for 39 of all 43patients. Among the three alternative methods, HBE was the most reliable for estimating BEE in LT recipients. Estimativa confiável do metabolismo basal em pacientes transplantados de fígado é necessária para adaptar os requerimentos energéticos, melhorar o estado nutricional e prevenir ganho de peso. Calorimetria indireta (CI) é o padrão-ouro para a medição do metabolismo basal. No entanto, ele pode ser estimado utilizando-se métodos alternativos

  3. The influence of ship movements on the energy expenditure of fishermen. A study during a North Sea Voyage in calm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Tomas; Christensen, Michael; Johansen, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    in the North Sea off the coast of Bergen. The data were analysed by linear regression. results: The exposure monitored in calm weather conditions was small for all meas- urements of heeling and pitch being less than 10o.for both vessels. However, the fish- ermen’s energy expenditure was influenced...... by these minor sea motions. Trends were seen in the individual graphs with increasing energy expenditure at higher exposures. Conclusion: Our data suggests that even the heel and pitch in calm weather have an impact on the fishermen by increasing their energy consumption. This study has demonstrated...

  4. Gasto energético na marcha em pacientes com mucopolissacaridose Energy expenditure during gait in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o gasto energético na marcha em pacientes com mucopolissacaridose, utilizando uma metodologia simples e aplicável ao ambiente clínico. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal comparando-se o gasto energético da marcha de 19 pacientes portadores de mucopolissacaridose (Grupo MPS com 19 indivíduos assintomáticos da comunidade (Grupo Comparação. O gasto energético foi mensurado em Cal por um relógio da marca Polar (modelo FT7 durante uma caminhada de 50 metros. Foram também avaliados idade, peso, altura, IMC, frequência cardíaca inicial, frequência cardíaca final, e tempo de marcha. RESULTADOS: O Grupo MPS teve gasto energético na marcha de 2,84 Cal(±1,01, versus 1,42 Cal(±0,51, sendo 100% maior que o Grupo Comparação; também em relação ao Grupo Comparação, o Grupo MPS teve frequência cardíaca inicial 22% maior, frequência cardíaca final 13% e tempo da caminhada 25% maiores. CONCLUSÕES: O gasto energético na marcha de pacientes com mucopolissacaridose é duas vezes mais alto em comparação com indivíduos assintomáticos e a metodologia usada para avaliação mostrou-se alternativa eficiente para o ambiente clínico convencional. Nível de Evidencia III, Estudo Transversal Comparativo.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate energy expenditure during gait in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis using a simple methodology applicable to the clinical setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out comparing energy expenditure during gait in 19 patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS Group with 19 control individuals from the community (Comparison Group. Energy expenditure was measured in calories using a Polar telemetric watch (model FT7 in a 50-meters walking. Variables such as age, weight, height, BMI, initial hart rate, final hart rate, and gait time were recorded. RESULTS: MPS Group showed an expenditure during gait of 2.84 Cal (± 1.01 versus 1.42 Cal (± 0.51, being 100% higher

  5. Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, S B; Schoeller, D A; Kushner, R F; Neil, K M; Herling-Iaffaldano, K

    1995-03-01

    To test the benefits of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate during reduced-energy feeding, 23 obese women (44 +/- 4% fat) were randomly assigned to either aerobic exercise (Ex) or no exercise (Nx), and to a low-fat (LF) or low-carbohydrate (LC) reducing diet (5.00 +/- 0.56 MJ/d) for 12 wk. Changes in body composition, postabsorptive resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of a meal (TEM), and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) were measured by respiratory gas exchange and doubly labeled water. Significant effects of Ex included a greater loss of fat mass (Ex: -8.8 +/- 2.1 vs Nx: -6.1 +/- 2.3 kg, P = 0.008) and maintenance of TDEE (Ex: +0.07 +/- 1.23 vs Nx: -1.46 +/- 1.04 MJ/d, P = 0.004), due to a difference in physical activity (Ex: +0.75 +/- 1.06 vs Nx: -0.61 +/- 1.03 MJ/d, P = 0.006), which was not attributable solely to the Ex sessions. RMR in both groups decreased comparably (-0.54 MJ/d), and TEM (% of meal) did not change. Diet composition did not significantly influence body composition or energy expenditure changes, but a greater weight loss was observed after the LC than after the LF (-10.6 +/- 2.0 vs -8.1 +/- 3.0 kg, P = 0.037) diet. The addition of aerobic exercise to a low-energy diet was beneficial in the treatment of moderate obesity because of its favorable effects on body composition, physical activity, and TDEE.

  6. German Federal Ministry for Research and Technology: 1990 expenditures on energy research and national research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The draft departmental budget No. 30 covering the portfolio of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT) within the 1990 federal budget features total expenditures of DM 7855.2 million (as against 7645.4 million in the previous year). DM 112 (119) million has been earmarked for the funding of reactor development. In addition DM 105 (104) million has been planned for reactor safety and general technical safety, DM 2.5 (2.5) million for funding nuclear fuel supply (including uranium enrichment). The sums earmarked for nuclear spent fuel and waste management R and D are DM 43 (55.9) million; for investments, DM 26 (38.1) million, and risk sharing in the nuclear field by the Federal Government, DM 20 (20) million. This adds up to DM 308.5 million, which is 14.2% less than the 1989 target figure of DM 359.5 million. (orig.) [de

  7. Atomic Energy Control Board 1991-92 estimates part III expenditure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Expenditure Plan is designed to be used as a reference document. As such, it contains several levels of detail to respond to the various needs of its audience. This Plan is divided into two sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the Program including a description, information on its background, objectives and planning perspective as well as performance information that forms the basis for the resources requested. Section 2 provides further information on costs and resources as well as special analyses that the reader may require to understand the Program more fully. Section 1 is preceded by details of Spending Authorities from Part 2 of the Estimates and Volume 2 of the Public Accounts. This is to provide continuity with other Estimates documents and to help in assessing the Program's financial performance over the past year. 22 figs

  8. Atomic Energy Control Board 1991-92 estimates part III expenditure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This Expenditure Plan is designed to be used as a reference document. As such, it contains several levels of detail to respond to the various needs of its audience. This Plan is divided into two sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the Program including a description, information on its background, objectives and planning perspective as well as performance information that forms the basis for the resources requested. Section 2 provides further information on costs and resources as well as special analyses that the reader may require to understand the Program more fully. Section 1 is preceded by details of Spending Authorities from Part 2 of the Estimates and Volume 2 of the Public Accounts. This is to provide continuity with other Estimates documents and to help in assessing the Program`s financial performance over the past year. 22 figs.

  9. Atomic Energy Control Board 1992-93 estimates part III expenditure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Expenditure Plan is designed to be used as a reference document. As such, it contains several levels of detail to respond to the various needs of its audience. This Plan is divided into two sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the Program including a description, information on its background, objectives and planning perspective as well as performance information that forms the basis for the resources requested. Section 2 provides further information on costs and resources as well as special analyses that the reader may require to understand the Program more fully. Section 1 is preceded by details of Spending Authorities from Part 2 of the Estimates and Volume 2 of the Public Accounts. This is to provide continuity with other Estimates documents and to help in assessing the Program's financial performance over the past year. 7 refs., 21 figs

  10. Atomic Energy Control Board 1992-93 estimates part III expenditure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This Expenditure Plan is designed to be used as a reference document. As such, it contains several levels of detail to respond to the various needs of its audience. This Plan is divided into two sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the Program including a description, information on its background, objectives and planning perspective as well as performance information that forms the basis for the resources requested. Section 2 provides further information on costs and resources as well as special analyses that the reader may require to understand the Program more fully. Section 1 is preceded by details of Spending Authorities from Part 2 of the Estimates and Volume 2 of the Public Accounts. This is to provide continuity with other Estimates documents and to help in assessing the Program`s financial performance over the past year. 7 refs., 21 figs.

  11. Piloting the use of accelerometry devices to capture energy expenditure in agricultural and rural livelihoods: Protocols and findings from northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Zanello

    Full Text Available In this study we report on the protocols adopted and the findings from a pilot study in northern Ghana involving 40 respondents wearing accelerometry devices for a week. We show how integrating energy expenditure data from wearable accelerometry devices with data on activity and time-use can provide a window into agricultural and rural livelihoods in developing country contexts that has not been previously available for empirical research. Our findings confirm some of the stylised facts of agricultural and rural livelihoods, but the study also provides several new insights that come from the triangulation of energy expenditure, time use, and activity data. We report findings and explore the potential applications of using accelerometry devices for a better understanding of agriculture-nutrition linkages in developing countries. Keywords: Energy expenditure, Wearable accelerometry devices, Time-use, Ghana

  12. Beta2-adrenergic stimulation increases energy expenditure at rest, but not during submaximal exercise in active overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn A; Narkowicz, Christian K

    2017-01-01

    was related to plasma ln-rac-formoterol concentrations (r = 0.75, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Selective β2-adrenoceptor agonism effectively increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in overweight individuals. The potential for weight loss induced by β2-agonists may be greater for R-enantiopure formulations.......PURPOSE: β2-Agonists have been proposed as weight-loss treatment, because they elevate energy expenditure. However, it is unknown what effect β2-agonists have on energy expenditure in overweight individuals. Furthermore, the influence of β2-agonist R- and S-enantiomer ratio for the increased energy...... expenditure is insufficiently explored. METHODS: Nineteen males were included in the study of which 14 completed. Subjects were 31.6 (±3.5) years [mean (±95% CI)] and had a fat percentage of 22.7 (±2.1)%. On separate days, subjects received either placebo or inhaled racemic (rac-) formoterol (2 × 27 µg...

  13. Global IP6K1 deletion enhances temperature modulated energy expenditure which reduces carbohydrate and fat induced weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: IP6 kinases (IP6Ks regulate cell metabolism and survival. Mice with global (IP6K1-KO or adipocyte-specific (AdKO deletion of IP6K1 are protected from diet induced obesity (DIO at ambient (23 °C temperature. AdKO mice are lean primarily due to increased AMPK mediated thermogenic energy expenditure (EE. Thus, at thermoneutral (30 °C temperature, high fat diet (HFD-fed AdKO mice expend energy and gain body weight, similar to control mice. IP6K1 is ubiquitously expressed; thus, it is critical to determine to what extent the lean phenotype of global IP6K1-KO mice depends on environmental temperature. Furthermore, it is not known whether IP6K1 regulates AMPK mediated EE in cells, which do not express UCP1. Methods: Q-NMR, GTT, food intake, EE, QRT-PCR, histology, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR, fatty acid metabolism assays, and immunoblot studies were conducted in IP6K1-KO and WT mice or cells. Results: Global IP6K1 deletion mediated enhancement in EE is impaired albeit not abolished at 30 °C. As a result, IP6K1-KO mice are protected from DIO, insulin resistance, and fatty liver even at 30 °C. Like AdKO, IP6K1-KO mice display enhanced adipose tissue browning. However, unlike AdKO mice, thermoneutrality only partly abolishes browning in IP6K1-KO mice. Cold (5 °C exposure enhances carbohydrate expenditure, whereas 23 °C and 30 °C promote fat oxidation in HFD-KO mice. Furthermore, IP6K1 deletion diminishes cellular fat accumulation via activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. Conclusions: Global deletion of IP6K1 ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance irrespective of the environmental temperature conditions, which strengthens its validity as an anti-obesity target. Keywords: IP6K, Obesity, Diabetes, Energy expenditure, β-oxidation

  14. Measurement of energy expenditure in overweight men and women using [C-14]-bicarbonate-urea before and after weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luscombe, N.; Kirkwood, I.D.; Bellon, M.; Tsopelas, C.; Wittert, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Many studies have demonstrated significant declines in 24-hour energy expenditure (TEE) measured by whole body calorimetry with either the process of weight loss or the maintenance of reduced body weight. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of weight loss and two weeks of weight maintenance on TEE using [ 14 C]-bicarbonate-urea, Eleven subjects (6 males, 5 females), mean (±SE) age 50 ± 3 years, BMI 34.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 and body fat 38.7 ± 3% were studied before and after a decrease in body weight of > 8% over a period of 8 weeks, followed by two weeks of weight maintenance. Weight loss was induced using the combination of Modifast and one small meal a day (∼3.34 MJ/day). Body composition (DEXA), resting energy expenditure (REE) and the thermic effect of a 2.7 MJ test meal (TEF) were measured in addition to TEE at week 2 and again at week 12. Diet was assessed using diaries and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was calculated from the equation: 0.9 x TEE-REE, which assumes that 10% of TEE is accounted for by the TEE. Body weight decreased by 11.8 ± 1.0% from week 2 to 10, and remained stable thereafter. Total fat mass, abdominal fat mass and lean mass decreased by 19.7 ± 1.8%, 21.8 ± 2.3% and 6.0 ± 1.1 % respectively. At week 12, REE decreased by 5.7 ± 1.3% (p < 0.002). The decreases in TEF (13.3 ± 13.7%), PAEE (31 ± 57.5%) and TEE (0.18 + 3.68%) were not significant. There was a significant relationship between the change in REE and overall body weight (p < 0.026) but not lean mass. It is concluded that in free-living subjects, after weight loss and two weeks of weight maintenance, REE but not TEE decreases, although there is substantial variability between individuals.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Analysis of knockout mice suggests a role for VGF in the control of fat storage and energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Tandra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of mixed background mice have demonstrated that targeted deletion of Vgf produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity. To investigate potential mechanism(s and site(s of action of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, we further analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of two independent VGF knockout lines on C57Bl6 backgrounds. Results Unlike hyperactive VGF knockout mice on a mixed C57Bl6-129/SvJ background, homozygous mutant mice on a C57Bl6 background were hypermetabolic with similar locomotor activity levels to Vgf+/Vgf+ mice, during day and night cycles, indicating that mechanism(s other than hyperactivity were responsible for their increased energy expenditure. In Vgf-/Vgf- knockout mice, morphological analysis of brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT indicated decreased fat storage in both tissues, and decreased adipocyte perimeter and area in WAT. Changes in gene expression measured by real-time RT-PCR were consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation and uptake in BAT, and increased lipolysis, decreased lipogenesis, and brown adipocyte differentiation in WAT, suggesting that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf-/Vgf- mice may be associated with or responsible for alterations in energy expenditure and fat storage. In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 and UCP2 protein levels, mitochondrial number, and mitochondrial cristae density were upregulated in Vgf-/Vgf- BAT. Using immunohistochemical and histochemical techniques, we detected VGF in nerve fibers innervating BAT and Vgf promoter-driven reporter expression in cervical and thoracic spinal ganglia that project to and innervate the chest wall and tissues including BAT. Moreover, VGF peptide levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay in BAT, and were found to be down-regulated by a high fat diet. Lastly, despite being hypermetabolic

  16. Energy expenditure during common sitting and standing tasks: examining the 1.5 MET definition of sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoubi, Maedeh; Pearson, Natalie; Clemes, Stacy A; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Tolfrey, Keith; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Yates, Thomas

    2015-05-29

    Sedentary behavior is defined as any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure of 1.5 METS or less while in a sitting or reclining posture. This study examines this definition by assessing the energy cost (METs) of common sitting, standing and walking tasks. Fifty one adults spent 10 min during each activity in a variety of sitting tasks (watching TV, Playing on the Wii, Playing on the PlayStation Portable (PSP) and typing) and non-sedentary tasks (standing still, walking at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 mph). Activities were completed on the same day in a random order following an assessment of resting metabolic rate (RMR). A portable gas analyzer was used to measure oxygen uptake, and data were converted to units of energy expenditure (METs). Average of standardized MET values for screen-based sitting tasks were: 1.33 (SD: 0.24) METS (TV), 1.41 (SD: 0.28) (PSP), and 1.45 (SD: 0.32) (Typing). The more active, yet still seated, games on the Wii yielded an average of 2.06 (SD: 0.5) METS. Standing still yielded an average of 1.59 (SD: 0.37) METs. Walking MET values increased incrementally with speed from 2.17 to 2.99 (SD: 0.5 - 0.69) METs. The suggested 1.5 MET threshold for sedentary behaviors seems reasonable however some sitting based activities may be classified as non-sedentary. The effect of this on the definition of sedentary behavior and associations with metabolic health needs further investigation.

  17. Application of overall dynamic body acceleration as a proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals: relationship with heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Masafumi; Oishi, Kazato; Nakagawa, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Hiromichi; Anzai, Hiroki; Kumagai, Hajime; Okano, Kanji; Tobioka, Hisaya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the energy expenditure of farm animals at pasture is important for efficient animal management. In recent years, an alternative technique for estimating energy expenditure by measuring body acceleration has been widely performed in wildlife and human studies, but the availability of the technique in farm animals has not yet been examined. In the present study, we tested the potential use of an acceleration index, overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), as a new proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals (cattle, goats and sheep) at pasture with the simultaneous evaluation of a conventional proxy, heart rate. Body accelerations in three axes and heart rate for cows (n = 8, two breeds), goats (n = 6) and sheep (n = 5) were recorded, and the effect of ODBA calculated from the body accelerations on heart rate was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the two other activity indices, the number of steps and vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), on heart rate were also investigated. The results of the comparison among three activity indices indicated that ODBA was the best predictor for heart rate. Although the relationship between ODBA and heart rate was different between the groups of species and breeds and between individuals (Pheart rate (beats/min) = 147.263∙M-0.141 + 889.640∙M-0.179∙ODBA (g). Combining this equation with the previously reported energy expenditure per heartbeat, we estimated the energy expenditure of the tested animals, and the results indicated that ODBA is a good proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals across species and breeds. The utility and simplicity of the procedure with acceleration loggers could make the accelerometry technique a worthwhile option in field research and commercial farm use.

  18. Metabolic responses to strength training: an emphasis on energy expenditure. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p150

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronei Silveira Pinto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study reviews the results reported in the literature regarding energy expenditure in strength training (ST. For this purpose, a search was conducted in the Medline and Sport Discus databases using the following key words: strength training, energy expenditure, and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC. The studies analyzed report that ST protocols involving exercises for the major muscle groups characterized by high-intensity and high-volume training and low resting intervals between sets and exercises have a greater metabolic impact on ST. These variables also interfere with the magnitude and duration of EPOC

  19. Measurements of Daily Energy Intake and Total Energy Expenditure in People with Dementia in Care Homes: The Use of Wearable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.

  20. The effect of a subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1, OXM and PYY on Energy intake and Expenditure in Obese volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Tricia; Behary, Preeshila; Tharakan, George

    2017-01-01

    has been postulated to contribute to its metabolic benefits. Objective: We hypothesised that infusion of the three gut hormones to achieve levels similar to those encountered post-prandially in RYGB patients might be effective in suppressing appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the effect of a continuous infusion of GLP-1, OXM and PYY (GOP) on energy intake and expenditure in obese volunteers. Methods: Obese volunteers were randomised to receive an infusion of GOP or placebo in a single-blinded randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study for 10.5 hours a day. This was delivered......Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity, although limited by availability and operative risk. The gut hormones Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), Peptide YY (PYY) and Oxyntomodulin (OXM) are elevated post-prandially after RYGB, which...

  1. Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure underpinning obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M; Schurmann, Claudia; Justice, Anne E; Fine, Rebecca S; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Esko, Tõnu; Giri, Ayush; Graff, Mariaelisa; Guo, Xiuqing; Hendricks, Audrey E; Karaderi, Tugce; Lempradl, Adelheid; Locke, Adam E; Mahajan, Anubha; Marouli, Eirini; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Young, Kristin L; Alfred, Tamuno; Feitosa, Mary F; Masca, Nicholas GD; Manning, Alisa K; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mudgal, Poorva; Ng, Maggie CY; Reiner, Alex P; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willems, Sara M; Winkler, Thomas W; Abecasis, Goncalo; Aben, Katja K; Alam, Dewan S; Alharthi, Sameer E; Allison, Matthew; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Auer, Paul L; Balkau, Beverley; Bang, Lia E; Barroso, Inês; Bastarache, Lisa; Benn, Marianne; Bergmann, Sven; Bielak, Lawrence F; Blüher, Matthias; Boehnke, Michael; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Böger, Carsten A; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bots, Michiel L; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bowden, Donald W; Brandslund, Ivan; Breen, Gerome; Brilliant, Murray H; Broer, Linda; Brumat, Marco; Burt, Amber A; Butterworth, Adam S; Campbell, Peter T; Cappellani, Stefania; Carey, David J; Catamo, Eulalia; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Cramer; Chu, Audrey Y; Cocca, Massimiliano; Collins, Francis S; Cook, James P; Corley, Janie; Galbany, Jordi Corominas; Cox, Amanda J; Crosslin, David S; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; D'Eustacchio, Angela; Danesh, John; Davies, Gail; de Bakker, Paul IW; de Groot, Mark CH; de Mutsert, Renée; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George; Demerath, Ellen W; den Heijer, Martin; den Hollander, Anneke I; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dennis, Joe G; Denny, Josh C; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Drenos, Fotios; Du, Mengmeng; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Edwards, Todd L; Ellinghaus, David; Ellinor, Patrick T; Elliott, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Faul, Jessica D; Fauser, Sascha; Feng, Shuang; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Florez, Jose C; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Franco, Oscar H; Franke, Andre; Franks, Paul W; Friedrich, Nele; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Gan, Wei; Gandin, Ilaria; Gasparini, Paolo; Gibson, Jane; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gjesing, Anette P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grant, Struan FA; Grarup, Niels; Griffiths, Helen L; Grove, Megan L; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haessler, Jeff; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hammerschlag, Anke R; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Have, Christian T; Hayward, Caroline; He, Liang; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Heath, Andrew C; Heid, Iris M; Helgeland, Øyvind; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Hewitt, Alex W; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hovingh, G Kees; Howson, Joanna MM; Hu, Yao; Huang, Paul L; Huffman, Jennifer E; Ikram, M Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jarvik, Gail P; Jensen, Gorm B; Jia, Yucheng; Johansson, Stefan; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahali, Bratati; Kahn, René S; Kähönen, Mika; Kamstrup, Pia R; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karaleftheri, Maria; Kardia, Sharon LR; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kim, Eric; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kovacs, Peter; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kutalik, Zoltán; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lamparter, David; Lange, Ethan M; Lange, Leslie A; Langenberg, Claudia; Larson, Eric B; Lee, Nanette R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lewis, Cora E; Li, Huaixing; Li, Jin; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Keng-Hung; Lin, Li-An; Lin, Xu; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Dajiang J; Liu, Yongmei; Lo, Ken Sin; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lotery, Andrew J; Loukola, Anu; Luan, Jian'an; Lubitz, Steven A; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Männistö, Satu; Marenne, Gaëlle; Mazul, Angela L; McCarthy, Mark I; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Medland, Sarah E; Meidtner, Karina; Milani, Lili; Mistry, Vanisha; Mitchell, Paul; Mohlke, Karen L; Moilanen, Leena; Moitry, Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Moore, Carmel; Mori, Trevor A; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Munroe, Patricia B; Nalls, Mike A; Narisu, Narisu; Nelson, Christopher P; Neville, Matt; Nielsen, Sune F; Nikus, Kjell; Njølstad, Pål R; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Connel, Jeffrey R; O’Donoghue, Michelle L.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Katharine R; Packard, Chris J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmer, Colin NA; Palmer, Nicholette D; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Patel, Aniruddh P; Pattie, Alison; Pedersen, Oluf; Peissig, Peggy L; Peloso, Gina M; Pennell, Craig E; Perola, Markus; Perry, James A; Perry, John RB; Pers, Tune H; Person, Thomas N; Peters, Annette; Petersen, Eva RB; Peyser, Patricia A; Pirie, Ailith; Polasek, Ozren; Polderman, Tinca J; Puolijoki, Hannu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rasheed, Asif; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reilly, Dermot F; Renström, Frida; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Rivas, Manuel A; Roberts, David J; Robertson, Neil R; Robino, Antonietta; Rolandsson, Olov; Rudan, Igor; Ruth, Katherine S; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Sapkota, Yadav; Sattar, Naveed; Schoen, Robert E; Schreiner, Pamela J; Schulze, Matthias B; Scott, Robert A; Segura-Lepe, Marcelo P; Shah, Svati H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Sim, Xueling; Slater, Andrew J; Small, Kerrin S; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Timothy D; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Starr, John M; Stefansson, Kari; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M; Stumvoll, Michael; Sun, Liang; Surendran, Praveen; Swift, Amy J; Tada, Hayato; Tansey, Katherine E; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Kent D; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Deborah J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thuesen, Betina H; Tönjes, Anke; Tromp, Gerard; Trompet, Stella; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uher, Rudolf; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Laan, Sander W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van Leeuwen, Nienke; van Setten, Jessica; Vanhala, Mauno; Varbo, Anette; Varga, Tibor V; Varma, Rohit; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Vermeulen, Sita H; Veronesi, Giovanni; Vestergaard, Henrik; Vitart, Veronique; Vogt, Thomas F; Völker, Uwe; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Walker, Mark; Wallentin, Lars; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Carol A; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yiqin; Ware, Erin B; Wareham, Nicholas J; Warren, Helen R; Waterworth, Dawn M; Wessel, Jennifer; White, Harvey D; Willer, Cristen J; Wilson, James G; Witte, Daniel R; Wood, Andrew R; Wu, Ying; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Yao, Jie; Yao, Pang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Young, Robin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T; Rotter, Jerome I; Pospisilik, John A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M; Lettre, Guillaume; North, Kari E; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth JF

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >250 loci for body mass index (BMI), implicating pathways related to neuronal biology. Most GWAS loci represent clusters of common, non-coding variants from which pinpointing causal genes remains challenging. Here, we combined data from 718,734 individuals to discover rare and low-frequency (MAFobesity, two (MC4R, KSR2) previously observed in extreme obesity, and two variants in GIPR. Effect sizes of rare variants are ~10 times larger than of common variants, with the largest effect observed in carriers of an MC4R stop-codon (p.Tyr35Ter, MAF=0.01%), weighing ~7kg more than non-carriers. Pathway analyses confirmed enrichment of neuronal genes and provide new evidence for adipocyte and energy expenditure biology, widening the potential of genetically-supported therapeutic targets to treat obesity. PMID:29273807

  2. Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    ,734 individuals to discover rare and low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) obesity, 2 variants...... were in genes (MC4R and KSR2) previously observed to be mutated in extreme obesity and 2 variants were in GIPR. The effect sizes of rare variants are ~10 times larger than those of common variants, with the largest effect observed in carriers of an MC4R mutation introducing a stop codon (p.Tyr35Ter......, MAF = 0.01%), who weighed ~7 kg more than non-carriers. Pathway analyses based on the variants associated with BMI confirm enrichment of neuronal genes and provide new evidence for adipocyte and energy expenditure biology, widening the potential of genetically supported therapeutic targets in obesity....

  3. RM-493, a melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist, increases resting energy expenditure in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kong Y; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Abel, Brent S; Mullins, Katherine P; Staker, Pamela; Brychta, Robert J; Zhao, Xiongce; Ring, Michael; Psota, Tricia L; Cone, Roger D; Panaro, Brandon L; Gottesdiener, Keith M; Van der Ploeg, Lex H T; Reitman, Marc L; Skarulis, Monica C

    2015-04-01

    Activation of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) with the synthetic agonist RM-493 decreases body weight and increases energy expenditure (EE) in nonhuman primates. The effects of MC4R agonists on EE in humans have not been examined to date. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we examined the effects of the MC4R agonist RM-493 on resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese subjects in an inpatient setting. Twelve healthy adults (6 men and 6 women) with body mass index of 35.7 ± 2.9 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD) received RM-493 (1 mg/24 h) or placebo by continuous subcutaneous infusion over 72 hours, followed immediately by crossover to the alternate treatment. All subjects received a weight-maintenance diet (50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 20% protein) and performed 30 minutes of standardized exercise daily. Continuous EE was measured on the third treatment day in a room calorimeter, and REE in the fasting state was defined as the mean of 2 30-minute resting periods. RM-493 increased REE vs placebo by 6.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.68-13.02%), on average by 111 kcal/24 h (95% confidence interval, 15-207 kcal, P = .03). Total daily EE trended higher, whereas the thermic effect of a test meal and exercise EE did not differ significantly. The 23-hour nonexercise respiratory quotient was lower during RM-493 treatment (0.833 ± 0.021 vs 0.848 ± 0.022, P = .02). No adverse effect on heart rate or blood pressure was observed. Short-term administration of the MC4R agonist RM-493 increases REE and shifts substrate oxidation to fat in obese individuals.

  4. Leptin Signaling Is Required for Adaptive Changes in Food Intake, but Not Energy Expenditure, in Response to Different Thermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Nelson, Jarrell T.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Morton, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Survival of free-living animals depends on the ability to maintain core body temperature in the face of rapid and dramatic changes in their thermal environment. If food intake is not adjusted to meet the changing energy demands associated with changes of ambient temperature, a serious challenge to body energy stores can occur. To more fully understand the coupling of thermoregulation to energy homeostasis in normal animals and to investigate the role of the adipose hormone leptin to this process, comprehensive measures of energy homeostasis and core temperature were obtained in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls when housed under cool (14°C), usual (22°C) or ∼ thermoneutral (30°C) conditions. Our findings extend previous evidence that WT mice robustly defend normothermia in response to either a lowering (14°C) or an increase (30°C) of ambient temperature without changes in body weight or body composition. In contrast, leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice fail to defend normothermia at ambient temperatures lower than thermoneutrality and exhibit marked losses of both body fat and lean mass when exposed to cooler environments (14°C). Our findings further demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between ambient temperature and energy expenditure in WT mice, a relationship that is preserved in ob/ob mice. However, thermal conductance analysis indicates defective heat retention in ob/ob mice, irrespective of temperature. While a negative relationship between ambient temperature and energy intake also exists in WT mice, this relationship is disrupted in ob/ob mice. Thus, to meet the thermoregulatory demands of different ambient temperatures, leptin signaling is required for adaptive changes in both energy intake and thermal conductance. A better understanding of the mechanisms coupling thermoregulation to energy homeostasis may lead to the development of new approaches for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25756181

  5. Anthropometric indices and energy intakes of alcoholic adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the nutritional status of alcoholics in relation to non-alcoholic adolescent students, as well as the relationship between alcohol consumption, and energy intake, and the anthropometric indices of the adolescent students of Abia state university. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) of 513 ...

  6. Comparison of resting energy equations and total energy expenditure in haemodialysis patients and body composition measured by multi-frequency bioimpedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ben; Sridharan, Sivakumar; Farrington, Ken; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-07-13

    Waste products of metabolism are retained in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Cellular metabolism generates energy, and patients with greater energy expenditure may therefore require more dialysis. To determine the amount of dialysis required, equations estimating resting and total energy expenditure (REE,TEE) are required. We compared estimates of REE in HD patients using established equations with a novel equation recently validated in HD patients (HD equation). TEE was derived from REE (HD equation) and estimates of physical activity obtained by questionnaire. REE and TEE relationships with bioimpedance measured body composition were then determined. We studied 317 HD patients; 195 males (61.5%), 123 diabetic (38.9%), mean age 65.0 ± 15.3 and weight 73.1 ± 16.8 kg. REE from HD Equation was 1509 ± 241 kcal/day, which was greater than for Mifflin St Joer 1384 ± 259, Harris-Benedict 1437 ± 244, Katch-McArdle 1345 ± 232 (all p employment (β 406.5, p appearance (β 2.7, p = 0.015), and negatively with age (β -7.9, p appearance, lower co-morbidity, age, and dialysis vintage, and the employed. More metabolically active patients may require greater dialytic clearances. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical energy expenditures and movement efficiency in full body reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Daohang; France, Christopher R; Thomas, James S

    2010-02-01

    The effect of target location, speed, and handedness on the average total mechanical energy and movement efficiency is studied in 15 healthy subjects (7 males and 8 females with age 22.9 +/- 1.79 years old) performing full body reaching movements. The average total mechanical energy is measured as the time average of integration of joint power, potential energy, and kinetic energy respectively. Movement efficiency is calculated as the ratio of total kinetic energy to the total joint power and potential energy. Results show that speed and target location have significant effects on total mechanical energy and movement efficiency, but reaching hand only effects kinetic energy. From our findings we conclude that (1) efficiency in whole body reaching is dependent on whether the height of the body center of mass is raised or lowered during the task; (2) efficiency is increased as movement speed is increased, in part because of greater changes in potential energy; and (3) the CNS does not appear to use movement efficiency as a primary planning variable in full body reaching. It may be dependent on a combination of other factors or constraints.

  8. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Suburb-to-suburb intercity travel: Energy, time and dollar expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of adding suburb to terminal and terminal to suburb travel is examined. The energy consumed in entire trips was estimated. The total energy costs are compared with total travel times, and dollar costs to the traveler. Trips between origins in seven suburbs of Newark, New Jersey and destinations in two Washington, D. C. suburbs are analyzed.

  10. Total Energy Expenditure by the doubly labelled water method in rural pre-school children in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Salazar, G.; Diaz, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method in nineteen 5 y old children of a rural mountain community in Cuba. Materials and Methods. Ten males and nine females (18.4 and 18.5 kg average weight) with mean BMI values of 16.3 and 16.1 kg/m2 were included in the study. RMR was previously measured in year 2000 by indirect calorimetry in a sample of 11 children and values correlated properly with the estimations using the proposed equations of Henry and Rees. This estimate was used then for the whole group. Energy intake measured by 3-day weighed dietary record was 3.73 MJ/day. Tee was measured by the doubly labelled water method. Results: TEE values of well nourished children were 7.15 and 5.77 MJ/d for boys and girls, respectively. These findings imply that well nourished boys and girls are having a moderate to heavy physical activity requiring 93 and 75 kcal/kg per day. Physical activity of normal Cuban boys and girls living in rural areas was 1.88 and 1.59 METS, which is much higher than those values reported for children from developed countries using DLW. Energy intake was 1639 ± 381 in boys and 1230 ± 355 kcal/d in girls. Conclusions: TEE and physical activity level of rural Cuban children was higher than reported values of children living in developed countries

  11. The metabolic ER stress sensor IRE1α suppresses alternative activation of macrophages and impairs energy expenditure in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bo; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chi; Xia, Zhixiong; Dai, Jianli; Shao, Mengle; Zhao, Feng; He, Shengqi; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Mingliang; Nan, Fajun; Li, Jia; Liu, Jianmiao; Liu, Jianfeng; Jia, Weiping; Qiu, Yifu; Song, Baoliang; Han, Jing-Dong J; Rui, Liangyou; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are key players orchestrating metabolic inflammation, and ER stress enhances macrophage activation. However, whether ER stress pathways underlie ATM regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we identified inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) as a critical switch governing M1-M2 macrophage polarization and energy balance. Myeloid-specific IRE1α abrogation in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice largely reversed high-fat diet (HFD)-induced M1-M2 imbalance in white adipose tissue (WAT) and blocked HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, WAT browning and energy expenditure were significantly higher in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice. Furthermore, IRE1α ablation augmented M2 polarization of macrophages in a cell-autonomous manner. Thus, IRE1α senses protein unfolding and metabolic and immunological states, and consequently guides ATM polarization. The macrophage IRE1α pathway drives obesity and metabolic syndrome through impairing BAT activity and WAT browning.

  12. Cross-Validation of a Recently Published Equation Predicting Energy Expenditure to Run or Walk a Mile in Normal-Weight and Overweight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cody E.; Owens, Scott G.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Bass, Martha A.; Bentley, John P.; Loftin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An equation published by Loftin, Waddell, Robinson, and Owens (2010) was cross-validated using ten normal-weight walkers, ten overweight walkers, and ten distance runners. Energy expenditure was measured at preferred walking (normal-weight walker and overweight walkers) or running pace (distance runners) for 5 min and corrected to a mile. Energy…

  13. Parental energy expenditure during brood rearing in the Great Tit (Parus major) in relation to body mass, temperature, food availability and clutch size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Dietz, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    1. Quantification of the energetic needs of reproducing animals provides a basis for understanding patterns in reproduction. The doubly labelled water technique enables this to be carried out under natural conditions. 2. Daily energy expenditure of 32 female Great Tits (Parus major) tending

  14. Application of Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration as a Proxy for Estimating the Energy Expenditure of Grazing Farm Animals: Relationship with Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Masafumi; Oishi, Kazato; Nakagawa, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Hiromichi; Anzai, Hiroki; Kumagai, Hajime; Okano, Kanji; Tobioka, Hisaya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the energy expenditure of farm animals at pasture is important for efficient animal management. In recent years, an alternative technique for estimating energy expenditure by measuring body acceleration has been widely performed in wildlife and human studies, but the availability of the technique in farm animals has not yet been examined. In the present study, we tested the potential use of an acceleration index, overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), as a new proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals (cattle, goats and sheep) at pasture with the simultaneous evaluation of a conventional proxy, heart rate. Body accelerations in three axes and heart rate for cows (n = 8, two breeds), goats (n = 6) and sheep (n = 5) were recorded, and the effect of ODBA calculated from the body accelerations on heart rate was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the two other activity indices, the number of steps and vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), on heart rate were also investigated. The results of the comparison among three activity indices indicated that ODBA was the best predictor for heart rate. Although the relationship between ODBA and heart rate was different between the groups of species and breeds and between individuals (Panimals, and the results indicated that ODBA is a good proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals across species and breeds. The utility and simplicity of the procedure with acceleration loggers could make the accelerometry technique a worthwhile option in field research and commercial farm use. PMID:26030931

  15. MicroRNA Regulation of Brown Adipogenesis and Thermogenic Energy Expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamsi, Farnaz; Zhang, Hongbin; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and associated metabolic diseases have become global epidemics. Obesity results from excess accumulation of white fat, while brown and its related beige fat function to dissipate energy as heat, thus counteracting obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Understanding...... attracted a great deal of research interests in exploring their roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This review focuses on the recent advances of regulating brown adipogenesis and energy metabolism by miRNAs, aiming to delineate the regulatory principles of miRNAs on this unique aspect...... of energy homeostasis....

  16. Physical activity levels and energy expenditure of 9-year-old – 12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-23

    Sep 23, 2010 ... Possible causes of increasing childhood obesity are inactivity and energy .... Department of Education of the North West Province and the headmasters of the ..... computer games (Medical Research Council 2002). Doing.

  17. Problems and tasks of energy efficiency connected with expenditures of power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyurov, P.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of technological and economical management of the energy system in conditions of free market economy are discussed. The assessment, analysis, control and forecasting of costs in the energy system as a whole and in large thermal facilities are outlined. The main quantitative and qualitative indices of power supply are also discussed. The principle tasks of current and periodical accounting, control and forecasting of the costs and their information support are listed. (orig.)

  18. Effect of exoskeletal joint constraint and passive resistance on metabolic energy expenditure: Implications for walking in paraplegia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Chang

    Full Text Available An important consideration in the design of a practical system to restore walking in individuals with spinal cord injury is to minimize metabolic energy demand on the user. In this study, the effects of exoskeletal constraints on metabolic energy expenditure were evaluated in able-bodied volunteers to gain insight into the demands of walking with a hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis. The exoskeleton had a hydraulic mechanism to reciprocally couple hip flexion and extension, unlocked hydraulic stance controlled knee mechanisms, and ankles fixed at neutral by ankle-foot orthoses. These mechanisms added passive resistance to the hip (15 Nm and knee (6 Nm joints while the exoskeleton constrained joint motion to the sagittal plane. The average oxygen consumption when walking with the exoskeleton was 22.5 ± 3.4 ml O2/min/kg as compared to 11.7 ± 2.0 ml O2/min/kg when walking without the exoskeleton at a comparable speed. The heart rate and physiological cost index with the exoskeleton were at least 30% and 4.3 times higher, respectively, than walking without it. The maximum average speed achieved with the exoskeleton was 1.2 ± 0.2 m/s, at a cadence of 104 ± 11 steps/min, and step length of 70 ± 7 cm. Average peak hip joint angles (25 ± 7° were within normal range, while average peak knee joint angles (40 ± 8° were less than normal. Both hip and knee angular velocities were reduced with the exoskeleton as compared to normal. While the walking speed achieved with the exoskeleton could be sufficient for community ambulation, metabolic energy expenditure was significantly increased and unsustainable for such activities. This suggests that passive resistance, constraining leg motion to the sagittal plane, reciprocally coupling the hip joints, and weight of exoskeleton place considerable limitations on the utility of the device and need to be minimized in future designs of practical hybrid neuroprostheses for walking after paraplegia.

  19. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Paolo; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2015-08-01

    Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m(2); body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Higher 24-hour RQ (P FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m(2) or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake.

  20. 18F-FDG uptake in the colon is modulated by metformin but not associated with core body temperature and energy expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke Bahler

    Full Text Available Physiological colonic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG uptake is a frequent finding on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT. Interestingly, metformin, a glucose lowering drug associated with moderate weight loss, is also associated with an increased colonic 18F-FDG uptake. Consequently, increased colonic glucose use might partly explain the weight losing effect of metformin when this results in an increased energy expenditure and/or core body temperature. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether metformin modifies the metabolic activity of the colon by increasing glucose uptake.In this open label, non-randomized, prospective mechanistic study, we included eight lean and eight overweight males. We measured colonic 18F-FDG uptake on PET-CT, energy expenditure and core body temperature before and after the use of metformin. The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake was measured in 5 separate segments (caecum, colon ascendens,-transversum,-descendens and sigmoid.The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake increased significantly in all separate segments after the use of metformin. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure or core body temperature after the use of metformin. There was no correlation between maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake and energy expenditure or core body temperature.Metformin significantly increases colonic 18F-FDG uptake, but this increased uptake is not associated with an increase in energy expenditure or core body temperature. Although the colon might be an important site of the glucose plasma lowering actions of metformin, this mechanism of action does not explain directly any associated weight loss.

  1. 18F-FDG uptake in the colon is modulated by metformin but not associated with core body temperature and energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahler, Lonneke; Holleman, Frits; Chan, Man-Wai; Booij, Jan; Hoekstra, Joost B.; Verberne, Hein J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Physiological colonic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake is a frequent finding on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Interestingly, metformin, a glucose lowering drug associated with moderate weight loss, is also associated with an increased colonic 18F-FDG uptake. Consequently, increased colonic glucose use might partly explain the weight losing effect of metformin when this results in an increased energy expenditure and/or core body temperature. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether metformin modifies the metabolic activity of the colon by increasing glucose uptake. Methods In this open label, non-randomized, prospective mechanistic study, we included eight lean and eight overweight males. We measured colonic 18F-FDG uptake on PET-CT, energy expenditure and core body temperature before and after the use of metformin. The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake was measured in 5 separate segments (caecum, colon ascendens,—transversum,—descendens and sigmoid). Results The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake increased significantly in all separate segments after the use of metformin. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure or core body temperature after the use of metformin. There was no correlation between maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake and energy expenditure or core body temperature. Conclusion Metformin significantly increases colonic 18F-FDG uptake, but this increased uptake is not associated with an increase in energy expenditure or core body temperature. Although the colon might be an important site of the glucose plasma lowering actions of metformin, this mechanism of action does not explain directly any associated weight loss. PMID:28464031

  2. The Role of Heart-Rate Variability Parameters in Activity Recognition and Energy-Expenditure Estimation Using Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heesu; Dong, Suh-Yeon; Lee, Miran; Youn, Inchan

    2017-07-24

    Human-activity recognition (HAR) and energy-expenditure (EE) estimation are major functions in the mobile healthcare system. Both functions have been investigated for a long time; however, several challenges remain unsolved, such as the confusion between activities and the recognition of energy-consuming activities involving little or no movement. To solve these problems, we propose a novel approach using an accelerometer and electrocardiogram (ECG). First, we collected a database of six activities (sitting, standing, walking, ascending, resting and running) of 13 voluntary participants. We compared the HAR performances of three models with respect to the input data type (with none, all, or some of the heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters). The best recognition performance was 96.35%, which was obtained with some selected HRV parameters. EE was also estimated for different choices of the input data type (with or without HRV parameters) and the model type (single and activity-specific). The best estimation performance was found in the case of the activity-specific model with HRV parameters. Our findings indicate that the use of human physiological data, obtained by wearable sensors, has a significant impact on both HAR and EE estimation, which are crucial functions in the mobile healthcare system.

  3. Validity of Predictive Equations for Resting Energy Expenditure Developed for Obese Patients: Impact of Body Composition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achamrah, Najate; Jésus, Pierre; Grigioni, Sébastien; Rimbert, Agnès; Petit, André; Déchelotte, Pierre; Folope, Vanessa; Coëffier, Moïse

    2018-01-01

    Predictive equations have been specifically developed for obese patients to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE). Body composition (BC) assessment is needed for some of these equations. We assessed the impact of BC methods on the accuracy of specific predictive equations developed in obese patients. REE was measured (mREE) by indirect calorimetry and BC assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). mREE, percen