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Sample records for adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy

  1. PITX2 DNA-methylation predicts response to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer patients.

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    Absmaier, Magdalena; Napieralski, Rudolf; Schuster, Tibor; Aubele, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Magdolen, Viktor; Dorn, Julia; Gross, Eva; Harbeck, Nadia; Noske, Aurelia; Kiechle, Marion; Schmitt, Manfred

    2018-03-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes a heterogeneous breast cancer subgroup with poor prognosis; survival rates are likely to be lower with TNBC compared to other breast cancer subgroups. For this disease, systemic adjuvant chemotherapy regimens often yield suboptimal clinical results. To improve treatment regimens in TNBC, identification of molecular biomarkers may help to select patients for individualized adjuvant therapy. Evidence has accumulated that determination of the methylation status of the PITX2 gene provides a predictive value in various breast cancer subgroups, either treated with endocrine-based therapy or anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. To further explore the validity of this novel predictive candidate biomarker, in the present exploratory retrospective study, determination of the PITX2 DNA-methylation status was assessed for non-metastatic TNBC patients treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy by molecular analysis of breast cancer tissues. The PITX2 DNA-methylation status was determined in fresh-frozen tumor tissue specimens (n=56) by methylation-specific qRT-PCR (qMSP) and the data related to disease-free and overall survival, applying an optimized DNA-methylation score of 6.35%. For non-metastatic TNBC patients treated with adjuvant systemic anthracycline-based chemotherapy, a low PITX2 DNA-methylation status (PITX2 DNA-methylation. For non-metastatic TNBC patients, selective determination of the PITX2 DNA-methylation status may serve as a cancer biomarker for predicting response to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The assay based on methylation of the PIXT2 gene can be applied to frozen and routinely available formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tumor tissues that will not only define those TNBC patients who may benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy but also those who should be spared the necessity of such potentially toxic treatment. Such patients should be allocated to

  2. Incidence of reversible amenorrhea in women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy with or without docetaxel

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    Donnez Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the incidence of reversible amenorrhea in women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy with or without docetaxel. Methods We studied the incidence and duration of amenorrhea induced by two chemotherapy regimens: (i 6 cycles of 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, epirubicin 100 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks (6FEC and (ii 3 cycles of FEC 100 followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel 100 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks (3FEC/3D. Reversible amenorrhea was defined as recovery of regular menses and, where available (101 patients, premenopausal hormone values (luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and estradiol in the year following the end of chemotherapy. Results One hundred and fifty-four premenopausal patients were included: 84 treated with 6FEC and 70 with 3FEC/3D. The median age was 43.5 years (range: 28–58 in the 6FEC arm and 44 years (range: 29–53 in the 3FEC/3D arm. Seventy-eight percent of patients were treated in the context of the PACS 01 trial. The incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea at the end of chemotherapy was similar in the two groups: 93 % in the 6FEC arm and 92.8 % in the 3FEC/3D arm. However, in the year following the end of chemotherapy, more patients recovered menses in the 3FEC/3D arm than in the 6FEC arm: 35.5 % versus 23.7 % (p = 0.019. Among the 101 patients for whom hormone values were available, 43 % in the 3FEC/3D arm and 29 % in the 6FEC arm showed premenopausal levels one year after the end of chemotherapy (p Conclusion Our study suggests that 3FEC/3D treatment induces more reversible amenorrhea than 6FEC. The clinical relevance of these findings needs to be investigated further.

  3. BRCAness as a Biomarker for Predicting Prognosis and Response to Anthracycline-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

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    Hitomi Mori

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous tumor that encompasses many different subclasses of the disease. In this study, we assessed BRCAness, defined as the shared characteristics between sporadic and BRCA1-mutated tumors, in a large cohort of TNBC cases.The BRCAness of 262 patients with primary TNBCs resected between January 2004 and December 2014 was determined through the isolation of DNA from tumor tissue. Classification of BRCAness was performed using multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. The tumor subtypes were determined immunohistochemically using resected specimens.Of the 262 TNBCs, the results of the MLPA assays showed that 174 (66.4% tumors had BRCAness. Patients with BRCAness tumors were younger than patients with non-BRCAness tumors (P = 0.003. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their pathological stages. The BRCAness group had a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS compared with the non-BRCAness group (P = 0.04 and had a shorter overall survival (OS although this did not reach statistical significance. Adjuvant treatments with anthracycline-based regimens provided significantly greater benefits to the BRCAness group (P = 0.003 for RFS, and P = 0.03 for OS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that BRCAness was an independent negative prognostic factor, and the anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy was an independent positive prognostic factor for both RFS and OS in TNBC.The 66.4% patients of TNBCs showed BRCAness. BRCAness is essential as a biomarker in the subclassification of TNBCs and might be of use for predicting their prognosis. Furthermore, this biomarker might be a predictive factor for the effectiveness of anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with TNBCs.

  4. Differential response of immunohistochemically defined breast cancer subtypes to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy with or without paclitaxel.

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    George Fountzilas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of adjuvant dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel, and CMF in subgroups of patients with high-risk operable breast cancer, according to tumor subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumor tissue samples from 1,039 patients participating in two adjuvant dose-dense sequential chemotherapy phase III trials were centrally assessed in tissue micro-arrays by IHC for 6 biological markers, that is, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, HER2, Ki67, cytokeratin 5 (CK5, and EGFR. The majority of the cases were further evaluated for HER2 amplification by FISH. Patients were classified as: luminal A (ER/PgR-positive, HER2-negative, Ki67(low; luminal B (ER/PgR-positive, HER2-negative, Ki67(high; luminal-HER2 (ER/PgR-positive, HER2-positive; HER2-enriched (ER-negative, PgR-negative, HER2-positive; triple-negative (TNBC (ER-negative, PgR-negative, HER2-negative; and basal core phenotype (BCP (TNBC, CK5-positive and/or EGFR-positive. RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 105.4 months the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS rates were 73.1% and 86.1%, respectively. Among patients with HER2-enriched tumors there was a significant benefit in both DFS and OS (log-rank test; p = 0.021 and p = 0.006, respectively for those treated with paclitaxel. The subtype classification was found to be of both predictive and prognostic value. Setting luminal A as the referent category, the adjusted for prognostic factors HR for relapse for patients with TNBC was 1.91 (95% CI: 1.31-2.80, Wald's p = 0.001 and for death 2.53 (95% CI: 1.62-3.60, p<0.001. Site of and time to first relapse differed according to subtype. Locoregional relapses and brain metastases were more frequent in patients with TNBC, while liver metastases were more often seen in patients with HER2-enriched tumors

  5. Lack of TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity predicts effect of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients (n=647) with primary breast cancer

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    Willemoe, Gro L.; Hertel, Pernille Bræmer; Bartels, Annette

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: A number of prospective studies have shown that adjuvant CEF significantly improves disease-free and overall survival as compared to CMF in breast cancer patients. Our aim was to determine whether the benefit of epirubicin versus methotrexate differs according to TIMP-1 tumour cell...

  6. Evaluation of ECG changes after Radiotherapy of left chest wall by Electron in patients with left breast cancer who receive Anthracycline based chemotherapy following mastectomy

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    J Emami

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular damage after Radiotherapy of left chest wall for left breast cancer is a potential fear, therefore studing both the possible causes of radiation-induced heart damage and preventive measures are crucial issues in radiation therapy of breast cancer. The present study investigates noninvasively the possible acute and chronic ECG changes and their incidences after Radiotherapy in patients with left sided breast cancer who have received 6-8 courses of Anthracycline based chemotherapy following mastectomy. Methods: 56 patients with breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma who had been undergone modified radical mastectomy, adjuvant Anthracycline based chemotherapy, and left sided chest wall electron therapy with direct field, have been evaluated. All patients investigated with physical examination and standard 12 leads ECG before, and immediately after completion of radiation therapy, and 6 months afterward. Results: New electrocardiographic changes after therapy were seen in 3 patients (5.35% and reduced to 2 cases (3.57% after 6 months. there was no significant difference in T wave findings before and after radiation therapy(P=0.521.Also there wasn’t any correlation between stage of cancer and any changes in ECG findings after radiation therapy (P=0.56. Conclusion: There were no clinical cardiac symptoms or signs after Radiotherapy. Most affected leads in ECG were V1-V4 and the main abnormality was Inverted T wave. This findings suggest that the most acute and chronic electrocardiographic effect of irradiation on heart is repolarization abnormality. This study suggests that there are no significant ECG changes after Radiotherapy of left chest wall by electron beam in patients with left sided breast cancer who has received Anthracycline based chemotherapy following mastectomy. Also Radiotherapy by electron doesn't induce any clinical cardiac symptoms and signs in these patients. Therefore, we recommend

  7. Prognostic implication of HSPA (HSP70) in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

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    Nadin, Silvina B; Sottile, Mayra L; Montt-Guevara, Maria M; Gauna, Gisel V; Daguerre, Pedro; Leuzzi, Marcela; Gago, Francisco E; Ibarra, Jorge; Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Ciocca, Daniel R; Vargas-Roig, Laura M

    2014-07-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used in patients with locally advanced breast cancer to reduce tumor size before surgery. Unfortunately, resistance to chemotherapy may arise from a variety of mechanisms. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are highly expressed in mammary tumor cells, have been implicated in anticancer drug resistance. In spite of the widely described value of HSPs as molecular markers in cancer, their implications in breast tumors treated with anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been poorly explored. In this study, we have evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of HSP27 (HSPB1) and HSP70 (HSPA) in serial biopsies from locally advanced breast cancer patients (n = 60) treated with doxorubicin (DOX)- or epirubicin (EPI)-based monochemotherapy. Serial biopsies were taken at days 1, 3, 7, and 21, and compared with prechemotherapy and surgical biopsies. After surgery, the patients received additional chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil. High nuclear HSPB1 and HSPA expressions were found in invasive cells after DOX/EPI administration (P 31 % of the cells) and cytoplasmic HSPA expressions (>11 % of the tumor cells) were associated with better DFS (P = 0.0348 and P = 0.0118, respectively). We conclude that HSPA expression may be a useful prognostic marker in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant DOX/EPI chemotherapy indicating the need to change the administered drugs after surgery for overcoming drug resistance.

  8. Clinical and Pathological Response to Neoadjuvant Anthracycline Based Chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.

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    Olfa, Gharbi; Amel, Trabelsi; Rim, Chafai; Aymen, Zayen; Faten, Ezzairi; Makrem, Hochlef; Leila, Ben Fatma; Amel, Landolsi; Hedi, Khairi; Moncef, Mokni; Slim, Ben Ahmed

    2010-08-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been used as a primary treatment for locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer, and recently extended to operable breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of different histologic factors in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy in Tunisian women. A total of 109 stage II and III breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Using pretreatment biopsy materials, histologic grade was recorded and immunohistochemical studies were performed for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her2neu. We analyzed the associations among this histologic factors and clinical and pathological complete response. Statistical analysis used is SEM logiciel. The overall clinical response was 63% (clinical partial response in 49% of cases and clinical complete response in 14% of cases). The pCR was 7%; in univariate analysis, clinical response rate by each factors were as follows: 63% in ER-positive tumors, 84% in ER-negative (P = 0.2), 59% in PgR-positive, 62% in PgR-negative (P = 0.3), 64% in HER2-positive, 62% in HER2-negative (P = 0.6), 60% in tumors of low nuclear grade and 63% in ones of high nuclear grade (P = 0.9). Biological markers that reliably predict clinical and pathological response to primary systemic therapy may have considerable clinical potential. The future of neoadjuvant therapy lies in tailoring treatment to individual patients by identifying response predictors.

  9. Treatment related acute promyelocytic leukemia (t-APML) in breast cancer survivor treated with anthracycline based chemotherapy: rare case report.

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    Madabhavi, Irappa; Modi, Gaurang; Panchal, Harsha; Patel, Apurva; Anand, Asha; Parikh, Sonia

    2015-10-01

    Treatment related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is well documented phenomenon after chemotherapy. In this subgroup of patients acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) due to delayed complication of using anthracycline is very rare occurrence. Very few cases are reported in world literature. We are reporting a rare case of occurrence of t-APML in cured breast cancer patient treated with doxorubicin. 43 year old female presented with triple negative early breast cancer treated initially with Right modified radical mastectomy. Pathological staging was pT2N0M0. She was treated with 6 cycle of adjuvant AC (Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide). After latent period of 23 months she developed symptoms of fever, weakness and generalized body ache. On further investigation she was found to have acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML). We had successfully treated t-APML with conventional 7+3 induction and subsequent consolidation with ATRA (All Trans Retinoic Acid) and arsenic trioxide. Patient was given maintenance treatment for 18 months after confirming negative PML RARA by RT PCR and declared cured. Patient is under regular surveillance in our centre.

  10. Assessment of the relationship between adherence with antiemetic drug therapy and control of nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

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    Chan, Alexandre; Low, Xiu Hui; Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern

    2012-06-01

    There are little prevalence data in the literature on nonadherence to outpatient antiemetic regimens for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). It is unclear whether adherence with outpatient antiemetic regimens is associated with better CINV control. Our previous survey research supports the work of clinical pharmacists in collaborative practice with medical oncologists in improving adherence with antiemetic therapy in women undergoing highly emetic chemotherapy for breast cancer. To (a) evaluate the impact of adherence to delayed antiemetics (days 2-4 following anthracycline-based chemotherapy) on CINV control in breast cancer patients after anthracycline-based chemotherapy and (b) identify patient-related factors associated with nonadherence to delayed antiemetics. A single-center, prospective, observational study was conducted from December 2006 to January 2011 in breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy (doxorubicin or epirubicin) and antiemetics at the National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS), the largest ambulatory cancer center in Singapore. Included patients were aged 21 years or older with confirmed diagnoses of breast cancer and receiving anthracycline-containing chemotherapy with antiemetics. Patients were excluded if they (a) were diagnosed with intestinal obstruction or received concurrent radiotherapy that predisposed them to nausea and vomiting, (b) had vomited in the 24 hours preceding chemotherapy, or (c) had brain metastases that would impair their judgment. Patients documented in a standardized diary their emesis events, severity of nausea, use of rescue therapy with metoclopramide, and compliance with dose instructions for antiemetic drug therapy for 5 days: day 1 was the day of chemotherapy and first day of antiemetic therapy, and day 5 was the day after completion of delayed antiemetic therapy (days 2-4). Three definitions were used to describe the CINV outcomes: (a) complete response (no

  11. Adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy during late-trimester pregnancy: not quite a standard of care

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    Epstein Richard J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy was formerly considered an indication for abortion. The pendulum has since swung to the other extreme, with most reviews now rejecting termination while endorsing immediate anthracycline-based therapy for any pregnant patient beyond the first trimester. To assess the evidence for this radical change in thinking, a review of relevant studies in the fields of breast cancer chemotherapy, pregnancy, and drug safety was conducted. Discussion Accumulating evidence for the short-term safety of anthracycline-based chemotherapy during late-trimester pregnancy represents a clear advance over the traditional norm of therapeutic abortion. Nonetheless, the emerging orthodoxy favoring routine chemotherapy during gestation should continue to be questioned on several grounds: (1 the assumed difference in maternal survival accruing from chemotherapy administered earlier – i.e., during pregnancy, rather than after delivery – has not been quantified; (2 the added survival benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic therapy prescribed within the hormone-rich milieu of pregnancy remains presumptive, particularly for ER-positive disease; (3 the maternal survival benefit associated with modified adjuvant regimens (e.g., weekly schedules, omission of taxanes, etc. has not been proven equivalent to standard (e.g., post-delivery regimens; and (4 the long-term transplacental and transgenerational hazards of late-trimester chemotherapy are unknown. Summary Although an incrementally increased risk of cancer-specific mortality is impossible to exclude, mothers who place a high priority on the lifelong well-being of their progeny may be informed that deferring optimal chemotherapy until after delivery is still an option to consider, especially in ER-positive, node-negative and/or last-trimester disease.

  12. Adjuvant chemotherapy with sequential or concurrent anthracycline and docetaxel: Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial

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    Francis, P.; Crown, J.; Di, Leo A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is more effective than doxorubicin for patients with advanced breast cancer. The Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial tested the effect of incorporating docetaxel into anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy and compared sequential vs concurrent administration...... of doxorubicin at 50 mg/m2 plus docetaxel at 75 mg/m2, followed by three cycles of CMF). The primary comparison evaluated the efficacy of including docetaxel regardless of schedule and was planned after 1215 disease-free survival (DFS) events (ie, relapse, second primary cancer, or death from any cause...

  13. Tumor tissue levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-I (TIMP-I) and outcome following adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients

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    Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Look, Maxime P.; Gelder, Marion E. Meijer-van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with no or limited clinical benefit from chemotherapy with CMF and anthracyclines in metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we extend our investigations to the adjuvant setting studying outcome...... after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive patients. We hypothesize that TIMP-1 high tumors are less sensitive to chemotherapy and accordingly that high tumor tissue levels are associated with shorter survival. METHODS: From our original retrospectively collected tumor samples we...... an association between shorter survival after treatment in TIMP-1 high patients compared with TIMP-1 low patients, especially in patients receiving anthracycline-based therapy. This suggests that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 might be associated with reduced benefit from classical adjuvant chemotherapy. Our...

  14. Adjuvant Bidirectional Chemotherapy Using an Intraperitoneal Port

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    Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoreductive surgery (CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC have been established as treatment options for patients with peritoneal metastases or peritoneal mesothelioma. However, this novel treatment strategy remains associated with a large percentage of local-regional treatment failures. These treatment failures are attributed to the inadequacy of HIPEC to maintain a surgical complete response. Management strategies to supplement CRS and HIPEC are indicated. A simplified approach to the intraoperative placement of an intraperitoneal port for adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy (ABC was devised. Four different chemotherapy treatment plans were utilized depending upon the primary site of the malignancy. Thirty-one consecutive patients with an intraoperative placement of the intraperitoneal port were available for study. The incidence of adverse events that caused an early discontinuation of the bidirectional chemotherapy occurred in 75% of the 8 patients who had an incomplete cytoreduction and in 0% of patients who had a complete cytoreduction. All of the patients who had complete cytoreduction completed at least 5 of the scheduled 6 bidirectional chemotherapy treatments. Adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy is possible following a major cytoreductive surgical procedure using a simplified method of intraoperative intraperitoneal port placement.

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced endometrial cancer.

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    Galaal, Khadra; Al Moundhri, Mansour; Bryant, Andrew; Lopes, Alberto D; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-05-15

    Approximately 13% of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer present with advanced stage disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III/IV). The standard treatment of advanced endometrial cancer consists of cytoreductive surgery followed by radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, or both. There is currently little agreement about which adjuvant treatment is the safest and most effective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adjuvant chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy or chemoradiation, and to determine which chemotherapy agents are most effective in women presenting with advanced endometrial cancer (FIGO stage III/IV). We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Collaborative Review Group's Trial Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 10 2013), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to November 2013. Also we searched electronic clinical trial registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adjuvant chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy or chemoradiation in women with FIGO stage III and IV endometrial cancer. Two review authors selected trials, extracted data, and assessed trials for risk of bias. Where necessary, we contacted trial investigators for relevant, unpublished data. We pooled data using the random-effects model in Review Manager (RevMan) software. We included four multicentre RCTs involving 1269 women with primary FIGO stage III/IV endometrial cancer. We considered the trials to be at low to moderate risk of bias. All participants received primary cytoreductive surgery. Two trials, evaluating 620 women (83% stage III, 17% stage IV), compared adjuvant chemotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy; one trial evaluating 552 women (88% stage III, 12% stage IV) compared two chemotherapy regimens (cisplatin/doxorubicin/paclitaxel (CDP) versus cisplatin/doxorubicin (CD) treatment) in women who had all undergone adjuvant radiotherapy; and one trial contributed no data

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for endometrial cancer after hysterectomy

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    Johnson, Nick; Bryant, Andrew; Miles, Tracie; Hogberg, Thomas; Cornes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial adenocarcinoma (womb cancer) is a malignant growth of the lining (endometrium) of the womb (uterus). It is distinct from sarcomas (tumours of the uterine muscle). Survival depends the risk of microscopic metastases after surgery. Adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy improves survival from some other adenocarcinomas, and there is evidence that endometrial cancer is sensitive to cytotoxic therapy. This systematic review examines the effect of chemotherapy on survival after hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Objectives To assess efficacy of adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to August 2010, registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with any other adjuvant treatment or no other treatment. Data collection and analysis We used a random-effects meta-analysis to assess hazard ratios (HR) for overall and progression-free survival and risk ratios (RR) to compare death rates and site of initial relapse. Main results Five RCTs compared no additional treatment with additional chemotherapy after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. Four trials compared platinum based combination chemotherapy directly with radiotherapy. Indiscriminate pooling of survival data from 2197 women shows a significant overall survival advantage from adjuvant chemotherapy (RR (95% CI) = 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)). Sensitivity analysis focused on trials of modern platinum based chemotherapy regimens and found the relative risk of death to be 0.85 ((0.76 to 0.96); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) = 25; absolute risk reduction = 4% (1% to 8%)). The HR for overall survival is 0.74 (0.64 to 0.89), significantly

  17. Association between adjuvant chemotherapy and risk of acute kidney injury in elderly women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer.

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    Li, Shuling; Liu, Jiannong; Virnig, Beth A; Collins, Allan J

    2017-02-01

    We studied elderly Medicare enrollees newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer to examine the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and acute kidney injury (AKI). Using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study including women diagnosed with stages I-III breast cancer at ages 66-89 years between 1992 and 2007. We performed one-to-one matching on time-dependent propensity score on the day of adjuvant chemotherapy initiation within 6 months after the first cancer-directed surgery based on the estimated probability of chemotherapy initiation at each day for each patient, using a Cox proportional hazards model. We estimated the cumulative incidence of AKI using Kaplan-Meier methods. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between chemotherapy and the risk of AKI, and compared the risk among major chemotherapy types. The study included 28,048 women. The 6-month cumulative incidence of AKI was 0.80% for chemotherapy-treated patients, compared with 0.30% for untreated patients (P associated with a nearly threefold increased risk of AKI [hazard ratio (HR) 2.73; 95% CI 1.8-4.1]. Compared with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, the HRs (95% CIs) were 1.66 (0.94-2.91), 0.88 (0.53-1.47), and 1.15 (0.57-2.32) for taxane-based, CMF, and other chemotherapy, respectively. Our findings showed that adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with increased risk of AKI in elderly women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. The risk seemed to vary by regimen type, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  18. The Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Compared to Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Healing after Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy.

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    Frey, Jordan D; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2017-01-01

    Nipple-sparing mastectomy is the latest advancement in the treatment of breast cancer. The authors aimed to investigate the effects of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy in nipple-sparing mastectomy. Patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy from 2006 to June of 2015 were identified. Results were stratified by presence of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 840 nipple-sparing mastectomies were performed. Twenty-eight were in those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 93 were in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients receiving both neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy were included in the neoadjuvant group. Nipple-sparing mastectomies that received neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy were compared to those in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Those with neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy were more likely to have explantation (p = 0.0239) and complete nipple-areola complex necrosis (p = 0.0021). Those with neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy were more likely to have implant explantation (p = 0.0015) and complete nipple-areola complex necrosis (p = 0.0004) compared to those with no chemotherapy. Compared to nipple-sparing mastectomies in patients with no chemotherapy, those with adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely to have a hematoma (p = 0.0021). Those that received both neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely to have complete nipple-areola complex necrosis compared with both the neoadjuvant chemotherapy-only and adjuvant chemotherapy-only groups (p < 0.0001). Nipple-sparing mastectomy is safe to perform in the setting of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. As a whole, neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy increases risk of complications. Therapeutic, III.

  19. Adjuvant chemotherapy compliance is not superior after thoracoscopic lobectomy

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    Licht, Peter B; Schytte, Tine; Jakobsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single-institution, ......BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single...... that adjuvant chemotherapy compliance is superior after thoracoscopic lobectomy for NSCLC. Instead, significant predictors of chemotherapy compliance are patient's age, comorbidity, and pathologic N status....

  20. Chemotherapy for bladder cancer: treatment guidelines for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and metastatic cancer

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    Sternberg, Cora N; Donat, S Machele; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    chemotherapy. Systemic cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy is the only current modality that has been shown in phase 3 trials to improve survival in responsive patients with advanced urothelial cancer. A panel of international experts has formulated grade A through D recommendations for the management......To determine the optimal use of chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic setting in patients with advanced urothelial cell carcinoma, a consensus conference was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU) to critically review...... the published literature on chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. This article reports the development of international guidelines for the treatment of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Bladder preservation is also discussed...

  1. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I non-seminomatous testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemotherapy regimen consisted of 2 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin. Each cycle of chemotherapy lasted 3 days. There have been no relapses at a median follow-up of. 31 months (range 12 - 53 months). Acute and late toxicity have been modest. We have found adjuvant chemotherapy to be effective after ...

  2. Gastric carcinoma: curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy.

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    Carrillo Hernández, J F; Ernesto de Obaldía Castillo, G; Ramírez Ortega, C; Frías Mendivil, M; Pardo, M

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective study of gastric adenocarcinoma treated with surgery as curative attempt was performed at the Oncology Service, in the Hospital Regional 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE. Morbidity and mortality of the surgical procedures were evaluated, the significance of several risk factors and the survival impact of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC). In the period from 1975 to 1991 a total of 483 new cases were seen. In only 54 patients (11.2%) was it possible to undertake a curative resection. The patients were assigned to three groups of treatment: surgery alone (14 cases), surgery + 5-FU (19 cases), and surgery + 5-FU+MMC (21 cases). Three different types of surgical techniques are regularly performed in our service for gastric cancer treatment: Billroth II distal gastrectomy, total gastrectomy with Roux-En-Y reconstruction, and esophagogastrectomy with esophagogastrostomy. Surgical morbidity and mortality was low, with 9% of duodenal stump fistulas and 27% with partial stenosis of esophagojejunostomy; the operative mortality was zero. Chemotherapy toxicity was transient and low, no related deaths were recorded. The prognostic factors associated significantly with survival were lymph node status and tumor penetration. The histologic differentiation as well as the tumor location and type of surgery had no significance. The estimated 5-year survival of the patients treated with surgery alone was 62%, while that of the patients treated with surgery plus chemotherapy was 38%. These groups were not comparable, however, because of important differences in their prognostic factors. The groups treated with 5-FU alone or in combination with MMC had no survival difference between them.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3.   Tumor tissue levels of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and survival following adjuvant chemotherapy in pre-menopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients (N=525)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Look, Maxime P.; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E.

    the untreated patient group as a reference group, we analyzed the benefit of adjuvant CMF and anthracyclines in TIMP-1 high and low patients, respectively. The median TIMP-1 concentration was used to dichotomize patients into high and low TIMP-1 groups. End points were disease-free and overall survival (DFS, OS...... and high patients benefited differentially from adjuvant CMF and anthracyclines when compared to untreated patients. In particular, patients with high tumor levels of TIMP-1 had little benefit from adjuvant anthracyclines. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are given in the table below...... tumor tissue TIMP-1 concentrations are associated with decreased benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Especially in the group treated with anthracycline-based therapy, there is a strong tendency for TIMP-1 high tumors to be less sensitive to the treatment. The anthracycline-treated group, however...

  4. HER2 and TOP2A as predictive markers for anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimens as adjuvant treatment of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of individual patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Leo, Angelo; Desmedt, Christine; Bartlett, John M S

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of response to anthracycline-based therapy for breast cancer is challenging. We aimed to assess the value of HER2 and TOP2A as predictive markers of response to anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy in patients with early breast cancer....

  5. Evaluation of the prognostic and predictive value of HER-1/EGFR in breast cancer patients participating in a randomized study with dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzaida, Olympia; Gogas, Helen; Dafni, Urania; Kyroudi, Aspasia; Papaspyrou, Irene; Kyriakou, Vasiliki; Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki; Alamani, Maria; Skopa, Chrisoula; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Kastritis, Efstathios; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Kalofonos, Haralabos P; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Fountzilas, George; Arapantoni-Dadioti, Petroula

    2007-01-01

    To assess the prognostic and predictive significance of HER-1/EGFR protein levels in high-risk patients with breast cancer treated with dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy. 595 high-risk breast cancer patients were treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based dose-dense sequential chemotherapy (E-CMF vs. E-T-CMF). Disease-free survival (DFS) was the primary end point. HER-1/EGFR was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 312 patients. HER-1/EGFR expression was detected in 54 of 312 patients (17%). Positive expression of HER-1/EGFR was significantly associated with negative receptor status (52 vs. 17%, p HER-1/EGFR effect on the risk of disease progression was different according to treatment (interaction p = 0.02). Regarding overall survival, a trend towards a significant difference for an interaction of HER-1/EGFR and treatment was found (p = 0.07). The present study demonstrated a differential effect of positive HER-1/EGFR expression in the two treatment groups, with HER-1/EGFR being a negative prognostic marker in the absence of paclitaxel. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Adjuvant chemotherapy and overall survival in adult medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Benjamin H; Lester-Coll, Nataniel H; Park, Henry S; Yeboa, Debra N; Kelly, Jacqueline R; Baehring, Joachim M; Becker, Kevin P; Yu, James B; Bindra, Ranjit S; Roberts, Kenneth B

    2017-02-01

    Although chemotherapy is used routinely in pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) patients, its benefit for adult MB is unclear. We evaluated the survival impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in adult MB. Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified patients aged 18 years and older who were diagnosed with MB in 2004-2012 and underwent surgical resection and adjuvant craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Patients were divided into those who received adjuvant CSI and chemotherapy (CRT) or CSI alone (RT). Predictors of CRT compared with RT were evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Survival analysis was limited to patients receiving CSI doses between 23 and 36 Gy. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, log-rank test, multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling, and propensity score matching. Of the 751 patients included, 520 (69.2%) received CRT, and 231 (30.8%) received RT. With median follow-up of 5.0 years, estimated 5-year OS was superior in patients receiving CRT versus RT (86.1% vs 71.6%, P < .0001). On multivariable analysis, after controlling for risk factors, CRT was associated with superior OS compared with RT (HR: 0.53; 95%CI: 0.32-0.88, P = .01). On planned subgroup analyses, the 5 year OS of patients receiving CRT versus RT was improved for M0 patients (P < .0001), for patients receiving 36 Gy CSI (P = .0007), and for M0 patients receiving 36 Gy CSI (P = .0008). This national database analysis demonstrates that combined postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with superior survival for adult MB compared with radiotherapy alone, even for M0 patients who receive high-dose CSI.

  7. Evaluating the impact of Relative Total Dose Intensity (RTDI on patients' short and long-term outcome in taxane- and anthracycline-based chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer- a pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodowicz Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy dose delay and/or reduction lower relative total dose intensity (RTDI and may affect short- and long-term outcome of metastatic breast cancer (MBC patients. Methods Based on 933 individual patients' data of from 3 randomized MBC trials using an anthracycline and taxane we examined the impact of RTDI on efficacy and determined the lowest optimal RTDI for MBC patients. Results Median time to disease progression (TTDP and overall survival (OS of all patients were 39 and 98 weeks. Overall higher RTDI was correlated with a shorter TTDP (log-rank p = 0.0525 for 85% RTDI cut-off. Proportional hazards assumption was violated, there was an early drop in the TTDP-curve for the high RTDI group. It was explained by the fact that patients with primary disease progression (PDP do have a high RTDI per definition. Excluding those 114 patients with PDP the negative correlation between RTDI and TTDP vanished. However, non-PDP patients with RTDI-cut-off levels Conclusions Optimizing RTDI above 85% appears to improve long-term outcome of MBC patients receiving first-line chemotherapy. Lowering RTDI had no negative influence on short term outcome like OR and TTDP.

  8. Time to adjuvant chemotherapy following colorectal cancer resection is associated with an improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A R; Middleton, G; Smith, R V P; Jourdan, I C; Rockall, T A

    2014-05-01

    Multicentre randomized trials have demonstrated equivalent long-term outcomes for open and laparoscopic resection of colon cancer. Some studies have indicated a possible survival advantage in certain patients undergoing laparoscopic resection. Patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy in improved survival. Data were collated for patients having an elective laparoscopic or open resection for non-metastatic colorectal cancer between October 2003 and December 2010 and subsequently having adjuvant chemotherapy. Survival analysis was conducted. In all, 209 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy following open (n = 76) or laparoscopic (n = 133) surgery. Median length of stay was 3 days with laparoscopic resection and 6 days with open resection (P chemotherapy was 52 with laparoscopic resection and 58 with open resection (P = 0.008). The 5-year overall survival was 89.6% in patients receiving chemotherapy in chemotherapy chemotherapy. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Paul; Barrett-Lee, Peter; Johnson, Lindsay; Cameron, David; Wardley, Andrew; O'Reilly, Susan; Verrill, Mark; Smith, Ian; Yarnold, John; Coleman, Robert; Earl, Helena; Canney, Peter; Twelves, Chris; Poole, Christopher; Bloomfield, David; Hopwood, Penelope; Johnston, Stephen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Bartlett, John MS; Ellis, Ian; Peckitt, Clare; Hall, Emma; Bliss, Judith M

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Incorporation of a taxane as adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer offers potential for further improvement of anthracycline-based treatment. The UK TACT study (CRUK01/001) investigated whether sequential docetaxel after anthracycline chemotherapy would improve patient outcome compared with standard chemotherapy of similar duration. Methods In this multicentre, open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial, 4162 women (aged >18 years) with node-positive or high-risk node-negative operable early breast cancer were randomly assigned by computer-generated permuted block randomisation to receive FEC (fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, epirubicin 60 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by docetaxel (100 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=2073) or control (n=2089). For the control regimen, centres chose either FEC for eight cycles (n=1265) or epirubicin (100 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by CMF (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, methotrexate 40 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 600 mg/m2 at 4-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=824). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN79718493. Findings All randomised patients were included in the ITT population. With a median follow-up of 62 months, disease-free survival events were seen in 517 of 2073 patients in the experimental group compared with 539 of 2089 controls (hazard ratio [HR] 0·95, 95% CI 0·85–1·08; p=0·44). 75·6% (95% CI 73·7–77·5) of patients in the experimental group and 74·3% (72·3–76·2) of controls were alive and disease-free at 5 years. The proportion of patients who reported any acute grade 3 or 4 adverse event was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group (p<0·0001); the most frequent events were neutropenia (937 events vs 797 events

  10. Effect of adjuvant chemotherapy after pulmonary metastasectomy on the prognosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazu Shiomi

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection of lung metastases might strongly affect the prognosis of metastatic CRC patients. Even patients with single metastatic lesions and normal preoperative CEA level appeared to receive benefits from such chemotherapy. Narrowing of suitable candidates by predicting the effects of systemic chemotherapy and prospective randomized studies are needed.

  11. Adjuvant (post-surgery) chemotherapy for early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrie, Theresa A.; Winter-Roach, Brett A.; Heus, Pauline; Kitchener, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To undertake a systematic review of the evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer to determine whether chemotherapy following surgery offers a survival advantage over the policy of observation following surgery (with chemotherapy reserved for treatment

  12. High WT1 expression is an early predictor for relapse in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia in first remission with negative PML-RARa after anthracycline-based chemotherapy: a single-center cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Ho Yoon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wilms’ tumor gene 1 (WT1 expression is a well-known predictor for relapse in acute myeloid leukemia. We monitored WT1 decrement along the treatment course to identify its significant role as a marker for residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL and tried to suggest its significance for relapse prediction. In this single center retrospective study, we serially measured PML-RARa and WT1 expression from 117 APL patients at diagnosis, at post-induction and post-consolidation chemotherapies, and at every 3 months after starting maintenance therapy. All 117 patients were in molecular remission after treatment of at least 2 consolidation chemotherapies. We used WT1 ProfileQuant™ kit (Ipsogen for WT1 monitoring. High WT1 expression (>120 copies/104 ABL1 after consolidation and at early period (3 months after maintenance therapy significantly predicted subsequent relapse. All paired PML-RARa RQ-PCR were not detected except for one sample with early relapse. Patients with high WT1 expression at 3 months after maintenance therapy (n = 40 showed a significantly higher relapse rate (30.5 vs. 6.9%, P < 0.001 and inferior disease free survival (62.8 vs. 91.4%, P < 0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed that high peak leukocyte counts at diagnosis (HR = 6.4, P < 0.001 and high WT1 expression at 3 months after maintenance therapy (HR = 7.1, P < 0.001 were significant factors for prediction of relapse. Our data showed high post-remission WT1 expression was a reliable marker for prediction of subsequent molecular relapse in APL. In this high-risk group, early intervention with ATRA ± ATO, anti-CD33 antibody therapy, and WT1-specific therapy may be used for relapse prevention. Trial registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, KCT0002079

  13. Improved survival with early adjuvant chemotherapy after colonic resection for stage III colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Azaquoun, Najah; Jensen, Benny Vittrup

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: The final population included 1,827 patients scheduled for adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant therapy started within 4 and 8 weeks improved survival when compared to start later than 8 weeks (HR [95%CI]: 1.7 [1.1-2.6]; P = 0.024 and 1.4 [1.07-1.8]; P = 0.013, respectively), whereas......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In stage III colonic cancer, time from surgery to start of adjuvant chemotherapy may influence survival. In this study, we evaluated the effect of timing of adjuvant therapy on survival. METHODS: Database study from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's national database...

  14. Orthotopic ileal neobladder reconstruction for bladder cancer: is adjuvant chemotherapy safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Manoharan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We examined our database of patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC with orthotopic neobladder (NB to determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy in this group is safe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion between 1992 and 2004. Relevant clinical and therapeutic data were entered into a database. High-risk bladder cancer patients who underwent NB were identified. They were stratified into 2 groups, those who received adjuvant chemotherapy and those who did not. The incidence of complications between the 2 groups was analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Over the 12-year period, 136 patients underwent RC and NB construction for bladder cancer. Of these, 83 patients were at high risk for recurrence. Nineteen patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 64 did not. The complication rate in the adjuvant chemotherapy group was 53% and it was 23% in those who did not receive chemotherapy. There were no perioperative or treatment related death. There were 2 patients with grade 4 toxicity in the adjuvant chemotherapy group. There was a statistical difference between these two groups with regard to the incidence of complications. However, none of these complications was life-threatening, required only conservative treatment and caused no long-term disability. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy is a safe treatment for patients undergoing RC and NB substitution. Hence, the option of orthotopic NB should not be denied in selected bladder cancer patients with high risk for recurrent disease.

  15. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment to prevent peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer origin: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloothaak, D. A. M.; Mirck, B.; Punt, C. J. A.; Bemelman, W. A.; van der Bilt, J. D. W.; D'Hoore, A.; Tanis, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal cancer (CRC) origin is associated with poor outcome. This systematic review evaluates the available evidence about adjuvant (hyperthermic) intraperitoneal chemotherapy ((H)IPEC) to prevent the development of PC. A systematic search of literature was

  16. Timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and its relation to survival among patients with stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, A C R K; van Erning, F N; van Gestel, Y R B M; Creemers, G J M; Punt, C J A; van Oijen, M G H; Lemmens, V E P P

    2015-11-01

    Currently available data suggest that delaying the start of adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients has a detrimental effect on survival. We analysed which factors impact on the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and evaluated the influence on overall survival (OS). Stage III colon cancer patients who underwent resection and received adjuvant chemotherapy between 2008 and 2013 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Timing of adjuvant chemotherapy was subdivided into: ⩽ 4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 and 13-16 weeks post-surgery. Multivariable regressions were performed to assess the influence of several factors on the probability of starting treatment within 8 weeks post-surgery and to evaluate the association of timing of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-year OS. 6620 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, 14% commenced after 8 weeks. Factors associated with starting treatment after 8 weeks were older age (Odds ratio (OR) 65-74 versus colon cancer patients within 8 weeks post-surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Prognostic Factors for Patients with Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Seung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Roh, Yun Ho; Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Youp; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bok; Bang, Seungmin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the only curative treatment for extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Additionally, the recurrence rate after curative surgery is relatively high, requiring adjuvant therapy. However, the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy compared with surgery alone has not yet been clarified. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy and identify prognostic factors influencing survival in extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients who underwent curative surgical resection. Ninety-seven patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer who underwent curative resection between January 2005 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 97 patients, 31 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and 66 did not. The 5-year overall survival rate was 34% for patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no significant difference for overall survival between patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.228). On multivariate analysis, postoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels and histologic grade were independent prognostic factors related to long-term survival (p chemotherapy did not improve survival after surgical resection for extrahepatic bile duct cancer. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Breast cancer patients on adjuvant chemotherapy report a wide range of problems not identified by health-care staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenvold, Mogens; Fayers, Peter M.; Petersen, Morten Aagard; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Mouridsen, Henning T.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer is associated with significant side effects. The aims of this study were (1) to compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy to patients not on chemotherapy and (2) to compare these results

  19. Efficacy of Scalp Cooling in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Docetaxel and Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigler, Tessa; Isseroff, Devora; Fiederlein, Barbara; Schneider, Sarah; Chuang, Ellen; Vahdat, Linda; Moore, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a distressing adverse effect of many chemotherapy agents. The TC (docetaxel [Taxotere] and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy regimen is typically associated with complete alopecia. Scalp cooling with cold caps has been reported to minimize or prevent CIA. We conducted a prospective study to assess efficacy of scalp cooling in preventing CIA among women receiving adjuvant TC chemotherapy for breast cancer. Women at the Weill Cornell Breast Center who independently elected to use scalp cooling with cold caps during adjuvant TC chemotherapy were asked to participate. Degree of hair loss was assessed by a single practitioner using Dean's alopecia scale (grade 1/excellent [ 75% hair loss]), by digital photographs, and by patient self-report of hair thinning or the need to wear a wig/head covering, or both. Assessments were made before each chemotherapy treatment and at follow-up visits between 3 weeks and 3 months after completion of chemotherapy. Of 20 evaluable patients, 10% reported a need to wear a wig/head covering at the follow-up visit. Dean's alopecia score was excellent for 65% of patients, good for 25% of patients, and moderate or poor for 10% of patients. The majority of patients reported hair thinning after every chemotherapy cycle. No patient discontinued therapy because of an intolerance to cold caps. Scalp cooling with cold caps appears to be effective in preventing CIA among the majority of women undergoing treatment with TC chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Laparoscopy mitigates adverse oncological effects of delayed adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Gerald A; Ashburn, Jean; Kiran, Ravi P; Khorana, Alok A; Kalady, Matthew F

    2015-02-01

    Delaying initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy more than 8 weeks after surgical resection for colorectal cancer adversely affects overall patient survival. The effect of a laparoscopic surgical approach on initiation of chemotherapy has not been studied. The goal of this study was to determine if a laparoscopic approach to colon cancer resection affects the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and outcomes. Patients who underwent curative surgery for stage II or III colon cancer and received adjuvant chemotherapy between 2003 and 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patients were categorized according to surgical approach: open or laparoscopic. Patient demographics, clinicopathologic variables, postoperative complications, time from surgery to initiation of chemotherapy, and long-term oncologic outcomes were compared. Age, gender, ASA class, BMI, tumor stage, and postoperative complications were similar for laparoscopic and open cases, while length of stay was 2 days shorter for laparoscopic cases (5.4 vs 7.6 days, p < 0.01). The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy more than 8 weeks after surgery did not differ between the groups (35.6 % open vs 38.7 % laparoscopic, p = 0.77). In the open group, delay in chemotherapy after surgery was associated with decreased disease-free and overall survival (p = 0.01, 0.01, respectively). However, delay in chemotherapy more than 8 weeks did not affect disease-free or overall survival in the laparoscopy group (p = 0.93, 0.51, respectively). The benefits of quicker recovery after laparoscopic surgery did not translate into earlier initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in this retrospective study. However, a laparoscopic approach negated the inferior oncologic outcomes of patients who received delayed initiation of chemotherapy.

  1. Women prefer adjuvant endocrine therapy to chemotherapy for breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Naoki; Kimura, Morihiko; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Hayashi, Naoki; Shintoku, Junichi; Saito, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We attempted to determine the preferences of women regarding the benefits they considered necessary to make adjuvant therapy worthwhile, and to compare preferences for adjuvant endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and trastuzumab therapy. We also investigated the effect of information about cost on women's treatment preferences. Consecutive women who had a medical examination at the Breast Clinic, Ota General Hospital, were included in our study. We collected a questionnaire from a total of 365 women; 297 completed responses were included in the study. Among 297 women, 105 had breast cancer that had been treated and 192 did not have breast cancer; 38% of women judged that a 5% or less gain in the probability of survival was sufficient to make endocrine therapy worthwhile; 28% of participants judged that chemotherapy was worthwhile; 24% of participants judged that trastuzumab therapy was worthwhile. Women indicated that they were more likely to receive adjuvant endocrine therapy than chemotherapy or trastuzumab therapy, for the same gains in the probability of survival. Cost information about treatments did not affect women's treatment preferences. Younger women tended to judge improvements in survival sufficient to make adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy worthwhile, as compared to older women. The comparisons were statistically significant in the 10 and 20% categories for endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. Women prefer endocrine therapy to chemotherapy or trastuzumab therapy, given the same projected treatment benefits. Younger women prefer both chemotherapy and endocrine therapy as compared with older woman.

  2. Intravenous or oral administration of vinorelbine in adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine for resected NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Steffen Filskov; Carus, Andreas; Meldgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cisplatin and vinorelbine given intravenously is a well-established adjuvant chemotherapy regimen after surgery for early-stage NSCLC. Vinorelbine can also be administered orally. However, the efficacy of orally administrated vinorelbine in adjuvant treatment of NSCLC is unknown. We...... assessed the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients treated with adjuvant i.v. vinorelbine or p.o. vinorelbine, in combination with i.v. cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed two time-separated cohorts of patients referred to the Department of Oncology at Aarhus...... University Hospital (Denmark) from 2005 to 2012 for adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for NSCLC. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 265 patients included in this study, 126 patients received i.v. and 139 received p.o. vinorelbine/cisplatin. The two groups were comparable with respect to important baseline...

  3. Adjuvant chemotherapy (Nedaplatin/UFT) after radiotherapy for locallu advanced head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Akira; Furukawa, Madoka; Kawano, Toshiro; Yamashita, Kohsuke; Sugiyama, Masato [Kanagawa Cancer Center (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy after radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cancer, 40 patients, previously untreated (6 with stage III and 34 with stage IV; 26 with resectable, 10 with unresectable and 4 patients with inoperable) were treated with radiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (Nedaplatin /tegafur-uracil (UFT)) at our outpatient clinic. The primary site was identified in the larynx or hypopharynx in 15, oral cavity or oropharynx in 11, sinuses in 6, nasopharynx in 4, unknown primary in 3, and parotis in 1 patient. Treatment consisted of 6 courses of Nedaplatin 80 mg/m{sup 2} repeated at 4 weeks intervals, and one-year oral administration of UFTE 400mg/day, after radiotherapy. Toxicities included leukopenia (grade 3, 20.5%, grade 4, 2.6%), thrombocytopenia (grade 3, 7.7%). There was one death due to gastric ulcer. Twenty-five patients (62.5%) received 6 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. Two-year overall survival rate was 100% for stage III and 61.1% for stage IV. Over the same period, the progression-free survival rate was 83.3% for stage III and 46.1% for stage IV. 85.7% of complete response (CR) (12/14 patients) and 63.6% of partial response (PR) (14/22 patients) to radiotherapy showed that the effect of radiotherapy was maintained during adjuvant chemotherapy. If the effect of radiotherapy was maintained during adjuvant chemotherapy, the two-year progression free survival rate was not different between 81.8% for CR to radiotherapy and 81.3% for PR. The rate of distant failure was 2.5%, which was lower than that citedin previous reports. This adjuvant chemotherapy regimen is tolerable at outpatient clinics and might suppress distant metastasis after radiotherapy. (author)

  4. Diabetes alone should not be a reason for withholding adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waalwijk, Maren A; van de Schans, Saskia A M; Haak, Harm R; Extermann, Martine; Dercksen, Wouter M W; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L G

    2011-01-01

    With increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and colon cancer, the number of patients suffering from both diseases is growing, and physicians are being faced with complicated treatment decisions. To investigate the association between diabetes and treatment/course of stage III colon cancer and the association between colon cancer and course of diabetes. Additional information was collected from the medical records of all patients with both stage III colon cancer and diabetes ( n =201) and a random sample of stage III colon cancer patients without diabetes ( n =206) in the area of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry (1998-2007). Colon cancer patients without diabetes were more likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy compared with diabetic colon cancer patients (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7). After adjustment for age, this difference was borderline significant (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.6). Diabetic patients did not have: significantly more side-effects from surgery or adjuvant chemotherapy; more recurrence from colon cancer; significantly shorter time interval until recurrence; or a poorer disease-free survival or overall survival. Age and withholding of adjuvant chemotherapy were most predictive of all-cause mortality. After colon cancer diagnosis, the dose of antiglycaemic medications was increased in 22% of diabetic patients, resulting in significantly lower glycaemic indexes than before colon cancer diagnosis. Since diabetic patients did not have more side-effects of adjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy had a positive effect on survival for both patients with and without diabetes, diabetes alone should not be a reason for withholding adjuvant chemotherapy. Journal of Comorbidity 2011;1:19-27.

  5. Cost-utility analysis of adjuvant goserelin (Zoladex and adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Tsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased health care costs have made it incumbent on health-care facilities and physicians to demonstrate both clinical and cost efficacy when recommending treatments. Though studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin with radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer, few have compared the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin to adjuvant chemotherapy alone in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods In this retrospective study at one hospital, the records of 152 patients with stage Ia to IIIa ER + breast cancer who received goserelin or chemotherapy were reviewed. Survival analysis was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were interviewed to evaluate their quality of life using the European Organization for Research and Treatment Quality of Life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30, version 4.0, and to obtain the utility value by the standard gamble (SG and visual scale (VS methods. Total medical cost was assessed from the (National Health Insurance NHI payer's perspective. Results Survival at 11 years was significantly better in the groserelin group (P Conclusions Goserelin therapy results in better survival and higher utility-weighted life-years, and is more cost-effective than TC or TEC chemotherapy.

  6. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion...... % CI -3.3; -0.1, p = 0.04) compared to never/former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy supplemented with prednisolone was not associated with loss of BMD. Postmenopausal women gained bone mass, whereas current smokers lost bone mass....

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved survival in patients with stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadaban, Leigh; Rauscher, Garth; Aklilu, Mebea; Villenes, Dana; Freels, Sally; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-11-15

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colon cancer remains to be elucidated and its use varies between patients and institutions. Currently, clinical guidelines suggest discussing adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with high-risk stage II disease in the absence of conclusive randomized controlled trial data. To further investigate this relationship, the objective of the current study was to determine whether an association exists between overall survival (OS) and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients stratified by age and pathological risk features. Data from the National Cancer Data Base were analyzed for demographics, tumor characteristics, management, and survival of patients with stage II colon cancer who were diagnosed from 1998 to 2006 with survival information through 2011. Pearson Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to analyze disease and demographic data. Survival analysis was performed with the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Propensity score weighting was used to match cohorts. Among 153,110 patients with stage II colon cancer, predictors of receiving chemotherapy included age Improved and clinically relevant OS was associated with the receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy in all patient subgroups regardless of high-risk tumor pathologic features (poor or undifferentiated histology, chemotherapy regimen, even after adjustment for covariates and propensity score weighting (hazard ratio, 0.76; Pchemotherapy regimens. In what to the authors' knowledge is the largest group of patients with stage II colon cancer evaluated to date, improved OS was found to be associated with adjuvant chemotherapy regardless of treatment regimen, patient age, or high-risk pathologic risk features. Cancer 2016;122:3277-3287. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. Adjuvant chemotherapy in soft tissue sarcomas…Conflicts, consensus, and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs are an uncommon and diverse group of more than 50 mesenchymal malignancies. Each of these histologic subtypes represents a unique disease with distinct biologic behavior and varying sensitivity to chemotherapy. The judicious use of adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy along with surgery and radiation in the treatment of localized STS has a role in improving patient outcomes by decreasing local and distant recurrences. There is evidence that the use of adjuvant chemotherapy to a mixed cohort of chemo sensitive and insensitive sarcoma subtypes results in limited benefit. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify the subpopulation with high metastatic potential and to identify effective histology-specific treatment options to these patients. Present perspective, will focus on the rationale for adjuvant chemotherapy in sarcoma, with emphasis on the histology driven chemotherapy. It will outline key therapeutic opportunities and hurdles in adjuvant medical treatment of sarcoma, focusing on specific subtypes that are on the verge of new breakthroughs, as well as those in which promise has not lived up to expectations.

  9. Implementation of trastuzumab in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munck, L.; Schaapveld, M.; Siesling, Sabine; Wessling, J.; Voogd, A.C.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.G.; Otter, R.; Willemse, P.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Trastuzumab in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy markedly improves outcome. In the Netherlands, a national guideline was released in September 2005 stating that trastuzumab should be given in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Aim of this study was

  10. Implementation of trastuzumab in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munck, L.; Schaapveld, M.; Siesling, S.; Wesseling, J.; Voogd, A. C.; Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G.; Otter, R.; Willemse, P. H. B.

    Trastuzumab in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy markedly improves outcome. In the Netherlands, a national guideline was released in September 2005 stating that trastuzumab should be given in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Aim of this study was

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival for all high-risk factors in stage II colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, S.R.; Erning, F.N. van; Lemmens, V.E.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Pruijt, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered in high-risk stage II colon cancer comprising pT4, poor/undifferentiated grade, vascular invasion, emergency surgery and/or <10 evaluated lymph nodes (LNs). Adjuvant chemotherapy administration and its effect on survival was evaluated for each known risk

  12. Relative effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive lobular compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Schelomo; Hui, Jane Yuet Ching; Huang, Jing Li; Kizy, Scott; Beckwith, Heather; Blaes, Anne H; Rueth, Natasha M; Tuttle, Todd M

    2017-08-15

    Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) have distinct clinical, pathologic, and genomic characteristics. The objective of the current study was to compare the relative impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with ILC versus those with IDC. Women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER2) -negative, stage I/II IDC and ILC who received endocrine therapy were identified from the 2000 to 2014 California Cancer Registry. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were collected. Ten-year overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards modeling. In total, 32,997 women with IDC and 4638 with ILC were identified. The receipt of chemotherapy significantly decreased during the study for both subtypes. For patients with IDC, the 10-year OS rate was 95% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 93% (P chemotherapy. For patients with ILC, the 10-year OS rate was 94% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 92% (P chemotherapy. After adjusting for patient and treatment factors, adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with a decreased 10-year hazard of death for patients with IDC (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.92). In contrast, adjuvant chemotherapy was not independently associated with the adjusted 10-year hazard of death for patients with ILC (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.46). Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with improved OS for patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative, stage I/II ILC. Avoidance of ineffective chemotherapy will markedly reduce the adverse effects and economic burden of breast cancer treatment for a large proportion of patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2017;123:3015-21. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved survival compared with adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer only after complete pathologic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla S; Ma, Cynthia X; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca L; Eberlein, Timothy J; Gao, Feng; Margenthaler, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is known to be chemosensitive. In patients with TNBC, we sought to compare survival outcomes between patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with and without complete pathologic response (pCR), and those receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective chart review and identified 385 patients with stage I-III TNBC who were treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy between 2000 and 2008. Patients were divided according to receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with pCR, neoadjuvant chemotherapy without pCR, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Kaplan-Meier curves were generated. Of 385 patients, 151 (39%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 234 (61%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Twenty-six (17%) of those patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had pCR. After controlling for covariates associated with survival in unadjusted tests, patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with residual tumor had significantly worse survival compared with patients receiving adjuvant therapy [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.51, P = 0.007] and a trend towards worse survival compared with patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy with pCR (HR = 0.19, P = 0.10). Although previous clinical trials have not demonstrated a survival difference between patients receiving neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, our study suggests an overall survival benefit in patients with pCR following neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with patients receiving adjuvant therapy. It is clear that a prospective study needs to be carried out to better elucidate the timing of chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.

  14. Cytomegalovirus colitis in a patient undergoing postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for lung adenocarcinoma with uracil-tegafur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hideyuki; Komatsu, Yoshito; Uchida, Takumi; Abe, Nobuhiko; Ito, Ken; Hirata, Kouji; Matsuda, Kana; Fujinaga, Akira

    2016-12-01

    When we examine a patient with symptoms of acute enteritis in the course of chemotherapy with oral fluoropyrimidines such as uracil-tegafur (often referred to as UFT), we usually suspect 5-fluorouracil-induced enterocolitis. In case of persistent clinical symptoms despite discontinuation of chemotherapy, cytomegalovirus colitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced enterocolitis. We herein report the case of a patient who underwent surgery for lung adenocarcinoma followed by postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with uracil-tegafur and was diagnosed as having cytomegalovirus colitis during the therapy. In the course of chemotherapy, cytomegalovirus colitis occasionally occurs even though the patient does not experience severe myelosuppression; thus, it is necessary that we recognize its potential occurrence. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of Rasayana Avaleha as adjuvant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in reducing adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Purvi; Thakar, A B; Baghel, M S; Sisodia, Arvind; Deole, Yogesh

    2010-10-01

    Cancer is the most dreadful disease affecting mankind. The available treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy have cytotoxic effects, which are hazardous to the normal cells of the patient, causing many unnecessary effects. This further leads to complications of the therapy, impaired health, and deterioration of quality of life, resulting in mandatory stoppage of the treatment. In the present study, the efficacy of an Ayurvedic formulation, Rasayana Avaleha, has been evaluated as an adjuvant medication to modern radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A total of 36 cancer patients were registered in this trial and were divided into two groups, group A and group B. In group A, the patients were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy along with adjuvant Rasayana Avaleha (RT + CT + RA), while in group B only radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RT + CT) were given, as the control group. After assessing the results, it was observed that Rasayana Avaleha gave better results in controlling the adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in comparison with the control group. Therefore, Rasayana Avaleha has proved to be an effective adjuvant therapy in protecting patients from the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  16. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer operated for cure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sune Høirup; Harling, Henrik; Kirkeby, Lene Tschemerinsky

    2012-01-01

    preoperative (i.e., neoadjuvant) downstaging by radiotherapy (or chemoradiotion), whereas in the US postoperative chemoradiotion is considered the treatment of choice in all Dukes´ C rectal cancers. Overall, no universal consensus exists on the adjuvant treatment of surgically resectable rectal carcinoma...

  17. MYST3/CREBBP Rearranged Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rare, clinicians and patients must be aware that therapy related malignancies, specifically acute myeloid leukemia (AML, can occur as a complication of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Vigilance for signs and symptoms is appropriate. AML with t (8;16 is a specific translocation leading to formation of a fusion protein (MYST3/CREBBP. The MYST3/CREBBP AML tends to develop within 2 years of adjuvant chemotherapy, especially for breast cancer, without preceding myelodysplasia. It usually presents with disseminated intravascular coagulation and osteolytic lesions and has a poor prognosis despite aggressive resuscitation and therapy. With the increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, we are seeing a definite increase in the incidence of therapy related myelodysplastic syndromes and AML. One must keep this complication in mind while counseling and following up breast cancer patients who have received adjuvant chemotherapy. New osteolytic bone lesions in a patient with history of breast cancer do not necessarily mean metastatic disease and should be fully evaluated.

  18. Melatonin and Fertoprotective Adjuvants: Prevention against Premature Ovarian Failure during Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon Jang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure is one of the side effects of chemotherapy in pre-menopausal cancer patients. Preservation of fertility has become increasingly important in improving the quality of life of completely recovered cancer patients. Among the possible strategies for preserving fertility such as ovarian tissue cryopreservation, co-treatment with a pharmacological adjuvant is highly effective and poses less of a burden on the human body. Melatonin is generally produced in various tissues and acts as a universally acting antioxidant in cells. Melatonin is now more widely used in various biological processes including treating insomnia and an adjuvant during chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the information indicating that melatonin may be useful for reducing and preventing premature ovarian failure in chemotherapy-treated female patients. We also mention that many adjuvants other than melatonin are developed and used to inhibit chemotherapy-induced infertility. This information will give us novel insights on the clinical use of melatonin and other agents as fertoprotective adjuvants for female cancer patients.

  19. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, L.M.; Pijlman, B.M.; Ezendam, N.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The

  20. Patients' preferences for adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: is treatment worthwhile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S. J.; Kievit, J.; Nooij, M. A.; de Haes, J. C.; Overpelt, I. M.; van Slooten, H.; Maartense, E.; Stiggelbout, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    When making decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, costs and benefits of treatment should be carefully weighed. In this process, patients' preferences are of major importance. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine the minimum benefits that patients

  1. Clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, Lindy M J; Pijlman, Brenda M; Ezendam, N.P.M.; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The

  2. Amplification of LAPTM4B and YWHAZ contributes to chemotherapy resistance and recurrence of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Li, Yang; Zou, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    the association in an analysis of multiple independent cohorts. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of either of two of these genes, the antiapoptotic gene YWHAZ and a lysosomal gene LAPTM4B, sensitized tumor cells to anthracyclines, and overexpression of either of the genes induced anthracycline resistance. Overexpression...... chemotherapy drugs is a challenge but is necessary to improve outcomes. By using integrated genomics, we identified a small number of overexpressed and amplified genes from chromosome 8q22 that were associated with early disease recurrence despite anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. We confirmed...

  3. Body weight and composition changes in ovarian cancer patients during adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Karen M; Frasure, Heidi E; Hopkins, Michael P; Jenison, Eric L; von Gruenigen, Vivian E

    2006-10-01

    To prospectively examine body weight changes in women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer receiving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Body composition was examined in a subset of these women. Body weight (BW) and body composition, using bioelectrical impedance (RJL Systems Inc.), were prospectively measured pre- and post-operatively, and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Mean age of 42 women was 59 years and did not differ by stage of disease. Nine women with early stage disease did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Mean BW of 33 patients receiving chemotherapy decreased from the pre- to post-operative visit and then returned to baseline levels by 12 months (F = 8.70, P = 0.003). Nine patients who did not receive chemotherapy demonstrated a similar pattern (F = 7.0, P = 0.002). Women receiving chemotherapy with stage I/II cancer had a 2.8 +/- 2.0 kg weight gain over the year, and women with stage III/IV cancer had a 1.5 +/- 1.5 kg weight loss (t = 1.72, P = 0.096). A subset of women with stage I/II (n = 6) and stage III/IV (n = 6) ovarian cancer receiving chemotherapy had body composition measured at three time points. Absolute body fat changes paralleled changes in BW (F = 9.95, P = 0.002). Our study is the first prospective evaluation of body weight and composition in women undergoing surgery and chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. These results demonstrate that women undergoing surgery for ovarian cancer lost weight following surgery and regained it slowly over the following year. Further investigations of weight changes during adjuvant chemotherapy are indicated to assess potential changes in different stages of disease.

  4. Oncoplastic breast surgery does not delay the onset of adjuvant chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    to lumpectomy and mastectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is a population-based cohort study. Within the nationwide registry of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG), we identified 1798 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy following mastectomy, lumpectomy or oncoplastic breast surgery for early...... and unilateral invasive breast cancer. Women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. RESULTS: We found no significant difference between the three groups (mastectomy, lumpectomy, oncoplastic breast surgery) in the time from biopsy to surgery (mean time 17.9, 17.0 and 18.3 days, respectively...... with mastectomy and lumpectomy. Accordingly, patients should not be excluded from treatment with oncoplastic breast surgery due to concerns of delay in adjuvant chemotherapy....

  5. Oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Bergmann, Olav Jonas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in breast cancer patients during and 1 year after treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five consecutive breast cancer patients, eligible for adjuvant CT...... with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin or methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil were followed before, during, 6 months and 1 year after CT and were compared to a control group of 31 breast cancer patients not receiving adjuvant CT. RESULTS: During CT, oral mucosal lesions developed including erythema (n = 10, 22%) and ulceration...... in the CT group. CONCLUSION: In breast cancer patients, moderate-intensive adjuvant CT caused oral mucosal lesions, oral candidosis, taste disturbances and a more acidophilic oral microflora. These adverse effects were temporary and the majority of the patients were mildly affected....

  6. Association between weight gain during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer and survival outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartsman, Gustavo; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Song, Juhee; Ueno, Naoto T; Peterson, Susan K; Arun, Banu

    2017-10-10

    Obese and overweight women have an increased risk of breast cancer and worse outcomes at the time of diagnosis. Women tend to gain weight after breast cancer diagnosis and during chemotherapy for early-stage disease, which may in turn increase risk for worse outcomes. We examined if weight gained during adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with worse survival outcomes. We queried our database for data on patients who received adjuvant third-generation chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses by Cox regression were performed for survival outcomes across three categories according to BMI variation from start to end of chemotherapy: >0.5 kg/m(2) loss or gain and stable BMI (±0.5 kg/m(2) ). We included 1998 patients in this study. Women over 50 years old and postmenopausal were more likely to lose weight during adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas women under 30 years old gained more weight (P original weight (ρ = -0.3, P 0.5 kg/m(2) compared to maintaining BMI was marginally associated with increased locoregional recurrence risk (HR: 2.53; 95% CI, 1.18-5.45; P = 0.017), adjusting for grade, stage, and radiation delivery. Weight variation during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer may occur as both weight gain and weight loss in a balanced manner. Furthermore, this variation seems to be transient in nature and does not appear to significantly influence recurrence rates and overall survival. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Results of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy after early failure of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Y.L.B.; Hingh, I.H.J.T. de; Boot, H.; Verwaal, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Failure to respond to systemic chemotherapy is considered an exclusion criterion by some institutions for treatment with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). However, it is unknown if these patients benefit from HIPEC treatment. This

  8. Adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly women with breast cancer: patients' perspectives on information giving and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Helena; Ballinger, Rachel; Langridge, Carolyn; Ring, Alistair; Fallowfield, Lesley J

    2013-12-01

    Decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early stage breast cancer (EBC) are often challenging. Uncertainty about benefits due to limited data about treatment efficacy and outcomes complicates decision making. This qualitative study explored older patients' experiences and preferences towards information giving and ultimate decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy. Clinicians from 24 UK breast cancer teams reported on adjuvant chemotherapy decisions for women aged ≥70 years with EBC from April 2010 to December 2011. Women who were offered chemotherapy were invited to participate in structured interviews. Self-reported quality of life (QoL) and functional ability were assessed. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes associated with information giving and decision making. A total of 58/95 eligible women (61%) participated. Median age was 73 years (range 70-83). Mean total scores for QoL and functional ability were average. The majority of women preferred to make their treatment decisions collaboratively with a clinician (59%) or on their own (19%). The main reasons influencing decisions to accept chemotherapy were categorised as prevention of recurrence and clinician recommendation. Side effects, length of treatment, impact on QoL, low survival benefits and clinician recommendation influenced decisions to decline chemotherapy. The majority (80%) were satisfied with information provision, the communication with their clinician and explanation of treatment. Older women with EBC preferred to be involved in clinical decision making. Clinician recommendation plays a significant role in either accepting or declining chemotherapy. Well-informed decision making and effective communication between clinicians, older women and their family members are therefore important. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Pathologic tumor response of invasive lobular carcinoma to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Jennifer E; Esposito, Nicole N; Kiluk, John V; Laronga, Christine; Khakpour, Nazanin; Soliman, Hatem; Catherine Lee, M

    2012-01-01

    Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is used for locally advanced breast cancer patients with significant variation in tumor response. Our objective is to determine the clinicopathologic effect of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy on invasive lobular carcinoma. A review of a single-institution data base of women diagnosed with breast cancer identified 30 patients from 1999 to 2009 with operable invasive lobular carcinoma who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Patient demographics and clinicopathologic data were reviewed. Cases were reviewed by a single pathologist (NNE). Residual cancer burden class was determined for each case. Median patient age was 50 years (range 25-79). All tumors were hormone receptor positive and clinical stage II or III carcinomas. Most patients (53.3%) had combination anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy. Therapy-related changes were noted within the tumor bed in 25 (83.3%) patients. Six (30%) of 20 patients with residual axillary disease had therapy-related nodal changes. There were 11 patients with moderate residual disease (class II) and 18 (60%) with extensive (class III); there were no complete pathologic responses (class 0). Only one patient (3.3%) converted from mastectomy to breast-conserving surgery. Four (13.3%) patients developed distant metastases; all had pleomorphic-type, clinical stage III tumors with residual cancer burden III classification and developed distant disease in the 2 years after surgery (range 0-26 months). Median follow-up time was 29.5 months (range 7-132). Patients with locally advanced pleomorphic-type lobular carcinoma appear to develop early post-treatment metastatic disease. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy did not appear to have significant impact on the surgical treatment of patients with invasive lobular carcinoma. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Adjuvant (post-surgery) chemotherapy for early stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Theresa A; Winter-Roach, Brett A; Heus, Pauline; Kitchener, Henry C

    2015-12-17

    This is the second update of the review first published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2009, Issue 1. Epithelial ovarian cancer is diagnosed in over 200,000 women worldwide each year. Ten to 20% of women are diagnosed early, when there is still a good possibility of cure. The treatment of early-stage (stage I and IIa) disease involves surgery to remove the disease, often followed by chemotherapy (adjuvant chemotherapy). The largest clinical trials of adjuvant chemotherapy show an overall survival (OS) advantage with platinum-based chemotherapy; however the precise role and type of this treatment in subgroups of women with differing prognoses needs to be defined. To undertake a systematic review of the evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer to determine whether chemotherapy following surgery offers a survival advantage over the policy of observation following surgery (with chemotherapy reserved for treatment of disease recurrence); and to determine if clinical subgroups of women with differing prognoses, based on histological subtype or completeness of surgical staging, have more or less to gain from adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed an electronic search using the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1948 to March week 5, 2015), and EMBASE (1980 to week 14, 2015). We developed the search strategy using free-text and medical subject headings (MeSH). We also searched registers of clinical trials and citation lists of included studies for potentially relevant studies. We included randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of women with early stage (I/IIa) epithelial ovarian cancer staged at laparotomy. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality of included RCTs. We resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We used random-effects methods for all meta

  11. Correlation study between osteoporosis and hematopoiesis in the context of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyrr, Frédérica; Wolfer, Anita; Pasquier, Jérôme; Nicoulaz, Anne-Laure; Lamy, Olivier; Naveiras, Olaia

    2018-02-01

    This retrospective study attempts to establish if a correlation exists between osteoporosis and hematopoiesis before and after adjuvant chemotherapy in the context of non-metastatic breast cancer. Osteoporosis is interpreted both as a direct marker of osteoblastic decline and as an indirect marker of increased bone marrow adiposity within the hematopoietic microenvironment. Patients from the "Centre du Sein" at CHUV (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois) undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy were included in this study. Evolution of blood counts was studied in correlation with the osteoporosis status. Toxicity of chemotherapy was coded according to published probability of febrile neutropenia. One hundred forty-three women were included: mean age 52.1 ± 12.5 years, mean BMI (body mass index) 24.4 ± 4.1. BMD (bone mineral density) scored osteoporotic in 32% and osteopenic in 45%. Prior to chemotherapy, BMD was positively correlated with neutrophil (p chemotherapy, an increase of one point in TBS correlated with a decrease of 57% on the time to reach leucocyte nadir (p = 0.004). There was a positive correlation between BMD and risk of infection (p < 0.001). Our data demonstrates an association between osteoporosis and lower blood counts in a younger cohort than previously published, extending it for the first time to neutrophil counts in females. Our results suggest that the healthier the bone, the earlier the lowest leucocyte count value, prompting further research on this area.

  12. Bone mineral density change during adjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyun Ahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeOsteoporosis is currently receiving particular attention as a sequela in survivors of childhood osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD changes during methotrexate-based chemotherapy in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma.MethodsNine patients with osteosarcoma were included in this retrospective study and compared with eight healthy controls. BMD of the lumbar spine and unaffected femur neck of patients was serially measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and just after chemotherapy and compared with controls.ResultsFour patients (44% showed decreased lumbar spine BMD and seven patients (78% showed decreased femur neck BMD, while all controls showed increased lumbar and femur BMD (P=0.024 and P=0.023. The femur neck BMD z-scores decreased from -0.49±1.14 to -1.63±1.50 (P=0.032. At the end of therapy, five patients (56% showed femur neck BMD z-scores below -2.0.ConclusionThe bone metabolism is disturbed during therapy in children with osteosarcoma, resulting in a reduced BMD with respect to healthy controls. Since a reduced BMD predisposes to osteoporosis, specific attention and therapeutic interventions should be considered.

  13. [Acrometastasis from breast cancer after the use of frozen gloves by adjuvant chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brygger, Louise; Cold, Søren

    2015-01-26

    A woman was referred to adjuvant chemotherapy after radical mastectomy. Frozen gloves were used to prevent onycholysis and neurotoxicity. Because of rapid progression of the cancer she received palliative chemotherapy. Shortly after she presented with growing subungual inflammation, first suspected to be a felon, but later diagnosed as a metastasis. Acrometastasis is very rare and is often mistaken for infection. The learning point is to consider acrometastasis when treatment for felon fails in patients with a history of cancer. A possible relationship between frozen gloves and acrometastasis cannot be excluded.

  14. [Adjuvant chemotherapy of the colonic and rectal carcinoma: concepts and uptodate results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W; Nagel, G A

    1977-06-18

    The aim of adjuvant chemotherapy is the destruction of micrometastases after surgical removal of a malignant tumor. This treatment modality is gaining in importance in the light of experimental data and lcinical success in pediatric tumors. Results of ongoing studies in colo-rectal cancer show a marginal effect of prophylactic treatment with 5-fluorouracil. The treatment benefits in trials with historical controls are much greater than in studies with simultaneous controls. Use of historical controls is therefore of doubtful value. Ongoing trials use the combination of 5-fluorouracil and methyl-CCNU, which has been shown to double the remission rate in advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy of colo-rectal cancer is still experimental and justified only in the framework of clinical trials.

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival for all high-risk factors in stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, S R; van Erning, F N; Lemmens, V E P P; de Wilt, J H W; Pruijt, J F M

    2016-07-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered in high-risk stage II colon cancer comprising pT4, poor/undifferentiated grade, vascular invasion, emergency surgery and/or chemotherapy administration and its effect on survival was evaluated for each known risk factor. All patients with high-risk stage II colon cancer who underwent resection and were diagnosed in the Netherlands between 2008 and 2012 were included. After stratification by risk factor(s) (vascular invasion could not be included), Cox regression was used to discriminate the independent association of adjuvant chemotherapy with the probability of death. Relative survival was used to estimate disease-specific survival. A total of 4,940 of 10,935 patients with stage II colon cancer were identified as high risk, of whom 790 (16%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with a pT4 received adjuvant chemotherapy more often (37%). Probability of death in pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy was lower compared to non-recipients (3-year overall survival 91% vs. 73%, HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.28-0.66). The relative excess risk (RER) of dying was also lower for pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy compared to non-recipients (3-year relative survival 94% vs. 85%, RER 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.74). For patients with only poor/undifferentiated grade, emergency surgery or chemotherapy and survival was observed. In high-risk stage II colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with higher survival in pT4 only. To prevent unnecessary chemotherapy-induced toxicity, further refinement of patient subgroups within stage II colon cancer who could benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy seems indicated. © 2016 UICC.

  16. Recurrent Pericarditis, an Unexpected Effect of Adjuvant Interferon Chemotherapy for Malignant Melanoma

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    Farhan Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced pericarditis is a well-described cardiac pathology that can result from a variety of medications; however, interferon-mediated pericarditis is extremely rare. We present a case of a young female with recurrent pericarditis due to interferon therapy. The role of interferon in adjuvant chemotherapy is well known and yields good effect, but this case highlights the very uncommon phenomena of interferon induced pericarditis and the significant distress it can cause.

  17. Treatment of a well differentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a cat by pneumonectomy and adjuvant mitoxantrone chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, D N; Hogan, A M; Cave, T A

    2004-06-01

    Primary lung neoplasia is a rare condition of older cats. This report describes a case of left-sided pulmonary collapse, secondary to pulmonary adenocarcinoma in an 11-year-old cat. Left sided pneumonectomy was performed, and adjuvant chemotherapy with mitoxantrone (Novantrone; Lederle) was administered every 3 to 5 weeks, for 10 doses after surgery. Thirty-four months after surgery, the cat remains well and has no radiographic evidence of pulmonary metastasis.

  18. Prognosis of stage III colorectal carcinomas with FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy can be predicted by molecular subtype.

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    Kwon, Yujin; Park, Minhee; Jang, Mi; Yun, Seongju; Kim, Won Kyu; Kim, Sora; Paik, Soonmyung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Hong, Sungpil; Kim, Tae Il; Min, Byungsoh; Kim, Hoguen

    2017-06-13

    Individualizing adjuvant chemotherapy is important in patients with advanced colorectal cancers (CRCs), and the ability to identify molecular subtypes predictive of good prognosis for stage III CRCs after adjuvant chemotherapy could be highly beneficial. We performed microarray-based gene expression analysis on 101 fresh-frozen primary samples from patients with stage III CRCs treated with FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy and 35 matched non-neoplastic mucosal tissues. CRC samples were classified into four molecular subtypes using nonnegative matrix factorization, and for comparison, we also grouped CRC samples using the proposed consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs). Of the 101 cases, 80 were classified into a CMS group, which shows a 79% correlation between the CMS classification and our four molecular subtypes. We found that two of our subtypes showed significantly higher disease-free survival and overall survival than the others. Group 2, in particular, which showed no disease recurrence or death, was characterized by high microsatellite instability (MSI-H, 6/21), abundant mucin production (12/21), and right-sided location (12/21); this group strongly correlated with CMS1 (microsatellite instability immune type). We further identified the molecular characteristics of each group and selected 10 potential biomarker genes from each. When these were compared to the previously reported molecular classifier genes, we found that 31 out of 40 selected genes were matched with those previously reported. Our findings indicate that molecular classification can reveal specific molecular subtypes correlating with clinicopathologic features of CRCs and can have predictive value for the prognosis for stage III CRCs with FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy.

  19. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy plus high-frequency diathermic therapy followed by intravenous chemotherapy versus intravenous chemotherapy alone for postoperative adjuvant treatment of gastrointestinal cancer: a comparative research study.

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    Gao, Li-Zhen; Gao, E-Mei; Bai, Yun-Fei; Su, Hai-Long; Zhang, Fan; Ge, Mei-Qing; Liu, Dong-Lian; Huang, Yan-Kun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) plus high-frequency diathermic therapy (HFDT) followed by intravenous chemotherapy vs intravenous chemotherapy alone for adjuvant treatment of postoperative gastrointestinal neoplasms. Fifty-two gastrointestinal carcinoma patients who were radically operated were enrolled and divided into the treatment group and the control group. In the treatment group, 25 patients were treated with combination of HIPEC+HFDT and subsequent intravenous chemotherapy, while in the control group 27 patients received intravenous chemotherapy alone. Post-therapeutic complications and adverse reactions, time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were compared between these two groups. Difference in toxic reactions between the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Postoperative progression- free survival (PFS) rate at 12 and 40 months after radical surgery was 72.0 and 54.0% respectively in the treatment group, and 65.8 and 11.5% respectively in the control group (p=0.108). TTP was statistically significantly longer in the treatment group than in the control group (median TTP 40.1 vs 18.5 months, p=0.027). Postoperative OS at 12 and 20 months after radical surgery was 88.0 and 78.0% respectively in the treatment group and 92.6 and 72.7% in the control group, without significant difference. After radical surgery, combination of HIPEC+HFDT and subsequent intravenous chemotherapy brings about superior PFS compared with intravenous adjuvant chemotherapy alone, while having no more complications and adverse reactions.

  20. Adjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT alone versus CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy: Which is better in patients with radically resected extrahepatic biliary tract cancer?: a non-randomized, single center study

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    Kim Tae-You

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently no standard adjuvant therapy for patients with curatively resected extrahepatic biliary tract cancer (EHBTC. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features and outcomes between patients undergoing adjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT alone and those undergoing CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection. Methods We included 120 patients with EHBTC who underwent radical resection and then received adjuvant CCRT with or without further adjuvant chemotherapy between 2000 and 2006 at Seoul National University Hospital. Results Out of 120 patients, 30 received CCRT alone, and 90 received CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Three-year disease-free survival (DFS rates for CCRT alone and CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy were 26.6% and 45.2% (p = 0.04, respectively, and 3-year overall survival (OS rates were 30.8% and 62.6% (p Conclusion Adjuvant CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy prolonged DFS and OS, compared with CCRT alone in patients with curatively resected EHBTC. Adjuvant chemotherapy deserves to consider after adjuvant CCRT. In the future, a randomized prospective study will be needed, with the objective of investigating the role of adjuvant chemotherapy.

  1. The impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in older breast cancer patients on clinical and biological aging parameters

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    Brouwers, Barbara; Hatse, Sigrid; Lago, Lissandra Dal; Neven, Patrick; Vuylsteke, Peter; Dalmasso, Bruna; Debrock, Guy; Van Den Bulck, Heidi; Smeets, Ann; Bechter, Oliver; Bailur, Jithendra Kini; Kenis, Cindy; Laenen, Annouschka; Schöffski, Patrick; Pawelec, Graham; Journe, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem-Elias; Wildiers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on biological and clinical markers of aging and frailty. Methods Women ≥ 70 years old with early breast cancer were enrolled after surgery and assigned to a chemotherapy (Docetaxel and Cyclophosphamide) group (CTG, n=57) or control group (CG, n=52) depending on their planned adjuvant treatment. Full geriatric assessment (GA) and Quality of Life (QoL) were evaluated at inclusion (T0), after 3 months (T1) and at 1 year (T2). Blood samples were collected to measure leukocyte telomere length (LTL), levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other circulating markers potentially informative for aging and frailty: Interleukin-10 (IL-10), Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α), Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP-1) and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES). Results LTL decreased significantly but comparably in both groups, whereas IL-6 was unchanged at T2. However, IL-10, TNF-α, IGF-1 and MCP-1 suggested a minor biological aging effect of chemotherapy. Clinical frailty and QoL decreased at T1 in the CTG, but recovered at T2, while remaining stable in the CG. Conclusion Chemotherapy (TC) is unlikely to amplify clinical aging or induce frailty at 1 year. Accordingly, there is no impact on the most established aging biomarkers (LTL, IL-6). PMID:27102154

  2. Motivation to uphold physical activity in women with breast cancer during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment.

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    Wilhelmsson, Anna; Roos, Maria; Hagberg, Lars; Wengström, Yvonne; Blomberg, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for recovery after a breast cancer diagnosis; however, women's motivation to engage in PA can be impacted by disease and/or treatment, and can therefore be a challenge. This study explored factors associated with PA levels during chemotherapy among women with breast cancer. The study had a cross-sectional descriptive and comparative design using a study-specific questionnaire. One hundred women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were included. Data were analysed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression. The open question was subjected to manifest content analysis. Identified factors associated with engaging in PA during chemotherapy treatment were: being physically active before diagnosis, and the information given by the oncology nurse before the treatment start. The physically active women experienced higher psychological wellbeing, less fatigue, and faster recovery after treatment. They also experienced an overall feeling of fitness. It seems that PA is associated with less fatigue, better recovery between chemotherapy treatments, and a better mental condition leading to wellbeing. Information given by the oncology nurse may be an important factor for being physically active. Women with breast cancer need to get specific advice about and support in engaging in PA to feel better during chemotherapy treatment. Further research is required to develop guidelines for advice about and support regarding PA during chemotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advances in management of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer: Consequences for clinical practice.

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    Netter, Jeanne; Douard, Richard; Durdux, Catherine; Landi, Bruno; Berger, Anne; Taieb, Julien

    2016-11-01

    More than half the patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal disease at diagnosis with a high risk of recurrence. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and standardized radical surgery with total mesorectal excision have been established as the 'gold standard' for treating these patients. Pathological staging using the ypTNM classification system to decide on adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) is widely used in clinical practice, but the delivery of ACT is still controversial, as many discrepancies persist in the conclusions of different trials, due to heterogeneity of the inclusion criteria between studies, lack of statistical power, and variations in preoperative and adjuvant regimens. In 2014, a meta-analysis of four randomized phase-III trials (EORTC 22921, I-CNR-RT, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, CHRONICLE) failed to demonstrate any statistical efficacy of fluorouracil (5FU)-based ACT. Three recent randomized trials aimed to compare 5FU with 5FU plus oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Two of them (ADORE, CAO/ARO/AIO-04) appeared to find a disease-free survival benefit for patients treated with the combination therapy. Thus, while awaiting new data, it can be said that, as of 2015, patients with yp stage I tumors or histological complete response derived no benefit from adjuvant therapy. On the other hand, the FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen should be proposed for yp stage III patients, and may be considered for yp stage II tumors in fit patients with high-risk factors. Nevertheless, well-designed and sufficiently powered clinical trials dedicated to adjuvant treatments for rectal cancer remain justified in future to achieve a high level of proof in keeping with evidence-based medical standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in radiotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma IIIb; Randomized study

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    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Kihana, Toshimasa; Hori, Reiko; Matsuura, Shumpei; Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki (Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    Fifty-eight untreated patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] Stage IIIb) were enrolled in this study to evaluate the efficacy of a neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 3 cycles of cisplatin, adriamycin, mitomycin and pepleomycin. A radiotherapy alone group (RT group) consisted of 45 patients, a neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by second-line radiotherapy group (CR group) consisted of 8 patients and a first-line radiotherapy followed by second-line chemotherapy group (CR group) consisted of 5 patients. Twenty-five percent of the CR group achieved a complete tumor response (CTR) and 75% of the CR group achieved a partial tumor response (PTR). In the RC group, 87.5% of the patients achieved a CTR and 12.5% of the patients achieved a PTR. Three- and five-year survival rates were 71.1% and 62.2% in the RT group, 100% and 100% in the CR group, and 60% and 20% in the RC group (p<0.05), respectively. The incidence of complications by radiotherapy was 37.7% in the RT group and 15.4% in the combination group (CR and RC group). Our results suggest that neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy is most effective for the treatment of cervical carcinoma IIIb as compared with radiotherapy alone or with first-line radiotherapy followed by second-line chemotherapy. (author).

  5. Efficacy and safety of platinum combination chemotherapy re-challenge for relapsed patients with non-small-cell lung cancer after postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy of cisplatin plus vinorelbine.

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    Imai, Hisao; Shukuya, Takehito; Yoshino, Reiko; Muraki, Keiko; Mori, Keita; Ono, Akira; Akamatsu, Hiroaki; Taira, Tetsuhiko; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Saito, Ryusei; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    There is no standard therapy for relapsed patients who have received postoperative platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy for resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the efficacy and safety of platinum combination chemotherapy re-challenge for such patients. Medical records from 3 institutes from April 2005 to July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who underwent complete surgical resection were eligible if they received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin plus vinorelbine once and then re-challenge with platinum combination chemotherapy. Sixteen patients were enrolled in this study. After re-challenge with platinum combination chemotherapy, we observed an overall response rate of 31.2% (5/16) and a disease control rate of 81.2% (13/16). Median progression-free survival and overall survival from the start of the re-administration of platinum combination chemotherapy were 6.5 and 28.0 months, respectively. Frequently observed severe adverse events (≥grade 3) included neutropenia (31.2%), thrombocytopenia (31.2%), leukopenia (12.5%) and hyponatremia (12.5%). Frequently observed non-hematological toxicities (≥grade 2) were anorexia (37.5%) and nausea (37.5%). Re-challenge with platinum combination chemotherapy was effective and safe; therefore, this therapy should be considered as a treatment option for relapsed patients after postoperative cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for resected NSCLC. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Pathologic Factors Associated with Prognosis after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II/III Microsatellite-Unstable Colorectal Cancers

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    Jung Ho Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are controversies regarding the benefit of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H colorectal cancer (CRC, the pathologic features affecting postchemotherapeutic prognosis in these patients have not been fully identified yet. Methods: A total of 26 histopathologic and immunohistochemical factors were comprehensively evaluated in 125 stage II or III MSI-H CRC patients who underwent curative resection followed by fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. We statistically analyzed the associations of these factors with disease-free survival (DFS. Results: Using a Kaplan- Meier analysis with log-rank test, we determined that ulceroinfiltrative gross type (p=.003, pT4 (p<.001, pN2 (p=.002, perineural invasion (p=.001, absence of peritumoral lymphoid reaction (p=.041, signet ring cell component (p=.006, and cribriform comedo component (p=.004 were significantly associated with worse DFS in patients receiving oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n=45. By contrast, pT4 (p<.001 and tumor budding-positivity (p=.032 were significant predictors of poor survival in patients receiving non-oxaliplatin–based adjuvant chemotherapy (n=80. In Cox proportional hazards regression model-based univariate and multivariate analyses, pT category (pT1-3 vs pT4 was the only significant prognostic factor in patients receiving non-oxaliplatin–based adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas pT category, signet ring cell histology and cribriform comedo histology remained independent prognostic factors in patients receiving oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions: pT4 status is the most significant pathologic determinant of poor outcome after fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II/III MSI-H CRC.

  7. Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy Use Among Veterans With Colon Cancer: Insights From a California Study

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    Hynes, Denise M.; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Perrin, Ruth; Zhang, Qiuying; Weichle, Thomas; Ferreira, M. Rosario; Lee, Todd; Benson, Al B.; Bhoopalam, Nirmala; Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose US veterans have been shown to be a vulnerable population with high cancer rates, and cancer care quality in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals is the focus of a congressionally mandated review. We examined rates of surgery and chemotherapy use among veterans with colon cancer at VA and non-VA facilities in California to gain insight into factors associated with quality of cancer care. Methods A retrospective cohort of incident colon cancer patients from the California Cancer Registry, who were ≥ 66 years old and eligible to use VA and Medicare between 1999 and 2001, were observed for 6 months after diagnosis. Results Among 601 veterans with colon cancer, 72% were initially diagnosed and treated in non-VA facilities. Among veterans with stage I to III cancer, those diagnosed and initially treated in VA facilities experienced similar colectomy rates as those at non-VA facilities. Stage III patients diagnosed and initially treated in VA versus non-VA facilities had similar odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. In both settings, older patients had lower odds of receiving chemotherapy than their younger counterparts even when race and comorbidity were considered (age 76 to 85 years: odds ratio [OR] = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.46; age ≥ 86 years: OR = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.73). Conclusion In California, older veterans with colon cancer used both VA and non-VA facilities for cancer treatment, and odds of receiving cancer-directed surgery and chemotherapy were similar in both systems. Among stage III patients, older age lowered odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in both systems. Further studies should continue to explore potential health system effects on quality of colon cancer care across the United States. PMID:20406940

  8. [Two Cases of Urachal Carcinoma Treated by TS-1/CDDP as Adjuvant Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Michinobu; Kuromoto, Akito; Morozumi, Kento; Satou, Masahiko; Hoshi, Senji; Numahata, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    Case 1 : A 48-year-old man presenting with gross hematuria was suspected to have a tumor located in the bladder dome. He was referred to our department for further examination and treatment. Cystoscopy showed a dome-shaped mass in the supravesical region. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated the possibility of urachal carcinoma and peritoneal dissemination. Therefore, partial cystectomy with urachal resection was performed. The intraoperative findings were disseminated peritoneal nodules and mucus entering the peritoneal cavity from the tumor. On pathological examination, the tumor was classified as a mucinous-type adenocarcinoma, and 6 courses of TS-1/cisplatin (CDDP) therapy were administered to the patient as adjuvant chemotherapy. To date (10 months since the surgery), there has been no disease progression. Case 2 : A 76-year-old woman was referred to our department with a finding of a tumor in the bladder dome during her detailed examination for lung tumors. Cystoscopy showed nodular tumors, indicating lung metastases of the urachal carcinoma. Therefore, partial cystectomy with urachal resection was performed. On pathological examination, the tumor was classified as an enteric-type adenocarcinoma, and 2 courses of TS-1/CDDP therapy were administered to the patient as adjuvant chemotherapy. However, due to the development of marked bone marrow depression, the drugs had to be discontinued. Nonetheless, the lung metastases markedly diminished in size. To date (9 months since the discontinuation of chemotherapy), there has been no disease progression.

  9. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients' treatment decisions

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    Jorgensen ML

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive guideline-recommended adjuvant chemotherapy. Previous research has indicated that patient refusal of treatment is a contributing factor. This study aimed to identify potential barriers to adjuvant chemotherapy use in older patients by examining the associations between patient age, factors influencing chemotherapy treatment decisions, and preferences for information and decision-making involvement.Patients and methods: Sixty-eight patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer in Sydney, Australia, within the previous 24 months completed a self-administered survey.Results: Fear of dying, health status, age, quality of life, and understanding treatment procedures and effects were significantly more important to older patients (aged ≥65 years than younger patients in deciding whether to accept chemotherapy (all P < 0.05. Reducing the risk of cancer returning and physician trust were important factors for all patients. Practical barriers such as traveling for treatment and cost were rated lowest. Older patients preferred less information and involvement in treatment decision making than younger patients. However, 60% of the older group wanted detailed information about chemotherapy, and 83% wanted some involvement in decision making. Those preferring less information and involvement still rated many factors as important in their decision making, including understanding treatment procedures and effects.Conclusion: A range of factors appears to influence

  10. Efficacy and safety of short course adjuvant trastuzumab combination chemotherapy in breast cancer

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    Sachin S Hingmire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adjuvant short course 9-week trastuzumab combination therapy for human epidermal receptor 2 positive breast cancer patients may often be considered as a cost-effective and safe option and has important implications for the Indian subcontinent as well as other developing countries. However, such regimens of shorter duration trastuzumab therapy like FinHer, offered in view of economic constraints, may not be able to achieve globally comparable cure rates in early breast cancer especially with high-risk women with more than 3 lymph node positive. Methods and Material: Outcome of 21 patients with HER2 positive breast cancer was treated with short course trastuzumab combination chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting was studied. Results: Out of 21 patients 15 are alive and disease free with a follow up of up to 73 months (median follow up 42 months.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Impairment and Decline Associated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer

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    Miyuki eOno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was performed to quantify the magnitude and nature of the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and performance on a range of cognitive domains among breast cancer patients. A total of 27 studies (14 cross-sectional, 8 both cross-sectional and prospective and 5 prospective were included in the analyses, involving 1562 breast cancer patients who had undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and 2799 controls that included breast cancer patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 737 effect sizes (Cohen’s d were calculated for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies separately and classified into eight cognitive domains. The mean effect sizes varied across cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from –1.12 to 0.62, and –0.29 to 1.12, respectively. Each cognitive domain produced small effect sizes for cross sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from –0.25 to 0.41. Results from cross-sectional studies indicated a significant association between adjuvant chemotherapy and cognitive impairment that held across studies with varied methodological approaches. For prospective studies, results generally indicated that cognitive functioning improved over time after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Greater cognitive impairment was reported in cross-sectional studies comparing chemotherapy groups with healthy control groups. Results suggested that cognitive impairment is present among breast cancer patients irrespective of a history of chemotherapy. Prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of cognitive impairment present both before and after chemotherapy, with comparisons made to participants’ cognitive function prior to diagnosis. Accurate understanding of the effects of chemotherapy is essential to enable informed decisions regarding treatment and to improve quality of life among breast cancer patients.

  12. Decreased contralateral breast volume after mastectomy, adjuvant chemotherapy, and anti-estrogen therapy, in particular in breasts with high density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Naohiro; Ando, Jiro; Harao, Michiko; Takemae, Masaru; Kishi, Kazuo

    2017-10-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy and anti-estrogenic therapy can result in decreased volume of the contralateral breast, following mastectomy for the treatment of breast cancer. However, no data on the effect of adjuvant therapy on contralateral breast volume have previously been reported. We aimed to evaluate the extent to which adjuvant therapy and differences in breast density contribute to decreased breast volume. We conducted a prospective cohort study, selecting 40 nonconsecutive patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with mastectomy and expander insertion followed by expander replacement. We measured the contralateral breast volume before each procedure. The extent of the change was analyzed with respect to adjuvant therapy and breast density measured by preoperative mammography. The greatest decrease in breast volume was 135.1 cm3. The decrease in breast volume was significantly larger in the adjuvant therapy (+) group, particularly in patients with high breast density, than in the adjuvant therapy (-) group. Significant differences between the chemotherapy (+), tamoxifen (+) group and the chemotherapy (-), tamoxifen (+) group were not found. Breast density scores had a range of 2.0-3.3 (mean: 2.8). In breast reconstruction, particularly when performed in one stage, preoperative mammography findings are valuable to plastic surgeons, and possible decreases in the contralateral breast volume due to adjuvant therapy, particularly in patients with high breast density, should be considered carefully. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychoneuroimmunology-Based Stress Management during Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer

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    Jo Lynne W. Robins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In a randomized trial of women with early stage breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy, two stress management interventions, tai chi training and spiritual growth groups, were compared to a usual care control group, to evaluate psychosocial functioning, quality of life (QOL, and biological markers thought to reflect cancer- and treatment-specific mechanisms. Method. The sample consisted of 145 women aged 27–75 years; 75% were Caucasian and 25% African American. A total of 109 participants completed the study, yielding a 75% retention rate. Grounded in a psychoneuroimmunology framework, the overarching hypothesis was that both interventions would reduce perceived stress, enhance QOL and psychosocial functioning, normalize levels of stress-related neuroendocrine mediators, and attenuate immunosuppression. Results. While interesting patterns were seen across the sample and over time, the interventions had no appreciable effects when delivered during the period of chemotherapy. Conclusions. Findings highlight the complex nature of biobehavioral interventions in relation to treatment trajectories and potential outcomes. Psychosocial interventions like these may lack sufficient power to overcome the psychosocial or physiological stress experienced during the chemotherapy treatment period. It may be that interventions requiring less activity and/or group attendance would have enhanced therapeutic effects, and more active interventions need to be tested prior to and following recovery from chemotherapy.

  14. Impact of concurrent versus adjuvant chemotherapy on the severity and duration of lymphopenia in glioma patients treated with radiation therapy.

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    Lin, Alexander J; Campian, Jian L; Hui, Caressa; Rudra, Soumon; Rao, Yuan J; Thotala, Dinesh; Hallahan, Dennis; Huang, Jiayi

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged severe lymphopenia has been shown to persist beyond a year in glioma patients after radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy. This study examines the differential impact of concurrent versus adjuvant chemotherapy on lymphopenia after RT. WHO grade II-III glioma patients who received RT with concurrent and/or adjuvant chemotherapy from 2007 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Concurrent chemotherapy was temozolomide (TMZ), and adjuvant chemotherapy was either TMZ or procarbazine/lomustine/vincristine (PCV). Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was analyzed at baseline, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months after the start of RT. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the clinical variables in predicting acute or late lymphopenia. There were 151 patients with evaluable ALC: 91 received concurrent and adjuvant TMZ (CRT + ADJ), 32 received only concurrent TMZ (CRT), and 28 received only adjuvant TMZ or PCV (ADJ). There were 9 (10%) versus 6 (19%) versus 0 (0%) cases of grade 3 lymphopenia (ALC < 500/mm3) at 6 weeks and 4 (6%) versus 0 (0%) versus 3 (17%) cases at 12 months in CRT + ADJ, CRT and ADJ groups, respectively. On multivariable analyses, concurrent chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR] 72.3, p < 0.001), female sex (OR 10.8, p < 0.001), and older age (OR 1.06, p = 0.002) were the most significant predictors for any grade ≥ 1 lymphopenia (ALC < 1000/mm3) at 1.5 months. Older age (OR 1.08, p = 0.02) and duration of adjuvant chemotherapy (OR 1.19, p = 0.003) were significantly associated with grade ≥ 1 lymphopenia at 12 months. Thus, concurrent chemotherapy appears as the dominant contributor to the severity of acute lymphopenia after RT in WHO grade II-III glioma patients, and duration of adjuvant chemotherapy appears as the key factor to prolonged lymphopenia.

  15. Does routine symptom screening with ESAS decrease ED visits in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy?

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    Barbera, L; Sutradhar, R; Howell, D; Sussman, J; Seow, H; Dudgeon, D; Atzema, C; Earle, C; Husain, A; Liu, Y; Krzyzanowska, M K

    2015-10-01

    In 2007, the provincial cancer agency in Ontario, Canada initiated a wide-scale program to screen for symptoms in the cancer population using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of screening with ESAS on emergency department (ED) visit rates in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. This retrospective cohort study used linked administrative health care data from across the province of Ontario, Canada. The cohort included all women aged ≥18 who were diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer between January 2007 and December 2009 and received adjuvant chemotherapy within 6 months of diagnosis. Using an adjusted recurrent event model, we examined the association of screening with ESAS at a clinic visit on the ED visit rate. The relative rate of ED visits was 0.57 when prior ESAS screening occurred compared to when it did not. The relative rate of ED visits was 0.83 when the prior number of ESAS screens was modeled as a continuous variable. Alternatively stated, the rate of ED visits was 43 % lower among patients previously screened with ESAS compared to those not previously screened. For each additional prior ESAS assessment, there was a 17 % decreased rate of ED visits. Our results demonstrate that screening with ESAS is associated with decreased ED visits. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effectiveness of routinely documenting a patient reported outcome on ED visits, in a real-world setting.

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected non-small-cell lung cancer: future perspectives for clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonomi Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is a debated issue in clinical oncology. Although it is considered a standard for resected stage II-IIIA patients according to the available guidelines, many questions are still open. Among them, it should be acknowledged that the treatment for stage IB disease has shown so far a limited (if sizable efficacy, the role of modern radiotherapies requires to be evaluated in large prospective randomized trials and the relative impact of age and comorbidities should be weighted to assess the reliability of the trials' evidences in the context of the everyday-practice. In addition, a conclusive evidence of the best partner for cisplatin is currently awaited as well as a deeper investigation of the fading effect of chemotherapy over time. The limited survival benefit since first studies were published and the lack of reliable prognostic and predictive factors beyond pathological stage, strongly call for the identification of bio-molecular markers and classifiers to identify which patients should be treated and which drugs should be used. Given the disappointing results of targeted therapy in this setting have obscured the initial promising perspectives, a biomarker-selection approach may represent the basis of future trials exploring adjuvant treatment for resected NSCLC.

  17. Adjuvant Bidirectional Chemotherapy with Intraperitoneal Pemetrexed Combined with Intravenous Cisplatin for Diffuse Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Bijelic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoreductive surgery (CRS with heated intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC has emerged as optimal treatment for diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM showing median survivals of 36–92 months. However, recurrences occur frequently even in patients undergoing optimal cytreduction and are often confined to the abdomen. We initiated a Phase II study of adjuvant intraperitoneal pemetrexed combined with intravenous cisplatin for patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC for DMPM. The treatment consisted of pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 intraperitoneally and cisplatin 50 mg/m2 intravenously given simultaneously on day 1 of every 21 day cycle for 6 cycles. The primary endpoint of the study was treatment related toxicity. From July 2007 until July 2009 ten patients were enrolled. Nine of 10 completed all 6 cycles of adjuvant treatment per protocol. The most common toxicities were fatigue, nausea and abdominal pain grade 1 or 2. There was one grade 3 toxicity consisting of a catheter infection. The median survival for all 10 patients was 33.5 months. Pharmacokinetic analysis of intraperitoneal pemetrexed showed a peritoneal to plasma area under the curve ratio of 70. Our study shows that adjuvant intravenous cisplatin and intraperitoneal pemetrexed can be used following CRS and HIPEC for DMPM with low morbidity.

  18. A Case of Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia Associated with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy for Anaplastic Astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Kenzo; Saito, Katsuya; Takahashi, Wataru; Tokuda, Yukina; Tomita, Hideyuki

    2017-05-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is now standard adjuvant therapy in combination with radiotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma. Treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute treatment-related leukemia (t-AML) associated with TMZ chemotherapy for patients with glioma is quite a rare complication. A 43-year-old man with an anaplastic astrocytoma received radiation therapy synchronized with ranimustine and adjuvant TMZ chemotherapy for 15 cycles. Close follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the head during TMZ chemotherapy showed no evidence of tumor progression. One year after the completion of TMZ chemotherapy, a bone-marrow aspiration was performed because the patient's white blood cell count decreased. He was diagnosed with t-AML based on the bone marrow examination, and then he was referred to the cancer center for the treatment of t-AML. In this case study, we continued adjuvant TMZ therapy beyond the recommended 6 cycles. Currently, there is no consensus as to how long the adjuvant TMZ therapy should be continued for the treatment of residual tumor showing no apparent interval change. A new decision-making tool to assess the clinical benefits against the side effects for long-term adjuvant TMZ therapy is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugom, A.J.; Gijn, W. van; Muller, E.W.; Berglund, A; Broek, C.B. van den; Fokstuen, T.; Gelderblom, H.; Kapiteijn, E.; Leer, J.W.H.; Marijnen, C.A.; Martijn, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Pahlman, L.; Punt, C.J.A.; Putter, H.; Roodvoets, A.G.; Rutten, H.J.; Steup, W.H.; Glimelius, B.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugom, A. J.; van Gijn, W.; Muller, E. W.; Berglund, Å; van den Broek, C. B. M.; Fokstuen, T.; Gelderblom, H.; Kapiteijn, E.; Leer, J. W. H.; Marijnen, C. A. M.; Martijn, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nagtegaal, I. D.; Påhlman, L.; Punt, C. J. A.; Putter, H.; Roodvoets, A. G. H.; Rutten, H. J. T.; Steup, W. H.; Glimelius, B.; van de Velde, C. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients treated with

  1. Spinal cord stimulation as adjuvant during chemotherapy and reirradiation treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavo, Bernardino; Robaina, Francisco; Jorge, Ignacio J; Cabrera, Raquel; Ruiz-Egea, Eugenio; Szolna, Adam; Otermin, Emilio; Llontop, Pedro; Carames, Miguel A; Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Sminia, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Relapsed high-grade gliomas (HGGs) have poor prognoses and there is no standard treatment. HGGs have ischemia/hypoxia associated and, as such, drugs and oxygen have low access, with increased resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Tumor hypoxia modification can improve outcomes and overall survival in some patients with these tumors. In previous works, we have described that cervical spinal cord stimulation can modify tumor microenvironment in HGG by increasing tumor blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism. The aim of this current, preliminary, nonrandomized, study was to assess the clinical effect of spinal cord stimulation during brain reirradiation and chemotherapy deployed for the treatment of recurrent HGG; the hypothesis being that an improvement in oxygenated blood supply would facilitate enhanced delivery of the scheduled therapy. Seven patients had spinal cord stimulation applied during the scheduled reirradiation and chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent HGG (6 anaplastic gliomas and 1 glioblastoma). Median dose of previous irradiation was 60 Gy (range = 56-72 Gy) and median dose of reirradiation was 46 Gy (range = 40-46 Gy). Primary end point of the study was overall survival (OS) following confirmation of HGG relapse. From the time of diagnosis of last tumor relapse before reirradiation, median OS was 39 months (95% CI = 0-93) for the overall study group: 39 months (95% CI = 9-69) for those with anaplastic gliomas and 16 months for the patient with glioblastoma. Posttreatment, doses of corticosteroids was significantly decreased (P = .026) and performance status significantly improved (P = .046). Spinal cord stimulation during reirradiation and chemotherapy is feasible and well tolerated. In our study, spinal cord stimulation was associated with clinical improvement and longer survival than previously reported in recurrent anaplastic gliomas. Spinal cord stimulation as adjuvant during chemotherapy and reirradiation in relapsed HGGs merits

  2. Identification of distinct fatigue trajectories in patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghaenel, Doerte U; Cohen, Jules; Schneider, Stefan; Neerukonda, Anu R; Broderick, Joan E

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize changes in daily fatigue in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. We examined whether there are subgroups of patients with distinct fatigue trajectories and explored potential psychosocial and biomedical predictors of these subgroups. Participants were 77 women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with AC-T (2-week cycle) and TC or TCH (3-week cycle) regimens. They completed 28 daily ratings online using an adapted version of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) fatigue instrument. Both regimens followed an "inverted-U-shaped" fatigue pattern over approximately 2 weeks. Growth mixture modeling identified three patient subgroups with distinct trajectories. Fatigue scores in the "low fatigue" group (23 %) increased following the infusion and quickly abated. The "transient fatigue" (27 %) group had a very pronounced increase. Patients in the "high fatigue" (50 %) group reported consistently elevated fatigue with a relatively small increase. Demographic and medical variables were not associated with fatigue trajectory. Patients in the "high fatigue" group reported significantly poorer physical, emotional, and social functioning, poorer general health, and more depressed mood than patients in the "low fatigue" group. The "transient fatigue" group reported significantly better physical and social functioning than the "high fatigue" group, but emotional distress and depression similar to the "high fatigue" group. The identification of patient subgroups with distinct fatigue trajectories during chemotherapy is an essential step for developing preventative strategies and tailored interventions. Our results suggest that different trajectories are associated with patients' psychosocial and general health.

  3. [Adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer. Experience at the National Institute of Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Rodríguez, E; Domínguez, A

    1992-01-01

    The cases of gastric carcinoma treated with surgery plus chemotherapy (FAM) at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion (INNSZ) in Mexico City from January 1979 to December 1988 were reviewed. In 322 patients seen in this period, only in 12.4% (40 patients) it was possible to undertake curative resection; of these, twenty two received adjuvant FAM (fluorouracil, 600 mg/m2 IV days 1,2,3; doxorubicin, 30-35 mg/m2 day 1; and mitomycin-C, 10 mg/m2 in three days). Twenty patients were in stage III and two in stage II. At a median follow-up of five years, ten patients have relapsed; of these, eight died from progressive neoplasia; one is alive with no evidence of disease 24 months after receiving combined chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, cisplatinum and adriamycin, and one is alive with the disease. Nine patients (40.5%) are alive with no evidence of relapse 30 to 114 months after initial surgery. One patient died from unrelated causes with no evidence of relapse. Two individuals were lost to follow up at 9 months and 28 months, without evident malignant disease at the time of last consultation. The median survival was 61 months with a 51% estimated overall survival at five years. None of the prognostic factors analyzed were significantly associated with recurrence: number of metastatic lymph nodes; number of cycles of chemotherapy; interval between surgery and chemotherapy; and intraoperative blood transfusions requirements, although there was a tendency to relapse in the majority of the patients who received intraoperative blood transfusions as compared with the untransfused (five years disease free survival of 18% vs 64% respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Prospective evaluation of early cardiac damage induced by epirubicin-containing adjuvant chemotherapy and locoregional radiotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi, MT; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Gietema, JA; Dolsma, WV; Boomsma, F; van den Berg, MP; Volkers, C; Haaksma, J; de Vries, EGE; Sleijfer, DT; van der Graaf, WTA

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the cardiotoxic effects of epirubicin-containing adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Patients and Methods: patients (median age, 46 years; range, 28 to 55 years) were treated with five cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin (90 mg/m(2)), and

  5. The Effect of Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Stoma-Related Complications After Surgery for Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Raymond; Czerniewski, Alex; Robertson, Isabell; McNulty, Clare; Waterston, Ashita; Macdonald, Angus

    2015-01-01

    To assess stoma-related complications of colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgery with curative intent who received adjuvant chemotherapy compared to those who underwent surgery alone. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained colorectal cancer clinical audit database was completed. Patients undergoing curative surgery for colorectal cancer with the formation of a stoma (end ileostomy, loop ileostomy, end colostomy) between 1999 and 2011 at a single hospital in Lanarkshire, United Kingdom. Patients who underwent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. Two hundred twenty-two patients comprised the study sample; 130 (59%) were male. Seventy-five (34%) patients comprised the chemotherapy group and 147 (66%) made up the surgery-only group. Patients in the chemotherapy group were younger (61.6 vs 65.4 years; P = .001) and had higher stage colorectal cancer (P stoma scores between the chemotherapy or surgery-only groups. Postoperative stoma-related complications were serially assessed using a stoma complication scoring tool; scores were calculated at 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. Scores of patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were compared to scores of participants who underwent surgery alone. A composite stoma function score was calculated for each patient after assessment of stoma-related complications. The overall score included a global assessment of stoma quality (stoma retraction, prolapse, stenosis, parastomal hernia, skin changes) and patient-reported stoma function (leakage, soiling, nighttime emptying, odor). At 3 months, the mean loop ileostomy stoma function score was poorer among the chemotherapy group when compared to the surgery-only group (4.55 vs 1.53; P = .041). No differences were found when colostomy (2.00 vs 2.62; P = .411) or end ileostomy (1.00 vs 2.00; P = .170) function scores were compared at 3 months. Patients undergoing curative surgery for colorectal cancer resulting in a loop ileostomy who received adjuvant

  6. Noninitiation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women With Localized Breast Cancer: The Breast Cancer Quality of Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugut, Alfred I.; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Lamerato, Lois; Leoce, Nicole; Nathanson, S. David; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Magai, Carol; Tsai, Wei Yann; Jacobson, Judith S.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose For some women, adjuvant chemotherapy for nonmetastatic breast cancer decreases recurrences and increases survival; however, patient-physician decisions regarding chemotherapy receipt can be influenced by medical and nonmedical factors. Patients and Methods We used a prospective cohort design and multivariate modeling to investigate factors related to noninitiation of chemotherapy among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer recruited from three US sites. We interviewed patients at baseline and during treatment on sociodemographic, tumor, and treatment decision-making factors. Patients were categorized according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines as those for whom chemotherapy was definitely indicated, clinically discretionary, or discretionary based on age greater than 70 years. Results Of 1,145 patients recruited, chemotherapy was clinically indicated for 392 patients, clinically discretionary for 459 patients, discretionary because of age for 169 patients, and not indicated for 93 patients; data were insufficient for 32 patients. Chemotherapy rates were 90% for those in whom chemotherapy was clinically indicated, 36% for those in whom it was discretionary because of clinical factors, and 19% for those in whom it was discretionary based on age greater than 70 years. Nonreceipt of chemotherapy was associated with older age, more negative beliefs about treatment efficacy, less positive beliefs about chemotherapy, and more concern about adverse effects. In the two discretionary groups, clinical predictors of worse outcome (greater tumor size, positive nodes, worse grade, and estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–negative status) were associated with increased chemotherapy initiation. Conclusion Utilization of adjuvant chemotherapy was most common among patients who, based on clinical criteria, would most likely benefit from it, patients with more positive than negative beliefs regarding treatment efficacy, and patients with few

  7. Survival time of dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy: 208 cases (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelburg, Kristin M; Price, Lori Lyn; Burgess, Kristine E; Lyons, Jeremiah A; Lew, Felicia H; Berg, John

    2015-08-15

    To determine survival time for dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma treated with splenectomy alone, identify potential prognostic factors, and evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy. Retrospective case series. 208 dogs. Medical records were reviewed, long-term follow-up information was obtained, and survival data were analyzed statistically. 154 dogs were treated with surgery alone, and 54 were treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Twenty-eight dogs received conventional chemotherapy, 13 received cyclophosphamide-based metronomic chemotherapy, and 13 received both conventional and metronomic chemotherapy. Median survival time of dogs treated with splenectomy alone was 1.6 months. Clinical stage was the only prognostic factor significantly associated with survival time. When the entire follow-up period was considered, there was no significant difference in survival time between dogs treated with surgery alone and dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy. However, during the first 4 months of follow-up, after adjusting for the effects of clinical stage, survival time was significantly prolonged among dogs receiving any type of chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.6) and among dogs receiving both conventional and metronomic chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.4). Clinical stage was strongly associated with prognosis for dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma. Chemotherapy was effective in prolonging survival time during the early portion of the follow-up period. Combinations of doxorubicin-based conventional protocols and cyclophosphamide-based metronomic protocols appeared to be more effective than either type of chemotherapy alone, but prolongations in survival time resulting from current protocols were modest.

  8. FGFR3 overexpression is prognostic of adverse outcome for muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji-Youn; Sun, Jong-Mu; Chang Jeong, Byong; Il Seo, Seong; Soo Jeon, Seong; Moo Lee, Hyun; Yong Choi, Han; Young Kang, So; Choi, Yoon-La; Young Kwon, Ghee

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma. However, its clinicopathological significance has not been clearly established, especially in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The aim of our study was to investigate the mutation and overexpression of FGFR3 in MIBC cases from radical cystectomy and to analyze the prognostic and predictive significance in the groups with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Study cohorts included 72 cases of MIBC including 42 patients who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. The mutation status of FGFR3 exons 7, 10, and 15 was investigated and protein expression was evaluated. The findings were analyzed for the association with relevant clinicopathological findings. FGFR3 mutations were found in 7 patients (9.7%) and were correlated with a pattern of papillary growth, moderate histologic grade (G2 vs. G3), and moderately advanced TNM stage (II-III vs. IV). FGFR3 protein overexpression was detected in 33 cases (45.8%) but was not associated with the relevant clinicopathological parameters. In patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, FGFR3 overexpression was correlated with shorter disease-free survival (P = 0.067, 95% confidence interval: 14.8-29.6, marginal significance) and overall survival (P = 0.035), remaining as a significant independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival and overall survival in multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. In patients without adjuvant chemotherapy, FGFR3 mutation or overexpression did not have prognostic significance in multivariate analysis. We report the FGFR3 alterations in MIBCs, and discuss their biological implication in subsets of patients. FGFR3 overexpression was predictive of adverse outcome in patients with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy after radical cystectomy. The utility of FGFR3 as a therapeutic target is suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Is it safe the reversal of a diverting stoma during adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly rectal cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jun-Gi; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes between 2 groups of elderly rectal cancer patients according to the time duration after which their diverting stoma can be reversed. We recruited 124 patients who were ≥65 years old and had undergone diverting stoma after rectal cancer surgery. In Group 1, the reversal of the stoma was predominantly performed after the sixth adjuvant chemotherapy. In Group 2, the reversal was predominantly performed after the third adjuvant chemotherapy. The mean duration for which patients had a stoma was 28.6 ± 9.9 weeks in Group 1 and 17.1 ± 7.4 weeks in Group 2. The interval between stoma formation and stoma formation-related complications was slightly longer in Group 1 than in Group 2 (13.5 ± 9.7 vs. 8.0 ± 4.9 weeks, p = 0.075). There were 16 stoma-related complications in Group 1 (23.2%) and 10 in Group 2 (18.2%) (p = 0.516). There were 6 stoma closure-related complications in Group 1 (8.8%) and 6 in Group 2 (10.9%) (p = 0.766). This study shows that stoma closure during adjuvant chemotherapy is no more harmful than stoma closure after termination of adjuvant chemotherapy. It may be possible to limit the duration of diverting stoma following rectal cancer surgery, even if patients are elderly and undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metronomic Adjuvant Chemotherapy Improves Treatment Outcome in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients With Postradiation Persistently Detectable Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus Deoxyribonucleic Acid

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    Twu, Chih-Wen [Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wen-Yi [Section of Basic Medicine, Department of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Chih [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Kai-Li; Jiang, Rong-San [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Te [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital–Chiayi Branch, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Martin De Porres Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Po-Ju; Liu, Yi-Chun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jin-Ching, E-mail: jclin@vghtc.gov.tw [Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with persistently detectable plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pEBV DNA) after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 625 NPC patients with available pEBV DNA levels before and after treatment. Eighty-five patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after 1 week of completing radiation therapy were eligible for this retrospective study. Of the 85 patients, 33 were administered adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of oral tegafur-uracil (2 capsules twice daily) for 12 months with (n=4) or without (n=29) preceding intravenous chemotherapy of mitomycin-C, epirubicin, and cisplatin. The remaining 52 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy served as the control group. Results: Baseline patient characteristics at diagnosis (age, sex, pathologic type, performance status, T classification, N classification, and overall stage), as well as previous treatment modality, were comparable in both arms. After a median follow-up of 70 months for surviving patients, 45.5% (15 of 33 patients) with adjuvant chemotherapy and 71.2% (37 of 52 patients) without adjuvant chemotherapy experienced tumor relapses (P=.0323). There were a significant reduction in distant failure (P=.0034) but not in local or regional recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.6% for patients with adjuvant chemotherapy and 28.7% for patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.55; P<.0001). Conclusions: Our retrospective data showed that adjuvant chemotherapy can reduce distant failure and improve overall survival in NPC patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy.

  11. Monthly 5-days 5-fluorouracil and low-dose leucovorin for adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J B; Shim, K Y; Jeung, H C; Rha, S Y; Yoo, N C; Kim, N K; Roh, J K; Min, J S; Kim, B S; Chung, H C

    2001-06-26

    We investigated the dose-related effect of the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin regimen on survival in 139 colon cancer patients with Dukes' B2 and C2 stage disease. Chemotherapy consisted of 400 mg/m(2) of 5-FU and 20 mg/m(2) of leucovorin injected daily for 5 days in every 4 weeks for a maximum of 12 cycles. The total dose of 5-FU administered per body surface area had a significant effect on the 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival in stage B2 and C2 colon cancer patients (P=0.0018, P=0.0011). Analysis with reference to the median DSDI demonstrated that there was a significant difference in 5-year survival in Dukes' C2 (P=0.0016), but survival was not affected by the dose intensity. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only the total dose of 5-FU administered per surface area affected the 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (P=0.0016, P=0.0007, respectively). It can be concluded that the total dose of 5-FU administered is important in planned dosage schedule of adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer.

  12. Risk factors associated with ineligibility of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy after nephroureterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao IH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available I-Hung Shao,1,2,* Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,* Chen-Pang Hou,1 Horng-Heng Juang,3,4 Chien-Lun Chen,1 Phei-Lang Chang,1,4 Ke-Hung Tsui, 1,41Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University, 2Department of Urology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, 3Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University, 4Bioinformation Center, Chang Gung Memory Hospital, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU is a standard treatment for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. However, RNU can result in decreased renal function and cannot be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a risk group stratification analysis to determine the preoperative factors that are predictive of diminished renal function after RNU.Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of all patients who underwent nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2008. We analyzed the association between perioperative glomerular filtration rate and preoperative parameters including cancer characteristics, serum creatinine level, and kidney size measured on computed tomographic images.Results: A total of 242 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The average decrease in renal function 1 month after RNU was 19.7%. Using 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 as the eligibility cutoff for cisplatin-based chemotherapy, 42.1% of the population was eligible prior to nephroureterectomy, whereas following surgery only 15.2% remained eligible. Using a cutoff of 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, 59.9% of the cohort was eligible for fractionated cisplatin dosing preoperatively, whereas only 32.6% remained above the cutoff postoperatively. The most significant predictors of poor postoperative renal function were body mass index >25 kg/m2, age >65 years, contralateral kidney length less than 10 cm, and absence of ipsilateral hydronephrosis

  13. Factors affecting patients' perceptions of choice regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sylvia J T; Otten, Wilma; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2006-09-01

    Patients' perceptions of having had freedom of choice in treatment decision-making are shown to have implications for their quality of life. It is, therefore, important to determine what factors underlie these perceptions. One factor that has been studied is whether or not patients believed that their doctor had offered choice of treatment. However, even when choice is actually offered, patients may still feel that they have no choice. Little attention has been paid to other factors that may contribute to patients' perceptions of having had no choice. Our purpose was to explore (1) whether early-stage breast cancer patients perceived to have had a choice with regard to adjuvant chemotherapy, and (2) their reasons for having perceived no choice. The determinants of no choice that we examined were: (1) (preferred) involvement in treatment decision-making, (2) perceived clinical benefits of chemotherapy (e.g., cure), (3) perceived psychological benefits (e.g., less worries), and (4) perception of being able to cope with the side effects. All predictors, as well as patient and clinical characteristics, were entered simultaneously in a multiple logistic regression analysis and non-significant predictors were removed step-by-step, until only significant predictors (pchoice. In both treatment groups, patients who preferred a shared role or a passive role in treatment decision-making were statistically significantly more likely to have perceived no treatment choice than patients who preferred an active role. Surprisingly, beliefs about the clinical and psychological benefits of chemotherapy did not influence patients' perceptions of having had choice of treatment. If we adhere to patient autonomy and shared decision making, we may consider the perception of no treatment choice as a negative outcome of treatment decision-making. However, if this is the result of the patients' preference for less active involvement in treatment decision-making, the topic of perception of no

  14. Adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer ≥4 cm in size: an SEER-Medicare analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, J; Mhango, G; Gomez, J E; Smith, C; Galsky, M D; Strauss, G M; Wisnivesky, J P

    2015-04-01

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage I patients with tumors size ≥4 cm is not well established in the elderly. We identified 3289 patients with stage I NSCLC (T2N0M0 and tumor size ≥4 cm) who underwent lobectomy from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database diagnosed from 1992 to 2009. Overall survival and rates of serious adverse events (defined as those requiring admission to hospital) were compared between patients treated with resection alone, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, or postoperative radiation (PORT) with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Propensity scores for receiving each treatment were calculated and survival analyses were conducted using inverse probability weights based on the propensity score. Overall, 84% patients were treated with resection alone, 9% received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, and 7% underwent PORT with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjusted analysis showed that adjuvant chemotherapy [hazard ratio (HR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.98] was associated with improved survival compared with resection alone. Conversely, the use of PORT with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (HR 1.91; 95% CI 1.64-2.23) was associated with worse outcomes. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy had more serious adverse events compared with those treated with resection alone, with neutropenia (odds ratio, 21.2; 95% CI 5.8-76.6) being most significant. No significant difference was observed in rates of fever, cytopenias, nausea, and renal dysfunction. Platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with reduced mortality and increased serious adverse events in elderly patients with stage I NSCLC and tumor size ≥4 cm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Pre-adjuvant chemotherapy leukocyte count may predict the outcome for advanced gastric cancer after radical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Dong; Zhu, Fang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Qian, Jing; He, Shaohua; Qian, Yingying; Shen, Hua; Liu, Yiqian; Xu, Jiali; Shu, Yongqian

    2014-03-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) has a high morbidity worldwide each year especially in China and advanced GC is well known with poor prognosis, for which surgical resection combine adjuvant chemotherapy is the optimal choice for therapy. Leukocyte is an important index during the treatment for its influence on drugs' dosage and tolerance. Therefore, peripheral blood leukocyte and its subsets during adjuvant chemotherapy may have great clinical value for predicting prognostic. In this retrospective study, we showed the distribution of white blood cell and its subsets in the baseline period before adjuvant chemotherapy in 399 patients who underwent radical resection for advanced GC from January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2012. We investigated the relationship between leukocyte count and overall survival (OS) as well as disease-free survival (DFS). In these patients, females were more likely to have less white blood cells after operation (P=0.016). Patients with pre-chemotherapy leukocyte count less than 4×10(9)/L got worse DFS (P=0.028) and OS (P=0.016). In multivariate analysis, tumor size ≥ 6cm (P=0.033), TNM stage IV (P=0.024), vascular or nerval invasion (P=0.005) and leukocyte count less than 4.0×10(9)/L (P=0.019) was associated with poor DFS. TNM stage IV (P=0.008), vascular or nerval invasion (P=0.001) and lower leukocyte count (P=0.045) were independent risk factors for poor OS. Taken together, our findings suggest that pre-adjuvant chemotherapy peripheral blood leukocyte count correlates with clinical outcome of patients with advanced GC after radical resection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Spinal infarction related to the adjuvant chemotherapy for surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Masafumi

    2013-05-01

    We report the development of spinal infarction during adjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur, gimeracil and oteracil (TS-1) after surgery for lung adenocarcinoma. A 69-year-old female had a left upper lobectomy for pulmonary adenocarcinoma, T2aN0M0. Six weeks after the surgery, tegafur, gimeracil and oteracil were administered orally as adjuvant chemotherapy for 1 year. After 10 months of adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient suddenly showed signs of numbness and weakness in both lower limbs. The patient did not have a previous medical history, and was receiving only tegafur, gimeracil and oteracil with the stomach medication. Neurological findings showed muscle weakness, numbness and a loss of tendon reflex in both lower limbs, as well as bladder and rectal disturbance. Blood tests, brain magnetic resonance imaging and chest computed tomography showed no signs of abnormalities or metastasis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed a hyperintense lesion between the Th12 and L1 spinal levels by T2-weighted image. A spinal fluid test indicated no abnormalities, and cytological diagnosis was class II. Anti-aquaporin 4, anti-ganglioside and anti-neuronal autoantibodies were all negative. These results indicated that the patient had a spinal infarction, rather than myelitis or paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. The patient was treated with heparin and steroid pulse treatment followed by rehabilitation, and recovered sufficiently to be able to walk using a cane after 2 months. The development of spinal infarction during anti-cancer chemotherapy has not been previously reported. In this case, an association of spinal infarction with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy was strongly indicated due to the lack of abnormalities in coagulability, atherosclerotic lesions and aortic disease.

  17. Predictive value of the age-adjusted Charlston co-morbidity index on peri-operative complications, adjuvant chemotherapy usage and survival in patients undergoing debulking surgery after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew; Singh, Kavita; Pounds, Rachel; Sundar, Sudha; Kehoe, Sean; Nevin, James; Elattar, Ahmed; Balega, Janos

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the age-adjusted Charlston co-morbidity index (ACCI) can predict post-operative complications, adjuvant chemotherapy usage and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AOC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). A review was performed of all cytoreductive surgeries performed between 16/8/07-3/2/14 for AOC at a UK Cancer Centre. All surgeries were stratified by ACCI into three groups: Low (0-1), Intermediate (2-3) and High (≥4). Of the 293 cases the ACCI distribution was: 74 (25.26%) low, 164 (55.97%) intermediate and 55 (18.77%) high. Patients with a high ACCI were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (p = .023), more likely to receive fewer adjuvant cycles (p = .0057) but no more likely to experience complications. Median OS for patients with a low, intermediate and high ACCI was 44.58 (95%CI 36.98-52.19), 34.65 (95%CI 29.48-39.82) and 33.37 (95%CI 17.47-49.27) months. ACCI was associated with OS (p Co-morbidity Index has previously been identified as a predictor of survival in both medical and surgical conditions. Recently it has also been validated in patients undergoing primary cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer. This study is the first to validate the Age-Adjusted Charlston Co-morbidity Index in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings demonstrate that it can be used to not only predict overall survival in women undergoing debulking surgery after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy but also predicts the uptake and commencement of adjuvant chemotherapy. Such findings are important considerations to enable an informed patient choice regarding interval surgery in the more co-morbid patients. More importantly, although the ACCI can be used as a marker of overall survival, even in the most co-morbid of patients there remains a significant survival advantage following surgery to the extent that it should

  18. Risk of dementia in older breast cancer survivors: a population-based cohort study of the association with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Nancy N; Durham, Sara B; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Virning, Beth A

    2009-03-01

    To assess whether there is an association between delivery of adjuvant chemotherapy to older women with breast cancer and development of dementia over time. Retrospective cohort study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data linked to Medicare claims data. Women residing in geographic areas included in the SEER registry. Women aged 66 to 80 diagnosed with non-metastatic invasive breast cancer from 1992 to 1999 were included. It was determined whether patients had undergone chemotherapy within 6 months of diagnosis. Whether women developed dementia over time was determined using diagnostic codes. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on development of dementia was evaluated, adjusting for confounders using a proportional hazards model stratified for age. Twenty-one thousand three hundred sixty-two women met selection criteria; 2,913 received chemotherapy, and 18,449 did not. Women who received chemotherapy were younger than those who did not (median aged 70 vs 73; Pchemotherapy was not associated with a greater risk of development of dementia over time for any age group (hazard ratio for dementia in women receiving chemotherapy: aged 66-70=0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.48-1.45, P=.5; aged 71-75=0.74, 95% CI=0.46-1.18, P=.2; aged 76-80=0.49, 95% CI=0.28-0.88, P=.02). Receipt of chemotherapy in older women with breast cancer was not associated with a greater risk of dementia diagnosis over time; very elderly women who undergo chemotherapy may be at lower baseline risk. The use of a claims-based definition of dementia limited the study.

  19. Salivary Gland Tumors Treated With Adjuvant Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, Jonathan D., E-mail: jdschoenfeld@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Sher, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Norris, Charles M. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Balboni, Tracy A.; Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the recent single-institution experience of patients with salivary gland tumors who had undergone adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 35 salivary gland carcinoma patients treated primarily at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2005 and 2010 with surgery and adjuvant IMRT. The primary endpoints were local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival. The secondary endpoints were acute and chronic toxicity. The median follow-up was 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.2-2.8) among the surviving patients. Results: The histologic types included adenoid cystic carcinoma in 15 (43%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 6 (17%), adenocarcinoma in 3 (9%), acinic cell carcinoma in 3 (9%), and other in 8 (23%). The primary sites were the parotid gland in 17 (49%), submandibular glands in 6 (17%), tongue in 4 (11%), palate in 4 (11%), and other in 4 (11%). The median radiation dose was 66 Gy, and 22 patients (63%) received CRT. The most common chemotherapy regimen was carboplatin and paclitaxel (n = 14, 64%). A trend was seen for patients undergoing CRT to have more adverse prognostic factors, including Stage T3-T4 disease (CRT, n = 12, 55% vs. n = 4, 31%, p = .29), nodal positivity (CRT, n = 8, 36% vs. n = 1, 8%, p = .10), and positive margins (n = 13, 59% vs. n = 5, 38%, p = .30). One patient who had undergone CRT developed an in-field recurrence, resulting in an overall actuarial 3-year local control rate of 92%. Five patients (14%) developed distant metastases (1 who had undergone IMRT only and 4 who had undergone CRT). Acute Grade 3 mucositis, esophagitis, and dermatitis occurred in 8%, 8%, and 8% (1 each) of IMRT patients and in 18%, 5%, and 14% (4, 1, and 3 patients) of the CRT group, respectively. No acute Grade 4 toxicity occurred. The most common late toxicity was Grade 1 xerostomia (n = 8, 23%). Conclusions: Treatment of

  20. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin induces low expression of NMDA receptors and postoperative cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Cao, Longhui; Zhang, Tianhua; Li, Huiting; Lin, Wenqian

    2017-01-10

    Whether Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy can affect patients' postoperative brain function is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of preoperative cisplatin treatment on postoperative cognitive function and its possible mechanism in rats. Moreover, we also tested whether the NMDAR inhibitor memantine could attenuate cisplatin-induced alterations. 12-month-oldSprague-Dawley rats randomly received an intraperitoneal injection of either cisplatin once a week at a dose of 3mg/kg for three consecutive weeks or an equivalent volume of normal saline. After the injections, the normal saline injection group was divided into 3 groups (n=5 each): a normal saline group (group S), normal saline+pentobarbital group (group SP), and normal saline+pentobarbital+operation group (group SPO).The cisplatin injection group was divided into 3 groups: a cisplatin group (group C), cisplatin+pentobarbital group (group CP), and cisplatin+pentobarbital+operation group (group CPO).Rats in the group SP, SPO,CP and CPO were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and then the SPO and CPO groups underwent a simple laparotomy operation. The effects of memantine were tested through two additional groups of rats (cisplatin+memantine group (group CM) and cisplatin+pentobarbital+operation+memantine group (group CPOM)). A Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the spatial learning and memory ability five days after anesthesia or operation. After the test, the hippocampi were removed for detection of the expression of NMDAR by western bloting. The relevant protein expression levels of PSD95 and ERK1/2 were detected by western blot analysis. Rats treated with cisplatin had a longer mean escape latency and spent a shorter amount of time in the target quadrant than did the normal saline injection rats. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of NMDA receptors, PSD95 and ERK1/2 were decreased in cisplatin group and memantine could up-regulate their expression. These results suggest

  1. Evaluation of symptoms of anxiety and depression in women with breast cancer after breast amputation or conservation treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-02-01

    The level of anxiety and depression among women with breast cancer was influenced by the type of the applied surgical procedure and adjuvant chemotherapy. Demographic variables did not influence the level of anxiety and depression.

  2. Quality of life as subjective experience: Reframing of perception in patients with colon cancer undergoing radical resection with or without adjuvant chemotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernhard, J; Hürny, C; Maibach, R; Herrmann, R; Laffer, U

    1999-01-01

    Purpose and background: We examined whether patients with colon cancer undergoing surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy change the internal standards on which they base their quality-of-life (QL...

  3. Improved Efficacy by Addition of Protein-bound Polysaccharide K to Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Minoru; Mochiki, Erito; Ishiguro, Toru; Ogura, Toshiro; Sobajima, Jun; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) added to S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for treatment of advanced gastric cancer. We retrospectively examined clinicopathological and recurrence-free survival (RFS) data for 136 patients with stage II or III advanced gastric cancer who underwent S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy with or without PSK. Among 13 clinicopathological factors, non-T4 stage (odds ratio (OR)=0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.41-0.89; pchemotherapy combined with PSK may reduce recurrence by prolonging the treatment cycles in patients with advanced non-T4 or N0-1 gastric cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Phase 2 Study of Erlotinib Combined With Adjuvant Chemoradiation and Chemotherapy in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Fan, Katherine Y.; Wild, Aaron T.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wood, Laura D. [Department of Pathology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Blackford, Amanda L. [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ellsworth, Susannah [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zheng, Lei; Le, Dung T.; De Jesus-Acosta, Ana [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hidalgo, Manuel [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas, Madrid (Spain); Donehower, Ross C. [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Schulick, Richard D.; Edil, Barish H. [Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Choti, Michael A. [Department of Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hruban, Ralph H. [Department of Pathology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Long-term survival rates for patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have stagnated at 20% for more than a decade, demonstrating the need to develop novel adjuvant therapies. Gemcitabine-erlotinib therapy has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with metastatic PDAC. Here we report the first phase 2 study of erlotinib in combination with adjuvant chemoradiation and chemotherapy for resected PDAC. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients with resected PDAC received adjuvant erlotinib (100 mg daily) and capecitabine (800 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily Monday-Friday) concurrently with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 50.4 Gy over 28 fractions followed by 4 cycles of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) and erlotinib (100 mg daily). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: The median follow-up time was 18.2 months (interquartile range, 13.8-27.1). Lymph nodes were positive in 85% of patients, and margins were positive in 17%. The median RFS was 15.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.4-17.9), and the median overall survival (OS) was 24.4 months (95% CI, 18.9-29.7). Multivariate analysis with adjustment for known prognostic factors showed that tumor diameter >3 cm was predictive for inferior RFS (hazard ratio, 4.01; P=.001) and OS (HR, 4.98; P=.02), and the development of dermatitis was associated with improved RFS (HR, 0.27; P=.009). During CRT and post-CRT chemotherapy, the rates of grade 3/4 toxicity were 31%/2% and 35%/8%, respectively. Conclusion: Erlotinib can be safely administered with adjuvant IMRT-based CRT and chemotherapy. The efficacy of this regimen appears comparable to that of existing adjuvant regimens. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0848 will ultimately determine whether erlotinib produces a survival benefit in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

  5. Role of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in ypT0-2N0 Patients Treated with Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy and Radical Resection for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, In Ja [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Cheol [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Kyu [Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeong-Rok [Department of Surgery, Chonnam National University Hwansun Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Bum [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bungdang Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Gyu-Seog [Division of Colorectal Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Young [Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon-Hahn [Department of Surgery, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Taek [Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary Hospital, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seok-Byung; Kim, Jin Cheon [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young [Center for Colorectal Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Yong [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Bok [Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Chang Sik, E-mail: csyu@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Objective: To explore the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with ypT0-2N0 rectal cancer treated by preoperative chemoradiation therapy (PCRT) and radical resection. Patients and Methods: A national consortium of 10 institutions was formed, and patients with ypT0-2N0 mid- and low-rectal cancer after PCRT and radical resection from 2004 to 2009 were included. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to receipt of additional adjuvant chemotherapy: Adj CTx (+) versus Adj CTx (−). Propensity scores were calculated and used to perform matched and adjusted analyses comparing relapse-free survival (RFS) between treatment groups while controlling for potential confounding. Results: A total of 1016 patients, who met the selection criteria, were evaluated. Of these, 106 (10.4%) did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no overall improvement in 5-year RFS as a result of adjuvant chemotherapy [91.6% for Adj CTx (+) vs 87.5% for Adj CTx (−), P=.18]. There were no differences in 5-year local recurrence and distant metastasis rate between the 2 groups. In patients who show moderate, minimal, or no regression in tumor regression grade, however, possible association of adjuvant chemotherapy with RFS would be considered (hazard ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.88; P=.03). Cox regression analysis after propensity score matching failed to show that addition of adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved RFS (hazard ratio 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.39-1.70; P=.58). Conclusions: Adjuvant chemotherapy seemed to not influence the RFS of patients with ypT0-2N0 rectal cancer after PCRT followed by radical resection. Thus, the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy needs to be weighed against its oncologic benefits.

  6. Why adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer was not given: Reasons for non-recommendation by clinicians or patient refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, Peter; Lee, Andrew; Pokharel, Khageshwor

    2017-03-01

    Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate stage III colon cancer patients discussed at a multidisciplinary team meeting to identify reasons for clinicians not recommending adjuvant chemotherapy and reasons for patients declining recommended chemotherapy. Methods A retrospective, single institution Australian study was conducted on all surgically managed stage III colon cancer patients diagnosed at the regional cancer centre at Toowoomba Hospital between July 2010 and December 2014. Reasons why adjuvant chemotherapy was not recommended by the multidisciplinary team or following referral to a medical oncologist and patients' reasons for refusing chemotherapy despite medical oncology recommendation were determined. Results One hundred and nine patients were suitable for evaluation. Overall, 72 (66.1%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was not recommended in 25 (23.4%) of patients, with the majority (68%) having more than one cited reason. Multiple comorbidities and advanced age were the most common reasons for non-recommendation ( p refusal were not detailed in the majority of patient charts (63.6%). Travel distance was not a factor in accepting or refusing chemotherapy. Conclusion Discussion at a multidisciplinary team meeting facilitates the identification of patients unsuitable for adjuvant treatment. The reasons for declining offered chemotherapy need to be assessed fully to ensure that patients' treatment preferences are balanced against the proven benefits of chemotherapy. Attendance at a regional cancer centre provides the opportunity for high standard care in the management of stage III colon cancer.

  7. Neoadjuvant treatment intensification or adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma rectum: The optimum treatment approach remains unresolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Supriya; Benson, Rony; Haresh, K P; Rath, G K

    2015-12-01

    Rectal carcinoma [RC] is often managed with preoperative radiotherapy or radio-chemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Efforts are being made to improve outcome by intensifying the preoperative treatment. However, the optimum therapy remains unclear. There is ongoing controversy regarding the optimum radiation dose, chemotherapy regimen and schedule. In addition there exists growing disagreement regarding the role of adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant radiation or chemoradiation. We reviewed the recent land mark trials to find a road map in the management of locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Preoperative short course radiotherapy has long been proven to improve local disease control. The initial trials with long course chemoradiotherapy, comparing short course radiotherapy have shown to increase local control and pathological complete response rates. Since then treatment intensification of this neoadjuvant schedule has been tried by many researchers. But initial results of these treatment intensification trials, show no significant benefit and are associated with increased toxicity. There is an unmet need to stratify patients depending on risk to assign them to long course chemoradiotherapy or short course radiotherapy. Current evidence does not support the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. Preoperative radiotherapy appears to improve disease control with favorable toxicity profile and there is very little to choose between long course chemoradiotherapy and short course radiotherapy. However, long course chemoradiotherapy may be beneficial for patients with high risk features like positive circumferential resection margin [CRM] and extramural spread of >5mm. There is no role for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Late recurrence in ovarian dysgerminoma with successful response to standard adjuvant chemotherapy: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, A; Cabeza, R; Hindenburg, A

    2001-05-01

    Ovarian dysgerminomas are quite amenable to treatment and very good cure rates are achieved even with advanced disease. However, recent literature suggests that late recurrence may be associated with a poorer prognosis and bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy may play only a limited role in its management. We present a patient who had a late recurrence of ovarian dysgerminoma with successful treatment outcome. A 25-year-old woman was diagnosed with a stage IC ovarian dysgerminoma in 1983 and did not undergo adjuvant treatment. She had late recurrence 12 years later with good treatment response to BEP chemotherapy given in a semiadjuvant fashion. Our case demonstrates that BEP chemotherapy still plays an important role in treatment of late recurrence in ovarian dysgerminomas provided there is small volume disease at time of detection. Also important is long-term surveillance in an effort to detect recurrence while still small in volume and potentially curable. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy for adult onset non-CNS cancer; cognitive impairment, brain structure and risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, Vincent; Breteler, Monique M B; Boogerd, Willem; Seynaeve, Caroline; Schagen, Sanne B

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the late (i.e. ≥ 5 years post-treatment) effects of chemotherapy for non-central nervous system (non-CNS) cancer on the brain. Here we discuss the studies that have investigated the late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy for non-CNS cancer on cognitive function (n=6); brain structure and function (n=5); and incidence of dementia (n=4). The neuropsychological studies showed long-term adverse cognitive problems in chemotherapy-exposed breast cancer survivors. This is in line with results from neuroimaging studies that report long-term brain structural alterations after chemotherapy. The studies exploring the association between chemotherapy and the incidence of dementia were contradictive and showed no clear relationship between the two phenomena. Although several methodological issues limit the validity and interpretation of some of the results of these studies, they suggest that chemotherapy is associated with subtle, yet long-lasting cognitive deficits, possibly related to brain structural and functional differences, but as yet not with an increased risk of dementia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Omission of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Is Associated With Increased Mortality in Patients With T3N0 Colon Cancer With Inadequate Lymph Node Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Katerina O; Hawkins, Alexander T; Krishnamurthy, Devi M; Dharmarajan, Sekhar; Glasgow, Sean C; Hunt, Steven R; Mutch, Matthew G; Wise, Paul; Silviera, Matthew L

    2017-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for T3N0 colon cancer is controversial. National guidelines recommend its use in patients with stage II with high-risk features, including lymph node harvest of less than 12, yet this treatment is underused. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T3N0 adenocarcinoma with inadequate lymph node harvest is beneficial. This was a retrospective population-based study of patients with resected T3N0 adenocarcinoma of the colon. The National Cancer Database was queried from 2003 to 2012. A total of 134,567 patients with T3N0 colon cancer were included in this analysis. The use of chemotherapy, short-term outcomes, and overall survival was evaluated. Clinicopathologic factors associated with omission of chemotherapy were also analyzed. Inadequate lymph node harvest was observed in 23.3% of patients, and this rate decreased over the study period from 46.8% in 2003 to 12.5% in 2012 (p cancer was 66.8%. Inadequate lymph node harvest among these patients was associated with lower overall 5-year survival (58.7% vs 69.8%; p cancer after inadequate lymph node harvest was only 16.7%. In a multivariable analysis, factors associated with failure to receive chemotherapy included advanced age (OR = 0.44 (95% CI, 0.43-0.45)), increased comorbidities (OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.66-0.76)), and postoperative readmission (OR = 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67-0.91)). Patients with inadequate lymph node harvest who received adjuvant chemotherapy had improved 5-year survival (chemotherapy, 78.4% vs no chemotherapy, 54.7%; p colon cancer with inadequate lymph node harvest who receive adjuvant chemotherapy have increased overall survival. Despite this survival benefit, a fraction of these patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Barriers to chemotherapy are multifactorial.

  11. A cohort study of ethnic differences in use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for breast cancer in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Campbell, Ian; Scott, Nina; Lawrenson, Ross

    2017-01-21

    Ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in use of breast cancer adjuvant therapy are well documented in many countries including the USA, and are known to contribute to lower breast cancer survival among minority ethnic and socioeconomically deprived women. We investigated ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in use of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in a cohort of women with invasive breast cancer in New Zealand. All women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer during 1999-2012 were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Rates of chemotherapy use and radiotherapy use were assessed in women who were deemed to be eligible for chemotherapy (n = 1212) and radiotherapy (n = 1708) based on guidelines. Factors associated with use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy were analysed in univariate and multivariate regression models, adjusting for covariates. Overall, rates of chemotherapy and radiotherapy use were 69% (n = 836) and 87.3% (n = 1491), respectively. In the multivariate model, significantly lower rates of radiotherapy use were associated with Māori compared with NZ European (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.63, 0.40-0.98), presence of comorbidity (OR = 0.49, 0.34-0.72), distance from hospital of over 100km (OR = 0.47, 0.23-0.96), mastectomy compared with breast conserving surgery (OR = 0.32, 0.17-0.56) and non-screen compared with screen detection (OR = 0.53, 0.35-0.79). No significant associations were observed between chemotherapy use and ethnic or socio-demographic factors. Improving access for radiotherapy, especially for women who are at a higher risk of not receiving optimum cancer therapy due to ethnicity, geography or socioeconomic status need to be recognized as a priority to reduce inequities in breast cancer care in New Zealand.

  12. Prospective study of long-term impact of adjuvant high-dose and conventional-dose chemotherapy on health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, C.; Rodenhuis, S.; Seynaeve, C.M.; van Hoesel, Q.G.; van der Wall, E.; Smit, W.J.; Nooij, M.A.; Voest, E.; Hupperets, P.; TenVergert, E.M.; van Tinteren, H.; Willemse, P.H.; Mourits, M.J.; Aaronson, N.K.; Post, W.J.; de Vries, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after conventional- and high-dose adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with high-risk breast cancer. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to either a conventional or high-dose chemotherapy regimen; both regimens were

  13. Prognostic significance of K-ras and TP53 mutations in the role of adjuvant chemotherapy on survival in patients with Dukes C colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, W A; Hayes, V M; Karrenbeld, A; Hofstra, R M; Verlind, E; Hermans, J; Poppema, S; Buys, C H; Plukker, J T

    PURPOSE: Mutations in K-ras and TP53 genes are common in colorectal cancer. They affect biologic behavior and might influence chemotherapy susceptibility in these tumors. We investigated whether the survival of patients with Dukes C colon cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy is influenced by

  14. Antioxidant activity of ginger extract as a daily supplement in cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danwilai K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kwanjit Danwilai,1,2 Jitprapa Konmun,2,3 Bung-orn Sripanidkulchai,4 Suphat Subongkot,2,4,5 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 2The College of Pharmacotherapy of Thailand, Nonthaburi, 3Department of Pharmacy, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, 5Clinical Pharmacy Division, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of ginger extract oral supplement in newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy compared to placebo.Patients and methods: Newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving moderate-to-high emetogenic potential adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to receive either a ginger extract (standardized 6-gingerol 20 mg/day or a placebo 3 days prior to chemotherapy, which they continued daily. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters, including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (GSH/GSSG, lipid peroxidation products detected as malondialdehyde (MDA and NO2-/NO3-, were measured at baseline and at days 1, 22, 43 and 64 after undergoing chemotherapy. Two-sided statistical analysis, with P < 0.05, was used to determine statistical significance.Results: A total of 43 patients were included in the study: 19 and 24 patients were randomly assigned to the ginger group and placebo group, respectively. Antioxidant activity parameters, including SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH/GSSG, were significantly increased at day 64 in the ginger group compared to those in the placebo group, while MDA and NO2-/NO3- levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.0001. When compared to the baseline, the activities of SOD and CAT and the levels of GPx and GSH/GSSG were significantly higher on day 64 (P = 0.01, while the blood levels of

  15. Multifunctional organically modified silica nanoparticles for chemotherapy, adjuvant hyperthermia and near infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagesetti, Abhignyan; McGoron, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    We report a novel system of organically modified silica nanoparticles (Ormosil) capable of near infrared fluorescence and chemotherapy with adjuvant hyperthermia for image guided cancer therapy. Ormosil nanoparticles were loaded with a chemotherapeutic, Doxorubicin (DOX) and cyanine dye, IR820. Ormosil particles had a mean diameter of 51.2±2.4 nanometers and surface charge of -40.5±0.8mV. DOX was loaded onto Ormosil particles via physical adsorption (FDSIR820) or covalent linkage (CDSIR820) to the silanol groups on the Ormosil surface. Both formulations retained DOX and IR820 over a period of 2 days in aqueous buffer, though CDSIR820 retained more DOX (93.2%) compared to FDSIR820 (77.0%) nanoparticles. Exposure to near infrared laser triggered DOX release from CDSIR820. Uptake of nanoparticles was determined by deconvolution microscopy in ovarian carcinoma cells (Skov-3). CDSIR820 localized in the cell lysosomes whereas cells incubated with FDSIR820 showed DOX fluorescence from the nucleus indicating leakage of DOX from the nanoparticle matrix. FDSIR820 nanoparticles showed severe toxicity in Skov-3 cells whereas CDSIR820 particles had the same cytotoxicity profile as bare (No DOX and IR820) Ormosil particles. Furthermore, exposure of CDSIR820 nanoparticles to Near Infrared laser at 808 nanometers resulted in generation of heat (to 43°C from 37°C) and resulted in enhanced cell killing compared to Free DOX treatment. Bio-distribution studies showed that CDSIR820 nanoparticles were primarily present in the organs of Reticuloendothelial (RES) system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms prior to chemotherapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Liu, Lianqi; Marler, Matthew R.; Parker, Barbara A.; Jones, Vicky; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Dimsdale, Joel; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Fiorentino, Lavinia

    2006-01-01

    Goals Previous investigations have shown that women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer experience both disturbed sleep and fatigue. However, most of the previous research examined women either during or after chemotherapy. This study examined sleep, fatigue, and circadian rhythms in women with breast cancer before the start of chemotherapy. Patients and methods Eighty five women with Stages I–IIIA breast cancer who were scheduled to begin adjuvant or neo-adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy participated. Each had sleep/wake activity recorded with actigraphy for 72 consecutive hours and filled out questionnaires on sleep, fatigue, depression, and functional outcome. Main results On average, the women slept for about 6 h a night and napped for over an hour during the day. Sleep was reported to be disturbed and fatigue levels were high. Circadian rhythms were robust, but women who were more phase-delayed reported more daily dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions The data from the current study suggest that the women with breast cancer likely experience both disturbed sleep and fatigue before the beginning of chemotherapy. Although their circadian rhythms are robust, breast cancer patients with more delayed rhythms experience more daily dysfunction secondary to fatigue. These data suggest that strategies to improve disturbed sleep and to phase-advance circadian rhythms prior to initiation of chemotherapy may be beneficial in improving daily function in breast cancer patients. PMID:16010529

  17. Survival effects of adjuvant gemcitabine plus S-1 chemotherapy on pancreatic carcinoma stratified by preoperative resectability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Hashimoto, Yasushi; Kondo, Naru; Nakagawa, Naoya; Takahashi, Shinya; Shintakuya, Ryuta; Sueda, Taijiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant gemcitabine plus S-1(GS) chemotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma patients, stratified by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) preoperative resectability definition. A total of 141 consecutive patients with resected pancreatic carcinoma who received adjuvant GS chemotherapy were evaluated retrospectively. According to the NCCN preoperative resectability definition, tumors were divided into resectable tumors (R group), borderline resectable tumors with portal vein contact (BR-PV group), and borderline resectable tumors with arterial contact (BR-A group). Overall survival and prognostic factors were analyzed. Overall 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates for the 141 patients were 89.6%, 69.9%, and 41.1%, respectively. Overall survival of the R group was significantly better than that of the BR-PV group and the BR-A group (P chemotherapy may provide a survival benefit especially for patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:405-412. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Long-term heart function after adjuvant epirubicin chemotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Jon M; Zerahn, Bo; Møller, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Newer studies raise concern that adjuvant anthracycline treatment for breast cancer (BC) causes long-term heart damage. We aimed to examine whether heart failure or impairment could be demonstrated several years after low-dose epirubicin-based adjuvant treatment....

  19. Clinical significance of IGF1R gene expression in patients with Stage II/III gastric cancer who receive curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Koji; Oshima, Takashi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Yoshihara, Kazue; Aoyama, Toru; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Sato, Tsutomu; Cho, Haruhiko; Shiozawa, Manabu; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Rino, Yasushi; Kunisaki, Chikara; Akaike, Makoto; Imada, Toshio; Masuda, Munetaka

    2016-02-01

    Curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment for Stage II/III gastric cancer, and S-1 is widely used for adjuvant chemotherapy. The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is involved in cell proliferation and prevention of apoptosis in many tumors. We evaluated the relative expression of the IGF1R gene to determine whether such expression correlates with outcomes in patients with Stage II/III gastric cancer. We measured the expression levels of the IGF1R gene in specimens of cancer and adjacent normal mucosa obtained from 134 patients with Stage II/III gastric cancer who received curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1. We then evaluated whether the IGF1R gene expression levels correlate with clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes. IGF1R mRNA expression levels tended to be higher in cancer tissue than in the normal adjacent mucosa (P = 0.078). Multivariate analysis showed that high IGF1R gene expression was a significant independent predictor of poor survival in Stage II/III gastric cancer after curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 (HR 3.681, P = 0.007). The overall survival rate was significantly lower in patients with high IGF1R gene expression than in those with low expression (P = 0.012). IGF1R overexpression is considered a useful independent predictor of outcomes in Stage II/III gastric cancer after curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1.

  20. HE4 as a predictor of adjuvant chemotherapy resistance and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarenstrup Karlsen, Mona; Høgdall, Claus; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and HE4 tissue protein expression to predict tumor resistance to adjuvant chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Consecutive...... inclusion of 198 patients diagnosed with EOC was conducted. Blood samples were collected prior to surgery and tissue samples during surgery. Patient data were registered prospectively in the Danish Gynecologic Cancer Database. The association between serum HE4 and HE4 tissue protein expression, resistance...... significantly (p tissue protein expression...

  1. Meta-analysis of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy without radiotherapy in early stage non-small cell lung cancer

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    Chen YY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Yuan Chen,* Lin-Wei Wang,* Shu-Yi Wang, Bi-Bo Wu, Zhen-Meng Wang, Fang-Fang Chen, Bin Xiong Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Many clinical trials have confirmed that postoperative adjuvant therapy can prolong survival of non-small cell lung cancer. However, the efficiency of postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy is unclear, especially in early stage (stages I and II. We aimed to assess the effect of postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy in early stage patients.Methods: Databases and manual searches were adopted to identify eligible randomized control trials. Hazard ratio (HR was used to assess the advantage of disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS by fixed or random-effects models.Results: Fourteen trials with 3,923 patients were included based on inclusion criteria. Compared with surgery alone, postoperative chemotherapy significantly improved DFS and OS with HR of 0.71 (P=0.005 and 0.74 (P<0.00001, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed both cisplatin-based (HR: 0.75, P<0.0001 and single tegafur–uracil (UFT chemotherapy (HR: 0.72, P=0.002 yielded significant survival benefits, but the latter did not improve DFS (HR: 1.04, P=0.81. Indirect treatment comparison showed cisplatin-based chemotherapy was superior to single UFT in DFS, but comparable in OS. The benefits of postoperative chemotherapy were maintained in patients in stage I (HR: 0.74, P<0.00001 and IB (HR: 0.74, P=0.0003, but not in stage IA, although the trend supported chemotherapy (HR: 0.76, P=0.43.Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy improves survival of stage I–II, I, and IB non-small cell lung cancer patients, but not for IA. Meanwhile, efficacy of cisplatin

  2. Concurrent Radiotherapy and Gemcitabine for Unresectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Impact of Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Hirokawa, Naoki [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation Hospital, Kobe (Japan); Ogo, Etsuyo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Tsutomu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Nishimura, Yasumasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze results of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using gemcitabine (GEM) for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Records of 108 patients treated with concurrent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and GEM were reviewed. The median dose of EBRT in all 108 patients was 50.4 Gy (range, 3.6-60.8 Gy), usually administered in conventional fractionations (1.8-2 Gy/day). During radiotherapy, most patients received GEM at a dosage of 250 to 350 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously weekly for approximately 6 weeks. After CCRT, 59 patients (54.6%) were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), mainly with GEM. The median follow-up for all 108 patients was 11.0 months (range, 0.4-37.9 months). Results: Initial responses after CCRT for 85 patients were partial response: 26 patients, no change: 51 patients and progressive disease: 8 patients. Local progression was observed in 35 patients (32.4%), and the 2-year local control (LC) rate in all patients was 41.9%. Patients treated with total doses of 50 Gy or more had significantly more favorable LC rates (2-year LC rate, 42.9%) than patients treated with total doses of less than 50 Gy (2-year LC rate, 29.6%). Regional lymph node recurrence was found in only 1 patient, and none of the 57 patients with clinical N0 disease had regional lymph node recurrence. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate and the median survival time in all patients were 23.5% and 11.6 months, respectively. Patients treated with AC had significantly more favorable OS rates (2-year OS, 31.8%) than those treated without AC (2-year OS, 12.4%; p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, AC use and clinical T stage were significant prognostic factors for OS. Conclusions: CCRT using GEM yields a relatively favorable LC rate for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and CCRT with AC conferred a survival benefit compared to CCRT without AC.

  3. ROLE OF ADJUVANT INTRAVESICAL CHEMOTHERAPY IN THE COMBINED ORGAN-SPARING TREATMENT OF NON-MUSCLE-INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Zubko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of combined treatment for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer ((NMIBC and to assess the results of its treatment using transurethral resection (TUR as monotherapy and in combination with intravesical adjuvant chemotherapy (CT.Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 59 patients with NMIBC. Twenty-two patients underwent TUR in Group 1; TUR and single intravesical injection of drugs were performed in 19 patients in Group 2; 18 patients had TUR and long-term intravesical CT.Results and discussion. The recurrence rates were 59.1, 57.9, and 38.89 % in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Intravesical CT was found to appreciably affect the prevention of recurrence in the area of resection. The rate of this recurrence was 31.81, 26.32, and 5.56 % in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Conclusion. Adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy CT is an effective method to prevent recurrent bladder cancer.

  4. Changes in soluble CEA and TIMP-1 levels during adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldulaymi, Bahir; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Sölétormos, György

    2010-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been suggested to be a valuable marker in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the effects of chemotherapy on TIMP-1 levels are unknown. The present study evaluated the effect of chemotherapy on TIMP-1 levels in comparison with carcinoembryonic antige...... (CEA) levels in patients with stage III colon cancer.......Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been suggested to be a valuable marker in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the effects of chemotherapy on TIMP-1 levels are unknown. The present study evaluated the effect of chemotherapy on TIMP-1 levels in comparison with carcinoembryonic antigen...

  5. High rate of extra-haematological toxicity compromises dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, E; Levy, C; Serin, D; Roché, H; Spielmann, M; Delva, R; Veyret, C; Mauriac, L; Rios, M; Martin, A L; Jimenez, M; Asselain, B; Gauthier, M; Bonnetain, F; Fumoleau, P

    2011-01-01

    Background: A dose-dense strategy has been considered to improve results of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. This randomised phase II trial investigated the feasibility of this approach with sequential anthracyclines and taxanes-based chemotherapy. Methods: Patients with high-risk node-positive breast cancer were treated with three cycles of fluorouracil 500 mg m−2, epirubicin 100 mg m−2, cyclophosphamide 500 mg m−2 (FEC 100) followed by three cycles of docetaxel 100 mg m−2 delivered at 2-weekly intervals supported by primary prophylaxis with filgrastim. All patients were randomised to either uninterrupted treatment (arm A) or to have a 2-week additional period of rest between the FEC and docetaxel (arm B). The primary endpoint was the rate of success of chemotherapy delivery. Using a two-stage Fleming design, 120 patients were required with one interim analysis. Results: In March 2005, enrolment was stopped into arm A after the observation of severe skin toxicities. Following the planned interim analysis, the study was closed because of the high rate of grade 3/4 skin toxicities in both arms (arm A: 32.4% and arm B: 18.9%). Conclusion: Sequential dose-dense FEC 100 followed by docetaxel 100 mg m−2 is not feasible. Feasibility still depends largely on several factors including the choice of drugs, dosage and sequence of administration. PMID:22009030

  6. Induction (neo-adjuvant) chemotherapy: systemic and arterial delivery techniques and their clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, F O

    1995-10-01

    Induction chemotherapy is a well tried method of improving the cure prospects of locally advanced or aggressive primary cancers. It is most simply administered by systemic (intravenous) delivery but for some cases a greater chemotherapy impact is both desirable and achievable with the use of a more concentrated regional delivery technique. Any advantage of regional chemotherapy will depend upon the type of tumour to be treated, its site and blood supply, the most effective doses, concentrations and exposure periods of the preferred agents to be used and the relative risks of systemic and regional toxicity and the techniques of delivery. In general, systemic chemotherapy is most appropriate in treating tumours without a single artery of supply; when certain agents which are inactive until modified in body tissues (such as cyclophosphamide or DTIC) are to be used; when satisfactory responses can be achieved more easily by systemic delivery; when technical skills and facilities for regional delivery are not available; or when the patient's general health, co-operation or long-term prognosis precludes the additional complexity of regional delivery. Intra-arterial infusion may have advantages in treating head and neck, gastric, liver, some locally advanced breast, limb, pelvic and possibly pancreatic malignancies. More complex techniques to achieve short-term highly concentrated chemotherapy include closed circuit perfusion; chemofiltration infusion and 'stop flow' perfusion; and regional limb infusion. These should remain the subject of ongoing studies in highly specialized units which treat tumours such as melanoma or pancreatic cancer which respond poorly to lower chemotherapy concentrations.

  7. Gene Expression Levels as Predictive Markers of Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer after Gemcitabine-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy

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    Hayato Fujita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The standard palliative chemotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is gemcitabine-based chemotherapy; however, PDAC still presents a major therapeutic challenge. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of genes involved in gemcitabine sensitivity in resected PDAC tissues and to determine correlations of gene expression with treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue samples from 70 patients with PDAC. Of the 70 patients, 40 received gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC. We measured hENT1, dCK, CDA, RRM1, and RRM2 messenger RNA (mRNA levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and determined the combined score (GEM score, based on the expression levels of hENT1, dCK, RRM1, and RRM2, to investigate the association with survival time. By determining the expression levels of these genes in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA cytologic specimens, we investigated the feasibility of individualized chemotherapy. RESULTS: High dCK (P = .0067, low RRM2 (P = .003, and high GEM score (P = .0003 groups had a significantly longer disease-free survival in the gemcitabine-treated group. A low GEM score (<2 was an independent predictive marker for poor outcome to gemcitabine-based AC as shown by multivariate analysis (P = .0081. Altered expression levels of these genes were distinguishable in microdissected neoplastic cells from EUS-FNA cytologic specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative analyses of hENT1, dCK, RRM1, and RRM2 mRNA levels using FFPE tissue samples and microdissected neoplastic cells from EUS-FNA cytologic specimens may be useful in predicting the gemcitabine sensitivity of patients with PDAC.

  8. Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients: patients' expectations and physicians' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Frida; Ostrowsky, Lev A; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2012-06-01

    Findings show that there is a certain degree of refusal on the part of breast cancer patients to undergo adjuvant therapy. Accordingly, the major goals of the study were, first, to learn more about the beliefs of breast cancer patients in regard to adjuvant therapy; second, to find out about the sources of the patients' beliefs; and third, to learn about the attitudes of oncologists concerning the same aspects of adjuvant therapy to which the patients' beliefs referred. The participants were 92 breast cancer patients (mean age 61.2) and 57 doctors of both genders specialized in oncology or affiliated domains. Both groups were administered questionnaires referring to goals of adjuvant treatment, the chances of attaining these goals, side effects, and difficulty of the treatment. Doctors were specifically asked about the views they thought proper to communicate to patients in regard to the mentioned issues. Patients were also asked about whether they had doubts about the treatment and sources of information. The findings showed disparities between the views of patients and doctors in regard to goals, chances of attainment, side effects, and difficulty of treatment. Patients endorsed more goals than doctors and tended to assign to them lower chances of attainment. Doctors were divided in their views about whether to communicate the side effects and difficulties. The results reveal the importance of outlining goals for patients undergoing adjuvant treatment and the disagreements between doctors about what should be communicated to patients, and highlight the complexity of providing to patients information that is both scientifically correct and emotionally helpful.

  9. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients’ narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966

  10. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-08-09

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients' narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided.

  11. Glutathione S-transferase Pi expression predicts response to adjuvant chemotherapy for stage C colon cancer: a matched historical control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankova Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the association between overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GST Pi expression and genetic polymorphism in stage C colon cancer patients after resection alone versus resection plus 5-fluourouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Patients were drawn from a hospital registry of colorectal cancer resections. Those receiving chemotherapy after it was introduced in 1992 were compared with an age and sex matched control group from the preceding period. GST Pi expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Overall survival was analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. Results From an initial 104 patients treated with chemotherapy and 104 matched controls, 26 were excluded because of non-informative immunohistochemistry, leaving 95 in the treated group and 87 controls. Survival did not differ significantly among patients with low GST Pi who did or did not receive chemotherapy and those with high GST Pi who received chemotherapy (lowest pair-wise p = 0.11 whereas patients with high GST Pi who did not receive chemotherapy experienced markedly poorer survival than any of the other three groups (all pair-wise p Conclusion Stage C colon cancer patients with low GST Pi did not benefit from 5-fluourouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy whereas those with high GST Pi did.

  12. Risk factors for financial hardship in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer: a population-based exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Veena; Jolly, Sanjay; Blough, David; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-05-10

    Characteristics that predispose patients to financial hardship during cancer treatment are poorly understood. We therefore conducted a population-based exploratory analysis of potential factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence during and following adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer between 2008 and 2010 were identified from a population-based cancer registry representing 13 counties in Washington state. Patients were asked to complete a comprehensive survey on treatment-related costs. Patients were considered to have experienced financial hardship if they accrued debt, sold or refinanced their home, borrowed money from friends or family, or experienced a 20% or greater decline in their annual income as a result of treatment-related expenses. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence. A total of 284 responses were obtained from 555 eligible patients (response rate, 51.2%). Nearly all patients in the final sample were insured during treatment. In this sample, 38% of patients reported one or more financial hardships as a result of treatment. The factors most closely associated with treatment-related financial hardship were younger age and lower annual household income. Younger age, lower income, and unemployment or disability (which occurred in most instances following diagnosis) were most closely associated with treatment nonadherence. A significant proportion of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer may experience financial hardship, despite having health insurance coverage. Interventions to help at-risk patients early on during therapy may prevent long-term financial adverse effects.

  13. 11 years' follow-up of trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive early breast cancer: final analysis of the HERceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J; Gelber, Richard D; Procter, Marion; Goldhirsch, Aron; de Azambuja, Evandro; Castro, Gilberto; Untch, Michael; Smith, Ian; Gianni, Luca; Baselga, Jose; Al-Sakaff, Nedal; Lauer, Sabine; McFadden, Eleanor; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Bell, Richard; Dowsett, Mitch; Jackisch, Christian

    2017-03-25

    Clinical trials have shown that trastuzumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody against HER2 receptor, significantly improves overall survival and disease-free survival in women with HER2-positive early breast cancer, but long-term follow-up data are needed. We report the results of comparing observation with two durations of trastuzumab treatment at a median follow-up of 11 years, for patients enrolled in the HERA (HERceptin Adjuvant) trial. HERA (BIG 1-01) is an international, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 randomised trial of 5102 women with HER2-positive early breast cancer, who were enrolled from hospitals in 39 countries between Dec 7, 2001, and June 20, 2005. After completion of all primary therapy (including, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy as indicated), patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive trastuzumab for 1 year (once at 8 mg/kg of bodyweight intravenously, then 6 mg/kg once every 3 weeks) or for 2 years (with the same dose schedule), or to the observation group. Primary endpoint is disease-free survival, and analyses are in the intention-to-treat population. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox models, and survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison of 2 years versus 1 year of trastuzumab is based on 366-day landmark analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00045032). Of the 5102 women randomly assigned in the HERA trial, three patients had no evidence of having provided written informed consent to participate. We followed up the intention-to-treat population of 5099 patients (1697 in observation, 1702 in 1-year trastuzumab, and 1700 in 2-years trastuzumab groups). After a median follow-up of 11 years (IQR 10·09-11·53), random assignment to 1 year of trastuzumab significantly reduced the risk of a disease-free survival event (HR 0·76, 95% CI 0·68-0·86) and death (0·74, 0·64-0·86) compared with observation. 2 years of adjuvant trastuzumab did not improve disease free

  14. Three versus six cycles of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in early stage clear cell ovarian carcinoma - A multi-institutional cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Emily N; Holzapfel, Marie; Mueller, Jennifer J; Leitao, Mario M; Gunderson, Camille C; Moore, Kathleen N; Erickson, Britt K; Leath, Charles A; Diaz Moore, Elena S; Cohen, Joshua G; Walsh, Christine S

    2017-02-01

    To determine if 6 versus 3cycles of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy with or without taxane impacts survival in early stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). We retrospectively identified all cases of stage I and II OCCC treated at 5 institutions from January 1994 through December 2011. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received 3 versus 6cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Our cohort consisted of 210 patients with stage IA-II disease, 116 of whom underwent full surgical staging. Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to evaluate progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between groups. Among 210 eligible patients, the median age was 53years (range 30-88). The majority of patients were Caucasian (83.8%). All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy with 90% receiving carboplatin and paclitaxel. Thirty-eight (18.1%) patients received 3cycles, and 172 (81.9%) patients received 6cycles of adjuvant treatment. Recurrence rate was comparable between groups (18.4% vs. 27.3% for 3 vs. 6cycles, p=0.4). There was no impact of 3 versus 6cycles of chemotherapy on PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-3.12, p=0.4) or OS (HR 1.65; 95% CI 0.59-4.65, p=0.3) on univariate analysis. There was no benefit to more chemotherapy in stratified analysis by stage nor on multivariate analysis adjusting for the impact of stage. Subgroup analysis of surgically staged patients also showed no difference in survival between 3 versus 6cycles of chemotherapy. Three cycles of platinum with or without taxane adjuvant chemotherapy were comparable to 6cycles with respect to recurrence and survival in patients diagnosed with early stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma in this retrospective multi-institutional cohort. Three cycles of platinum with or without taxane adjuvant chemotherapy are comparable to 6 cycles with respect to recurrence and survival in patients diagnosed with early stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma in

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugom, A J; van Gijn, W; Muller, E W; Berglund, Å; van den Broek, C B M; Fokstuen, T; Gelderblom, H; Kapiteijn, E; Leer, J W H; Marijnen, C A M; Martijn, H; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E; Nagtegaal, I D; Påhlman, L; Punt, C J A; Putter, H; Roodvoets, A G H; Rutten, H J T; Steup, W H; Glimelius, B; van de Velde, C J H

    2015-04-01

    The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision (TME). The PROCTOR-SCRIPT trial recruited patients from 52 hospitals. Patients with histologically proven stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned (1:1) to observation or adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and TME. Radiotherapy consisted of 5 × 5 Gy. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of 25 × 1.8-2 Gy combined with 5-FU-based chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of 5-FU/LV (PROCTOR) or eight courses capecitabine (SCRIPT). Randomization was based on permuted blocks of six, stratified according to centre, residual tumour, time between last irradiation and surgery, and preoperative treatment. The primary end point was overall survival. Of 470 enrolled patients, 437 were eligible. The trial closed prematurely because of slow patient accrual. Patients were randomly assigned to observation (n = 221) or adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 216). After a median follow-up of 5.0 years, 5-year overall survival was 79.2% in the observation group and 80.4% in the chemotherapy group [hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-1.39; P = 0.73]. The HR for disease-free survival was 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.07; P = 0.13). Five-year cumulative incidence for locoregional recurrences was 7.8% in both groups. Five-year cumulative incidence for distant recurrences was 38.5% and 34.7%, respectively (P = 0.39). The PROCTOR-SCRIPT trial could not demonstrate a significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine monotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and TME on overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence rate. However, this trial did not complete

  16. Use of a computerised decision aid (DA) to inform the decision process on adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer: development and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A; Chronakis, I; Fox, J; Mayer, A

    2017-03-24

    To develop a computerised decision aid (DA) to inform the decision process on adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer, and examine perceived usefulness, acceptability and areas for improvement of the DA. Mixed methods. Single outpatient oncology department in central London. Consecutive recruitment of 13 patients with stage II colorectal cancer, 12 of whom completed the study. Inclusion criteria were: age >18 years; complete resection for stage II adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum; patients within 14-56 days after surgery; no contraindication to adjuvant chemotherapy; able to give written informed consent. Exclusion criterion: previous chemotherapy. Patient perceived usefulness (assessed by the PrepDM questionnaire) and acceptability of the DA. PrepDM scores, measuring the perceived usefulness of the DA in preparing the patient to communicate with their doctor and make a health decision, were above those reported in other patient groups. Patient acceptability scores were also high; however, interviews showed that there was evidence of a lack of understanding of key information among some patients, in particular their baseline risk of recurrence, the net benefit of combination chemotherapy and the rationale for having chemotherapy when cancer had apparently gone. Patients found the DA acceptable and useful in supporting their decision about whether or not to have adjuvant chemotherapy. Suggested improvements for the DA include: sequential presentation of treatment options (eg, no treatment vs 1 drug, 1 drug vs 2 drugs) to enhance patient understanding of the difference between combination and single therapy, diagrams to help patients understand the rationale for chemotherapy to prevent a recurrence and inbuilt checks on patient understanding of baseline risk of recurrence and net benefit of chemotherapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Exercise despite pain – breast cancer patient experiences of muscle and joint pain during adjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent participation in an exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Rørth, M; Ejlertsen, B

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-related pain is a well-known side effect in cancer patient receiving chemotherapy. However, limited knowledge exists describing whether exercise exacerbates existing pain. Aim of the research was to explore muscle and joint pain experienced by women with breast cancer receiving......-immediate exacerbation of pain and summarised into the essence of chemotherapy related muscle and joint pain in exercise breast cancer patients; exercise despite pain. Findings indicate that the patients' perception of sudden onset of chemotherapy-related muscle and joint pain was not aggravated by training. Pain...... adjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel and factor support and concurrently participating in an exercise intervention. The study used individual semi-structured interviews (pre- and post-intervention). Fifteen women were interviewed. The multimodal group...

  18. Neo-adjuvant concomitant radio chemotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the rectum

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    Osti, M.F.; Scalabrino, G.; Vinci, M.; Caiazzo, R.; Valeriani, M.; Maurizi Enrici, R. [Istituto di radiologia universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    There are potential advantages in preoperative combined modality therapy. These include higher tolerance to chemotherapy and radiation, down-staging of primary tumors with a higher percentage of curative sphincter-saving surgery, and on the biological basis, decreased tumour seeding and increased radio-chemotherapy sensitivity due to more oxygenated cells. Results of this study confirm good tolerance, minor surgery-related complications and efficacy of this regimen both on local and distant disease control, associated with a high percentage of sphincter-saving surgery (73 %). Longer follow-up and randomized studies are required in order to compare preoperative and postoperative concomitant chemo-radiation. (author)

  19. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine

    2016-01-01

    of chemotherapy, i.e., 4 months. METHODS: Dual-imaging X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline and after completing anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy to measure BMD in the spine, hip, and forearm in early-stage breast cancer patients. High-dose prednisolone was used at three weekly...... intervals to reduce nausea and vomiting. Patients were advised a daily calcium/vitamin D supplement. Linear regression was used to assess mean percentage change in BMD and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) according to doses of prednisolone, menopausal status, smoking, and BMI. RESULTS: Eight patients...

  20. Loco-regional control after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and conservative treatment for locally advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Antonin; Borget, Isabelle; Bahri, Manel; Arnedos, Monica; Rivin, Eleonor; Vielh, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Rimareix, Françoise; Bourgier, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Breast-conserving treatment (BCT) has been validated for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Our objective was to evaluate the difference in loco-regional recurrence (LRR) rates between BCT and mastectomy in patients receiving radiation therapy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). A retrospective data base was used to identify all patients with breast cancer undergoing NCT from 2002 to 2007. Patients with initial metastatic disease were excluded from this analysis. LRR was compared between those undergoing BCT and mastectomy. Individual variables associated with LRR were evaluated. Two hundred eighty-four patients were included, 111 (39%) underwent BCT and 173 (61%) mastectomy. Almost all patients (99%) in both groups received postoperative radiation. Pathologic complete response was seen in 37 patients, of which 28 underwent BCT (p loco-regional control rate was 91% (95% CI: 86-94%). The 10-year LRR rate was similar in the BCT group (9.2% [95% CI: 4.9-16.7%]) and in the mastectomy group (10.7% [95% CI: 5.9-15.2%]; p = 0.8). Ten-year overall survival (OS) rates (63% [95% CI: 46-79%] in the BCT group; 60% [95% CI: 47-73%] in the mastectomy group, p = 0.8) were not statistically different between the two patient populations. Multivariate analysis showed that AJCC stage ≥ III (HR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.8; p = 0.02), negative PR (HR: 6; 95% CI: 1.2-30.6, p = 0.03), and number of positive lymph nodes ≥3 (HR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9; p = 0.03) were independent predictors of LRR. Ten-year OS was similar in the BCT and in the mastectomy group (p = 0.1). The rate of LRR was low and did not significantly differ between the BCT and the mastectomy group after NCT. Randomized trials assessing whether mastectomy can be safely omitted in selected breast cancer patients (nonstage III tumors or those which do not require adjuvant hormone suppression) which respond to NCT are required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Method Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC] were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m2 iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5, definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Result Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%, 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3, 24% PR (n = 12, 62% SD (n = 31 and 8% PD (n = 4. Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%. Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50, cardiac toxicity (2/50, and CNS toxicity (4/50 leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. Conclusion The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS

  2. Number of Lymph Node Metastases May Indicate the Regimen for Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Stage III Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Koji; Oki, Eiji; Saeki, Hiroshi; Kasagi, Yuta; Tsuda, Yasuo; Zaitsu, Yoko; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Imamura, Y U; Ohgaki, Kippei; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-11-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) may prevent recurrence in patients with stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). However, only 10% of patients benefit from ACT and no effective indicators exist to predict which patients are likely to benefit. The present study validated metastatic lymph node (MLN) number as a new indicator for ACT. We retrospectively reviewed 173 patients with stage III CRC, who were classified by Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage or N category, and analyzed their overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) according to stage, number of MLNs and ACT use. Among 173 patients, we found 65 with only one MLN (N1a). For N1a patients treated with ACT, the 5-year OS rate was 100%; the 3-year DFS rate was 92.7% for those treated with oral ACT. The number of MLNs is a simple indicator for ACT in patients with stage III CRC. For patients with only one MLN, oral chemotherapy is a good option. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. MTHFR polymorphisms and 5-FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Jensen, S; Vainer, B

    2009-01-01

    >T and 1298A>C polymorphisms were not associated with survival or relapse-free survival (P > 0.2). The 677 CC genotype was associated to toxicity (odds ratio = 1.83, P = 0.01). Conclusions: The MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms probably do not predict efficacy of adjuvant 5-FU treatment in colorectal...... cancer after complete resection; however, the 677C>T polymorphism may be associated with lower toxicity in 5-FU treatment. Implementation of SNP analysis for these polymorphisms for individualized treatment is premature....

  4. Permanent alopecia in patients with breast cancer after taxane chemotherapy and adjuvant hormonal therapy: Clinicopathologic findings in a cohort of 10 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonia, Athina; Cota, Carlo; Setterfield, Jane F; Goldberg, Lynne J; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2017-05-01

    Anagen effluvium with reversible scalp alopecia is a known side effect of chemotherapy. However, there are an increasing number of reports in the literature documenting permanent alopecia in patients treated with taxanes. We sought to describe the clinicopathologic features in breast cancer patients who underwent treatment with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy. We reviewed the clinical and histopathologic information of a cohort of 10 patients treated with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy. We have observed 3 types of clinical patterns of alopecia (types A, B, and C), and have validated the histopathologic features showing alopecia areata-like and female pattern hair loss. The study was based on a small sample size and retrospective retrieval of clinical information and histopathologic review of posttreatment slides. We hypothesize a clinicopathologic model of hair follicle cycle disruption in response to the chemoinflammatory and hormonal insults to the hair follicles resulting in permanent alopecia. Clinicopathologic correlation is paramount to the understanding of the morphobiologic pathways in chemotherapy-induced alopecia caused by taxanes and adjuvant hormonal treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise: A Path to Wellness During Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Anne Marie L; Allan, Helen; Karlsen, Bjørg; Søreide, Jon Arne; Bru, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer treatment can represent a threat to a patient's wellness. The role of exercise in perceived wellness in women with breast cancer merits further study. The objective of this study was to describe how exercise is perceived by women to influence their physical and psychosocial wellness at the time they were receiving chemotherapy. Five focus group interviews with a total of 27 women with early-stage breast cancer were conducted. Prior to the focus groups, the women had participated in an exercise intervention during chemotherapy treatment. Three themes emerged from the analysis: exercise shapes feelings of psychological wellness; exercise stimulates feelings of physical wellness; and exercise influences social wellness. The women reported feeling stronger in a psychological sense after exercising, that the strength exercise improved their upper-limb functioning, and that engaging in exercise triggered social support and interactions. Exercise during breast cancer treatment is perceived to enhance the patients' wellness on several dimensions and in particular psychological wellness. Exercise might support the patients' efforts to restore their sense of wellness and enhance their level of daily life functioning. Cancer nurses should promote exercise as a wellness-fostering intervention during chemotherapy treatment. Focusing on how exercise can contribute to feelings of wellness may help women with breast cancer choose exercise as a health-promoting activity that contributes to their recovery.

  6. [A case of gastric cancer with extraordinary liver metastasis effectively treated by adjuvant chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbu, Masahide; Maruyama, Michio; Kato, Kiyomi; Koide, Ayaki; Hasegawa, Kumi; Maruyama, Shoji; Takashima, Itaru; Ebuchi, Masakazu

    2004-10-01

    This was an extraordinary liver metastasis case with complication when the patient, a 70-year-old male, was diagnosed with stomach cancer for the first time. However, the patient has been in remission and is a long-term survivor due to an active chemotherapy after the operation. His chief complaints were stomachache and a loss of weight. He was diagnosed with stomach cancer by endoscopy. During the surgery, the mass was found to be 3 QFB palpable caused from hepatomegaly. The liver dysfunction was revealed in the blood biochemistry inspection. The abdominal CT revealed that the stomach cancer had spread to the whole liver. Distal gastrectomy was performed on May 22, 1997. In pathological findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Final findings: M, type3, T3 (SE), N2, H3, P0, CY0, and Stage IVb. The 5-FU based chemotherapy was performed and a complete response was temporarily obtained. However, it has recurred one year later and two or more kinds of chemotherapy have continued. He is alive for more than 7 years and comes to our hospital as an outpatient.

  7. Induction chemotherapy vs post-operative adjuvant therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Faccioli, Eleonora; Bellini, Alice; Mammana, Marco; Rea, Federico

    2017-08-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasia. Multidisciplinary treatments, including the association of induction and/or adjuvant therapeutic regimens with surgery, have been reported to give encouraging results. Current therapeutic options are not well standardized yet, especially regarding the best association between surgery and medical treatments. The present review aims to assess safety, efficacy and outcomes of different therapies for MPM. Areas covered: This article focuses on the multimodality treatment of mesothelioma. A systematic review was performed by using electronic databases to identify studies that considered induction and adjuvant approaches in MPM therapy in a multidisciplinary setting, including surgery. Endpoints included overall survival, disease free survival, disease recurrence, and complications. Expert commentary: This systematic review offers a comprehensive view of current multidisciplinary therapeutic strategies for MPM, suggesting that multimodality therapy offers acceptable outcomes with better results reported for trimodality approaches. Individualization of care for each patient is fundamental in choosing the most appropriate treatment. The growing complexity of treatment protocols mandates that MPM patients be referred to specialized Centers, in which every component of the interdisciplinary team can provide the necessary expertise and quality of care.

  8. S100A16, a promising candidate as a prognostic marker for platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in resected lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katono K

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ken Katono,1 Yuichi Sato,2 Makoto Kobayashi,3 Ryo Nagashio,2 Shinichiro Ryuge,1 Satoshi Igawa,1 Masaaki Ichinoe,4 Yoshiki Murakumo,4 Makoto Saegusa,4 Noriyuki Masuda1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, School of Medicine, 2Department of Molecular Diagnostics, School of Allied Health Sciences, 3Department of Applied Tumor Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan Purpose: Although cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy improves the survival of patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer, not all patients show a survival benefit, and some patients experience severe toxicity. Therefore, identifying biomarkers is important for selecting subgroups of patients who may show improved survival with platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. S100A16 is thought to play key roles during different steps of tumor progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of S100A16 expression as a prognostic marker in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma receiving platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: S100A16 expression was immunohistochemically studied in 65 consecutive lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent complete resection and received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of S100A16 expression on disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS.Results: S100A16 expression was detected in 26 of the 65 (40.0% lung adenocarcinoma patients. Although S100A16 expression was not correlated with DFS (P=0.062, it was significantly correlated with OS (P=0.009. In addition, multivariable analysis revealed that S100A16 expression independently predicted a poorer survival (HR =4.79; 95% CI =1.87–12.23; P=0.001. Conclusion: The present study revealed that S100A16 is a promising candidate as a prognostic marker for

  9. Fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: long-term results of the EORTC 22921 randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosset, Jean-François; Calais, Gilles; Mineur, Laurent; Maingon, Philippe; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Bensadoun, René-Jean; Bardet, Etienne; Beny, Alexander; Ollier, Jean-Claude; Bolla, Michel; Marchal, Dominique; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Klein, Vincent; Giralt, Jordi; Clavère, Pierre; Glanzmann, Christoph; Cellier, Patrice; Collette, Laurence

    2014-02-01

    EORTC trial 22921 examined the addition of preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. After a median follow-up of 5 years, chemotherapy-irrespective of timing-significantly improved local control. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not improve survival, but the Kaplan-Meier curves diverged, suggesting possible delayed benefit. Here, we report the updated long-term results. We randomly assigned patients with clinical stage T3 or T4 resectable rectal cancer to receive preoperative radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy before surgery followed by either adjuvant chemotherapy or surveillance. Randomisation was done using minimisation with factors of institution, sex, T stage, and distance from the tumour to the anal verge. Study coordinators, clinicians, and patients were aware of assignment. Radiotherapy consisted of 45 Gy to the posterior pelvis in 25 fractions of 1·8 Gy over 5 weeks. Each course of chemotherapy consisted of fluorouracil (350 mg/m(2) per day intravenous bolus) and folinic acid (leucovorin; 20 mg/m(2) per day intravenous bolus). For preoperative chemotherapy, two courses were given (during weeks 1 and 5 of radiotherapy). Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in four cycles, every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall survival. This analysis was done by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002523. 1011 patients were randomly assigned to treatment between April, 1993, and March, 2003 (252 to preoperative radiotherapy and 253 to each of the other three groups). After a median follow-up of 10·4 years (IQR 7·8-13·1), 10-year overall survival was 49·4% (95% CI 44·6-54·1) for the preoperative radiotherapy group and 50·7% (45·9-55·2) for the preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy group (HR 0·99, 95% CI 0·83-1·18; p=0·91). 10-year overall survival was 51·8% (95% CI 47·0-56·4) for the adjuvant chemotherapy group and 48·4% (43·6-53

  10. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Hasan; Akca, Zeki; Teke, Havva Uskudar; Ugur, Hediye

    2011-12-01

    Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia), MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome) and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms), MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Two patients complained of anemia (2.2%) (HbHowell-Jolly bodies (1%). Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%), Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%), hypersegmentation (20%), immature granulocytes (8%), and blasts (6%) were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50%) and platelet hypogranulation (19%). According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

  11. Adjuvant Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy After Resection for Pancreatic Cancer Using Coaxial Catheter-Port System Compared with Conventional System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Aya; Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sho, Masayuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Surgery (Japan); Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Masada, Tetsuya; Sato, Takeshi; Marugami, Nagaaki [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Anai, Hiroshi [Nara City Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sakaguchi, Hiroshi [Nara Prefectural Western Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kanno, Masatoshi [Nara Medical University, Oncology Center (Japan); Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Hasegawa, Masatoshi [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology (Japan); Nakajima, Yoshiyuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Surgery (Japan); Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    PurposePrevious reports have shown the effectiveness of adjuvant hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) in pancreatic cancer. However, percutaneous catheter placement is technically difficult after pancreatic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of HAIC using a coaxial technique compared with conventional technique for postoperative pancreatic cancer.Materials and Methods93 consecutive patients who received percutaneous catheter-port system placement after pancreatectomy were enrolled. In 58 patients from March 2006 to August 2010 (Group A), a conventional technique with a 5-Fr indwelling catheter was used and in 35 patients from September 2010 to September 2012 (Group B), a coaxial technique with a 2.7-Fr coaxial catheter was used.ResultsThe overall technical success rates were 97.1 % in Group B and 86.2 % in Group A. In cases with arterial tortuousness and stenosis, the success rate was significantly higher in Group B (91.7 vs. 53.8 %; P = 0.046). Fluoroscopic and total procedure times were significantly shorter in Group B: 14.7 versus 26.7 min (P = 0.001) and 64.8 versus 80.7 min (P = 0.0051), respectively. No differences were seen in the complication rate. The 1 year liver metastasis rates were 9.9 % using the conventional system and 9.1 % using the coaxial system (P = 0.678). The overall median survival time was 44 months. There was no difference in the survival period between two systems (P = 0.312).ConclusionsThe coaxial technique is useful for catheter placement after pancreatectomy, achieving a high success rate and reducing fluoroscopic and procedure times, while maintaining the safety and efficacy for adjuvant HAIC in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Arginine as an adjuvant to chemotherapy improves clinical outcome in active tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schön, T; Elias, D; Moges, F

    2003-01-01

    NO production, would improve the clinical outcome of TB by increasing NO production. In a randomised double-blind study, patients with smear-positive TB (n = 120) were given arginine or placebo for 4 weeks in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Primary outcomes were sputum conversion, weight gain......, defined as increased weight gain, higher sputum conversion rate and faster reduction of symptoms, such as cough. The arginine level increased after week 2 in the HIV-/TB+ arginine group (100.2 microM (range 90.5-109.9) versus 142.1 microM (range 114.1-170.1)) compared with the HIV-/TB+ placebo group (105...

  13. Preoperative chemotherapy for operable breast cancer is associated with better compliance with adjuvant therapy in matched stage II and IIIA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenaka, Ian K; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Martinez, Maria Elena; Bouton, Marcia E; Low, Boo Ghee; Salganick, Jason A; Nodora, Jesse; Hibbard, Michael L; Jha, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Preoperative chemotherapy (PC) for operable breast cancer has shown significant benefits in prospective trials. Many patients are treated in the community setting and some may question the applicability of PC outside the university setting. Retrospective review was performed of stage II and IIIA breast cancer patients treated from January 2002 to July 2009. Fifty-three of 57 patients who underwent PC were matched based on age, tumor size, and hormone receptor status with 53 patients who did not undergo PC. Differences in patient compliance with physician recommendations for all types of adjuvant therapy were evaluated. Crude odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios derived from conditional logistic regression models were calculated. There were 106 patients included. Patient compliance with chemotherapy was better in the PC group than in the adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) group (100% versus 70%; p = .0001). Similarly, more patients in the PC group completed radiation therapy (96% versus 65%; p = .0003) and initiated hormonal therapy (100% versus 62%; p = .0001). Conditional logistic regression revealed that higher pathologic stage and current cigarette smoking were associated with poorer compliance with chemotherapy. For radiation therapy, the univariate model revealed that compliance with chemotherapy and being employed were associated with completion of radiation, whereas current cigarette smoking and larger pathologic size were associated with poorer compliance with radiation. For hormonal therapy, current cigarette smokers were more likely to be noncompliant with initiation of hormonal therapy. PC for operable breast cancer can improve patient compliance with chemotherapy. Current cigarette smokers were more likely to be noncompliant with all types of adjuvant therapy.

  14. A prospective cohort study of the effects of adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy on taste function, food liking, appetite and associated nutritional outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boltong

    Full Text Available 'Taste' changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status.This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n = 52 prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food liking at six time points to measure change from baseline. Associations between taste and hedonic changes and nutritional outcomes were examined.Taste function was significantly reduced early in chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05 but showed recovery by late in the cycle. Ability to correctly identify salty, sour and umami tastants was reduced. Liking of sweet food decreased early and mid-cycle (p<0.01 but not late cycle. Liking of savory food was not significantly affected. Appetite decreased early in the cycle (p<0.001. Reduced taste function was associated with lowest kilojoule intake (r = 0.31; p = 0.008 as was appetite loss with reduced kilojoule (r = 0.34; p = 0.002 and protein intake (r = 0.36; p = 0.001 early in the third chemotherapy cycle. Decreased appetite early in the third and final chemotherapy cycles was associated with a decline in BMI (p = <0.0005 over the study period. Resolution of taste function, food liking and appetite was observed 8 weeks after chemotherapy completion. There was no association between taste change and dry mouth, oral mucositis or nausea.The results reveal, for the first time, the cyclical yet transient effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on taste function and the link between taste and hedonic changes, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. The results should be used to inform reliable pre-chemotherapy education.

  15. [Preventive effect of low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan on the cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs in the adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhao-zhe; Liu, Yong-ye; Zheng, Zhen-dong; Liang, Xue-feng; Han, Ya-ling; Xie, Xiao-dong

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effect of low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan in the prevention of acute and chronic cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs in adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer. Forty patients were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group with chemotherapy plus low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan (20 cases) and control group with chemotherapy alone (20 cases). The same chemotherapy was given to the two groups. All the 40 patients had no contraindication for carvedilol and candesartan. Patients of the experimental group received low-dose carvedilol from 2.5 mg orally twice a day at first cycle to 5 mg twice a day gradually if no side reactions, and candesartan 2.5 mg orally once a day. Electrocardiogram, ultrasonic cardiogram, arrhythmia, troponin and non-hematologic toxicity were recorded and compared after the second, forth and sixth cycle of chemotherapy. Each cycle included 21 days. LVEF was decreased along with the prolongation of chemotherapy in the experimental group and control group. LVEDD and LVESD showed no significant changes in the experimental group, but gradually increased in the control group. After four and six cycles of chemotherapy, LVEF were (57.00 ± 5.13)% and (45.95 ± 3.68)%, respectively, in the control group, significantly lower than that of (67.00 ± 5.13)% and (57.50 ± 2.57)%, respectively, in the experimental group (P candesartan can reduce the acute and chronic cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs, and with tolerable toxicities. This may provide a new approach to prevent cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs in adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer.

  16. Bismuth adjuvant ameliorates adverse effects of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Boye; Penkowa, Milena

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: High-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) leads to adverse effects including mucositis, neutropenia and bacteremia. To reduce the toxicity, we treated myeloma and lymphoma patients with peroral bismuth as an adjuvant to chemotherapy to convey cytoprotect......PURPOSE: High-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) leads to adverse effects including mucositis, neutropenia and bacteremia. To reduce the toxicity, we treated myeloma and lymphoma patients with peroral bismuth as an adjuvant to chemotherapy to convey...... cytoprotection in non-malignant cells. METHODS: This trial was a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of hematological inpatients (n = 50) receiving bismuth or placebo tablets, in order to identify any potential superiority of bismuth on toxicity from chemotherapy. RESULTS: We...... show for the first time that bismuth significantly reduces grade 2 stomatitis, febrile neutropenia and infections caused by melphalan in multiple myeloma, where adverse effects also were significantly linked to gender. In lymphoma patients, bismuth significantly reduces diarrhoea relative to placebo...

  17. Assessment of pulmonary toxicities in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment with anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy and radiotherapy- a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramita Saha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthracycline based regiments and/or taxanes and adjuvant radiotherapy; the main modalities of treatment for breast cancers are associated with deterioration of pulmonary functions and progressive pulmonary toxicities. Aim: Assessment of pulmonary toxicities and impact on pulmonary functions mainly in terms of decline of forced vital capacity (FVC and the ratio of forced expiratory volume (FEV in 1 Second and FEV1/FVC ratio with different treatment times and follow ups in carcinoma breast patients receiving anthracycline and/or taxane based chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A prospective single institutional cohort study was performed with 58 breast cancer patients between January 2011 to July 2012 who received either anthracycline based (37 patients received 6 cycles FAC= 5 FU, Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide regime and radiotherapy or anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy (21 patients received 4cycles AC= Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide; followed by 4 cycles of T=Taxane and radiotherapy. Assessment of pulmonary symptoms and signs, chest x-ray and pulmonary function tests were performed at baseline, midcycle, at end of chemotherapy, at end radiotherapy, at 1 and 6 months follow ups and compared. By means of a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA model, the course of lung parameters across the time points was compared. Results and Conclusion: Analysis of mean forced vital capacities at different points of study times showed definitive declining pattern, which is at statistically significant level at the end of 6th month of follow up (p=0.032 .The FEV1/FVC ratio (in percentage also revealed a definite decreasing pattern over different treatment times and at statistically significant level at 6th month follow up with p value 0.003. Separate analysis of mean FEV1/FVC ratios over time in anthracycline based chemotherapy and radiotherapy group as well as anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy and radiotherapy group

  18. A systemic literature review of neuroimaging studies in women with breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

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    Paulina Andryszak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in patients with breast cancer, predominantly in attention and verbal memory, have been observed in numerous studies. These neuropsychological findings are corroborated by the results of neuroimaging studies. The aim of this paper was to survey the reports on cerebral structural and functional alterations in women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTx. First, we discuss the host-related and disease-related mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CTx. We point out the direct and indirect neurotoxic effect of cytostatics, which may cause: a damage to neurons or glial cells, changes in neurotransmitter levels, deregulation of the immune system and/or cytokine release. Second, we focus on the results of neuroimaging studies on brain structure and function that revealed decreased: density of grey matter, integrity of white matter and volume of multiple brain regions, as well as their lower activation during cognitive task performance. Finally, we concentrate on compensatory mechanisms, which activate additional brain areas or neural connection to reach the premorbid cognitive efficiency.

  19. Personalized treatment of women with early breast cancer: a risk-group specific cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy accounting for companion prognostic tests OncotypeDX and Adjuvant!Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Beate; Rochau, Ursula; Kurzthaler, Christina; Hubalek, Michael; Miksad, Rebecca; Sroczynski, Gaby; Paulden, Mike; Bundo, Marvin; Stenehjem, David; Brixner, Diana; Krahn, Murray; Siebert, Uwe

    2017-10-16

    Due to high survival rates and the relatively small benefit of adjuvant therapy, the application of personalized medicine (PM) through risk stratification is particularly beneficial in early breast cancer (BC) to avoid unnecessary harms from treatment. The new 21-gene assay (OncotypeDX, ODX) is a promising prognostic score for risk stratification that can be applied in conjunction with Adjuvant!Online (AO) to guide personalized chemotherapy decisions for early BC patients. Our goal was to evaluate risk-group specific cost effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for women with early stage BC in Austria based on AO and ODX risk stratification. A previously validated discrete event simulation model was applied to a hypothetical cohort of 50-year-old women over a lifetime horizon. We simulated twelve risk groups derived from the joint application of ODX and AO and included respective additional costs. The primary outcomes of interest were life-years gained, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs and incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER). The robustness of results and decisions derived were tested in sensitivity analyses. A cross-country comparison of results was performed. Chemotherapy is dominated (i.e., less effective and more costly) for patients with 1) low ODX risk independent of AO classification; and 2) low AO risk and intermediate ODX risk. For patients with an intermediate or high AO risk and an intermediate or high ODX risk, the ICER is below 15,000 EUR/QALY (potentially cost effective depending on the willingness-to-pay). Applying the AO risk classification alone would miss risk groups where chemotherapy is dominated and thus should not be considered. These results are sensitive to changes in the probabilities of distant recurrence but not to changes in the costs of chemotherapy or the ODX test. Based on our modeling study, chemotherapy is effective and cost effective for Austrian patients with an intermediate or high AO risk and an intermediate or high

  20. [Adjuvant chemotherapy of S-1 and CDDP for undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Naoto; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Koji; Kuwabara, Hiroshi; Tamai, Satoru; Nakajima, Kazumi; Goseki, Narihide; Shimoda, Shigeto

    2008-11-01

    A 67-year-old female visited our department complaining a general fatigue. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a giant ulcer at distal portion of the stomach. NSE was the only tumor marker showing an abnormal value. Pathohistology of the biopsy specimen showed a monotonus massive growth of small irregular tumor cells. Distal gastrectomy with regional lymph node dissection was carried out. Final pathology report was undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach, exposing itself to serosa with lymph node metastasis. Postoperative chemotherapy was started using S-1. However, despite NSE turning normal, CEA rose that CDDP was added to the regimen. She went into remission for several months but CEA rose again and CDDP was changed to CPT-11. To our great regret, she died six months after the operation. Undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach is rare disease. Immunohistochemical staining is useful for a differential diagnosis. Prognosis is said to be poor but S-1/CDDP may contribute to prolong prognosis.

  1. Regression patterns in treated retinoblastoma with chemotherapy plus focal adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Rahmanikhah, Elham; Roohipoor, Ramak; Karkhaneh, Reza; Faegh, Adeleh

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of the regression patterns after 3, 6, and 8 months of treatment. A total of 100 retinoblastoma tumors (57 eyes of 35 patients) were treated with 6 (n = 8) or 8 (n = 92) cycles of systemic chemoreduction and tumor consolidation (transpupillary thermotherapy [TTT] or cryotherapy) during this prospective study. After 3 months of treatment, type 3 was the predominant pattern (n = 57%, 57%), while after 6 and 8 months of treatment the tumors regressed to type 4 most often (44% and 52%, respectively). Smaller tumors and the peripheral tumors were likely to regress to type 4, whereas larger tumors and those nearer to fovea were more likely to become type 1 pattern. Tumors consolidated with cryotherapy mostly showed type 4 regression (3rd month: 40%, 6th month: 90%, and 8th month: 87.5%). Whereas, those treated with TTT rather regressed to type 3 after 3 months (57.9%) and to type 4 after 6 and 8 months of treatment (51.4% and 59.5%, respectively). Recurrence of the tumor was 40% in our cases with defined correlation with tumor location, size, and subretinal seeds. We conclude that regression patterns of tumors in patients undergoing systemic chemoreduction with focal adjuvant treatments predominantly changed over time and their changes are dependent on tumor size, location, and type of treatment. It appears that subretinal seeds, tumor size, and location of tumors are the most important factors predicting tumor recurrence. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intrinsic subtypes and benefit from postmastectomy radiotherapy in node-positive premenopausal breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy - results from two independent randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Tinne; Tramm, Trine; Nielsen, Torsten; Alsner, Jan; Nord, Silje; Myhre, Simen; Sørlie, Therese; Leung, Samuel; Fan, Cheng; Perou, Charles; Gelmon, Karen; Overgaard, Jens; Voduc, David; Prat, Aleix; Cheang, Maggie Chon U

    2017-11-25

    The study of the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer has revealed differences among them in terms of prognosis and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. However, the ability of intrinsic subtypes to predict benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy has only been examined in few studies. Gene expression-based intrinsic subtyping was performed in 228 breast tumors collected from two independent post-mastectomy clinical trials (British Columbia and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 82b trials), where pre-menopausal patients with node-positive disease were randomized to adjuvant radiotherapy or not. All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and a subgroup of patients underwent ovarian ablation. Tumors were classified into intrinsic subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched, Basal-like and Normal-like using the research-based PAM50 classifier. In the British Columbia study, patients treated with radiation had an overall significant lower incidence of locoregional recurrence compared to the controls. For Luminal A tumors the risk of loco-regional recurrence was low and was further lowered by adjuvant radiation. These findings were validated in the DBCG 82b study. The individual data from the two cohorts were merged, the hazard ratio (HR) for loco-regional recurrence associated with giving radiation was 0.34 (0.19 to 0.61) overall and 0.12 (0.03 to 0.52) for Luminal A tumors. In both postmastectomy trials, patients with Luminal A tumors turned out to have a significant lower incidence of loco-regional recurrence when randomized to adjuvant radiotherapy, leaving no indication to omit postmastectomy adjuvant radiation in pre-menopausal high-risk patients with Luminal A tumors. It was not possible to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy among the other subtypes because of limited sample sizes.

  3. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy on Attention and Mood in Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2015-05-01

    To explore the efficacy of mindfulness-
based music therapy (MBMT) to improve attention and decrease mood distress experienced by women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Quantitative, descriptive, longitudinal approach. A comprehensive cancer hospital and a university in southern Florida. 15 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer, stages I-III, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants individually received MBMT for one hour per week for four weeks. The sessions consisted of varied music activities accompanied by mindfulness attitudes, or mental strategies that enhance moment-to-moment awareness, and weekly homework. Demographic information was collected at baseline. Attention was measured using Conners' Continuous Performance Test II. Mood was measured using the Profile of Mood States-Brief Form. Narrative comments collected from the homework assignments served to reinforce quantitative data. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that attention improved significantly over time. Although all mood states significantly improved from the beginning to the end of each MBMT session, the mood state of fatigue decreased significantly more than the other mood states. MBMT enhances attention and mood, particularly the mood state of fatigue, in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. 
. A preferred music listening and mindfulness exercise may be offered to women with breast cancer who experience attention problems and mood distress.

  4. Plasmacytoid variant of bladder cancer defines patients with poor prognosis if treated with cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keck Bastian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the definition of different histologic subtypes of urothelial carcinomas by the World Health Organization (WHO 2004 classification, description of molecular features and clinical behavior of these variants has gained more attention. Methods We reviewed 205 tumor samples of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer mainly treated within the randomized AUO-AB05/95 trial with radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy for histologic subtypes. 178 UC, 18 plasmacytoid (PUC and 9 micropapillary (MPC carcinomas of the bladder were identified. Kaplan Meier analysis and backward multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to compare overall survival between the three histologic subtypes. Results Patients suffering from PUC have the worst clinical outcome regarding overall survival compared to conventional UC and MPC of the bladder that in turn seem have to best clinical outcome (27.4 months, 62.6 months, and 64.2 months, respectively; p=0.013 by Kaplan Meier analysis. Backward multivariate Cox´s proportional hazards regression analysis (adjusted to relevant clinicopathological parameters showed a hazard ratio of 3.2 (p=0.045 for PUC in contrast to patients suffering from MPC. Conclusions Histopathological diagnosis of rare variants of urothelial carcinoma can identify patients with poor prognosis.

  5. A review of the literature on symptom clusters in studies that included oncology patients receiving primary or adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Sullivan, Carmen; Leutwyler, Heather; Dunn, Laura B; Miaskowski, Christine

    2017-08-31

    To summarise the current state of knowledge of symptom clusters research from studies that included, as part of their sample, patients who were receiving primary or adjuvant chemotherapy. Since the concept of a symptom cluster was first introduced into the oncology literature in 2001, only four comprehensive reviews of symptom clusters research in oncology patients were identified that provide insights into this important concept in symptom management research. A comprehensive review of the literature. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for the years 2000 to 2016. Only 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for this literature review. These studies were evaluated in terms of the symptom assessment instruments used; the statistical analysis methods used; the symptom dimension(s) used to create the symptom cluster(s); the number and types of symptom clusters identified; and whether the specific symptom clusters changed over time. The number of symptom clusters identified ranged from one-seven. The majority of the studies used some type of factor analysis to create the symptom clusters. The most common symptom dimension used to create the clusters was symptom severity. A "gastrointestinal symptom cluster" was the most common symptom cluster identified. Across the eight longitudinal studies, for half of these studies the symptom clusters remained relatively stable over time. Additional research is needed in oncology patients to address the assessment of symptom clusters, the specific nature of symptom clusters and whether symptom clusters change over time. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved survival after esophagectomy without induction therapy for node-positive adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Paul J; Englum, Brian R; Ganapathi, Asvin M; Mulvihill, Michael S; Hartwig, Matthew G; Onaitis, Mark W; D'Amico, Thomas A; Berry, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) use after esophagectomy without induction therapy for node-positive (pN+) adenocarcinoma using the National Cancer Database, including the impact of complications related to surgery (CRS) on outcomes. Predictors of AC use in 1694 patients in the National Cancer Data Base who underwent R0 esophagectomy from 2003-2011 without induction therapy for pN+ adenocarcinoma of the middle or lower esophagus and survived more than 30 days were identified with multivariable logistic regression. The impact of AC on survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox-proportional hazards methods. AC was given to 874 of 1694 (51.6%) patients; 618 (70.7%) AC patients received radiation. Older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58/decade, p improved survival in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.67, p = 0.008). Receiving radiation in addition to AC did not improve survival (p = 0.35). Although CRS was associated with worse survival, patients who had CRS but received AC had superior survival compared to patients who did not have CRS or get AC (p = 0.016). AC after esophagectomy is associated with improved survival but was only used in half of patients with pN+ esophageal adenocarcinoma. We also found that the addition of radiation to AC was not associated with a survival benefit. CRS predict worse long-term survival and lower the chance of getting AC, but even patients with CRS had improved survival when given AC.

  7. Plasmacytoid variant of bladder cancer defines patients with poor prognosis if treated with cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Bastian; Wach, Sven; Stoehr, Robert; Kunath, Frank; Bertz, Simone; Lehmann, Jan; Stöckle, Michael; Taubert, Helge; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt

    2013-02-08

    Since the definition of different histologic subtypes of urothelial carcinomas by the World Health Organization (WHO) 2004 classification, description of molecular features and clinical behavior of these variants has gained more attention. We reviewed 205 tumor samples of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer mainly treated within the randomized AUO-AB05/95 trial with radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy for histologic subtypes. 178 UC, 18 plasmacytoid (PUC) and 9 micropapillary (MPC) carcinomas of the bladder were identified. Kaplan Meier analysis and backward multivariate Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to compare overall survival between the three histologic subtypes. Patients suffering from PUC have the worst clinical outcome regarding overall survival compared to conventional UC and MPC of the bladder that in turn seem have to best clinical outcome (27.4 months, 62.6 months, and 64.2 months, respectively; p=0.013 by Kaplan Meier analysis). Backward multivariate Cox´s proportional hazards regression analysis (adjusted to relevant clinicopathological parameters) showed a hazard ratio of 3.2 (p=0.045) for PUC in contrast to patients suffering from MPC. Histopathological diagnosis of rare variants of urothelial carcinoma can identify patients with poor prognosis.

  8. Early results on the use of biomaterials as adjuvant to abdominal wall closure following cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermic chemotherapy applies thermal energy to both abdominal wall as well as the intra-abdominal viscera. The combination of the hyperthemia, chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery (CRS is associated with a defined risk of abdominal wall and intestinal morbidity reported to be as high as 15%, respectively to date, no studies have evaluated the use of biomaterial mesh as adjuvant to abdominal wall closure in this group of patients. In the present report, we hypothesized that post HIPEC closure with a biomaterial can reduce abdominal wall morbidity after CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Materials and methods All patients treated with HIPEC in a tertiary care center over 12 months (2008-2009 period were included. Eight patients received cytoreductive surgery followed by HIPEC for 90 minutes using Mitomycin C (15 mg q 45 minutes × 2. Abdominal wall closure was performed using Surgisis (Cook Biotech. mesh in an underlay position with 3 cm fascial overlap-closure. Operative time, hospital length of stay (LOS as well as postoperative outcome with special attention to abdominal wall and bowel morbidity were assessed. Results Eight patients, mean age 59.7 ys (36-80 were treated according to the above protocol. The primary pathology was appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 3 colorectal cancer (n = 3, and ovarian cancer (n = 2. Four patients (50% presented initially with abdominal wall morbidity including incisional ventral hernia (n = 3 and excessive abdominal wall metastatic implants (n = 1. The mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI was 8.75. Twenty eight CRS were performed (3.5 CRS/patient. The mean operating time was 6 hours. Seven patients had no abdominal wall or bowel morbidity, the mean LOS for these patients was 8 days. During the follow up period (mean 6.3 months, one patient required exploratory laparotomy 2 weeks after surgery and subsequently developed an incisional hernia and enterocutaneous

  9. Customized Adjuvant Chemotherapy Based on Biomarker Examination May Improve Survival of Patients Completely Resected for Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dage; Nakashima, Nariyasu; Nakano, Jun; Tarumi, Shintaro; Matsuura, Natsumi; Nakano, Takayuki; Nii, Kazuhito; Tokunaga, Yoshimasa; Go, Tetsuhiko; Yokomise, Hiroyasu

    2017-05-01

    Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy is recommended for patients with completely resected stage II (N1) or III (N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the optimal chemotherapy regimen is difficult to predict for individual patients. Our previous prospective study on individualized treatment according to biomarker status, such as excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), class III β-tubulin (tubulin), thymidylate synthase (TYMS) and ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1), achieved encouraging results in patients with advanced NSCLC. The present study further examined the effect of biomarker-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with completely resected NSCLC. Between January 2006 and December 2014, 66 patients with localized (stage I-IIIA) NSCLC who underwent R0 operation received 2-4 cycles of platinum doublet adjuvant chemotherapy: Platinum plus docetaxel, platinum plus pemetrexed for adenocarcinoma, and platinum plus tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil combination (TS-1) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were selected according to the registered protocol at each period. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the biomarkers: ERCC1 status for platinum, tubulin for docetaxel, and TYMS for pemetrexed and TS-1. A matched chemotherapy regimen meant that platinum plus docetaxel was administered in patients negative for ERCC1 and negative for tubulin, platinum plus pemetrexed in patients with adenocarcinoma positive for tubulin, negative for ERCC1 and negative for TYMS, and platinum plus TS-1 in those with SCC positive for tubulin, negative for ERCC1 and negative for TYMS. The 5-year survival rate was 77.5% considering all 66 patients, and 85.7%, 71.8%, and 78.8% for those with p-stage I, II, and III, respectively. Patients who received a matched chemotherapy regimen (n=13; platinum plus docetaxel in eight, platinum plus pemetrexed in five) had significantly better 5-year survival than patients with unmatched biomarker status (n=53) (100% vs. 71.0%, p=0

  10. Tumor Size Is a Critical Factor in Adjuvant Chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 Gastric Cancer Patients after D2 Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether tumor size is a reasonable indication for adjuvant chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy. Method. We performed a retrospective study of 269 patients with a histological diagnosis of T3-4aN0M0 stage gastric cancer who underwent D2 radical surgery at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center or the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between January 2006 and December 2010. The follow-up lasted until June of 2015. Chi-square tests and Kaplan-Meier methods were employed to compare the clinicopathological variables and prognoses. Result. For this group of patients, univariate analyses revealed that tumor size (p<0.001, pathological T stage (p<0.001, and tumor location (p=0.025 were significant prognostic factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not exhibit prognostic benefits. For patients with tumors larger than 5 cm, univariate analysis revealed that tumor location (p=0.007, Borrmann type (p=0.039, postoperative chemotherapy (p=0.003, and pathological T stage (p<0.001 were significant prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative chemotherapy and pathological T stage were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion. Our results imply that tumor size should be a critical factor in the decision to utilize adjuvant chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy. Additional randomized controlled trials are required before this conclusion can be considered definitive.

  11. Study protocol of the SACURA trial: a randomized phase III trial of efficacy and safety of UFT as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishiguro Megumi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer is internationally accepted as standard treatment with established efficacy, but the usefulness of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer remains controversial. The major Western guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for “high-risk stage II” cancer, but this is not clearly defined and the efficacy has not been confirmed. Methods/design SACURA trial is a multicenter randomized phase III study which aims to evaluate the superiority of 1-year adjuvant treatment with UFT to observation without any adjuvant treatment after surgery for stage II colon cancer in a large population, and to identify “high-risk factors of recurrence/death” in stage II colon cancer and predictors of efficacy and adverse events of the chemotherapy. Patients aged between 20 and 80 years with curatively resected stage II colon cancer are randomly assigned to a observation group or UFT adjuvant therapy group (UFT at 500–600 mg/day as tegafur in 2 divided doses after meals for 5 days, followed by 2-day rest. This 1-week treatment cycle is repeated for 1 year. The patients are followed up for 5 years until recurrence or death. Treatment delivery and adverse events are entered into a web-based case report form system every 3 months. The target sample size is 2,000 patients. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival, and the secondary endpoints are overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and incidence and severity of adverse events. In an additional translational study, the mRNA expression of 5-FU-related enzymes, microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability, and histopathological factors including tumor budding are assessed to evaluate correlation with recurrences, survivals and adverse events. Discussion A total of 2,024 patients were enrolled from October 2006 to July 2010. The results of this study will provide important information that help to improve the

  12. Weight change trajectory in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy and the effect of different regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Ni; Wen, Fur-Hsing; Miaskowski, Christine; Lin, Yung-Chang; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Jeng, Chii; Chen, Mei-Ling

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the trajectory of weight change in Taiwanese women with breast cancer after starting chemotherapy and the impact of chemotherapy regimens on weight change while controlling for age, menopausal status, body mass index, lymph node involvement and changes in habits of dietary fat intake and exercise. Weight gain after adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer has negative impact on health outcomes. Longitudinal, clinical observational study. Weights were repeatedly measured in 147 women with breast cancer stages I-III. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse these longitudinal data. The overall pattern of weight change was a cubic form beginning with a mean of 56·9 kg before chemotherapy. It gradually increased to 59·4 kg at 8·5 months after the first chemotherapy followed by a decrease to 58·5 kg at 21·5 months. During the last 2·5 months, weight increased slightly and never returned to the initial level. After controlling for confounders, steeper weight change was observed among women receiving cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil. The highest weight gain in the cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil group was 2·9 kg (5%) vs. 0·9 kg (1%) in the anthracycline-based group. The trajectory of body weight change within two years after chemotherapy shows a trend of gradual ascent, followed by a small decline and a slight increase in the last 2·5 months. The chemotherapy regimen can predict the trend after controlling for other confounders; women on cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil have a steeper weight change. Nurses can inform women with breast cancer about the expected changes in body weight after chemotherapy to reduce their uncertainty. Future studies on effective interventions to minimise chemotherapy-induced weight gain are needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Correlations between microsatellite instability, ERCC1/XRCC1 polymorphism and clinical characteristics, and FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy effect of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Jiangman; Yu, Bin; Song, Xinjiang; Sun, Guogang; Han, Lijiang; Wang, Lu; Dong, Shu

    2017-12-01

    Patients with MSI colorectal tumor have good prognosis and cannot benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-based chemotherapy reported by previous studies. While, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of ERCC1 and XRCC1 have be proved to influence clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. We aim to study the correlation between molecular status and clinical- pathological features, and their effect on CRC patients' clinical outcome treated with mFOLFOX6 adjuvant chemotherapy. In this study, MSI status was determined in tumors and paired normal tissues from 101 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We also examined SNP of ERCC1 (c. C354T) and XRCC1 (c.G1196A) in 83 and 85 patients' blood. MSI was found to be significantly correlated with well/moderate histopathological differentiation (p = 0.038) and CRC family history (p = 0.003). CEA and CA19-9 levels was positive correlated significantly by Spearman correlation analysis (Pearson's r = 0.823, p history (p = 0.003). The MSI status, ERCC1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms may influence the clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients treated with mFOLFOX6 adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjuvant chemotherapy followed by conformal chemoradiotherapy in gastric carcinoma; Chimiotherapie adjuvante suivie d'une chimioradiotherapie conformationnelle dans les cancers de l'estomac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchbika, Z.; Quero, L.; Kouto, H.; Hennequin-Baruch, V.; Sergent, G.; Maylin, C.; Hennequin, C. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de Cancerologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Gornet, J.M. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de Gastroenterologie, 75 - Paris (France); Munoz, N. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de chirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Cojean-Zelek, I.; Houdart, R. [Hopital de la Croix Saint-Simon, 75 - Paris (France); Panis, Y. [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Chirurgie Digestive, 92 - Clichy (France); Valleur, P. [Hopital Lariboisiere, Service de Chirurgie Digestive, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-12-15

    Purpose: Analysis of the feasibility and results of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by conformal chemoradiotherapy after surgery for gastric carcinoma. Patients and methods Twenty-six patients (R0 or R1) were treated postoperatively by three cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin, followed by a concomitant association of LV5FU2 chemotherapy with a conformal radiotherapy of 45 Gy. Results: The tumor was classified pT3-T4 in 77% of the patients and 92.5% had a nodal involvement (pN1: 54%; pN2: 31%). Feasibility (1) Adjuvant chemotherapy: nausea/vomiting grade II/III: 12 patients (48%); neutropenia grade III/IV: two patients; completed in all patients, except one. (2) Chemoradiotherapy: nausea/vomiting grade II/III: 10 patients; diarrhea grade II/3: two patients; oesophagitis grade II/III: two patients; myocardial infarction/pulmonary embolism: two patients. All patients except one received the planned dose of 45 Gy. Radiotherapy was interrupted in six cases, with a median duration of 14 days. Survival: with a median follow-up of 30 months, 65% of the patients were alive without disease; median survival was 32 months. Conclusion: This postoperative schedule was judged feasible. It allowed the deliverance of a more intensified chemotherapy than the classical schedule. Its clinical benefit must be evaluated in a phase III trial. (authors)

  15. The effects of short-term fasting on tolerance to (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer patients: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Stefanie; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Welters, Marij J P; Gravesteijn, Gido; Boei, Jan J W A; Jochems, Anouk; Houtsma, Daniel; Putter, Hein; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M; Nortier, Johan W R; Pijl, Hanno; Kroep, Judith R

    2015-10-05

    Preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects healthy cells against side effects of chemotherapy and makes cancer cells more vulnerable to it. This pilot study examines the feasibility of STF and its effects on tolerance of chemotherapy in a homogeneous patient group with early breast cancer (BC). Eligible patients had HER2-negative, stage II/III BC. Women receiving (neo)-adjuvant TAC (docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) were randomized to fast 24 h before and after commencing chemotherapy, or to eat according to the guidelines for healthy nutrition. Toxicity in the two groups was compared. Chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was quantified by the level of γ-H2AX analyzed by flow cytometry. Thirteen patients were included of whom seven were randomized to the STF arm. STF was well tolerated. Mean erythrocyte- and thrombocyte counts 7 days post-chemotherapy were significantly higher (P = 0.007, 95 % CI 0.106-0.638 and P = 0.00007, 95 % CI 38.7-104, respectively) in the STF group compared to the non-STF group. Non-hematological toxicity did not differ between the groups. Levels of γ-H2AX were significantly increased 30 min post-chemotherapy in CD45 + CD3- cells in non-STF, but not in STF patients. STF during chemotherapy was well tolerated and reduced hematological toxicity of TAC in HER2-negative BC patients. Moreover, STF may reduce a transient increase in, and/or induce a faster recovery of DNA damage in PBMCs after chemotherapy. Larger studies, investigating a longer fasting period, are required to generate more insight into the possible benefits of STF during chemotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01304251 , March 2011.

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer--analysis of treatment costs from the perspective of statutory sickness funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, M; Riemer-Hommel, P

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate sickness funds' costs associated with the application of three different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for patients with stage III colon cancer treated in different settings (inpatient/outpatient) in Germany. Standard procedures according to national guidelines were defined for inpatient and outpatient diagnostics and treatment. Costs associated with the three commonly used standard treatment regimens were calculated from the perspective of statutory sickness funds. The highest costs are associated with the FOLFOX regimen in the outpatient (21530.00 euro) as well as in the inpatient setting (23170.00 euro). Of the two 5-FU bolus regimens, the monthly MAYO-Clinic protocol (inpatient 7070.00 euro vs. outpatient 6610.00 euro) is significantly less expensive than the weekly NSABP protocol (17569.00 euro vs. 12200.00 euro). Costs are remarkably lower in the outpatient setting as compared to inpatient application of the MAYO-Clinic protocol or the FOLFOX regimen. In the outpatient setting, medication costs are the major cost-driving factor, comprising 82% of the total costs of the MAYO-Clinic protocol, 94% of the total costs of the NSABP, and 91% of the total costs of FOLFOX-4 regimen. In the inpatient setting, costs for medications are less important with regard to total costs (10% MAYO-Clinic, 7% NSABP, 10% FOLFOX-4), whereas costs for staff and hotel-like services become more important. From a health insurance perspective, substantial cost savings may be realised through the use of established chemotherapy regimens, if most patients are treated in the outpatient setting. In the outpatient setting, costs for drug prices are the main cost driver, so further savings could be realised for third-party payers if prices of chemotherapeutic drugs are reduced. For economic reasons, patients who are candidates for bolus 5-FU regimens, should not be treated according to the NSABP protocol. The MAYO-Clinic protocol is a low cost regimen in

  17. Is drug-induced toxicity a good predictor of response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer? -A prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh JP

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is an integral part of multi-modality approach in the management of locally advanced breast cancer and it is vital to predict the response in order to tailor the regime for a patient. The common final pathway in the tumor cell death is believed to be apoptosis or programmed cell death and chemotherapeutic drugs like other DNA-damaging agents act on rapidly multiplying cells including both the tumor and the normal cells by following the same common final pathway. This could account for both the toxic effects and the response. Absence or decreased apoptosis has been found to be associated with chemo resistance. The change in expression of apoptotic markers (Bcl-2 and Bax proteins brought about by various chemotherapeutic regimens is being used to identify drug resistance in the tumor cells. A prospective clinical study was conducted to assess whether chemotherapy induced toxic effects could serve as reliable predictors of apoptosis or response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Methods 50 cases of locally advanced breast cancer after complete routine and metastatic work up were subjected to trucut biopsy and the tissue evaluated immunohistochemically for apoptotic markers (bcl-2/bax ratio. Three cycles of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy using FAC regime (5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide were given at three weekly intervals and patients assessed for clinical response as well as toxicity after each cycle. Modified radical mastectomy was performed in all patients three weeks after the last cycle and the specimen were re-evaluated for any change in the bcl-2/bax ratio. The clinical response, immunohistochemical response and the drug-induced toxicity were correlated and compared. Descriptive studies were performed with SPSS version 10 and the significance of response was assessed using paired t-test. Significance of correlation between various variables was

  18. Chemotherapy-induced pain and neuropathy: a prospective study in patients treated with adjuvant oxaliplatin or docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventzel, Lise; Jensen, Anders B; Jensen, Anni R; Jensen, Troels S; Finnerup, Nanna B

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of cancer therapy. This study evaluates symptoms of CIPN and CIPN-related pain and its influence on psychological functioning and potential predictors of chronic CIPN and pain. In this large prospective questionnaire study, 174 patients receiving adjuvant oxaliplatin or docetaxel were consecutively included. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire with validated questions on peripheral neuropathy, pain, anxiety and depression, and quality of life at baseline, after the first cycle, halfway through therapy, and 1 year after baseline. Chronic CIPN symptoms (tingling and/or numbness) in the feet at 1-year follow-up were present in 63.6% of patients without preexisting neuropathy in the oxaliplatin group and in 44.8% in the docetaxel group, whereas pain in hands and feet was found in 31.3% and 35.1%, respectively. Both groups had significantly different pain profiles, and persistent pain in the docetaxel group was found to have effect on psychological function. Cumulative dose predicted oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy (P = 0.004), whereas endocrine therapy predicted peripheral pain in the docetaxel group (P = 0.04). There are important differences in acute neuropathic symptoms and chronic pain profiles in patients after oxaliplatin and docetaxel treatment. It is, however, important to recognize that chronic peripheral pain may be unrelated to neuropathy and can be caused by concomitant treatments. Future studies should focus on characterizing and distinguishing CIPN-related pain from other types of pain to determine the best outcome measures for trials on prevention or relief.

  19. Outcome of adjuvant chemotherapy with lomustine, vinblastine and chlorambucil on management of canine mast cell tumour of high to intermediate risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Horta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In spite of the many available protocols, the use of chemotherapy for the management of canine mast cell tumours (MCT remains empirical, and there is lack of criteria for the choice of protocol and definition of patients who may benefit from treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of dogs with MCT after adjuvant chemotherapy according to the risk of recurrence or metastasis proposed on the literature. This prospective study included 89 followed up dogs with prognosis assesment including clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and genetic features of canine MCT. Patients were grouped according to risk of recurrence and metastasis and recommended treatment with lomustine followed by chlorambucil if considered at high-risk, or vinblastine followed by chlorambucil if a patient was at intermediate risk. Outcome was defined by disease-free interval (DFI and overall survival (OS estimated by Kaplan-Meier curve. Adjuvant lomustine was useful for control of canine MCT of high-risk of recurrence or metastasis, but only when sequentially associated to chlorambucil with a DFI of 686 days and not reached OS. There was no difference in outcome in the intermediate-risk group despite choosen treatment. Patients at intermediate-to-low risk may not require adjuvant treatments, even in the absence of free surgical margins.

  20. Does chemotherapy-induced neutropaenia result in a postponement of adjuvant or neoadjuvant regimens in breast cancer patients? Results of a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debled, M; Houédé, N; Madranges, N; Donamaria, C; Floquet, A; Durand, M; Mauriac, Louis

    2007-12-17

    In 2005, 224 patients received adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer in a single institution according to daily practices. Regimens consisted of epirubicin-based chemotherapy (FEC100, four or six cycles), or three cycles of FEC100 followed by three cycles of docetaxel. An absolute blood count was carried out every 3 weeks, 1-3 days before planned chemotherapy cycle. Overall, 1238 cycles were delivered. An absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <1.5 x 10(9) l(-1) before planned chemotherapy was found in 171 cycles. Of these, 130 cycles (76%) were delivered as planned regardless of whether ANC levels recovered, and 41 (24%) were delayed. None of these patients developed a febrile neutropaenia. Haematopoietic support (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)) was required in 12 cycles. We found that the majority of patients with an ANC <1.5 x 10(9) l(-1) before planned chemotherapy received planned doses, without complications and need for G-CSF.

  1. Intrinsic subtypes and benefit from postmastectomy radiotherapy in node-positive premenopausal breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy - results from two independent randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Tinne; Tramm, Trine; Nielsen, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study of the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer has revealed differences among them in terms of prognosis and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. However, the ability of intrinsic subtypes to predict benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy has only been examined...... in few studies. METHODS: Gene expression-based intrinsic subtyping was performed in 228 breast tumors collected from two independent post-mastectomy clinical trials (British Columbia and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 82b trials), where pre-menopausal patients with node-positive disease were......: In the British Columbia study, patients treated with radiation had an overall significant lower incidence of locoregional recurrence compared to the controls. For Luminal A tumors the risk of loco-regional recurrence was low and was further lowered by adjuvant radiation. These findings were validated in the DBCG...

  2. A prospective, multicenter pilot study to investigate the feasibility and safety of a 1-year controlled exercise training after adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piringer, Gudrun; Fridrik, Michael; Fridrik, Alfred; Leiherer, Andreas; Zabernigg, August; Greil, Richard; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Tschmelitsch, Jörg; Lang, Alois; Frantal, Sophie; Burgstaller, Sonja; Gnant, Michael; Thaler, Josef

    2017-11-22

    Despite advances in adjuvant chemotherapy, 20-30% of patients in stages II-III colorectal cancer will eventually relapse. Observational studies showed a reduction in relapse rate, colon cancer-specific mortality, and overall mortality by physical activity. Results from prospective randomized interventional studies to confirm these observational data are lacking. The aims of this prospective single-arm multicenter pilot study are to evaluate feasibility and safety of exercise training after adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients. The training was performed three times per week for 1 year and was increased gradually in three phases until reaching 18 metabolic equivalent task hours per week. Overall, 30 patients were included. The planned training intensity could be achieved in all three phases. Patients experienced a performance increase of median 35.5 watt, a weight-loss of a median of 3.0 kg, and a reduction in body fat content of median 1.0% during this exercise training. The analysis showed early study termination due to non-compliance in 10/30 patients (33.3%), disease progression in 4 patients (13.3%), and serious adverse events in 2 patients (6.7%). About half of patients (46.7%) completed the pilot study as planned. Biomarker analysis from 20 patients showed a non-significant reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3) levels, significant increases in adiponectin and leptin levels, and a non-significant increase in C-peptide levels. Exercise training is feasible in patients with colorectal cancer after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. The main problem encountered during the study was compliance. To improve compliance of exercise training, several measures were adapted for the upcoming prospective randomized ABCSG C08 Exercise II study.

  3. PLANNING PHASE 2 MULTICENTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF NEOADJUVANT CHEMO-RADIOTHERAPY FOLLOWED BY D2 GASTRECTOMY AND ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY FOR LOCALLY ADVANCED GASTRIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Skoropad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prognosis for surgical treatment of locally advanced gastric cancer remains disappointing. Neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy is relatively new and the least researched method of treatment, it is attracting more and more attention, mainly abroad in recent years. The aims of neoadjuvant therapy is the earliest start of systemic therapy, damage of the primary tumor and regional metastases, an increase in the percentage of radical operations, improving treatment outcome. Material and methods. The planning study is a multicenter, randomized clinical phase II trial. Patients of the first (experimental group will be treated as the followes: neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (total tumor dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions with the concurrent modified CapOX scheme followed by D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients of the second (control group will be treated with D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy will be carried out under the following schemes (optional for the researchers: CapOX or FOLFOX. Toxicity evaluation of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy will be conducted with NCI CTC Toxicity Scale Version 3.0. The main objectives of the trial are to assess the safety and immediate effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy according to the criteria of the frequency and severity of postoperative complications and mortality, and tumor response. We are planning to include 80 patients with morphologically confirmed gastric cancer сT2–4N1–3, сT3–4N0–3; М0. The proposed trial will be carried out in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration, it has been approved by local ethic committees of the participated institutions. Results. As a result of this multicenter randomized trial it is planned to show the reproducibility of obtained in MRRC and a number of foreign centers results – that is, the safety and high immediate effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemo

  4. Treatment using oxaliplatin and S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for pathological stage III gastric cancer: a multicenter phase II study (TOSA trial) protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Maeda, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Oba, Koji; Tsuji, Akihito; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-13

    Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of S-1-based adjuvant chemotherapy administered for six months after curative surgery for stage III gastric cancer; however, it is unproven whether this type of combination chemotherapy is more effective than the standard adjuvant chemotherapy of S-1 for one year. This multicenter phase II study evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant chemotherapy using S-1 plus oxaliplatin followed by S-1 for up to one year for curatively resected stage III gastric cancer in patients aged over 20 years. Treatment initially comprises oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 (80 mg/m 2 ) administered twice daily for the first 2 weeks of a 3-week cycle. On day 1 of a second 3-week cycle, patients will receive 100 mg/m 2 of intravenous oxaliplatin followed by 80 mg/m 2 of S-1 (maximum 8 cycles). Then, the patients will receive 80 mg/m 2 of S-1 daily for 4 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of no chemotherapy. This 6-week cycle will be repeated during the first year after surgery. The primary endpoint is relapse-free survival for 3 years and secondary endpoints are safety, including the incidence of adverse events, and grading of neuropathy with each treatment cycle. The planned sample size of 75 patients is appropriate for this trial. The data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, assuming a two-sided test with a 5% level of significance. In contrast to previous trials, the current study involves administration of S-1 until one year after surgery in addition to prior S-1 plus oxaliplatin, and is the first study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of S-1 plus oxaliplatin followed by S-1 for up to one year in patients with curatively resected stage III gastric cancer. This trial is registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network's Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) registration number, R000029656  ( https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000029656 ). Registered January 24, 2017.

  5. Adjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Pelvic Radiotherapy After Simultaneous Surgical Resection of Rectal Cancer With Liver Metastases: Analysis of Prognosis and Patterns of Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ho Jung [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Chang Sik [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sung-Cheol [Department of Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Woog; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Ryu, Min-Hee; Chang, Heung Moon [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Jong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yoon-Koo [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Cheon [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won, E-mail: twkimmd@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) after simultaneous surgical resection in rectal cancer patients with liver metastases (LM). Materials and Methods: One hundred and eight patients receiving total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer and surgical resection for LM were reviewed. Forty-eight patients received adjuvant CRT, and 60 were administered CT alone. Recurrence patterns and prognosis were analyzed. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were compared between the CRT and CT groups. The inverse probability of the treatment-weighted (IPTW) method based on the propensity score was used to adjust for selection bias between the two groups. Results: At a median follow-up period of 47.7 months, 77 (71.3%) patients had developed recurrences. The majority of recurrences (68.8%) occurred in distant organs. By contrast, the local recurrence rate was only 4.7%. Median DFS and OS were not significantly different between the CRT and CT groups. After applying the IPTW method, we observed no significant differences in terms of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.347; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.759-2.392; p = 0.309) and OS (HR, 1.413; CI, 0.752-2.653; p = 0.282). Multivariate analyses showed that unilobar distribution of LM and normal preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level (<6 mg/mL) were significantly associated with longer DFS and OS. Conclusions: The local recurrence rate after simultaneous resection of rectal cancer with LM was relatively low. DFS and OS rates were not different between the adjuvant CRT and CT groups. Adjuvant CRT may have a limited role in this setting. Further prospective randomized studies are required to evaluate optimal adjuvant treatment in these patients.

  6. The Impact of Age on Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Comparative Analysis From the Prospective Multicenter Randomized ADEBAR trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinert, Elena; Singer, Susanne; Janni, Wolfgang; Harbeck, Nadia; Weissenbacher, Tobias; Rack, Brigitte; Augustin, Doris; Wischnik, Arthur; Kiechle, Marion; Ettl, Johannes; Fink, Visnja; Schwentner, Lukas; Eichler, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Elderly breast cancer patients are affected by poorer quality of life (QoL) compared to younger patients. Because QoL has a relevant impact on guideline-adherent treatment, elderly breast cancer patients are often undertreated, especially with regard to adjuvant chemotherapy, and overall survival is decreased. Thus, understanding the impact of chemotherapy on QoL in elderly patients is crucial. This study compared QoL in patients aged breast cancer were prospectively randomized for either sequential anthracycline-taxane or epirubicin/fluorouracil/cyclophosphamid chemotherapy (FEC) therapy. QoL was assessed at baseline (t1), before cycle 4 FEC, and cycle 5 epirubicin/cyclophosphamid-docetaxel (EC-DOC) (t2), 4 weeks after chemotherapy (t3), and 6 weeks after radiation (t4) using the European Organization for Research and Treatment for Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and the Breast Cancer-Specific Module (QLQ-BR23). We compared patients aged aged 65 to 70 years. In elderly patients, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was higher and global health status and physical functioning were lower at baseline. Global health status decreased between t1 and t3 by 7 points in patients aged aged 65 to 70 years (25.7%) than in patients aged aged breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-cancer-related mortality after cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: a study-level meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Fausto; Barni, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with increased overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but is associated with high-grade toxicity. The effect of cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy on non-lung cancer-related mortality is not well investigated. We conducted a systematic review and a study-level meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to determine the overall risk of non-lung cancer-related mortality associated with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC. PubMed was searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible publications included prospective RCTs in which cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy plus local therapy was compared with local therapy alone in NSCLC. Summary incidence rates, relative risks (RRs), and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. Primary endpoint was non-lung cancer-related mortality risk (due to cardiovascular, respiratory or second malignancy deaths for example), and secondary endpoints were chemotherapy-related, second primary tumor-related, cardiovascular-related, and unknown cause mortalities. A total of 6,430 patients with NSCLC from 16 RCTs were included in the analysis. Compared with no chemotherapy, the use of cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of non-lung cancer-related death, with an RR of 1.30 (95 % CI 1.1-1.53; P = 0.002; incidence, 9.3 vs. 7.2 %; absolute difference 2 %). Cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy was also associated with a greater risk of chemotherapy-related mortality (RR 2.16, 95 % CI 1.15-4.06; P = 0.02). Second primary tumor-related mortality and cardiovascular-related mortality were similar. In this meta-analysis of RCTs in NSCLC, cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a 30 % increase in non-lung cancer-related mortality compared with local therapy alone.

  8. The influence of demographics, psychological factors and self-efficacy on symptom distress in colorectal cancer patients undergoing post-surgical adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-fen; Zheng, Mei-chun; Liu, Wei-yan; Wen, Yong-shan; Wu, Xiao-dan; Liu, Qian-wen

    2015-02-01

    To explore the influence of self-efficacy and demographic, disease-related, and psychological factors on symptom distress among Chinese colorectal cancer patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Two-hundred and fifty-two colorectal cancer patients who had undergone postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy completed Chinese versions of M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-GI), Stanford Inventory of Cancer Patient Adjustment (SICPA), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Associations between patients' self-efficacy and demographic, disease-related, psychological factors and symptom distress were examined. Patients' overall symptom distress level was mild; MDASI median subscale scores showed mild symptom severity and symptom interference. Anxiety and depression were positively associated with symptom distress. Multivariable analysis showed that more severe symptoms were associated with age ≥60 years, female gender, suburban residence, body mass index 60 years, female gender, body mass index <18.5, suburban residence and stage III disease. Nurse-administered self-efficacy interventions may help to improve self-efficacy and reduce symptom distress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prolactin-induced protein as a potential therapy response marker of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonska, Karolina; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Stasiolek, Mariusz; Pula, Bartosz; Olbromski, Mateusz; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Rys, Janusz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Ong, Siew Hwa; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Many studies are dedicated to exploring the molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy-resistance in breast cancer (BC). Some of them are focused on searching for candidate genes responsible for this process. The aim of this study was typing the candidate genes associated with the response to standard chemotherapy in the case of invasive ductal carcinoma. Frozen material from 28 biopsies obtained from IDC patients with different responses to chemotherapy were examined using gene expression microarr...

  10. Association between ERCC1 and TS mRNA levels and disease free survival in colorectal cancer patients receiving oxaliplatin and fluorouracil (5-FU) adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Zhu, Liangjun; Yao, Li; Xia, Lei; Pan, Liangxi

    2014-08-29

    Aim was to explore the association of ERCC1 and TS mRNA levels with the disease free survival (DFS) in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving oxaliplatin and 5-FU based adjuvant chemotherapy. Total 112 Chinese stage II-III CRC patients were respectively treated by four different chemotherapy regimens after curative operation. The TS and ERCC1 mRNA levels in primary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests were used for DFS analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for prognostic analysis. In univariate analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) for the mRNA expression levels of TS and ERCC1 (logTS: HR = 0.820, 95% CI = 0.600 - 1.117, P = 0.210; logERCC1: HR = 1.054, 95% CI = 0.852 - 1.304, P = 0.638) indicated no significant association of DFS with the TS and ERCC1 mRNA levels. In multivariate analyses, tumor stage (IIIc: reference, P = 0.083; IIb: HR = 0.240, 95% CI = 0.080 - 0.724, P = 0.011; IIc: HR TS and ERCC1 mRNA levels were not significantly associated with the DFS (TS: P = 0.264; ERCC1: P = 0.484). The mRNA expression of ERCC1 and TS were not applicable to predict the DFS of Chinese stage II-III CRC patients receiving 5-FU and oxaliplatin based adjuvant chemotherapy.

  11. Progressive resistance versus relaxation training for breast cancer patients during adjuvant chemotherapy: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial (BEATE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Knicker, Axel J; Habermann, Nina; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steindorf, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue is a common severe symptom in breast cancer patients, especially during chemotherapy. Exercise appears to be promising in prevention or treatment of fatigue. Resistance training as an accompanying treatment to chemotherapy has been minimally investigated, yet might counteract muscle degradation and inflammation caused by many chemotherapeutics, and thus forestall or reduce fatigue. Previous exercise trials mostly compared the intervention with 'usual care'. Therefore, it is unclear to what extent the observed effects on fatigue are based on physical adaptations by exercise itself, or rather on psycho-social factors linked to the group support or attention by the trainer. The BEATE study is a randomized, controlled intervention trial comparing a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training program with a supervised group-based progressive muscle relaxation training in 100 patients with breast cancer under adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include quality of life, depression, and cognitive capacity. In addition, isokinetic and isometric muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body composition are measured, and biomarkers, such as inflammatory parameters, cortisol, and oxidative stress are analyzed in blood, saliva and urine. Safety of the resistance training during chemotherapy is monitored. Strengths of the BEATE study include the investigation of progressive resistance training parallel with chemotherapy, the choice of a control group that enables an evaluation of the physiological effects of exercise beyond potential psycho-social effects, and the comprehensive and high-quality assessment of physiological factors and biomarkers potentially related to fatigue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy or by surgery and chemoradiotherapy for patients with resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS

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    van Grieken Nicole CT

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radical surgery is the cornerstone in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. The Intergroup 0116 and MAGIC trials have shown benefit of postoperative chemoradiation and perioperative chemotherapy, respectively. Since these trials cannot be compared directly, both regimens are evaluated prospectively in the CRITICS trial. This study aims to obtain an improved overall survival for patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy and surgery by incorporating radiotherapy concurrently with chemotherapy postoperatively. Methods/design In this phase III multicentre study, patients with resectable gastric cancer are treated with three cycles of preoperative ECC (epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine, followed by surgery with adequate lymph node dissection, and then either another three cycles of ECC or concurrent chemoradiation (45 Gy, cisplatin and capecitabine. Surgical, pathological, and radiotherapeutic quality control is performed. The primary endpoint is overall survival, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival (DFS, toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL, prediction of response, and recurrence risk assessed by genomic and expression profiling. Accrual for the CRITICS trial is from the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark, and more countries are invited to participate. Conclusion Results of this study will demonstrate whether the combination of preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy will improve the clinical outcome of the current European standard of perioperative chemotherapy, and will therefore play a key role in the future management of patients with resectable gastric cancer. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00407186

  13. The role of induction and adjuvant chemotherapy in combination with concurrent chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials

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    Yu HL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hongliang Yu,1,* Dayong Gu,1,* Xia He,1 Xianshu Gao,2 Xiuhua Bian1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital affiliated with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Whether the addition of induction chemotherapy (IC or adjuvant chemotherapy (AC to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT is superior to CCRT alone for locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer is unknown. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed to investigate the efficacy of CCRT, IC + CCRT, and CCRT + AC on locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. The overall survival (OS with hazard ratios (HRs and locoregional recurrence rates (LRRs and distant metastasis rates (DMRs with risk ratios (RRs were investigated. After a comprehensive database search, eleven studies involving 2,626 assigned patients were included in this network meta-analysis. Compared with CCRT alone, IC + CCRT resulted in no significant improvement in OS or LRR and a marginal improvement in DMR (OS: HR =0.67, 95% credible interval (CrI 0.32–1.18; LRR: RR =1.79, 95% CrI 0.80–3.51; DMR: RR =1.79, 95% CrI 0.24–1.04 and CCRT + AC exhibited no beneficial effects on any of the endpoints of OS, LRR, or DMR (OS: HR =0.99, 95% CrI 0.64–1.43; LRR: RR =0.78, 95% CrI 0.43–1.32; DMR: RR =0.85, 95% CrI 0.57–1.24. As a conclusion, for locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer, no significant differences in the treatment efficacies of CCRT, IC + CCRT, and CCRT + AC were found, with the exception of a marginally significant improvement in distant control observed following IC + CCRT compared with CCRT alone. Keywords: concurrent chemotherapy, induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, nasopharyngeal cancer, network meta-analysis

  14. Medulloblastoma in China: Clinicopathologic Analyses of SHH, WNT, and Non-SHH/WNT Molecular Subgroups Reveal Different Therapeutic Responses to Adjuvant Chemotherapy

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    Ren, Yong; Yao, Yu; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Ng, Ho-Keung; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Zhong, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors in children. Data is lacking of a large cohort of medulloblastoma patients in China. Also, our knowledge on the sensitivity of different molecular subgroups of MB to adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CHT) is still limited. The authors performed a retrospective study of 173 medulloblastoma patients treated at two institutions from 2002 to 2011. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues were available in all the cases and sections were stained to classify histological and molecular subgroups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate prognostic factors. Of 173 patients, there were 118 children and 55 adults, 112 males and 61 females. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for all patients, children and adults were 52%, 48% and 63%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, postoperative primary radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CHT) were revealed as favorable prognostic factors influencing OS and EFS. Postoperative primary chemotherapy (CHT) was found significantly improving the survival of children (pmedulloblastoma (CMB) (OS pmedulloblastoma (DMB) (OS p = 0.361, EFS p = 0.834) and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.127, EFS p = 0.055). Our study showed postoperative primary CHT significantly influence the survival of CMB, SHH subgroup and WNT subgroup but not in DMB and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup of MB. PMID:24932704

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin compared to observation after curative intent resection of cholangiocarcinoma and muscle invasive gallbladder carcinoma (ACTICCA-1 trial) - a randomized, multidisciplinary, multinational phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, A.; Arnold, D.; Bridgewater, J.

    2015-01-01

    selected the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin for 24 weeks as investigational treatment. Based on adjuvant trials in pancreatic cancer with comparable postoperative recovery time, inclusion of patients within a maximum interval of 16 weeks between surgery and start of chemotherapy was stipulated...

  16. Gemcitabine-induced radiation recall phenomenon in a post-operative and post-radiotherapy case of peri-ampullary carcinoma during adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation recall phenomenon is an inflammatory process occurring at sites of previous radiation subsequent to administration of pharmacologic agents. The most common chemotherapeutic agents implicated with radiation recall phenomenon are anthracyclines and taxanes. Skin is the most common site for radiation recall. About 63% of the radiation recall events are reported to manifest as dermatitis. This finding differs from radiation recall due to Gemcitabine, in which approximately 70% cases manifested as inflammation of internal organs or tissues and 30% manifested as dermatitis. Here, we report a case of post-operative peri-ampullary carcinoma who developed radiation recall dermatitis during adjuvant chemotherapy with inj. Gemcitabine and inj. Carboplatin after concurrent chemoradiation with capecitabine.

  17. A polymorphism in the base excision repair gene PARP2 is associated with differential prognosis by chemotherapy among postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Petra; Schmezer, Peter; Behrens, Sabine; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Nord, Silje; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Jager, Agnes; Seynaeve, Caroline; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Dunning, Alison M; Rhenius, Valerie; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Hamann, Ute; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Purrington, Kristen S; Couch, Fergus J; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Doug F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Popanda, Odilia

    2015-12-16

    Personalized therapy considering clinical and genetic patient characteristics will further improve breast cancer survival. Two widely used treatments, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can induce oxidative DNA damage and, if not repaired, cell death. Since base excision repair (BER) activity is specific for oxidative DNA damage, we hypothesized that germline genetic variation in this pathway will affect breast cancer-specific survival depending on treatment. We assessed in 1,408 postmenopausal breast cancer patients from the German MARIE study whether cancer specific survival after adjuvant chemotherapy, anthracycline chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is modulated by 127 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 BER genes. For SNPs with interaction terms showing p<0.1 (likelihood ratio test) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses, replication in 6,392 patients from nine studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) was performed. rs878156 in PARP2 showed a differential effect by chemotherapy (p=0.093) and was replicated in BCAC studies (p=0.009; combined analysis p=0.002). Compared to non-carriers, carriers of the variant G allele (minor allele frequency=0.07) showed better survival after chemotherapy (combined allelic hazard ratio (HR)=0.75, 95% 0.53-1.07) and poorer survival when not treated with chemotherapy (HR=1.42, 95% 1.08-1.85). A similar effect modification by rs878156 was observed for anthracycline-based chemotherapy in both MARIE and BCAC, with improved survival in carriers (combined allelic HR=0.73, 95% CI 0.40-1.32). None of the SNPs showed significant differential effects by radiotherapy. Our data suggest for the first time that a SNP in PARP2, rs878156, may together with other genetic variants modulate cancer specific survival in breast cancer patients depending on chemotherapy. These germline SNPs could contribute towards the design of predictive tests for breast cancer patients.

  18. Results of a diet/exercise feasibility trial to prevent adverse body composition change in breast cancer patients on adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Case, L Douglas; Blackwell, Kimberly; Marcom, P Kelly; Kraus, William; Aziz, Noreen; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Giguere, Jeffrey K; Shaw, Edward

    2008-02-01

    Patients with breast cancer on adjuvant chemotherapy can experience weight gain and concurrent losses in muscle mass. Exercise interventions can prevent these changes, but time and travel pose barriers to participation. The Survivor Training for Enhancing Total Health (STRENGTH) trial assessed the feasibility and impact of 2 home-based interventions. Ninety premenopausal patients with breast cancer on adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to a calcium-rich diet (CA) intervention (attention control) or to 2 experimental arms: a CA + exercise (EX) arm or a CA + EX and high fruit and vegetable, low-fat diet (FVLF) arm. Exercise arms included aerobic and strength-training exercises. Body composition, weight status, waist circumference, dietary intake, physical activity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, serum lipids, sex hormone binding globulin, insulin, proinsulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1B, and tumor-necrosis factor receptor-II were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Accrual targets were achieved and modest attrition was observed (8.8%). Self-reports suggest increased calcium intakes in all arms, and higher fruit and vegetable and lower fat intake in the CA + EX + FVLF arm; no differences in physical activity were observed. While measures of adiposity were generally lower in the CA + EX + FVLF arm, the only significant difference was in percentage of body fat (arms and legs); change in scores (mean +/- standard deviation) were +0.7% +/- 2.3% (CA); +1.2% +/- 2.7% (CA + EX); and +0.1% +/- 2% (CA + EX + FVLF; P = .047). Lean body mass was largely preserved, even in the control arm (net gain of 452 g +/- 2395 g). No differences were observed in other endpoints. Diet and exercise interventions can prevent weight gain and adverse body composition changes, but more research is needed to determine optimally effective interventions that can be implemented during active treatment and that promote adherence.

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using dye alone method is reliable and accurate even after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer - a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Ashwani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB is now considered a standard of care in early breast cancers with N0 axillae; however, its role in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT is still being debated. The present study assessed the feasibility, efficacy and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB using "dye alone" (methylene blue method in patients with LABC following NACT. Materials and methods Thirty, biopsy proven cases of LABC that had received three cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil were subjected to SLNB (using methylene blue dye followed by complete axillary lymph node dissection (levels I-III. The sentinel node(s was/were and the axilla were individually assessed histologically. The SLN accuracy parameters were calculated employing standard definitions. The SLN identification rate in the present study was 100%. The sensitivity of SLNB was 86.6% while the accuracy was 93.3%, which were comparable with other studies done using dual lymphatic mapping method. The SLN was found at level I in all cases and no untoward reaction to methylene blue dye was observed. Conclusions This study confirms that SLNB using methylene blue dye as a sole mapping agent is reasonably safe and almost as accurate as dual agent mapping method. It is likely that in the near future, SLNB may become the standard of care and provide a less morbid alternative to routine axillary lymph node dissection even in patients with LABC that have received NACT.

  20. hERG1 positivity and Glut-1 negativity identifies high-risk TNM stage I and II colorectal cancer patients, regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Leonardo; Petroni, Giulia; Antonuzzo, Lorenzo; Boni, Luca; Iorio, Jessica; Lastraioli, Elena; Bartoli, Gianluca; Messerini, Luca; Di Costanzo, Francesco; Arcangeli, Annarosa

    2016-01-01

    The identification of early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) with high risk of progression is one major clinical challenge, mainly due to lack of validated biomarkers. The aims of the present study were to analyze the prognostic impact of three molecular markers belonging to the ion channels and transporters family: the ether-à-go-go-related gene 1 (hERG1) and the calcium-activated KCa3.1 potassium channels, as well as the glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1); and to define the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in conjunction with the abovementioned biomarkers, in a cohort of radically resected stage I-III CRC patients. The expressions of hERG1, KCa3.1, and Glut-1 were tested by immunohistochemistry on 162 surgical samples of nonmetastatic, stage I-III CRC patients. The median follow-up was 32 months. The association between biological markers, clinicopathological features, and survival outcomes was investigated by evaluating both disease-free survival and overall survival. Although no prognostic valence emerged for KCa3.1, evidence of a negative impact of hERG1 expression on survival outcomes was provided. On the contrary, Glut-1 expression had a positive impact. According to the results of the multivariate analysis, patients were stratified in four risk groups, based on TNM stage and hERG1/Glut-1 expression. After adjusting for adjuvant therapy, stage I and II, Glut-1-negative, and hERG1-positive patients showed the worst survival experience. This study strongly indicates that the combination of hERG1 positivity and Glut-1 negativity behaves as a prognostic biomarker in radically resected CRC patients. This combination identifies a group of stage I and II CRC patients with a bad prognosis, even worse than that of stage III patients, regardless of adjuvant therapy accomplishment.

  1. Intensity-modulated whole abdomen irradiation following adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy for FIGO stage III ovarian cancer. Four-year outcomes

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    Rochet, Nathalie; Lindel, Katja; Katayama, Sonja; Schubert, Kai; Herfarth, Klaus; Harms, Wolfgang; Debus, Juergen [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Schneeweiss, Andreas [University of Heidelberg, Nationales Centrum fuer Tumorerkrankungen (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany); Sohn, Christoph [University of Heidelberg, Department of Gynecology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    A prospective study to assess toxicity and survival outcomes after intensity-modulated whole-abdominal irradiation (IM-WAI) following surgery and adjuvant intravenous carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy in advanced FIGO stage III ovarian cancer. Between 2006 and 2009, 16 patients with optimally resected FIGO stage III ovarian cancer, who had received six cycles of adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy were treated with consolidation IM-WAI. Radiotherapy was delivered to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions, using step-and-shoot (n = 3) or helical tomotherapy (n = 13). The first 10 patients were treated within a phase I trial; the following patients received the same treatment modality. The target volume included the entire peritoneal cavity, the diaphragm, the liver capsule, and the pelvic and para-aortic node regions. Organs at risk were kidneys, liver, heart, and bone marrow. Median follow-up was 44 months (range 19.2-67.2 months). No grade 4 toxicities occurred during IM-WAI. Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grade 3 toxicities were: diarrhea (25 %), leucopenia (19 %), nausea/vomiting (6 %), and thrombocytopenia (6 %). No toxicity-related treatment break was necessary. Small bowel obstruction occurred in a total of 6 patients: in 3 cases (19 %) due to postsurgical adhesions and in 3 cases due to local tumor recurrence (19 %). Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 27.6 months (95 % confidence interval, CI = 24-44 months) and median overall survival (OS) was 42.1 months (95 %CI = 17-68 months). The peritoneal cavity was the most frequent site of initial failure. Consolidation IM-WAI following surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy is feasible and can be performed with manageable acute and late toxicity. The favorable RFS outcome is promising and justifies further clinical trials. (orig.) [German] Es wurden Akut- und Langzeittoxizitaet sowie Ueberlebensdaten der konsolidierenden intensitaetsmodulierten Ganzabdomenbestrahlung (&apos

  2. Prognostic Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy-Induced Amenorrhea and Subsequent Resumption of Menstruation for Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jeong; Lee, Jae Il; Jeon, Myung Jae; Lee, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) is a side effect that occurs in patients with breast cancer (BC) as a result of chemotherapy. These patients require special treatments to avoid infertility and menopause. However, the factors controlling CIA, resumption of menstruation (RM), and persistence of menstruation after chemotherapy are unknown. The long-term prognosis for premenopausal patients with BC and the prognostic factors associated with CIA and RM are subject to debate. We performed a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of 249 patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who were treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The median patient age was 43 (range, 26-55 years) and the median duration of follow-up was 64 months (range, 28-100 months). The medical records indicated that 219 patients (88.0%) scored as positive for the hormone receptor (HR); the majority of these patients completed chemotherapy and then received additional therapy of tamoxifen. Our analyses revealed that 88.0% (n = 219) of patients experienced CIA, and the percentage of RM during follow-up was 48.6% (n = 121). A total of 30 patients (12.0%) did not experience CIA. Disease-free survival (DFS) was affected by several factors, including tumour size ≥2 cm, node positivity, HR negative status, and body mass index ≥23 kg/m. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumour size ≥2 cm remained as a significant factor for DFS (hazard ratio = 3.3, P = 0.034). In summary, this study finds that the majority of premenopausal patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who receive chemotherapy experience CIA and subsequent RM. Although tumour size ≥2 cm is negatively associated with DFS, RM after CIA is not associated with poor prognosis.

  3. Pre-treatment Symptom Cluster in Breast Cancer Patients is Associated with Worse Sleep, Fatigue and Depression during Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianqi; Fiorentino, Lavinia; Natarajan, Loki; Parker, Barbara A.; Mills, Paul J; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Rissling, Michelle; He, Feng; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Objective The concept of symptom clusters is relatively new in cancer patients' symptom management. This study, which spanned four cycles of chemotherapy, combined three commonly seen pre-treatment symptoms in cancer patients (i.e., sleep disturbances, fatigue and depression) into one symptom cluster, to explore the associations between pre-treatment cluster categories and longitudinal profiles of these same symptoms during chemotherapy. Methods This was a prospective study. Seventy-six women with newly diagnosed stage I–III breast cancer, scheduled to receive at least four cycles of adjuvant or neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy participated. Data were collected at seven time points before and during treatment. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Fatigue was measured with the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D). Patients were divided into three groups based on the number of symptoms they experienced before the start of chemotherapy (i.e., no symptoms, 1–2 symptoms or all three symptoms) and a symptom cluster index (SCI) was computed. Results All women reported worse sleep, more fatigue and more depressive symptoms during treatment compared to baseline (all p's <0.01); however, those women with a higher symptom cluster index (i.e., more symptoms pre-treatment) continued to experience worse symptoms during treatment compared to those who began with fewer symptoms (all p's <0.01). Conclusions A higher clinically relevant-based pre-treatment symptom cluster was associated with more sleep disturbances, greater fatigue and more depressive symptoms during chemotherapy. Specific interventions for these pre-treatment symptoms may improve the frequency and severity of these same symptoms during chemotherapy, when they are most severe and most disruptive to quality of life. PMID:18677716

  4. Predictive value of pretreatment lymphocyte count in stage II colorectal cancer and in high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Huixun; Huang, Liyong; Li, Dawei; Li, Qingguo; Li, Xinxiang

    2016-01-05

    Pretreatment lymphocyte count (LC) has been associated with prognosis and chemotherapy response in several cancers. The predictive value of LC for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and for high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) has not been determined. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 1332 consecutive stage II CRC patients who underwent curative tumor resection was conducted. A pretreatment LC value risk, 459 (62.2%) of whom received AC. Patients with low LCs had significantly worse 5-year OS (74.6% vs. 90.2%, p risk patients with low LCs had the poorest DFS (p value or combined with high-risk status were both independent prognostic factors(p risk, AC-treated patients with high LCs had significantly longer DFS than untreated patients (HR, 0.594; 95% CI, 0.364-0.970; p = 0.035). There was no difference or trend for DFS or OS in patients with low LCs, regardless of the use of AC (DFS, p = 0.692; OS, p = 0.522). Low LC was also independently associated with poorer DFS in high-risk, AC-treated patients (HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.112-3.196; p = 0.019). Pretreatment LC is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II CRC. Furthermore, pretreatment LC reliably predicts chemotherapeutic efficacy in high-risk patients with stage II CRC.

  5. Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved overall survival in pelvic node-positive penile cancer after lymph node dissection: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pranav; Djajadiningrat, Rosa; Zargar-Shoshtari, Kamran; Catanzaro, Mario; Zhu, Yao; Nicolai, Nicola; Horenblas, Simon; Spiess, Philippe E

    2015-11-01

    We determined whether adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) would be associated with improved survival after lymph node dissection (LND) for patients with penile cancer (PeCa) who have positive pelvic lymph nodes (PPLNs). We retrospectively identified patients across 4 centers with penile squamous cell carcinoma who underwent LND from 1978 to 2013 and were found to have PPLNs. Patients who received chemotherapy before surgery or in the presence of recurrent disease were excluded. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association of AC with overall survival (OS), which was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in OS were determined with the log-rank test. During the study period, 141 patients who underwent LND for PeCa had PPLNs, and 84 of them met inclusion criteria. Median number of PPLNs was 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 4-7), with 10% of cases occurring bilaterally and 55% having pelvic extranodal extension. AC was used in 36 (43%) patients. Patients who received AC were younger (P = 0.014), had less-aggressive penile tumor pathology (Pimproved OS on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.87; P = 0.021). AC is associated with improved OS in patients with PeCa who have PPLNs after LND. Prospective studies are needed to demonstrate causality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prolactin-induced protein as a potential therapy response marker of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Karolina; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Stasiolek, Mariusz; Pula, Bartosz; Olbromski, Mateusz; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Rys, Janusz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Ong, Siew Hwa; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Many studies are dedicated to exploring the molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy-resistance in breast cancer (BC). Some of them are focused on searching for candidate genes responsible for this process. The aim of this study was typing the candidate genes associated with the response to standard chemotherapy in the case of invasive ductal carcinoma. Frozen material from 28 biopsies obtained from IDC patients with different responses to chemotherapy were examined using gene expression microarray, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot (WB). Based on the microarray results, further analysis of candidate gene expression was evaluated in 120 IDC cases by RT-PCR and in 224 IDC cases by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were correlated with clinical outcome and molecular subtype of the BC. Gene expression microarray revealed Prolactin-Induced Peptide (PIP) as a single gene differentially expressed in BC therapy responder or non-responder patients (p G1, G2 vs. G3 cases (p=0.0027 and p=0.0013, respectively). Microarray analysis characterized PIP gene as a candidate for BC standard chemotherapy response marker. Analysis of clinical data suggests that PIP may be a good prognostic and predictive marker in IDC patients. Higher levels of PIP were related to longer DFS and MFS but not with OS. PMID:27293986

  7. LINE-1 Methylation Status Correlates Significantly to Post-Therapeutic Recurrence in Stage III Colon Cancer Patients Receiving FOLFOX-4 Adjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-Ting; Chen, Chao-Wen; Fan, Yun-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, I-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Huang, Ching-Wen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Methylation levels of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) are representative of genome-wide methylation status and crucial in maintaining genomic stability and expression. Their prognostic impact on colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy has not been well established. We evaluated the association between LINE-1 methylation status and clinicopathologic features and postoperative oncological outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients. 129 UICC stage III colon cancer patients who had received radical resection and FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Global methylation was estimated by analyzing tumor LINE-1 methylation status using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing assay. Demographics, clinicopathological data, and postoperative outcomes were recorded by trained abstractors. Outcome measurements included postoperative recurrence and disease-free survival. Univariate, multivariate, and survival analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors of oncological outcomes. The LINE-1 methylation of all 129 patients was measured on a 0-100 scale (mean 63.3; median 63.7, standard deviation 7.1), LINE-1 hypomethylation was more common in patients aged 65 years and above (61.7%±7.6% vs. 64.6±6.4, p=0.019) and those with post-therapeutic recurrence (61.7±7.4 vs 64.3±6.7, p=0.041). Considering risk adjustment, LINE-1 hypomethylation was found to be an independent risk factor of post-therapeutic recurrence (Adjusted OR=14.1, p=0.012). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients in the low methylation group had shorter period of disease free survival (p=0.01). In a stratified analysis that included 48 patients with post-therapeutic recurrence, it was found that those who experienced shorter period of disease free survival (≦6 months) appeared to have lower LINE-1 methylation levels than patients who reported of recurrence after 6 months (56.68±15.75 vs. 63.55±7.57, p=0.041). There was a significantly

  8. Medulloblastoma in China: clinicopathologic analyses of SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups reveal different therapeutic responses to adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors in children. Data is lacking of a large cohort of medulloblastoma patients in China. Also, our knowledge on the sensitivity of different molecular subgroups of MB to adjuvant radiation therapy (RT or chemotherapy (CHT is still limited. The authors performed a retrospective study of 173 medulloblastoma patients treated at two institutions from 2002 to 2011. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues were available in all the cases and sections were stained to classify histological and molecular subgroups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate prognostic factors. Of 173 patients, there were 118 children and 55 adults, 112 males and 61 females. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS rates for all patients, children and adults were 52%, 48% and 63%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, postoperative primary radiation therapy (RT and chemotherapy (CHT were revealed as favorable prognostic factors influencing OS and EFS. Postoperative primary chemotherapy (CHT was found significantly improving the survival of children (p<0.001 while it was not a significant prognostic factor for adult patients. Moreover, patients in WNT subtype had better OS (p = 0.028 than others (SHH and Non-SHH/WNT subtypes given postoperative adjuvant therapies. Postoperative primary RT was found to be a strong prognostic factor influencing the survival in all histological and molecular subgroups (p<0.001. Postoperative primary CHT was found significantly to influence the survival of classic medulloblastoma (CMB (OS p<0.001, EFS p<0.001, SHH subgroup (OS p = 0.020, EFS p = 0.049 and WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.003, EFS p = 0.016 but not in desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DMB (OS p = 0.361, EFS p = 0.834 and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.127, EFS p = 0.055. Our study showed postoperative primary CHT significantly influence the

  9. Ocular surface and tear film abnormalities in women under adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer with the 5-Fluorouracil, Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitsos, A; Kokkas, V; Goulas, A; Paraskevopoulos, P; Gougoulias, K; Karampatakis, V; Boboridis, K

    2013-04-01

    To study possible ocular surface and lacrimal drainage changes in women being on adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, Epirubicin 60-90 mg/m(2), Cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) (FEC) regimen for breast cancer. Sixty one consecutive women with early stage breast cancer (median age 58 years - interquartile range 22) were included in this study. They all underwent mastectomy followed by 6 cycles of tri-weekly administration of FEC regimen and were free of ocular surface, eyelid and tear film symptomatic disease at baseline. None of them had pre- or coexisting treatment with other chemotherapeutic agent or radiotherapy. Slit lamp examination of the ocular surface, Schirmer test I (without topical anesthesia) and tears Break up Time test (BUT) were performed before the initiation of treatment and immediately after the third therapeutic cycle. From 61 women 39.34% had significant conjunctival hyperemia, 41.0% lid margin abnormalities, 4.92% blepharitis, 6.56% madarosis, 3.28% punctate epithelial keratopathy and 4.92% oedema of the lower punctum mucosal opening after three chemotherapeutic cycles. Mean BUT measures were found lower after the third chemotherapeutic cycle (p=0.001) but mean Schirmer test I values were higher after the third chemotherapeutic cycle (p=0.001). Women on chemotherapy with FEC regimen are more susceptible to develop ocular surface and tear film alterations, within the first three cycles of chemotherapy for breast cancer, and thus, prompt ophthalmological evaluation may be proven beneficial for early diagnosis and management of the induced ocular disease.

  10. Efficacy and toxicity of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: a multicenter retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu Ou; Hsu, Nicholas C; Moi, Sin-Hua; Lu, Yin-Che; Hsieh, Chia-Ming; Chang, King-Jen; Chen, Dar-Ren; Tu, Chi-Wen; Wang, Hwei-Chung; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2017-10-18

    PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has comparable efficacy and differing toxicity from conventional anthracyclines used to treat advanced breast cancer. This study compared disease-free survival and toxicity between PLD-based and conventional anthracycline-based regimens as adjuvant treatments for early-stage breast cancer. We analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) rates, and adverse events in 102 women with early-stage (I-IIIa) breast cancer who received adjuvant PLD-based chemotherapy from 2002 to 2008. Each patient was matched for age, stage at diagnosis, HER-2 expression and hormone therapy use to a patient treated with an epirubicin-based regimen. Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi-square tests were used for categorical data analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used to analyze DFS. DFS at 5 years was 81.3% for PLD-based regimen and 82.3% for epirubicin-based regimen. This difference was not significant (p = 0.939). Stage IIIa disease was associated with a shorter DFS in univariate analysis (p = 0.048). In multivariate analysis that controlled for adjuvant treatment, age at diagnosis, stage, HER-2 expression, type of surgery and hormone and radiation therapy, stage IIIa disease (P = 0.023) and lack of hormone therapy (P = 0.024) were each independently associated with shorter DFS. Adverse events were evaluated, and with the exception of hand-foot syndrome, more grade 3 and 4 toxicities occurred in patients who received epirubicin-based regimens than in those given PLD-based regimens. For patients with early-stage breast cancer who received PLD-based adjuvant chemotherapy, 5-year DFS was comparable and toxicity was acceptable, yet different from those of patients who received epirubicin-based regimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Influence of more extensive radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy on long-term outcome of early-stage Hodgkin's disease: a meta-analysis of 23 randomized trials involving 3,888 patients. International Hodgkin's Disease Collaborative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Gray, R.G.; Clarke, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    of treatment failure (resistant or recurrent disease) at 10 years by more than one third (31.3% v 43.4% failures; P improvement in overall 10-year survival (77.1 % v 77.0% alive). The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy halved the 10-year risk of failure (15.8% v 32......PURPOSE: To assess the effect of more extensive radiotherapy and of adjuvant combination chemotherapy on long-term outcome of early-stage Hodgkin's disease. METHODS: In a collaborative worldwide systematic overview, individual patient data were centrally reviewed on 1,974 patients in eight...... randomized trials of more versus less extensive radiotherapy and on 1,688 patients in 13 trials of radiotherapy plus chemotherapy versus radiotherapy alone. Crude mortality data on 226 patients in two other trials of chemotherapy were also reviewed. RESULTS: More extensive radiotherapy reduced the risk...

  12. Effect of Y-box binding protein 1 overexpression on the prognosis of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma undergoing postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy

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    LIU Heng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 overexpression and the prognosis of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC undergoing postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. MethodsThe paraffin-embedded specimens were collected from 58 patients with ICC who underwent surgical treatment and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2010 to January 2015. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of YB-1 in ICC tissue; after ICC cells were transfected with YB-1 plasmid, the thiazolyl blue method was used to observe the change in gemcitabine sensitivity, and qPCR was used to observe the changes in the expression of multidrug resistance genes. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups and a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates and the log-rank test was used for survival difference analysis. ResultsAmong the 58 patients, 44 (75.9% had high expression of YB-1 in the cytoplasm of ICC cells (cytoplasm YB-1 positive group and 14 (24.1% had no expression of YB-1 in the cytoplasm of ICC cells (cytoplasm YB-1 negative group. Of all patients in the cytoplasm YB-1 positive group, 18 (40.9% also had positive nuclear expression of YB-1 (nuclear YB-1 positive group; the other 40 patients had no nuclear expression of YB-1 (nuclear YB-1 negative group. The nuclear YB-1 negative group had a significantly longer survival time than the nuclear YB-1 positive group (63 months vs 28 months, χ2=17.99, P<0.05. In the control plasmid group, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of gemcitabine in HCCC-9810 cells was 0.054 μmol, and in the pSG5-YB-1 plasma transfection group, IC50 increased to 0

  13. HER2 and TOP2A in high-risk early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant epirubicin-based dose-dense sequential chemotherapy

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    Fountzilas George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER2 and TOP2A parameters (gene status, mRNA and protein expression have individually been associated with the outcome of patients treated with anthracyclines. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic/predictive significance of the above parameters in early, high-risk breast cancer patients treated with epirubicin-based, dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods In a series of 352 breast carcinoma tissues from patients that had been post-operatively treated with epirubicin-CMF with or without paclitaxel, we assessed HER2 and TOP2A gene status (chromogenic in situ hybridization, mRNA expression (quantitative reverse transcription PCR, as well as HER2 and TopoIIa protein expression (immunohistochemistry. Results HER2 and TOP2A amplification did not share the same effects on their downstream molecules, with consistent patterns observed in HER2 mRNA and protein expression according to HER2 amplification (all parameters strongly inter-related, p values Conclusions This study confirms the favorable prognostic value of HER2/TOP2A co-amplification and the adverse prognostic value of high TOP2A mRNA expression extending it to the adjuvant treatment setting in early high-risk breast cancer. The strong adverse prognostic impact of high HER2/TOP2A mRNA co-expression needs further validation in studies designed to evaluate markers predictive for anthracyclines. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000506998.

  14. The effect of comorbidity on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival from colon cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdie Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity has a well documented detrimental effect on cancer survival. However it is difficult to disentangle the direct effects of comorbidity on survival from indirect effects via the influence of comorbidity on treatment choice. This study aimed to assess the impact of comorbidity on colon cancer patient survival, the effect of comorbidity on treatment choices for these patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Methods This retrospective cohort study reviewed 589 New Zealanders diagnosed with colon cancer in 1996–2003, followed until the end of 2005. Clinical and outcome data were obtained from clinical records and the national mortality database. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of comorbidity on cancer specific and all-cause survival, the effect of comorbidity on chemotherapy recommendations for stage III patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Results After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, area deprivation, smoking, stage, grade and site of disease, higher Charlson comorbidity score was associated with poorer all-cause survival (HR = 2.63 95%CI:1.82–3.81 for Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0. Comorbidity count and several individual conditions were significantly related to poorer all-cause survival. A similar, but less marked effect was seen for cancer specific survival. Among patients with stage III colon cancer, those with a Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0 were less likely to be offered chemotherapy (19% compared with 84% despite such therapy being associated with around a 60% reduction in excess mortality for both all-cause and cancer specific survival in these patients. Conclusion Comorbidity impacts on colon cancer survival thorough both physiological burden of disease and its impact on treatment choices. Some patients with comorbidity may forego chemotherapy unnecessarily

  15. Prolactin-induced protein as a potential therapy response marker of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Karolina; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Stasiolek, Mariusz; Pula, Bartosz; Olbromski, Mateusz; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Rys, Janusz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Ong, Siew Hwa; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Many studies are dedicated to exploring the molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy-resistance in breast cancer (BC). Some of them are focused on searching for candidate genes responsible for this process. The aim of this study was typing the candidate genes associated with the response to standard chemotherapy in the case of invasive ductal carcinoma. Frozen material from 28 biopsies obtained from IDC patients with different responses to chemotherapy were examined using gene expression microarray, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot (WB). Based on the microarray results, further analysis of candidate gene expression was evaluated in 120 IDC cases by RT-PCR and in 224 IDC cases by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were correlated with clinical outcome and molecular subtype of the BC. Gene expression microarray revealed Prolactin-Induced Peptide (PIP) as a single gene differentially expressed in BC therapy responder or non-responder patients (p <0.05). The level of PIP expression was significantly higher in the BC therapy responder group than in the non-responder group at mRNA (p=0.0092) and protein level (p=0.0256). Expression of PIP mRNA was the highest in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) BC cases (p=0.0254) and it was the lowest in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (p=0.0336). Higher PIP mRNA expression was characterized by significantly longer disease free survival (DFS, p=0.0093), as well as metastasis free survival (MFS, p=0.0144). Additionally, PIP mRNA and PIP protein expression levels were significantly higher in luminal A than in other molecular subtypes and TNBC. Moreover significantly higher PIP expression was observed in G1, G2 vs. G3 cases (p=0.0027 and p=0.0013, respectively). Microarray analysis characterized PIP gene as a candidate for BC standard chemotherapy response marker. Analysis of clinical data suggests that PIP may be a good prognostic and predictive marker in IDC patients. Higher levels of PIP were related to longer DFS and MFS

  16. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Papaxoinis

    Full Text Available The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9 and kinase (exon 20 domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer.Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR. PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20 and qPCR (exon 9 (Sanger/qPCR mutations. In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive, molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR negative tumors.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23% with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24% with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.82. Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel, while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin. The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004. Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified.The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of predominantly lymph-node positive breast cancer

  17. hERG1 positivity and Glut-1 negativity identifies high-risk TNM stage I and II colorectal cancer patients, regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratori L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo Muratori,1,* Giulia Petroni,1,* Lorenzo Antonuzzo,2,3 Luca Boni,4 Jessica Iorio,1,3 Elena Lastraioli,1 Gianluca Bartoli,1 Luca Messerini,1 Francesco Di Costanzo,2 Annarosa Arcangeli1 1Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 2Medical Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, 3Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, 4Clinical Trials Coordinating Center, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The identification of early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC with high risk of progression is one major clinical challenge, mainly due to lack of validated biomarkers. The aims of the present study were to analyze the prognostic impact of three molecular markers belonging to the ion channels and transporters family: the ether-à-go-go-related gene 1 (hERG1 and the calcium-activated KCa3.1 potassium channels, as well as the glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1; and to define the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in conjunction with the abovementioned biomarkers, in a cohort of radically resected stage I–III CRC patients. Patients and methods: The expressions of hERG1, KCa3.1, and Glut-1 were tested by immunohistochemistry on 162 surgical samples of nonmetastatic, stage I–III CRC patients. The median follow-up was 32 months. The association between biological markers, clinicopathological features, and survival outcomes was investigated by evaluating both disease-free survival and overall survival. Results: Although no prognostic valence emerged for KCa3.1, evidence of a negative impact of hERG1 expression on survival outcomes was provided. On the contrary, Glut-1 expression had a positive impact. According to the results of the multivariate analysis, patients were stratified in four risk groups, based on TNM stage and hERG1/Glut-1 expression. After adjusting for adjuvant therapy

  18. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by risk profile: role of netupitant/palonosetron

    OpenAIRE

    Lorusso, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Vito Lorusso National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Bari, Italy Abstract: As recommended by most recent antiemetic guidelines, the optimal prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) requires the combination of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (RA) with an NK1-RA. Moreover, the major predictors of acute and delayed CINV include: young age, female sex, platinum- or anthracycline-based chemotherapy, nondrinker status, emesis in the earlier cycles of ch...

  19. A randomized cross-over trial to detect differences in arm volume after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Hayes, Sandi; Adamsen, Lis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an effort to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related arm lymphedema, patients are commonly advised to avoid heavy lifting, impacting activities of daily living and resistance exercise prescription. This advice lacks evidence, with no prospective studies investigating arm volume...... changes after resistance exercise with heavy loads in this population. The purpose of this study is to determine acute changes in arm volume after a session of low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema. METHODS....../DESIGN: This is a randomized cross-over trial. PARTICIPANTS: Women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer who have undergone axillary lymph node dissection will be recruited from rehabilitation centers in the Copenhagen area. INTERVENTION: Participants will be randomly assigned to engage in a low- (two sets of 15...

  20. Significant negative impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on Health-Related Ouality of Life (HR-OoL) in women with breast cancer treated by conserving surgery and postoperative 3-D radiotherapy. A prospective measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galalae, R.M.; Michel, J.; Kimmig, B. [Clinic for Radiation Therapy (Radiooncology), Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Siebmann, J.U.; Kuechler, T.; Eilf, K. [Dept. of General and Thoracic Surgery/Reference Center on Quality of Life in Oncology, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: to prospectively assess health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in women after conserving surgery for breast cancer during/after postoperative 3-D radiotherapy. Patients and methods: 109 consecutively treated patients were analyzed. HR-QoL was assessed at initiation (t1), end (t2), and 6 weeks after radiotherapy (t3) using the EORTC modules QLQ-C30/BR23. Patients were divided into three therapy groups. Group I comprised 41 patients (radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy), group II 45 patients (radiotherapy and adjuvant hormonal therapy), and group III 23 patients (radiotherapy alone). Reliability was tested. Scale means were calculated. Univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (MANCOVA) analyses were performed. Results: reliability testing revealed mean Cronbach's {alpha} > 0.70 at all measurement points. ANOVA/MANCOVA statistics revealed significantly better HR-QoL for patients in group II versus I. Patients receiving radiotherapy alone (group III) showed the best results in HR-QoL. However, scale mean differences between groups II and III were not significant. Conclusion: HR-QoL measurement using EORTC instruments during/after radiotherapy is reliable. Adjuvant chemotherapy significantly lowered HR-QoL versus hormones or radiotherapy alone. Chemotherapy patients did not recover longitudinally (from t1 to t3). (orig.)

  1. Cancer adjuvant chemotherapy strategic classification by artificial neural network with gene expression data: An example for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chen; Chang, Yo-Cheng; Ke, Wan-Chi; Chiu, Hung-Wen

    2015-08-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) is used after surgery to prevent recurrence or metastases. However, ACT for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still controversial. This study aimed to develop prediction models to distinguish who is suitable for ACT (ACT-benefit) and who should avoid ACT (ACT-futile) in NSCLC. We identified the ACT correlated gene signatures and performed several types of ANN algorithms to construct the optimal ANN architecture for ACT benefit classification. Reliability was assessed by cross-data set validation. We obtained 2 probes (2 genes) with T-stage clinical data combination can get good prediction result. These genes included 208893_s_at (DUSP6) and 204891_s_at (LCK). The 10-fold cross validation classification accuracy was 65.71%. The best result of ANN models is MLP14-8-2 with logistic activation function. Using gene signature profiles to predict ACT benefit in NSCLC is feasible. The key to this analysis was identifying the pertinent genes and classification. This study maybe helps reduce the ineffective medical practices to avoid the waste of medical resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgier, Celine, E-mail: bourgier@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Pessoa, Eduardo Lima [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dunant, Ariane [Biostatistics and Epidemiology Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Heymann, Steve [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Spielmann, Marc [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Uzan, Catherine [Department of Breast Surgery, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Mathieu, Marie-Christine [Department of Pathology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Arriagada, Rodrigo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Marsiglia, Hugo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Radiation Department University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  3. Gene expression profiling and expanded immunohistochemistry tests to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer management: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S; Scope, A; Rafia, R; Pandor, A; Harnan, S; Evans, P; Wyld, L

    2013-10-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) and expanded immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests aim to improve decision-making relating to adjuvant chemotherapy for women with early breast cancer. The aim of this report is to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of nine GEP and expanded IHC tests compared with current prognostic tools in guiding the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer in England and Wales. The nine tests are BluePrint, Breast Cancer Index (BCI), IHC4, MammaPrint, Mammostrat, NPI plus (NPI+), OncotypeDX, PAM50 and Randox Breast Cancer Array. Databases searched included MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Databases were searched from January 2009 to May 2011 for the OncotypeDX and MammaPrint tests and from January 2002 to May 2011 for the other tests. A systematic review of the evidence on clinical effectiveness (analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility) and cost-effectiveness was conducted. An economic model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy treatment guided by four of the nine test (OncotypeDX, IHC4, MammaPrint and Mammostrat) compared with current clinical practice in England and Wales, using clinicopathological parameters, in women with oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+), lymph node-negative (LN-), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-) early breast cancer. The literature searches for clinical effectiveness identified 5993 citations, of which 32 full-text papers or abstracts (30 studies) satisfied the criteria for the effectiveness review. A narrative synthesis was performed. Evidence for OncotypeDX supported the prognostic capability of the test. There was some evidence on the impact of the test on decision-making and to support the case that OncotypeDX predicts chemotherapy benefit; however, few studies were UK based and limitations in relation to study design were identified

  4. Prognostic significance of bcl-2 expression in stage III breast cancer patients who had received doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Wan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bcl-2 is positively regulated by hormonal receptor pathways in breast cancer. A study was conducted to assess the prognostic significances of clinico-pathologic variables and of ER, PR, p53, c-erbB2, bcl-2, or Ki-67 as markers of relapse in breast cancer patients who had received the identical adjuvant therapy at a single institution. Methods A cohort of 151 curatively resected stage III breast cancer patients (M:F = 3:148, median age 46 years who had 4 or more positive lymph nodes and received doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel (AC/T as adjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed for clinico-pathologic characteristics including disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. Patients with positive ER and/or PR expression received 5 years of tamoxifen following AC/T. The protein expressions of biomarkers were assessed immunohistochemically. Results The median follow-up duration was 36 months, and 37 patients (24.5% experienced a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that the tumor size (P = 0.038 and the number of involved lymph nodes (P P = 0.013, bcl-2 positivity (P = 0.002 and low p53 expression (P = 0.032 were found to be significantly associated with a prolonged DFS. Furthermore, multivariate analysis identified 10 or more involved lymph nodes (HR 7.366; P P = 0.030, and c-erbB2 over-expression (HR 3.535; P = 0.001 as independent indicators of poorer DFS. In addition, bcl-2 expression was found to be significantly correlated with the expressions of ER and PR, and inversely correlated with the expressions of p53, c-erbB2 and Ki-67. Patients with bcl-2 expression had a significantly longer DFS than those without, even in the ER (+ subgroup. Moreover, OS was significantly affected by ER, bcl-2 and c-erbB2. Conclusion Bcl-2 is an independent prognostic factor of DFS in curatively resected stage III breast cancer patients and appears to be a useful prognostic factor in combination with c-erbB2 and the

  5. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES:A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonke Gabe S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360 are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at

  6. Definitive results of a phase III adjuvant trial comparing three chemotherapy regimens in women with operable, node-positive breast cancer: the NSABP B-38 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Sandra M; Tang, Gong; Geyer, Charles E; Rastogi, Priya; Atkins, James N; Donnellan, Paul P; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Azar, Catherine A; Robidoux, André; Polikoff, Jonathan A; Brufsky, Adam M; Biggs, David D; Levine, Edward A; Zapas, John L; Provencher, Louise; Northfelt, Donald W; Paik, Soonmyung; Costantino, Joseph P; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Wolmark, Norman

    2013-09-10

    Anthracycline- and taxane-based three-drug chemotherapy regimens have proven benefit as adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This trial (NSABP B-38; Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Node-Positive Breast Cancer) asked whether the incorporation of a fourth drug could improve outcomes relative to two standard regimens and provided a direct comparison of those two regimens. We randomly assigned 4,894 women with node-positive early-stage breast cancer to six cycles of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC), four cycles of dose-dense (DD) doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of DD paclitaxel (P; DD AC→P), or DD AC→P with four cycles of gemcitabine (G) added to the DD paclitaxel (DD AC→PG). Primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support was required; erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were used at the investigator's discretion. There were no significant differences in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (80.6% v 82.2%; HR, 1.07; P = .41), between DD AC→PG and TAC (80.6% v 80.1%; HR, 0.93; P = .39), in 5-year overall survival (OS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (90.8% v 89.1%; HR, 0.85; P = .13), between DD AC→PG and TAC (90.8% v 89.6%; HR, 0.86; P = .17), or between DD AC→P versus TAC for DFS (HR, 0.87; P = .07) and OS (HR, 1.01; P = .96). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities for TAC, DD AC→P, and DD AC→PG, respectively, were febrile neutropenia (9%, 3%, 3%; P < .001), sensory neuropathy (< 1%, 7%, 6%; P < .001), and diarrhea (7%, 2%, 2%; P < .001). Exploratory analyses for ESAs showed no association with DFS events (HR, 1.02; P = .95). Adding G to DD AC→P did not improve outcomes. No significant differences in efficacy were identified between DD AC→P and TAC, although toxicity profiles differed.

  7. Radiation Therapy–First Strategy After Surgery With or Without Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage IIIA-N2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Lee, Hyun Woo [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Noh, O Kyu, E-mail: okyu.noh@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Taek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin-Hyuk [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Mison; Kim, Hwan-Ik; Heo, Jaesung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mi Sun [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Yong [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Rae Woong; Yoon, Dukyong [Department of Biomedical Informatics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) and postoperative chemotherapy (POCT) can be administered as adjuvant therapies in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to present the clinical outcomes in patients treated with PORT-first with or without subsequent POCT in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC. Methods and Materials: From January 2002 to November 2014, the conditions of 105 patients with stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC who received PORT-first with or without subsequent POCT were analyzed. PORT was initiated within 4 to 6 weeks after surgical resection. Platinum-based POCT was administered 3 to 4 weeks after the completion of PORT. We analyzed the outcomes and the clinical factors affecting survival. Results: Of 105 patients, 43 (41.0%) received POCT with a median of 4 cycles (range, 2-6 cycles). The follow-up times ranged from 3 to 123 months (median, 30 months), and the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 40.2%. The 5-year OS of patients treated with PORT and POCT was significantly higher than that of patients with PORT (61.3% vs 29.2%, P<.001). The significant prognostic factors affecting OS were the use of POCT (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.453, P=.036) and type of surgery (pneumonectomy/lobectomy; HR = 2.845, P<.001). Conclusions: PORT-first strategy after surgery appeared not to compromise the clinical outcomes in the treatment of stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC. The benefit of POCT on OS was preserved even in the PORT-first setting. Further studies are warranted to compare the sequencing of PORT and POCT, guaranteeing the proper use of POCT.

  8. Overexpression of activated phospholipase Cγ1 is a risk factor for distant metastases in T1-T2, N0 breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Rossano; Marchisio, Marco; La Sorda, Rossana; Tinari, Nicola; Falasca, Marco; Alberti, Saverio; Miscia, Sebastiano; Ercolani, Cristiana; Di Benedetto, Anna; Perracchio, Letizia; Melucci, Elisa; Iacobelli, Stefano; Mottolese, Marcella; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Piantelli, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    Phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) is highly expressed in several tumors. We have previously reported that both stable and inducible PLCγ1 down-regulation resulted in an almost complete inhibition of breast cancer-derived experimental lung metastasis formation. The aim of our study is to evaluate the association between the expression of PLCγ1 and of PLCγ1 phosphorylated at Tyr1253 (PLCγ1-pY1253) and at Tyr783 (PLCγ1-pY783) with the clinical outcome of patients with node negative, T1/T2 breast cancers. The study groups consisted of 292 (training set) and 122 (validation set) patients presenting with primary unilateral breast carcinoma (T1-T2), with no evidence of nodal involvement and distant metastases. PLCγ1, PLCγ1-pY1253 and PLCγ1-pY783 protein expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays and the results correlated with the clinical data using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Tumor cells while expressing variable proportions of cytoplasmic PLCγ1, express PLCγ1-pY1253 and PLCγ1-pY783 predominantly in the nucleus. High expression of PLCγ1, and of its activated forms, is associated with a worse clinical outcome in terms of incidence of distant metastases, and not of local relapse in T1-T2, N0 breast cancer patients undergone adjuvant chemotherapy. PLCγ1 over-expression appears to be a reliable predictive surrogate marker of development of metastases. Thus, targeting PLCγ1 pathways might represent a potential therapeutic approach for the prevention of metastatic disease in breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  9. Evaluation of symptoms of anxiety and depression in women with breast cancer after breast amputation or conservation treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. Evaluation of the presence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in women treated for breast cancer who underwent surgical procedure using one of two alternative methods, either radical mastectomy or breast conserving treatment (BCT. [b]Methods[/b]. A questionnaire survey involved 85 patients treated in a conservative way and 94 patients after breast amputation. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and depression degree evaluation questionnaire were used in the study. The patients’ esponses were statistically analyzed. [b]Results[/b]. Based on the HADS questionnaire, the total anxiety level in the group of women treated with BCT was 6.96 points, while in the group of patients who had undergone mastectomy the value was 7.8 points. The observed results were statistically significant. In the case of depression, the following values were found: patients after amputation had 8.04 scale value points, and those after BCT had 6.8 scale value points. The observed differences were statistically significant. Negative correlation was found between the level of anxiety and depression. The total level of depression evaluated using the Beck scale was 16.3 points in the BCT group, which means that they suffered from mild depression, while in the mastectomy group the level was 19.6 points, which corresponds to moderate depression. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The level of anxiety and depression among women with breast cancer was influenced by the type of the applied surgical procedure and adjuvant chemotherapy. Demographic variables did not influence the level of anxiety and depression.

  10. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A matched-pair multicenter analysis of outcomes

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    Dong, Yi-Yuan [Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guilin (China); Guilin Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Guilin (China); Xiang, Chun [Nan Xishan Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Guilin (China); Lu, Jian-Xun [Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Department of Oncology, Baise (China); Su, Yi-Xin [Lingshan People' s Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lingshan (China); Pan, Yu-Fei [Nan Xishan Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guilin (China); Cai, Rui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; He, Zhuo-Kai; Liu, Mei-Lian; Huang, Hui; Bai, Xue; Tang, Hua-Ying; Shi, Yun-Hua; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Wei [Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guilin (China)

    2016-06-15

    The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is controversial. This study compared concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus AC (CCRT/AC) with CCRT. Pair-matched analysis based on eight clinicopathological features of 244 patients treated with platinum-based CCRT/AC or CCRT alone was performed. Survival outcomes were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Toxicities and response rates were compared using Fisher's exact test. Four-year overall survival, progression-free survival, distant failure-free survival, and locoregional failure-free survival were 72 %, 61 %, 71 %, and 81 %, respectively, for the CCRT arm, compared to 74 % (hazard ratio, HR 0.89; 95 % confidence interval, CI 0.64-1.23; P = 0.474), 62 % (HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.68-1.20, P = 0.489), 73 % (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.59-1.18, P = 0.316), and 84 % (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.52-1.24, P = 0.323), respectively, for the CCRT/AC arm. Cox multivariate regression analysis demonstrated AC was not an independent prognostic factor. Overall, there was a higher incidence of grade 3-4 toxicities in the CCRT/AC arm. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in the CCRT/AC arm were vomiting (27 %), nausea (43 %), leukopenia/neutropenia (23 %), thrombocytopenia (8.8 %), and anemia (6.2 %). Addition of AC to CCRT increased toxicities but did not improve survival in locoregionally advanced NPC. (orig.) [German] Der Nutzen der adjuvanten Chemotherapie (AC) bei lokoregional fortgeschrittenem nasopharyngealem Karzinom (NPC) ist kontrovers. In dieser Studie wurde die simultane Radiochemotherapie (''concurrent chemoradiotherapy'', CCRT) plus adjuvante Chemotherapie (AC) mit einer alleinigen CCRT verglichen. Die Matched-pair-Analyse basiert auf acht klinisch-pathologischen Merkmalen von 244 Patienten, die mit platinbasierter CCRT/AC oder alleiniger CCRT behandelt wurden. Die Ueberlebensendpunkte wurden mit der Kaplan-Meier-Methode und dem Log

  11. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial of the impact on quality of life of continuing dexamethasone beyond 24 h following adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, J; Pond, G; Dodd, A; Warr, D; Seruga, B; Clemons, M; Bordeleau, L; Goodwin, P; Tannock, I F

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainty remains about the optimal anti-emetic regimen for control of delayed nausea and vomiting after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Many patients receive dexamethasone but complain of insomnia, anxiety/agitation, and indigestion. The aim was to determine if patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer prefer treatment with dexamethasone or placebo for prophylaxis against delayed nausea and vomiting, and to compare quality of life (QOL) between the two treatments. In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial, we compared oral dexamethasone (4 mg twice daily for 2 days) versus placebo for chemotherapy-naïve patients with breast cancer. All patients received intravenous granisetron and dexamethasone pre-chemotherapy and oral granisetron on day 2. Primary endpoints were: (i) patient preference; (ii) difference between cycles in change of QOL from days 1 to 8. Median age of the 94 women was 51 years (range 27-76): 79 received fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide and 15 received doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide. Thirteen withdrew pre-cycle 2 with no differences between arms. Of 80 patients stating a preference, 31 preferred placebo (39 %, 95 % CI: 28-50 %) and 37 (46 %, 95 % CI: 35-58 %) preferred dexamethasone; 12 had no preference. There were no differences in intensity of vomiting, nausea, or time to onset of vomiting. There was greater decrease in global QOL (p = 0.06) when patients received dexamethasone. No other symptom/QOL domains differed significantly. In conclusion, no significant difference was found in patient preference, QOL, or symptoms regardless of whether dexamethasone or placebo was used after adjuvant chemotherapy.

  12. Digital expression profiling identifies RUNX2, CDC5L, MDM2, RECQL4, and CDK4 as potential predictive biomarkers for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy response in paediatric osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Martin

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common malignancy of bone, and occurs most frequently in children and adolescents. Currently, the most reliable technique for determining a patients' prognosis is measurement of histopathologic tumor necrosis following pre-operative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfavourable prognosis is indicated by less than 90% estimated necrosis of the tumor. Neither genetic testing nor molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis have been described for osteosarcomas. We used the novel nanoString mRNA digital expression analysis system to analyse gene expression in 32 patients with sporadic paediatric osteosarcoma. This system used specific molecular barcodes to quantify expression of a set of 17 genes associated with osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. Five genes, from this panel, which encoded the bone differentiation regulator RUNX2, the cell cycle regulator CDC5L, the TP53 transcriptional inactivator MDM2, the DNA helicase RECQL4, and the cyclin-dependent kinase gene CDK4, were differentially expressed in tumors that responded poorly to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Analysis of the signalling relationships of these genes, as well as other expression markers of osteosarcoma, indicated that gene networks linked to RB1, TP53, PI3K, PTEN/Akt, myc and RECQL4 are associated with osteosarcoma. The discovery of these networks provides a basis for further experimental studies of role of the five genes (RUNX2, CDC5L, MDM2, RECQL4, and CDK4 in differential response to chemotherapy.

  13. Bismuth adjuvant ameliorates adverse effects of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomised, double-blind, prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Per Boye; Penkowa, Milena

    2017-04-01

    High-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) leads to adverse effects including mucositis, neutropenia and bacteremia. To reduce the toxicity, we treated myeloma and lymphoma patients with peroral bismuth as an adjuvant to chemotherapy to convey cytoprotection in non-malignant cells. This trial was a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of hematological inpatients (n = 50) receiving bismuth or placebo tablets, in order to identify any potential superiority of bismuth on toxicity from chemotherapy. We show for the first time that bismuth significantly reduces grade 2 stomatitis, febrile neutropenia and infections caused by melphalan in multiple myeloma, where adverse effects also were significantly linked to gender. In lymphoma patients, bismuth significantly reduces diarrhoea relative to placebo. Also, lymphoma patients' adverse effects were linked to gender. For the first time, bismuth is demonstrated as a safe strategy against chemotherapy's toxicity without interfering with intentional anti-cancer efficiency. Also, we show how gender significantly influences various adverse effects and response to treatment in both multiple myeloma and malignant lymphomas. These results may impact clinical prevention of chemotherapy's cytotoxicity in certain patient groups, and also, this study may direct further attention towards the impact of gender during the course and treatment outcome of malignant disorders.

  14. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy alone or with regional hyperthermia for localised high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma: a randomised phase 3 multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issels, Rolf D; Lindner, Lars H; Verweij, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    The optimum treatment for high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in adults is unclear. Regional hyperthermia concentrates the action of chemotherapy within the heated tumour region. Phase 2 studies have shown that chemotherapy with regional hyperthermia improves local control compared...... with chemotherapy alone. We designed a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy....

  15. Feasibility of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus carboplatin followed by single-agent maintenance therapy with S-1 for completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer: results of the Setouchi Lung Cancer Group Study 1001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Norihito; Sonobe, Makoto; Okabe, Kazunori; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Kataoka, Masafumi; Yamashita, Motohiro; Nakata, Masao; Kataoka, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Soh, Junichi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Matsuo, Keitaro; Sakamoto, Junichi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Date, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    This multicenter study evaluated the feasibility of novel adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus carboplatin followed by single-agent, long-term maintenance with S-1 in patients with completely resected stage II-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients received four cycles of S-1 (80 mg/m2/day for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks rest) plus carboplatin (area under the curve 5, day 1) followed by S-1 (80 mg/m2/day for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week rest). Patients unable to continue S-1 plus carboplatin because of severe toxicity converted to single-agent S-1 maintenance. The duration of adjuvant chemotherapy was 10 months in both situations. The primary endpoint was feasibility, defined as the proportion of patients who completed four cycles of S-1 plus carboplatin and single-agent S-1 maintenance for 10 months. The treatment completion rate was determined; treatment was considered feasible if the lower 90% confidence interval (CI) was ≥50%. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 87 were eligible and assessable. Seventy-eight patients (89.7%) completed four cycles of S-1 plus carboplatin and 55 (63.2%) completed the following S-1 maintenance therapy for a total of 10 months. The treatment completion rate was 63.2% (90% CI, 54.4-71.2%), indicating feasibility. There were no treatment-related deaths. Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia (13.8%), thrombocytopenia (11.5%), and anorexia (4.6%). The 2-year relapse-free survival rate was 59.8%. We concluded that adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus carboplatin followed by single-agent maintenance therapy with S-1 is feasible and tolerable in patients with completely resected NSCLC. UMIN000005041.

  16. Final results of a randomised phase III study on adjuvant chemotherapy with 5 FU and levamisol in colon and rectum cancer stage II and III by the Norwegian Gastrointestinal Cancer Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Olav; Fluge, Øystein; Carlsen, Erik; Wiig, Johan N; Myrvold, Helge E; Vonen, Barthold; Podhorny, Nina; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Eide, Tor Jack; Halvorsen, Tore B; Tveit, Kjell Magne

    2009-01-01

    The recommendation of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer with lymph node metastases, based on two studies from USA, was reluctantly accepted by Norwegian medical doctors. It was therefore decided to assess the role of adjuvant therapy with 5fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with levamisole (Lev) in a confirmatory randomised study. Four hundred and twenty five patients with operable colon and rectum cancer, Stage II and III (Dukes' stage B and C), were from January 1993 to October 1996, included in a randomised multicentre trial in Norway. The age limits were 18-75 years. Therapy started with a loading course of bolus i.v. 5-FU (450 mg/m(2)) daily for 5 days and p.o. doses of Lev (50 mg x 3) for 3 days. From day 28 a weekly i.v. 5-FU dose (450 mg/m(2)) were administered for 48 weeks. From day 28 also p.o. doses of Lev (50 mg x 3) for 3 days were given every 14 days. In total 214 patients were randomised to 5FU/Lev and 211 were included in the control group with surgery alone. Some did not comply with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, thus leaving 206 evaluable patients in each group. There was no significant survival difference between the two groups at 5 years: Disease-free survival (DFS) was 73% after chemotherapy, 68% (p=0.24) in the control group, and corresponding cancer specific survival (CSS) 75% and 71%, respectively (p=0.69). There was no difference between the two groups when analysed for colon and rectum separately. However, the subgroup of colon cancer with stage III exhibited a statistically significant difference both for DFS, 58% vs. 37% (p=0.012) and CSS, 65% vs. 47% (p=0.032) in favour of adjuvant chemotherapy. The benefit was further statistically significant for women but not for men. Toxicity was generally mild and acceptable with no drug related fatalities. Colon cancer patients with lymph node metastases benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU/Lev with acceptable toxicity. In a subgroup analysis females did better than males. Rectal

  17. Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin compared to observation after curative intent resection of cholangiocarcinoma and muscle invasive gallbladder carcinoma (ACTICCA-1 trial) - a randomized, multidisciplinary, multinational phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, A.; Arnold, D.; Bridgewater, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite complete resection, disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is less than 65 % after one year and not more than 35 % after three years. For muscle invasive gallbladder carcinoma (GBCA), prognosis is even worse, with an overall survival (OS) of only....... Due to the different prognosis and treatment susceptibility of muscle invasive carcinoma, two separate cohorts (CCA and GBCA) were included to capture the potentially different treatment effects. Randomization is stratified for lymph node status for both cohorts and localization for CCA. The primary...... endpoint is DFS and secondary endpoints include OS, safety and tolerability of chemotherapy, quality of life, and patterns of disease recurrence. For CCA, adjuvant chemotherapy should increase DFS 24 months post-surgery from 40 to 55 % to be considered relevant. With a power of 80 % and a significance...

  18. Influence of age and comorbidity on prognosis and application of adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly Japanese patients with colorectal cancer: A retrospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Tomoki; Yamauchi, Shinichi; Kimura, Kei; Babaya, Akihito; Hamanaka, Michiko; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fukumoto, Miki; Tsukamoto, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masafumi; Tomita, Naohiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-08-01

    Adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients aged ≥75 years is supported by inadequate evidence, although such patients are increasing in number worldwide. We assessed the influence of age and comorbidities on the prognosis of CRC in elderly patients using pooled data by the Japanese Study Group for Postoperative Follow-up of Colorectal Cancer. In total, 4598 patients (3304 with colon cancer and 1294 with rectal cancer) who underwent curative surgery from 2004 to 2006 were analysed with respect to age, Charlson comorbidity score (CS), tumour marker positivity, adjuvant therapy and prognosis. The number of patients aged 75 years was 2007 (44%), 1614 (35%) and 977 (21%), respectively. Tumour location, tumour marker positivity, clinical stage, performance of adjuvant therapy, CS and overall survival (OS) were significantly different among these age groups (P cancer and 21% with rectal cancer received adjuvant therapy; these proportions were much lower than those in younger patients. Application of adjuvant therapy was dependent on the CS in patients aged ≤74 years, but not in older patients. Sex, the carcinoembryonic antigen concentration and adjuvant therapy were significantly associated with OS in elderly patients with stage III CRC. Age and comorbidities worsened the OS of patients with CRC who underwent curative surgery. However, patients aged ≥75 years were undertreated regardless of their CS despite the possibility of OS improvement by adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Chemotherapy of malignant bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffken, K; Seeber, S; Gallmeier, W M; Bruntsch, U; Hossfeld, D K; Schmidt, C G

    1977-04-01

    In several primary malignant tumors significant improvement of formely bad prognosis has been achieved by the introduction of new cytostatic compounds and the study of new cytostatic combination regimens. Adjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma led to remarkable increase in survival rates. Leaning on natural history and on remission rates reached by cytostatic treatment in metastasizing stages of disease, proposals for adjuvant chemotherapy are made and chemotherapy regimen appliable on out-patient basis is described.

  20. Phase II clinical trial of ixabepilone (BMS-247550), an epothilone B analog, as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roché, Henri; Yelle, Louise; Cognetti, Francesco; Mauriac, Louis; Bunnell, Craig; Sparano, Joseph; Kerbrat, Pierre; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Vahdat, Linda; Peck, Ronald; Lebwohl, David; Ezzeddine, Rana; Curé, Hervé

    2007-08-10

    There is a need for new agents to treat metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in patients for whom anthracycline therapy has failed or is contraindicated. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel antineoplastic, the epothilone B analog ixabepilone, in patients with MBC previously treated with an adjuvant anthracycline. Patients were age >or= 18 years and had received a prior anthracycline-based regimen as adjuvant treatment. Ixabepilone as first-line metastatic chemotherapy was administered as a 40 mg/m(2) intravenous infusion during 3 hours every 3 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary efficacy end points included duration of response, time to response, time to progression, and survival. All 65 patients were assessable for response. Their median age was 52 years (range, 33 to 80 years). ORR was 41.5% (95% CI, 29.4% to 54.4%), median duration of response was 8.2 months (95% CI, 5.7 to 10.2 months), and median time to response was 6 weeks (range, 5 to 17 weeks). Median survival was 22.0 months (95% CI, 15.6 to 27.0 months). Treatment-related adverse events were manageable and mostly grades 1/2: the most common of these (other than alopecia) was mild to moderate neuropathy, which was primarily sensory and mostly reversible in nature. Ixabepilone is efficacious and has a predictable and manageable safety profile in women with MBC previously treated with an adjuvant anthracycline.

  1. Dose-tailoring of FEC adjuvant chemotherapy based on leukopenia is feasible and well tolerated. Toxicity and dose intensity in the Scandinavian Breast Group phase 3 adjuvant Trial SBG 2000-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Per; Ahlgren, Johan; Bjerre, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The SBG 2000-1 trial is a randomised study that investigates if dose-tailored adjuvant FEC therapy based on the individual's leukocyte nadir value can improve outcome. The study has included 1535 women with medium and high-risk breast cancer.......The SBG 2000-1 trial is a randomised study that investigates if dose-tailored adjuvant FEC therapy based on the individual's leukocyte nadir value can improve outcome. The study has included 1535 women with medium and high-risk breast cancer....

  2. The effects of short-term fasting on tolerance to (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer patients: a randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S. de; Vreeswijk, M.P.; Welters, M.J.; Gravesteijn, G.; Boei, J.J.; Jochems, A.; Houtsma, D.; Putter, H.; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Nortier, J.W.; Pijl, H.; Kroep, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects healthy cells against side effects of chemotherapy and makes cancer cells more vulnerable to it. This pilot study examines the feasibility of STF and its effects on tolerance of chemotherapy in a homogeneous patient group

  3. Estimation of the cost of treatment by chemotherapy for early breast cancer in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb Saber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the first cancer in women both in incidence and mortality. The treatment of breast cancer benefited from the progress of chemotherapy and targeted therapies, but there was a parallel increase in treatment costs. Despite a relatively high incidence of many sites of cancer, so far, there is no national register for this disease in Morocco. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the total cost of chemotherapy in the early stages of breast cancer due to its frequency and the chances of patients being cured. This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of antimitotics and trastuzumab in Morocco. Method We start by evaluating the individual cost according to the therapeutic sub-groups, namely: 1. Patients needing chemotherapy with only anthracycline-based therapy. 2. Patients needing chemotherapy with both anthracycline and taxane but without trastuzumab. 3. Patients needing trastuzumab in addition to chemotherapy. For each sub-group, the protocol of treatment is described, and the individual costs per unit, and for the whole cycle, are evaluated. Then we estimate the number of women suffering from breast cancer on the basis of two data bases available in Morocco. Finally, we calculate the total annual cost of treatment of breast cancer in Morocco. Results The total cost of breast cancer in Morocco is given in Moroccan dirhams (MAD, the US dollar at the current exchange rate (MAD 10 = USD 1.30 and in international dollars or purchasing power parity (MAD 10 = PPP 1.95. The cost of a therapy with trastuzumab is 8.4 times the cost of a sequential chemotherapy combining anthracycline and taxane, and nearly 60 times the cost of chemotherapy based on anthracycline alone. Globally, between USD 13.3 million and USD 28.6 million need to be devoted every year by the Moroccan health authorities to treat

  4. Perioperative chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer: overview and the unmet clinical need for alternative adjuvant therapy as studied in the MAGNOLIA trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombel, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Martinez-Pineiro, L.; Babjuk, M.; Korneyev, I.; Surcel, C.; Yakovlev, P.; Colombo, R.; Radziszewski, P.; Witjes, F.; Schipper, R.; Mulders, P.F.; Witjes, W.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The European Association of Urology Research Foundation has proposed that alternatives to perioperative chemotherapy should be evaluated. The MAGNOLIA study represents a unique opportunity to investigate the concept of immunotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  5. Improved outcome of high grade, early 1 stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy : Comparison of 2 treatment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaers, Eline Aem; Jutzi, Leah; Ezendam, N.P.M.; Kwon, Janice S.; Pijnenborg, Johanna M.a.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: patients with high grade endometrioid endometrial carcinoma have a high risk of recurrence, even in early stage. To determine the benefit of a more aggressive adjuvant treatment approach, different treatment strategies of 2 referral centers were compared. Materials and methods: outcome of

  6. Improved Outcome of High-Grade, Early 1-Stage Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma With Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy: Comparison of 2 Treatment Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaers, E.A.; Jutzi, L.; Ezendam, N.P.; Kwon, J.S.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with high-grade endometrioid endometrial carcinoma have a high risk of recurrence, even in early stage. To determine the benefit of a more aggressive adjuvant treatment approach, different treatment strategies of 2 referral centers were compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Outcome of

  7. Incidence of cold-induced peripheral neuropathy and dose modification of adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altaf, Rahim; Lund Brixen, Annette; Kristensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The CAPOX regimen is used for adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer. A well-known side effect of oxaliplatin, which often leads to dose modification (DM), is acute neuropathy (AN). AN is provoked by cold, and it could therefore be expected that the degree of AN and thereby DM is mor...

  8. The relationship between fatigue and light exposure during chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianqi; Marler, Matthew R.; Parker, Barbara A.; Jones, Vicky; Johnson, Sherella; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Fiorentino, Lavinia; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    Background Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing complaints among cancer patients, not only during radiation and chemotherapy, but also for months to years after the completion of treatment. Fatigue interferes with patients’ daily lives, reduces their quality of life, and is often a significant reason why patients discontinue treatment. We hypothesized that some of the fatigue may be related to disrupted circadian rhythms and low light exposure. The main objective of this study therefore was to investigate the association between fatigue and light exposure among patients with breast cancer. Methods As part of a larger, ongoing prospective study on fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms in patients with breast cancer, an analysis of 63 women newly diagnosed with stage I–IIIA breast cancer and scheduled to receive four cycles of adjuvant or neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy was conducted. Data were collected before and during weeks 1, 2, and 3 of cycle 1 and cycle 4. Fatigue was assessed using the Short Form of Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Light exposure was recorded with a wrist actigraph. Results There were significant correlations between fatigue levels and light exposure (r=−0.28 to −0.45) within both cycle 1 and cycle 4, such that higher levels of fatigue were associated with less light exposure. There were also significant correlations between changes in light exposure and changes in fatigue within the first 2 weeks of each cycle (r=−0.28 to −0.52). Conclusions Increased fatigue was significantly correlated with decreased light exposure among patients with breast cancer. Although the cause and effect of exacerbated fatigue and decreased light exposure cannot be confirmed by the current study, and lower light exposure may just in part be due to the fatigued patients spending less time outdoors in bright light, two hypotheses are proposed about the mechanisms by which light may alleviate the fatigue of patients

  9. Relationship Between Metformin Use and Recurrence and Survival in Patients With Resected Stage III Colon Cancer Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy: Results From North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0147 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Paul; Shi, Qian; Foster, Nathan R; Grothey, Axel; Nair, Suresh G; Chan, Emily; Shields, Anthony F; Goldberg, Richard M; Gill, Sharlene; Kahlenberg, Morton S; Sinicrope, Frank A; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical and epidemiological data suggest that metformin might have antineoplastic properties against colon cancer (CC). However, the effect of metformin use on patient survival in stage III CC after curative resection is unknown. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use. Before randomization to FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin) with or without cetuximab, 1,958 patients with stage III CC enrolled in the N0147 study completed a questionnaire with information on diabetes mellitus (DM) and metformin use. Cox models were used to assess the association between metformin use and disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and the time to recurrence (TTR), adjusting for clinical and/or pathological factors. Of the 1,958 patients, 1,691 (86%) reported no history of DM, 115 reported DM with metformin use (6%), and 152 reported DM without metformin use (8%). The adjuvant treatment arms were pooled, because metformin use showed homogeneous effects on outcomes across the two arms. Among the patients with DM (n = 267), DFS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.35; p = .60), OS (aHR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.65-1.49; p = .95), and TTR (aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.35; p = .53) were not different for the metformin users compared with the nonusers after adjusting for tumor and patient factors. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use (colon cancer receiving adjuvant FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin)-based chemotherapy. This relationship was not modified by KRAS or BRAF mutation or DNA mismatch repair status. Metformin use did not increase or decrease the likelihood of chemotherapy-related grade 3 or higher adverse events. ©AlphaMed Press.

  10. PIK3CA mutations, PTEN, and pHER2 expression and impact on outcome in HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J D; Knoop, Ann; Laenkholm, A V

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of PIK3CA mutations and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) phosphorylation status (pHER2-Tyr(1221/1222)) and if PIK3CA, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), or pHER2 has an impact on outcome in HER2-positive early......-stage breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant treatment (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2), epirubicin 60 mg/m(2), and fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2)) before administration...... of 1 year trastuzumab were assessable. PTEN and pHER2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. PIK3CA mutations (exons 9 and 20) were determined by pyrosequencing. RESULTS: Five-year overall survival (OS) and invasive disease-free survival were 87.8% and 81.0%, respectively. Twenty-six percent...

  11. Addition of gemcitabine to paclitaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide adjuvant chemotherapy for women with early-stage breast cancer (tAnGo): final 10-year follow-up of an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Helena M; Hiller, Louise; Howard, Helen C; Dunn, Janet A; Young, Jennie; Bowden, Sarah J; McDermaid, Michelle; Waterhouse, Anna K; Wilson, Gregory; Agrawal, Rajiv; O'Reilly, Susan; Bowman, Angela; Ritchie, Diana M; Goodman, Andrew; Hickish, Tamas; McAdam, Karen; Cameron, David; Dodwell, David; Rea, Daniel W; Caldas, Carlos; Provenzano, Elena; Abraham, Jean E; Canney, Peter; Crown, John P; Kennedy, M John; Coleman, Robert; Leonard, Robert C; Carmichael, James A; Wardley, Andrew M; Poole, Christopher J

    2017-06-01

    The tAnGo trial was designed to investigate the potential role of gemcitabine when added to anthracycline and taxane-containing adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer. When this study was developed, gemcitabine had shown significant activity in metastatic breast cancer, and there was evidence of a favourable interaction with paclitaxel. tAnGo was an international, open-label, randomised, phase 3 superiority trial that enrolled women aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed, early-stage breast cancer who had a definite indication for chemotherapy, any nodal status, any hormone receptor status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and adequate bone marrow, hepatic, and renal function. Women were recruited from 127 clinical centres and hospitals in the UK and Ireland, and randomly assigned (1:1) to one of two treatment regimens: epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel (four cycles of 90 mg/m2 intravenously administered epirubicin and 600 mg/m2 intravenously administered cyclophosphamide on day 1 every 3 weeks, followed by four cycles of 175 mg/m2 paclitaxel as a 3 h infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks) or epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (the same chemotherapy regimen as the other group, with the addition of 1250 mg/m2 gemcitabine to the paclitaxel cycles, administered intravenously as a 0·5 h infusion on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks). Patients were randomly assigned by a central computerised deterministic minimisation procedure, with stratification by country, age, radiotherapy intent, nodal status, and oestrogen receptor and HER-2 status. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival and the trial aimed to detect 5% differences in 5-year disease-free survival between the treatment groups. Recruitment completed in 2004 and this is the final, intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2004-002927-41), ISRCTN (51146252), and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00039546). Between Aug 22, 2001

  12. Microvessel density and endothelial cell proliferation levels in colorectal liver metastases from patients given neo-adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy and bevacizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Engelholm, Lars Henning; Willemoe, Gro L.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastasis has improved significantly and first line therapy is often combined chemotherapy and bevacizumab, although it is unknown who responds to this regimen. Colorectal liver metastases grow in different histological growth patterns showing...... differences in angiogenesis. To identify possible response markers, histological markers of angiogenesis were assessed. Patients who underwent resection of colorectal liver metastasis at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark from 2007 to 2011 were included (n = 254) including untreated and patients treated...... with chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. The resected liver metastases were characterised with respect to growth pattern, endothelial and tumour cell proliferation as well as microvessel density and tumour regression. Tumour regression grade of liver metastases differed significantly between untreated...

  13. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer: A pilot-observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik G Dodiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC remains major clinical issue with regard to selection and duration of therapy since many years. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT is multimodality program, established to treat LABC. Many research tasks are ongoing to develop specific neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen with specific duration to improve long-term control of LABC. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven patients diagnosed with LABC were Included and analyzed to compare the outcomes [pathological complete response (pCR, clinical response, overall response rate (ORR, disease control rate, overall survival and progression-free survival]. These patients treated with either combination of anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy or anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Results: There was no any statistical significance with respect to demographic data treated of patients between two arms (P > 0.05. Patients underwent TAC chemotherapy had pCR 20.8% whereas FAC/FEC chemotherapy patients had pCR 13% (P = 0.48. Higher ORR was noted in TAC chemotherapy arm (75% when compared with FAC/FEC chemotherapy arm (60.9% (P = 0.29. The study also shows better disease control rate in TAC chemotherapy arm (95.8% as compared to FAC/FEC chemotherapy arm (82.6%. There was no statistical significance in overall survival (P = 0.31 and progression-free survival (P = 0.51 between two arms. Conclusion: Despite of the superiority of combination of anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy over the anthracycline-based chemotherapy in the present study, further pivotal studies should be conducted to confirm the combination of anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy as a better neoadjuvant regimen for treatment of LABC tumors.

  14. Breast conserving treatment of breast carcinoma T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy, high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, external beam radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: local control and overall survival analysis; Tratamento conservador do cancer de mama T2 ({<=} 4 cm) e T3 por quimioterapia neoadjuvante, quadrantectomia, braquiterapia com alta taxa de dose como reforco de dose, teleterapia complementar e quimioterapia adjuvante: analise de controle local e sobrevida global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Celia Regina; Miziara Filho, Miguel Abrao; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Baraldi, Helena Espindola; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: celiarsoares@terra.com.br; Fristachi, Carlos Elias [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Onco-Ginecologia e Mastologia; Paes, Roberto Pinto [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Objective: to assess the treatment of breast cancer T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 through neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy and high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, complementary radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, considering local control and overall survival. Material and method: this clinical prospective descriptive study was based on the evaluation of 88 patients ranging from 30 to 70 years old, with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, clinical stage IIb and IIIa, responsive to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, treated from June/1995 to December/2006. Median follow-up was 58 months. Using clinical methods the tumor was evaluated before and after three or four cycles of chemotherapy based on anthracyclines. Overall survival and local control were assessed according to Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: Local control and overall survival in five years were 90% and 73.5%, respectively. Conclusion: local control and overall survival were comparable to other forms of treatment. (author)

  15. Effect of Red Ginseng on Genotoxicity and Health-Related Quality of Life after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Maria; Kwon, Byung-Su; Suh, Dong Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2017-07-19

    We evaluated the effect of red ginseng on toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and survival after adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). A total of 30 patients with EOC were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 15) and red ginseng groups (n = 15). All patients took placebo or red ginseng (3000 mg/day) for three months. Then, we compared changes of genotoxicity, HRQL and survival between the two groups. As a result, red ginseng reduced micronuclei yield in comparison with placebo despite no difference of binucleated cells index. Although red ginseng increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly, they were within the normal value. Moreover, there were no differences in adverse events between placebo and red ginseng groups. In terms of HRQL, red ginseng was associated with improved emotional functioning and decreased symptoms of fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and dyspnea, reduced anxiety and interference affecting life and improved daytime somnolence. However, there was no effect of red ginseng on prognosis of EOC. Conclusively, red ginseng may be safe and effective to reduce genotoxicity and improve HRQL despite no benefit of survival in patients with EOC who received chemotherapy.

  16. Effects of resistance exercise on fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Armbrust, Petra; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steindorf, Karen

    2015-07-15

    Multiple exercise interventions have shown beneficial effects on fatigue and quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients, but various psychosocial interventions as well. It is unclear to what extent the observed effects of exercise interventions are based on physical adaptations or rather on psychosocial factors associated with supervised, group-based programs. It needs to be determined which aspects of exercise programs are truly effective. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether resistance exercise during chemotherapy provides benefits on fatigue and QoL beyond potential psychosocial effects of group-based interventions. One-hundred-one breast cancer patients starting chemotherapy were randomly assigned to resistance exercise (EX) or a relaxation control (RC) group. Both interventions were supervised, group-based, 2/week over 12 weeks. The primary endpoint fatigue was assessed with a 20-item multidimensional questionnaire, QoL with the EORTC QLQ-C30/BR23. Analyses of covariance for individual changes from baseline to Week 13 were calculated. In RC, total and physical fatigue worsened during chemotherapy, whereas EX showed no such impairments (between-group p = 0.098 and 0.052 overall, and p = 0.038 and 0.034 among patients without severe baseline depression). Differences regarding affective or cognitive fatigue were not significant. Benefits of EX were also seen to affect role and social function. Effect sizes were between 0.43 and 0.48. Explorative analyses indicated significant effect modification by thyroxin use (p-interaction = 0.044). In conclusion, resistance exercise appeared to mitigate physical fatigue and maintain QoL during chemotherapy beyond psychosocial effects inherent to supervised group-based settings. Thus, resistance exercise could be an integral part of supportive care for breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. © 2014 UICC.

  17. The risk of amenorrhoea after adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer is related to inter-individual variations in chemotherapy-induced leukocyte nadir in young patients: data from the randomised SBG 2000-1 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, M.; Ahlgren, J.; Andersen, J.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY AIM: Amenorrhoea is a common side-effect to chemotherapy of premenopausal women. We examine the association between chemotherapy-induced leucopaenia and the development of amenorrhoea in premenopausal women with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multi-centre, randomised, controlled...... study, 1016 premenopausal women received seven series of FEC (F: fluorouracil, E: epirubicin and C: cyclophosphamide) for early stage breast cancer. In the first series, all patients received standard dose (F: 600 mg/m(2), E: 60 mg/m(2) and C: 600 mg/m(2)). Patients with leukocyte nadir 1.0-1.9 x 10....... Absent bleeding after the 5th-7th series of FEC was interpreted as amenorrhoea. RESULTS: The risk of amenorrhoea increased with age. In age-stratified analysis of the STANDARD groups (equal dose, different initial leukocyte nadir) low leukocyte nadir was associated with amenorrhoea for patients...

  18. Aspectos clínico-econômicos da quimioterapia adjuvante no câncer de mama HER-2 positivo Clinical and economic issues in adjuvant chemotherapy for HER-2 positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro José Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto clínico e os custos do tratamento adjuvante para câncer de mama com superexpressão do receptor 2 do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (HER-2. MÉTODOS: Foram obtidas medidas de eficácia (sobrevida livre de doença em 3 anos dos ensaios de fase III com trastuzumabe para o câncer de mama HER-2 positivo: um estudo finlandês (FinHER, dois americanos (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project - NSAPB-31 e North Central Cancer Treatment Group N9831 e dois multinacionais (Herceptin Adjuvant, HERA e Breast Cancer International Research Group, BCIRG-006, e calculadas medidas de impacto clínico: redução de risco e número necessário para tratar (NNT. Foram estimados os custos com medicamentos antineoplásicos nestes diferentes regimes terapêuticos. RESULTADOS: A redução absoluta de risco com uso do trastuzumabe foi maior no estudo FinHER (11,7%; IC 95%: 2,2% a 21,2%. O NNT no FinHER foi 8 (IC 95%: 3 a 28, 8 (IC 95%: 7 a 11 no NSABP-31/N9831, 12 (IC 95%: 9 a 18 no HERA, 14 (IC 95%: 11 a 24 no BCIRG/com antraciclinas e 17 (IC 95%: 12 a 34 no BCIRG/sem antraciclinas. O custo para evitar um caso de recidiva seria R$ 418.285,44 com o regime FinHER, R$ 1.716.789,44 no NSABP-31/N9831, R$ 2.481.891,58 no HERA, R$ 2.963.634,62 no BCIRG/com antraciclinas e R$ 3.930.520,43 no BCIRG/sem antraciclinas. CONCLUSÃO: Restringir o uso do trastuzumabe à fase inicial de quimioterapia adjuvante (FinHER permite beneficiar, do ponto de vista econômico, quatro a nove vezes mais pacientes que a monoterapia adjuvante prolongada como usada nos demais protocolos.PURPOSE: To examine efficacy figures and drug expenditure for adjuvant chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2 positive breast cancer, in the Brazilian supplemental health insurance market. METHODS: We obtained efficacy data (disease free survival at 3-years and drug cost estimate for current adjuvant strategies in HER-2 positive breast cancer

  19. Alterations in EGFR and related genes following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhang Wang

    Full Text Available Genetic aberrancies within epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway are associated with therapeutic outcomes of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, the impact of chemotherapy on EGFR-related genes alterations has not been defined in NSCLC. Our study aims to investigate the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Neoadj-Chemo on EGFR activating mutations and associated EGFR-TKIs resistance-related genes.Matched tumor samples were obtained retrospectively from 66 NSCLC patients (stages IIb-IIIb corresponding to pre- and post- Neoadj-Chemo. EGFR mutations were detected by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC and confirmed by Amplification Refractory Mutation System technology (ARMS, KRAS mutations, T790M mutation and c-MET amplification were identified using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, ARMS, and real-time PCR, respectively.Before Neoadj-Chemo, EGFR mutations were identified in 33.3% (22/66 of NSCLC patients. Only 18.2% (12/66 of patients carried EGFR mutations after Neoadj-Chemo (p = 0.013. The median peak value of EGFR 19 exon mutations decreased non-significantly after Neoadj-Chemo. KRAS mutation rate decreased from 4.6% (3/66 to 3.0% (2/66 with Neoadj-Chemo. Although the overall percentage of patients exhibiting c-MET amplifications (6.1% [4/66] did not change with Neoadj-Chemo, two patients transitioned from negative to positive c-MET amplification, and two patients reversed these changes post-Neoadj-Chemo. T790M mutations were absent from all samples.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy tends to decrease the mutation frequency of EGFR mutation and downstream genes, which suggests that real-time samples analysis for genetic aberrancies within EGFR pathways have important value to delineate specific patient populations and facilitate individualized treatment.

  20. Adherence and persistence with oral adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early-stage breast cancer in CALGB 49907: adherence companion study 60104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ann H; Archer, Laura; Kornblith, Alice B; Gralow, Julie; Grenier, Debjani; Perez, Edith; Wolff, Antonio C; Wang, Xiaofei; Kastrissios, Helen; Berry, Donald; Hudis, Clifford; Winer, Eric; Muss, Hyman

    2010-05-10

    Patient adherence is critical in evaluating the effectiveness of an oral therapy. We sought to measure adherence among women randomly assigned to capecitabine in a preplanned substudy of a multicenter clinical trial. Cancer and Leukemia Group B study CALGB 49907 was a randomly assigned trial comparing standard chemotherapy versus oral chemotherapy with capecitabine in patients age 65 years or older with early-stage breast cancer. We used microelectronic monitoring system (MEMS) caps on participants' capecitabine bottles to record pill bottle openings. Capecitabine was given in two divided daily doses for 14 consecutive days of a 21-day cycle for six cycles. Adherence was calculated as the number of doses taken divided by doses expected, taking into account toxicity-related dosing changes. A participant was defined as adherent if 80% or more of expected doses were recorded by MEMS. Overall, 161 patients were enrolled. Median age was 71 years (range, 65 to 89 years); 124 patients (83%) persisted with capecitabine to completion of planned protocol therapy. Adherence was 78% across all cycles, and adherence did not vary by cycle (P = .32). Twenty-five percent of participants took fewer than 80% of expected doses and were nonadherent. In a logistic regression model, participants with node-negative disease (P = .01) and mastectomy (P = .01) were more likely to be nonadherent. Adherence was not related to age, tumor stage, or hormone receptor status. Adherence was not significantly associated with relapse-free survival or grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Most older women with early-stage breast cancer were adherent to short-term oral chemotherapy in a randomized clinical trial. Age was not associated with adherence.

  1. DYPD genotyping to predict toxicity in patients with stage III colon cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy in the PETACC-8 phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boige, Valérie; Vincent, Marc; Alexandre, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    stages of the disease. We here propose a randomized trial in order to demonstrate that resection of the primary tumour improves overall survival. METHODS/DESIGN: The CAIRO4 study is a multicentre, randomized, phase III study of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG). Patients with synchronous...... unresectable metastases of CRC and few or absent symptoms of the primary tumour are randomized 1:1 between systemic therapy only, and resection of the primary tumour followed by systemic therapy. Systemic therapy will consist of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in combination with bevacizumab. The primary...

  2. A Phase 3 Trial of 2 Years of Androgen Suppression and Radiation Therapy With or Without Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Final Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Phase 3 Randomized Trial NRG Oncology RTOG 9902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Seth A; Hunt, Daniel; Sartor, A Oliver; Pienta, Kenneth J; Gomella, Leonard; Grignon, David; Rajan, Raghu; Kerlin, Kevin J; Jones, Christopher U; Dobelbower, Michael; Shipley, William U; Zeitzer, Kenneth; Hamstra, Daniel A; Donavanik, Viroon; Rotman, Marvin; Hartford, Alan C; Michalski, Jeffrey; Seider, Michael; Kim, Harold; Kuban, Deborah A; Moughan, Jennifer; Sandler, Howard

    2015-10-01

    Long-term (LT) androgen suppression (AS) with radiation therapy (RT) is a standard treatment of high-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9902 was a randomized trial testing the hypothesis that adjuvant combination chemotherapy (CT) with paclitaxel, estramustine, and oral etoposide plus LT AS plus RT would improve overall survival (OS). Patients with high-risk PCa (prostate-specific antigen 20-100 ng/mL and Gleason score [GS] ≥ 7 or clinical stage ≥ T2 and GS ≥ 8) were randomized to RT and AS (AS + RT) alone or with adjuvant CT (AS + RT + CT). CT was given as four 21-day cycles, delivered beginning 28 days after 70.2 Gy of RT. AS was given as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for 24 months, beginning 2 months before RT plus an oral antiandrogen for 4 months before and during RT. The study was designed based on a 6% improvement in OS from 79% to 85% at 5 years, with 90% power and a 2-sided alpha of 0.05. A total of 397 patients (380 eligible) were randomized. The patients had high-risk PCa, 68% with GS 8 to 10 and 34% T3 to T4 tumors, and median prostate-specific antigen of 22.6 ng/mL. The median follow-up period was 9.2 years. The trial closed early because of excess thromboembolic toxicity in the CT arm. The 10-year results for all randomized patients revealed no significant difference between the AS + RT and AS + RT + CT arms in OS (65% vs 63%; P=.81), biochemical failure (58% vs 54%; P=.82), local progression (11% vs 7%; P=.09), distant metastases (16% vs 14%; P=.42), or disease-free survival (22% vs 26%; P=.61). NRG Oncology RTOG 9902 showed no significant differences in OS, biochemical failure, local progression, distant metastases, or disease-free survival with the addition of adjuvant CT to LT AS + RT. The trial results provide valuable data regarding the natural history of high-risk PCa treated with LT AS + RT and have implications for the feasibility of clinical trial accrual and tolerability using CT for PCa

  3. Experience with adjuvant chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei secondary to mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix with oxaliplatin/fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Che-Jen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare condition characterized by mucinous tumors, disseminated intra-peritoneal implants, and mucinous ascites. So far its diagnosis remains challenging to most clinicians. Case presentation A 55-year-old male patient had suffered from acute onset of abdominal pain and abdominal distension for one day prior to his admission. Physical examination revealed tenderness over the right lower quadrant of the abdomen without diffuse muscle guarding. A large amount of ascites was identified by abdominal computed tomography (CT scan. Paracentesis showed the appearance of sticky mucinous ascites. He underwent laparotomy under the impression of pseudomyxoma peritonei. There was a lot of mucinous ascites, one appendiceal tumor and multiple peritoneal implants disseminated from the subphrenic space to the recto-vesicle pouch. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei caused by mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendiceal origin, was confirmed by histopathology. We performed an excision of the appendiceal tumor combined with copious irrigation and debridement. After the operation, he received 10 cycles of systemic chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 regimen, without specific morbidity. Follow-up of abdominal CT and colonoscopy at post-operative 17 months showed excellent response without evidence of local recurrence or distal metastasis. He made an uneventful recovery (up to the present for 21 months after the operation. Conclusion This case report emphasizes the possible new role of systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with this rare clinical syndrome.

  4. Management of inflammatory breast cancer after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy; Traitement locoregional du cancer du sein inflammatoire apres chimiotherapie neo-adjuvante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrous-Anane, S.; Daveau, C.; Dendale, R.; Campana, F.; Kirova, Y.; Fourquet, A.; Bollet, M.A. [Service d' onco-radiotherapie, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris cedex 05 (France); Savignoni, A.; Gautier, C. [Service de biostatistique, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris cedex 05 (France); Pierga, J.Y. [Service d' oncologie medicale, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris cedex 05 (France); Reyal, F. [Service de chirurgie, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose. - To assess the benefit of breast surgery for inflammatory breast cancer. Patients and methods. - This retrospective series was based on 232 patients treated for inflammatory breast cancer. All patients received primary chemotherapy followed by either exclusive radiotherapy (118 patients, 51%) or surgery with or without radiotherapy (114 patients, 49%). The median follow-up was 11 years. Results. - The two groups were comparable apart from fewer tumors smaller than 70 mm (43% vs 33%, P = 0.003), a higher rate of clinical stage N2 (15% vs 5%, P = 0.04) and fewer histopathological grade 3 tumors (46% vs 61%, P < 0.05) in the no-surgery group. The addition of surgery was associated with a significant improvement in locoregional disease control (P = 0.04) but with no significant difference in overall survival rates or disease-free intervals. Late toxicities were not significantly different between the two treatment groups except for a higher rate of fibrosis in the no-surgery group (P < 0.0001), and more lymphedema in the surgery group (P = 0.002). Conclusion. - Our data suggest an improvement in locoregional control in patients treated by surgery, in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, for inflammatory breast cancer. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of clinical and histologic factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy: 30 cases (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Antony S; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Frimberger, Angela E

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine histologic and clinical factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and a chemotherapy protocol in which an anthracycline was alternated with lomustine. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 30 dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma. PROCEDURES Medical records of 3 facilities were reviewed to identify dogs treated for stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma between June 2011 and October 2014. Information collected included signalment, disease staging data, whether anemia was present, date of splenectomy, chemotherapy protocol, adverse effects, and date of death or last follow-up. Histologic slides were reviewed and scored by pathologists. Associations between variables of interest and survival data were evaluated statistically. RESULTS Median survival time for all dogs was 158 days (range, 55 to 560 days), and the 1-year survival rate was 16%. On multivariate analysis, only the histologically determined mitotic score was significantly associated with survival time. The median survival time of 292 days for dogs with a mitotic score of 0 (hemangiosarcoma.

  6. A Model to Estimate the Risk of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Combinations of Treatment-Related Factors of the Number of Dissected Axillary Nodes, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Nam Kwon; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Han-Sung [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan, E-mail: shin.kyunghwan@gmail.com [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: The development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is closely related to the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In this study, we attempted to estimate the risk of LE based on combinations of these treatment-related factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 772 patients with breast cancer, who underwent primary surgery with axillary lymph node dissection from 2004 to 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 677 patients (88%). Among patients who received radiation therapy (n=675), 274 (35%) received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). Results: At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.0-8.3 years), 127 patients had developed LE. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 17%. Among the 127 affected patients, LE occurred within 2 years after surgery in 97 (76%) and within 3 years in 115 (91%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that N-ALN (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P<.001), ACT (HR, 4.14; P=.048), and SCRT (HR, 3.24; P<.001) were independent risk factors for LE. The total number of risk factors correlated well with the incidence of LE. Patients with no risk or 1 risk factor showed a significantly lower 5-year probability of LE (3%) than patients with 2 (19%) or 3 risk factors (38%) (P<.001). Conclusions: The risk factors associated with LE were N-ALN, ACT, and SCRT. A simple model using combinations of these factors may help clinicians predict the risk of LE.

  7. The challenge of preserving cardiorespiratory fitness in physically inactive patients with colon or breast cancer during adjuvant chemotherapy: a randomised feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Lillelund, Christian; Andersen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    instrument in order to correspond with cardio-respiratory fitness (VO2 peak) proved to be an applicable method to identify pre-illness physically inactive breast and colon cancer patients. The study demonstrated convincing recruitment (67%), safety and intervention adherence among breast cancer patients...... in both breast and colon cancer patients.Conclusions Despite a fair adherence and safety, the current study calls into question whether aerobic exercise, regardless of intensity, is able to increase VO2-peak during texane-based chemotherapy in combination with Neulasta in physically inactive breast cancer......Introduction Anti-neoplastic treatment is synonymous with an inactive daily life for a substantial number of patients. It remains unclear what is the optimal setting, dosage and combination of exercise and health promoting components that best facilitate patient adherence and symptom management...

  8. Adjuvant pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for older women with endocrine nonresponsive breast cancer who are NOT suitable for a “standard chemotherapy regimen”: the CASA randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellari, Diana; Gray, Kathryn P; Dellapasqua, Silvia; Puglisi, Fabio; Ribi, Karin; Price, Karen N; Láng, István; Gianni, Lorenzo; Spazzapan, Simon; Pinotti, Graziella; Lüthi, Jean-Marc; Gelber, Richard D; Regan, Meredith M; Colleoni, Marco; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Maibach, Rudolf; Rabaglio, Manuela; Coates, Alan S; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is no optimal treatment for breast cancers lacking estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors in elderly women with co-morbidities that prevent use of “standard chemotherapy regimens” such as AC or CMF. The CASA trial studied pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and low dose, metronomic cyclophosphamide+ methotrexate (CM) for older (>65), vulnerable women with operable, ER and PgR-negative breast cancer. After two years the trial closed early, due to slow and inadequate accrual, with 77 patients (38:PLD, 36:CM, 3:nil). Sixty-eight percent completed PLD; 83% completed CM (both 16-weeks). Patients on PLD reported worse quality of life, cognitive and physical functioning than non-PLD regimens (primarily CM). At a median follow-up of 42 months, 78% of randomized patients remained free of any breast cancer recurrence. Based on our limited experience, PLD and CM may be reasonable options for further study for elderly vulnerable patients with endocrine non-responsive breast cancer. PMID:23453899

  9. Phase 1/2 Study of the Addition of Cisplatin to Adjuvant Chemotherapy With Image Guided High-Precision Radiation Therapy for Completely Resected Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goody, Rebecca B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); MacKay, Helen [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pitcher, Bethany [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Oza, Amit; Siu, Lillian L. [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kim, John; Wong, Rebecca K.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Eric [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Swallow, Carol [Department of Surgical Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Knox, Jennifer [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kassam, Zahra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Newmarket, Ontario (Canada); Cummings, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Feld, Ron; Hedley, David; Liu, Geoffrey; Krzyzanowska, Monika K. [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dinniwell, Robert; Brade, Anthony M.; Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pintilie, Melania [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Locoregional recurrence is common after surgery for gastric cancer. Adjuvant therapy improves outcomes but with toxicity. This phase 1/2 study investigated infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with biweekly cisplatin delivered concurrently with image guided high-precision radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had completely resected stage IB to IV (Union for International Cancer Control TNM 6th edition) nonmetastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. Treatment constituted 12 weeks of infusional 5-FU (200 mg/m{sup 2}/day) with cisplatin added in a standard 3 + 3 dose escalation protocol (0, 20, 30, and 40 mg/m{sup 2}) during weeks 1, 3, 5, and 7, and an additional week 9 dose in the final cohort. Radiation therapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) was delivered during weeks 3 to 7. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined in phase 1 and confirmed in phase 2. Results: Among the 55 patients (median age, 54 years; range 28-77 years; 55% male), the median follow-up time was 3.0 years (range, 0.3-5.3 years). Five patients in phase 1 experienced dose-limiting toxicity, and MTD was determined as 4 cycles of 40 mg/m{sup 2} cisplatin. Twenty-seven patients were treated at MTD. Acute grade 3 to 4 toxicity rate was 37.0% at MTD and 29.1% across all dose levels. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Fourteen patients experienced recurrent disease. The 2-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival were 85% and 74%, respectively. Median OS has not been reached. Quality of life (QOL) was impaired during treatment, but most scores recovered by 4 weeks. Conclusion: Cisplatin can be safely delivered with 5-FU–based chemoradiation therapy. Acute toxicity was acceptable, and patient-reported QOL showed the regimen was tolerable. Outcomes are encouraging and justify further study of this regimen.

  10. Factors perceived to influence exercise adherence in women with breast cancer participating in an exercise programme during adjuvant chemotherapy: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde; Karlsen, Bjørg; Allan, Helen; Søreide, Jon Arne; Bru, Edvin

    2015-02-01

    To explore factors influencing exercise adherence among women with breast cancer while following an exercise programme. Earlier research shows that women with breast cancer decrease physical activity following the cancer diagnosis and that adhering to exercise interventions can be a challenge. Research is needed to identify motivational factors and barriers for exercise adherence among women during treatment for breast cancer. This was a qualitative study to explore patient's perceptions of the challenges to exercise adherence during a randomised, controlled trial. Twenty-seven women with early-stage breast cancer were purposively sampled for focus group interviews during 2011-2012 from their participation in the exercise intervention group during 2010-2012. Five focus groups were performed, and data analysis was completed using the systematic text condensation method. During the focus group study, five main themes were identified, which described factors participants perceived to influence their adherence to exercise during chemotherapy: 'side effects of breast cancer treatment as a barrier to exercise', 'restoring and maintaining normality in daily life motivates exercise', 'other valued activities compete with exercise', 'constructive support enhances exercise' and 'positive beliefs about efficacy and outcomes motivate exercise'. Adherence to exercise in women with breast cancer is challenged by internal and external conditions and may be improved by attention to the impact of treatment side effects and by supporting patient self-efficacy towards changing health behaviour. Nurses should be aware that exercise adherence could be a challenge among women with breast cancer. They should help identify obstacles to exercise for women and ways to overcome them, as well as support them in their beliefs that they are capable of changing their health behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Quimioterapia adyuvante en el cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas Adjuvant chemotherapy for non small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Jankilevich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de pulmón constituye una de las principales causas de mortalidad en todo el mundo. Su incidencia se relaciona directamente al uso del tabaco. Puede clasificarse a los pacientes en tres grupos: con enfermedad localizada o resecable, con enfermedad localmente avanzada y con enfermedad metastásica. Excepto algunos casos, el primer grupo es pasible de curación. En ellos la cirugía es el tratamiento de elección. El advenimiento de quimioterapia sistémica efectiva, estudios cooperativos bien diseñados y mejor comprensión del comportamiento biológico han logrado mejorar la sobrevida global por primera vez en una centuria. El rol de la quimioterapia adyuvante encuentra un escenario cierto, luego de una década de estudios clínicos. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión de la evidencia disponible que ha colocado a las combinaciones basadas en cisplatino como el tratamiento de elección luego de la cirugía en los estadios II-IIIA del cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas.Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Its incidence is directly related to tobacco use. The patients can be classified in three large groups: those with localized or resectable disease; those with locally advanced disease and lastly those with metastatic disease. Except for anecdotal cases, in the first group cure is possible. For these patients surgery is the treatment of choice. However, with the appearance of effective systemic chemotherapy, well designed cooperative studies and a better understanding of the biological behaviour, overall survival has improved for the first time in a hundred years. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy is a true option after a decade of clinical trials. The objective of this article is to perform a review of the available evidence which has made cisplatin based combinations is the treatment of choice after surgery for stages II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer.

  12. Failure to Adhere to Protocol Specified Radiation Therapy Guidelines Was Associated With Decreased Survival in RTOG 9704-A Phase III Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Chemoradiotherapy for Patients With Resected Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, Ross A., E-mail: Ross_a_abrams@rush.edu [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Winter, Kathryn A. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Regine, William F. [University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Safran, Howard [Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lustig, Robert [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Konski, Andre A. [Wayne State Medical Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Benson, Al B. [Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Macdonald, John S. [St. Vincent' s Cancer Care Center, New York, NY (United States); Rich, Tyvin A. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: In Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704, as previously published, patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma received continuous infusion 5-FU and concurrent radiotherapy (5FU-RT). 5FU-RT treatment was preceded and followed by randomly assigned chemotherapy, either 5-FU or gemcitabine. This analysis explored whether failure to adhere to specified RT guidelines influenced survival and/or toxicity. Methods and Materials: RT requirements were protocol specified. Adherence was scored as per protocol (PP) or less than per protocol (adjuvant protocol for pancreatic adenocarcinoma to evaluate the impact of adherence to specified RT protocol guidelines on protocol outcomes. Failure to adhere to specified RT guidelines was associated with reduced survival and, for patients receiving gemcitabine, trend toward increased nonhematologic toxicity.

  13. Impact of Lymph Node Ratio on Oncologic Outcomes in ypStage III Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy followed by Total Mesorectal Excision, and Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Taeryool; Song, Changhoon; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Tae-You

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic impact of the lymph node ratio (LNR) in ypStage III rectal cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). We retrospectively reviewed the data of 638 consecutive patients who underwent NCRT followed by total mesorectal excision, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer from 2004 to 2011. Of these, 125 patients were positive for lymph node (LN) metastasis and were analyzed in this study. The median numbers of examined and metastatic LNs were 17 and 2, respectively, and the median LNR was 0.143 (range, 0.02-1). Median follow-up time was 55 months. In multivariate analyses, LNR was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.17, p = 0.041), disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 2.28, p = 0.005), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (HR 2.30, p = 0.010). When ypN1 patients were divided into low (low LNR ypN1 group) and high LNR (high LNR ypN1 group) according to a cut-off value of 0.152, the high LNR ypN1 group had poorer OS (p = 0.043) and DFS (p = 0.056) compared with the low LNR ypN1 group. And there were no differences between the high LNR ypN1 group and the ypN2 group in terms of the OS (p = 0.703) and DFS (p = 0.831). For ypN-positive rectal cancer patients, the LNR was a more effective prognostic marker than the ypN stage, circumferential resection margin, or tumor regression grade after NCRT, and could be used to discern the high-risk group among ypN1 patients.

  14. Design of the physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES): a randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, H.; Stuiver, M.M.; van Harten, W.H.; Sonke, G.S.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may

  15. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES): a randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; Stuiver, Martijn M.; van Harten, Wim H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to

  16. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; Stuiver, Martijn M.; van Harten, Willem H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may

  17. Concurrent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after breast-conservative surgery enhances late toxicities; La chimiotherapie concomitante de la radiotherapie augmente la toxicite tardive apres chirurgie conservatrice du cancer du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A. [Hopital Tenon, Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie 75 - Paris (France); Garaud, P.; Body, G.; Le Floch, O.; Calais, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Serin, D. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Fourquet, A. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Bosset, J.F.; Miny-Buffet, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Minjoz, 25 - Besancon (France); Favre, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire La Source, 45 - Orleans (France); Azria, D. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Val d' Aurelle, 34 Montpellier (France)

    2006-06-15

    In 1996, a multicenter randomized study comparing after breast-conservative surgery. sequential vs concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) with radiation therapy (RT) was initiated (ARCOSEIN study). Seven hundred sixteen patients were included in this trial. After a median follow-up of 6.7 (4.3 -9) years, we decided to prospectively evaluate the late effects of these two strategies. Patients and methods - A total of 297 patients were asked to follow-up from the five larger including institutions. Seventy-two percent (214 patients) were eligible for late toxicity. After breast-conserving surgery with axillary dissection, patients were treated either with sequential treatment with CT first followed by RT (arm A) or CT administered concurrently with RT (arm B). In all patients, CT regimen combined mitoxantrone (12 mg/m{sup 2}). 5-FU (500 mg/m{sup 2}), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m{sup 2}), 6 cycles (day 1-day 21). In arm B, patients received concurrently the first 3 cycles of CT with RT. In arm A, RT started 3 to 5 weeks after the 6. cycle of CT. Conventional RT was delivered to the whole breast using a 2 Gy-fraction protocol to a total dose of 50 Gy ({+-} boost to the primary tumour bed). The assessment of toxicity was blinded to treatment and was graded by the radiation oncologist according to the LENT-SOMA scale. Skin pigmentation was also evaluated using a personal 5-points scoring system (excellent, good, moderate, poor, very poor). Results - Among the 214 evaluated patients, 107 were treated in each arm. The two populations were homogeneous for patients', tumors' and treatment characteristics. Subcutaneous fibrosis (SF), telangiectasia (T), skin pigmentation (SP), and breast atrophy (BA) were significantly increased in arm B. Twenty patients experienced grade superior or equal to 2 (SF) in arm B vs five in arm A (P 0.003). Twenty-five and seven patients showed grade superior or equal to 2 (T) in ann B and A, respectively (P = 0.001). Forty-four and

  18. Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    With long-term follow-up, the DBCG 77B trial demonstrates that oral single-agent cyclophosphamide significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and mortality as compared with no systemic therapy in pre-menopausal patients with high-risk early breast cancer. DBCG 77B is the only randomised trial...... not was superior to classic CMF. A further reduction in breast cancer mortality appeared in the EBCTCG meta-analysis from the addition of a taxane to a standard AC, while the substitution of cycles or drugs with a taxane was not associated with a reduction in mortality. No apparent benefit was observed in an early...... analysis of the DBCG 82C evaluating the addition of CMF to tamoxifen in post-menopausal high-risk breast cancer patients. Apart from menopausal status, the two trials had identical selection criteria, and the differences in outcome warranted a long-term follow-up of the 82C trial. After ten years of follow...

  19. Understanding Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Understanding Chemotherapy What is chemotherapy? Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It is also called “chemo.” Today, there are ...

  20. ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-chemotherapy sequential consolidation achieves long-term efficacy in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zi-Jie; Hu, Yuan; Li, Xu-Dong; He, Yi; Xiao, Ruo-Zhi; Fang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Dong-Ning; Liu, Jia-Jun; Yan, Jin-Song; Huang, Ren-Wei; Lin, Dong-Jun; Liu, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    The combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3, ATO) has been effective in obtaining high clinical complete remission (CR) rates in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but the long-term efficacy and safety among newly diagnosed APL patients are unclear. In this retrospective study, total 45 newly diagnosed APL patients received ATRA/chemotherapy combination regimen to induce remission. Among them, 43 patients (95.6%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, followed by ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-based chemotherapy sequential consolidation treatment with a median follow-up of 55 months. In these patients, the estimated overall survival (OS) and the relapse-free survival (RFS) were 94.4% ± 3.9% and 94.6 ± 3.7%, respectively. The toxicity profile was mild and reversible. No secondary carcinoma was observed. These results demonstrated the high efficacy and minimal toxicity of ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-based chemotherapy sequential consolidation treatment for newly diagnosed APL in long-term follow-up, suggesting a potential frontline therapy for APL.

  1. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, operable breast cancer has been treated by primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrine and targeted therapy as indicated. Primary systemic chemotherapy, more commonly known as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), was reserved for large inoperable tumours or for ...

  2. A Primary Hepatic Lymphoma Treated with Liver Resection and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Bouliaris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL is a rare malignancy, which is frequently misdiagnosed. Although chemotherapy is the treatment of choice there are reports that a combination of surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy can offer better results. Herein we present an interesting case of a large primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma originating from liver was treated with a liver which resection and chemotherapy.

  3. Utility of adjuvant systemic therapy in melanoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); A. Testori (Alessandro); J. Marsden (Jeremy); P. Hersey (Peter); I. Quirt (Ian); T. Petrella; H. Gogas (Helen); R.M. MacKie; A. Hauschild (Axel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe lack of effective drugs in stage IV melanoma has impacted the effectiveness of adjuvant therapies in stage II/III disease. To date, chemotherapy, immunostimulants and vaccines have been used with minimal success. Interferon (IFN) has shown an effect on relapse-free survival (RFS) in

  4. Adjuvant Trastuzumab: Does Time Really Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Sandra M

    2013-01-01

    Trastuzumab is now the standard of care for metastatic and early breast cancer; however, questions remain regarding the optimal schedule of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. This commentary discusses the results from recent clinical trials with regard to the optimal duration of trastuzumab treatment, as well as the benefits of providing trastuzumab sequentially versus concurrently to chemotherapy.

  5. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment: ever more used with major regional differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval debulking...

  6. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients treated with taxanes and platinum derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Qvortrup, Camilla; Eckhoff, Lise

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with taxanes and platinum compounds has resulted in substantial survival benefits both in adjuvant and metastatic settings. However, as a side effect, such chemotherapy may cause peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) which may result in discontinuation of treatment, and if it pers......BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with taxanes and platinum compounds has resulted in substantial survival benefits both in adjuvant and metastatic settings. However, as a side effect, such chemotherapy may cause peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) which may result in discontinuation of treatment...

  7. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Andersen, Fahimeh; Fischer, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven valuable in several tumors, but it has not been elucidated in colon cancer. The present phase II trial addressed the issue in high-risk patients selected by computed tomography (CT) scan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with resectable colon cancer...... mutational status received three cycles of capecitabine 2000 mg/m(2) days 1-14 q3w and oxaliplatin 130 mg iv day 1 q3w. Wild-type patients received the same chemotherapy supplemented with panitumumab 9 mg/kg iv q3w. After the operation, patients fulfilling the international criteria for adjuvant chemotherapy......, i.e. high-risk stage II and III patients, received five cycles of the same chemotherapy without panitumumab. Patients not fulfilling the criteria were offered follow-up only. The primary endpoint was the fraction of patients not fulfilling the criteria for adjuvant chemotherapy (converted patients...

  8. Breast conserving treatment of locally advanced carcinoma T2 and T3 after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by quadrantectomy and high dose-rate brachytherapy, as a boost, complementary teletherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy; Tratamento conservador dos carcinomas de mama localmente avancados T2 e T3, apos quimioterapia neoadjuvante, com quadrantectomia e braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose como reforco de dose, teleterapia complementar e quimioterapia adjuvante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fristachi, Carlos Elias [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Onco-Ginecologia e Mastologia]. E-mail: cefristachi@uol.com.br; Miziara Filho, Miguel Abrao; Soares, Celia Regina; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes; Martins, Homero Lavieri Martins [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Baracat, Fausto Farah [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (HSPE), SP (Brazil). Servico de Ginecologia e Mastologia; Piato, Sebastiao [Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Obstetricia e Ginecologia (DOGI)

    2005-07-01

    Objective: to assess the treatment of breast cancer T2 and T3(T > = 4 cm), through neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a boost, complementary radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, considering its method problems, its esthetics results, the aspect of local control, overall survival, and disease-free survival. Patients and method: this clinical prospective descriptive study was based on the evaluation of 26 patients ranging from 30 to 70 years old, with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, clinical stage IIB and IIIA, responsive to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Early and late radiotherapy complications were evaluated according to the criteria established by the RTOG/EORTC (Radiotherapy and Oncology Group /European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer) groups. Esthetics evaluation was done in accordance with the criteria set by a plastic surgeon. Local control was evaluated by clinical method, mammography and ultrasonography. Overall survival (OS) and the disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed according to Kaplan-Meier methodology. All the patients were treated at the Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho Cancer Institute, from June/1995 to November/2001, and evaluated in March, 2002, with median follow-up of 28.7 months. Results: early complications were observed in 8 patients (30.6%). Two patients were classified as G3 and G4 (RTOG/EORTC). Six patients had late complications and three of them (11.5%) were classified as G3 and G4. One patient (3.8%) had local recurrence, 64 months after having local treatment. Esthetics results were considered good or regular in 16 patients (60.5%) out of 24 patients who were examined. Overall survival and disease-free survival in 24, 36 and 60 months were 100%, 92.3% and 83.1% respectively. Conclusion: early and late radiotherapy complications were considerate high when compared to literature, but esthetic results were considered acceptable. RL, OS and DFS were comparable to other

  9. Clinical and Experimental Projects on Chemotherapy of Bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our clinical and experimental experience with chemotherapy of bladder tumours is reviewed. The routes of drug administrations, drug dosages and combinations, are presented. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of certain tumours are discussed. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 631 (1974) ...

  10. Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  11. Adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer: Current and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Marcus; Leong, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    The management of gastric cancer continues to evolve. Whilst surgery alone is effective when tumours present early, a large proportion of patients are diagnosed with loco-regionally advanced disease, resulting in high loco-regional and distant relapse rates, with subsequent poor survival. Early attempts at improving outcomes following resection were disappointing; however, randomized trials have now established either post-operative chemoradiotherapy (INT0116) or peri-operative chemotherapy as standard adjuvant therapies in the Western world. There remain, however, significant differences in the approach to management between the West and East. In Asia, where there is the highest incidence of gastric cancer, extended resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy represents the standard of care. This review discusses current standard adjuvant therapy in gastric adenocarcinoma, as well as recent and ongoing trials investigating novel (neo)adjuvant approaches, which hope to build on the successes of previous studies. PMID:25320509

  12. Adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer: current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Marcus; Leong, Trevor

    2014-10-14

    The management of gastric cancer continues to evolve. Whilst surgery alone is effective when tumours present early, a large proportion of patients are diagnosed with loco-regionally advanced disease, resulting in high loco-regional and distant relapse rates, with subsequent poor survival. Early attempts at improving outcomes following resection were disappointing; however, randomized trials have now established either post-operative chemoradiotherapy (INT0116) or peri-operative chemotherapy as standard adjuvant therapies in the Western world. There remain, however, significant differences in the approach to management between the West and East. In Asia, where there is the highest incidence of gastric cancer, extended resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy represents the standard of care. This review discusses current standard adjuvant therapy in gastric adenocarcinoma, as well as recent and ongoing trials investigating novel (neo)adjuvant approaches, which hope to build on the successes of previous studies.

  13. Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma: Surgery and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Trabelsi; Olfa, Gharbi; Faten, Hammedi; Makrem, Hochlef; Slim, Ben Ahmed; Moncef, Mokni

    2009-12-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma of high malignant potential. It most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera. We report a case of 52-year-old woman who presented with an invasive hidradenocarcinoma of the finger, treated with surgical excision. The patient presented with skin and lymph node metastases four years after, treated by chemotherapy. Hidradenocarcinoma is an aggressive tumor. It seems important to use adjuvant therapies particularly for recurrent and metastatic forms.

  14. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy adapted to the tumour response in the primary seminoma of the central nervous system: experience of the Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital and review of literature; Chimiotherapie neoadjuvante suivie d'une radiotherapie adaptee a la reponse tumorale dans les tumeurs germinales seminomateuses du systeme nerveux central: experience de l'hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calugaru, V.; Taillibert, S.; Lang, P.; Simon, J.M.; Mazeron, J.J. [Groupe Hospitalier de la Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP, Service de Radiotherapie Oncologique, 75 - Paris (France); Taillibert, S.; Delattre, J.Y. [Groupe Hospitalier de la Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP, Service de Neuro-Oncologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose. Retrospective analysis of ten cases of germinoma of the central nervous system treated in Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, Paris. Patients and methods- - Ten male patients were treated from 1997 to 2005 for histologically verified primary seminoma of the central nervous system. The median age was 27 years (range 18 0 years). Our option for the treatment was the association of 3 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide) to radiotherapy. Five patients received a craniospinal radiotherapy of 30 Gy (for one patient 36 Gy) followed by a tumoral boost from 20 to 24 Gy. For five patients, irradiated volume was limited to the tumour, total dose from 24 to 54 Gy (for three patients the total dose was from 24 to 30 Gy). Surgery was used for five patients, but only in one case was macroscopic complete. Results. Six patients were in situation of complete remission after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients were in situation of complete remission after the irradiation. All the patients were alive free of disease with a median follow-up 46 months (range 13 0 months). Conclusion. In spite of the fact that the intracranial germinal tumours are not the subject of a consensual treatment strategy, this retrospective analysis pleads in favour of chemotherapy followed by limited dose and volume irradiation. (authors)

  15. A recommended practical approach to the management of anthracycline-based chemotherapy cardiotoxicity: an opinion paper of the working group on drug cardiotoxicity and cardioprotection, Italian Society of Cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Spallarossa, Paolo; Maurea, Nicola; Cadeddu, Christian; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Pepe, Alessia; Tocchetti, Carlo G.; Zito, Concetta; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines are the mainstay of treatment of a variety of haematological malignancies and solid tumours. Unfortunately, the clinical use of these drugs is limited by cumulative, dose-related cardiotoxicity which may ultimately lead to a severe and irreversible form of cardiomyopathy. Thus, there is an increasing need for close cooperation among cardiologists, oncologists and haemato-oncologists. As anthracyclines save lives, the logical goal of this cooperation, besides preventing or mitig...

  16. Trends in vaccine adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, V.E.J.C.; Lavelle, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvants are essential components of most clinically used vaccines. This is because the majority of nonliving vaccines are relatively poor inducers of adaptive immunity unless effective adjuvants are co-administered. Aluminum salts (alum) have been used as adjuvants with great success for almost a

  17. Uncaria tomentosa—Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Santos Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting women worldwide. Some of the recommended treatments involve chemotherapy whose toxic effects include leukopenia and neutropenia. This study assessed the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa (Ut in reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy through a randomized clinical trial. Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma—Stage II, who underwent a treatment regimen known as FAC (Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, were divided into two groups: the UtCa received chemotherapy plus 300 mg dry Ut extract per day and the Ca group that only received chemotherapy and served as the control experiment. Blood samples were collected before each one of the six chemotherapy cycles and blood counts, immunological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress were analyzed. Uncaria tomentosa reduced the neutropenia caused by chemotherapy and was also able to restore cellular DNA damage. We concluded that Ut is an effective adjuvant treatment for breast cancer.

  18. Trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in the herceptin adjuvant trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suter, Thomas M.; Procter, Marion; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Muscholl, Michael; Bergh, Jonas; Carlomagno, Chiara; Perren, Timothy; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Bighin, Claudia; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Ageev, Fail T.; Hitre, Erika; Groetz, Juergen; Iwata, Hiroji; Knap, Malgorzata; Gnant, Michael; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Spence, Alison; Gelber, Richard D.; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to investigate trastuzumab- associated cardiac adverse effects in breast cancer patients after completion of ( neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Patients and Methods The Herceptin Adjuvant ( HERA) trial is a three- group, multicenter,

  19. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

  20. Assessment of variation in immunosuppressive pathway genes reveals TGFBR2 to be associated with prognosis of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lei (Jieping); A. Rudolph (Anja); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten); M. Rafiq (Meena); T.W. Behrens (Timothy); E.L. Goode (Ellen); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); P. Seibold (Petra); P.A. Fasching (Peter); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); V. Kristensen (Vessela); F.J. Couch (Fergus); U. Hamann (Ute); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); U. Eilber (Ursula); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); J. Dennis (Joe); Q. Wang (Qing); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Mannermaa (Arto); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); P. Hall (Per); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); S. Nord (Silje); J.E. Olson (Janet); B. Hallberg (Boubou); C. Vachon (Celine); D. Torres (Diana); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); A. Jager (Agnes); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); S. Margolin (Sara); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); V. Kataja (Vesa); S. Hatse (Sigrid); H. Wildiers (Hans); A. Smeets (Ann); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); J. Li (Jingmei); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); S.C. Linn (Sabine); S. Cornelissen (Sten); S.A.J. van den Broek (Sandra Alexandra); D. Kang (Daehee); J.-Y. Choi (J.); S.K. Park (Sue); K.Y. Yoo; C.-N. Hsiung (Chia-Ni); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); S.-H. Teo; N.A.M. Taib (Nur Aishah Mohd); C.-H. Yip (Cheng-Har); G.F. Ho (Gwo Fuang); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); H. Ito (Hidemi); H. Iwata (Hisato); K. Tajima (Kazuo); A.M. Dunning (Alison); J. Benítez (Javier); K. Czene (Kamila); L. Sucheston (Lara); T. Maishman (Tom); W. Tapper (William); D. Eccles (Diana); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Tumor lymphocyte infiltration is associated with clinical response to chemotherapy in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. To identify variants in immunosuppressive pathway genes associated with prognosis after adjuvant chemotherapy for ER-negative patients, we

  1. First-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in patients ≥75 years: a retrospective single-centre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debled, Marc; Madranges, Nicolas; Mertens, Cécile; Durand, Michel; Brouste, Véronique; Brain, Etienne; Mauriac, Louis

    2011-10-01

    Data on chemotherapy for elderly patients with metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) are limited. We performed a 7-year retrospective analysis of MBC patients at our institution receiving first-line chemotherapy aged ≥75 years. Of 117 patients, 103 received monotherapy (67 capecitabine, 29 vinorelbine, 5 docetaxel, 2 liposomal doxorubicin) and 14 received polychemotherapy (12 anthracycline-based, 2 vinorelbine-gemcitabine). Chemotherapy demonstrated acceptable tolerability. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from initiation of chemotherapy were 6.2 months and 13.8 months, respectively. At 2 years, 25% of patients were alive; however, 25% died within 3 months of beginning chemotherapy. Independent prognostic factors for longer PFS were good performance status, absence of visceral disease and capecitabine treatment. Good performance status and lack of visceral disease were also significant for OS. These results suggest that palliative chemotherapy should not be systematically excluded in this setting, but should be carefully discussed as it appears to be feasible with apparent benefit in selected patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Phase 3 Trial of 2 Years of Androgen Suppression and Radiation Therapy With or Without Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Final Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Phase 3 Randomized Trial NRG Oncology RTOG 9902

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Seth A., E-mail: rosents@sutterhealth.org [Radiation Oncology, Sutter Cancer Centers, Roseville, California (United States); Hunt, Daniel [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sartor, A. Oliver [Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Pienta, Kenneth J. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Gomella, Leonard [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grignon, David [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Rajan, Raghu [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kerlin, Kevin J. [Community Clinical Oncology Program, Southeast Cancer Control Consortium, Inc, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (United States); Jones, Christopher U. [Radiation Oncology, Sutter Cancer Centers, Roseville, California (United States); Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, California (United States); Dobelbower, Michael [University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); Shipley, William U. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zeitzer, Kenneth [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Donavanik, Viroon [Christiana Care Health Services, Inc, Wilmington, Delaware (United States); Rotman, Marvin [State University of New York Health Science Center–Brooklyn, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Hartford, Alan C. [Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Michalski, Jeffrey [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Seider, Michael [Akron City Hospital, Akron, Ohio (United States); Kim, Harold [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); and others

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Long-term (LT) androgen suppression (AS) with radiation therapy (RT) is a standard treatment of high-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9902 was a randomized trial testing the hypothesis that adjuvant combination chemotherapy (CT) with paclitaxel, estramustine, and oral etoposide plus LT AS plus RT would improve overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Patients with high-risk PCa (prostate-specific antigen 20-100 ng/mL and Gleason score [GS] ≥7 or clinical stage ≥T2 and GS ≥8) were randomized to RT and AS (AS + RT) alone or with adjuvant CT (AS + RT + CT). CT was given as four 21-day cycles, delivered beginning 28 days after 70.2 Gy of RT. AS was given as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for 24 months, beginning 2 months before RT plus an oral antiandrogen for 4 months before and during RT. The study was designed based on a 6% improvement in OS from 79% to 85% at 5 years, with 90% power and a 2-sided alpha of 0.05. Results: A total of 397 patients (380 eligible) were randomized. The patients had high-risk PCa, 68% with GS 8 to 10 and 34% T3 to T4 tumors, and median prostate-specific antigen of 22.6 ng/mL. The median follow-up period was 9.2 years. The trial closed early because of excess thromboembolic toxicity in the CT arm. The 10-year results for all randomized patients revealed no significant difference between the AS + RT and AS + RT + CT arms in OS (65% vs 63%; P=.81), biochemical failure (58% vs 54%; P=.82), local progression (11% vs 7%; P=.09), distant metastases (16% vs 14%; P=.42), or disease-free survival (22% vs 26%; P=.61). Conclusions: NRG Oncology RTOG 9902 showed no significant differences in OS, biochemical failure, local progression, distant metastases, or disease-free survival with the addition of adjuvant CT to LT AS + RT. The trial results provide valuable data regarding the natural history of high-risk PCa treated with LT AS + RT and have implications for

  3. Locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer treated by combined chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation: updated results in a series of 120 patients; Cancer du sein localement evolue non inflammatoire traite par association de chimiotherapie et de radiotherapie a dose preoperatoire: reactualisation des resultats d'une serie de 120 patientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, D.; Touboul, E.; Moureau-Zabotto, L. [Hopital Tenon AP-HP, Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Lefran, J.P.; Blondon, J. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere AP-HP, Service de chirurgie generale et gynecologique, 75 - Paris (France); Genestie, C. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere AP-HP, Service d' anatomopathologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-06-01

    vs. {>=}6 cm in diameter, p = 0.008), and tumour response after induction chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation (clinically complete response + partial response vs. non-response, p = 0.0015). In the non conservative breast treatment group, of the 32 patients with no change in clinical tumour size after induction chemotherapy, the 10-year metastatic disease-free survival rate was 59% with only one local relapse. Arm lymphedema was noted in 17% (14 of 81) following axillary dissection and in 2.5% (1 of 39) without axillary dissection. Cosmetic results were satisfactory in 70% of patients treated by irradiation alone and in 51.5% of patients after wide excision and irradiation. Conclusion. - Despite the poor prognosis of patients with locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer resistant to primary anthracycline-based regimen, aggressive locoregional management using preoperative irradiation and mastectomy with axillary dissection offers a possibility of long term survival with low local failure rate for patients without extensive nodal disease. On the other hand, the rate of local failure seems to be high in patients with clinical partial tumour response following induction chemotherapy and breast-conserving treatment combining preoperative irradiation and large wide excision. (authors)

  4. Effects of 5-fluorouracil adjuvant treatment of colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, Wendy; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Plukker, John T. M.

    Since the late 1980s and early 1990s, 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been the standard adjuvant treatment for Stage III colon cancer. After the initial introduction of 5-fluorouracil in standard treatment protocols, several changes have been made based on results of randomized studies on

  5. Weight changes during chemotherapy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano José Megale Costa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer have a tendency to gain weight. This tendency has determining factors not completely defined and an unknown prognostic impact. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate weight change during chemotherapy for breast cancer in a defined population and to identify its predisposing factors and possible prognostic significance. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Private clinical oncology service. PARTICIPANTS: 106 consecutive patients with breast cancer treated between June 1994 and April 2000, who received neoadjuvant (n = 8, adjuvant (n = 74 or palliative (n = 24 chemotherapy. INTERVETION: Review of medical records and gathering of clinical information, including patients’ body weights before treatment and at follow-up reviews. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Body weight change, expressed as percentage of body weight per month in treatment; role of clinical data in weight change; and influence of weight change in overall survival and disease-free survival. RESULTS: There was a mean increase of 0.50 ± 1.42% (p = 0.21 of body weight per month of treatment. We noted a negative correlation between metastatic disease and weight gain (r = -0.447, p < 0.0001. In the adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy groups there was a mean weight gain of 0.91 ± 1.19 % (p < 0.00001 per month, whereas in the metastatic (palliative group, we observed a mean loss of 0.52 ± 1.21% (p = 0.11 of body weight per month during the treatment. We did not observe any statistically significant correlation between weight changes and disease-free survival or overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy gain weight, whereas metastatic cancer patients will probably lose weight during palliative chemotherapy. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of weight changes during chemotherapy.

  6. Exploring the safety of chemotherapy for treating breast cancer during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Kamal, Nermine S; Peccatori, Fedro A; Del Mastro, Lucia; Azim, Hatem A

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP) represents a unique challenge to the patient, her family and the treating physician. The proper management of this critical clinical situation is crucial, and requires a multidisciplinary approach. A proper understanding of the safety of chemotherapy during pregnancy is a vital step to avoid detrimental consequences on the mother and the fetus. The aim of this article is to review the available evidence on the safety of chemotherapy administration in managing BCP. The rule of thumb of chemotherapy - avoiding first trimester exposure and starting therapy in the second trimester - can be considered applicable for classic agents that are used in managing pregnant breast cancer patients. Anthracycline-based regimens are considered the standard of care in managing BCP. Recently, a growing amount of data suggests the safety of taxanes during pregnancy. Pregnancy in cancer patients should be considered as "high risk": once the systemic treatment is initiated, regular fetal monitoring is highly recommended. Emerging data are available on the relative long-term safety secondary to anthracycline exposure during pregnancy. A continued monitoring of the health of individuals with prenatal exposure to chemotherapy into adulthood is recommended for the possible occurrence of long-term side effects.

  7. A Phase II feasibility study of oral etoposide given concurrently with radiotherapy followed by dose intensive adjuvant chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (protocol POG 9631): A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Adam J; Kocak, Mehmet; Hershon, Linda; Rousseau, Pierre; Decarie, Jean-Claude; Shaw, Susan; Burger, Peter; Friedman, Henry S; Gajjar, Amar; Moghrabi, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Children with high-risk medulloblastoma historically have had a poor prognosis. The Children's Oncology Group completed a Phase II study using oral etoposide given with radiotherapy followed by intensive chemotherapy. Patients enrolled in the study had high-risk disease defined as ≥1.5 cm2 of residual disease postsurgery or definite evidence of central nervous metastasis. All patients underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy. During radiation, the patients received oral etoposide (21 days on, 7 off) at an initial dose of 50 mg/m2 per day (treatment 1), which was reduced to 35 mg/m2 per day (treatment 2) due to toxicity. After radiotherapy, the patients received chemotherapy with three cycles of cisplatin and oral etoposide, followed by eight courses of cyclophosphamide and vincristine. Between November 1998 and October 2002, 53 patients were accrued; 15 received treatment 1 and 38 treatment 2. Forty-seven patients (89%) were eligible. Response to radiation was excellent, with 19 (40.4%) showing complete response, 24 (51.1%) partial response, and four (8.5%) no recorded response. The overall 2- and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 76.6 ± 6% and 70.2 ± 7%, respectively. The 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 80.9 ± 6% and 76.6 ± 6%, respectively. Clinical response postradiation and PFS/OS were not significantly different between the treatment groups. There was a trend toward a difference in 5-year PFS between those without and with metastatic disease (P = 0.072). Oral etoposide was tolerable at 35 mg/m2 (21 days on and 7 days off) when given during full-dose irradiation in patients with high-risk medulloblastoma with encouraging survival data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Long-term results of International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VIII: adjuvant chemotherapy plus goserelin compared with either therapy alone for premenopausal patients with node-negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, P.; Sun, Z.; Braun, D.; Price, K. N.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Rabaglio, M.; Gelber, R. D.; Crivellari, D.; Collins, J.; Murray, E.; Zaman, K.; Colleoni, M.; Gusterson, B. A.; Viale, G.; Regan, M. M.; Coates, A. S.; Goldhirsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VIII compared long-term efficacy of endocrine therapy (goserelin), chemotherapy [cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF)], and chemoendocrine therapy (CMF followed by goserelin) for pre/perimenopausal women with lymph-node-negative breast cancer. Patients and methods: From 1990 to 1999, 1063 patients were randomized to receive (i) goserelin for 24 months (n = 346), (ii) six courses of ‘classical’ CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy (n = 360), or (iii) six courses of CMF plus 18 months goserelin (CMF→ goserelin; n = 357). Tumors were classified as estrogen receptor (ER) negative (19%), ER positive (80%), or ER unknown (1%); 19% of patients were younger than 40. Median follow-up was 12.1 years. Results: For the ER-positive cohort, sequential therapy provided a statistically significant benefit in disease-free survival (DFS) (12-year DFS = 77%) compared with CMF alone (69%) and goserelin alone (68%) (P = 0.04 for each comparison), due largely to the effect in younger patients. Patients with ER-negative tumors whose treatment included CMF had similar DFS (12-year DFS CMF = 67%; 12-year DFS CMF→ goserelin = 69%) compared with goserelin alone (12-year DFS = 61%, P= NS). Conclusions: For pre/perimenopausal women with lymph-node-negative ER-positive breast cancer, CMF followed by goserelin improved DFS in comparison with either modality alone. The improvement was the most pronounced in those aged below 40, suggesting an endocrine effect of prolonged CMF-induced amenorrhea. PMID:21325445

  9. Hypothyroidism in Carcinoma of the Tongue with Adjuvant Treatment

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    Sabita Kumari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of hypothyroidism with adjuvant treatment in oral tongue carcinoma patients treated primarily with surgery. Materials and methods A retrospective review was carried out to analyze hypothyroidism incidence and its relation to adjuvant treatment (radiation/radio-chemotherapy in oral tongue carcinoma after the primary surgical ablation and neck dissection. Hypothyroidism was analyzed in relation with dose of radiation, gender, and adjuvant treatment modality. Results The study analyzed the patients who were treated between January 2012 and June 2015. Among 705 patients with carcinoma of the tongue treated primarily with wide local excision and neck dissection, 383 received adjuvant treatment. A total of 215 patients received radiation, and 168 received concurrent radio-chemotherapy. Of 378 patients, 78 developed hypothyroidism during follow-up: 27 patients received concurrent radio-chemotherapy, and the remaining 51 received only radiation. Lower neck received 40–48 Gy in 2 patients, 50 Gy in 74 patients, and 60–70 Gy and concurrent radio-chemotherapy in 27 patients. Median follow-up was 32 months. Hypothyroidism occurred in 21.5% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. The minimum period to develop hypothyroidism was 3 months in this study. Gender and adjuvant treatment were not found to be significant for the incidence of hypothyroidism. Conclusions A significant number of patients with carcinoma of the tongue who receive adjuvant treatment will develop hypothyroidism, hence frequent monitoring of thyroid function is advised during follow-up.

  10. Role of chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Misako; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2018-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy is accepted as standard of care in stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and is often considered in patients with stage IB disease who have tumors ≥ 4 cm. The survival advantage is modest with approximately 5% at 5 years. Areas covered: This review article presents relevant data regarding chemotherapy use in the perioperative setting for early stage NSCLC. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed as well as clinical trial.gov. Randomized phase III studies in this setting including adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of chemotherapy as well as ongoing trials on targeted therapy and immunotherapy are also discussed. Expert commentary: With increasing utilization of screening computed tomography scans, it is possible that the percentage of early stage NSCLC patients will increase in the coming years. Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage NSCLC patients remain modest. There is a need to better define patients most likely to derive survival benefit from adjuvant therapy and spare patients who do not need adjuvant chemotherapy due to the toxicity of such therapy. Trials for adjuvant targeted therapy, including adjuvant EGFR-TKI trials and trials of immunotherapy drugs are ongoing and will define the role of these agents as adjuvant therapy.

  11. Adjuvant treatment delay in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damila Cristina Trufelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background: to evaluate if time between surgery and the first adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormone therapy in patients with breast cancer is a risk factor for lower overall survival (OS. Method: data from a five-year retrospective cohort study of all women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at an academic oncology service were collected and analyzed. Results: three hundred forty-eight consecutive women were included. Time between surgery and the first adjuvant treatment was a risk factor for shorter overall survival (HR=1.3, 95CI 1.06-1.71, p=0.015, along with negative estrogen receptor, the presence of lymphovascular invasion and greater tumor size. A delay longer than 4 months between surgery and the first adjuvant treatment was also associated with shorter overall survival (cumulative survival of 80.9% for delays ≤ 4 months vs. 72.6% for delays > 4 months; p=0.041, log rank test. Conclusion: each month of delay between surgery and the first adjuvant treatment in women with invasive breast cancer increases the risk of death in 1.3-fold, and this effect is independent of all other well-established risk factors. Based on these results, we recommend further public strategies to decrease this interval.

  12. Radiation recall secondary to adjuvant docetaxel after balloon-catheter based accelerated partial breast irradiation

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    Wong, Nathan W. [Summer Intern, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Wong, William W., E-mail: wong.william@mayo.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States); Karlin, Nina J. [Division of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gray, Richard J. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2010-08-15

    For early stage breast cancer, wide local excision and post-operative whole breast irradiation is a standard treatment. If adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended, radiation is usually given after completion of chemotherapy. In recent years, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy has become an option for selected patients. For these patients, adjuvant chemotherapy would have to be administered after radiation. The sequence of treatment with radiation followed by chemotherapy results in increased risk of radiation recall reaction (RRD) in these patients. Docetaxel is becoming a more commonly used drug as adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Here we report a case of docetaxel induced RRD after APBI with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy. Such reaction would have an adverse impact on the cosmetic outcome and quality of life of the patient. For patients who develop an intense skin reaction after the administration of docetaxel following APBI, RRD should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  13. Adjuvant Therapy for Stage II Colorectal Cancer: Who and with What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki-Young Y; Kelsen, David

    2006-06-01

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage II colon adenocarcinoma remains controversial. The high surgical cure rate for patients with "low-risk" stage II colon cancer, ranging from 75% to 80%, and the available clinical trials and meta-analyses provide conflicting recommendations for or against adjuvant chemotherapy for this group of patients. For fit "high-risk" stage II patients with clinical obstruction or perforation at presentation, in which the 5-year survival rate is 60% to 70%, there is little controversy, as these patients are routinely treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Other potential high-risk factors, including high histologic grade, microsatellite instability, and loss of 18q, have yet to be validated in prospective trials. Patients with fewer than 12 regional lymph nodes identified in the surgical specimen have a statistically unclear risk of lymph node involvement. These patients may have stage III disease and should receive adjuvant therapy. The decision to use adjuvant chemotherapy to treat low-risk stage II colon cancer patients (no obstruction or perforation) should be an informed decision weighing the magnitude of a net 2% to 5% survival benefit, a 0.5% to 1.0% risk of mortality with chemotherapy in addition to 6 months of chemotherapy-related toxicities, other coexisting patient morbidities, and the anticipated life expectancy of each patient. As adjuvant chemotherapy is therapy addressing local or metastatic microscopic disease, and the effectiveness of systemic and biologically targeted therapy for advanced macroscopic colon cancer continues to improve rapidly, it remains to be determined by clinical trials whether therapies including newer agents such as cetuximab and bevacizumab administered in the adjuvant setting may affect survival for stage II cancer patients.

  14. 26,26,26,27,27,27-Hexadeuterated-1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D-d{sub 6}) As Adjuvant of Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoane, Samuel; Bermudez, Maria A.; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Martinez-Ordoñez, Anxo [Department of Physiology-CIMUS, Endocrine Oncology Laboratories (P1L3), Avda. Barcelona s/n, Campus Vida-University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Abdul-Hadi, Soraya [University of Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras, Avda. Barbosa-Ponce de Leon, San Juan 23301 (Puerto Rico); Maestro, Miguel; Mouriño, Antonio [Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Research Laboratory Ignacio Ribas, Avda. das Ciencias s/n, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Perez-Fernandez, Roman, E-mail: roman.perez.fernandez@usc.es [Department of Physiology-CIMUS, Endocrine Oncology Laboratories (P1L3), Avda. Barcelona s/n, Campus Vida-University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2013-12-27

    It has been demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D) and some of its analogues have antitumor activity. 1,25D labeled with deuterium (26,26,26,27,27,27-hexadeuterated 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, or 1,25D-d{sub 6}) is commonly used as internal standard for 1,25D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) quantification. In the present study using human breast cancer cell lines, the biological activity of 1,25D-d{sub 6} administered alone and in combination with two commonly used antineoplastic agents, 5-fluorouracil and etoposide, was evaluated. Using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, and western blots, our data demonstrated that 1,25D-d{sub 6} has effects similar to the natural hormone on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Furthermore, the combination of 1,25D-d{sub 6} and etoposide enhances the antitumoral effects of both compounds. Interestingly, the antitumoral effect is higher in the more aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Our data indicate that 1,25D-d{sub 6} administered alone or in combination with chemotherapy could be a good experimental method for accurately quantifying active 1,25D levels in cultures or in biological fluids, on both in vitro breast cancer cell lines and in vivo animal experimental models.

  15. Chemotherapy-induced Fatigue among Jordanian Cancer Patients: What are the Contributing Factors?

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    Kholoud Abu Obead

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purposes of this study were to examine the impact of chemotherapy treatment on Jordanian cancer patients’ fatigue and to correlate their fatigue with selected sociodemographic variables at the beginning of treatment and after four weeks of treatment. Methods: This was a single group quasi-experimental correlational design study that enrolled 43 patients diagnosed with cancer who required chemotherapy treatment. Fatigue was measured according to the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS before starting chemotherapy treatment and after four weeks of receiving the first dose of chemotherapy. Data were collected over a period of four weeks and analyzed with descriptive statistics, the paired-sample t-test, and Pearson product-moment correlation. Results: The study included 17 (39.5% males and 26 (60.5% females with a mean age of 45.98 years. Most (n=17 were diagnosed with breast cancer. Obesity was present in about 64.4% of patients. The majority (46% received an anthracycline-based regimen. There were statistically significant differences between respondents’ total mean scores of fatigue pre-treatment and four weeks following chemotherapy treatment (t= -2.31, df=42, P<0.05. In addition, significant differences were found in the scores for behavioral, affective, sensory, and cognitive dimensions subscales (t= -2.24, -2.19, - 2.4, -2.4, df=42, P<0.05 between pre-treatment and four weeks after receiving the first dose of chemotherapy treatment. We observed a significant negative relationship between fatigue scores and hemoglobin levels (r= -0.04, P<0.01. Conclusion: Cancer-related fatigue is common among cancer patients who received chemotherapy and result in substantial adverse physical, behavioral, cognitive and affective consequences for patient. Given the impact of fatigue, treatment options should be routinely considered in the care of patients with cancer.

  16. Retinoblastoma: Achieving new standards with methods of chemotherapy

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    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of retinoblastoma (RB has dramatically changed over the past two decades from previous radiotherapy methods to current chemotherapy strategies. RB is a remarkably chemotherapy-sensitive tumor. Chemotherapy is currently used as a first-line approach for children with this malignancy and can be delivered by intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes. The choice of route for chemotherapy administration depends upon the tumor laterality and tumor staging. Intravenous chemotherapy (IVC is used most often in bilateral cases, orbital RB, and as an adjuvant treatment in high-risk RB. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC is used in cases with group C or D RB and selected cases of group E tumor. Periocular chemotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment in eyes with group D and E RB and those with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. Intravitreal chemotherapy is reserved for eyes with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. In this review, we describe the various forms of chemotherapy used in the management of RB. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "RB," and "treatment," "chemotherapy," "systemic chemotherapy," "IVC," "IAC," "periocular chemotherapy," or "intravitreal chemotherapy." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  17. [Analysis of budgetary impact of moderate and high risk non muscle-invasive bladder cancer by means of neoadjuvant hyperthermia chemotherapy compared to the standard adjuvant treatment with BCG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Alejandro; Piñeiro, Idelfonso; Aparici, Vicente; Neira, Pilar; Monserrat, Víctor; Uribarri, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    To study the relationship between cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact the application of a neoadjuvant chemo-hyperthermia treatment on 15 patients with NMI multi-recurrent bladder cancer and/or whose risk of recurrence and progression is medium-high, compared with the standard neoadjuvant BCG treatment, has had on the Hospital Comarcal de Monforte de Lemos (Lugo). A model was designed from an SNS perspective with a temporary horizon of three years to compare the costs of applying neoadjuvant chemo-hyperthermia on the patients of the clinical test (8 instillations weekly of 80 mg Mitomycin C recirculating at 43 C for an hour prior to carrying out a transurethral resection of the bladder tumor) with the costs of treating 15 patients with the same risk profile with the standard adjuvant treatment of BCG (control group). The effective available costs corresponding to drugs, disposables and those relative to TURBT, cold biopsy and tumor relapse were included. The costs of diagnostic tests and follow-up were discarded from the model because they did not vary between groups. The model built with effective and published cost data establishes a favourable difference in favour of the neoadjuvant treatment with chemo hyperthermia in terms of 3 year costs with a minimum global savings of 10,300€ and 687€ per patient, together with an improvement in the effectiveness of the treatment. These values could reach a minimum savings of 25,960€ and 1,731€ per patient, if a change in protocol is made after the neoadjuvant treatment, which uses the cold biopsy to check the results. Of the 15 patients pre-treated with chemo-hyperthermia, 11 high-risk and 4 medium-risk, 9 have responded completely (absence of residual tumor) and 6 partially (shrinking of the tumor). The number of expected relapses has been reduced from 8 to 2 and progression from 3 to 0. The neoadjuvant treatment with chemo hyperthermia constitutes a cost-effective therapeutic strategy.

  18. Role of chemotherapy in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Rita; El Amm, Joelle; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2017-10-20

    Chemotherapy in prostate cancer (PCa) has undergone dramatic landscape changes. While earlier studies utilized varying chemotherapy regimens which were found to be largely palliative in nature and hardly resulted in durable or meaningful responses, docetaxel resulted in the first chemotherapy agent that showed improvement in overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, combination chemotherapy or any agents added to docetaxel have failed to yield incremental benefits. The improvement in overall survival as well as secondary endpoints of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and time to recurrence when using docetaxel in the metastatic hormone-sensitive state has changed the standard of care for treatment of newly diagnosed de novo metastatic PCa. There are also promising results in locally advanced PCa and high-risk PCa in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. This review summarizes the historical as well as the more contemporary use of chemotherapeutic agents in PCa in varying states and phases of disease.

  19. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

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    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Tome, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kennedy, Timothy J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  20. Longer-Term Assessment of Trastuzumab-Related Cardiac Adverse Events in the Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procter, Marion; Suter, Thomas M.; de Azambuja, Evandro; Dafni, Urania; van Dooren, Veerle; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Climent, Miguel Angel; Rechberger, Ernst; Liu, Walter Tsang-Wu; Toi, Mazakasu; Coombes, R. Charles; Dodwell, David; Pagani, Olivia; Madrid, Jorge; Hall, Marcia; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Focan, Christian; Muschol, Michael; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the incidence of cardiac adverse events in patients with early breast cancer in the Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial who were treated with 1 year of trastuzumab after completion of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods The HERA trial is a three-group, randomized

  1. Association of CA27.29 and Circulating Tumor Cells Before and at Different Times After Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer - The SUCCESS Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Philip; Andergassen, Ulrich; Jäger, Bernadette; Trapp, Elisabeth; Alunni-Fabbroni, Marianna; Friedl, Thomas W P; Hecker, Nadeschda; Lorenz, Ralf; Fasching, Peter; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Fehm, Tanja; Janni, Wolfgang; Rack, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    Evidence for the prognostic value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in early-stage breast cancer is swiftly increasing. An alternative approach for identifying patients at risk for recurrence is based on the detection of the mucin-1 (MUC1)-based tumor marker CA27.29. Here we report the association of these two prognostic markers before and immediately after chemotherapy (CHT), as well as after 2 and 5 years of follow-up. The SUCCESS trial compared fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel vs. FEC followed by docetaxel plus gemcitabine, and 2 vs. 5 years of treatment with zoledronic acid in 3,754 patients with node-positive or high-risk node-negative early-stage breast cancer. CA27.29 was measured with the ST AIA-PACK CA27.29 reagent (Tosoh Bioscience, Belgium). The cutoff for CA27.29 positivity was >31 U/ml. CTCs were assessed with the CellSearch System (Veridex, USA). The cutoff for CTC positivity was ≥1 CTC/15 ml whole blood. The relationship between CTC positivity and CA27.29 positivity was assessed based on Chi-square statistics and Cramer's V, which varies from 0 (no association between the variables) to 1 (complete association). Samples for CA27.29 and CTC determinations during follow-up were only drawn from patients that had no relapse. Both CA27.29 and CTC data were available for 1,981, 1,602, 1,159 and 707 patients before, immediately after and at 2 and 5 years after CHT, respectively. Positivity rates for CTC were 21.3%, 22.8%, 18.6% and 8.5%, respectively. CA27.29 was positive in 7.9%, 21.0%, 2.8%and 7.5%, respectively. Positivity for both CA27.29 and CTC was found in 2.4%, 4.2%, 0.7% and 1.8% of patients, respectively. The association between CA27.29 and CTC was significant but weak before CHT (p=0.0015; Cramer's V=0.063) and 5 years after CHT (passociated before CHT and 5 years after CHT, while no significant association was found immediately or 2 years after CHT during the course of early-stage breast cancer. It, therefore

  2. GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms as predictors of response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; Li, Zihao; Li, Xian

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of polymorphisms in the GSTP1, GSTT1, and GSTM1 genes on responsiveness to chemotherapy in breast cancer, but the results have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine the association between polymorphisms of GSTP1, GSTT1, and GSTM1 genes and response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. The relevant studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases. The articles evaluating the correlations between response to chemotherapy and GSTP1, GSTT1, and GSTM1 polymorphisms in breast cancer patients were comprehensively reviewed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to measure the strength of the associations. These associations were assessed with the χ 2 test in this meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis by chemotherapy protocol and ethnicity were conducted to explore the source of heterogeneity among studies. A total of 14 articles with 31 studies involving GSTP1, GSTT1, and GSTM1 polymorphisms with response to chemotherapy were identified in the final meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, a significant association of GSTM1-present/GSTM1-null polymorphism with responsiveness to chemotherapy was observed in breast cancer patients (OR 0.74, CI 0.60-0.92, P = 0.006), whereas the GSTT1-present/GSTT1-null and GSTP1rs1695 polymorphisms were not significantly associated with clinical response to chemotherapy. The subgroup analysis by chemotherapy protocol indicated that the patients who harboring GSTP1rs1695 AA or AG variant had a higher response rate to anthracycline-based chemotherapy than those carrying GSTP1rs1695 GG variant [AA vs. GG: OR 0.48, CI 0.29-0.80, P < 0.05; AA vs. AG: OR 0.60, CI 0.43-0.83, P < 0.05; A vs. G: OR 0.60, CI 0.47-0.77, P < 0.05; AA vs. (AG + GG): OR 0.56, CI 0.42-0.76, P < 0.05; (AA + AG) vs. GG: OR 0.57, CI 0.34-0.94, P < 0.05]. In addition, the

  3. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by risk profile: role of netupitant/palonosetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Vito

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by most recent antiemetic guidelines, the optimal prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) requires the combination of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (RA) with an NK1-RA. Moreover, the major predictors of acute and delayed CINV include: young age, female sex, platinum- or anthracycline-based chemotherapy, nondrinker status, emesis in the earlier cycles of chemotherapy, and previous history of motion/morning sickness. Despite improved knowledge of the pathophysiology of CINV and advances in the availability of active antiemetics, an inconsistent compliance with their use has been reported, thereby resulting in suboptimal control of CINV in several cases. In this scenario, a new anti-emetic drug is now available, which seems to be able to guarantee better prophylaxis of CINV and improvement of adherence to guidelines. In fact, netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) is a ready-to-use single oral capsule, combining an NK1-RA (netupitant) and a 5-HT3-RA (palonosetron), which is to be taken 1 hour before the administration of chemotherapy, ensuring the coverage from CINV for 5 days. We reviewed the role of NEPA in patients at high risk of CINV receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In these patients, NEPA plus dexamethasone, as compared to standard treatments, achieved superior efficacy in all primary and secondary end points during the acute, delayed, and overall phases, including nausea assessment. Moreover, these results were also achieved in female patients receiving anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy. NEPA represents a real step forward in the prophylaxis of CINV.

  4. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by risk profile: role of netupitant/palonosetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorusso V

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vito Lorusso National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Bari, Italy Abstract: As recommended by most recent antiemetic guidelines, the optimal prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV requires the combination of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (RA with an NK1-RA. Moreover, the major predictors of acute and delayed CINV include: young age, female sex, platinum- or anthracycline-based chemotherapy, nondrinker status, emesis in the earlier cycles of chemotherapy, and previous history of motion/morning sickness. Despite improved knowledge of the pathophysiology of CINV and advances in the availability of active antiemetics, an inconsistent compliance with their use has been reported, thereby resulting in suboptimal control of CINV in several cases. In this scenario, a new antiemetic drug is now available, which seems to be able to guarantee better prophylaxis of CINV and improvement of adherence to guidelines. In fact, netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA is a ready-to-use single oral capsule, combining an NK1-RA (netupitant and a 5-HT3-RA (palonosetron, which is to be taken 1 hour before the administration of chemotherapy, ensuring the coverage from CINV for 5 days. We reviewed the role of NEPA in patients at high risk of CINV receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In these patients, NEPA plus dexamethasone, as compared to standard treatments, achieved superior efficacy in all primary and secondary end points during the acute, delayed, and overall phases, including nausea assessment. Moreover, these results were also achieved in female patients receiving anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy. NEPA represents a real step forward in the prophylaxis of CINV. Keywords: NEPA, netupitant, NK1, CINV, vomiting, risk factors

  5. Primary systemic chemotherapy of breast cancer: indication and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Hiromitsu; Sakata, Michio; Hayashida, Tetsu; Takahashi, Maiko; Sato, Tomomi; Seki, Hirohito; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2011-04-01

    Primary systemic chemotherapy has become a standard of care for operable breast cancer patients who are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy. Induction of pathological complete response (pCR) is one of the main goals of primary systemic chemotherapy because patients with pCR have shown a better prognosis. The definition of pCR has varied across clinical trials. It would be ideal for all researchers to use the same terminology in describing pathologic response. Identification of accurate predictive factors of pCR to primary systemic chemotherapy is urgent, because patients with a low chance of pCR and clinical response should be spared unnecessary toxicity. Early response to primary systemic chemotherapy might be correlated with a high probability of a pCR. Therefore, evaluation of early response is useful to avoid unnecessary toxicity without potential benefit from chemotherapy.

  6. Factors Affecting Adjuvant Therapy in Stage III Pancreatic Cancer—Analysis of the National Cancer Database

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    Mridula Krishnan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adjuvant therapy after curative resection is associated with survival benefit in stage III pancreatic cancer. We analyzed the factors affecting the outcome of adjuvant therapy in stage III pancreatic cancer and compared overall survival with different modalities of adjuvant treatment. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with stage III pancreatic cancer listed in the National Cancer Database (NCDB who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2012. Patients were stratified based on adjuvant therapy they received. Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analysis were performed. Results: We analyzed a cohort included 1731 patients who were recipients of adjuvant therapy for stage III pancreatic cancer within the limits of our database. Patients who received adjuvant chemoradiation had the longest postdiagnosis survival time, followed by patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, and finally patients who received no adjuvant therapy. On multivariate analysis, advancing age and patients with Medicaid had worse survival, whereas Spanish origin and lower Charlson comorbidity score had better survival. Conclusions: Our study is the largest trial using the NCDB addressing the effects of adjuvant therapy specifically in stage III pancreatic cancer. Within the limits of our study, survival benefit with adjuvant therapy was more apparent with longer duration from date of diagnosis.

  7. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following adjuvant CDDP and 5-FU administration in a patient with esophageal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Takuya; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Akase, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yaguchi, Yoshihisa; Hiraki, Shuuichi; Aiko, Satoshi; Takechi, Hanako; Hase, Kazuo; Maehara, Tadaaki

    2010-10-01

    A case of hyponatremia following the first course of systemic adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-FU in a previously treated patient with esophageal cancer is reported. A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for adjuvant chemotherapy after transthoracic esophagectomy and 3-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer. Six days following chemotherapy, his serum sodium concentration was found to be 118 mEq/L, without edema or dehydration. This hyponatremic state was diagnosed as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) induced by CDDP, based on the hypo-osmolality of his serum and urine, and an inappropriate level of plasma vasopressin.

  9. Adjuvant trastuzumab: a 10-year overview of its benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Pondé, Noam F; Solinas, Cinzia; de Azambuja, Evandro

    2017-01-01

    Anti-HER2 targeted therapy is one of the key advances in the treatment of breast cancer that have occurred in the last 20 years. In the adjuvant setting, the use of trastuzumab has led to prolonged and sustained survival benefit with very little toxicity as also confirmed by the 10-year follow-up results from the pivotal trials. Despite the survival improvement, several key issues are not entirely resolved in this field. These issues have led to multiple research efforts in de-escalating or escalating the standard treatment with chemotherapy and 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab. Areas covered: In this paper, we present an in depth overview on the state of the art on these key issues of refining decision-making in adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy. Expert commentary: Despite many important research efforts in the field, chemotherapy plus trastuzumab for a total duration of 1 year remains the standard of care. However, recent data showed that besides standard anthracycline- and taxane-based cytotoxic therapy, alternative chemotherapy regimens can now be proposed to patients with small tumors without nodal involvement and to women at high-risk of developing cardiotoxicity. Of note, besides HER2 itself, biomarkers predicting patients who may truly benefit from anti-HER2 agents are still lacking.

  10. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many vs Cancer Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...

  11. Chemotherapy and Your Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment and Oral Health > Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Main Content Are You Being ... Problems Too? Remember Are You Being Treated With Chemotherapy for Cancer? If so, this booklet can help ...

  12. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... February 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Cancer Center Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation ... Center Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Some Kinds of Cancer Kids Get Types of Cancer Teens Get Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Cancer Center Dealing With ...

  13. Capecitabine Induced Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Do We Have Always to Switch off the Chemotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Bougea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capecitabine is a well tolerated and safe 5-fluorouracil agent for adjuvant, neoadjuvant chemotherapy or metastatic cases. Neurological side effects require discontinuation of chemotherapy. We report this unique case of a 50-year-old female, who presented an isolated episode of dysarthria and ataxia under bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin treatment due to reversible multifocal leukoencephalopathy that did not recur after readministration of chemotherapy.

  14. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  15. chemotherapy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Augustyniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background . Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM practices for cancer have become popular among oncology patients. An increasing interest in alternative medicine can be explained by the inefficiency of conventional treatment, dissatisfaction with treating patients like objects, and the will to use all available treatment methods. Objectives . The authors assessed how often patients use CAM methods, and which of them are most popular. Material and methods . The study was conducted in Military Hospital no. 109 and the Independent Public Clinical Hospital no. 1 in Szczecin among 100 chemotherapy patients. This survey-based study was performed using an original questionnaire. Results. Most respondents (68% did not use alternative methods to fight the disease. The most popular treatment methods were: herbal medicine (50%, alternative medicine preparations (38% and diet (25%, and the least common: hypnosis (3% and aromatherapy (3%. Analyzed sociodemographic factors had no effects on a choice of a CAM method. Patients obtained information about CAM methods mainly from the Internet (40%, medical staff (37% and literature (31%. Conclusions . 1. Using CAM by patients receiving chemotherapy for neoplasms is quite a common phenomenon. 2. CAM were more often chosen by women. Neither the duration of the disease nor sociodemographic data had effects on making the decision to use CAM methods. 3. The most popular CAM were: herbal medicine, alternative medicine preparations, and diet. 4. Cancer patients should receive special support from nurses and doctors as well as other members of the therapeutic team. Oncology patients should never be left on their own so that they were forced to seek help and support in therapies unconfirmed by scientific investigation.

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I non-seminomatous testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metastatic NSGCT.5.6 This led to a re-evaluation of the need. Departments of Radiation Oncology and Urology, Groote Schuur. Hospital and University of Cape Town. A. P. Abratt, M.MED. (RAC.T.) A. R. Pontin, ERC.S. A. D. Barnes, ERC.S. Department of Radiation Oncology, Frere Hospital, East London. B. V. Reddi, EER.

  17. Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on brain function and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Koppelmans (Vincent)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women in Western Europe and the United States. In 2009, 13,177 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed within the Netherlands alone The lifetime risk of breast cancer in Dutch women reached 1 in 8.3 between 2005 and 2009, which is

  18. High-risk bladder cancer: improving outcomes with perioperative chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite treatment with radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, muscle invasive bladder cancer has a relapse rate of 50%. Patients can develop regionally advanced or metastatic disease that ultimately leads to death. The addition of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy to reduce the risk of relapse and death has been extensively studied over the past two decades. Two contemporary trials coupled with a recent meta-analysis evaluating neoadjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated a modest but real improvement in overall survival. This has made neoadjuvant chemotherapy a standard of care. Clinical trials evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with high-risk disease have been plagued with statistical flaws and have, therefore, been unable to define the survival impact of this approach. It is hoped that ongoing adjuvant trials that are powered to detect small but meaningful clinical differences will clarify the benefit of chemotherapy after cystectomy. Since there are theoretical advantages and disadvantages to each of these approaches, both are widely used in North America. The evidence behind each approach and potential future developments in this field will be described.

  19. Role of Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of several randomized trials and meta-analyses, adjuvant chemotherapy is the accepted standard of care for certain patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with stage II, IIIA, or large (≥ 4 cm) IB tumors are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival improvement with adjuvant chemotherapy is approximately 5% at 5 years, though certain trials have suggested that it can be 8% to 10%. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy also has shown a survival advantage, though the volume of data with this approach is far less than that of adjuvant chemotherapy. The combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine is the most well-studied regimen, but current consensus is to use four cycles of any of the platinum-based chemotherapy regimens commonly used as front-line therapy for patients with advanced-stage NSCLC. Trials to define biomarkers that can predict benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy have not been successful, but results of other such trials are still awaited. On the basis of the benefit observed with targeted agents in patients with advanced-stage disease and driver genetic alterations in their tumors, ongoing trials are evaluating the utility of these targeted agents as adjuvant therapy. Similarly, clinical benefit observed with checkpoint inhibitors has prompted assessment of these drugs in patients with early-stage NSCLC. It is very likely, in the future, that factors other than the anatomy of the tumor will be used to select patients with early-stage NSCLC for systemic therapy and that the choice of systemic therapy will extend beyond platinum-based chemotherapy.

  20. Effectiveness of evaluating tumor vascularization using 3D power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow technology in the prediction of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Kuo, Shou-Jen

    2015-10-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced ultrasound (US) imaging of vascular flow and morphological features in the prediction of a pathologic complete response (pCR) and a partial response (PR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer.Twenty-nine consecutive patients with T2 breast cancer treated with six courses of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler US with high-definition flow (HDF) technology was used to investigate the blood flow in and morphological features of the tumors. Six vascularity quantization features, three morphological features, and two vascular direction features were selected and extracted from the US images. A support vector machine was used to evaluate the changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and pCR and PR were predicted on the basis of these changes.The most accurate prediction of pCR was achieved after the first chemotherapy cycle, with an accuracy of 93.1% and a specificity of 85.5%, while that of a PR was achieved after the second cycle, with an accuracy of 79.31% and a specificity of 72.22%.Vascularity data can be useful to predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Determination of changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 3D power Doppler US with HDF can generate accurate predictions of the patient response, facilitating early decision-making.

  1. Effectiveness of evaluating tumor vascularization using 3D power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow technology in the prediction of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Kuo, Shou-Jen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced ultrasound (US) imaging of vascular flow and morphological features in the prediction of a pathologic complete response (pCR) and a partial response (PR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with T2 breast cancer treated with six courses of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler US with high-definition flow (HDF) technology was used to investigate the blood flow in and morphological features of the tumors. Six vascularity quantization features, three morphological features, and two vascular direction features were selected and extracted from the US images. A support vector machine was used to evaluate the changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and pCR and PR were predicted on the basis of these changes. The most accurate prediction of pCR was achieved after the first chemotherapy cycle, with an accuracy of 93.1% and a specificity of 85.5%, while that of a PR was achieved after the second cycle, with an accuracy of 79.31% and a specificity of 72.22%. Vascularity data can be useful to predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Determination of changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 3D power Doppler US with HDF can generate accurate predictions of the patient response, facilitating early decision-making.

  2. The postoperative component of MAGIC chemotherapy is associated with improved prognosis following surgical resection in gastric and gastrooesophageal junction adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, A; Pritchard, S; Welch, I

    2013-01-01

    MAGIC chemotherapy has become the standard of treatment for patients undergoing curative resection for gastric and gastrooesophageal junction (GOJ) cancers. The importance of postoperative component of this regimen is uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare survival and cancer recurrence in patients who have received neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies according to MAGIC protocol with those patients completing only neoadjuvant chemotherapy. 66 patients with gastric and GOJ adenocarcinomas treated with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies according to the MAGIC protocol were studied. All patients underwent potentially curative surgical resection. The histological, demographic, and survival data were collected for all patients. The median number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles received was 2 (range 1-3). Thirty-one (47%) patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with a median of 2 cycles (range 1-3). Patients who have completed both cycles of chemotherapy had significantly improved survival (P = 0.04). Patients with involved lymph nodes and positive longitudinal resection margins had increased incidence of recurrence (P = 0.02) and poor five-year survival (P = 0.03). Patients who received both neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies for gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction tumours have improved outcomes compared to patients who only received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  3. Italian Survey on adjuvant treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (ISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, Giuseppe Luigi; Di Maio, Massimo; Follador, Alessandro; Collovà, Elena; Menis, Jessica; Novello, Silvia; Bria, Emilio; Airoldi, Mario; Amoroso, Domenico; Ardizzoia, Antonio; Aurilio, Gaetano; Bajetta, Emilio; Ballardini, Pierluigi; Barbieri, Fausto; Barletta, Emiddio; Balzelloni, Maria Luisa; Basso, Umberto; Bernardini, Ilaria; Boni, Corrado; Bordin, Veronica; Bretti, Sergio; Bronte, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Cosimo; Buti, Sebastiano; Capanna, Luigi; Colombo, Alfredo; Condemi, Giovanni; Cortinovis, Diego; Dambrosio, Mario; Di Fonzo, Concetta; Di Lucca, Giuseppe; Dima, Gianluca; Falzetta, Amalia; Favaretto, Adolfo; Ferraù, Francesco; Garetto, Lucia; Gebbia, Vittorio; Genestreti, Giovenzio; Gentile, Anna Lisa; Giovanardi, Filippo; Labianca, Roberto; Lorusso, Vito; Mantovani, Giovanni; Martelli, Olga; Massari, Francesco; Mazzoli, Marta; Michetti, Giovanni; Mordenti, Patrizia; Mucciarini, Claudia; Munao, Stefania; Nacci, Angelo; Pogliani, Claudia; Procopio, Giuseppe; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Rizzato, Simona; Rossi, Antonio; Rosti, Giovanni; Russo, Paola; Saladino, Tiziana; Salesi, Nello; Santangelo, Domenico; Sava, Teodoro; Savarino, Antonino; Spinnato, Francesca; Tiseo, Marcello; Tomassi, Ottaviano; Tondulli, Luca; Tonini, Giuseppe; Turano, Salvatore; Valerio, Maria Rosaria; Verderame, Franco; Zanelli, Francesca; Zanon, Elisa

    2011-07-01

    A recent pooled analysis of randomized trials indicated significant improvement in overall survival from cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), depending on disease stage (only in stages II and III) and PS (≤ 1). Post-operative radiotherapy (RT) is optional for pN2 tumours. To evaluate opinions and daily clinical practice of Italian Oncologists about adjuvant treatment of NSCLC, a 46-item questionnaire was delivered via e-mail. Seventy-eight physicians from 68 Centers (out of 98 contacted) returned their questionnaire. Seventy-four, 86, 94, and 78% of them give the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIA, IIB, IIIA, and IIIB disease, respectively and 14% in stage IB disease. Stage, PS, and age are taken into consideration evaluating adjuvant approach by 97, 95 and 73%, respectively. Cisplatin-vinorelbine (64%) and cisplatin-gemcitabine (33%), for 4 cycles (81%), are the preferred regimens, while 32% use different regimens. Ninety-two percent indicate RT in pN2 disease and/or positive resection margins. Real Number of patients Needed to Treat (NNT) is probably not completely known/understood and/or used by physicians. A substantial adherence between clinical daily practice in Italy and scientific progresses is described in this paper, even with some discordances regarding the most appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy regimen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laparoscopic colectomy for cancer: Improved compliance with guidelines for chemotherapy and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Kavanaugh, Mindie M; Caldito, Gloria C

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer has been demonstrated in clinical trials to have short-term benefits when compared to the open surgical approach. Guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend that patients with stage III or high-risk stage II colon cancer undergo adjuvant chemotherapy. We hypothesized that laparoscopic colectomy is associated with increased compliance to recommendations for chemotherapy, a lesser time to start of chemotherapy, and increased overall survival. The National Cancer Data Base was queried to identify patients with stage III or high-risk stage II colon cancer (T4, positive margins, chemotherapy, time from diagnosis and date of operation to start of chemotherapy, and overall survival were compared. A total of 48,257 patients were included for analysis; 18,801 patients underwent laparoscopic colectomy and 29,456 underwent open colectomy. Laparoscopic colectomy patients received adjuvant chemotherapy at a somewhat greater rate than open colectomy (66.2% vs 59.4%, P chemotherapy, mean time to start of chemotherapy after definitive resection was somewhat less for laparoscopic colectomy than open colectomy (48.7 vs 52.7 days, P chemotherapy for stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer, as well as a slightly lesser time to start of chemotherapy and improved overall survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of chemotherapy on health-related quality of life among early-stage ovarian cancer survivors: a study from the population-based PROFILES registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugwandass, C S; Pijnenborg, J M A; Pijlman, B; Ezendam, N P M

    2016-12-01

    There is wide variation in the application of adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Our aim was to assess differences in health-related quality of life (hrqol) between patients with early-stage ovarian cancer who did or did not receive chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment. All patients diagnosed with early-stage ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2010 within the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry (n = 191) were enrolled in this study. Patients were requested to complete questionnaires, including the cancer-specific (qlq-C30) and ovarian cancer-specific (qlq-OV28) quality of life measures from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Primary outcome measures were the generic-and cancer-specific domain scores for hrqol in ovarian cancer survivors. Of the 107 patients (56%) who returned the questionnaires, 57 (53.3%) had received adjuvant chemotherapy and 50 (46.7%) had been treated with surgery alone. Significant differences in hrqol between those groups were found in the symptom scales for peripheral neuropathy, attitude toward sickness, and financial situation, with worse scores in the chemotherapy group. Results of our study show that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy have a significantly worse score for 3 aspects of hrqol. Efforts should be made to reduce use of adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage ovarian cancer. Moreover, preventive strategies to improve long-term quality of life for those who need adjuvant chemotherapy should be explored.

  6. The development of a prediction tool to identify cancer patients at high risk for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranitsaris, G; Molassiotis, A; Clemons, M; Roeland, E; Schwartzberg, L; Dielenseger, P; Jordan, K; Young, A; Aapro, M

    2017-06-01

    Despite the availability of effective antiemetics and evidence-based guidelines, up to 40% of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy fail to achieve complete nausea and vomiting control. In addition to type of chemotherapy, several patient-related risk factors for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) have been identified. To incorporate these factors into the optimal selection of prophylactic antiemetics, a repeated measures cycle-based model to predict the risk of ≥ grade 2 CINV (≥2 vomiting episodes or a decrease in oral intake due to nausea) from days 0 to 5 post-chemotherapy was developed. Data from 1198 patients enrolled in one of the five non-interventional CINV prospective studies were pooled. Generalized estimating equations were used in a backwards elimination process with the P-value set at hours of sleep the night before chemotherapy, CINV in the prior cycle, patient self-medication with non-prescribed treatments, and the use of platinum or anthracycline-based regimens. The ROC analysis indicated good predictive accuracy with an area-under-the-curve of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67-0.70). Before to each cycle of therapy, patients with risk scores ≥16 units would be considered at high risk for developing ≥grade 2 CINV. The clinical application of this prediction tool will be an important source of individual patient risk information for the oncology clinician and may enhance patient care by optimizing the use of the antiemetics in a proactive manner.

  7. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  8. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric adenocarcinoma: an institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosn Marwan G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that surgery alone is less than satisfactory in the management of early gastric cancer, with cure rates approaching 40%. The role of adjuvant therapy was indefinite until three large, randomized controlled trials showed the survival benefit of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone. Chemoradiation therapy has been criticized for its high toxicity. Methods 24 patients diagnosed between September 2001 and July 2007 were treated with adjuvant chemoradiation. 18 patients had the classical MacDonald regimen of 4500 cGy of XRT and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU and leucovorin, while chemotherapy consisted of 5FU/Cisplatin for 6 patients. Results This series consisted of non-metastatic patients, 17 females and 7 males with a median age of 62.5 years. 23 patients (96% had a performance status of 0 or 1. The full course of radiation therapy (4500 cGy was completed by 22 patients (91.7%. Only 7 patients (36.8% completed the total planned courses of chemotherapy. 2 local relapses (10%, 2 regional relapses (10% and 2 distant relapses (10% were recorded. Time to progression has not been reached. 9 patients (37.5% died during follow-up with a median overall survival of 75 months. Patients lost a mean of 4 Kgs during radiation therapy. We recorded 6 episodes of febrile neutropenia and the most frequent toxicity was gastro-intestinal in 17 patients (70.8% with 9 (36% patients suffering grade 3 or 4 toxicity and 5 patients (20% suffering from grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. 4 (17% patients required total parenteral nutrition for a mean duration of 20 days. 4 patients suffered septic shock (17% and 1 patient developed a deep venous thrombosis and a pulmonary embolus. Conclusions Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric cancer is a standard at our institution and has resulted in few relapses and an interesting median survival. Toxicity rates were serious and this remains a harsh regimen with only 36.8% of patients completing the

  9. [Music as an adjuvant treatment for anxiety in pediatric oncologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Herrera-Zaragoza, Octavio René; Jaramillo-Villanueva, Leonel; Anaya-Segura, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Music has been used as adjuvant therapy for anxiety and it is based on scientific principles. Tone, rhythm, harmony and time are crucial for its efficacy. Chemotherapy treatment frequently produces important stress in pediatric patients. This may delay treatment occasionally. Our objective was to determine if adjuvant therapy with music reduces anxiety in pediatric oncologic patients under ambulatory chemotherapy. Time series design. We included patients from 8 to 16 years of age who received ambulatory intravenous chemotherapy at the Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. They received treatment as usual on the first day, and music therapy during the second day of chemotherapy. A visual scale was used to categorize the level of anxiety prior and after treatment on both days. We included 22 patients. All patients experienced both moderate and high levels of anxiety prior to chemotherapy treatment on both days. There was a statistically significant reduction of anxiety on both groups after chemotherapy, but with lower levels of anxiety in the intervention group. There is an additional benefit with the use of music therapy in the reduction of anxiety in pediatric patients who receive ambulatory chemotherapy.

  10. Acute renal failure secondary to ingestion of alternative medication in a patient with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, S; Gota, V; Kumar, Sangita D; Gupta, Sudeep

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients is widely prevalent and often underreported. Advanced stage of disease is significantly associated with CAM use. The concurrent use of alternative medicines and chemotherapy drugs has the potential to lead to toxicities as well as altered therapeutic activity due to unknown interactions. We report a case of early breast cancer who presented to us with non-oliguric acute renal failure related concurrent use of Ayurvedic medicines and adjuvant anthracycline based.

  11. GENOMIC PREDICTOR OF RESPONSE AND SURVIVAL FOLLOWING TAXANE-ANTHRACYCLINE CHEMOTHERAPY FOR INVASIVE BREAST CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzis, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos; Valero, Vicente; Booser, Daniel J.; Esserman, Laura; Lluch, Ana; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Holmes, Frankie; Souchon, Eduardo; Martin, Miguel; Cotrina, José; Gomez, Henry; Hubbard, Rebekah; Chacón, J. Ignacio; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Dyer, Richard; Buxton, Meredith; Gong, Yun; Wu, Yun; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Ueno, Naoto T.; Hunt, Kelly; Yang, Wei; Nazario, Arlene; DeMichele, Angela; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Symmans, W. Fraser

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT Accurate prediction of who will (or won’t) have high probability of survival benefit from standard treatments is fundamental for individualized cancer treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE To develop a predictor of response and survival from chemotherapy for newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer. DESIGN Development of different predictive signatures for resistance and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (stratified according to estrogen receptor (ER) status) from gene expression microarrays of newly diagnosed breast cancer (310 patients). Then prediction of breast cancer treatment-sensitivity using the combination of signatures for: 1) sensitivity to endocrine therapy, 2) chemo-resistance, and 3) chemo-sensitivity. Independent validation (198 patients) and comparison with other reported genomic predictors of chemotherapy response. SETTING Prospective multicenter study to develop and test genomic predictors for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS Newly diagnosed HER2-negative breast cancer treated with chemotherapy containing sequential taxane and anthracycline-based regimens then endocrine therapy (if hormone receptor-positive). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) if predicted treatment-sensitive and absolute risk reduction (ARR, difference in DRFS of the two predicted groups) at median follow-up (3 years), and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS Patients in the independent validation cohort (99% clinical Stage II–III) who were predicted to be treatment-sensitive (28% of total) had DRFS of 92% (CI 85–100) and survival benefit compared to others (absolute risk reduction (ARR) 18%; CI 6–28). Predictions were accurate if breast cancer was ER-positive (30% predicted sensitive, DRFS 97%, CI 91–100; ARR 11%, CI 0.1–21) or ER-negative (26% predicted sensitive, DRFS 83%, CI 68–100; ARR 26%, CI 4–28), and were significant in multivariate analysis after adjusting for relevant clinical-pathologic characteristics. Other

  12. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...... debulking surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of NACT in Denmark in regard to increased use and regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients treated in the five Danish tertiary referral centres in the 2005-2010-period were included. The study...... is based on validated data from The Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. RESULTS: Of the 1,367 eligible patients 1,069 were treated with PDS and 298 with NACT. In 2005-2007, 11% of patients were treated with NACT. In 2008-2010, this percentage had risen to 30% (p

  13. Serum Biomarkers for the Detection of Cardiac Toxicity after Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibo eTian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-modality cancer treatments that include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted agents are highly effective therapies. Their use, especially in combination, is limited by the risk of significant cardiac toxicity. The current paradigm for minimizing cardiac morbidity, based on serial cardiac function monitoring, is suboptimal. An alternative approach based on biomarker testing, has emerged as a promising adjunct and a potential substitute to routine echocardiography. Biomarkers, most prominently cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, have been evaluated for their ability to describe the risk of potential cardiac dysfunction in clinically asymptomatic patients. Early rises in cardiac troponin concentrations have consistently predicted the risk and severity of significant cardiac events in patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Biomarkers represent a novel, efficient, and robust clinical decision tool for the management of cancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity. This article aims to review the clinical evidence that supports the use of established biomarkers such as cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, as well as emerging data on proposed biomarkers.

  14. Relative dose intensity of chemotherapy and its impact on outcomes in patients with early breast cancer or aggressive lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildiers, Hans; Reiser, Marcel

    2011-03-01

    Early studies suggested a link between chemotherapy dosing and outcomes in breast cancer and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To help define the impact of relative dose intensity (RDI) and the role of growth factor support, we conducted a systematic literature review. Many breast cancer patients do not achieve planned RDI. Older age, obesity and febrile neutropenia are associated with reduced RDI, which leads to worse survival in several studies, particularly those including anthracyclines. G-CSF prophylaxis improved RDI in most, but not all, studies. There may be a threshold above which increasing RDI does not further improve outcomes (∼85% for CMF and anthracycline-based regimens). For lymphoma, there is strong evidence that patients benefit from full-dose chemotherapy, with RDI reductions associated with reduced survival. The definition of "full dose" is, however, unclear. Older age and higher disease stage may be associated with reduced RDI, and G-CSF improved the chances of higher RDI in most studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemotherapy to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Learn how chemotherapy works against cancer, why it causes side effects, and how it is used with other cancer treatments.

  16. Types of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine to treat cancer. Standard chemotherapy works by killing cancer cells and some normal cells. Targeted treatment ... of control. They keep growing to form a mass of cells, or tumor. Chemotherapy attacks dividing cells. ...

  17. Survival over ten years after chemotherapy by paclitaxel and carboplatin, followed by a concomitant chemo-radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal undifferentiated carcinomas; Survie a dix ans apres chimiotherapie par paclitaxel et carboplatine, suivie d'une chimioradiotherapie concomitante dans les carcinomes indifferencies du nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djekkoun, R.; Ferdi, N.; Bouzid, K. [CHU de Constantine, Constantine (Algeria)

    2011-10-15

    Based on 28 patients suffering from a cavum carcinoma and having been treated by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (with paclitaxel and carboplatin) followed by a concomitant chemo-radiotherapy and an adjuvant chemotherapy, the authors analyse the response over time and identify the main causes of death. They also conclude that randomized studies are necessary to better asses the treatment efficiency. Short communication

  18. Use and duration of chemotherapy and its impact on survival in early-stage ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelspiel, Helen E; Tergas, Ana I; Zimmerman, Lilli A; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Chen, Ling; Hillyer, Grace; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2015-05-01

    Although 5-year survival for early-stage ovarian cancer is favorable, prognosis at recurrence is poor, necessitating appropriate initial management. We examined the patterns of care and the impact of the duration of chemotherapy on survival for women with early-stage ovarian cancer. We used the SEER-Medicare database to identify women ≥ 65 years of age with stage I ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1992 to 2009. Patients were categorized as low-risk (non-clear cell histology, stage IA or IB, grade 1 or 2) or high-risk (clear cell histology, grade 3, or stage IC). We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine predictors of chemotherapy use and duration and Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy use and duration on survival. We identified 1394 patients. Among low-risk patients, 32.9% received adjuvant chemotherapy and the use of chemotherapy increased with time. Among high-risk patients, 71.9% received adjuvant chemotherapy; 44.2% had ≤ 3 months of treatment, and 55.8% had > 3 months of treatment. Older patients were less likely to receive chemotherapy, while those with higher stage and grade were more likely to receive chemotherapy (Pearly-stage ovarian cancer patients, practice patterns are widely divergent. Extended duration chemotherapy does not appear to impact survival for women with high-risk disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Obliterative bronchiolitis with organising pneumonia following FOLFOX 4 chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, C; Fremault, A; Carrasco, J; Colinet, B

    2010-01-01

    FOLFOX 4 chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) is the standard adjuvant treatment for stage III colon cancer. The principal secondary effects described are haematological, gastro-intestinal or neurological. A single case of obliterative bronchiolitis with organising pneumonia has been described recently. We report the case of a female patient aged 74 years who, after 12 courses of FOLFOX 4 chemotherapy, developed acute onset of severe shortness of breath and a dry cough but remained afebrile. A thoracic CT-scan showed symmetrical bilateral interstitial infiltration that was reticular in appearance, and predominantly basal and peripheral in distribution. Broncho-alveolar lavage revealed an alveolitis with 9% eosinophils and 4% neutrophils. Transbronchial biopsies showed the appearances of obliterative bronchiolitis with organising pneumonia. Systemic corticosteroid treatment led to a remarkable clinical and functional improvement. To our knowledge, this is the second case of obliterative bronchiolitis with organising pneumonia that has been described following adjuvant treatment based on FOLFOX 4.

  20. Radiation Recall Reaction Induced by Adjuvant Trastuzumab (Herceptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chung

    2009-01-01

    trastuzumab (Herceptin administration, there has been no published case of radiation recall reaction associated with trastuzumab. This case describes a clinical presentation consistent with a radiation recall reaction following administration of adjuvant trastuzumab after neoadjuvant FEC-D chemotherapy and locoregional radiotherapy for HER2-positive, locally advanced breast cancer in a premenopausal woman. Although the mechanism and etiology of radiation recall dermatitis remain unclear, this case raises further hypotheses regarding a possible drug dose-dependence and possible predisposing risk factor for the development of radiation recall reactions.

  1. [HER-2/neu positive breast cancer: how to prescribe adjuvant trastuzumab (Herceptin)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacémi, Yazid; Gligorov, Joseph; Mauriac, Louis; Azria, David

    2006-10-01

    One of the most recent advances in the management of Her-2/neu positive breast cancer is the validation of a targeted therapy from bench to the clinic, particularly towards the adjuvant setting. The recommended dose of trastuzumab (Herceptin), a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the HER-2 antigen, has been determined in phase I studies. In the metastatic patients two randomised trials have demonstrated its efficacy when associated to taxanes. In less than 10 years, trastuzumab became the standard of care in the adjuvant treatment of HER-2/neu positive breast cancer. In this setting, two combinations regimen with chemotherapy (concomitant or sequential) have been recently published. The concomitant schedule has been used in three studies (North American Group, BCIRG, FinHer), whereas in the Hera trial trastuzumab was started after the end of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. In this article, the advantages and uncertainties on efficacy and toxicities of the trastuzumab administration modalities, associated or not to chemotherapy and radiation therapy, are discussed.

  2. Impact of minimally invasive vs. open distal pancreatectomy on use of adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin L; Adam, Mohamed A; Thomas, Samantha; Roman, Sanziana A; Sosa, Julie A

    2017-04-01

    Published data examining the impact of minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) on survival are generally limited to experiences from high-volume institutions. Our aim was to compare utilization of adjuvant chemoradiation and time from surgery until its initiation following MIDP vs. open surgery (ODP) at a national level. Adult patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy for Stage I and II pancreatic adenocarcinoma were identified from the National Cancer Data Base, 2010-2012. A total of 1807 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy for adenocarcinoma at 506 institutions (27.9% MIDP). After adjustment, those who underwent MIDP were more likely to have complete tumor resections and a shorter hospital length of stay. Patients undergoing MIDP vs. ODP were more likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy; time to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation was not different between groups. After adjustment, overall survival for MIDP vs. ODP remained similar (HR 0.85, CI 0.67-1.10, p = 0.21). MIDP is associated with increased use of adjuvant chemotherapy; further study is needed to understand the etiology and impact of this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Beta blockers: A new role in chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Archana S; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Beta-blockers are a class of drugs widely used to treat cardiac, respiratory and other ailments. They act by blocking beta-adrenergic receptor–mediated signalling. Studies in various cancers have shown that patients taking a beta-blocker have higher survival and lower recurrence and metastasis rates. This is supported by several preclinical and in vitro studies showing that adrenergic activation modulates apoptosis, promotes angiogenesis and other cancer hallmarks, and these effects can be abrogated by beta-blockers. These studies provide a rationale for the use of beta-blockers as adjuvants with cancer chemotherapy. However, all published studies so far are retrospective, and most do not take into account the specific beta-blocker used or address which is most likely to benefit cancer patients. The published epidemiological studies are correlative and have not examined the adrenergic receptor status of the tumours. Knowledge of the beta-adrenergic receptor status of tumour cells is essential in choosing the best beta-blocker for adjuvant therapy. A comprehensive, prospective study is necessary to prove definitively the utility of using beta-blockers with chemotherapy and to identify the specific betablocker most likely to benefit patients with cancer. PMID:23919278

  4. Decline in Cognitive Function in Older Adults With Early-Stage Breast Cancer After Adjuvant Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Rigal, Olivier; Noal, Sabine; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Lévy, Christelle; Allouache, Djelila; Rieux, Chantal; Lefel, Johan; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Veyret, Corinne; Barthélémy, Philippe; Longato, Nadine; Castel, Hélène; Eustache, Francis; Giffard, Bénédicte; Joly, Florence

    2016-07-29

    The impact of chemotherapy on cognition among elderly patients has received little attention, although such patients are more prone to presenting with age-related cognitive deficits and/or cognitive decline during chemotherapy. The present study assessed the cognitive function in older adults treated for early-stage breast cancer (EBC). The participants were newly diagnosed EBC patients aged ≥65 years without previous systemic treatment or neurological or psychiatric disease and matched healthy controls. They underwent two assessments: before starting adjuvant therapy and after the end of chemotherapy (including doxorubicin ± docetaxel [CT+ group], n = 58) or radiotherapy for patients who did not receive chemotherapy (CT- group, n = 61), and at the same interval for the healthy controls (n = 62). Neuropsychological and geriatric assessments were performed. Neuropsychological data were analyzed using the Reliable Change Index. Forty-nine percent of the patients (mean age, 70 ± 4 years) had objective cognitive decline after adjuvant treatment that mainly concerned working memory. Among these patients, 64% developed a cognitive impairment after adjuvant treatment. Comorbidity was not associated with cognitive decline. No significant difference in objective cognitive decline was found between the two groups of patients; however, the CT+ group had more subjective cognitive complaints after treatment (p = .008). The oldest patients (aged 70-81 years) tended to have more objective decline with docetaxel (p = .05). This is the largest published study assessing cognitive function in older adults with EBC that included a group of patients treated with modern chemotherapy regimens. Approximately half the patients had objective cognitive decline after adjuvant treatment. The oldest patients were more likely to have cognitive decline with chemotherapy, particularly with docetaxel. This is the largest published study assessing cognitive function in older adults with early

  5. Decline in Cognitive Function in Older Adults With Early-Stage Breast Cancer After Adjuvant Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Rigal, Olivier; Noal, Sabine; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Lévy, Christelle; Allouache, Djelila; Rieux, Chantal; Lefel, Johan; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Veyret, Corinne; Barthélémy, Philippe; Longato, Nadine; Castel, Hélène; Eustache, Francis; Giffard, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of chemotherapy on cognition among elderly patients has received little attention, although such patients are more prone to presenting with age-related cognitive deficits and/or cognitive decline during chemotherapy. The present study assessed the cognitive function in older adults treated for early-stage breast cancer (EBC). Patients and Methods. The participants were newly diagnosed EBC patients aged ≥65 years without previous systemic treatment or neurological or psychiatric disease and matched healthy controls. They underwent two assessments: before starting adjuvant therapy and after the end of chemotherapy (including doxorubicin ± docetaxel [CT+ group], n = 58) or radiotherapy for patients who did not receive chemotherapy (CT− group, n = 61), and at the same interval for the healthy controls (n = 62). Neuropsychological and geriatric assessments were performed. Neuropsychological data were analyzed using the Reliable Change Index. Results. Forty-nine percent of the patients (mean age, 70 ± 4 years) had objective cognitive decline after adjuvant treatment that mainly concerned working memory. Among these patients, 64% developed a cognitive impairment after adjuvant treatment. Comorbidity was not associated with cognitive decline. No significant difference in objective cognitive decline was found between the two groups of patients; however, the CT+ group had more subjective cognitive complaints after treatment (p = .008). The oldest patients (aged 70–81 years) tended to have more objective decline with docetaxel (p = .05). Conclusion. This is the largest published study assessing cognitive function in older adults with EBC that included a group of patients treated with modern chemotherapy regimens. Approximately half the patients had objective cognitive decline after adjuvant treatment. The oldest patients were more likely to have cognitive decline with chemotherapy, particularly with docetaxel. Implications for Practice: This is

  6. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Adjuvant Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Gucalp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, a subtype distinguished by negative immunohistochemical assays for expression of the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2(HER2 represents 15% of all breast cancers. Patients with TNBC generally experience a more aggressive clinical course with increased risk of disease progression and poorer overall survival. Furthermore, this subtype accounts for a disproportionate number of disease-related mortality in part due to its aggressive natural history and our lack of effective targeted agents beyond conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this paper, we will review the epidemiology, risk factors, prognosis, and the molecular and clinicopathologic features that distinguish TNBC from other subtypes of breast cancer. In addition, we will examine the available data for the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of TNBC in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting and explore the ongoing development of newer targeted agents.

  7. Adjuvant radiotherapy improves overall survival in patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma: A National Cancer Data Base analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Priscilla K; Amini, Arya; Jones, Bernard L; Koshy, Matthew; Sher, David J; Lieu, Christopher H; Schefter, Tracey E; Goodman, Karyn A; Rusthoven, Chad G

    2017-09-01

    For patients with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma, perioperative chemotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are considered standard options. In the current study, the authors used the National Cancer Data Base to compare overall survival (OS) between these regimens. Patients who underwent gastrectomy for nonmetastatic gastric adenocarcinoma from 2004 through 2012 were divided into those treated with perioperative chemotherapy without RT versus those treated with adjuvant CRT. Survival was estimated and compared using univariate and multivariate models adjusted for patient and tumor characteristics, surgical margin status, and the number of lymph nodes examined. Subset analyses were performed for factors chosen a priori, and potential interactions between treatment and covariates were assessed. A total of 3656 eligible patients were identified, 52% of whom underwent perioperative chemotherapy and 48% of whom received postoperative CRT. The median follow-up was 47 months, and the median age of the patients was 62 years. Analysis of the entire cohort demonstrated improved OS with adjuvant RT on both univariate (median of 51 months vs 42 months; P = .013) and multivariate (hazard ratio, 0.874; 95% confidence interval, 0.790-0.967 [P = .009]) analyses. Propensity score-matched analysis also demonstrated improved OS with adjuvant RT (median of 49 months vs 39 months; P = .033). On subset analysis, a significant interaction was observed between the survival impact of adjuvant RT and surgical margins, with a greater benefit of RT noted among patients with surgical margin-positive disease (hazard ratio with RT: 0.650 vs 0.952; P for interaction Cancer Data Base analysis, the use of adjuvant RT in addition to chemotherapy was associated with a significant OS advantage for patients with resected gastric cancer. The survival advantage observed with adjuvant CRT was most pronounced among patients with positive surgical margins. Cancer 2017;123:3402-9. © 2017 American

  8. Vaccine adjuvants: Why and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dennis

    2016-10-02

    Novel vaccine strategies include the so-called subunit vaccines, which encompass only the part of the pathogen to which immune recognition results in protection. The high purity of these vaccines make adverse events less likely, but it also makes the vaccines less immunogenic and therefore potentially less effective. Vaccine adjuvants that increase and modulate the immunogenicity of the vaccine are therefore added to solve this problem. Besides aluminum salts, which have been used in vaccines for 90 years, a number of novel vaccine adjuvants have been included in licensed vaccines over the last 30 years. Increasing insight into immunological mechanisms and how to manipulate them has replaced empirical with rational design of adjuvants, leading to vaccine adjuvants with increased and customized immunogenicity profiles without compromising vaccine safety.

  9. ERM immersion vaccination and adjuvants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were...... the commercial product Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG PR (SEPPIC), and a soluble and ≥98% pure β-glucan from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (Sigma-Aldrich). Hence, five experimental groups in duplicate were established and exposed to vaccine and adjuvants in the following combinations: AquaVac™ Relera (alone); Aqua......Vac™ Relera + Montanide™; AquaVac™ Relera + β-glucan; Montanide™ (alone); and β-glucan (alone). Approximately 450 degree days post-vaccination, the fish were bath-challenged with live Yersinia ruckeri to produce survival curves. Blood, skin and gills were sampled at selected time points during the course...

  10. From utopia to reality: increased survival in peritoneal carcinomatosis treated with cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Morales-Soriano, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    We have read with great interest the article by Illán et al.1 entitled "Long survival in a patient with metastatic colorectal carcinoma: reality or utopia?" This article describes the case of a 42 year old patient with mucinous-type colon adenocarcinoma who had tumor recurrence with peritoneal metastases 18 months after resection of the primary tumor and adjuvant chemotherapy. After multiple metastasectomies and several lines of chemotherapy, the patient died 27 months after the recurrence.

  11. Chemotherapy increases long-term survival in patients with adult medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocakaya, Selin; Beier, Christoph Patrick; Beier, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    parts of treatment regimes; however, established prognostic factors and data clarifying the role of chemotherapy are missing. METHODS: We investigated 227 publications from 1969-2013, with 907 identifiable, individual patients being available for meta-analysis. Demographic data, risk stratification...... chemotherapy first-line survived significantly longer (mOS: 108 mo, 95% CI: 68.6-148.4) than patients treated with radiation alone (mOS: 57 mo, 95% CI: 39.6-74.4) or patients who received chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. This effect was not biased by tumor stage or decade of treatment. Importantly, (neo......)adjuvant chemotherapy also significantly increased the chance for long-term survival (>5 y) compared with radiotherapy alone or chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis clarifies relevant prognostic factors and suggests that chemotherapy as part of first-line therapy improves overall survival...

  12. Adjuvant treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer patients after preoperative chemoradiotherapy: when, and for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Alfonso; Moretto, Roberto; Bucci, Luigi; Pepe, Stefano; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Cella, Alessandra Chiara; Attademo, Laura; Rosanova, Mario; De Falco, Stefano; Fiore, Giovanni; Raimondo, Lucia; De Placido, Sabino; Carlomagno, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    The standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (clinical tumor, node, metastases [TNM] stage II or III) is radiotherapy before surgery (with or without concomitant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy) followed by surgery. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting of patients is controversial in terms of the overall benefit on survival, the subgroup of patients who might not need it, and the best regimen (combination regimens vs. fluoropyrimidine alone). Based on the retrospective analysis of the clinical outcome of all patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated at our institute during the past 9 years, we comment on prognostic factors for local and distant metastases of patients who received neoadjuvant treatment followed by surgery, and the scientific evidence that can help to decide the adjuvant chemotherapy. We conclude that pathological TNM stage after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (ypTNM) stage after surgery significantly affects disease-free and overall survival. In particular, patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes (ypN+) after surgery have a high probability of developing distant metastases. ypN+ patients are candidate for intensified adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Superimposable outcomes for sequential and concomitant administration of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer: Results from the SIGNAL/PHARE prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivot, Xavier; Fumoleau, Pierre; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Delaloge, Suzette; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Bachelot, Thomas; Jouannaud, Christelle; Bourgeois, Hugues; Rios, Maria; Soulié, Patrick; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Lavau-Denes, Sandrine; Kerbrat, Pierre; Cox, David; Faure-Mercier, Céline; Pauporte, Iris; Gligorov, Joseph; Curtit, Elsa; Henriques, Julie; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Romieu, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    Adjuvant clinical trials in early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer have assessed either sequential or concomitant incorporation of trastuzumab with chemotherapy; only the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG)-N9831 trial prospectively compared both modalities. In routine trastuzumab has been incorporated into a concurrent regimen with taxane chemotherapy instead of sequential modality on the basis of a positive risk-benefit ratio. This present study assessed sequential versus concomitant administration of adjuvant trastuzumab. A population combining patients from Protocol for Herceptin ® as Adjuvant therapy with Reduced Exposure (PHARE) a randomised phase III clinical trial (NCT00381901) and SIGNAL (RECF1098) a prospective study specifically designed for Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) analyses was studied. In this cohort with 58 months of median follow-up, the comparison in the HER2-positive group of adjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy modalities was based on a propensity score methodology. Treatment modalities were based on physician's choice and comparisons adjustment were made by a propensity score methodology. Overall Survival (OS) and Disease-Free Survival (DFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons between groups were based on the log rank test. The SIGNAL/PHARE cohort included 11,728 breast cancer cases treated in adjuvant setting; some 5502 of them with HER2-positive tumour: 34.5% (1897/5502) were treated by sequential and 65.5% (3605/5502) by concomitant modality of administration for taxane-chemotherapy and trastuzumab. The adjusted comparison found similar OS (HR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.86-1.19) and similar DFS (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.96-1.21). These results suggest that the sequential administration of trastuzumab given after the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy might be as valid as the concomitant administration of trastuzumab and taxane chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting

  14. Chemotherapy for isolated locoregional recurrence of breast cancer (CALOR): a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Stefan; Gelber, Shari; Anderson, Stewart J; Láng, István; Robidoux, André; Martín, Miguel; Nortier, Johan W R; Paterson, Alexander H G; Rimawi, Mothaffar F; Cañada, José Manuel Baena; Thürlimann, Beat; Murray, Elizabeth; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Geyer, Charles E; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Rastogi, Priya; Wolmark, Norman; Wapnir, Irene L

    2014-02-01

    Patients with isolated locoregional recurrences (ILRR) of breast cancer have a high risk of distant metastasis and death from breast cancer. We aimed to establish whether adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcome of such patients. The CALOR trial was a pragmatic, open-label, randomised trial that accrued patients with histologically proven and completely excised ILRR after unilateral breast cancer who had undergone a mastectomy or lumpectomy with clear surgical margins. Eligible patients were enrolled from hospitals worldwide and were centrally randomised (1:1) to chemotherapy (type selected by the investigator; multidrug for at least four courses recommended) or no chemotherapy, using permuted blocks, and stratified by previous chemotherapy, oestrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor status, and location of ILRR. Patients with oestrogen-receptor-positive ILRR received adjuvant endocrine therapy, radiation therapy was mandated for patients with microscopically involved surgical margins, and anti-HER2 therapy was optional. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. All analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00074152. From Aug 22, 2003, to Jan 31, 2010, 85 patients were randomly assigned to receive chemotherapy and 77 were assigned to no chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 4·9 years (IQR 3·6-6 ·0), 24 (28%) patients had disease-free survival events in the chemotherapy group compared with 34 (44%) in the no chemotherapy group. 5-year disease-free survival was 69% (95% CI 56-79) with chemotherapy versus 57% (44-67) without chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0·59 [95% CI 0·35-0·99]; p=0·046). Adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly more effective for women with oestrogen-receptor-negative ILRR (pinteraction=0·046), but analyses of disease-free survival according to the oestrogen-receptor status of the primary tumour were not statistically significant (pinteraction=0·43). Of the 81 patients who

  15. Value and cost of follow-up after adjuvant treatment of patients with Dukes' C colonic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, WA; Mulder, NH; Hermans, J; Otter, R; Plukker, JTM

    Background: The clinical value and costs of different diagnostic tools used to identify potentially curable recurrent disease in patients treated adjuvantly for curatively resected Dukes' C colonic cancer were examined. Methods: The study group comprised 496 patients treated with chemotherapy over a

  16. Administration of Concurrent Vaginal Brachytherapy During Chemotherapy for Treatment of Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Himanshu; Boothe, Dustin; Parikh, Amar; Yondorf, Menachem; Parashar, Bhupesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Gupta, Divya; Holcomb, Kevin; Caputo, Thomas [Division of Gynecological Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Chao, K. S. Clifford; Nori, Dattatreyudu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Wernicke, A. Gabriella, E-mail: gaw9006@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability and toxicity of administering vaginal brachytherapy (VB) concurrently during chemotherapy compared with the sequential approach for patients with endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 372 surgically staged patients with endometrial cancer American Joint Committee on Cancer 2009 stages I to IV treated with adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at our institution from 2001 to 2012 was conducted. All patients received VB + external beam RT (EBRT) + 6 cycles of adjuvant carboplatin- and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. The VB mean dose was 15.08 Gy (range, 15-20 Gy), with 3 to 4 weekly applications, and the EBRT mean dose was 45 Gy delivered with 3-dimensional or intensity modulated RT techniques. Hematologic, gastrointestinal (GI), and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were assessed by Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and compared between sequential and concurrent chemotherapy and VB schedules. Results: Among patients who received RT and adjuvant chemotherapy, 180 of 372 patients (48%) received RT sandwiched between cycles 3 and 4 of chemotherapy. A separate group of 192 patients (52%) were treated with VB during the first 3 cycles of chemotherapy, with a weekly application on nonchemotherapy days, and received the EBRT portion in a sandwiched fashion. Patients treated with VB during chemotherapy had a decreased overall treatment time by 4 weeks (P<.001; 95% confidence interval: 3.99-4.02) and sustained no difference in CTC-graded acute hematologic, GI, or GU toxicities in comparison with the patients treated with VB and chemotherapy in a sequential manner (P>.05). CTC grade 3 or 4 hematologic, GI, and GU toxicities were zero. Conclusions: VB during chemotherapy is well tolerated, decreases overall treatment time, and does not render more toxicity than the sequential regimen.

  17. The Role of Systemic Chemotherapy in the Management of Granulosa Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Jane L.; Hyman, David; Jotwani, Anjali; Zhou, Qin; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Iasonos, Alexia; Pike, Malcolm C.; Aghajanian, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and the role of chemotherapy in their management is not clearly defined. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of GCT patients diagnosed from January 1996 through June 2013 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, comparing those who received adjuvant chemotherapy to those who did not. Differences between groups were assessed using the log-rank test. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Of 118 patients, 10 (8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (1 [1%] of 103 stage I and 9 [60%] of 15 stage II–IV patients). Thirty-two patients (27%) experienced disease recurrence. Four patients had residual disease after initial surgery, and all received adjuvant chemotherapy; each recurred within 24.3 months (median PFS, 8.2 months). The time to first recurrence was longer in patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. For patients with recurrent disease, receiving chemotherapy after surgery for first recurrence did not seem to improve time to second recurrence versus surgery alone (HR 0.98; p=0.965). Additionally, 12 patients (10%) had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer—an incidence rate 3.22 times higher than Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data predicts (p<0.001). Conclusions Although the numbers were small, in this analysis chemotherapy was not found to improve the recurrence-free interval of patients with GCTs, a finding that requires prospective validation. Residual disease after surgery was associated with poor prognosis. Finally, there was a significantly higher than expected incidence of antecedent breast cancer in this population, an association that deserves further exploration. PMID:25546114

  18. Pain management for chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michelle

    2016-12-08

    The number of children and young people diagnosed with cancer is increasing every year. Pain is a significant side effect of disease, surgery and treatments including chemotherapy. After a course of intensive chemotherapy, some children develop oral mucositis, a debilitating condition causing bleeding, pain and inflammation. Moderate and severe mucositis pain is treated with continued good oral hygiene and parenteral analgesia. The aim of this article is to identify challenges in managing chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis pain in children, and to highlight the benefits of adding ketamine as an adjuvant analgesic. A small number of studies and case reports in children have examined ketamine for cancer pain and have demonstrated its successful use in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. However, there remtains a paucity of data about the efficacy of continuous low dose ketamine administration in children with cancer. Further studies are required to establish its benefits to support the addition of ketamine to the World Health Organization's analgesic ladder.

  19. Impact of chemotherapy on the outcome of osteosarcoma of the head and neck in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.; Graaf, W.T. van der; Gelderblom, H.; Tesselaar, M.E.; Es, R.J. van; Oosting, S.F.; Bree, R. de; Meerten, E. van; Hoeben, A.; Smeele, L.E.; Willems, S.M.; Witjes, M.J.; Buter, J.; Jong, R.J.; Flucke, U.E.; Peer, P.G.M.; Bovee, J.V.; Herpen, C.M. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate about the value of (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy in high- and intermediate-grade osteosarcoma of the head and neck. METHODS: All records of patients older than 16 years diagnosed with osteosarcoma of the head and neck in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2013 were

  20. Impact of chemotherapy on the outcome of osteosarcoma of the head and neck in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Eline; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Gelderblom, Hans; Tesselaar, Margot E. T.; Van Es, Robert J. J.; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; de Bree, Remco; van Meerten, Esther; Hoeben, Ann; Smeele, Ludi E.; Willems, Stefan M.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Buter, Jan; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J.; Flucke, Uta E.; Peer, Petronella G. M.; Bovee, Judith V. M. G.; Van Herpen, Carla M. L.

    Background. There is an ongoing debate about the value of (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy in high- and intermediate-grade osteosarcoma of the head and neck. Methods. All records of patients older than 16 years diagnosed with osteosarcoma of the head and neck in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2013 were

  1. Impact of chemotherapy on the outcome of osteosarcoma of the head and neck in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Eline; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Gelderblom, Hans; Tesselaar, Margot E T; van Es, Robert J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216460646; Oosting, Sjoukje F; de Bree, Remco; van Meerten, Esther; Hoeben, Ann; Smeele, Ludi E.; Willems, Stefan M.; Witjes, Max J H; Buter, Jan; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Flucke, Uta E.; Peer, Petronella G.M.; Bovée, Judith V.M.G.; Van Herpen, Carla M L

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is an ongoing debate about the value of (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy in high- and intermediate-grade osteosarcoma of the head and neck. Methods: All records of patients older than 16 years diagnosed with osteosarcoma of the head and neck in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2013 were

  2. High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue for high-risk breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, S; Bontenbal, M; Beex, LVAM; Wagstaff, J; Richel, DJ; Nooij, MA; Voest, EE; Hupperets, P; van Tinteren, H; Peterse, HL; TenVergert, EM; de Vries, EGE

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of high-dose adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk primary breast cancer is controversial. We studied its efficacy in patients with 4 to 9 or 10 or more tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes. METHODS: Patients younger than 56 years of age who had undergone surgery for breast cancer

  3. Trastuzumab after Chemotherapy Is Effective in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment with trastuzumab for 1 year following standard chemotherapy improved disease-free survival in women with HER2-positive early breast cancer, according to 4-year follow-up results of the Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial reported February 25, 2011,

  4. Chemotherapy in eye cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemotherapy in eye cancer. Chemotherapy is one of several treatment strategies used to halt the uncontrolled division, proliferation and unpredictable growth patterns of malignant cells. R Dolland, BSc, MB BCh, FC Ophth (SA). Consultant, St John Eye Hospital, Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Neurosciences, ...

  5. Extravasation of chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Seppo W

    2010-01-01

    Extravasation of chemotherapy is a feared complication of anticancer therapy. The accidental leakage of cytostatic agents into the perivascular tissues may have devastating short-term and long-term consequences for patients. In recent years, the increased focus on chemotherapy extravasation has led...

  6. Pre-operative chemotherapy for non-small cell lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Tetsukan; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The roll by the cytotoxic chemotherapy and its efficacy in the treatment of non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) was not clearly identified until the 1980s when studies showed that cisplatin was beneficial in the treatment of NSCLC. The first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of post-operative (adjuvant) chemotherapy using the cisplatin regimen for resectable NSCLC was reported in 1988. Since then, an increasing number of RCTs have been carried out to evaluate post-operative chemotherapy. Pre-operative (neo-adjuvant) chemotherapy is a relatively new treatment strategy, as its name indicates. Compared with post-operative chemotherapy, fewer RCTs have been carried out to evaluate pre-operative chemotherapy. Given the inconsistency of the results from the RCTs, at least 12 meta-analyses have been published. Most of these meta-analyses reported overall survival (OS) benefit with hazard ratios (HRs) in the range of 0.81 to 0.89 in favor of pre-operative chemotherapy. An individual patient data meta-analysis by Burdett in 2014 indicates that the option of pre-operative chemotherapy + surgery is associated with better OS (HR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.78-0.96, P=0.007) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR 0.85, 95% CI, 0.76-0.94, P=0.002) survival for operable NSCLC when compared with treatment with surgery alone. Although the current consensus recommends the use of post-operative chemotherapy, pre-operative chemotherapy has equivalent efficacy. Both strategies should be regarded as the first choice treatment options. Despite Burdett’s comment, indication of pre-operative chemotherapy for stage IA disease should be judged carefully. PMID:25806341

  7. Thymoquinone as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Cancer Treatment: Evidence from Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.M. Mostofa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (TQ, the main bioactive component of Nigella sativa, has been found to exhibit anticancer effects in numerous preclinical studies. Due to its multitargeting nature, TQ interferes in a wide range of tumorigenic processes and counteracts carcinogenesis, malignant growth, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. Moreover, TQ can specifically sensitize tumor cells toward conventional cancer treatments (e.g., radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy and simultaneously minimize therapy-associated toxic effects in normal cells. In this review, we summarized the adjuvant potential of TQ as observed in various in vitro and in vivo animal models and discussed the pharmacological properties of TQ to rationalize its supplementary role in potentiating the efficacy of standard therapeutic modalities namely surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Altogether, we suggest further comprehensive evaluation of TQ in preclinical and clinical levels to delineate its implied utility as a novel complementary adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment.

  8. Adjuvant gemcitabine versus NEOadjuvant gemcitabine/oxaliplatin plus adjuvant gemcitabine in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomized multicenter phase III study (NEOPAC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehler Markus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite major improvements in the perioperative outcome of pancreas surgery, the prognosis of pancreatic cancer after curative resection remains poor. Adjuvant chemotherapy increases disease-free and overall survival, but this treatment cannot be offered to a significant proportion of patients due to the surgical morbidity. In contrast, almost all patients can receive (neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery. This treatment is safe and effective, and has resulted in a median survival of 26.5 months in a recent phase II trial. Moreover, neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves the nutritional status of patients with pancreatic cancer. This multicenter phase III trial (NEOPAC has been designed to explore the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods/Design This is a prospective randomized phase III trial. Patients with resectable cytologically proven adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head are eligible for this study. All patients must be at least 18 years old and must provide written informed consent. An infiltration of the superior mesenteric vein > 180° or major visceral arteries are considered exclusion criteria. Eligible patients will be randomized to surgery followed by adjuvant gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 for 6 months or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2, oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2 followed by surgery and the same adjuvant treatment. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is given four times every two weeks. The staging as well as the restaging protocol after neoadjuvant chemotherapy include computed tomography of chest and abdomen and diagnostic laparoscopy. The primary study endpoint is progression-free survival. According to the sample size calculation, 155 patients need to be randomized to each treatment arm. Disease recurrence will be documented by scheduled computed tomography scans 9, 12, 15, 21 and thereafter every 6 months until disease progression. For quality control, circumferential resection margins are marked

  9. Adjuvant therapy for resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma: review of the current treatment approaches and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, G; Kountourakis, P; Papadimitriou, K; Vassiliou, V; Papamichael, D

    2014-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas carries a uniformly poor prognosis with high rates of loco-regional as well as systemic recurrence. Outcomes remain poor, even for early stage and resectable disease. It is perceived as inherently resistant to most of the currently available treatment options. Evidence supports the need for adjuvant chemotherapy but controversy remains in relation to the use of combined therapy, novel agents and the most appropriate timing of therapy. Despite no clear consensus, mainstay of treatment following resection is based primarily on single agent gemcitabine. Promising new agents and molecules of prognostic as well as predictive value under evaluation offer intriguing data, despite issues surrounding adjuvant therapy strategies. In this article, we sought to review the different therapeutic adjuvant modalities and future directions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Curative resection plus adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a retrospective study with emphasis on prognostic factors and treatment outcome Ressecção curativa associada à quimioterapia adjuvante para o linfoma gástrico primário não-Hodgkin em estádio inicial: estudo retrospectivo com ênfase nos fatores prognósticos e resultado do tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Waisberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is controversy regarding the optimal therapy for primary non-Hodgkin gastric lymphoma with some authors defending surgical extirpation either alone or in association with radiotherapy and or chemotherapy, especially in relation to the earlier stages of the disease. AIM: To analyze the clinical-pathological features and the results of management approaches for patients with primary early-stage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the stomach operated in Surgical Gastroenterology Department, "Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual", São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The literature is reviewed to highlight the aspects of diagnosis, prognostic factors and role of the various treatment regimens. METHOD: Sixteen patients with primary early-stage gastric lymphoma underwent curative surgical treatment. The variables analyzed were age, sex, location, size, type of surgery, number of lesions, depth of invasion, histological type in accordance with Kiel's classification, involvement of lymph nodes, Ann Arbor stage classification modified by Musshoff and Schmidt-Vollmer, histological grade, margins, adjuvant therapy, clinical course and survival. RESULTS: Ten patients (62.5% underwent subtotal gastrectomy and six (37.5% underwent total gastrectomy. The majority (9/56.2% of the lesions were located in the antrum. Single lesions (10/62.5% were more frequent than multiple lesions (6/37.5%. Thirteen patients (81.2% were classified as stage IE and three (18.7% as stage IIE1. Primary gastric lymphoma classified histologically as low or high grade was presented by 10 (62.5% and 6 (37.5% patients, respectively. The most frequent histological types were the lymphoplasmocytic cytoid (4/25.0% and centroblastic (4/25.0%. Ten patients (62.5% received adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Nine patients (56.2%, all in stage IE, reached a survival greater than 5 years and of these eight (50.0.% had received adjuvant therapy. Two (12.5% patients with stage IIE1

  11. Cognitive Deficits in Breast Cancer Survivors After Chemotherapy and Hormonal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer Sandson; Vance, David E; Triebel, Kristen L; Meneses, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    Adjuvant treatments, specifically chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, have dramatically increased breast cancer survival, resulting in increased attention to the residual effects of treatment. Breast cancer survivors (BCS) frequently report that cognitive deficits are a particular source of distress, interfering with many aspects of quality of life. The literature on neuropsychological performance measures in BCS supports the reality of subtle cognitive deficits after both chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. This premise is supported by recent imaging studies, which reveal anatomical changes after chemotherapy as well as changes in patterns of neural activation while performing cognitive tasks. This review suggests that, even when performance on neuropsychological performance measures is within normal limits, BCS may be using increased cognitive resources in the face of reduced cognitive reserve. Potential interventions for cognitive deficits after adjuvant therapy include prescriptions for healthy living, pharmacotherapy, complementary therapy, and cognitive remediation therapy directed toward specific cognitive deficits or a combination of several strategies.

  12. Effect of a Multimodal High Intensity Exercise Intervention in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Objective To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for adv...... chemotherapy or treatment for advanced disease. The intervention reduced fatigue and improved vitality, aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and physical and functional activity, and emotional wellbeing, but not quality of life.......Abstract: Objective To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment...... Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS SF-36), Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, muscular strength (one repetition maximum), maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max). Statistical methods: The general linear...

  13. Chemotherapy for Isolated Locoregional Recurrence of Breast Cancer: The CALOR Randomised Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Stefan; Gelber, Shari; Anderson, Stewart J.; Láng, István; Robidoux, André; Martín, Miguel; Nortier, Johan W.R.; Paterson, Alexander H.G.; Rimawi, Mothaffar F.; Cañada, José Manuel Baena; Thürlimann, Beat; Murray, Elizabeth; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Geyer, Charles E.; Price, Karen N.; Coates, Alan S.; Gelber, Richard D.; Rastogi, Priya; Wolmark, Norman; Wapnir, Irene L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with isolated locoregional recurrences (ILRR) of breast cancer have a high risk of distant metastasis and death from breast cancer. We investigated adjuvant chemotherapy for such patients in a randomised clinical trial. METHODS The CALOR trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00074152) accrued patients 2003-2010. The 162 patients with resected ILRR were centrally randomised using permuted blocks and stratified by prior chemotherapy, ER/PgR status, and location of ILRR. Eighty-five were allocated to chemotherapy (type selected by the investigator; multidrug for at least four courses recommended) and 77 to no chemotherapy. Patients with oestrogen receptor-positive ILRR received adjuvant endocrine therapy; radiation therapy was mandated for patients with microscopically involved surgical margins, and anti-HER2 therapy was optional. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). All analyses were by intention to treat. FINDINGS At a median follow up of 4·9 (IQR 3.6,6.0) years we observed 24 DFS events and nine deaths in the chemotherapy group compared with 34 DFS events and 21 deaths in the no chemotherapy group. Five-year DFS was 69% vs. 57%, (hazard ratio for chemotherapy versus no chemotherapy, 0·59; 95% confidence interval 0·35 to 0·99; P=0·046) and five-year overall survival was 88% vs. 76%, (hazard ratio, 0·41; 95% CI, 0·19 to 0·89; P=0·02). Adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly more effective for women with oestrogen receptor-negative disease measured in the recurrence (interaction P=0·04), but analyses of DFS based on the oestrogen receptor status of the primary tumour were not statistically significant (interaction P=0·43). Among the 85 patients who received standard chemotherapy, 12 reported SAEs. INTERPRETATION Adjuvant chemotherapy should be recommended for patients with completely resected isolated locoregional recurrences of breast cancer, especially if the recurrence is oestrogen receptor negative. FUNDING Public Service

  14. Topoisomerase II alpha and TLE3 as predictive markers of response to anthracycline and taxane-containing regimens for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susini T

    2014-11-01

    -positive. Conclusion: TOP2A and TLE3 showed a correlation with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. While TOP2A is a well-known marker of response to anthracyclines-based chemotherapy, TLE3 is a new putative predictor of response to taxanes. Data from the current study suggest that TOP2A and TLE3 warrant further investigation in a larger series as predictors of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma. Keywords: breast carcinoma, advanced stage disease, immunohistochemical markers

  15. Phthalocyanine induced phototherapy coupled with Doxorubicin; a promising novel treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniogo, Eric Chekwube; George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    Globally, breast cancer is the most common life-threatening malignant disease among women. Adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (e.g., doxorubicin) has been shown to be more advantageous over non-anthracycline-based therapies, yet possess the tenacity of developing resistance and potential side effects which have limited its use in the clinical setting. These reasons necessitate combining doxorubicin with emerging photodynamic treatment regimens. Areas covered: In this review, the authors have concisely explained doxorubicin chemotherapy and the photobiological processes of phthalocyanine triggered photodynamic therapy (PDT). A literature search was conducted and reports demonstrating the use of doxorubicin and photodynamic therapy as a treatment modality for breast cancer were identified. More emphasis was made on studies demonstrating the efficacy and improved anticancer effect of combining chemotherapy with photodynamic therapy. However, it was concluded that for this combination therapy, still in it's infancy, it could be relevant when integrated into standard treatment. Expert Commentary: To these effects, comprehensive models based on experimental evaluations are needed for rational design of anthracycline-based chemotherapy and PDT to be integrated into the clinical setting.

  16. Thermal potentiation of chemotherapy by magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of hyperthermia as an adjuvant for chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, significant clinical challenges have been encountered, such as a broader spectrum of toxicity, lack of patient tolerance, temperature control and significant invasiveness. Hyperthermia induced by magnetic nanoparticles in high-frequency oscillating magnetic fields, commonly termed magnetic fluid hyperthermia, is a promising form of heat delivery in which thermal energy is supplied at the nanoscale to the tumor. This review discusses the mechanisms of heat dissipation of iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles, current methods and challenges to deliver heat in the clinic, and the current work related to the use of magnetic nanoparticles for the thermal-chemopotentiation of therapeutic drugs. PMID:24074390

  17. Chemotherapy of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0196 TITLE: CHEMOTHERAPY OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: DR. ARBA AGER CONTRACTING...DATE October 2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01Sep2010–31 Dec 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHEMOTHERAPY OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS 5a...was used for tabulation of data and statistically analyzing the results. 15. SUBJECT TERMS- Leishmania major, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis , antileishmanial

  18. The effects of population-based mammography screening starting between age 40 and 50 in the presence of adjuvant systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Rianne; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Fracheboud, Jacques; Draisma, Gerrit; de Koning, Harry J

    2015-07-01

    Adjuvant systemic therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality. The additional effect of mammography screening remains uncertain, in particular for women aged 40-49 years. We therefore assessed the effects of screening starting between age 40 and 50, as compared to the effects of adjuvant systemic therapy. The use of adjuvant endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and the combination of endocrine- and chemotherapy, as well as the uptake of mammography screening in the Netherlands was modeled using micro-simulation. The effects of screening and treatment were modeled based on randomized controlled trials. The effects of adjuvant therapy, biennial screening between age 50 and 74 in the presence of adjuvant therapy, and extending the screening programme by starting at age 40 were assessed by comparing breast cancer mortality in women aged 0-100 years in scenarios with and without these interventions. In 2008, adjuvant treatment was estimated to have reduced the breast cancer mortality rate in the simulated population by 13.9%, compared to a situation without treatment. Biennial screening between age 50 and 74 further reduced the mortality rate by 15.7%. Extending screening to age 48 would lower the mortality rate by 1.0% compared to screening from age 50; 10 additional screening rounds between age 40 and 49 would reduce this rate by 5.1%. Adjuvant systemic therapy and screening reduced breast cancer mortality in similar amounts. Expanding the lower age limit of screening would further reduce breast cancer mortality. © 2014 UICC.

  19. Advanced Epithelioid Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Showing Complete Response to Combined Surgery and Chemotherapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Minagawa

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a 62-year-old male with an epithelioid MPNST of the left foot. Multiple lung metastases developed after radical surgery on the primary lesion. The response to adjuvant chemotherapy including doxorubicin and ifosfamide was favorable, and thoracoscopic resection was subsequently performed on the remaining three metastases. No evidence of recurrence or metastasis was observed at the 12-month followup after the first operation. Further followup and chemotherapy may be required.

  20. Advances and challenges in mucosal adjuvant technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsted, Daniel; Fallahi, Firouzeh; Golshani, Ashkan; Azizi, Ali

    2015-05-15

    Adjuvants play attractive roles in enhancement of immune response during vaccination; however, due to several challenges, only a limited number of adjuvants are licensed by health authorities. The lack of an effective mucosal adjuvant is even more significant as none of the licensed adjuvants revealed a strong enhancement in immune system after mucosal administration. Over the past two decades, several mucosal adjuvants have been developed to deliver antigens to the target cells in the mucosal immune system and increase specific immune responses. However, the safety and efficacy of these adjuvants for testing in human trials is still an important issue, requiring further study. In this article, we briefly review the challenges associated with most common mucosal adjuvants and discuss potential strategies for targeting the mucosal immune system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adjuvant therapy for locally advanced renal cell cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis

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    Lima Carmen SP

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adjuvant trials have been undertaken in an attempt to reduce the risk of recurrence among patients who undergo surgical resection for locally advanced renal cancer. However, no clear benefit has been identified to date. This systematic review was conducted to examine the exact role of adjuvant therapy in renal cancer setting. Methods Randomized controlled trials were searched comparing adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy, vaccine, immunotherapy, biochemotherapy versus no active treatment after surgery among renal cell cancer patients. Outcomes were overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS, and severe toxicities. Risk ratios (RR, hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. Different strategies of adjuvant treatment were evaluated separately. Results Ten studies (2,609 patients were included. Adjuvant therapy provided no benefits in terms of OS (HR 1.07; 95%CI 0.89 to 1.28; P = 0.48 I2 = 0% or DFS (HR 1.03; 95%CI 0.87 to 1.21; P = 0.77 I2 = 15% when compared to no treatment. No subgroup analysis (immunotherapy, vaccines, biochemotherapy and hormone therapy had relevant results. Toxicity evaluation depicted a significantly higher frequency of serious adverse events in the adjuvant group. Conclusions This analysis provided no support for the hypothesis that the agents studied provide any clinical benefit for renal cancer patients although they increase the risk of toxic effects. Randomized trials are underway to test targeted therapies, which might open a new therapeutic frontier. Until these trials yield results, no adjuvant therapy can be recommended for patients who undergo surgical resection for renal cell cancer.

  2. Adjuvant Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab in Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; Procter, Marion; de Azambuja, Evandro

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pertuzumab increases the rate of pathological complete response in the preoperative context and increases overall survival among patients with metastatic disease when it is added to trastuzumab and chemotherapy for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2......)-positive breast cancer. In this trial, we investigated whether pertuzumab, when added to adjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy, improves outcomes among patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with node-positive or high-risk node-negative HER2-positive...... with placebo (9.8% vs. 3.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Pertuzumab significantly improved the rates of invasive-disease-free survival among patients with HER2-positive, operable breast cancer when it was added to trastuzumab and chemotherapy. Diarrhea was more common with pertuzumab than with placebo. (Funded by F...

  3. Fatigue in breast cancer patients on adjuvant treatment: Course and prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi S Manir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fatigue is a major complain in breast cancer patients and survivors. Patterns and degree varies with schedule and type of the treatment. Different co-factors may aggravate fatigue. Multimodal approach is helpful in managing fatigue. Aim: To quantify prevalence, course and degree of fatigue in breast cancer patients on adjuvant treatment and effectiveness of different management approach. Materials and Methods: One Hundred and ten post-mastectomy breast cancer patients (Stage I to Stage III were assessed. Patients on chemotherapy were assessed one week before, day after chemotherapy and two weeks later in every cycle. Patients on External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT were assessed one week before and every week during radiation. Assessment was continued on second and fourth week of follow up. Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue subscale (FACIT-F was used for assessment. Significant cofactors were also searched for. Results: Eighty four percent patients experienced fatigue. Fatigue was more prevalent during chemotherapy (91% than EBRT (77%. Patients on Chemotherapy exhibit peak fatigue day after Chemotherapy and decreased level until the next cycle. Significant increase of fatigue was seen only in first cycle. Patient on EBRT had gradually increased fatigue during the course of treatment. Lower degree of fatigue was present in post treatment period. Anemia was a significant cofactor causing fatigue (P < 0.05. Blood Transfusion improved fatigue scores. Conclusion: Fatigue increases during chemotherapy and or EBRT. Different intervention strategies are needed to address the issue.

  4. Polysaccharides: Candidates of promising vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingli; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium-based adjuvants remain the only adjuvants approved for human use in the USA for over 80 years because of alum's simplicity, tolerability, safety and cost-efficiency. Recent development of vaccines, especially the increasing applications of recombinant subunit and synthetic vaccines, makes aluminium adjuvants cannot stimulate enough immunity to the antigens, since aluminium adjuvants can only induce Th2 type immune responses. So, novel adjuvants are urgent to make up the disadvantages of aluminium adjuvants. However, some major hurdles need to be overcome, not only the scientific knowledge of adjuvants but also unacceptable side-effects and toxicity. A number of carbohydrate-based polysaccharides from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources can act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and recognize pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells, followed by triggering innate immunity and regulating adaptive immunity. What is more, polysaccharides are safe and biodegradable without tissue deposits as observed in aluminium adjuvants. Therefore, polysaccharide-based compounds and formulations are potential vaccine adjuvant candidates. Here, we mainly review polysaccharide-based adjuvants investigated in recent years.

  5. Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Ampulla of Vater Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeanny; Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Ha, Sung W

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in ampulla of Vater (AoV) cancer. The adjuvant treatment for AoV cancer is a subject of controversy without convincing evidence from randomized study. A comprehensive search was performed in the databases of EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Ovid from inception to July 2014. We included studies, which compared survival between patients with or without adjuvant RT after curative surgery solely for AoV cancer. Hazard ratio (HR) for OS was extracted, and a random-effects model was used for pooled analysis. Ten retrospective studies including 3361 patients met all inclusion criteria and were included for the final meta-analysis. Adjuvant RT was delivered with concurrent chemotherapy, mostly 5-fluorouracil, in all institutional studies. Generally, adjuvant RT groups included more patients with locally advanced disease or lymph node metastasis than did the surgery alone groups. The pooled results demonstrated that adjuvant RT significantly reduced the risk of death (HR = 0.75; P = 0.01). Exploratory analyses showed that patients with lymph node metastasis (HR = 0.52; P = 0.001) and locally advanced disease (HR = 0.42; P = 0.001) may also have survival benefit from adjuvant RT. No clear evidence of publication bias was found. This is the first meta-analysis evaluating the role of adjuvant RT in AoV cancer. Our results suggest the potential for survival benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Further studies, preferably randomized clinical trials, are needed to confirm our results.

  6. Rechallenge and maintenance therapy using cetuximab and chemotherapy administered to a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Quan-Liang; Ling, Yang

    2017-02-14

    Cetuximab combined with chemotherapy is one of the first-line treatments of metastatic colorectal cancer. Although disease progression inevitably occurs, rechallenge and maintenance therapies using cetuximab-based regimens may be beneficial, particularly for patients with wild-type (WT) KRAS. A 47-year-old female patient who underwent right hemicolectomy presented with an ulcerative adenocarcinoma (grade 2) revealed by histopathological analysis. The patient received three cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, but disease recurred 15 months later. Cetuximab and a FOLFOX-4 regimen were administered, followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy that was administered for approximately one year. Three years after completing adjuvant therapy, her serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels rapidly increased, and enhanced computed tomography showed widespread metastases. Rechallenge with cetuximab and the FOLFIRI regimen was then initiated, and after 12 cycles, lesions in the lung and liver shrank significantly, and serum CEA levels dramatically declined. Maintenance therapy with cetuximab and capecitabine was then administered for 10 months until the metastatic lesions in the lung and liver enlarged. Rechallenge and maintenance therapy with cetuximab-based chemotherapy were relatively effective for managing a female patient with WT KRAS. Optimization of this strategy requires further in-depth investigations of more patients.

  7. Compliance with adjuvant treatment guidelines in endometrial cancer: room for improvement in high risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, F A; Mom, C H; Boll, D; Ezendam, N P M; Kruitwagen, R F P M; Pijnenborg, J M A; van der Aa, M A; Nijman, H W

    2017-08-01

    Compliance of physicians with guidelines has emerged as an important indicator for quality of care. We evaluated compliance of physicians with adjuvant therapy guidelines for endometrial cancer patients in the Netherlands in a population-based cohort over a period of 10years. Data from all patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer between 2005 and 2014, without residual tumor after surgical treatment, were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (N=14,564). FIGO stage, grade, tumor type and age were used to stratify patients into risk groups. Possible changes in compliance over time and impact of compliance on survival were assessed. Patients were stratified into low/low-intermediate (52%), high-intermediate (21%) and high (20%) risk groups. Overall compliance with adjuvant therapy guidelines was 85%. Compliance was highest in patients with low/low-intermediate risk (98%, no adjuvant therapy indicated). The lowest compliance was determined in patients with high risk (61%, external beam radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy indicated). Within this group compliance decreased from 64% in 2005-2009 to 57% in 2010-2014. In high risk patients with FIGO stage III serous disease compliance was 55% (chemotherapy with/without radiotherapy indicated) and increased from 41% in 2005-2009 to 66% in 2010-2014. While compliance of physicians with adjuvant therapy guidelines is excellent in patients with low and low-intermediate risk, there is room for improvement in high risk endometrial cancer patients. Eagerly awaited results of ongoing randomized clinical trials may provide more definitive guidance regarding adjuvant therapy for high risk endometrial cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  9. Treatment of early uterine sarcomas: disentangling adjuvant modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouloulias Vassilios

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uterine sarcomas are a rare group of neoplasms with aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. They are classified into four main histological subtypes in order of decreasing incidence: carcinosarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, endometrial stromal sarcomas and "other" sarcomas. The pathological subtype demands a tailored approach. Surgical resection is regarded as the mainstay of treatment. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy represents the standard treatment of uterine sarcomas. Pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection in carcinosarcomas is recommended, given their high incidence of lymph node metastases, and may have a role in endometrial stromal sarcomas. Adjuvant radiation therapy has historically been of little survival value, but it appears to improve local control and may delay recurrence. Regarding adjuvant chemotherapy, there is little evidence in the literature supporting its use except for carcinosarcomas. However, more trials are needed to address these issues, especially, their sequential application. Patients with uterine sarcomas should be referred to large academic centers for participation in clinical trials.

  10. Chemotherapy for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartner, Lee

    2018-01-01

    The use of chemotherapy, including immunotherapy, in oral squamous cell carcinoma has expanded considerably in the past several years. Its use mirrors that in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma affecting other structures in the head and neck. This article summarizes the current evidence that guides use of chemotherapy both in combination with radiation and as monotherapy for patients with advanced disease. It also addresses the expanding role of immunotherapy, particularly use of programmed cell death-ligand 1 inhibitors, in the treatment of advanced disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adjuvant radiotherapy with brachytherapy boost in soft tissue sarcomas

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    Annalisa Cortesi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The standard primary treatment for soft tissue sarcoma (STS is a wide surgical resection, preceded or followed by radiotherapy. Purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the efficacy of perioperative brachytherapy (BRT plus postoperative external beam radiation therapy (EBRT in patients with intermediate-high risk STS. Material and methods : BRT delivered dose was 20 Gy. External beam radiation therapy was delivered with 3D-technique using multiple beams. The prescribed dose was 46 Gy to the PTV. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CHT was used in patients with potentially chemosensitive histological subtypes. The primary aim of the study was to analyze overall survival (OS and local control (LC in a large patient population treated with surgery, perioperative BRT, and adjuvant EBRT ± CHT. Secondary objective was to identify prognostic factors for patients outcome in terms of LC, disease-free survival (DFS, and OS. Results : From 2000 to 2011, 107 patients presenting 2-3 grade (FNLCC primary or recurrent STS were treated with surgery, perioperative BRT, and adjuvant EBRT ± CHT. Five-year LC and OS were 80.9% and 87.4%, respectively. At univariate analysis, a higher LC was recorded in primary vs. recurrent tumors (p = 0.015, and in lower limb tumors vs. other sites (p = 0.027. An improved DFS was recorded in patients with lower limb tumors vs. other sites (p = 0.034. Conclusions : The combination of BRT and EBRT was able to achieve satisfactory results even in a patients population with intermediate-high risk STS. Patients with recurrent or other than lower limb sited tumors show a worse LC.

  12. The effect of trastuzumab-based chemotherapy in small node-negative HER2-positive breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramshorst, Mette S.; van der Heiden-van der Loo, Margriet; Dackus, Gwen M H E; Linn, Sabine C.; Sonke, Gabe S.

    The prognosis of patients with stage II–III Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer has significantly improved since the addition of trastuzumab to (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy. Several reports have shown that small (≤2 cm), node-negative, HER2-positive tumors have a

  13. Dose intensity of standard adjuvant CMF with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, H; Willemse, PHB; Bong, SB; Piersma, H; Tjabbes, T; vanVeelen, H; Coenen, JLLM; deVries, EGE

    1996-01-01

    The effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on total dose and dose intensity of standard oral adjuvant CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy were studied in premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer. Treatment consisted of standard CMF

  14. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. G. Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43 undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4 were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  15. Osteogenic Sarcoma: Systemic Chemotherapy Options for Localized Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Douglas J; Schwartz, Cindy L

    2017-04-01

    Treatment for osteosarcoma, the most common malignant tumor of bone in children and adolescents, has not changed in decades. Treatment is multimodal, employing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by aggressive and complete surgical resection to achieve negative margins and a prolonged course of adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary tumor is usually successfully managed via surgery, but micrometastases are likely present in most patients at diagnosis. Death is the result of tumor recurrence in the lungs or more rarely in other bones despite aggressive treatment regimens and is likely attributable to innate resistance to chemotherapy. Better therapies are desperately needed. The three most active agents-high-dose methotrexate, doxorubicin, and cisplatin-commonly referred to as "MAP," form the backbone of therapy. After 2 cycles of MAP, surgical resection is performed of all sites of disease if possible. Histologic response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy is prognostic in non-metastatic osteosarcoma, but augmentation of adjuvant therapy for poor responders with additional agents (ifosfamide, etoposide) has not improved outcome. Inclusion of immunotherapy into treatment regimens is promising. Specifically, liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE), a macrophage and monocyte activator, improved 10-year overall survival for patients with localized disease, with a similar pattern of response in patients with metastatic disease. L-MTP-PE (mifamurtide) is approved and in widespread use in Europe and elsewhere but has not been approved for use by the Federal Drug Administration in the USA. Identifying novel targeted therapies to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma remains an area of active research.

  16. Oral cancer: Current role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Hui; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2013-03-01

    The term oral cavity cancer (OSCC) constitutes cancers of the mucosal surfaces of the lips, floor of mouth, oral tongue, buccal mucosa, lower and upper gingiva, hard palate and retromolar trigone. Treatment approaches for OSCC include single management with surgery, radiotherapy [external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy], as well as adjuvant systemic therapy (chemotherapy and/or target agents); various combinations of these modalities may also be used depending on the disease presentation and pathological findings. The selection of sole or combined modality is based on various considerations that include disease control probability, the anticipated functional and cosmetic outcomes, tumor resectability, patient general condition, and availability of resources and expertise. For resectable OSCC, the mainstay of treatment is surgery, though same practitioners may advocate for the use of radiotherapy alone in selected "early" disease presentations or combined with chemotherapy in more locally advanced stage disease. In general, the latter is more commonly reserved for cases where surgery may be problematic. Thus, primary radiotherapy ± chemotherapy is usually reserved for patients unable to tolerate or who are otherwise unsuited for surgery. On the other hand, brachytherapy may be considered as a sole modality for early small primary tumor. It also has a role as an adjuvant to surgery in the setting of inadequate pathologically assessed resection margins, as does postoperative external beam radiotherapy ± chemotherapy, which is usually reserved for those with unfavorable pathological features. Brachytherapy can also be especially useful in the re-irradiation setting for persistent or recurrent disease or for a second primary arising within a previous radiation field. Biological agents targeting the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) have emerged as a potential modality in combination with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy and are currently under

  17. Chemotherapy of herpesvirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawetz, E

    1975-07-01

    Herpesviruses commonly produce lesions that come to the attention of physicians. Many different chemicals are known to suppress the growth of herpesviruses in vitro, but only a few of these have found application in clinical practice. A critical assessment of the place of some of these forms of chemotherapy was briefly presented.

  18. Residual lymph node disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predicts an increased risk of lymphedema in node-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Michelle C; Miller, Cynthia L