de Ridder, Denise; Geenen, Rinie; Kuijer, Roeline; van Middendorp, Henriët
This Review discusses physiological, emotional, behavioural, and cognitive aspects of psychological adjustment to chronic illness. Reviewing the reports of the past decade, we identify four innovative and promising themes that are relevant for understanding and explaining psychological adjustment. In particular, the emphasis on the reasons why people fail to achieve a healthy adjustment has shifted to the identification of factors that help patients make that adjustment. To promote psychological adjustment, patients should remain as active as is reasonably possible, acknowledge and express their emotions in a way that allows them to take control of their lives, engage in self-management, and try to focus on potential positive outcomes of their illness. Patients who can use these strategies have the best chance of successfully adjusting to the challenges posed by a chronic illness.
Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio
Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.
Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.
This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761
Jun 15, 2011 ... psychological disorder were poor educational background and the presence of another medical disorder. ... Keywords: Adjustment, blindness, Nigeria, psychological and social. Résumé. Background: ..... relationships there were children, one-third had .... effect on affected people has been well described.
Full Text Available The present article is concerned with noogenic personality characteristics of adolescents involved in military training in relation to psychic and psychosomatic symptoms. A selected sample of 107 conscripts was questioned regarding their psychical and psychosomatic symptoms in the first and in the sixth month of their military training. They were also questioned regarding personal meaning of life, as well as regarding their values and attitudes toward the army. Individuals maintaining their personal meaning of life, have less psychical and psychosomatic symptoms after coming to army than the others. The findings do not support the hypothesis that after five months of military training the number of symptoms decreases. In most participants the symptoms mostly remained at the same level after five months of training, for one third of respondents the number of symptoms increased significantly. In 9 % of military recruits number of symptoms decreased. The evaluation of differences in the number of symptoms between two assessments showed, that personal meaning, values and attitudes toward army discriminate the groups with different levels of adjustment to military service. Participants with the same level of symptoms after five months are less hedonistic, have more positive attitudes toward army and higher rates on meaning scales. The data are interpreted in the context of theory that adjustment to stressing life events is mediated by noogenic personality characteristics.
Stanton, Annette L; Bower, Julienne E
Women living with a diagnosis of breast cancer constitute more than 20 % of the cancer survivor population in the United States. Research on trajectories of psychological adjustment in women recently diagnosed with breast suggests that the largest proportion of women evidences relatively low psychological distress either from the point of diagnosis or after a period of recovery. Substantial heterogeneity exists, however, and some women are at risk for lingering depression, anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence and other long-term psychological effects. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer also report a number of benefits that arise from their experience of cancer. Longitudinal studies have illuminated risk and protective factors for psychological adjustment in breast cancer survivors, which we describe in this chapter. Effective psychosocial interventions, as evidenced in randomized controlled trials, also are available for bolstering breast cancer-related adjustment. We offer directions for research to deepen the understanding of biological, psychological, and social contributors to positive adjustment in the context of breast cancer, as well as suggestions for the development of optimally efficient evidence-based psychosocial interventions for women living with the disease.
Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood
This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…
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Dekker, Joost; de Groot, Vincent
Psychological adjustment has a major impact on chronic disease health outcomes. However, the classification of psychological adjustment is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We aim (i) to characterize the process of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, and (ii) to analyze how various categories of the psychological adjustment process could be incorporated into the ICF. We provide a summary of models of psychological adjustment to chronic disease. We also evaluate various options for incorporating categories of psychological adjustment into the ICF. Acute and ongoing illness stressors; emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses; personal background; and social and environmental background are major categories in the adjustment process. These categories could, in principle, be integrated with various components of the ICF. Any future revision of the ICF should explicitly incorporate psychological adjustment and its (sub)categories. The ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications will be required. Implications for Rehabilitation In the context of an ageing society and large numbers of people living with chronic diseases, it is essential to understand psychological adjustment to chronic disease. However, the classification of psychological adjustment to chronic disease is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We demonstrate that the ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications would first be required. We suggest that these adaptations and clarifications should be considered in any future revision of the ICF.
Klock, Susan C
The birth of twins and other multiples is physically and emotionally stressful. The increase in the use of the assisted reproductive technologies has lead to an exponential increase in the rates of twins and triplets in the US. Whereas the medical complications of twins and other multiples has been well studied, the psychological and social implications of these events has not. Very little empirical research has been conducted to assess the differential impact of twins, as compared to singletons, on maternal adjustment, postpartum depression and marital functioning. In addition, assessment of infant health, disposition and behavior and its relation to maternal adjustment is lacking. The birth of twins after a period of infertility complicates the clinical picture and the impact of infertility on subsequent parental adjustment is only beginning to be understood. Although research suggests that infertile couples often desire multiples, the experience of parenting multiples after infertility has not been studied. Research on fertile couples indicate that: (i) approximately 10% of women develop postpartum depression and; (ii) marital adjustment declines after the birth of the first child. Because of the unique demands of parenting multiples, it is hypothesized that mothers of twins who have a history of infertility would be at increased risk for depression and marital decline. Descriptive studies of these families support this view, although additional studies are needed to determine the degree and extent of the problem. Additionally, variables such as, prepregnancy adjustment, equitable division of child-care tasks and perceived social support should be studied to determine if they buffer against the expected effects.
Jia, Rongfang; Kotila, Letitia E; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M
Trajectories of parental involvement time (engagement and child care) across 3, 6, and 9 months postpartum and associations with parents' own and their partners' psychological adjustment (dysphoria, anxiety, and empathic personal distress) were examined using a sample of dual-earner couples experiencing first-time parenthood (N = 182 couples). Using time diary measures that captured intensive parenting moments, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that patterns of associations between psychological adjustment and parental involvement time depended on the parenting domain, aspect of psychological adjustment, and parent gender. Psychological adjustment difficulties tended to bias the 2-parent system toward a gendered pattern of "mother step in" and "father step out," as father involvement tended to decrease, and mother involvement either remained unchanged or increased, in response to their own and their partners' psychological adjustment difficulties. In contrast, few significant effects were found in models using parental involvement to predict psychological adjustment.
Jia, Rongfang; Kotila, Letitia E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Trajectories of parental involvement time (engagement and child care) across 3, 6, and 9 months postpartum and associations with parents’ own and their partners’ psychological adjustment (dysphoria, anxiety, and empathic personal distress) were examined using a sample of dual-earner couples experiencing first-time parenthood (N = 182 couples). Using time diary measures that captured intensive parenting moments, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that patterns of associations between psychological adjustment and parental involvement time depended on the parenting domain, aspect of psychological adjustment, and parent gender. Psychological adjustment difficulties tended to bias the 2-parent system toward a gendered pattern of “mother step in” and “father step out,” as father involvement tended to decrease, and mother involvement either remained unchanged or increased, in response to their own and their partners’ psychological adjustment difficulties. In contrast, few significant effects were found in models using parental involvement to predict psychological adjustment. PMID:27397935
Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal
The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…
Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Miedema, [No Value; Ormel, J; Miedema, I.
This study examined the potential role of social support, neuroticism, and self-efficacy as predictors of the short-term and long-term adaptation to the diagnosis of cancer. Psychological adjustment was defined in terms of psychological distress. It is argued that these factors may provide insights
Jun 15, 2011 ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of .... depends on coping strategy and/or resources available or used.[17-20] Therefore, psychosocial adjustment can be influenced by ...
Campbell, Mary M.; And Others
The psychosocial development of 20 adolescents with congenital paralysis due to myelodysplasia is compared to 20 age-and gender-matched subjects with no physical handicaps. On many of the measures, the myelodysplasia group showed poorer social and emotional adjustment and lower self esteem than the controls. (Author/GDC)
Eggerth, Donald E.
This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…
Miquelon, Paule; Vallerand, Robert J; Grouzet, Frédérick M E; Cardinal, Geneviève
The purpose of this article was to propose and test an integrative model on the role of perfectionism, academic motivation, and psychological adjustment difficulties in undergraduate students. The model posits that self-oriented perfectionism facilitates self-determined academic motivation, whereas socially prescribed perfectionism enhances non-self-determined academic motivation. In turn, self-determined and non-self-determined academic motivations, respectively, lead to lower and higher levels of psychological adjustment difficulties. Results from two studies using structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the model.
Survival rates of cancer have significantly increased. However, cancer survivors face physical, psychological and social difficulties, while adjusting to post-illness status. We examined between-gender differences in the psychological adjustment (mental well-being, distress and subjective level of functioning), the putative origin of those differences, and the roles of cognitive appraisal, hardiness and attachment style in the psychological adjustment of melanoma survivors. Our sample included 300 malignant melanoma survivors (182 women and 118 men). Most were diagnosed in stages IA and IB of the disease, and had no evidence of disease for 5 years or more. Participants completed self-report questionnaires regarding personal data, adjustment measured by sense of well-being, distress and subjective functioning, cognitive appraisal (primary and secondary) and personal resources (hardiness and attachment style). Between-gender differences were revealed in psychological adjustment and in various components of cognitive appraisal and attachment styles. Women revealed more distress, less secondary cognitive appraisal and were more secure in attachment styles. Men showed higher secondary appraisal and were more dismissing-avoidant in attachment. No between-group differences were found in mental well-being, subjective functioning, and primary cognitive appraisal or in the global measure of hardiness. We present social processes that seem to account for gender differences in behavior and response to stress, and psychological explanations for these findings. This study contributes to the field of psycho-oncology by identifying factors that promote adjustment among melanoma survivors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
In the present study gender differences in psychological adjustment of Spinal Cord Injured (SCI) patients was studied. The sample of 70 SCI patients (35 male and 35 female) was selected from the National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) Islamabad, Bagh and Muzafrabad, (Azad & Jammu Kashmir AJK).
This study was carried out to predict the effect of counselling on the psychological adjustment of the victims of Boko Haram. A study of some selected victims in Suleja, Niger State and Jos in Plateau State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty victims were purposely randomly selected. Three research questions and three ...
Rosen, James C.; And Others
Compared the psychological adjustment of high school boys and girls trying to reduce or gain weight. Reducers of both sexes and male gainers exhibited lower physical self-esteem. Girls trying to change weight in either direction showed depression and lower global self-esteem. Girls' decisions to gain or lose weight were influenced by psychological…
Mazur, Elizabeth; And Others
Adding to prior literature on adults' and children's appraisals of stressors, this study examined relationships among children's negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, the actual divorce events, and children's post-divorce psychological adjustment. Subjects were 38…
This study assessed emotional intelligence as a predictor of psychological adjustment to anxiety and depression among Nigerian adolescents. Five hundred (500) adolescents drawn from 10 Senior Secondary Schools participated in the study. The participants were drawn through a multi-stage sampling procedure from the ...
Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.
This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…
Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang
This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…
Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia
This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…
Nilsen, Wendy; Dion, Jacinthe; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Skipstein, Anni
Objective: To examine the long-term prediction of psychological maladaptive (i.e., symptoms of anxiety and depression) and adaptive adjustment (i.e., self-efficacy) in emerging adult offspring from trajectories of maternal psychological distress from toddlerhood to adolescence. Method: Trajectories of maternal psychological distress (low, moderate, high, and low-rising patterns) from toddlerhood (age 1.5 years) to adolescence (age 14.5 years) were used to predict psychologica...
The study examined the degree to which teens at high risk for behaviour problems rely on friends and romantic partners rather than parents to meet attachment needs and whether this affected their psychological adjustment. Participants were 158 adolescents recruited from youth custody settings and a mental health facility. Attachment functions shifted from parents to peers much earlier compared to previously published results based on normative samples. Only 9% of participants preferred their ...
Kurita, Keiko; Garon, Edward B; Stanton, Annette L; Meyerowitz, Beth E
For many patients with lung cancer, disease progression occurs without notice or with vague symptoms, and unfortunately, most treatments are not curative. Given this unpredictability, we hypothesized the following: (1) poorer psychological adjustment (specifically, more depressive symptoms, higher perceptions of stress, and poorer emotional well-being) would be associated with higher intolerance for uncertainty, higher perceived illness-related ambiguity, and their interaction; and (2) greater avoidance would mediate associations between higher intolerance of uncertainty and poorer psychological adjustment. Participants (N = 49) diagnosed with lung cancer at least 6 months prior to enrollment completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Lung Emotional Well-being subscale, the Perceived Stress scale, the Intolerance of Uncertainty scale, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale Ambiguity subscale, the Impact of Event - Revised Avoidance subscale, and the Short-scale Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised Neuroticism subscale. Mean age was 64.2 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.0), mean years of education was 15.6 (SD = 3.1), and 71.4% were female. Hypotheses were tested with regression analyses, adjusted for neuroticism. Higher perceptions of stress and poorer emotional well-being were associated with higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty and higher perceived illness-related ambiguity. Non-somatic depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty. Avoidance was found to mediate relations of intolerance of uncertainty with non-somatic depressive symptoms and emotional well-being only. Findings suggest that interventions to address avoidance and intolerance of uncertainty in individuals with lung cancer may help improve psychological adjustment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
van Middendorp, H; Geenen, R; Kuis, W; Heijnen, C J; Sinnema, G
To examine psychosocial problems and adaptation of adolescent girls with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Thirty-six adolescent girls with CFS (mean age: 15.2 years; mean syndrome duration: 19.7 months) who fulfilled the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were examined by interviews regarding premorbid problems and by questionnaires regarding psychosocial functioning and distress, psychological attitudes, and coping resources. Data were compared with normative data. Of the adolescents, 86.1% reported 1 or more premorbid problems (58.3% physical, 38.9% psychological, and 52.8% familial). Normal adjustment was reported for psychosocial self-esteem, social abilities, and attentional abilities. High adjustment to adult social standards of behavior was found, but low perceived competence in specific adolescent domains, such as athletic ability, romance, and participation in recreational activities. The girls reported predominantly internalizing problems. Normal achievement motivation, no debilitating fear of failure, and high internal locus of control were observed. Palliative reaction patterns and optimism were predominantly used as coping strategies. The large number of premorbid problems suggests a possible contributing factor to the onset of the syndrome, although there were no reference data of healthy adolescents. In distinct domains of psychosocial adjustment, the adolescent girls with CFS showed strengths such as adequate self-esteem and scholastic and social abilities, and weaknesses such as low competence in adolescent-specific tasks and internalizing distress, which may partly be explained by syndrome-specific somatic complaints. The use of optimistic and palliative reaction patterns as coping strategies in this patient group indicates that the patients with CFS seem to retain an active and positive outlook on life, which may result in a rather adequate psychological adaptation to the syndrome, but also in maintenance of the syndrome by
Romera, Eva M.; Olga Gómez-Ortiz; Rosario Ortega-Ruiz
There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychoso...
Romera, Eva M; Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario
There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy) could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34). The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.
Eva M. Romera
Full Text Available There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34. The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.
Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro
Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters.
Nilsen, Wendy; Dion, Jacinthe; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Skipstein, Anni
To examine the long-term prediction of psychological maladaptive (i.e., symptoms of anxiety and depression) and adaptive adjustment (i.e., self-efficacy) in emerging adult offspring from trajectories of maternal psychological distress from toddlerhood to adolescence. Trajectories of maternal psychological distress (low, moderate, high, and low-rising patterns) from toddlerhood (age 1.5 years) to adolescence (age 14.5 years) were used to predict psychological adjustment in emerging adult offspring (age 18-20 years) (n = 400). Adverse maternal distress trajectories during childhood were linked to maladaptive and adaptive adjustment in adult offspring. Consistently high maternal distress levels experienced across childhood predicted higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower self-efficacy than low maternal distress trajectories. Two other adverse maternal distress trajectories (consistently moderate and low-rising patterns) compared with the low trajectory predicted higher offspring depressive symptoms. The findings persisted when adjusting for potential confounders: offspring gender and maternal education, relationship status, language, and economy. The current study showed longitudinal multi-informant impact from adverse maternal distress trajectories to adult offspring maladjustment over 18 years, emphasizing the importance of early identification and prevention.
Crockett, Lisa J; Moilanen, Kristin L; Raffaelli, Marcela; Randall, Brandy A
The association between young adolescents' psychological profiles and their subsequent adjustment was examined in a sample of 606 adolescents (ages 12-13) drawn from the mother-child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of youth based on self-regulation, proneness to risk, self-worth, and perceived academic competence. Five replicable clusters were identified corresponding to optimal, average, behavioral risk, low self-regulation, and emotional risk groups. These clusters were associated with distinct patterns of adjustment 4 years later. At ages 16-17, youth in the optimal group tended to report better academic performance, less problem behavior, and less depression than youth in the three risk groups; however, their functioning did not differ significantly from youth in the average group. The three risk groups differed in self-reported depression symptoms and academic performance but not in levels of problem behavior. Differences among the five groups persisted when demographic and contextual variables were controlled. These results support the existence of different groups of youth who follow distinct developmental trajectories and may experience different patterns of adjustment.
Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle
A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…
Li, Wing Ling; Poon, Jelena C. Y.; Tong, Toby M. Y.; Lau, Sing
Previous research in the literature on the relationships between creativity and psychological adjustment tended to use only one or two sources of creativity assessment and focus on a few aspects of adjustment. To examine creative children's psychological adjustment more thoroughly, this exploratory study assessed children's creativity from…
Oyefeso, A O; Adegoke, A R
This research examines the influence of family type on the psychological adjustment of Yoruba adolescents. Using a sample of 116 adolescents, 69 males and 47 females, with mean age of 17.8 years of age (S.D. = 1.72), the results reveal that male adolescents from monogamous families experience better psychological adjustment than their polygynous counterparts, whereas no such difference exists in the levels of psychological adjustment of female adolescents from both family types. These findings suggest that (i) sex-role prescription influences psychological adjustment of adolescents in Yoruba societies, and (ii) female children enjoy more protective upbringing in polygynous families than their male counterparts.
Guzmán-Parra, José; Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Navais-Barranco, Miriam; Castro-Zamudio, Serafina; Bergero-Miguel, Trinidad
This study examined the sociodemographic characteristics and the psychological adjustment of transsexuals in Andalusia (Spain), and also analyzed the differences between female-to-male (FtM) and male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals. The sample included 197 transsexuals (101 MtF and 96 FtM) selected from those who visited the Transsexual and Gender Identity Unit at the Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga between 2011 and 2012. Our analyses indicated that MtF transsexuals were more likely to have lower educational levels, live alone, have worked less frequently throughout their lifetime, and have engaged in prostitution. For FtM transsexuals, there were more frequent references to the mother's psychiatric history and more social avoidance and distress. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of personality dysfunctional traits and unemployment status were associated with depression in the entire sample. The following three conclusions can be made: there are significant differences between MtF and FtM transsexuals (mainly related to sociodemographic variables), depression was high in both groups, and a remarkable percentage of transsexuals have attempted suicide (22.8 %) or have had suicidal thoughts (52.3 %).
Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Fong Cheng, Alison Lai
University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions, namely: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous researches show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The purpose of this…
The term school adjustment according to this study relates directly to personality formation of a child at school. Personality also here refers to stable behaviors in the process of adjustment. Stable forms of adjustment or adaptations can be regarded as traits of personality. School adjustment therefore, is a behavioural pattern ...
Klinge, Kerry; Chamberlain, Diane J; Redden, Maurine; King, Lindy
Psychological adjustments made by postburn injury patients: an integrative literature review. This paper is a report of a review examining the variables that predispose individuals to significant psychological maladjustment following burn injury. The psychological sequelae of burn injury are well documented; however, the variables that influence individuals' adjustment following burn injury lack consideration. MEDLINE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, and Psychological Abstracts were searched using the keywords burn injury, psychological, psychosocial, rehabilitation, premorbid psychopathology, adjustment, reintegration, body image, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, coping. Other sources were found from a manual search of nursing, medical and psychological literature and references of identified and related papers. The search strategy was limited to English-language research published between 1997 and 2008. An integrative review of the studies was conducted over a 6-month time period during 2007-2008. Burn patients are a heterogeneous group and typically have comorbidities. While preburn personality and coping strategies can influence long-term psychological adjustment, the relationship between postburn adjustment and burn size and severity, and gender are poorly understood. Much of the literature focuses on the prevalence of psychological maladjustment rather than on identifying variables that influence psychological adjustment. The diversity and complexity that characterize burn patients lead to unique adjustment difficulties. Recognizing these difficulties is the first step to offering appropriate intervention and treatment for this unique patient group.
Chan, David W.
The relationships among adjustment problems, self-efficacy, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 207 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that adjustment problems had an effect on psychological distress mediated by self-efficacy was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…
A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…
Lawrence-Wood, Ellie; Raymond, Ivan
This paper outlines a pilot study of the post-program psychological adjustment outcomes of adult staff facilitating an Australian-based wilderness adventure program for youth at risk. The descriptive and correlational survey study (N = 62) examined the psychological adjustment processes staff underwent following program completion, and the factors…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one yea...
Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…
Lukow, Herman R; Godwin, Emilie E; Marwitz, Jennifer H; Mills, Ana; Hsu, Nancy H; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S
To examine the relationship between resilience, psychological distress, adjustment, and community participation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Large university health system. Adult survivors of mild to severe TBI (N = 96). Descriptive, preliminary. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item version) was used to assess resilience, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18) was used to characterize psychological distress, and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) was used to measure ability, adjustment, and participation. Resilience scores were substantially lower than those of the general population. Significant relationships were found between resilience, psychological distress, and adjustment. Partial correlations (adjusting for the other MPAI-4 indices) showed significant correlation (P resilience. Partial correlations (adjusting for the other BSI-18 scales) also showed significance for Depression (P resilience. Resilience scores differed significantly (P resilience, which was found to correlate with psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment. Developing interventions to strengthen resilience skills has the potential to improve postinjury psychosocial adjustment, an important area for future research.
Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo
The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…
Na, Hyunjoo; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang
The study's purpose was to explore whether frequency of cyberbullying victimization, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies were associated with psychological adjustments among college student cyberbullying victims. A convenience sample of 121 students completed questionnaires. Linear regression analyses found frequency of cyberbullying victimization, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies respectively explained 30%, 30%, and 27% of the variance in depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Frequency of cyberbullying victimization and approach and avoidance coping strategies were associated with psychological adjustments, with avoidance coping strategies being associated with all three psychological adjustments. Interventions should focus on teaching cyberbullying victims to not use avoidance coping strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kotake, Kumiko; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Kai, Ichiro; Iwanaga, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Aya
The objective is to clarify whether social support and acquisition of alternative voice enhance the psychological adjustment of laryngectomized patients and which part of the psychological adjustment structure would be influenced by social support. We contacted 1445 patients enrolled in a patient association using mail surveys and 679 patients agreed to participate in the study. The survey items included age, sex, occupation, post-surgery duration, communication method, psychological adjustment (by the Nottingham Adjustment Scale Japanese Laryngectomy Version: NAS-J-L), and the formal support (by Hospital Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-25: HPSQ-25). Social support and communication methods were added to the three-tier structural model of psychological adjustment shown in our previous study, and a covariance structure analysis was conducted. Formal/informal supports and acquisition of alternative voice influence only the "recognition of oneself as voluntary agent", the first tier of the three-tier structure of psychological adjustment. The results suggest that social support and acquisition of alternative voice may enhance the recognition of oneself as voluntary agent and promote the psychological adjustment.
Lam, Wendy W T; Yeo, Winnie; Suen, Joyce; Ho, Wing Ming; Tsang, Janice; Soong, Inda; Yau, Tze Kok; Wong, Ka Yan; Sze, Wing Kin; Ng, Alice W Y; Kwong, Ava; Suen, Dacita; Fong, Daniel; Ho, Samuel; Fielding, Richard
A diagnosis of advanced breast cancer (ABC) challenges a woman's ambitions. This longitudinal study explored (1) if goal adjustment disposition influenced psychological adjustment patterns among women with ABC and (2) if dispositional hope and optimism moderate effects of goal adjustment on psychological adjustment. One hundred ninety three out of 225 women with ABC were assessed while they were awaiting/receiving initial chemotherapy, then again at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months post-baseline. Goal disengagement, goal reengagement, optimism, hope, and psychological adjustment (anxiety, depression, and positive affect) were assessed at baseline; psychological adjustment was reassessed at each follow-up. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the change of psychological adjustment and test the study objectives. High goal disengagement, low reengagement, and high optimism were associated with lower initial anxiety, while high goal disengagement and optimism predicted a slower rate of change in anxiety. High goal disengagement, reengagement, and optimism were associated with lower initial depression. High goal reengagement, optimism, and hope were associated with initial positive affect scores, while optimism predicted its rate of change. Optimism moderated the effect of goal disengagement on anxiety and depression, whereas hope moderated the effect of goal reengagement on positive affect. Goal disengagement and reengagement are two relatively independent processes influencing psychological well-being. These findings will help clinicians to tailor specific interventions to help women coping with the diagnosis of ABC. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dennison, Laura; Moss-Morris, Rona; Chalder, Trudie
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease which poses significant psychological adjustment challenges. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify factors that are related to adjustment in people with MS and may be modifiable through psychological intervention. It aimed to gain an overview of the strength of evidence for relationships between psychological factors and adjustment and identify limitations to existing studies and directions for future research. Seventy two studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review and a narrative synthesis was conducted. A wide range of psychological factors have been studied in relation to adjustment outcomes. The strongest and most consistent finding was that perceived stress and certain emotion-focussed coping strategies are related to worse adjustment in MS. Uncertainty was fairly robustly associated with worse adjustment. There was also more tentative evidence available for relationships between adjustment outcomes and a range of other factors including social support and interactions with others, cognitive errors and biases, illness and symptom cognitions, control perceptions, positive psychology factors, and health behaviours. Implications for therapeutic interventions are discussed and a preliminary model of adjustment to MS is outlined. In light of the shortcomings of extant studies, suggestions for future research are offered.
M. Graça Pereira
Full Text Available Objective: this study assessed dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in type 2 diabetic patients and their partners, focusing on the role of gender. Methods: 214 diabetic patients and their partners participated in the cross-sectional study and were assessed on psychological morbidity (HADS and marital adjustment (RDAS. Data was analyzed using dyadic analysis, a statistical process that studies the patient/partner dyads simultaneously. Results: results revealed that the negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in female patients was stronger than in male diabetic patients or in partners of male diabetic patients. On the other hand, the relationship between dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in partners of diabetic men was stronger than the same relationship in partners of diabetic women. Conclusion: since gender is a moderator, it is important to attend to the different needs of female and male patients and the education of diabetic patients should be centered on the patient/partner dyad.
Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.
The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether children with cancer with different survival perspectives differ in their psychological adjustment, defensiveness and their use of cognitive control strategies. Furthermore, the study investigated which variables predict emotional
Lafarge, Caroline; Fox, Pauline
Aims Beliefs about an illness can influence psychological adjustment. This relationship has been studied using the Common Sense Model (CSM). This systematic review explores the association between perceptions of infertility, measured by the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), and psychological adjustment among patients with difficulty conceiving. \\ud Methods Six electronic databases were searched between 1996 and 2012. \\ud Results Three papers were selected. Results indicate significant r...
Evans, Daphne; Norman, Paul
The present study reports an application of the common sense model (CSM) of illness representations to the prediction of psychological distress in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The study sought to (i) examine cross-sectional and prospective associations between illness representations, coping and psychological distress, and (ii) test the hypothesis that coping would mediate any relationships between illness representations and psychological distress. Patients with PD (n = 58) completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, the Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Patients (n = 57) were followed-up at 6 months. Illness representations explained large amounts of variance in time 1 anxiety (R(2) = 0.42) and depression (R(2) = 0.44) as well as additional variance in time 2 anxiety (DeltaR(2) = 0.12) and depression (DeltaR(2) = 0.09) after controlling for baseline scores. In addition, avoidance mediated the effect of emotional representations on time 1 anxiety, and acceptance-resignation mediated the effects of both consequences and emotional representations on time 1 depression. The present study therefore provides partial support for the mediational model outlined in the CSM, as significant mediation effects were found only in the cross-sectional analyses.
Jumper, Shan A.
This meta-analysis found significant relationships between the experience of child sexual abuse and subsequent difficulties in psychological adjustment as measured by psychological symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem. Significant heterogeneity occurred across studies using different subject populations. Student samples consistently…
Kef, S.; Bos, H.
In the present study, we examined sexual knowledge, sexual behavior, and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness. The sample included 36 Dutch adolescents who are blind, 16 males and 20 females. Results of the interviews revealed no problems regarding sexual knowledge or psychological
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…
Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Hayer, Tobias
Previous research highlighted that pupils actively involved in bullying and victimization are prone to develop diverse psychological problems. The overall aim of our study was to investigate effects of different forms of bullying and victimization on coping with interpersonal stressors and psychological adjustment among children and adolescents.…
Shelton, Katherine H.; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Rice, Frances J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita
The aim of this study was to examine whether there was variation in levels of psychological adjustment among children conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies using the parents' gametes (homologous), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. Information was provided by parents about the psychological functioning of…
Garriott, Patton O.; Love, Keisha M.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Thomas, Deneia M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa R.; Brown, Carrie L.
The present study examined the influence of attachment relationships on the psychological adjustment of Latina/o university students (N = 80) attending predominantly White institutions of higher education. A path analysis conducted to test a hypothesized model of parent and peer attachment, self-esteem, and psychological distress indicated that…
Hack, Thomas F; Degner, Lesley F
The relationship between coping responses and psychological adjustment to a breast cancer diagnosis is well documented for time periods close to diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the long term association between these two variables. Fifty-five women completed measures of coping response, decisional control, frustration expression, and psychological adjustment within six months of receiving their breast cancer diagnosis. These women were contacted three years later and their psychological adjustment-as measured by the profile of mood states (POMS)-was reassessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The results showed that women who were depressed at time of treatment planning, and who responded to their cancer diagnosis with cognitive avoidance, i.e. acceptance/resignation, had significantly worse psychological adjustment three years later. Poor adjustment was significantly associated with cognitive avoidance and minimal use of approach-based coping responses. The findings suggest that women who respond to their breast cancer diagnosis with passive acceptance and resignation are at significant risk for poor long term psychological adjustment. Psychological interventions for these women should address cognitive avoidance, with the aim of fostering approach-based coping and positive well-being. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gois, Carlos J; Ferro, Ana C; Santos, Ana L; Sousa, Filomena P; Ouakinin, Silvia R; do Carmo, Isabel; Barbosa, Antonio F
Psychological adjustment to any chronic disease, such as diabetes mellitus, concerns self-view rearrangement toward self-integrity and self-regulation. Both distance between self and disease paired with positive and negative new identities may contribute to adaptation to diabetes. The present investigation aimed to detect main trends on self-management in patients with both diabetes types within a self-regulatory framework. Sample consisted of 121 adult patients with both diabetes types. Answer to question about having diabetes or being a diabetic was combined with self-benefices or self-damages concerning diabetes in a 2 × 2 combination. Psychological adjustment to diabetes, anxiety and depression were evaluated among subgroups. Almost 16% of patients had any benefit with diabetes and a better psychological adjustment than patients reporting losses. Type 1 diabetes answered more "being diabetic" and type 2 "having diabetes". Education was positively associated with profits with diabetes. Patients referring "to have diabetes" and profits had the best diabetes psychological adjustment. Distance between self and diabetes does not seem to relate to psychological adjustment. Type 1 diabetes patients are likely to identify more with their disease comparing with type 2 diabetes, independently from gains or losses associated with diabetes. Better psychological adjustment related to more education and positivity highlights future interest on working with gains in diabetes patient education, fostering patient self-growth, self-integration and resilience.
Sayler, Michael F.
The academic, social, and emotional benefits of acceleration are widely known. Yet criticism and reluctance to use this educational intervention persist. Some school personnel and families fear that children who accelerate through grades will experience serious social or emotional adjustment problems. This research project compared a nationally…
Crick, Nicki R.; Grotpeter, Jennifer K.
Used peer nomination and self-report instruments to assess relational aggression, overt aggression, and social adjustment for 491 third through sixth graders. Found that girls were more relationally aggressive than boys and that relationally aggressive children were more rejected by peers and reported more loneliness, depression, and isolation…
Wijngaards-de Meij, L.D.N.V.
Bereaved parents are a highly vulnerable group. Nevertheless, considerable individual differences exist between parents who have lost their child. The aim of this thesis was to identify factors that can predict which parents will be at particularly elevated risk for problematic adjustment after the
Kerr, Sandra; Johnson, Vanessa K.; Gans, Susan E.; Krumrine, Jodi
Fifty-six incoming college students were assessed in a study of the contribution of alexithymia, stress, and psychological symptoms to college adjustment. Alexithymia predicted fall semester adjustment, suggesting that interventions aimed at encouraging awareness and discussion of emotions may improve academic and emotional well-being for students…
Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Cao, Ruixin
The purpose of this study was to examine how shyness-sensitivity and unsociability were associated with social, school, and psychological adjustment in rural Chinese children. Participants were third- to fifth-grade students (N = 820; M age = 10 years) in rural schools in P. R. China. Data on shyness-sensitivity, unsociability, and adjustment were…
Shim, Sungok Serena; Wang, Cen; Makara, Kara A.; Xu, Xiao-Guang; Xie, Li-Na; Zhong, Ming
University life can be stressful and students may struggle to adjust socially. We examined students' social achievement goals--their orientations towards their relationships with their peers--as one important factor underlying students' social and psychological adjustment in college. When investigating the direct and indirect effects of social…
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.
SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264
Brandão, Tânia; Schulz, Marc S; Matos, Paula Mena
Breast cancer (BC) can be a traumatic and stressful experience for women, but there are wide-ranging differences in the ways in which women respond and adapt to BC. This systematic review examines which sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors near diagnosis predict later psychological adjustment to BC. Database searches were conducted in 9 different health-related databases from 2000 to December 2015 using relevant search terms. Full-text, peer-reviewed articles in English that analyzed potential predictors of psychological adjustment in longitudinal studies were considered for inclusion. Of 1780 abstracts, 41 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Consistent sociodemographic and disease-related variable predictors of adjustment were income, fatigue, cancer stage, and physical functioning. Psychosocial factors, particularly optimism and trait anxiety, as well as perceived social support, coping strategies, and initial levels of psychological functioning, were found to be predictive of later depressive and anxiety symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life for women with BC, in predictable ways. Other psychosocial variables, such as cognitive and body image factors, predicted psychological adjustment but were explored only by a few studies. The majority of studies showed a significant relationship between psychosocial factors and psychological adjustment. These results point to specific sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors that can help to identify women at the time of diagnosis who are at risk for long-term psychological challenges so they can be referred for psychological support that targets their specific needs and can improve their quality of life and mood and decrease indicators of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Solberg, C.; Rossetto, T.; Joffe, H.
The majority of people at risk from earthquakes do little or nothing to reduce their vulnerability. Over the past 40 years social scientists have tried to predict and explain levels of seismic hazard adjustment using models from behavioural sciences such as psychology. The present paper is the first to synthesise the major findings from the international literature on psychological correlates and causes of seismic adjustment at the level of the individual and the household. It starts by reviewing research on seismic risk perception. Next, it looks at norms and normative beliefs, focusing particularly on issues of earthquake protection responsibility and trust between risk stakeholders. It then considers research on attitudes towards seismic adjustment attributes, specifically beliefs about efficacy, control and fate. It concludes that an updated model of seismic adjustment must give the issues of norms, trust, power and identity a more prominent role. These have been only sparsely represented in the social psychological literature to date.
Wechsler, A M; Sánchez-Iglesias, I
Childhood cancer is a life-threatening disease and the cause of great stress for children who suffer from its diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to verify, through meta-analytical tools, whether children in active treatment for cancer differ in their psychological adjustment from healthy children. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the meta-analytic approach. A fixed effects model did not yield significant results, suggesting that there is no evidence for a difference in psychological adjustment between ill and healthy children, inasmuch as the former seem to adjust as well as the latter. Some methodological aspects are also considered, including issues related to the definition of psychological adjustment and its operationalisation and to the relative scarcity of published articles in this particular realm. Moreover, suggestions for future studies are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
A faculty member involved with the HELDS (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) project describes ways in which Psychology of Adjustment courses can be modified to accommodate LD students. He describes the goals and general approach (structured informality) of his class, which features group evening meetings and written assignments in…
Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay
This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience.
Xu, Wenjian; Yan, Ni; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Tingyong
The current study aimed to explore the characteristics of psychological adjustment among Chinese left-behind children (LBC) in rural areas, and to examine the association between separation duration from parent/parents (SDP) and children's psychological adjustment and the extent to which personality mediates this hypothesized link. We surveyed 534 rural children and adolescents aged 10-17 years at school (440 LBC and 94 non-LBC) in 2013, who were selected for participation using stratified cluster sampling from two counties in Chongqing, China. Measures used included socio-demographic variables, age at the commencement and end of the separation from parents, the revised Chinese Juvenile Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Adolescent Psychological Adaptability Scale. Most children (82.4%) had experienced separation from parents. t test results showed a marginally significant difference (p = .08) in psychological adjustment between LBC (mean = 64.44, SD = 8.62) and non-LBC (mean = 66.16, SD = 9.26). LBC's mean SDP was 5.64 years (SD = 3.90). Correlation analysis showed that children's SDP was negatively associated with psychological adjustment. Structural equation modeling showed that neuroticism, but not extraversion or psychoticism, fully mediated the link between children's SDP and psychological adjustment. Personality (neuroticism) is one of the mediating pathways through which long-term SDP may predict poor psychological adjustment among children. Given the detrimental impact of long-term SDP, interventions should target the mediating pathway to buffer against the negative impact of parental separation on the affected rural children and to improve their mental health.
Masnari, Ornella; Schiestl, Clemens; Rössler, Jochen; Gütlein, Stefanie K; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Weibel, Lisa; Meuli, Martin; Landolt, Markus A
This cross-sectional study assessed psychological adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with congenital or acquired facial differences and identified potential predictors of adjustment. Data were obtained from 88 children, ages 9 months to 16 years, by means of parent questionnaires (n = 86) and standardized interviews with children ≥7 years old (n = 31). Evaluation measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), KIDSCREEN-27, TNO-AZL Preschool Quality of Life Questionnaire (TAPQOL), and Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire. Psychological adjustment, as measured by the CBCL, was within norms. Parent-reported HRQOL was good in preschool children. Parent- and self-reported HRQOL of participants 7-16 years old was impaired in several dimensions, including psychological well-being. Psychological adjustment (especially internalizing behavior problems) and HRQOL were predicted primarily by perceived stigmatization. Identification of stigma experiences and appropriate support may be crucial to enhancing psychological adjustment and quality of life in children with facial disfigurement.
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira
This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P; Lepore, Stephen J
Losing a loved one is a normative life event, yet there is great variability in subsequent interpersonal experiences and adjustment. The Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model suggests that social constraints (i.e. limited opportunities to disclose thoughts and feelings in a supportive context) impede emotional and cognitive processing of stressful life events, which may lead to maladjustment. This study investigates personal and loss-related correlates of social constraints during bereavement, the links between social constraints and post-loss adjustment, and whether social constraints moderate the relations between loss-related intrusive thoughts and adjustment. A community sample of bereaved individuals (n = 238) provided demographic and loss-related information and reported on their social constraints, loss-related intrusions, and psychological and physical adjustment. Women, younger people, and those with greater financial concerns reported more social constraints. Social constraints were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms, perceived stress, somatic symptoms, and worse global health. Individuals with high social constraints and high loss-related intrusions had the highest depressive symptoms and perceived life stress. Consistent with the SCP model, loss-related social constraints are associated with poorer adjustment, especially psychological adjustment. In particular, experiencing social constraints in conjunction with loss-related intrusions may heighten the risk for poor psychological health. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin
Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Park, Crystal L
Spiritual issues are often implicated in trauma, yet little research has examined the specific pathways through which trauma may affect spiritual well-being or relations between spiritual well-being and other aspects of adjustment following trauma. Such information would be helpful in developing psychological interventions for trauma recovery. In a sample of 436 college students who had survived a traumatic experience, a transactional stress and coping perspective were used to examine both predictors of three components of spiritual well-being (faith, meaning, and peace) and relations between spiritual well-being and other aspects of psychological adjustment. Results suggest that different patterns of appraisals and coping predict each component of spiritual well-being and that all three components-particularly those of meaning and peace-are related to psychological adjustment. These results suggest that spiritual well-being is an important posttraumatic outcome warranting future research and clinical attention.
Cecero, John J; Beitel, Mark; Prout, Tracy
The primary aim of this research was to study the statistical effects of psychological mindedness (PM) upon the relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and self-reported college adjustment. A cross-sectional design was employed to assess correlations among study variables and to assess the role of PM as moderator or mediator in the relationship between EMS and adjustment. Into this study, 264 undergraduate students were recruited in partial fulfilment of research requirements in introductory psychology class. Participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Psychological Mindedness Scale and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire. At the level of bivariate correlations, EMS were inversely associated with college adjustment and with PM, and PM was positively associated with adjustment. In a multiple regression equation with PM and EMS entered separately and then as an interaction term as predictors of adjustment, PM was not a significant moderator. However, in a path analysis, the indirect effect of EMS on adjustment through PM was significant, suggesting that PM is a significant mediator. These findings suggest that the assessment of EMS and PM may enhance an understanding of problems with college adjustment and that interventions to reduce the negative effects of EMS may indeed benefit from efforts to improve PM and its correlates.
Berrocal Montiel, Carmen; Rivas Moya, Teresa; Venditti, Francesca; Bernini, Olivia
This study explored the contribution of Psychological Flexibility (PF) to predict adjustment to breast cancer. Sixty-four females with breast cancer completed self-report measures of PF and adjustment (anxiety, depression, negative and positive affect) at baseline, and forty-two patients returned for assessment six months later. Higher flexibility at baseline significantly contributed to predict lower anxiety, depression and negative affect at follow-up. The effect sizes ranged from moderate to large. Results provide evidence for targeting PF to prevent enhanced psychological distress in patients with breast cancer, and add to a growing body of research supporting PF as a common protective factor across different contexts and populations.
Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T
BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender...... differences and quality of the marital relationship. METHODS The study included 76 RPL couples who visited the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. They completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed RPL-associated stress, quality of their marital relationship (Quality Marriage Index, QMI...
Stock, Nicola Marie; Hammond, Vanessa; Owen, Tina; Kiff, James; Shanly, Angela; Rumsey, Nichola
Psychological adjustment to cleft lip/palate is multifaceted and can fluctuate over time and across different situations. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of adjustment is difficult to capture, and the challenge of achieving consensus among researchers and clinicians regarding key constructs and processes is considerable. Numerous measures have been used in research and clinical audit, resulting in conflicting findings and difficulties in evidencing the value of psychological intervention. The launch of the world's largest cleft lip/palate cohort study has provided an opportunity to standardize data collection across the United Kingdom. To describe the collaborative process used to achieve consensus in the academic and clinical measurement of psychological adjustment to cleft lip/palate. Extensive work based on existing literature and clinical experience has resulted in a conceptual framework comprising six domains of adjustment and corresponding risk/protective factors that are measureable across key developmental time points. Driven by this framework, a core pack of standardized measures has been selected according to psychometric properties, clinical utility, and pragmatic considerations. To date, these measures have been implemented within a UK-wide longitudinal cohort study (at diagnosis, 18 months, 3 years, 5 years, and 8 years) and adopted into the national routine clinical audit protocol for cleft lip/palate at age 5. Further data collection points will follow as the cohorts age. Over time, consistency in data collection will allow researchers to address some of the key unanswered questions in relation to psychological adjustment to cleft lip/palate.
Stock, N. M.; Hammond, V; Owen, T.; Kiff, J.; Shanly, A.; Rumsey, N
Background: Psychological adjustment to cleft lip/palate is multifaceted, and can fluctuate over time and across different situations. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of adjustment is difficult to capture, and the challenge of achieving consensus among researchers and clinicians regarding key constructs and processes is considerable. Numerous measures have been used in research and clinical audit, resulting in conflicting findings and difficulties in evidencing the value of psycho...
Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S L; Calvin, Grace
This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents' psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the 2 cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as 1 critical mechanism that transmits effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents' ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Calvin, Grace
Objectives This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents’ psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the two cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Methods Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the U.S. (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. Results American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Conclusions Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as one critical mechanism that transmits the effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents’ ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. PMID:27077796
Neter, Efrat; Goren, Shira
Some of the women that go through repeated fertility treatments will not adjust well to the treatments and will experience increased distress. The present study examined how centrality of the fertility problem in the woman's identity and dispositional goal adjustment (disengagement and reengagement) are associated with the woman's psychological adjustment. These issues are examined in a context of a pro-natal society (Israel) where parenthood is a major life goal. One hundred ninety-three women in ongoing fertility treatments filled out questionnaires, and follow-up on their psychological well-being was carried out after 3 months (N = 130). Women who perceived their fertility problem as more central to their identity experienced greater distress (β = 0.34, p < 0.01) and less well-being (β = - 0.31, p < 0.01). Concurrently, high ability for goal disengagement was a resource that protected women from these feelings. Women high on goal disengagement who were low on goal reengagement experienced greater distress (β of interaction = - 0.24, p < 0.01), probably because they remained with feelings of emptiness and lack of purpose. These findings were found in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Finally, the models predicting well-being and distress at T2 using centrality, goal adjustment, and T1 well-being/distress explained 42 and 47.5% of the variance, respectively. Much research and therapeutic attention has been invested in coping with fertility treatments, while the options of reducing investment in treatments and finding alternative goals did not receive adequate attention. This study discusses these issues and their possible clinical implications especially in a pro-natal context.
Dufner, Michael; Denissen, Jaap J A; van Zalk, Maarten; Matthes, Benjamin; Meeus, Wim H J; van Aken, Marcel A G; Sedikides, Constantine
The relation between self-enhancement and psychological adjustment has been debated for over 2 decades. This controversy is partly due to the variety of approaches implicated in the assessment of mainly self-enhancement but also psychological adjustment. We adopted a face-valid approach by statistically removing actual intellectual ability variance from self-rated intellectual ability variance. Study 1 (N = 2,048), a concurrent Internet investigation, provided initial insight into the relation between intellectual self-enhancement and psychological adjustment. Study 2 (N = 238), a longitudinal round-robin investigation, allowed a closer examination of the dynamic processes underlying this relation. Self-enhancement was positively linked to multiple indicators of intrapersonal and interpersonal adjustment, and predicted rank-order increases in adjustment over time. The links between intellectual self-enhancement and intrapersonal adjustment were mediated by self-esteem. Finally, the interpersonal costs and benefits of self-enhancement systematically varied depending on methodology. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available // Introduction: The impact of the diagnosis of an oncologic disease is well-known in terms of psychological adjustment and quality of life. On the other hand it is known that depressive symptoms may also overlap the physical symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment, which may interfere in their detection and appropriate treatment approach. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between psychological adjustment to lung cancer, self-compassion, social support and emotional negative states in patients with lung cancer. Method: Fifty-five patients diagnosed with lung cancer (38 men and 17 women with ages ranging from 44 to 87 years old participated in the study. A set of self-report instruments was used: the Mini Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MiniMac, the Self-compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003, the Social Support Satisfaction Scale (SSSS and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Results: Significant correlations were found between psychological adjustment, psychopathology, emotion regulation strategies (self-compassion, and social support. The predictive models for psychological adjustment and stress related symptomatology include self-compassion and social support as significant predictive variables. Regarding the predictive model for depressive symptomatology, mindfulness seems to be the only significant predictor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that these patients may benefit, in their therapeutic approach, from the development of this kind of strategies (new ways of relating themselves with their emotional experiences and quality of their social networks in order to promote a better psychological adjustment to their clinical condition.
Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann
This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…
Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.
The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by
Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo
In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…
Beaty, Lee A.
The empirical research on psychological and social adjustment of children and adolescents with visual impairments is reviewed. The dichotomy between deficit and nondeficit functioning of these youths is explored. Personality research suggests that some youth with visual impairments display minor deficits in self-concept and self-esteem. It is…
Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina
The present study aims at systematically analyzing the findings reported in qualitative research on acculturation and psychological adjustment in the school context. Content analysis was conducted using the deductively developed and inductively enriched system of categories. The results of the study provide insights into youths' acculturation and…
Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina
The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…
Studied the relationships among academic achievement, learned helplessness, and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depression), controlled for gender and age, for 1,580 students with data collected in grades 3 and 4, 6 and 7, and 8 and 9. Results show that academic achievement is directly and indirectly related to the pattern of…
Henderson, Craig E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Sanders, Leah M.; Louden, Linda
This study investigates maternal grandmother-grandchild relationship quality as a predictor of psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families. Three hundred twenty-four adolescents aged between 17 and 20 report on the quality of their relationships with their maternal grandmothers and their relational competence, self-efficacy, and…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Gummadam, Praveena; Pittman, Laura D.; Ioffe, Micah
This study considers how the psychological adjustment of ethnic minority college students may be linked to a sense of school belonging and ethnic identity, two constructs related to individuals feeling like they belong to a larger group. Using self-reports from 311 undergraduates from ethnic minority backgrounds, school belonging was found to be…
Carr, Deborah; Boerner, Kathrin
We use prospective couple-level data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples to assess the extent to which spouses concur in their assessments of marital quality (N = 844) and whether discrepancies in spouses' marital assessments affect the bereaved spouse's psychological adjustment 6 months after loss (n = 105). Spouses' assessments of marital…
Serebryakova, ?atyana A.; Morozova, Lyudmila B.; Kochneva, Elena M.; Zharova, Darya V.; Skitnevskaya, Larisa V.; Kostina, Olga A.
Instability and unpredictability of the present stage of social development make the study of social and psychological adjustment of personality to the social environment a highly topical issue. The article presents the results of an empirical research on social personality adaptation. Evident is the close relations between social and…
Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.
We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…
The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating…
Klima, Tali; Repetti, Rena L.
In a longitudinal study that followed children from fourth through sixth grades, we tested whether problems in children's peer relations preceded psychological maladjustment and whether adjustment difficulties paved the way for poor social relationships. Both close friendships and peer group acceptance were examined. Our findings indicated that…
Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li
This study examined the relations of maternal warmth, behavioral control, and encouragement of sociability to social, school, and psychological adjustment in migrant children in China. The participants were 284 rural-to-urban migrant children (M age = 11 years, 149 boys) in migrant children's schools and their mothers. Data on parenting were…
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…
The aim of this study is to investigate the moderating effects of attachment styles and gender on the predictive strength of marital adjustment on psychological symptoms among Turkish married individuals. Correlational model was used and the sample consisted of 178 married individuals. The data was gathered through online survey. The Turkish form…
Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun
This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived…
Pittman, Laura D.; Richmond, Adeya
The authors collected questionnaire data from college students (N = 79) at 2 time points during their freshman year to examine how changes in a sense of university belonging, quality of friendships, and psychological adjustment were associated. Students who had positive changes in university belonging had corresponding positive changes in…
Lincoln, Alan; Swift, Erika; Shorteno-Fraser, Mia
The effects of the military deployment of parent-soldiers on children and families need to be understood in the context of military culture as well as from developmental risk for maladjustment. Although research addressing such effects is limited in both scope and certainty, we can identify several key factors that relate to psychological risk, adjustment, and outcome. Most children are resilient to the effects of deployment of at least one of their parents, but children with preexisting psychological conditions, such as anxiety and depression, may be particularly vulnerable, as well as children with specific risk factors, such as child abuse, family violence, or parental substance abuse. A series of case vignettes illustrate the psychological adjustment and treatment implications for children with parents deployed in support of military combat operations. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schachner, Maja K; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Eckstein, Katharina
The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural pluralism. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on 386 early adolescent immigrant students (Mage = 10.49 years) in 44 ethnically heterogeneous classrooms in Germany revealed that the manifestations of both types of policies promote psychological school adjustment (i.e., better well-being and fewer psychological and behavioral problems) at the individual level. However, they differ in their effects on acculturation orientations. At the classroom level, equality and inclusion promote assimilation. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne
This 1-year longitudinal study examined the effects of membership in socially withdrawn peer groups on children's social and psychological adjustment in a sample of 979 children (417 boys, 562 girls, M age = 11.84 years). Data on children's social and psychological adjustment and problems were collected from peer nominations and self-reports in the fall and spring of a single academic year. Using the Social Cognitive Map, 162 peer groups were identified. Multilevel analyses showed that affiliation with withdrawn groups negatively predicted social competence and school attitude, and positively predicted victimization and depression. The results suggest that affiliation with socially withdrawn groups is a risk factor for the development of social and psychological problems.
Liu, Chunqin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Ping
Adjustment difficulties of college students are common and their school adjustment has gained wide concern in recent years. Negative life events and psychological capital (PsyCap) have been associated with school adjustment. However, the potential impact of negative life events on PsyCap, and whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment among nursing students have not been studied. To investigate the relationship among negative life events, PsyCap, and school adjustment among five-year vocational high school nursing students in China and the mediating role of PsyCap between negative life events and school adjustment. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted. 643 five-year vocational high school nursing students were recruited from three public high vocational colleges in Shandong of China. Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Checklist (ASLEC), the Psychological Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students scale (PCQAS), and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale (CCSAS) were used in this study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of PsyCap. Negative life events were negatively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment (interpersonal relationship adaptation, learning adaptation, campus life adaptation, career adaptation, emotional adaptation, self-adaptation, and degree of satisfaction). PsyCap was positively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment and negatively associated with negative life events. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment. Negative life events may increase the risk of school maladjustment in individuals with low PsyCap. Interventions designed to increase nursing students' PsyCap might buffer the stress of adverse life events, and thereby, enhance students' positive adjustment to school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chan, J Yn; Lai, K Yc
Findings about the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been inconsistent in western literature and little is known among non-western societies. This study explored the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder in Hong Kong. A total of 116 families with siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders co-morbid with learning disability were included in the study. Parents completed questionnaires about sibling emotional and behavioural adjustment, and their own mental well-being, quality of life, and family functioning. Siblings completed a questionnaire on their relationship with the autistic proband. Parent ratings did not reveal any significant negative impact on the emotional and behavioural adjustment of the typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder, but there were concerns about their peer relationships and weak prosocial behaviours. When cut-off scores were used to screen for risk of mental health problems, a quarter of the siblings warranted further assessment. Parents' quality of life and family functioning were significant predictors of sibling adjustment. In managing children with autism spectrum disorder, it is necessary to bear in mind the adjustment of their siblings, especially their peer relationships and prosocial behaviour. Adopting a holistic approach to address the psychosocial needs of the parents can facilitate sibling adjustment.
Kiebles, Jennifer L; Doerfler, Bethany; Keefer, Laurie
Adjustment to chronic disease is a multidimensional construct described as successful adaptation to disease-specific demands, preservation of psychological well-being, functional status, and quality of life. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be particularly challenging due to the unpredictable, relapsing and remitting course of the disease. All participants were patients being treated in an outpatient gastroenterology clinic at a university medical center. Participants completed a survey of questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, stress, emotional functioning, disease acceptance, coping, disease impact, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Adjustment was measured as a composite of perceived disability, psychological functioning, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Participants were 38 adults with a diagnosis of either Crohn's disease (45%) or ulcerative colitis (55%). We observed that our defined adjustment variables were strongly correlated with disease characteristics (r = 0.33-0.80, all P disease acceptance (r = 0.34-0.74, P adjustment was associated with greater bowel and systemic health, increased activities engagement and symptom tolerance, less pain, less perceived stress, and fewer gastroenterologist visits. All adjustment variables were highly correlated (r = 0.40-0.84, P disease management including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors beyond the traditional medical and psychological (depression and anxiety) components.
Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Cao, Ruixin
The purpose of this study was to examine how shyness-sensitivity and unsociability were associated with social, school, and psychological adjustment in rural Chinese children. Participants were third- to fifth-grade students (N = 820; M age = 10 years) in rural schools in P. R. China. Data on shyness-sensitivity, unsociability, and adjustment were obtained from multiple sources including peer assessments, sociometric nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that unsociability was associated with social, school, and psychological problems, whereas shyness was generally associated with indexes of adjustment such as social status, teacher-rated competence, and academic achievement. The results indicate that rural Chinese context may play an important role in defining the functional meanings of children's social behaviors. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Levin, Anna O; Carpenter, Kristen M; Fowler, Jeffrey M; Brothers, Brittany M; Andersen, Barbara L; Maxwell, G Larry
Sexual morbidity is a distressing and undertreated problem in gynecological cancer survivorship known to occur early and persist well beyond the period of physical recovery. Although often studied as a separate domain, sexuality represents an integral component of psychological adjustment and quality of life (QoL) that is adversely affected by cancer treatments. The present study tests the association between sexual morbidity, and adverse psychological adjustment and QoL outcomes. A cross-sectional design was used. The participants were gynecological (cervical, endometrial, ovarian, and vulvar) cancer survivors who were partnered (N = 186), whose cancer was diagnosed 2 to 10 years previously, and who were at least 6 months post any cancer therapy. Most had been found to have early-stage disease (70%) and were treated with hysterectomy (77%), chemotherapy (43%), and/or radiotherapy (23%). Sexual morbidity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct including sexual behavior, sexual functioning, and subjective sexual satisfaction, assessed by patient self-report. Outcomes included self-reported depressive symptoms, traumatic stress symptoms, cancer-specific stress, stress about body changes, and QoL. Nurse-rated of performance status and disruptive signs/symptoms of treatment toxicity, as well as relevant sociodemographic and disease variables were collected as potential controls. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested sexual morbidity as a predictor of poor outcomes. All statistical models were significant, accounting for 12% to 53% of the variance in psychological adjustment/QoL. Sexual morbidity covaried with worsened depressive symptoms, body change stress, and psychological QoL beyond the negative contributions of (older) age, (poorer) performance status, and (greater) fatigue. Notably, disease and treatment variables were not statistically significant correlates of psychological adjustment or QoL. These findings suggest that prevention or
Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong
There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The…
Vlachogianni, Aggeliki; Efthymiou, Areti; Potamianou, Dimitra; Sakka, Paraskevi; Orgeta, Vasiliki
Despite well-documented evidence of the psychological effects of caring for a relative with dementia, little is known about the bereavement experiences of family carers. The aim of this study was to explore the key psychological changes associated with carers' adjustment to bereavement and "life after care." All carers taking part were recruited from a day care center, providing specialist services to people with dementia. We asked carers to describe the key changes associated with psychological adjustment to bereavement through semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews. Strategies carers used to cope with and adapt to their new role were also explored. All data were thematically analysed. Thirty-one carers were interviewed. The most frequent emotional reactions to bereavement were feelings of loneliness, loss, void, sadness, anger, and relief. Most carers were able to adapt to their new role, and engaging in pleasant activities was the most frequent strategy used to cope with loss and "life after care." Feelings of loneliness and loss are amongst the key emotional reactions shaping carers' adjustment to bereavement. Most carers are able to adapt to loss; however, a minority experience increased psychological distress after the death of their loved one. A small percentage of carers continues caring for other dependants. Further research is required to identify how carers of people with dementia adapt to bereavement and how this increasing number of individuals can be best supported.
Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T; Miyazaki, K; Nishikawa-Uchida, S; Oda, H; Uchida, H; Fujisawa, D; Ozawa, N; Schmidt, L; Yoshimura, Y
Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender differences and quality of the marital relationship. The study included 76 RPL couples who visited the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. They completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed RPL-associated stress, quality of their marital relationship (Quality Marriage Index, QMI), depression (Beck Depression Index) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Women showed significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety and RPL-associated personal and social stress compared with men. Although there were no differences in QMI scores and RPL-associated marital stress between men and women, women with a low perception of marital relationship quality (low QMI) had significantly higher levels of depression and anxiety compared with women with a moderate or high QMI. In contrast, depression and anxiety scores did not differ according to the quality of the marital relationship among men. Of 76 couples, 26 men (34%) and 45 women (59%) who had considered professional mental health consultations regarding their RPL status but had not yet initiated the process were more depressed and anxious than 48 men and 24 women, respectively, who had never considered such consultation. Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL.
Benyamini, Yael; Gozlan, Miri; Kokia, Ehud
Research on illness perceptions and their associations with psychological adjustment to medical conditions has mostly focused on individuals coping with chronic diseases. The objective of the current study was to expand this research to the study of couples by examining the perceptions of infertility among couples undergoing treatment and their associations with each partner's psychological adjustment. The study was cross-sectional and included two samples that differed in the stage of treatment: Sample 1 included 72 couples at their first visit to an infertility clinic and Sample 2 included 49 couples at various stages of treatment. Participants filled in the Illness Perception Questionnaire regarding the timeline, consequences and controllability of their fertility problem and Infertility-Specific Distress and Well-being Scales. Dyadic analyses were conducted on the basis of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). The partners differed in their perceptions of infertility and their distress. Partners' psychological adjustment was related to their perceptions of the fertility problem. Among couples at their first visit, perceptions of consequences of both partners were additively related to their distress whereas controllability perceptions interacted in their association with women's distress: Highest distress was reported by women who perceived low controllability whereas their partner perceived high controllability, compared with couples who reported similar (high or low) levels of controllability. A dyadic approach to studying illness perceptions can uncover patterns of couples at risk for poor adjustment. This is especially needed in contexts such as infertility, where both partners are involved and affected by the health threat.
Romero, Catherine; Friedman, Lois C; Kalidas, Mamta; Elledge, Richard; Chang, Jenny; Liscum, Kathleen R
We evaluated whether a self-forgiving attitude and spirituality were related to psychological adjustment among 81 women being treated for breast cancer at a medical oncology clinic in a county general hospital. Both a self-forgiving attitude and spirituality were unique predictors of less mood disturbance and better quality of life (p's self-forgiveness should be explored experimentally to determine whether it can protect against the psychological effects of breast cancer-related stress. Interventions targeting these characteristics could improve the quality of life and alleviate stress, especially in women with breast cancer in public sector settings.
Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M
The present longitudinal study examined the indirect effect of 6th-grade negative friendship quality on the associations between 5th-grade relational aggression and age 15 social-psychological adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and risky behavior). The study consisted of a secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development using 776 children (M = 10.42 years in 5th grade; 50.4% boys) from the original sample. Using teacher and self-report ratings, relational and physical aggression, friendship quality, depressive symptoms, and risky behavior were measured. Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted. Negative friendship quality was found to mediate the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms as well as between relational aggression and risky behavior, when controlling for physical aggression, gender and age. This longitudinal study identifies possible developmental pathways by which relational aggression and future social psychological adjustment may be linked.
Devine, Katie A; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Freddo, Marianna; Humphrey, Jamie L; Silverstein, Janet H
This article evaluates the relations between peer victimization and child and parent reports of social-psychological variables 1.5 years later. Thirty-six children diagnosed with endocrine disorders and their parents completed questionnaires regarding social-psychological functioning. Peer victimization at time 2 was significantly related to concurrent depression, loneliness, externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression equations indicated that peer victimization at baseline was not a significant predictor of time 2 social-psychological functioning when baseline levels of each variable were controlled. Significant correlations were found between baseline and time 2 levels of social anxiety, loneliness, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, with medium to large effect sizes. Peer victimization, social anxiety, loneliness, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems are relatively stable across time. Peer victimization is related to concurrent adjustment problems but may not contribute to the development of new problems. Early identification and intervention is imperative. Medical visits are an opportunity to assess and refer for treatment.
Polek, Elżbieta; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ten Berge, Jos M F
The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian immigrants (N = 631) to Dutch society. In addition, it also examined the relationship between demographic factors and adjustment and compared the predictive value of attachment styles and demographic factors for immigrants' adjustment. The Attachment Style Questionnaire was used to assess respondents' attachment. Psychological adjustment was measured with the Psychological Health Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Sociocultural adjustment was measured with the Social Support List - Interactions scale. Two scales for measuring identification and contact with the native and with the Dutch culture were developed and used as indicators of cultural adjustment. We found relations between attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Secure attachment was positively related (ppsychological and sociocultural adjustment, fearful attachment was negatively (ppsychological adjustment, and more negatively with identification with the Dutch culture than with identification with the native culture. Preoccupied attachment was negatively related (ppsychological adjustment and to identification with the Dutch culture. Dismissing attachment was weakly negatively related (padjustment. Correlation patterns across the three immigrants' samples indicate that dismissing individuals remain relatively indifferent towards their native and the Dutch culture. Regarding demographic factors we found that education and age at immigration were positively associated with psychological and sociocultural adjustment, and length of residence appeared to be positively related to sociocultural adjustment. In general, demographic factors showed a stronger association with sociocultural than with psychological adjustment. Regression analysis revealed that attachment styles were better predictors of immigrants' psychological
Asberg, Kia K; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff
Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the need for a comprehensive model of emerging adult adjustment in the context of stress and coping variables and highlights the importance of accounting for differences between males and females in research concerning stress, social support, coping, and adjustment. Participants for this study are 239 college students (122 males and 117 females), the majority of whom are Caucasian. Results of structural equation modeling suggest that stress, social support, coping, and adjustment show unique patterns of relationships for males versus females. For both males and females, stress and social support show similar relationships to adjustment. In contrast, social support is related only to coping behaviors in females. Finally, social support appears to be a more important variable for female adjustment, whereas other coping behaviors appear to be more pertinent to male adjustment. Limitations and suggestions for future research will be discussed.
Kline, Gabrielle C; Killoren, Sarah E; Alfaro, Edna C
Drawing from cultural ecological and risk and resilience perspectives, we investigated associations among Mexican American college students' perceptions of mothers' and fathers' psychological control and familism values, and college students' adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Additionally, we examined how familism values moderated the relations between perceived psychological control and college students' adjustment. Participants were 186 Mexican American college students (78.5% women; Mage = 21.56 years), and data were collected using self-report online surveys. Using path analyses, we found that perceived maternal psychological control was positively associated and familism values were negatively associated with college students' depressive symptoms. Additionally, perceived paternal psychological control was negatively associated with college students' self-esteem when college students reported low, but not high, familism values. Findings highlight the importance of family relationships for Mexican American college students and the significance of examining these relationships within this cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S
This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
D'Alberton, Franco; Assante, Maria Teresa; Foresti, Maura; Balsamo, Antonio; Bertelloni, Silvano; Dati, Eleonora; Nardi, Laura; Bacchi, Maria Letizia; Mazzanti, Laura
Progressive care improvement for differences of sex development (DSD), regarding diagnosis communication, psychological, medical and surgical management has been claimed. To assess clinical management, quality of life (QoL) and the general psychosocial adjustment of individuals with 46,XY DSD. Some differences related to age at diagnosis are investigated. Cross-sectional study using standardized questionnaires. Forty-three Caucasian females with 46,XY DSD (self declared diagnoses: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, n = 34; complete gonadal dysgenesis, n = 1; 5α-reductase deficiency, n = 4; Leydig cell hypoplasia, n = 1; unknown diagnosis, n = 3; age years: 31.5 ± 9.6 [range 18-57 years]). University Hospitals. Subjects were required to fill in questionnaires (ABCL, WHOQOL, dedicated 17-item questionnaire). Academic and socioeconomic data were compared with those of the Italian population. QoL and psychological data were compared with those of a comparison group (46,XX healthy females: n = 43; age, years: 34.5 ± 9.7, range 22-51 years). Present sample of women living with 46,XY DSD were well adapted and were higher achievers than controls, both in educational and professional life. They showed good QoL, but they appeared less satisfied in psychological and social areas. They had borderline mean scores and statistically higher scores than the comparison group for depression, anxiety, internalizing and externalizing problems. Younger persons living with a 46,XY DSD showed better psychosocial adjustment than older ones. Younger women showed lower age at diagnosis communication. Psychological support was more often proposed at the time of diagnosis communication to younger individuals, and they undertook it more frequently than older ones. Italian people living with 46,XY DSD were well adapted and successful; they reported a good QoL but showed higher degree of psychological distress than the comparison group. Lower psychological distress in younger women
Fullerton, J M; Totsika, V; Hain, R; Hastings, R P
This study explored psychological adjustment and sibling relationships of siblings of children with life-limiting conditions (LLCs), expanding on previous research by defining LLCs using a systematic classification of these conditions. Thirty-nine siblings participated, aged 3-16 years. Parents completed measures of siblings' emotional and behavioural difficulties, quality of life, sibling relationships and impact on families and siblings. Sibling and family adjustment and relationships were compared with population norms, where available, and to a matched comparison group of siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as a comparable 'high risk' group. LLC siblings presented significantly higher levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties, and lower quality of life than population norms. Their difficulties were at levels comparable to siblings of children with ASD. A wider impact on the family was confirmed. Family socio-economic position, time since diagnosis, employment and accessing hospice care were factors associated with better psychological adjustment. Using a systematic classification of LLCs, the study supported earlier findings of increased levels of psychological difficulties in siblings of children with a LLC. The evidence is (i) highlighting the need to provide support to these siblings and their families, and (ii) that intervention approaches could be drawn from the ASD field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sereno, Sara; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João
This study's objective was to evaluate the role of psychological adjustment in the decision-making process to have an abortion and explore individual variables that might influence this decision. In this cross-sectional study, we sequentially enrolled 150 women who made the decision to voluntarily terminate a pregnancy in Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa, in Lisbon, Portugal, between September 2008 and June 2009. The instruments were the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (SSSS), Emotional Assessment Scale (EAS), Decision Conflict Scale (DCS), and Beliefs and Values Questionnaire (BVQ). We analyzed the data using Student's T-tests, MANOVA, ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc tests and CATPCA. Statistically significant effects were accepted for pdecision difficult and emotionally demanding, although they also identified it as a low conflict decision. The prevailing emotions were sadness, fear and stress; but despite these feelings, the participants remained psychologically adjusted in the moment they decided to have an abortion. The resolution to terminate the pregnancy was essentially shared with supportive people and it was mostly motivated by socio-economic issues. The different beliefs and values found in this sample, and their possible associations are discussed. Despite high levels of stress, the women were psychologically adjusted at the time of making the decision to terminate the pregnancy. However, opposing what has been previously reported, the women presented high levels of sadness and fear, showing that this decision was hard to make, triggering disruptive emotions.
Background Experiencing potentially traumatic events is associated with psychological distress. However, some survivors also experience positive personal and psychological changes in the aftermath of trauma. Methods The present study investigated perceived posttraumatic growth in 197 ministerial employees who were present at work during the 2011 Oslo bombing attack. The relationships between trauma-exposure, peritraumatic reactions and posttraumatic growth were studied. Moreover, the adaptive significance of posttraumatic growth was addressed. Results The results showed that higher levels of trauma-exposure and immediate reactions were significantly related to perceived posttraumatic growth. No support for an adaptive significance of posttraumatic growth was found. On the contrary, posttraumatic growth was associated with higher symptom levels of posttraumatic stress. After adjusting for posttraumatic stress symptoms no association was found between perceived growth and work and social adjustment. However, perceived growth was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. Conclusion The present results are in line with previous findings indicating that perceived growth may be unrelated to psychological adjustment, and suggest that the concept and significance of posttraumatic growth should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24088369
Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Villa, Federica; Galbiati, Susanna; Adduci, Annarita; Poggi, Geraldina; Massimino, Maura; Recla, Monica; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Strazzer, Sandra
To describe and compare psychological, behavioural and adjustment problems in pre-school patients with acquired brain lesions of different aetiology. Three groups of patients with acquired brain lesions (14 patients post-TBI, 18 brain tumour survivors and 23 patients with vascular or infectious brain lesions), ranging in age between 24-47 months, received a psychological evaluation, including the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 2-3 (CBCL) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). About half of the total sample (47.2%) showed psychological and behavioural problems. Difficulties vary according to the aetiology of the brain lesions. Brain tumour survivors showed more marked internalizing problems, whereas children with vascular or infectious brain lesions scored higher on the CBCL externalizing scales. Children with traumatic brain injury reported intermediate scores on most of the CBCL scales. Psychological and behavioural difficulties are very common, not only among school-aged children and adolescents, but also among pre-schoolers with acquired brain lesions. The relevance and the impact of these difficulties must necessarily be considered when developing psychological treatment and rehabilitation plans and planning for social re-entry.
Leeson, Fiona J; Nixon, Reginald D V
Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of psychopathology following psychological maltreatment in children. This study therefore examined the role of thinking styles on children's outcomes following this subtype of maltreatment. Children who had experienced past maltreatment (n = 24) and a control group (n = 26) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Maltreatment history, cognitive styles and psychological outcomes, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-esteem were assessed. Parents/caregivers also completed a measure of child internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Psychological maltreatment made a significant contribution to children's self-reported depression and low self-esteem, and parent reported internalizing and externalizing problems, even after controlling for other abusive experiences. This was not the case for PTSD symptoms. Further, children's cognitive styles were associated with self-reported depression, self-esteem and PTSD. They did not, however, predict parent-rated emotional and behavioural problems. This study provides preliminary support for a cognitive model of adjustment following psychological maltreatment. The results indicate the need for enhanced community awareness about the impact of psychological maltreatment, and suggest a direction for therapeutic intervention.
Dunlop, William L; Tracy, Jessica L
The narration of drinking experiences plays a central role in many alcohol rehabilitation programmes, yet few researchers have considered whether alcoholics' stories about such experiences relate to their psychological adjustment. Here we examine the extent to which drinking stories of abstinent alcoholics reflect autobiographical reasoning processes denoting self-change and self-stability, and whether these processes are associated with adjustment. Participants who revealed a positive self-change in their narratives about drinking demonstrated higher levels of self-esteem, authentic pride, and mental health compared to those who did not. In contrast, those who implied a sense of self-stability in their narratives demonstrated higher levels of hubristic pride and aggression, and poorer mental health. These results suggest that narrating positive self-change in the wake of substance abuse may underlie psychological adjustment, whereas establishing self-stability in these experiences may impede adjustment. More broadly, these findings underscore the importance of recognising the multi-dimensional nature of autobiographical reasoning.
Lima, Lígia; Guerra, Marina Prista; de Lemos, Marina Serra
As part of a larger research project aimed to understand the impact of asthma in the psychological adjustment of children, this study focuses in the identification of factors associated with this process. The sample of this study consisted of 89 children, aged 8 to 12 with physician diagnosed asthma. To assess children's adjustment, the Portuguese versions of the following instruments were used: School-age Temperament Inventory (McClowry, 1995) Schoolagers Coping Strategies Inventory (Ryan-Wenger, 1990); Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - PedsQL (Varni, Seid & Kurtin, 2001); The Self-perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985), Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991); Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliot, 1990). The results revealed that negative reactivity predicts the level of anxiety/depression, task persistence and perceived coping efficacy predicts social skills and that self-esteem is a significant predictor of the perceived quality of life. A significant proportion of shared variance was also found what seems to confirm the existence of multi-determination in the process of adjustment. The main conclusion is that two dimensions of temperament (negative reactivity and task persistence), as well as perceived coping efficacy and self-esteem, play a significant role in influencing the psychological adjustment of children with asthma.
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years.
Werner, N E; Crick, N R
Although the understanding of aggression has been significantly advanced through the study of relational aggression, past research has been limited by its predominant focus on children. This study examines the associations between relational aggression and social-psychological adjustment in a sample of young adults. A peer-nomination instrument was constructed to assess relational aggression, and self-reports of adjustment were obtained from 225 college students (45% male; mean age = 19.5). Regression analyses showed that relational aggression provided unique information, after controlling for age and gender, about peer rejection, prosocial behavior, antisocial personality features, and borderline personality features. Interactions with gender further showed that, for women, relational aggression was linked with bulimic symptoms. The importance of relational aggression for understanding adjustment problems during young adulthood are discussed.
Blucker, Ryan T; Elliott, Timothy R; Warren, Robert H; Warren, Ann Marie
Although much is known about the risks to health and well-being that occur among family caregivers of children with disability, little is known about the unique group of caregivers of children with severe neurodisabilities who require varying degrees of respiratory care including ventilator support. This present study examined the psychological adjustment of caregivers in these situations, and tested the prediction that caregiver coping and problem-solving styles would be predictive of their physical and emotional health. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that demographic characteristics and the severity of pulmonary condition were unrelated to caregiver adjustment. A coping style characterized by developing relationships, pursuing activities that promote self-worth and individuality, and a lower negative orientation toward solving problems were significantly predictive of caregiver distress. These data indicate that caregiver adjustment in these situations is influenced by cognitive-behavioral characteristics that could be addressed in educational and therapeutic programs provided in the clinic and in the community.
Prinstein, M J; Boergers, J; Vernberg, E M
Examined the relative and combined associations among relational and overt forms of aggression and victimization and adolescents' concurrent depression symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, and externalizing behavior. An ethnically diverse sample of 566 adolescents (55% girls) in Grades 9 to 12 participated. Results replicated prior work on relational aggression and victimization as distinct forms of peer behavior that are uniquely associated with concurrent social-psychological adjustment. Victimization was associated most closely with internalizing symptoms, and peer aggression was related to symptoms of disruptive behavior disorder. Findings also supported the hypothesis that victims of multiple forms of aggression are at greater risk for adjustment difficulties than victims of one or no form of aggression. Social support from close friends appeared to buffer the effects of victimization on adjustment.
Pellissier, Sonia; Dantzer, Cécile; Canini, Fréderic; Mathieu, Nicolas; Bonaz, Bruno
Psychological factors and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to assess, firstly the way IBS and IBD patients cope with their pathology according to their affective adjustment and secondly the possible links between these affective adjustments and ANS reactivity. Patients with Crohn's disease (CD; n=26), ulcerative colitis (UC; n=22), or IBS (n=27) were recruited and compared to 21 healthy subjects based on psychological variables (trait- and state anxiety, depressive symptomatology, negative mood, perceived stress, coping, health locus of control) and sympatho-vagal balance through heart-rate variability monitored at rest. A principal component analysis, performed on all affective variables, isolated a leading factor labelled as "affective adjustment". In each disease, patients were distributed into positive and negative affective adjustment. In all the diseases, a positive affect was associated with problem-focused coping, and a negative affect with emotion-focused coping and external health locus of control. Results show that the sympatho-vagal balance varied according to the disease. In CD presenting positive affectivity, an adapted high sympathetic activity was observed. In UC, a parasympathetic blunt was observed in the presence of negative affectivity and an equilibrated sympatho-vagal balance in the presence of positive affectivity. In contrast, in IBS, an important dysautonomia (with high sympathetic and low parasympathetic tone) was constantly observed whatever the affective adjustment. In conclusion, this study suggests that the equilibrium of the ANS is differentially adapted according to the disease. This equilibrium is conjugated with positive affective and cognitive adjustment in IBD (CD and UC) but not in IBS. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tunde-Ayinmode, Mosunmola F; Akande, Tanimola M; Ademola-Popoola, Dupe S
Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often personalized and depends on nature and quality of prevailing psychosocial support and rehabilitation opportunities. This study was aimed at identifying the pattern of psychosocial adjustment in a group of relatively secluded and under-reached totally blind people in Ilorin, thus sensitizing eye doctors to psychosocial morbidity and care in the blind. A cross-sectional descriptive study using 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in Ilorin metropolis. The study revealed that most of the blind people were reasonably adjusted in key areas of social interaction, marriage, and family. Majority were considered to be poorly adjusted in the areas of education, vocational training, employment, and mobility. Many were also considered to be psychologically maladjusted based on the high rate of probable psychological disorder of 51%, as determined by SRQ. Factors identified as risk factors of probable psychological disorder were poor educational background and the presence of another medical disorder. Most of the blind had no access to formal education or rehabilitation system, which may have contributed to their maladjustment in the domains identified. Although their prevailing psychosocial situation would have been better prevented yet, real opportunity still exists to help this group of people in the area of social and physical rehabilitation, meeting medical needs, preventive psychiatry, preventive ophthalmology, and community health. This will require the joint efforts of medical community, government and nongovernment organizations to provide the framework for delivery of these services directly to the communities.
McCathie, H C F; Spence, S H; Tate, R L
Research has indicated a weak relationship between the degree of physical problems and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The importance of adaptive psychological functioning to maintain optimum quality of life has long been recognized, but there is a lack of empirical evidence concerning the nature of psychological factors involved in adjustment to COPD. Ninety-two males completed questionnaires to determine their coping strategies, levels of self-efficacy of symptom management and social support. Adjustment was measured in terms of depression, anxiety and quality of life. Symptom severity, socioeconomic status, duration of disease and age, which have been demonstrated to be of consequence in COPD, were used as control variables in hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Higher levels of catastrophic withdrawal coping strategies and lower levels of self-efficacy of symptom management were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety and a reduced quality of life. Higher levels of positive social support were linked to lower levels of depression and anxiety, while higher levels of negative social support were linked to higher levels of depression and anxiety. To maximize quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psychological factors need to be carefully assessed and addressed.
Bártolo, Ana; Reis, Salomé; Monteiro, Sara; Leite, Renata; Montenegro, Nuno
The difficulties in the psychological adaptation to the infertility diagnosis and assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments have shown influence on the sperm quality. The biological and psychological aspects of infertility seem not to be independent. To analyze the impact of depressive symptoms, anxiety, dyadic adjustment and infertility stress on the sperm quality of the men proposed to ART first or repeated experience. This transversal study was conducted in the Medically Assisted Reproduction Unit of Centro Hospitalar de São João, in Porto, Portugal. 112 men with infertility diagnosis were included to initiate an ART cycle. Participants completed the Inventory State-Trait Anxiety-Form Y (STAI-Y), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Inventory of Fertility Problems (IFP) before the beginning of the treatment. The state-anxiety had a negative linear impact on the slow progressive motility (ppsychological interventions adjusted, so as to minimize the impact of exposure to ART treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salo, Corrina D; Birman, Dina
Acculturation to the culture of the host society as well as to one's heritage culture have been shown to impact immigrants' adjustment during the years following resettlement. While acculturation has been identified as an important factor in adjustment of Vietnamese immigrants (Birman and Tran in Am J Orthopsychiatr 78(1):109-120. doi: 10.1037/0002-94184.108.40.206 , 2008), no clear pattern of findings has emerged and too few studies have employed an ecological approach. The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the study of acculturation and adjustment by taking an ecological approach to exploring these relationships across several life domains, using a bilinear scale, and examining mediators of these relationships for adult Vietnamese refugees (N = 203) in the United States. We call this approach the Ecological Acculturation Framework (EAF). Results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between American acculturation and psychological distress, demonstrating that this relationship was specific to an occupational domain. However, while Vietnamese acculturation predicted co-ethnic social support satisfaction, it did not predict reduced psychological distress. Implications for a life domains approach, including domain specificity, are discussed.
Stulz, Alexandra; Boinon, Diane; Dauchy, Sarah; Delaloge, Suzette; Brédart, Anne
This cross-sectional study for couples explores the relationship between the perceptions within the couple of the spouse's supportive behaviors and the psychological adjustment of both partners during treatment for breast cancer. Forty-eight women operated on for a non-metastatic breast cancer and their spouses completed questionnaires assessing psychological adjustment (STAI, BDI-SF), and the spouse's support behaviors during discussions about the disease (PSE). Support behaviors are positively valued by both partners, especially non-verbal comfort and concrete actions. Support by minimization is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in patients and spouses. For spouses, the positive perception of support by concrete action is associated with a lower depression score. Moreover, high adjustment difficulties for spouses are linked to greater perception differences between partners on emotional support and minimization. These results highlight the importance of non-verbal comfort and minimization for the perception of social support within the couple, and the usefulness of support by concrete actions proposed by spouses. Advices for professionals are available.
Reich, Catherine M; Jones, Judiann M; Woodward, Matthew J; Blackwell, Náthali; Lindsey, Leslie D; Beck, J Gayle
This study explored whether self-blame moderates the relationship between exposure to specific types of abuse and both poor general psychological adjustment (i.e., self-esteem) and specific symptomatology (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) among women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Eighty female IPV survivors were involved in this study. Results indicated that self-blame was negatively associated with self-esteem for physical, psychological, and sexual abuse. Self-blame moderated physical abuse, such that high levels of physical abuse interacted with high levels of self-blame in their association with PTSD. Nonsignificant models were noted for psychological and sexual abuse in association with self-blame and PTSD. These findings support the conceptualization that self-blame is associated with both general and specific psychological outcomes in the aftermath of IPV. Future research examining different forms of blame associated with IPV might further untangle inconsistencies in the self-blame literature. © The Author(s) 2014.
Caroline Tozzi Reppold
Full Text Available During the last decades several authors have indicated that being an adopted child resulted in a higher risk of psychological maladjustment. The objective of this research was to investigate the changes in perception of parental styles in adopted and no-adopted adolescents Brazilians. The sample comprised 524 adolescents (68 were adopted and 456 were raised by their biological parents. The instruments used were a demographic questionnaire and theResponsiveness Scales and Parental Demands. The findings indicated that adoptive parents are significantly more indulgent than biological parents. In comparison, the adolescents described their biological parents as more negligent. The findings corroborated the transcultural effects of parental styles on the psychological adjustment and confirmed the hypothesis that the parental socialization strategies moderate the development of adoptedadolescent.
Didier, F; Radice, D; Gandini, S; Bedolis, R; Rotmensz, N; Maldifassi, A; Santillo, B; Luini, A; Galimberti, V; Scaffidi, E; Lupo, F; Martella, S; Petit, J Y
We investigated the influence of nipple areolar complex (NAC) sparing in mastectomy, on patient satisfaction with cosmetic results, body-image, sexuality and psychological well-being. We developed a specific questionnaire and compared two groups of women who underwent radical mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR). Between 2004 and 2006, 310 women with NAC preservation and 143 patients with successive NAC reconstruction were mailed the questionnaire at follow-up 1 year after definitive complete breast reconstruction surgery. 256 questionnaires was available. Our results showed significant differences in favour of the NAC sparing group regarding body image (difficulty in looking at themselves naked and being seen naked by their partners after surgery, P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively); regarding satisfaction with the appearance of the nipple (P body image and psychological adjustment.
Cheng, Cecilia; Lau, Hi-Po Bobo; Chan, Man-Pui Sally
Compared with the large body of literature on coping, coping flexibility has received relatively scant research attention, although more such studies have begun to emerge recently. Researchers have conceptualized coping flexibility in diverse ways: as a broad coping repertoire, a well-balanced coping profile, cross-situational variability in strategy deployment, a good strategy-situation fit, or the perceived ability to cope with environmental changes. This meta-analysis is the first to provide a summary estimate of the overall effect size and investigate cross-study sources of variation in the beneficial role of coping flexibility. The analysis covers all available studies conducted between 1978 and 2013 that empirically tested the relationship between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment. The results of a random-effects model revealed a small to moderate overall mean effect size (r = .23, 95% CI [.19, .28], 80% CRI [-.02, .49], k = 329, N = 58,946). More important, the magnitude of the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment varied with the conceptualization of such flexibility. Studies adopting the perceived ability or strategy-situation fit conceptualization yielded moderate effect sizes, whereas those adopting the broad repertoire, balanced profile, or cross-situational variability conceptualization yielded small effect sizes. In addition, the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment was stronger in samples from countries lower (vs. higher) in individualism and samples with higher (vs. lower) average ages. Individualism and age explained 10% and 13% of the variance, respectively. We discuss the conceptual problems and implications and propose a synthesized conceptualization of coping flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie
The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder.
Abed Mahdavi; Mahjubeh Pahlevani; Maryam Aghaei; Vian Aminnasab; Hurieh Haji; Simin Gholamrezaei
Background and Purpose: The present study was aimed to examine the relationship between strategies of emotion cognitive adjustment and psychological well-being with anxiety in mothers with cancer children...
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed. 2007 APA
Benson, Paul R
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan
Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching adolescence. The Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched systematically for peer reviewed papers focusing on adolescent psychological adjustment and parent-adolescent relationships in families created by ART. Key search inclusion criteria included all papers published in English relating to adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years. Seventeen publications with varied methodologies were identified by this review. Only papers relating to in vitro fertilization (IVF), egg donation and donor insemination were identified. Results were categorized according to ART that used the parents' own gametes (IVF) and those that involved reproductive donation (egg donation, and donor insemination). Compared with naturally conceived adolescents and standardized normative samples, adolescents born through all ARTs seemed to be equally well adjusted, and to have positive parent-adolescent relationships. Some differences were however identified based on the type of ART used. In particular, the sex of the parent and child, along with age and process of disclosure of the adolescent's conception were identified as key mediators of parent-adolescent relationships in families created by donor insemination. The studies in this review indicate that children born through ART have positive parent-adolescent relationships and are well adjusted, with some slight differences based on different ART. The generalizability of findings may be limited by the general low level of disclosure to
Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan
BACKGROUND Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching adolescence. METHODS The Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched systematically for peer reviewed papers focusing on adolescent psychological adjustment and parent–adolescent relationships in families created by ART. Key search inclusion criteria included all papers published in English relating to adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years. RESULTS Seventeen publications with varied methodologies were identified by this review. Only papers relating to in vitro fertilization (IVF), egg donation and donor insemination were identified. Results were categorized according to ART that used the parents' own gametes (IVF) and those that involved reproductive donation (egg donation, and donor insemination). Compared with naturally conceived adolescents and standardized normative samples, adolescents born through all ARTs seemed to be equally well adjusted, and to have positive parent–adolescent relationships. Some differences were however identified based on the type of ART used. In particular, the sex of the parent and child, along with age and process of disclosure of the adolescent's conception were identified as key mediators of parent–adolescent relationships in families created by donor insemination. CONCLUSIONS The studies in this review indicate that children born through ART have positive parent–adolescent relationships and are well adjusted, with some slight differences based on different ART. The generalizability of findings may be limited
Dumas, J E; Nilsen, W; Lynch, A M
Presents a study in which three sets of photographs of socially competent, aggressive, and anxious preschoolers were rated by college students (n = 150 raters per set), blind to the children's group membership. This was done to assess the extent to which adults are able to make valid and reliable evaluations of children's psychological adjustment on the basis of physical appearance alone. Sets 1 and 2 were photographs of different children taken under the same conditions and providing both facial and nonfacial cues. Sets 2 and 3 were of the same children taken under conditions that varied as to the amount of nonfacial cues they provided. Results showed that (a) socially competent children were judged to be better adjusted than their dysfunctional peers (i.e., more competent, less aggressive, less anxious, and less likely to have emotional or behavioral problems); (b) within the dysfunctional group, aggressive and anxious children were distinguished in ways that correspond closely to what is known about them from behavioral and clinical research; (c) irrespective of group membership, girls and boys were generally distinguished in ways that reflect normative beliefs about gender differences from social and developmental research; (d) group differences in ratings of psychological adjustment were generally comparable across photograph sets and could not be accounted for by differences in the children's perceived physical attractiveness; and (e) raters reported that they relied mainly on the children's expression, eyes, and posture to make their judgments of adjustment. These results replicate and extend earlier findings based on 1 of the 3 photograph sets (Serketich & Dumas, 1997). They suggest that when first impressions matter, competent children are at an advantage and their dysfunctional peers at a disadvantage even before their actual behavior comes to confirm or to invalidate these impressions. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
Main, Alexandra; Zhou, Qing; Ma, Yue; Luecken, Linda J.; Liu, Xin
This study examined the main and interactive relations of stressors and coping related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) with Chinese college students' psychological adjustment (psychological symptoms, perceived general health, and life satisfaction) during the 2003 Beijing SARS epidemic. All the constructs were assessed by self-report…
Cho, Dalnim; Park, Crystal L; Blank, Thomas O
The effect of emotional approach coping (EAC) varies by gender. However, this gender difference has not yet been investigated in cancer survivors. We investigated whether the effects of two kinds of EAC--emotional processing (EP) and emotional expression (EE)--vary by gender and whether EAC has effects above and beyond the effect of other coping strategies. EAC and other coping strategies were assessed at baseline in a sample of 248 young to middle-aged adult (between the age of 22 and 55) cancer survivors. One hundred and sixty-six survivors responded to psychological adjustment one year later. EAC had different relationships with Time 2 adjustment in men and women. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that for men, EE predicted lower intrusive thoughts and, for women, EP was associated with higher positive affect when other coping strategies and EE were controlled. Gender differences held true in cancer survivors, and EAC was effective when other coping strategies were controlled. Further, EE was effective in reducing negative adjustment in men while EP was helpful in promoting positive adjustment in women.
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun
OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes.
Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Rose, Amanda J
The association between mothers' psychological control and their children's emotional adjustment problems is well documented. However, processes that may explain this association are not well understood. The present study tested the idea that relational aggression and psychological control within the context of the sibling relationship may help to account for the relation between mothers' psychological control and adolescents' internalizing symptoms. Older (M = 16.46, SD = 1.35 years) and younger (M = 13.67, SD = 1.56 years) siblings from 101 dyads rated the psychological control they received from mothers and siblings, and the relational aggression they received from siblings. Despite some similarities between psychological control and relational aggression, confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that the two sibling processes are distinct. Maternal psychological control was related to psychological control and relational aggression within the sibling relationship, which were related to adolescents' anxiety and depressed mood. In addition, sibling relational aggression was a more powerful mediator of the relationship between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment than sibling psychological control.
Xu, Wenxin; Ceng, Mengjuan; Yao, Jiwei; Chen, Longfei
Chinese medical workers suffer from a high incidence of mental health problems, resulting in reduced efficiency, increased medical malpractice, rising medical costs, and other issues. The effective alleviation of mental health problems among medical workers is therefore an important focus of research and social attention. The mental health of 842 medical workers from the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University in Fuzhou, China was evaluated between February 2016 and March 2016. Sixty-two workers with positive SCL-90 screening results were selected as the subjects to be investigated in the intervention experiment, with 31 in the intervention group and 31 in the control group. The control group did not participate in any regular physical exercise activity for the 4-month duration of the study, whereas the exercise-psychology adjustment mode was applied to the intervention group. Medical workers had a higher total SCL-90 score and number of positive items than the national norm (P psychology adjustment is an effective intervention mode for the mental health of medical workers.
Sereno, Sara; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João
Background This study's objective was to evaluate the role of psychological adjustment in the decision-making process to have an abortion and explore individual variables that might influence this decision. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we sequentially enrolled 150 women who made the decision to voluntarily terminate a pregnancy in Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa, in Lisbon, Portugal, between September 2008 and June 2009. The instruments were the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (SSSS), Emotional Assessment Scale (EAS), Decision Conflict Scale (DCS), and Beliefs and Values Questionnaire (BVQ). We analyzed the data using Student's T-tests, MANOVA, ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc tests and CATPCA. Statistically significant effects were accepted for pabortion. The resolution to terminate the pregnancy was essentially shared with supportive people and it was mostly motivated by socio-economic issues. The different beliefs and values found in this sample, and their possible associations are discussed. Conclusion Despite high levels of stress, the women were psychologically adjusted at the time of making the decision to terminate the pregnancy. However, opposing what has been previously reported, the women presented high levels of sadness and fear, showing that this decision was hard to make, triggering disruptive emotions. PMID:24163799
Nilgun Ongider Gregory
Full Text Available This study focused on finding answers about an important question that parents are recently asking psychological professionals. This question has become more relevant in the last couple of decades as there are increasing divorce rates in Turkey and the rest of the world. Because of this reason, parents are asking the important question: is it better for our child to divorce or continue our marriage? Researchers come up with very different results to this question. They need to not only focus on the effects of divorce itself but also need to examine the quality of the relationship between the parents. Parents need to remember this very important point that divorce is not the only thing that effects children's psychological adjustment by itself. So, the answer of the question to divorce or stay together is answered by the amount of parental conflict and the quality of the parent's relationship. As a result, the ideal environment for children's psychological development is living with both parents in the same household and having a low-conflict parents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(3.000: 275-289
Huygen, A C; Kuis, W; Sinnema, G
To assess the psychological, behavioural and social adjustment of children (7-11 years) and adolescents (12-16 years) with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Higher rates of maladjustment were expected to be found in these patients. Self report questionnaires were used within the context of personal interviews. Family functioning and social support were studied as well. Forty seven patients with JCA, 52 healthy peers and their respective parents participated in the study. Self esteem, perceived competence and body image in patients with JCA were as positive as they were in healthy participants. There were no differences between ill and healthy youngsters with respect to the incidence of psychopathology. Patients with JCA, in general, perceived themselves as socially competent, but they seemed to have somewhat less opportunity or energy to participate in social activities. Children with JCA showed a high level of aspiration to cope with social expectations. This aspiration seemed to be even stronger in case the disease caused more strains, for example, in periods of inflammation and in the systemic onset type. The high level of social adjustment in children with JCA seemed to be supported by highly cohesive family structures. Generally, adolescents with JCA experienced much social support. In contrast with our expectation, children and adolescents with JCA seemeed to cope quite well with the psychological and social consequences of their long term condition. For future studies, it is hypothesised that the high levels of adaptation might imply an enduring psychological strain, which is reflected in an altered function of the autonomic nervous system.
Polek, Elzbieta; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; ten Berge, Jos M. F.
The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian immigrants (N=631) to Dutch society. In addition, it also examined the relationship between demographic factors and adjustment and compared the
O'Donnell, Maeve B.; Shirley, Lauren A.; Park, Stacey S.; Nolen, Julian P.; Gibbons, Alyssa M.; Rosén, Lee A.
Several instruments exist to measure college adjustment: the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ; Baker & Siryk, 1989), the College Adjustment Rating Scale (Zitzow, 1984), and the College Adjustment Scales (Anton & Reed, 1991). Of these, the SACQ is the most widely used and takes a multifaceted approach to measuring college…
Main, Alexandra; Zhou, Qing; Ma, Yue; Luecken, Linda J; Liu, Xin
This study examined the main and interactive relations of stressors and coping related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) with Chinese college students' psychological adjustment (psychological symptoms, perceived general health, and life satisfaction) during the 2003 Beijing SARS epidemic. All the constructs were assessed by self-report in an anonymous survey during the final period of the outbreak. Results showed that the relations of stressors and coping to psychological adjustment varied by domain of adjustment. Regression analyses suggested that the number of stressors and use of avoidant coping strategies positively predicted psychological symptoms. Active coping positively predicted life satisfaction when controlling for stressors. Moreover, all types of coping served as a buffer against the negative impact of stressors on perceived general health. These findings hold implications for university counseling services during times of acute, large-scale stressors. In particular, effective screening procedures should be developed to identify students who experience a large number of stressors and thus are at high risk for developing mental health problems. Intervention efforts that target coping should be adapted to take account of the uncontrollability of stressors and clients' cultural preferences for certain coping strategies. A multidimensional battery of psychological adjustment should be used to monitor clients' psychological adjustment to stressors and evaluate the efficacy of intervention.
Baker, Sarah R; Owens, Jan; Stern, Melanie; Willmot, Derrick
To examine the role of parents' coping strategies and social support in the family impact of cleft lip and palate (CLP) and levels of adjustment and psychological distress and to investigate whether a child's age, type of cleft, or other reported medical problems influenced such outcomes. A cross-sectional study. One hundred three parents of children or young adults with CLP recruited from families attending a multidisciplinary cleft lip and palate clinic. Family impact, psychological distress, and positive adjustment were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires. Findings indicated that while there were many impacts of a child's CLP, negative outcomes (family impact, psychological distress) were not high. In contrast, parents reported high levels of positive adjustment or stress-related growth as a result of their child's condition. Participants also reported high levels of social support and relied more on the use of approach rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Having more support from friends and family was associated with less negative family impact, lower psychological distress, and better adjustment. Greater use of approach coping was associated with more positive adjustment; whereas, avoidant coping was associated with a greater family impact and more psychological distress. Having a younger child and/or a child with medical problems in addition to CLP was associated with a greater impact on the family. How parents cope with their child's condition and the levels of support received may have implications for caregivers, the family unit, and the delivery of more family-oriented CLP services.
Attik, A El; Awadalla, H; Fakhry, A; Wahab, E Abdel
This study determined the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral programme in improving the level of psychological and social adjustment in a sample of patients with viral hepatitis C. The study included 30 patients on interferon from the National Institute of Liver, Cairo, divided into 2 groups of 15 patients: an experimental group who agreed to participate in a cognitive behavioral programme and a control group of patients taking interferon only. The study tools included an compliance scale designed to assess the level of psychological and social adjustment of patients in both groups before and after the application of the cognitive behavioral programme. To determine the effectiveness of the programme, the experimental group was compared with the control group. There were statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in the level of psychological and social compliance which points to the effectiveness of the programme in improving psychological and social adjustment among patients with viral hepatitis C.
The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural adjustment. These findings were discussed in relation to relevant international research and it was concluded that international students comprise a resourceful student sample and that the international academic environment at Aarhus University appears to be an adequately cultural and value-oriented good fit as a context of reception for the multicultural engagement of international students. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Visintainer, M A; Wolfer, J A
This clinical experiment tested variations of psychological preparation and supportive care designed to increase the adjustment of children (and their parents) hospitalized for elective surgery. Eighty-four children, aged 3 to 12, admitted for tonsillectomies were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions or to a control group: (1) a combination of systematic preparation, rehearsal, and supportive care conducted prior to each stressful procedure; (2) a single-session preparation conducted after admission, and (3) consistent supportive care given by one nurse at the same points as in the first condition, but including no systematic preparation or rehearsal. The children's hospital adjustment was measured by blind ratings of behavioral upset and cooperation during the blood test, medication injection, transport to surgery, induction, and postoperative fluid intake and by recovery room medications and pulse rates and time to first voiding. Post-hospital adjustment was assessed with Vernon et al.'s Post Hospital Behavior Inventory. Parent outcome measures included self-ratings for anxiety and satisfaction with information and care. As hypothesized, the results demonstrated that children who received condition one showed significantly less upset and more cooperation and their parents reported significantly greater satisfaction and less anxiety than did children or parents in the other groups. Younger children were significantly more upset and less cooperative than older children.
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z
Little research has focused on predictors of psychological adjustment among early placed adopted children. Additionally, the research on adopted children in lesbian or gay parent-families is sparse. The current study examined 40 female same-sex, 35 male same-sex, and 45 different-sex parent families with adopted children, all of whom were placed in their adoptive homes under the age of 18 months. We explored aspects of children's preadoptive and postadoptive contexts (measured at 3 months postplacement) in relation to children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms (measured at 2 years postplacement; M age = 2.33 years). Findings revealed that lack of parental preparation for the adoption, and parental depressive symptoms, were associated with higher parent-reported levels of both externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Additionally, parents' relationship conflict was associated with higher levels of parent- and partner-reported internalizing symptoms. Children's adjustment outcomes did not differ by family type. Our findings point to the importance of considering the adoptive family context (including parent and couple subsystems) in predicting later adjustment in early placed adopted children, in diverse family contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Pereira, M Graça; Brito, Laura; Smith, Tom
Psoriasis is an incurable and chronic disease that includes unpredictable periods of remission and relapse requiring long-term therapy. This paper focuses on the relationship among family coping, psychological morbidity, body image, dyadic adjustment and quality of life in psoriatic patients and their partners. One hundred and one patients with psoriasis and 78 partners comprised the sample. They were regular users of the Dermatology Service of a Central Northern hospital in Portugal and a private dermatology clinic. Patients with psoriasis were assessed on anxiety, depression, body image, quality of life, dyadic adjustment and family coping. Partners were assessed on the same measures except body image and quality of life. A positive relationship among dyadic adjustment, psychological morbidity and family coping in patients and their partners was found. Also, patients with lower levels of quality of life had partners with higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms. Better dyadic adjustment predicted family coping in the psoriatic patient. High levels of dyadic adjustment in patients and low partners' trait anxiety predicted better dyadic adjustment in partners. The results highlight the importance of incorporating family variables in psychological interventions in psoriasis' care, particularly family coping and dyadic adjustment as well as the need for psychological intervention to focus both on patients and partners.
MacDonald, Elaine E.; Hastings, Richard P.; Fitzsimons, Elaine
Background: Previous research with mothers of children with intellectual disabilities has shown that psychological acceptance is related to maternal psychological well-being. The present research extended this line of enquiry to fathers and explored the potential for psychological acceptance to mediate the impact of children's behaviour problems…
Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan
The aim of this study were to investigate the mediator role of coping strategies and gender roles attitudes on the relationship between women's marital adjustment and psychological symptoms. 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form. Regression analyses revealed that Submissive (Sobel z= -2.47, prole on the relationship between marital relationship score and psychological symptom level. Also, having Egalitarian Gender Role Attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but it is seen that this effect is not higher enough to play a mediator role (Sobel z =-1.21, p>.05). Regression analysis showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between women's marital adjustment and their psychological symptoms, indicating that the marital adjustment decreases as the psychological symptoms increases. It is also found out that submissive and helpless coping approach have mediator roles in this relationship. Also, contrary to expectations, having egalitarian gender role attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but this effect does not seem to play a mediator role. It is thought that the effects of marriage and couple therapy approaches considering coupless problem solving and coping styles should be examined in further studies.
Wilkinson, Ross B
This study examined the utility of the newly developed Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale (AFAS) for the prediction of adolescent psychological health and school attitude. High school students (266 males, 229 females) were recruited from private and public schools in the Australian Capital Territory with ages of participants ranging from 13 to 19 years. Self-report measures of depression, self-esteem, self-competence and school attitude were administered in addition to the AFAS and a short-form of the Inventory of Parental and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Regression analyses revealed that the AFAS Anxious and Avoidant scales added to the prediction of depression, self-esteem, self-competence, and school attitude beyond the contribution of the IPPA. It is concluded that the AFAS taps aspects of adolescent attachment relationships not assessed by the IPPA and provides a useful contribution to research and practice in the area of adolescent psycho-social adjustment.
Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N
This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.
Wong, J; Mellor, D; Richardson, B; Xu, X
The current study broadened the general scope of research conducted on childhood cruelty to animals by examining the association between psychological adjustment, family functioning and animal cruelty in an Eastern context, China. The mothers and fathers of 729 children attending primary school in Chengdu, China participated in this study. Each parent completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument, and the Children's Attitudes and Behaviours towards Animals questionnaire. Findings from an actor partner interdependence model demonstrated that parents' ratings of family functioning and of their child's externalizing coping style predicted only modest amounts of variance in animal cruelty. In particular, parents' ratings of their child's externalizing coping style most consistently predicted animal cruelty. Family functioning, fathers' ratings in particular, played a minor role, more so for boys compared with girls. This study provided the first insight into childhood animal cruelty in China, and suggests that further research may enhance our understanding of these phenomena. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. The current report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14 – 21) in New York City. Although differences in the timing of identity formation were not associated with psychological adjustment, greater identity integration was related to less depressive and anxious symptoms, fewer conduct problems, and higher self-esteem both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Individual changes in identity integration over time were associated with all four aspects of psychological adjustment, even after controlling for rival hypotheses concerning family and friend support, gay-related stress, negative social relationships, and other covariates. These findings suggest that difficulties in developing an integrated LGB identity may have negative implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths and that efforts to reduce distress among LGB youths should address the youths’ identity integration. PMID:19916104
Bovero, A; Leombruni, P; Miniotti, M; Rocca, G; Torta, R
The purpose of this study was to show the different components of spirituality in the last few weeks of life for advanced cancer patients admitted to hospice and to evaluate quality of life (QoL), pain, anxiety, depression and psychological adjustment to cancer. One hundred and fifteen patients were interviewed with a series of rating scales: the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain, the Brief Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale - General Measure. Workers and single patients with higher education level showed a worse QoL. Moreover, anxiety and pain were negatively associated with QoL, while spirituality and 'Instrumental Support' coping style were positively associated with QoL. In the Italian sample, it was observed that when patients are close to death, faith is a more important component of spirituality than meaning/peace. This study confirms that QoL could be related to physical and psychological symptoms, and this reiterates the importance of faith in end-of-life care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin
This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Introduction 5 Literature Overview and Research Aims 6 A Brief History of Research on Psychological Control 6 Research Aims of this Dissertation 12 Part 1: Psychological Control: An Exploration in Depth 15 Mediators of the Link between Psychological Control and Internalizing Problems 15 Antecedents or Predictors of Psychological Control 28 Direction of Effects 37 Part 2: Psychological Control: An Exploration in Breadth 45 Psychological Con...
The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well...... as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students’ psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired...... psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally...
Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Harris Bond, Michael
The present investigation examined the impact of bicultural identity, bilingualism, and social context on the psychological adjustment of multicultural individuals. Our studies targeted three distinct types of biculturals: Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong, Filipino domestic workers (i.e., sojourners) in Hong Kong, and Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese college students. Individual differences in Bicultural Identity Integration (BII; Benet-Martínez, Leu, Lee, & Morris, 2002) positively predicted psychological adjustment for all the samples except sojourners even after controlling for the personality traits of neuroticism and self-efficacy. Cultural identification and language abilities also predicted adjustment, although these associations varied across the samples in meaningful ways. We concluded that, in the process of managing multiple cultural environments and group loyalties, bilingual competence, and perceiving one's two cultural identities as integrated are important antecedents of beneficial psychological outcomes.
Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of
Chen, Lihua; Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Lin, Danhua
Objectives: The global literature has revealed potential negative impacts of migration and discrimination on individual's psychological adjustments. However, the psychological adjustments among internal migrant children in developing countries are rarely assessed. This study simultaneously examines perceived discrimination and schooling arrangements in relation to psychological adjustments among rural-to-urban migrant children in China. Methods: A sample of 657 migrant children was recruited in Beijing, China. Cross-sectional associations of self-reported perceived discrimination and schooling arrangements (i.e. public school and migrant children school (MCS)) with psychological adjustment outcomes (i.e. social anxiety, depression and loneliness) were examined by general linear model. Results: (1) Compared with migrant children in public school, migrant children in MCS had lower family incomes, and their parents had received less education. (2) Migrant children in MCS reported higher levels of social anxiety, depression and loneliness than did their counterparts. Children who reported high level of perceived discrimination also reported the highest level of social anxiety, depression and loneliness. (3) Perceived discrimination had main effects on social anxiety and depression after controlling for the covariates. A significant interaction between perceived discrimination and schooling arrangements on loneliness was found. Specifically, the migrant children in MCS reported higher loneliness scores than did migrant children in public school only at low level of perceived discrimination; however, schooling arrangements was unrelated to loneliness at medium and high levels of discrimination. Conclusions: These results indicate that migration-related perceived discrimination is negatively associated with migrant children's psychological adjustments. These findings suggest that effective interventions should be developed to improve migrant children's capacities to cope
Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhu, Maoling
Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor) and social support (contextual protective factor) are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness) of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children) in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects) and subsequent (lagged effects) status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40) who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1) left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2) After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of psychological
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.
The beginning of a study represents for freshmen a difficult period of adjustment. Observations obtained in student counseling centers as well as in investigations of students' adjustment indicate that the beginning of a study represents for students a specific crisis period determined by dealing with the experiences of ‘psychological separation’. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to prove the existence of a crisis period at the beginning of a study by investigating ...
Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesus; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, Maria Teresa; Sanchez-Alcoba, Manuel Alejandro
In this study, the relation between levels of anxiety, self-esteem and subjective psychological well-being is analyzed in a Spanish sample of 28 fathers and 33 mothers of blind children. The results reveal a positive correlation between subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem, and a negative correlation between anxiety and subjective…
Gudmundsdottir, Eyglo; Schirren, Maria; Boman, Krister K
Studies of parental reactions to a child's cancer have traditionally been carried out within the framework of psychiatry and psychopathology. We studied the significance of individual resource factors strengthening parents' resilience to long-term cancer-related distress, a focus that has rarely been used. The two-nation Nordic sample included 398 parents; 190 of whom had experienced a child's cancer, and 208 reference parents. We studied the sense of coherence (SOC) using the SOC-13 questionnaire. For assessing distress reactions we used a primarily illness-specific 11-dimensional Parental Psychosocial Distress in Cancer (PPD-C) self-report questionnaire developed for use with parents of childhood cancer patients, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Resilience was defined as absence of/less severe distress. Low SOC was significantly associated with more severe distress in all dimensions of the PPD-C and GHQ. The protective effect of SOC was indicated by it being most negatively related to general psychiatric symptoms, physical and psychological stress symptoms, anxiety and depression. The influence of SOC varied with parents' gender, showing a stronger modifying influence among mothers. Mothers and fathers also differed in their utilisation of professional psychosocial support when confronted with the child's cancer. Parental resilience to cancer-related distress varies with identifiable strength factors. A strengths-oriented approach helps in understanding parental adjustment to childhood cancer. In order to counteract psychological vulnerability, addressing resilience instead of pathology helps to identify parents at risk and in need of professional support when faced with a child's cancer.
Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie
Objective To explore psychological functioning in children with a cleft at age 10 from a broad perspective, including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, appearance-related, and social adjustment. High-risk groups were identified within each area of adjustment to investigate whether vulnerable children were found across domains or whether risk was limited to specific areas of adjustment. Methods Retrospective chart review from psychological assessments at age 10 (N = 845). The effects of gender, cleft visibility, and the presence of an additional condition were investigated. Results were compared with large national samples. Measures Personality Inventory for Children, Child Experience Questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Satisfaction With Appearance scale. Results The factor affecting psychological adjustment on most domains was the presence of an associated condition in addition to the cleft. As expected, no support was found for cleft visibility as a risk factor, while there were some gender differences related to emotional difficulties and attention. Correlation analyses of risk groups pointed to an association between social experiences and emotional adjustment and between social and behavioral adjustment; whereas, dissatisfaction with appearance was not related to any other domains of risk at age 10. Conclusions The results point to the importance of early screening and assessment of children born with a cleft to identify possible associated conditions and offer adapted and appropriate treatment and care. Future research should investigate how protective factors could counteract potential risk in children with a cleft.
Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li
This study examined reciprocal contributions between shyness-sensitivity and social, school, and psychological adjustment in urban Chinese children. Longitudinal data were collected once a year from Grade 3 to Grade 6 (ages 9-12 years) for 1,171 children from multiple sources. Shyness-sensitivity positively contributed to social, school, and…
Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin
Explore psychological functioning in adolescents with a cleft at age 16 from a broad perspective, including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, appearance-related, and psychosocial adjustment. High-risk groups were identified within each area of adjustment to investigate whether vulnerable adolescents were found across domains or whether risk was limited to specific areas of adjustment. Cross-sectional data based on psychological assessments at age 16 (N = 857). The effect of gender, cleft visibility, and the presence of an additional condition were investigated on all outcome variables. Results were compared with large national samples. Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harter Self-Perception Scale for Adolescents, Child Experience Questionnaire, and Satisfaction With Appearance scale. The main factor influencing psychological adjustment across domains was gender, with girls in general reporting more psychological problems, as seen in reference groups. The presence of an additional condition also negatively affected some of the measures. No support was found for cleft visibility as a risk factor except for dissatisfaction with appearance. Correlation analyses of risk groups seem to point to an association between social and emotional risk and between social risk and dissatisfaction with appearance. Associations between other domains were found to be weak. The results point to areas of both risk and strength in adolescents born with a cleft lip and/or palate. Future research should investigate how protective factors could counteract potential risk in adolescents with a cleft.
Goldner, Limor; Berenshtein-Dagan, Tal
Associations between security within the family, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, true-self behavior, and knowledge of true self, as well as levels of adjustment, were explored in a sample of early adolescents and midadolescents in Israel (N = 302, mean age = 14.19 years). Both security within the family and needs satisfaction were found…
Park, Crystal L.; Edmondson, Donald; Fenster, Juliane R.; Blank, Thomas O.
Cancer survivors' efforts at meaning making may influence the extent to which they successfully make meaning from their experience (i.e., experience posttraumatic growth, find life meaningful, and restore beliefs in a just world), which may, in turn, influence their psychological adjustment. Previous research regarding both meaning making…
Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C.
The present study evaluated whether 3 indices of friendship adjustment (mutual friendship involvement, friendship stability, friendship quality) are important, but overlooked, moderators of the impact of anxious-withdrawal on trajectories of psychological maladjustment during early adolescence. Participants included 271 young adolescents (51%…
Jackson, Kelly F.; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Guevarra, Rudy, Jr.; Harrington, Blair A.
This study examined relations between perceived racial discrimination, multiracial identity integration (i.e., racial distance and racial conflict), and psychological adjustment (i.e., distress symptoms, positive affect, and negative affect) of 263 multiracial adults, using an online cross-sectional survey design. As hypothesized, higher levels of…
Benson, Paul R.; Kersh, Joanne
Using data drawn from a longitudinal study of families of children with ASD, the current study examined the impact of marital quality on three indicators of maternal psychological adjustment: depressed mood, parenting efficacy, and subjective well-being. Multiple regression analyses indicated marital quality to be a significant cross-sectional and…
Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; White, Rhonda L.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Philip, Cheri L.; Nguye-N, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.
This study uses two waves of data to examine the relations among racial discrimination experiences, patterns of racial socialization practices, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 361 African American adolescents. Using latent class analyses, we identified four patterns of child-reported racial socialization experiences: Moderate Positive,…
Akman, Ipek; Kuscu, M Kemal; Yurdakul, Ziya; Ozdemir, Nihal; Solakoğlu, Mine; Orhon, Lale; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Ozek, Eren
Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common in new mothers. The aim of this study is to explore the link between postpartum psychological adjustment and feeding preferences of the mothers. Sixty mothers and newborns were enrolled in this prospective, longitudinal study. Maternal depressive symptoms were screened by the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and maternal anxiety level was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at 1 month postpartum. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used for the assessment of maternal social support. The Adult Attachment Scale was used to determine the attachment style of the mother. Infants were examined and evaluated at 1 and 4 months of life. All mothers started breastfeeding their infants postpartum; 91% and 68.1% continued exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 4 months, respectively. The first-month median EPDS score of mothers who breastfeed at the fourth month was statistically significantly lower than those who were not breastfeeding (6 and 12, respectively) (P = 0001). The first-month median EPDS score of mothers with secure attachment was lower than the median score of mothers with insecure attachment (5 and 9, respectively) (P breastfeeding rate was not statistically different among mothers with secure and insecure attachment styles. The median state and trait anxiety scores and social support scores of mothers were not different between groups according to breastfeeding status. This study has shown an association between higher EPDS scores and breastfeeding cessation by 4 months after delivery.
Carr, Deborah; Sharp, Shane
We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that "continuing bonds" with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses.
Pierobon, Antonia; Giardini, Anna; Callegari, Simona; Majani, Giuseppina
Patients with a chronic illness must continuously revise their lifestyle, adapting it to the behavioural limitations imposed by their state of health. These incessant adjustments of behaviour dictated by the patients' need to adapt to their clinical condition also cause profound psychological changes. The experience of a patient with a chronic illness often leads to a reformulation of self, which the patient may or may not be aware of, but which helps to facilitate successful behavioural adaptation. During the course of their disease, which spans from diagnosis to treatment, some patients have the opportunity to meet a psychologist, who has various tasks: understanding what stage of adaptation the chronically ill patients have reached, evaluating the patients' emotional state, facilitating their acceptance of their clinical condition, stimulating them to redefine their aims, if there are the presuppositions, and supporting their coping capacities and internal and external resources. This article is neither a review nor original research, but rather a "clinical exposition" with educational suggestions. The purpose of this article is to give a voice to the patients' internal dialogue, to what they say to themselves, to their narration of the illness, but also to explain the typical components of cognitive behavioural treatment in the setting of cardiological, respiratory and neuromotor rehabilitation.
Furusho, Masahide; Kawazu, Minami; Takeda, Kazuhito; Kurachi, Emiko; Nakashima, Takafumi; Sagara, Rikako; Hara, Takashi; Mukai, Hideyuki; Miura, Shuhei; Sugawara, Koji
Several studies have suggested that pre-dialysis care is associated with clinical outcomes. However, little has been reported on the influence of pre-dialysis care on the psychological adjustment to dialysis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre-dialysis care on psychological adjustment to dialysis and clinical characteristics. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 52 patients who started hemodialysis at our hospital. They were divided into two groups according to the time of referral to our hospital: the early referral group (over 1 year prior to first dialysis: 19 patients, mean age 69.3 ± 11.1) and the late referral group (within 1 year prior to first dialysis: 33 patients, mean age 72.3 ± 8.9). We measured the clinical characteristics and evaluated the psychological adjustment to dialysis by Shontz's stage theory. Compared with the late referral group, the early referral group had a significantly better clinical characteristics concerning blood pressure (140.2 ± 23.7 vs. 156.9 ± 23.3 mmHg, P = 0.0150), hemoglobin (10.3 ± 1.5 vs. 9.4 ± 1.0 g/dL, P = 0.0078), and phosphorus (4.5 ± 1.5 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P = 0.0166). In addition, psychological adjustment to dialysis evaluated by Shontz's stage theory was significantly better in the early referral group (P = 0.017). Our results indicate that nephrology pre-dialysis care affects not only blood pressure, anemia, and phosphorus control but also the psychological adjustment to dialysis. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.
Shek, D T
Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.
Jimenez-Fonseca, Paula; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere Joan; Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Beato, Carmen; García, Teresa; Muñoz, María Del Mar; Ramchandani, Avinash; Ghanem, Ismael; Rodríguez-Capote, Alejandra; Jara, Carlos; Calderon, Caterina
The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the psychometric properties of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) scale and (b) to provide that FACIT scores behave one-dimensional to establish the mediating role of spiritual well-being in psychological distress and mental adjustment in a sample of patients with non-metastatic, resected cancer. A total of 504 consecutive patients completed the FACIT-Sp, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scales. The dimensionality and structure of the scale were assessed by semi-confirmatory factor analysis; the reliability of the derived scale scores was evaluated using the omega coefficient, and regression analysis appraised the FACIT-Sp's mediating role between psychological distress and mental adjustment. A clear and theoretically interpretable solution in two factors that agreed generally with solutions reported in other languages was obtained for the FACIT item scores and omega reliabilities of the derived Meaning/Peace (0.85) and Faith (0.86) scales were acceptable. The oblique solution in two factors was compatible with an essentially unidimensional solution of general well-being and associated strongly with psychological distress and mental adjustment. Spiritual well-being acted as a partial mediator between psychological distress and mental adjustment strategies, such as fighting spirit, hope, and cognitive avoidance. The Spanish version of the FACIT-Sp scale is a reliable and valid clinical evaluation tool, and further highlights the potential clinical implications of spirituality for improving quality of life and adjustment to cancer.
Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola
Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature.
Sesar, Kristina; Barišić, Marijana; Pandža, Maja; Dodaj, Arta
This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. A total of 249 college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire and Trauma Symptom Checklist. The results showed significant differences in psychological adjustment among respondents who were exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposed to bullying. Those exposed to bullying had significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, and dissociative and traumatic symptoms compared to those who were not exposed to bullying. Respondents who were exposed to bullying in all three examined periods (the period from the first to fourth grade, the period from the fifth to eighth grade and the high school period) had higher scores on the subscale of dissociative symptoms and sexual trauma symptoms compared to respondents who were exposed through one or two periods. Victims abused in all three periods have more symptoms of anxiety and sleeping problems compared to the subjects exposed to bullying during one examination period. There were no differences in the level of depressive symptoms and sexual problems regarding the duration of bullying. Also, there were no differences in psychological adjustment between respondents who were bullied during one specific period. Bullying experiences in childhood and adolescence are connected with difficulties in psychological adjustment in young adulthood. Copyright © 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P
Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of the study was to examine relationships among recollections of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the level of psychological adjustment among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, social anxiety, and nonclinical control. The study focused primarily on adults with schizophrenia and social anxiety in comparison to nonclinical adults. Fifty-three adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, 51 adults with self-reported social anxiety, and 147 nonclinical controls between the ages of 18 and 62 participated in the study. Data were collected using adult versions of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire for mothers and for fathers, Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and the Demographic Information Form. Findings of analyses showed that participants in the schizophrenia and social anxiety groups remembered having experienced significantly more maternal rejection in childhood than did the nonclinical group. Patient with schizophrenia also reported more recollections of paternal rejection than the nonclinical group. Both clinical groups self-reported more psychological maladjustment than did the nonclinical group. Regression analysis indicated that even though the overall psychological adjustment of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia was predicted by both maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection, psychological adjustment of adults in the social anxiety group was predicted only by maternal (but not paternal) acceptance-rejection. This study provides evidence about the long-lasting associations between adults' recollections of parental acceptance-rejection in childhood and their psychological adjustment in two mental disorders, in which genetic and environmental factors have a different weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bos, H.; van Beusekom, G.; Sandfort, T.
This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from
Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio
The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…
Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L
Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Pereira,M. Graça; Brito,Laura; Smith, Tom
Background Psoriasis is an incurable and chronic disease that includes unpredictable periods of remission and relapse requiring long-term therapy. Purpose This paper focuses on the relationship among family coping, psychological morbidity, body image, dyadic adjustment and quality of life in psoriatic patients and their partners. Method One hundred and one patients with psoriasis and 78 partners comprised the sample. They were regular users of the Dermatology Servic...
Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo
This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles.
Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.
This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis
van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.
This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis
The present investigation of British subjects replicated an investigation conducted in the United States. There was considerable agreement in the findings of the two studies. A multidimensional evaluation of adjustment, based on questionnaire data, indicated that the total sample of British homosexuals described themselves as less well adjusted than the heterosexuals on four factors, better adjusted on two factors, and not different on six factors. There was a significant difference on only one dimension, however, for selected groups of masculine homosexuals vs. heterosexuals. Homosexuals and heterosexuals low on feminity, in addition, tended to be better adjusted than homosexuals and heterosexuals high on femininity. The possible confusion between adjustment and masculinity-femininity, as well as the importance of using a multidimensional approach when considering adjustment, is discussed.
Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Hostinar, Camelia E
The goal of the current study was to provide the first investigation of whether appraisals of parental marital conflict mediate associations of family income with emerging adult psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol production. Participants were 178 college students who provided 3 saliva samples across the day and reported their family income, adjustment (depressive symptoms, perceived daily stress, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems), and appraisals of their parents' conflict (including perceptions of frequency, intensity, resolution, stability, as well as perceived threat and self-blame for conflict). Results indicated that emerging adults from low-income families reported more-negative conflict appraisals, which in turn predicted lower levels of adjustment; there was no association between income and patterns of cortisol production across the day. However, emerging adults who felt responsible for their parents' conflict displayed cortisol levels that were lower early in the day, with a tendency toward blunted cortisol slopes across the day; those who appraised their parents' conflict less negatively displayed a more normative pattern of cortisol production. These results suggest that effects of family income on psychological adjustment are explained, in part, by appraisals of parental conflict, particularly of appraisals of conflict as threatening, whereas self-blame conflict appraisals have main effects on cortisol, and predict a dysregulated and potentially maladaptive pattern of cortisol production across the day for emerging adults.
Trute, Barry; Benzies, Karen M; Worthington, Catherine; Reddon, John R; Moore, Melanie
Mothers' cognitive appraisal of the family impact of childhood disability and their positive affect as a psychological coping resource, both key elements of the process model of stress and coping, were tested as explanatory variables of family adjustment. In a sample of Canadian families, 195 mothers of children with intellectual and developmental disability completed telephone interviews. In regression modelling, 35% of the variance in family adjustment was explained by mothers' positive cognitive appraisal of family impacts of childhood disability and by their positivity (ratio of positive to negative affect). After controlling for positivity, negative cognitive appraisal of family impacts of childhood disability was non-significant. Family adjustment to childhood disability is associated with elements of strength in mothers' psychological coping; namely, their ability to perceive positive family consequences of childhood disability and to maintain higher proportions of positive emotion in their daily activities. The findings of this study provide support for the broaden-and-build theory to explain the role of positivity in mothers' coping and adjustment to childhood disability.
Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Drapeau, Sylvie; Melançon, Claudiane; Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Lépine, Rachel
In a sample of 143 parent-child dyads from two-parent and separated families, this investigation documented the links between parental psychological violence and separation or divorce, severity of parental conflict, triangulation of the child in this conflict, and polarized parent-child alliances. The unique and combined contributions of all these variables to children's behavior problems were also assessed. Participants were parents, mostly mothers, and their 10-12-year-old child. They were recruited through schools, community organizations, and newspapers. Questionnaires were administered at home. Findings suggest that separated families undergo more relational disturbances than two-parent families (more severe conflicts, more triangulation, stronger parent-child alliances), but the amount of parental psychological violence was similar in both groups. Psychological violence was associated with the severity of parental conflict, especially in two-parent families. Triangulation of the child in parental conflict was another correlate of psychological violence. Once all variables were controlled for, psychological violence remained the only significant correlate of children's externalized behavior problems. These findings raise the importance of preventing psychological violence toward children, especially in families plagued with severe parental conflicts.
Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Melançon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three high schools located in low, moderate, and high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. The use of avoidant coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among girls. The use of approach coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among boys. In all cases, coping enhanced this link. No protective role of social support was found. On the contrary, this variable was found to increase the relationship between parental psychological violence and externalized behavior problems among boys. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at strengthening coping skills and social support in adolescents may not be effective in alleviating various behavioral symptoms associated with parental psychological violence. They highlight the importance of prevention of psychologically violent parental practices, instead of only reacting to the problem after it has occurred.
International populations face difficulties adjusting to a new culture. This is especially true for international students, who have to adjust to a new country and face academic demands concurrently. Research has explored various factors that impact psychological adjustment of international students and show the influence of self-esteem and social…
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360
Chung-Hall, Janet; Chen, Xinyin
This study examined the effects of aggressive and prosocial contexts of peer groups on children's socioemotional and school adjustment. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and different aspects of adjustment were collected from multiple sources in a sample of elementary school children (149 boys, 181 girls; M age = 10 years).…
Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. Materials and method. A total of 249college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaireand Trauma Symptom Checklist. Results. The results showed significantdifferences in psychological adjustment among respondents whowere exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposedto bullying. Those exposed to bullying had significantly higherlevels of anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, and dissociative andtraumatic symptoms compared to those who were not exposed to bullying.Respondents who were exposed to bullying in all three examinedperiods (the period from the first to fourth grade, the period from the fifth to eighth grade and the high school period had higher scores on the subscale of dissociative symptoms and sexual trauma symptoms compared to respondents who were exposed through one or twoperiods. Victims abused in all three periods have more symptoms ofanxiety and sleeping problems compared to the subjects exposed tobullying during one examination period. There were no differences inthe level of depressive symptoms and sexual problems regarding theduration of bullying. Also, there were no differences in psychologicaladjustment between respondents who were bullied during one specificperiod. Conclusion. Bullying experiences in childhood and adolescenceare connected with difficulties in psychological adjustment inyoung adulthood.
Greenough, T J; Keegan, D L; Ash, D G
Determined whether individuals who adapted well or poorly to the loss of their vision could be differentiated on the basis of the Cattell 16PF. Well adjusted individuals were defined as those who displayed minimal depression and high social independence, while poorly adjusted individuals were highly depressed and socially dependent. By the use of discriminant analysis based upon the standard 16PF, 84.5% of highly depressed and 81% of the minimally depressed group were classified accurately. In a second analysis, 75% of socially independent and 73% of socially dependent individuals were classified correctly. Premorbid characteristics of well and poorly adjusted blind Ss were described.
Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
Bleidorn, W.; Ködding, C.
Classic and contemporary lines of research have studied the psychological meaning of self-concept differentiation (SCD), the tendency to see oneself as having different personality characteristics in different social contexts. A key question is whether SCD signifies specialization or, rather,
Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca
Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…
Inconsistency in parenting is a factor that may influence children's mental health. A questionnaire, measuring three parental inconsistencies (temporal, situational, and father-mother inconsistency) was administered to adolescents in nine countries to assess its association with adolescents' psychological disorders. The results show that parental…
Zeman, Janice L; Dallaire, Danielle H; Folk, Johanna B; Thrash, Todd M
Children who live in the context of maternal incarceration (MI) are exposed to both general environmental risk and incarceration-specific risk increasing the probability of their developing externalizing and internalizing behaviors problems. Little research has examined the socio-emotional mechanisms that account for the psychological effects of MI. This research examined children's anger and sadness regulation as mediators between environmental and incarceration-specific risk and psychological functioning. Participants were 117 children (60% Black; 52% boys; M age = 9.85 years, SD = 1.65 years), their incarcerated mother, and current caregiver. All informants completed questionnaires assessing children's anger and sadness regulation as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Mothers and caregivers provided information concerning children's exposure to environmental risk and all three reporters provided information on incarceration-specific risk experiences (ISRE). Structural equation modeling was used to test indirect effects of risk variables (ISRE, environmental) on psychological functioning (externalizing, internalizing behaviors) via emotion regulation (anger, sadness). Gender, age, and race were covariates. The analyses revealed significant indirect effects of incarceration-specific risk on both externalizing and internalizing behavior problems via anger regulation but not via sadness regulation. The findings highlight the centrality of emotion regulation as a mechanism that helps explain the negative psychological outcomes experienced by children exposed to ISRE with implications for preventive interventions.
Objective: Cardiovascular reactivity is associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness as early as childhood. Excess cardiovascular responses relative to the metabolic demand during psychological stress have been proposed as a mechanism for this association. It is not known whether measure...
Benson, Paul R.
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment…
Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent
Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…
Dufner, Michael; Reitz, Anne K; Zander, Lysann
We investigated the reciprocal associations between academic self-enhancement and key indicators of intra- and interpersonal adjustment as well as the role of self-esteem as a mediator. This longitudinal study involved three assessments in a sample of 709 German children and adolescents (Mage = 11.83; 54% female) over the course of one academic year. We assessed self-reported subjective well-being as an indicator of intrapersonal adjustment and peer-reported popularity as an indicator of interpersonal adjustment. We computed cross-lagged and longitudinal mediational analyses. Academic self-enhancement prospectively predicted high subsequent well-being and popularity. Vice versa, well-being and popularity prospectively predicted high subsequent levels of self-enhancement. High self-esteem mediated the longitudinal associations between self-enhancement and well-being in both directions, but not the links between self-enhancement and popularity. Self-enhancement and adjustment are bidirectionally linked: Self-enhancement entails intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits; at the same time, adjustment in both domains fosters self-enhancement. In terms of intrapersonal, but not interpersonal adjustment, self-esteem seems to serve as a linchpin, accounting for all longitudinal associations. Furthermore, we present evidence indicating that self-enhancement indicators that are based on difference scores (instead of residuals) are problematic and might have led to negatively biased results in the literature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jose Miguel, Martínez Gonzalez; Jose Luis, Graña Gómez; Humberto, Trujillo Mendoza
The goal of this study was to determine the evolution of variables such as quality of life, craving, or psychological adjustment during treatment in a sample of 65 patients with alcohol-dependence disorder, 56.3...
Berg, S.W. van den; Gielissen, M.F.M; Custers, J.A.E; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Ottevanger, P.B; Prins, J.B
.... The Breast Cancer E-Health (BREATH) trial is a Web-based self-management intervention to support the psychological adjustment of women after primary treatment, by reducing distress and improving empowerment...
Wolchik, S A; Wilcox, K L; Tein, J Y; Sandler, I N
This study examines whether two aspects of mothering--acceptance and consistency of discipline--buffer the effect of divorce stressors on adjustment problems in 678 children, ages 8 to 15, whose families had divorced within the past 2 years. Children reported on divorce stressors; both mothers and children reported on mothering and internalizing and externalizing problems. Multiple regressions indicate that for maternal report of mothering, acceptance interacted with divorce stressors in predicting both dimensions of adjustment problems, with the pattern of findings supporting a stress-buffering effect. For child report of mothering, acceptance, consistency of discipline, and divorce stressors interacted in predicting adjustment problems. The relation between divorce stressors and internalizing and externalizing problems is stronger for children who report low acceptance and low consistency of discipline than for children who report either low acceptance and high consistency of discipline or high acceptance and low consistency of discipline. Children reporting high acceptance and high consistency of discipline have the lowest levels of adjustment problems. Implications of these results for understanding variability in children's postdivorce adjustment and interventions for divorced families are discussed.
Grech, Lisa B; Kiropoulos, Litza A; Kirby, Katherine M; Butler, Ernest; Paine, Mark; Hester, Robert
To identify the moderating and mediating relationship of different coping strategies between executive function and stress, depression and anxiety in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Participants were 107 people with relapsing remitting or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis who were administered tasks of executive function and completed self-report measures of stress, depression, anxiety, and coping. An indirect relationship was found between executive function and psychosocial adjustment through maladaptive coping strategies: behavioral and mental disengagement, and substance abuse; adaptive coping strategies: acceptance, active, positive reinterpretation, and growth, as well as for an index of adaptive coping. In general, a relationship was found between better performance on tasks of executive function and psychosocial adjustment when adaptive coping strategies were low, as opposed to high, or maladaptive coping strategies were high, as opposed to low. Some unexpected findings are also discussed. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment is mediated and moderated by coping strategies used by PwMS. Well-preserved executive function provides relative protection from poorer adjustment in the presence of high maladaptive or low adaptive coping. PwMS who perform poorly on tasks of executive function benefit from using less cognitively demanding adaptive coping strategies to enhance adjustment outcomes and further research in this area would be advantageous to underpin effective intervention strategies. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhengyan
The purpose of this study was to examine relations between shyness-sensitivity and social competence, school performance, and psychological well-being in Chinese children with rural and urban backgrounds. Participants were students in rural migrant children schools and city schools in China (Ns = 411 and 518, respectively; M age = 10 years). Data were obtained from peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness was associated with social and school problems and depression in urban children. However, shyness was generally associated with indexes of adjustment such as leadership, teacher-rated competence, and academic achievement in rural migrant children. The results indicate the role of context in defining the functional meaning of social behavior in children's adjustment.
Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Bisogno, Gianni; Viscardi, Elisabetta; Pillon, Marta; Opocher, Enrico; Basso, Giuseppe; Montanaro, Maria
To investigate the impact of childhood cancer on parents' adult attachment, social support, marital adjustment, anxiety, and depression. 30 parents of children with childhood cancer and 30 matched controls completed the following questionnaires: Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Dyadic Adjustment Scale-4, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - form Y, and Beck Depression Inventory. Parents of children with childhood cancer had a significantly lower dyadic adjustment than controls, and higher levels of insecure-avoidant attachment, state anxiety, and depression. It is important for health-care personnel to take into account these parents' propensity to show increased levels of avoidant attachment during children's treatment to foster effective communication and supportive relationships between clinicians, pediatric patients, and parents.
Clements, Caroline M; Oxtoby, Claire; Ogle, Richard L
This review summarizes a growing number of methodological concerns emerging from research on child witnesses of intimate partner violence (IPV). A brief summary of various psychological, biological, and cognitive impairments associated with witnessing IPV is presented. Directions for future research in this area are explored with particular attention paid to experimental design. Advantages and disadvantages of retrospective, cross-sectional, and longitudinal designs are evaluated. Suggested improvements include the use of multiple informants, behavioral observations, and prospective, longitudinal assessment.
Full Text Available This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs and their host-country nationals (HCNs colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them.
Nardi, Laura; Zucchini, Stefano; D'Alberton, Franco; Salardi, Silvana; Maltoni, Giulio; Bisacchi, Nicoletta; Elleri, Daniela; Cicognani, Alessandro
To evaluate self and parent reports on quality of life (QoL) and psychological adjustment of youths with type 1 diabetes, in comparison to a general paediatric population, and identify relationships between disease duration, metabolic control and psychological parameters. Participants included 70 youths with type 1 diabetes and their parents. They were compared with 70 non-diabetic subjects. Data were analyzed in the whole group and in subgroups aged 6-10, 11-13 and 14-18 yr. All cases performed pediatric QoL, Child Behaviour Checklist, filled in by parents, and Youth Self-Report, filled in by youths. Data were compared with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values and disease duration. Self-reports showed a psychological adjustment of youths with type 1 diabetes similar to that of controls. Parent reports showed that parents of children with type 1 diabetes were more worried than those of controls (p psychological disturbances. In this group, for youth and parent reports, HbA1c levels correlated positively with psychological problems (p reports, in the whole group and in subgroups aged 6-10 and 11-13 yr, disease duration correlated positively with psychological adjustment (p psychological adjustment and QoL, with an association with disease duration reported by parents. In adolescence, both youths and their parents reported more emotional and behavioural problems, independent of disease duration. Better metabolic control and psychological well-being seemed directly related.
Jannesari, Milad; Wang, Zhongming; McCall, Jacob; Zheng, Boyang
This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) and their host-country nationals (HCNs) colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them. PMID:29225587
Benson, Paul R.
Utilizing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling on a sample of 113 mothers, the effects of four coping strategies (engagement, disengagement, distraction, and cognitive reframing) on multiple measures of maternal adjustment were assessed over a 7 years period when children with autism spectrum disorders in the study were approximately…
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…
Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.
Tested a model linking family financial resources to adjustment among African American 6- to 9-year olds with single, rural, Southern mothers. Found that inadequate financial resources related to mothers' depression and low self-esteem. Self-esteem was linked with family routines and mother-child relationship quality. Child self-regulation…
Mazur, Elizabeth; Wolchik, Sharlene
Building on prior literature on adults' and children's appraisals of stressors, this study investigated relations among negative and positive appraisal biases, negative divorce events, and children's post-divorce adjustment. Subjects were 79 custodial nonremarried mothers and their children ages 9 to 13 who had experienced parental divorce within…
Kaya L. Beinke
Full Text Available In the last two decades, the medical understanding of Cystic Fibrosis (CF has dramatically improved, however, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the psychological adjustment of families coping with CF. We examined the utility of the Social Cognitive Processing (SCP Model in understanding the interactions of parents and young people with CF. We also examined the relationship between social constraints, a key construct in the SCP model, sense of coherence (SOC and other psychological adjustment indicators for young people with CF. Participants comprised 49 individuals with CF, aged 16–25, recruited through state-based CF organisations in Australia. The results indicated that participant ratings of difficulties with communication (social constraints were positively associated with ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress and negatively related to ratings of positive affect and seeing life challenges as predictable, manageable and meaningful (SOC. Ratings of SOC were also positively related to ratings of positive affect and negatively related to ratings of depression, anxiety and stress. A significant mediating effect of SOC was also identified in the relationships between social constraints and positive affect and social constraints and stress. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Cappe, Emilie; Bolduc, Mélanie; Rougé, Marie-Caroline; Saiag, Marie-Claude; Delorme, Richard
This study investigated quality of life and adjustment mechanisms in parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Ninety parents of children with ADHD completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and self-assessment scales to measure their perceived stress, social support, sense of control, coping strategies and quality of life. ADHD in children negatively affected parents' quality of life, especially their psychological well-being and personal fulfillment. Family and couple relationships, as well as daily life activities, were also affected. The severity of the disorder, perceiving the situation as a threat or a loss, feeling guilty and holding on to irrational beliefs were related to emotion-focused coping strategies and to a poorer quality of life. Furthermore, hyperactivity index and stress ratings relative to perceiving the situation as a threat or a loss, and adopting emotion-focused coping strategies, predicted poorer quality of life. In contrast, perceiving the situation as challenging was related to a greater sense of control and personal fulfillment. Moreover, perceiving the situation as challenging and adopting problem-focused coping strategies predicted better quality of life. The findings highlight the negative effects of ADHD on parent psychological adjustment and underline the need to recommend training programs that improve parenting skills, parents' perceptions concerning their child's behavior disorder and parental functioning.
POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )
Sesar, Kristina; Zivcić-Bećirević, Ivanka; Sesar, Damir
To determine the prevalence and intercorrelation of different forms of childhood maltreatment and psychological problems in adolescents in Western Herzegovina Canton. A questionnaire study was conducted in March 2003 on a convenient sample of 458 third-grade high-school students (39% boys) aged between 15 and 20 (median age, 17). Data were collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III, Child Maltreatment Questionnaire, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Sociodemographic and family characteristics and exposure to maltreatment were analyzed as possible predictors of exposure to a particular type of abuse and subsequent psychological adjustment problems. Out of 458 students, 77% were emotionally abused, 52% physically abused, 30% neglected, 20% witnessed family violence, and 13% of girls and 21% of boys were sexually abused before the age of 14. Significant association between the maltreatment by a mother, father, and other adults were found for emotional and physical abuse and for neglect and witnessing family violence (r=0.413-0.541, Pstudents were exposed to multi-type maltreatment in childhood. Family characteristics and maltreatment scores significantly predicted anxiety/depression (R=0.456, R(2)=0.076), withdrawal (R=0.389, R(2)=0.049), somatic complaints (R=0.437, R(2)=0.059), social problems (R=0.417, R(2)=0.063), attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (R=0.368, R(2)=0.045), rule-breaking behavior (R=0.393, R(2)=0.045), aggression (R=0.437, R(2)=0.078) (Pstudents in Western Herzegovina Canton were exposed to multi-type maltreatment in childhood, regardless of the war experience. Emotional and physical abuse were most frequently combined forms of maltreatment. Sociodemographic and family characteristics and exposure to some forms of abuse were significant predictors of exposure to other forms of abuse. Exposure to maltreatment in childhood predicted difficulties in psychological
Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined youths’ friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for online friendships, predicting decreases in internalizing symptoms for youth with lower initial levels of social acceptance, but increases in symptoms for youth with higher initial levels over the following year. Across the entire sample, deviant behavior in posted photos predicted increases in young adults’ problematic alcohol use over time. The importance of considering the interplay between online and offline social factors for predicting adjustment is discussed. PMID:23109797
Barbarin, O A; Richter, L; deWet, T
The effects of exposure to direct and vicarious political, family, and community violence on the adjustment of 625 six-year-old black South African children was examined. Ambient community violence was most consistently related to children's psychosocial outcomes. Resources in the form of individual child resilience, maternal coping, and positive family relationships were found to mitigate the adverse impact in all the assessed domains of children's functioning.
Barbarin, Oscar A.; Richter, Linda; de Wet, Thea
The effects of exposure to direct and vicarious political, family, and community violence on the adjustment of 625 six-year-old black South African children was examined. Ambient community violence was most consistently related to children's psychosocial outcomes. Resources in the form of individual child resilience, maternal coping, and positive family relationships were found to mitigate the adverse impact in all the assessed domains of children's functioning.
Human, Lauren J; Dirks, Melanie A; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith
Parents and adolescents often hold discrepant views about the family environment and these discrepancies may in turn influence adolescents' psychological adjustment. The current study examined how adolescent-parent perceptions of family routines and chaos, and their congruence and incongruence, relate to adolescents' self-reported psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), both concurrently (N dyads = 261; 53 % female) and 2 years later (N dyads = 118; 50 % female). Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of the family environment were a stronger predictor of adolescents' adjustment than parents' perceptions (76 % mothers), concurrently and over time. However, both congruence and incongruence in adolescent-parent perceptions were also related to adolescents' adjustment. Specifically, congruently negative adolescent-parent perceptions were associated with worse concurrent adolescent adjustment. Further, incongruence defined by more negativity in adolescents' versus parents' perceptions was associated with worse adolescent psychological adjustment, concurrently and over time. In sum, in addition to the strong links between adolescents' perceptions of the family and their own psychological adjustment, examining how congruent and incongruent adolescents' perceptions are with parents' perceptions may shed additional light on how the family environment relates to adolescent adjustment.
Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara
Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Friedman, Lois C; Romero, Catherine; Elledge, Richard; Chang, Jenny; Kalidas, Mamta; Dulay, Mario F; Lynch, Garrett R; Osborne, C Kent
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-blame for developing breast cancer, a self-forgiving attitude, mood, and quality of life among women with breast cancer. In this cross-sectional study, 123 women with Stages 0-III breast cancer completed questionnaires measuring demographic and medical characteristics, self-blame, self-forgiveness, mood, and quality of life. Women who blamed themselves reported more mood disturbance (p self-forgiveness and the potential benefits of reducing self-blame to facilitate adjustment to breast cancer.
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki et al., A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University, 2003) across gender, and demonstrated gender differences in perceptions of support in early adolescence. In addition, there were significant associations between all sources of support with depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic adjustment, but fewer significant unique effects of each source. Parental support was a robust unique predictor of adjustment for both boys and girls, and classmates' support was a robust unique predictor for boys. These results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of adolescents with careful attention to measurement and analytic issues.
Demby, Kimberly P; Riggs, Shelley A; Kaminski, Patricia L
This study examined the links between parent-child attachment, whole family interaction patterns, and child emotional adjustment and adaptability in a sample of 86 community families with children between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Family interactions were observed and coded with the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF; Lindahl, 2001). Both parents and each target child completed the appropriate form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). Target children also completed the Children's Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ; Yunger, Corby, & Perry, 2005). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that Secure mother-child attachment was a robust predictor of children's emotional symptoms, but father-child attachment strategies were not significant independent predictors. Positive Affect in family interactions significantly increased the amount of variance accounted for in children's emotional symptoms. In addition, Family Cohesion and Positive Affect moderated the relationship between father-child attachment and children's emotional symptoms. When data from all BASC-2 informants (mother, father, child) were considered simultaneously and multidimensional constructs were modeled, mother-child security directly predicted children's adjustment and adaptive skills, but the influence of father-child security was fully mediated through positive family functioning. Results of the current study support the utility of considering dyadic attachment and family interaction patterns conjointly when conceptualizing and fostering positive emotional and behavioral outcomes in children. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Ferenczi, Nelli; Marshall, Tara C
Do insecurely attached individuals perceive greater rejection from their heritage culture? Few studies have examined the antecedents and outcomes of this perceived rejection - termed intragroup marginalization - in spite of its implications for the adjustment of cultural migrants to the mainstream culture. This study investigated whether anxious and avoidant attachment orientations among cultural migrants were associated with greater intragroup marginalization and, in turn, with lower subjective well-being and flourishing and higher acculturative stress. Anxious attachment was associated with heightened intragroup marginalization from friends and, in turn, with increased acculturative stress; anxious attachment was also associated with increased intragroup marginalization from family. Avoidant attachment was linked with increased intragroup marginalization from family and, in turn, with decreased subjective well-being.
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323
Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun
SYNOPSIS Objectives Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children’s psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. Design The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children’s adjustment was measured with parents’, teachers’, and peers’ or children’s reports. Results Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children’s externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. Conclusions Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child’s adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715
Kleinemeier, Eva; Jürgensen, Martina; Lux, Anke; Widenka, Pia-Marie; Thyen, Ute
Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions characterized by an atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex. Particularly at the time of expected puberty, adolescents with DSD may become aware of being different from peers. This study explores the effect of DSD on psychosocial well-being and sexual development. We interviewed 60 adolescents aged 13-16 years with a DSD. To measure health-related quality of life, mental health, and body image, we used standardized instruments and additional questions related to sexuality and coping with DSD. Reference and control data were available from the German Health Survey for Children and Adolescents (Kiggs) and from a secondary school survey. The general psychological well-being of adolescents with DSD was not impaired. However, outcomes related to adolescent developmental tasks like sexual activities demonstrated impaired participation, especially girls with DSD reported fewer sexual activities than female controls. Adolescents who needed hormonal treatment to induce puberty reported impaired well-being in nearly all outcomes in contrast to those who entered puberty spontaneously. Interdisciplinary health care teams should focus on the pressure of conformity and openly discuss it with the adolescent in context of treatment decisions. Furthermore, special counseling concerning sexuality and coping with the condition in daily life is needed. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Casper, Deborah M; Card, Noel A
This meta-analytic review includes 135 studies, representing 17 countries, of child and adolescent (ages 4-17) samples of overt and relational peer victimization and examines the magnitude of overlap between forms of victimization and associations with five social-psychological adjustment indices. Results indicate a strong intercorrelation between forms of victimization (r¯ = .72). No gender difference with regard to relational victimization was found, but boys were slightly higher in overt victimization. Overt victimization is more strongly associated with overt aggression; relational victimization is more strongly related to internalizing problems, lower levels of received prosocial behavior from peers, and relational aggression. Both forms are related to externalizing problems. Age and method of assessment were explored as potential sources of variability in effect sizes. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.
Full Text Available In numerous studies conducted in Western societies, shame as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA has correlated with maladjustment whereas the TOSCA Guilt Scale has predicted adjustment. The present investigation sought to determine if such linkages would also appear in the Muslim cultural context of Iran. Iranian university students (N = 132 responded to Shame and Guilt Scales from the third version of the TOSCA, along with an array of personality measures. Shame correlated negatively with adjustment and positively with maladjustment. Guilt displayed an opposite pattern of relationships. As in previous Western investigations, women scored higher than men on guilt, but the expected female elevation in shame failed to appear. Shame, nevertheless, interacted with gender to predict relationships with poorer psychological functioning in women, but not in men. These data most importantly confirmed that the TOSCA Shame and Guilt Scales in Iran display implications similar to those observed in the West and that gender differences in Iran may deserve additional research attention.
Rudiger, Jonathan A; Winstead, Barbara A
Talk about physical appearance and body image is common among young women. We investigated how body talk (negative, positive/self-accepting, and co-ruminative) is related to body image, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, psychological adjustment, and friendship quality via hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for social desirability and body mass index). In a sample of young adult women (N=203), negative body talk was, as predicted, negatively related to body satisfaction and self-esteem and positively related to appearance investment, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and depression, but not friendship quality. Self-accepting/positive body talk was negatively related to body-related cognitive distortions and positively related to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and friendship quality. Body-related co-rumination demonstrated adjustment trade-offs, being related to body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and higher friendship quality. Results indicated no advantage to negative body talk, both individual and relationship benefits from positive/self-accepting body talk, and mixed outcomes for body-related co-rumination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study conducted to examine the relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht. The research is descriptive correlational. The target population includes all female students studying in Rasht in 2015. By random cluster sampling method and based on the variables, 180 subjects selected. In this study, to collect data, psychological adjustment and social support, academic self-concept and academic achievement questionnaire are used. To test the hypothesis of this research, the parametric statistical Pearson correlation and regression tests are used. Moreover, all statistical operations were analyzed by using SPSS software. The research results showed that the correlation values between psychological adjustment and social support with academic self-concept and academic achievement of high school female students is statistically significant ( 01/0 > p.
Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
This study examined the moderating role of two facets of appearance investment (self-evaluative salience (SES) and motivational salience (MS)) in the relationship between self-consciousness about appearance and psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety and psychological quality of life (QoL)) in a sample of 134 breast cancer patients (68 newly diagnosed patients and 66 survivors). No significant differences were found between groups on body image variables. Among survivors, the associations between self-consciousness about appearance and the outcome variables were only significant at high (depression, psychological QoL) levels and at moderate (psychological QoL) levels of SES. Self-consciousness about appearance contributed to poor adjustment in both groups. This study demonstrates that appearance investment plays a key role in patients' adjustment and highlights the SES-MS distinction. SES seems to be a vulnerability factor for poor adjustment, and MS seems to be a protective factor that helps women cope with changes in appearance. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others
Structural equation modeling analysis of 349 youths, aged 9-16, in St. Kitts, West Indies, showed that physical punishment by itself does make a modest, but significant, direct and negative contribution to youths' psychological adjustment. Children tended to experience themselves to be rejected in direct proportion to the frequency and severity of…
Berg, S.W. van den; Gielissen, M.F.M.; Custers, J.A.E.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Ottevanger, P.B.; Prins, J.B.
PURPOSE: Early breast cancer survivors (BCSs) report high unmet care needs, and easily accessible care is not routinely available for this growing population. The Breast Cancer E-Health (BREATH) trial is a Web-based self-management intervention to support the psychological adjustment of women after
Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu
The purpose of these studies was to examine the frequency and stability of relational and physical aggression and their associations with social-psychological adjustment or peer victimization, and how friendships are involved in the relations between forms of aggression and peer victimization in Japanese children. The sample consisted of 452…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu
The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate psychometric properties that assess forms of aggression (i.e., relational and physical aggression) across cultures (i.e., Japan and the United States) and (2) to investigate the role of culture in the associations between forms of aggression and social-psychological adjustment problems such as…
Lahav, Orit; Apter, Alan; Ratzon, Navah Z.
This study evaluates how much the effects of intervention programs are influenced by pre-existing psychological adjustment and self-esteem levels in kindergarten and first grade children with poor visual-motor integration skills, from low socioeconomic backgrounds. One hundred and sixteen mainstream kindergarten and first-grade children, from low…
Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E.; Macejova, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.
The aim of this study was to determine whether self-esteem and adjustment to disease can mediate the association between pain and psychological well-being in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Coefficients of correlation, multiple linear regressions and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were
van Jaarsveld, C.H.; Ranchor, A.V.; Sanderman, R.; Ormel, J.; Kempen, G.I.
The role of mastery, self-efficacy expectancies and neuroticism in explaining individual differences in physical and psychological adjustment to cardiac disease was studied in 208 patients. Premorbid data were available from a community-based survey in the Netherlands. Hierarchical linear regression
Zeltner, Nina A; Huemer, Martina; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Landolt, Markus A
In recent decades, considerable progress in diagnosis and treatment of patients with intoxication-type inborn errors of metabolism (IT-IEM) such as urea cycle disorders (UCD), organic acidurias (OA), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), or tyrosinemia type 1 (TYR 1) has resulted in a growing group of long-term survivors. However, IT-IEM still require intense patient and caregiver effort in terms of strict dietetic and pharmacological treatment, and the threat of metabolic crises is always present. Furthermore, crises can affect the central nervous system (CNS), leading to cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric sequelae. Consequently, the well-being of the patients warrants consideration from both a medical and a psychosocial viewpoint by assessing health-related quality of life (HrQoL), psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning. To date, an overview of findings on these topics for IT-IEM is lacking. We therefore aimed to systematically review the research on HrQoL, psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning in patients with IT-IEM. Relevant databases were searched with predefined keywords. Study selection was conducted in two steps based on predefined criteria. Two independent reviewers completed the selection and data extraction. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were of varying methodological quality and used different assessment measures. Findings on HrQoL were inconsistent, with some showing lower and others showing higher or equal HrQoL for IT-IEM patients compared to norms. Findings on psychological adjustment and adaptive functioning were more consistent, showing mostly either no difference or worse adjustment of IT-IEM patients compared to norms. Single medical risk factors for HrQoL, psychological adjustment, or adaptive functioning have been addressed, while psychosocial risk factors have not been addressed. Data on HrQoL, psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning for IT-IEM are sparse. Studies are inconsistent in
Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa; Filus, Anna; Rezvan nia, Parissa; Casullo, Maria Martina; Vohra, Neharika
We examined psychological disorders across cultures and their associations with parental factors (control, inconsistency, and rejection). A questionnaire assessing psychological disorders was administered to male and female adolescents in nine countries. The results showed that psychological disorders differ across cultures. Parental factors are…
Lochman, John E.; Vernberg, Eric; Powell, Nicole P.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Jarrett, Matthew; McDonald, Kristina; Qu, Lixin; Hendrickson, Michelle; Kassing, Francesca
Objective Using a risk-resilience framework, this study examined how varying levels of exposure to a natural disaster (EF-4 tornado) and children’s characteristics (sex; anxiety) influenced the behavioral and psychological adjustment of children who shared a common risk factor predisaster (elevated aggression) prior to exposure through one-year postdisaster. Method Participants included 360 children in 4th–6th grades (65% male; 78% African American) and their parents from predominantly low-income households who were already participating in a longitudinal study of indicated prevention effects for externalizing outcomes when the tornado occurred in 2011. Fourth-grade children who were screened for overt aggressive behavior were recruited in three annual cohorts (120 per year, beginning in 2009). Parent-rated aggression and internalizing problems were assessed prior to the tornado (Wave 1), within a half-year after the tornado (Wave 2), and at a one-year follow-up (Wave 3). Children and parents rated their exposure to aspects of tornado-related traumatic experiences at Wave 3. Results Children displayed less reduction on aggression and internalizing problems if the children had experienced distress after the tornado or fears for their life, in combination with their pre-tornado level of anxiety. Higher levels of children’s and parents’ exposure to the tornado interacted with children’s lower baseline child anxiety to predict less reduction in aggression and internalizing problems one year after the tornado. Conclusion Higher levels of disaster exposure negatively affected at-risk children’s level of improvement in aggression and internalizing problems, when life threat (parent- and child-reported) and child-reported distress after the tornado were moderated by baseline anxiety. PMID:27841691
Lochman, John E; Vernberg, Eric; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jarrett, Matthew; McDonald, Kristina; Qu, Lixin; Hendrickson, Michelle; Kassing, Francesca
Using a risk-resilience framework, this study examined how varying levels of exposure to a natural disaster (EF-4 tornado) and children's characteristics (sex; anxiety) influenced the behavioral and psychological adjustment of children who shared a common risk factor predisaster (elevated aggression) prior to exposure through 1-year postdisaster. Participants included 360 children in Grades 4-6 (65% male; 78% African American) and their parents from predominantly low-income households who were already participating in a longitudinal study of indicated prevention effects for externalizing outcomes when the tornado occurred in 2011. Fourth-grade children who were screened for overt aggressive behavior were recruited in 3 annual cohorts (120 per year, beginning in 2009). Parent-rated aggression and internalizing problems were assessed prior to the tornado (Wave 1), within a half-year after the tornado (Wave 2), and at a 1-year follow-up (Wave 3). Children and parents rated their exposure to aspects of tornado-related traumatic experiences at Wave 3. Children displayed less reduction on aggression and internalizing problems if the children had experienced distress after the tornado or fears for their life, in combination with their pre-tornado level of anxiety. Higher levels of children's and parents' exposure to the tornado interacted with children's lower baseline child anxiety to predict less reduction in aggression and internalizing problems 1 year after the tornado. Higher levels of disaster exposure negatively affected at-risk children's level of improvement in aggression and internalizing problems, when life threat (parent- and child-reported) and child-reported distress after the tornado were moderated by baseline anxiety.
Gunnarsdottir, T; Njardvik, U; Olafsdottir, A S; Craighead, L W; Bjarnason, R
The first objective was to determine the prevalence of psychological maladjustment (emotional and behavioural problems), low academic competencies and teasing/social rejection among obese Icelandic children enrolling in a family-based behavioural treatment. A second objective was to explore the degree to which teasing/social rejection specifically contributes to children's psychological adjustment and academic competencies when controlling for other variables, including demographics, children's physical activity, parental depression and life-stress. Participants were 84 obese children (mean body mass index-standard deviation score=3.11, age range=7.52-13.61 years). Height and weight, demographics and measures of children's psychological adjustment, academic competencies, teasing/social rejection and physical activity were collected from children, parents and teachers. Parental depression and life-stress was self-reported. Over half the children exceeded cutoffs indicating concern on at least one measure of behavioural or emotional difficulties. Children endorsed significant levels of teasing/social rejection, with almost half acknowledging they were not popular with same-gender peers. Parent reports of peer problems were even higher, with over 90% of both boys and girls being rated by their parents as having significant peer difficulties. However, rates of low academic competencies as reported by teachers were not different from those of the general population. In regression analyses controlling for other variables, self-reported teasing/social rejection emerged as a significant contributor to explaining both child psychological adjustment and academic competencies. The results indicate that among obese children enrolled in family-based treatment, self-reported teasing/social rejection is quite high and it is associated with poorer psychological adjustment as well as lower academic competencies. Parent reports corroborate the presence of substantial peer
Köhler, N; Friedrich, M; Gansera, L; Holze, S; Thiel, R; Roth, S; Rebmann, U; Stolzenburg, J-U; Truss, M C; Fahlenkamp, D; Scholz, H-J; Brähler, E
The aim of this prospective multi-centre study was to evaluate the level of psychological distress (PD) and adjustment to disease in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Furthermore, the impact of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction on PD was assessed. Anxiety, depression and PD were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 329 prostate cancer patients before surgery as well as 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. These results were compared with those of a male German general population reference group. Adjustment to disease was assessed using the Perceived Adjustment to Chronic Illness Scale. Patients reported low levels of PD at all points of assessment similar to population norms of age-matched German men. Persistent PD was seen in about 8% of the patients and 20% had PD at least two of the measurement points. Relevant predictors for PD after surgery were urinary symptoms and baseline PD. Adjustment to disease was highest before surgery and had significantly reduced at 3 and 6 months after surgery. In general, men are resilient to the experience of localised prostate cancer and adjust well psychologically after surgery. However, between 8% and 20% of patients could possibly benefit from mental health support. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Comorbidity structure of psychological disorders in the online e-PASS data as predictors of psychosocial adjustment measures: psychological distress, adequate social support, self-confidence, quality of life, and suicidal ideation.
Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny
A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image-eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression-sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (Psocial support, self-confidence, and quality of life. This
Meyerson, Lori A.; Long, Patricia J.; Miranda, Robert, Jr.; Marx, Brian P.
A study examined contributions of sexual abuse, physical abuse, family cohesion, and conflict in predicting psychological functioning of 131 adolescents receiving residential vocational training services. In addition to child sexual abuse and physical abuse, family conflict and cohesion predicted development of psychological distress and…
Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG
This study examines the way coping styles and locus of control contribute to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment in adolescents with a chronic illness. Psychosocial adjustment of 84 adolescents aged 13-16 years with a chronic illness was assessed with measures of social adjustment. global
Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola
Cleft in the lip and/or the palate (CL/P) is considered to be a lifelong condition, yet relatively little is known about the long-term outcomes for patients. Existing literature is largely outdated and conflicted, with an almost exclusive focus on medical aspects and deficits. To explore the psychological adjustment and possible support needs of a large number of adults born with CL/P from their own perspective. Fifty-two individual telephone interviews eliciting qualitative data. Qualitative analysis identified five themes. Participants reported a range of challenges in relation to discharge from the service, additional surgery as an adult, social and romantic relationships, higher education, vocational achievement, and access to psychological support. The findings imply that most adults with a cleft adjust well to these challenges and report many positive outcomes. For a minority of patients, issues attributed to the cleft may continue to cause distress in adulthood. Adults with CL/P may require psychological support, information about the heritability of cleft, signposting and referrals from nonspecialists, support regarding further treatment, and opportunities to take part in research and activities. New issues arising in adulthood, such as entering the workplace, forming long-term relationships, and starting a family, may warrant both further investigation and additional support. Further work is needed to identify the factors that contribute to psychological distress and resilience, as well as the timing of particular points of risk and opportunity for personal growth.
Full Text Available The theoretical model of emotion regulation and many empirical findings have suggested that children’s emotion regulation may mediate the association between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment. However, limited research has been conducted on moderators of these relations, despite the argument that the associations between parenting practices and children’s psychological adjustment are probabilistic rather than deterministic. This study examined the mediating role of children’s emotion regulation in linking parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment, and whether dyadic collaboration could moderate the proposed mediation model in a sample of Chinese parents and their children in their middle childhood. Participants were 150 Chinese children (87 boys and 63 girls, Mage = 8.54, SD = 1.67 and their parents (Mage = 39.22, SD = 4.07. Parent–child dyadic collaboration was videotaped and coded from an interaction task. Parents reported on their emotion socialization, children’s emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms. Results indicated that child emotion regulation mediated the links between parental emotion socialization and child’s psychopathological symptoms. Evidence of moderated mediation was also found: supportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation were positively correlated only at high and medium levels of dyadic collaboration, with child’s psychopathological symptoms as the dependent variables. Our findings suggested that higher-level parent–child collaboration might further potentiate the protective effect of parental supportive emotion socialization practices against child psychopathological symptoms.
Jin, Zhuyun; Zhang, Xutong; Han, Zhuo Rachel
The theoretical model of emotion regulation and many empirical findings have suggested that children’s emotion regulation may mediate the association between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment. However, limited research has been conducted on moderators of these relations, despite the argument that the associations between parenting practices and children’s psychological adjustment are probabilistic rather than deterministic. This study examined the mediating role of children’s emotion regulation in linking parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment, and whether dyadic collaboration could moderate the proposed mediation model in a sample of Chinese parents and their children in their middle childhood. Participants were 150 Chinese children (87 boys and 63 girls, Mage = 8.54, SD = 1.67) and their parents (Mage = 39.22, SD = 4.07). Parent–child dyadic collaboration was videotaped and coded from an interaction task. Parents reported on their emotion socialization, children’s emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms. Results indicated that child emotion regulation mediated the links between parental emotion socialization and child’s psychopathological symptoms. Evidence of moderated mediation was also found: supportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation were positively correlated only at high and medium levels of dyadic collaboration, with child’s psychopathological symptoms as the dependent variables. Our findings suggested that higher-level parent–child collaboration might further potentiate the protective effect of parental supportive emotion socialization practices against child psychopathological symptoms. PMID:29326629
Anderson, Malcolm I; Simpson, Grahame K; Daher, Maysaa; Matheson, Lucinda
A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the association between coping (as measured by the Ways of Coping Questionnaire [WOCQ]) and psychological adjustment in caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A search conducted using the CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO databases yielded 201 citations between 1974 and 2014. A total of seven articles met the inclusion criteria; namely, the respondents who completed the WOCQ were family caregivers of individuals with TBI (including 66-item, 42-item, or 21-item versions). Reviews were conducted in accordance with the American Academy of Neurology guidelines (2011) for classifying evidence. The results found no Class 1 or Class II studies but only four Class III and three Class IV studies. The major finding across the better-rated Class III studies was that the use of emotion-focused coping and problem-focused coping was possibly associated with psychological adjustment in caregivers. The Class IV studies were determined to be inadequate or conflicting in determining the association between coping and psychological adjustment. Future studies need to employ carefully crafted designs, adhere to statistical procedure, apply advanced analytic techniques, and employ explicit models of coping, which will increase the accuracy and generalizability of the findings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with congenital heart defects (CHD requiring open-heart surgery are a group at high risk for health-related sequelae. Little consensus exists regarding their long-term psychological adjustment (PA and health-related quality of life (QoL. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to determine the current knowledge on long-term outcome in this population. Methods We included randomized controlled trials, case control, or cohort studies published between 1990–2008 evaluating self- and proxy-reported PA and QoL in patients aged between two and 17 years with a follow-up of at least two years after open heart surgery for CHD. Results Twenty-three studies assessing psychological parameters and 12 studies assessing QoL were included. Methodological quality of the studies varied greatly with most studies showing a moderate quality. Results were as follows: (a A considerable proportion of children experienced psychological maladjustment according to their parents; (b studies on self-reported PA indicate a good outcome; (c the studies on QoL suggest an impaired QoL for some children in particular for those with more severe cardiac disease; (d parental reports of psychological maladjustment were related to severity of CHD and developmental delay. Conclusion A significant proportion of survivors of open-heart surgery for CHD are at risk for psychological maladjustment and impaired QoL. Future research needs to focus on self-reports, QoL data and adolescents.
Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan
.... 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form...
Boinon, Diane; Sultan, Serge; Charles, Cécile; Stulz, Alexandra; Guillemeau, Claire; Delaloge, Suzette; Dauchy, Sarah
Although research on social sharing suggests it could be an important factor in subsequent adjustment, it has rarely been examined in combination with the nature of the support received by patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether and to what extent social sharing concerning the disease and perceived social support after breast surgery explain psychological adjustment at the end of the treatment. One hundred two participants were recruited consecutively at a large cancer care center (Gustave Roussy, France). After surgery (T1) and at the end of the adjuvant treatment (T2), patients responded to self-report questionnaires assessing psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and cancer-related distress), social sharing concerning the illness, and perceived social support (generic and cancer specific). When the initial levels of adjustment were controlled for, hierarchical multiple regression models showed that greater instrumental support at T1 accounted for favorable changes in depressive symptoms at T2. In contrast, the perception of aversive attitudes in the environment and the avoidance of social sharing explained an increase in intrusive cancer-related thoughts. The results suggest a negative impact of aversive attitudes from the environment on adjustment during treatment. It also confirms the importance of practical aspects of social support after surgery. In line with Lepore theory, sharing about the illness in a supportive environment may be of primary importance in the cognitive processing of cancer and thus may promote adjustment. These results have original implications for the counseling of patients and their relatives. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Whittingham, K; Wee, D; Sanders, M R; Boyd, R
To investigate the role of child behaviour, parental coping and experiential avoidance in predicting the psychological outcomes of: (i) psychological symptoms; (ii) chronic sorrow symptoms; and (iii) experienced parenting burden in parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study is a cross-sectional, correlational study. Ninety-four parents of children (aged 2-12 years) with CP (various levels of motor functioning GMFCS I-V) participated. Together, the three predictors of child behaviour, parental coping and experiential avoidance explained 36.8% of the variance in psychological symptoms with child behavioural problems and experiential avoidance as significant unique predictors. In addition, 15.8% of the variance in chronic sorrow symptoms was explained by the three predictors with experiential avoidance alone as a significant unique predictor. Lastly, the predictors together explained 24.3% of the variance in experienced parenting burden with child behavioural problems and experiential avoidance as significant unique predictors. This study demonstrates a relationship between child behavioural problems and parental psychological symptoms and experienced parenting burden as well as a relationship between experiential avoidance and parental psychological symptoms, experienced parenting burden and chronic sorrow symptoms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Deirdre M. J. Walsh
Full Text Available Background: Post traumatic growth (PTG can be defined as positive change following a traumatic event. The current conceptualization of PTG encompasses five main dimensions, however, there is no dimension which accounts for the distinct effect of a physical trauma on PTG. The purpose of the present research was to test the role of PTG, physical post traumatic growth (PPTG, resilience and mindfulness in predicting psychological and health related adjustment.Method: Ethical approval was obtained from relevant institutional ethics committees. Participants (N = 241, who were at least 1 year post prostate cancer treatment, were invited to complete a battery of questionnaires either through an online survey or a paper and pencil package received in the post The sample ranged in age from 44 to 88 years (M = 64.02, SD = 7.76. Data were analysis using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.Results: The physical post traumatic growth inventory (P-PTGI was used to evaluate the role of PPTG in predicting adjustment using structural equation modeling. P-PTGI predicted lower distress and improvement of quality of life, whereas conversely, the traditional PTG measure was linked with poor adjustment. The relationship between resilience and adjustment was found to be mediated by P-PTGI.Conclusion: Findings suggest the central role of PTG in the prostate cancer survivorship experience is enhanced by the inclusion of PPTG. Adjusting to a physical trauma such as illness (internal transgressor is unlike a trauma with an external transgressor as the physical trauma creates an entirely different framework for adjustment. The current study demonstrates the impact of PPTG on adjustment. This significantly adds to the theory of the development of PTG by highlighting the interplay of resilience with PTG, PPTG, and adjustment.
Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.
Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…
Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhengyan
The purpose of this study was to examine relations between shyness-sensitivity and social competence, school performance, and psychological well-being in Chinese children with rural and urban backgrounds. Participants were students in rural migrant children schools and city schools in China (Ns = 411 and 518, respectively; M age = 10 years). Data…
Rost, Ann D.; Wilson, Kelly; Buchanan, Erin; Hildebrandt, Mikaela J.; Mutch, David
Data suggest that individuals dealing with a cancer diagnosis are less likely to suffer from depression, anxiety, and psychological distress when they cope with their condition from a stance of emotional and cognitive acceptance (e.g. Dunkel, et al., 1992; Stanton, et al., 2000). Although traditional CBT often includes some acceptance-oriented…
Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…
Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Bargal, David
The article presents the results of a study on the relationship between exposure to (i.e., witnessing and experiencing) different patterns and types of family violence during childhood, during adolescence, and during young adulthood, on one hand, and adult post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), on the other. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,969 Palestinian students using a self-administered questionnaire. The results reveal that the more the participants witnessed and experienced psychological aggression (PS) and physical violence (PH) in their families of origin, the more they exhibited PTSS. Furthermore, the results indicate that a significant amount of the variance in the participants' PTSS could be attributed to their exposure to family violence, over and above the amounts of variance that were explained by their sociodemographic characteristics and by their perceptions of their parents' psychological adjustment. The limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Trejos, Ana María; Reyes, Lizeth; Bahamon, Marly Johana; Alarcón, Yolima; Gaviria, Gladys
A study in five Colombian cities in 2006, confirms the findings of other international studies: the majority of HIV-positive children not know their diagnosis, caregivers are reluctant to give this information because they believe that the news will cause emotional distress to the child becoming primary purpose of this study to validate a model of revelation. We implemented a clinical model, referred to as: "DIRE" that hypothetically had normalizing effects on psychological adjustment and adherence to antiretroviral treatment of HIV seropositive children, using a quasi-experimental design. Test were administered (questionnaire to assess patterns of disclosure and non-disclosure of the diagnosis of VIH/SIDA on children in health professionals and participants caregivers, Family Apgar, EuroQol EQ- 5D, MOS Social Support Survey Questionnaire Information treatment for VIH/SIDA and child Symptom Checklist CBCL/6-18 adapted to Latinos) before and after implementation of the model to 31 children (n: 31), 30 caregivers (n: 30) and 41 health professionals. Data processing was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 21 by applying parametric tests (Friedman) and nonparametric (t Student). No significant differences in adherence to treatment (p=0.392), in the psychological adjustment were found positive significant differences at follow-ups compared to baseline 2 weeks (p: 0.001), 3 months (p: 0.000) and 6 months (p: 0.000). The clinical model demonstrated effectiveness in normalizing of psychological adjustment and maintaining treatment compliance. The process also generated confidence in caregivers and health professionals in this difficult task.
Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bastos, Alice; Feinberg, Mark
First published online: 30 October 2015 The aim of this study was to identify post-divorce coparenting proﬁles and examine whether these proﬁles differentiate between levels of parents’ well-being, parenting practices, and children’s psychological problems. Cluster analysis was conducted with Portuguese heterosexual divorced parents (N = 314) to yield distinct postdivorce coparenting patterns. Clusters were based on parents’ self-reported coparenting relationship assessed along four dimens...
Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.
Evaluated the emotional consequences of using wish-fulfilling fantasy (palliative) and information-seeking (instrumental) coping strategies among patients (N=151) faced with chronic illness. Results showed information-seeking to have positive effects on adjustment and wish-fulfilling fantasy to have deleterious consequences. (LLL)
Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Zarafshan, Hadi
Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP), while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism. The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better. Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control) were significantly
Full Text Available Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP, while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism.The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R. The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better.Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control were
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy
There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bastos, Alice; Feinberg, Mark
The aim of this study was to identify post-divorce coparenting profiles and examine whether these profiles differentiate between levels of parents' well-being, parenting practices, and children's psychological problems. Cluster analysis was conducted with Portuguese heterosexual divorced parents (N = 314) to yield distinct post-divorce coparenting patterns. Clusters were based on parents' self-reported coparenting relationship assessed along four dimensions: agreement, exposure to conflict, undermining/support, and division of labor. A three cluster solution was found and replicated. Parents in the high-conflict coparenting group exhibited significantly lower life satisfaction, as well as significantly higher divorce-related negative affect and inconsistent parenting than parents in undermining and cooperative coparenting clusters. The cooperative coparenting group reported higher levels of positive family functioning and lower externalizing and internalizing problems in their children. These results suggested that a positive coparenting alliance may be a protective factor for individual and family outcomes after parental divorce.
Slanbekova, Gulnara; Chung, Man Cheung; Abildina, Saltanat; Sabirova, Raikhan; Kapbasova, Gulzada; Karipbaev, Baizhol
Focusing on a group of Kazakh divorcees, this study examined the inter-relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from past trauma, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, adjustment difficulties, and psychiatric symptom severity following divorce. One hundred and twenty divorcees participated in the research and completed the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Brief COPE, and Fisher's Divorce Adjustment Scale Results: About 29% reported no trauma; 53%, 21%, and 26% met the criteria for no-PTSD, partial-PTSD, and full-PTSD respectively. Emotion-focused coping and managing emotions predicted adjustment difficulties. Controlling for gender, PTSD, problem-focused coping, and managing emotions predicted psychiatric symptom severity. Problem-focused coping mediated the direct effect of the path between PTSD and psychiatric symptom severity with its mediational effect being moderated by the effect of managing emotions. Following divorce, people can experience psychological distress which is influenced by the effects of PTSD from past trauma, and whether they used problem-focused coping and were able to manage their emotions.
Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.
Research Findings The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This paper examined how engagement in preschool physical and relational aggression predicted psychosocial adjustment during the kindergarten school year. Observations and teacher reports of aggression were collected in preschool, and kindergarten teachers reported on student-teacher relationship quality, child internalizing problems, and peer acceptance in kindergarten. Results suggested that preschool physical aggression predicted reduced peer acceptance and increased conflict with the kindergarten teacher. High levels of relational aggression, when not combined with physical aggression, were related to more positive transitions to kindergarten in the domains assessed. Practice or Policy These data lend support to the need for interventions among physically aggressive preschoolers to target not only concurrent behavior but also future aggression and adjustment in kindergarten. Thus, educators should work to encourage social influence in more prosocial ways amongst aggressive preschoolers. PMID:26146468
Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S
Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
das Nair, Roshan; Kontou, Eirini; Smale, Kathryn; Barker, Alex; Lincoln, Nadina B
To modify a published group intervention for adjustment to multiple sclerosis (MS) to suit an individual format, and to assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare individual and group intervention for people with multiple sclerosis and low mood. Feasibility randomised controlled trial. Participants were recruited through healthcare professionals at a hospital-based multiple sclerosis service and the MS Society. People with multiple sclerosis. Adjustment to multiple sclerosis in individual or group delivery format. Participants completed mood and quality of life assessments at baseline and at four-month follow-up. Measures of feasibility included: recruitment rate, acceptability of randomisation and the intervention (content and format), and whether the intervention could be adapted for individual delivery. Participants were screened for inclusion using the General Health Questionnaire-12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and were randomly allocated to receive either individual or group intervention, with the same content. Twenty-one participants were recruited (mean age 48.5 years, SD 10.5) and were randomly allocated to individual (n=11) or group (n=10) intervention. Of those offered individual treatment, nine (82%) completed all six sessions. Of those allocated to group intervention, two (20%) attended all six sessions and three (30%) attended five sessions. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on the outcome measures of mood and quality of life. The intervention could be provided on an individual basis and the trial design was feasible. There were lower attendance rates at group sessions compared to individual sessions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wardecker, Britney M; Edelstein, Robin S; Quas, Jodi A; Cordon, Ingrid M; Goodman, Gail S
Traumatized individuals are often encouraged to confront their experiences by talking or writing about them. However, survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) might find it especially difficult to process abuse experiences, particularly when the abuse is more severe, which could put them at greater risk for mental health problems. The current study examined whether CSA survivors who use emotion language when describing their abuse experiences exhibit better mental health. We analyzed the trauma narratives of 55 adults who, as children, were part of a larger study of the long-term emotional effects of criminal prosecutions on CSA survivors. Abuse narratives were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. We examined whether positive and negative emotion language in participants' abuse narratives were associated with self- and caregiver-reported mental health symptoms and whether these associations differed according to the severity of the abuse. As hypothesized, participants who used more positive and negative emotion language had better psychological outcomes, especially when the abuse was severe. Our findings suggest that survivors of more severe abuse might benefit from including emotion language, whether positive or negative in valence, when describing the abuse.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the psychopathic tendencies in relation to childhood trauma, psychological adjustment, emotion regulation and parental patterns of acceptance-rejection towards their adolescents and the influence of demographic variables in socio-cultural context of Pakistan. Translated versions of Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire; Child PARQ, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory and bio-data form containing information regarding different demographic variables were used in order to collect the data from the participants. The sample consisted of 600 adolescents (281 males; 319 females with age ranged between 13 and 17 were selected with convenient random sampling from different private and public schools of the three major cities of Punjab; Lahore, Gujrat and Sialkot. The results indicated psychological maladjustment as the most significant predictor of psychopathic tendencies. However, emotion regulation appeared to be as the most significant predictor of psychopathic tendencies in male adolescents and parental acceptance-rejection (mother in female adolescents. The results further indicated that age, father’s education and profession, mother’s education and monthly income are significant determinants of psychopathic tendencies in participants of the study.
Routledge, Clay; Ostafin, Brian; Juhl, Jacob; Sedikides, Constantine; Cathey, Christie; Liao, Jiangqun
This research builds on terror management theory to examine the relationships among self-esteem, death cognition, and psychological adjustment. Self-esteem was measured (Studies 1-2, 4-8) or manipulated (Study 3), and thoughts of death were manipulated (Studies 1-3, 5-8) or measured (Study 4). Subsequently, satisfaction with life (Study 1), subjective vitality (Study 2), meaning in life (Studies 3-5), positive and negative affect (Studies 1, 4, 5), exploration (Study 6), state anxiety (Study 7), and social avoidance (Study 8) were assessed. Death-related cognition (a) decreased satisfaction with life, subjective vitality, meaning in life, and exploration; (b) increased negative affect and state anxiety; and (c) exacerbated social avoidance for individuals with low self-esteem but not for those with high self-esteem. These effects occurred only when death thoughts were outside of focal attention. Parallel effects were found in American (Studies 1-4, 6-8) and Chinese (Study 5) samples. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly
Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.
van den Berg, Sanne W; Gielissen, Marieke F M; Custers, José A E; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Ottevanger, Petronella B; Prins, Judith B
Early breast cancer survivors (BCSs) report high unmet care needs, and easily accessible care is not routinely available for this growing population. The Breast Cancer E-Health (BREATH) trial is a Web-based self-management intervention to support the psychological adjustment of women after primary treatment, by reducing distress and improving empowerment. This multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial evaluated whether care as usual (CAU) plus BREATH is superior to CAU alone. BREATH is delivered in sixteen fully automated weekly modules covering early survivorship issues. Two to 4 months post-treatment, BCSs were randomly assigned to receive CAU + BREATH (n = 70) or CAU alone (n = 80) using a stratified block design (ratio 1:1). Primary outcomes were distress (Symptom Checklist-90) and empowerment (Cancer Empowerment Questionnaire), assessed before random assignment (baseline, T0) and after 4 (T1), 6 (T2), and 10 months (T3) of follow-up. Statistical (analysis of covariance) and clinical effects (reliable change index) were tested in an intention-to-treat analysis (T0 to T1). Follow-up effects (T0 to T3) were assessed in assessment completers. CAU + BREATH participants reported significantly less distress than CAU-alone participants (-7.79; 95% CI, -14.31 to -1.27; P = .02) with a small-to-medium effect size (d = 0.33), but empowerment was not affected (-1.71; 95% CI, 5.20 to -1.79; P = .34). More CAU + BREATH participants (39 of 70 [56%]; 95% CI, 44.1 to 66.8) than CAU-alone participants (32 of 80 [40%]; 95% CI, 30.0 to 51.0) showed clinically significant improvement (P = .03). This clinical effect was most prominent in low-distress BCSs. Secondary outcomes confirmed primary outcomes. There were no between-group differences in primary outcomes during follow-up. Access to BREATH reduced distress among BCSs, but this effect was not sustained during follow-up. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Perfis de vinculação, coparentalidade e ajustamento familiar em pais recém-divorciados: diferenças no ajustamento psicológico Attachment, coparenting and family adjustment profiles in newly divorced parents: differences in psychological adjustment
Full Text Available O objectivo deste estudo foi identificar, através de uma análise de cluster, perfis de regulação individual-diádica-sistémica em pais récem-divorciados (N=81 com base na vinculação, coparentalidade e ajustamento familiar. Três padrões de regulação foram identificados: regulado-seguro (RS, desregulado-ansioso (DA e desregulado-evitante (DE. O grupo RS mostrou níveis mais elevados de segurança na vinculação, maior qualidade na coparentalidade e no ajustamento familiar que os grupos DA e DE. A coparentalidade e o funcionamento familiar foram as dimensões que melhor diferenciaram os clusters. Avaliando o ajustamento psicológico dos pais recém-divorciados em função dos perfis encontrados, o grupo RS apresentou maiores níveis de ajustamento psicológico do que os restantes dois grupos. Não foram encontradas diferenças no ajustamento psicológico entre os grupos DA e DE.The aim of this study was to identify, using a cluster analysis, profiles of individual-dyadic-systemic regulation in newly divorced parents (N =81. Three profiles of regulation were identified: secure/regulated (SR, anxious/dysregulated (AD and avoidant/dysregulated (ED. The SR group reported higher levels of attachment security and high levels of perceived parenting alliance and family adjustment than AD and ED groups. Coparenting and family functioning were the dimensions that better discriminate between clusters. Assessing the newly divorced parents' psychological adjustment using the three profiles found, the parents of SR group showed higher levels of psychological adjustment than the ones in the other two groups. There were no differences in psychological adjustment between the AD and ED groups.
Dinh, Khanh T; Weinstein, Traci L; Nemon, Melissa; Rondeau, Sara
On the basis of acculturation theory, explicating mutual influences between different cultural or ethnic groups coming into contact, this study focused "on the other side of acculturation" theory by examining the effects of intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans on the psychosocial experiences of White American college students. Participants (N = 315), undergraduates attending a public university located within the state of Massachusetts, completed a survey that assessed demographic and personal characteristics, acculturation (extent of intercultural contact with Asian people and Asian cultures), attitudes towards Asians and Asian Americans, awareness of institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues, and psychological distress. Results indicated that White American students' intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans contributed significant variance to the prediction of their attitudes towards this ethnic group and awareness of discrimination and racial issues, but not to psychological distress. This study provides implications for understanding mutual acculturative influences between different ethnic groups in the United States.
This paper reports an ethnographic study of a group of Chinese international students' emotion-management experiences in intercultural adjustment in a UK university context. Drawing on a social constructionist paradigm, it investigates students' constructions of their emotion-management strategies, and the effects of social interactions on the…
Hadjikakou, Kika; Nicolaou, Nicoletta; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Stampoltzis, Aglaia
This study investigates the psychosocial adjustment of hearing siblings of deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh) children, as well as the quality of the relationships between siblings and between hearing siblings and mothers. Thirty families from Cyprus took part in the study. Self-report data were collected from the mothers and the hearing siblings.…
Yusoff, Yusliza Mohd.
The globalization of the economy and society has had its impact on Malaysian higher education institutions, particularly universities. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education aims at intensifying globalization through increasing the number of international students. However, many international students struggle with adjusting to a new culture.…
Müller, Christoph Michael; Hofmann, Verena
Previous research suggests that the 1st year in secondary school for some students goes hand in hand with an increase in adjustment difficulties. One factor that might influence this process on an individual, compositional, and institutional level is the academic track a student attends. It was hypothesized that being assigned to a low-qualifying…
Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I
Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.
van Solinge, H.; Krauss Withbourne, S.
Retirement is an important life course event that marks the start of a new life stage in which work is no longer dominant. Thus, employees have to adjust to the significant life changes that accompany the transition and seek to achieve psychological comfort with their retirement life. This entry
... Lifestyle Stress management What's the difference between normal stress and an adjustment disorder? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to ...
Dóris Firmino Rabelo
Full Text Available Diante do aumento da prevalência de condições crônicas na população idosa, crescente atenção é dada à identificação dos fatores psicológicos e sociais que podem afetar o bem-estar e a qualidade de vida de indivíduos mais velhos com incapacidades. Os recursos psicológicos e sociais de que o indivíduo dispõe são um caminho na determinação das implicações da incapacidade funcional na vida das pessoas afetadas. Esta revisão tem como objetivo apresentar algumas maneiras pelas quais os indivíduos enfrentam suas perdas em funções físicas e papéis sociais e a extensão em que os recursos psicológicos e sociais operam sobre os efeitos negativos das condições crônicas na qualidade de vida dos idosos. Entre as variáveis explanatórias apresentadas estão o suporte social, as crenças e estados emocionais positivos, a regulação afetiva, o mecanismo de comparação social, o senso de auto-eficácia percebida, o mecanismo de seleção-otimização-compensação e mecanismos de coping.Considering the increase of chronic conditions in the elderly people, more attention has been given to the identification of the psychological and social factors that can affect the well-being and the quality of life of individuals with incapacities. The psychological and social resources that the individual disposes are clues to determine the implications of the functional incapacity in the life of affected people. This review has the objective to present some ways which the individuals face their losses in physical functions and social roles, and in which extension the psychological and social resources operate over the negative effects of the chronic conditions in the elderly quality of life. Among the explainable variables presented there is the social support, the positive emotional states and beliefs, the affectionate regulation, the mechanism of social comparison, the sense of self-sufficiency, the selection
The social, psychological, emotional morbidity and adjustment techniques for women with anal incontinence following Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury: use of a word picture to identify a hidden syndrome.
Keighley, M R B; Perston, Yvette; Bradshaw, Elissa; Hayes, Joanne; Keighley, D Margaret; Webb, Sara
To identify the emotional, social and psychological consequences and recovery process of anal incontinence (AI) following obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) and explore if this can be identified as a recognisable syndrome with visual representation. A qualitative approach was adopted for this study. Data derived from case studies (n = 81) and interviews (n = 14) with women with AI after OASIS was used to identify the emotional, social and psychological consequences of AI after OASIS. Keywords and synonyms were extracted and the power of these statements displayed as a 'word picture'. The validity and authenticity of the word picture was then assessed by: a questionnaire sent to a group of mothers who had experienced this condition (n = 16); a focus group attended by mothers (n = 14) and supported by health professionals (n = 6) and via interviews with health professionals (n = 12) who were involved with helping mothers with AI following OASIS. Women with AI resulting from OASIS have a specific syndrome - the 'OASIS Syndrome' - which we have uniquely visualised as a 'word picture'. They feel unclean which results in dignity loss, psychosexual morbidity, isolation, embarrassment, guilt, fear, grief, feeling low, anxiety, loss of confidence, a feeling of having been mutilated and a compromised role as a mother. Coping relies on repetitive washing (which may become a ritual), planning daily activities around toiletry needs, sharing, family support, employment if possible and attention to the baby. Recovery and healing is through care of the child and hope generated by love within the family. This study has identified a previously unrecognised 'OASIS Syndrome' and, by way of a new and unique 'word picture', revealed a hidden condition. There should be greater awareness by the public and profession about the 'OASIS Syndrome' and a mechanism for early identification of the condition and referral for management. This, if successful, would
Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Kogan, Steven M; Beach, Steven R H
Many African American youth may develop high levels of allostatic load, a measure of physiological wear and tear on the body, by developing psychosocial competence under conditions of high risk related to socioeconomic status (SES). The current study was designed to test this hypothesis, which is based on John Henryism theory. In a representative sample of 489 African American youth living in the rural South, cumulative SES-related risks and teacher-reported competence were assessed at ages 11 to 13; depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and allostatic load were assessed at age 19. The data revealed that rural African American preadolescents who evinced high psychosocial competence under conditions of high cumulative SES-related risk displayed low levels of adjustment problems along with high allostatic load at age 19. These results suggest that, for many rural African Americans, resilience may indeed be only "skin deep."
Shamaskin, Andrea M; Rybarczyk, Bruce D; Wang, Edward; White-Williams, Connie; McGee, Edwin; Cotts, William; Grady, Kathleen L
Research examining age differences after heart transplant (HT) has focused primarily on morbidity and mortality outcomes, with little emphasis on potential age differences in quality of life and psychosocial outcomes. The objective of the study was to determine whether older patients have more positive adjustment and quality of life several years after HT compared with younger patients. The study recruited 555 patients who were at least 5 years post-HT from 4 United States medical centers. The sample included 165 older patients (≥ 60 years at HT), 300 middle-aged patients (between 45 and 59 years), and 90 younger patients (< 45 years). Of these, 78% were men, 88% were white, and most were well educated (14.04 mean years of education). Outcome measures examined quality of life, social support, mood, coping strategies, stress, health functioning, and adherence. Hypotheses regarding outcomes were derived from incidental findings from the original study. Statistics included multivariate analyses of covariance, followed by univariate analyses of covariance that controlled for differences in sex, race, years of education, and marital status. Older HT patients were more satisfied with quality of life (p < 0.001) and social support (p = 0.003), had less HT-related stress (p < 0.001), negative affect (p < 0.001), depression (p < 0.001), better overall functioning (p = 0.035), less use of negative coping strategies (p = 0.006), less difficulty with adherence (p < 0.001), and better actual adherence (p < 0.001) than younger and middle-aged HT patients. Older patients in this large sample had better quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, and adherence after HT than middle-aged and younger patients. If replicated, this age advantage should at least be considered when assessing age as a criterion for HT clinical decision making and organ allocation policy. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.
M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha
A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations o...
Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong
Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…
Bem-estar subjetivo e senso de ajustamento psicológico em idosos que sofreram acidente vascular cerebral: uma revisão Subjective well being and perceived psychological adjustment among old people affected by stroke: a review
Dóris Firmino Rabelo
Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento dos estudos brasileiros e estrangeiros publicados entre 1996 e 2005 que relacionavam bem-estar subjetivo, senso de ajustamento psicológico e acidente vascular cerebral, com o objetivo de identificar variáveis mediadoras dessa relação em idosos. Estudos transversais e prospectivos indicaram que os afetados por acidente vascular cerebral apresentam menor bem-estar subjetivo quando comparados com a população geral. Boa capacidade cognitiva, suporte social efetivo, continuidade de uma ocupação produtiva, manutenção da competência em atividades instrumentais de vida diária e humor positivo são fatores que podem melhorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico. Variáveis que podem piorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico são incapacidade funcional, déficits cognitivos, depressão, dificuldade em restabelecer a identidade e restrição à possibilidade de desempenhar atividades e papéis que contribuem para a auto-definição. O conhecimento das implicações psicológicas de sofrer acidente vascular cerebral pode beneficiar pacientes, familiares e profissionais no gerenciamento do evento.We gathered data from Brazilian and foreign studies published between 1996 and 2005 which related subjective well-being, sense of psychological adjustment and stroke. The objective was identifying mediator variables of this relation among old people. Prospective and cross-sectional studies indicated that those affected by stroke showed less subjective well-being than the general population. Good cognitive capacity, effective social support, continuity of a productive occupation, keeping the competence in instrumental activities of daily living and good mood are factors which can affect positively the subjective and psychological well-being. Variables which can affect negatively the subjective and psychological well-being are functional incapacity, cognitive deficits, depression, difficulty in re-establishing the identity and
... Results Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only a modest benefit — similar to the results of more conventional treatments. Some studies suggest that spinal manipulation also may ...
van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A
Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal
van denderen, Mariette; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A.
Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal
Onrust, S.; Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Bohlmeijer, E.
Background: The impact of spousal bereavement on mental health varies among the widowed. More information is needed on factors influencing bereavement outcome. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a sample of 216 widowed individuals. Initial non-response was high, with only 8% of all
PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.
In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566
In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566
MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR
MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.
Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD
Naoi, Airi; Deaner, Heather. R.
[Abstract] This article reviews previous research studies that have examined the psychological responses of injured athletes and the effectiveness of psychological skills interventions for injured athletes. In order to understand psychological response to injury, two models, a cognitive appraisal model of psychological adjustment to athletic injury and an integrated model of psychological response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process, are described. Additionally, the relationship am...
May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.
Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)
... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...
Canter, David V.
The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime
Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…
Maybury, C P; Brewin, C. R.
A number of factors thought to influence psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis were studied. Patients' knowledge about their disorder was assessed, but neither their knowledge, level of disability, nor demographic characteristics were related to adjustment. Better adjustment was however associated with having more contact with able-bodied people.
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
Ajustamento psicológico e perspectiva de velhice pessoal em adultos com deficiência física Ajuste psicológico e la perspectiva percibida del envejecimiento personal en adulto y adultos moyores con discapacidad física Psychological adjustment and personal aging perspective in adults and older adults with physical disability
Marineia Crosara de Resende
exige capacidad adaptante, y resistencia para hacer frente a acontecimientos de vida y a los desafíos personales, sociales y ambientales producidos por la discapacidad.We carried out an investigation to analyze the relationships between perceived psychological adjustment and perspective of personal aging in adult and aged people with physical disability. Materials and Method: 90 participants, both genders, aged 25 to 84 , answered questionnaires asking for information on socio demographic characteristics and disability; the Sheppard Inventory of attitudes toward own aging; and a scale assessing perceived psychological adjustment. Results: The indexes of personal adjustment were moderate and high. The women had the lowest scores. There were observed positive correlations between positive psychological adjustment and positive attitudes toward own aging. Those that had congenital disability and reported higher psychological adjustment showed more positive perspectives of personal aging. Conclusion: Aging with physical disability is a complex process that demands adaptive competence, and resilience to cope with life events and the personal, social and environmental challenges produced by disability.
, religion and socio-economic level ... women's psychosocial adjustment needs on the basis of marital status. (Cal.t=0.42; P>0.05), .... psychological health and sexual satisfaction using 32 post menopausal and 13 non-menopausal women and ...
Halford, W Kim; Sweeper, Susie
To test a stress-diathesis model of adjustment to separation, the current study describes the trajectories of different aspects of separation adjustment in people formerly married or cohabiting, and moderators of those trajectories. A convenience sample of 303 recently separated individuals (169 women; 134 men) completed assessments of their emotional attachment to the former partner, loneliness, psychological distress, and coparenting conflict at two time points 6 months apart. Multilevel modeling of the overlapping multicohort design was used to estimate the trajectories of these different aspects of adjustment as a function of time since separation, marital status, gender, presence of children from the relationship, who initiated separation, social support, and anxious attachment. Attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress were initially high but improved markedly across the 2 years after separation, but coparenting conflict was high and stable. Adjustment problems were similar in men and women, and in those formerly married or cohabiting, except that reported coparenting conflict was higher in men than women. Low social support and high anxious attachment predicted persistent attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress. Coparenting conflict is a common, chronic problem for many separated individuals, and individuals with certain psychological vulnerabilities also experience chronic personal distress. © FPI, Inc.
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175
Staats, A W
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.
Adriana da Matta
Full Text Available Crenças irracionais (CIs são interpretações ilógicas da realidade que colaboram para o desenvolvimento de perturbações emocionais. A premissa deste estudo é que as CIs podem estar relacionadas ao ajustamento emocional e à satisfação de vida. Estudantes universitários (n=157, responderam ao Questionário de Crenças Irracionais, à Escala de Crenças Irracionais, à Escala Fatorial de Neuroticismo e à Escala de Satisfação de Vida. As CIs apresentaram correlações positivas com dois fatores da Escala Fatorial de Neuroticismo (Vulnerabilidade e Ansiedade e negativa com idade e com satisfação de vida. Os resultados levam a reflexões importantes sobre a efetividade da Terapia Cognitiva, em especial da Terapia Racional Emotivo-Comportamental, para o ajustamento emocional e para a satisfação de vida dos clientes, que poderiam ser medidas indiretas de sucesso terapêutico.Irrational beliefs (IB are illogical interpretations of reality that contribute to the development of emotional problems. This study aims to show that irrational beliefs in college students (n=157 might be related to emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. The participants have completed Irrational Beliefs Questionnaire, Neuroticism Factorial Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale. The IB showed positive correlation with two factors of the Neuroticism Factorial Scale (Vulnerability and Anxiety, and negative correlation with age and life satisfaction. The results suggest important considerations on the effectiveness of Cognitive Therapy, especially of Rational Emotive Therapy, for the emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of the clients, which could be an indirect measure of the therapeutic success.
This paper x-ray the psychosocial adjustment of adolescences based on their families structure, hence families were further revealed to include intact family, divorced family, separated family, psychological and none psychological broken homes, as it influence adolescence generally. Under the definition of terms ...
Bakker, W; Van Oudenhoven, JP; Van Der Zee, KI
The present study examines the relationship of adult attachment styles with personality and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. A sample of 847 first-generation Dutch emigrants filled out measures for attachment styles, the Big Five, and indicators of psychological and sociocultural
Kelly, Carol; Lynes, Dave
Carol Kelly and Dave Lynes outline the potential psychological consequences of living with a chronic respiratory disease and how nurses can assess problems and implement strategies to help patients to adjust and cope.
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...
Halpern, Diane F
Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.
Betz, Nancy E.
Major research directions for vocational psychology include diversity, use of new technology, organizational career development, and work adjustment over the life span. Issues include the role of qualitative methods and the appropriate disciplinary focus--closer to or beyond psychology. A challenge is attracting new researchers to the topic of…
"Adjustment disorder" occupies a peculiar position in the diagnostic system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) straddling the boundary between normal and abnormal psychology. A more human-centered approach in counseling offers a defense of "normal" adjustment as…
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
collection were Marital Adjustment Scale and Parenting Styles Questionnaire which were validated by four experts in Psychology, ... positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary .... manner in which parents raise their children. Parenting is a ...
Result: The data analysis revealed, among other things, that the problems and adjustment needs of in-school orphans were multifaceted affecting the academic, economic/financial, emotional, psychological and social aspects of their lives. These areas of problems and adjustment needs were arranged in hierarchical order ...
Lucian Gideon Conway
Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.
Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse
Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Adrian, Stine Willum
During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...
Pedersen, Eric R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lee, Christine M.
The literature on “Sojourner Adjustment,” a term expanding on the acculturation concept to apply to groups residing temporarily in foreign environments, suggests that engagement, participation, and temporary integration into the host culture may contribute to less psychological and sociocultural difficulty while abroad. The present study was designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations...
Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind
Objective. Several studies have suggested that religion and spirituality are important for overcoming psychological distress and adjusting mentally to cancer, but these studies did not differentiate between spiritual well-being and specific aspects of faith. We examined the extent to which......), specific aspects of faith ('belief in a god', 'belief in a god with whom I can talk' and 'experiences of god or a higher power'), religious community and church attendance (DUREL), distress (POMS-SF), adjustment to cancer (Mini-MAC) and sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were used...
Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin
This study aims to investigate the relationship between acculturation attitude (i.e. adjustment and attachment attitudes) and individuals' psychological adaptation (i.e. life satisfaction, depression and self-esteem). Additionally, the relationship between the dimensions of psychological adaptation with psychological well-being and their mediation…
Nihalani, B R; Hunter, D G
Surgical management of strabismus remains a challenge because surgical success rates, short-term and long-term, are not ideal. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery has been available for decades as a tool to potentially enhance the surgical outcomes. Intellectually, it seems logical that having a second chance to improve the outcome of a strabismus procedure should increase the overall success rate and reduce the reoperation rate. Yet, adjustable suture surgery has not gained universal acceptance, partly because Level 1 evidence of its advantages is lacking, and partly because the learning curve for accurate decision making during suture adjustment may span a decade or more. In this review we describe the indications, techniques, and published results of adjustable suture surgery. We will discuss the option of ‘no adjustment' in cases with satisfactory alignment with emphasis on recent advances allowing for delayed adjustment. The use of adjustable sutures in special circumstances will also be reviewed. Consistently improved outcomes in the adjustable arm of nearly all retrospective studies support the advantage of the adjustable option, and strabismus surgeons are advised to become facile in the application of this approach. PMID:21760626
Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.
Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.
Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.
breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.
Abu Bakar, Abu Yazid; Ishak, Noriah Mohd
Gifted learners have special characteristics which make them unique individuals. However, just like their normative group, gifted learners experience some psychological issues that hinder their ability to adjust in new environments. This study aims to examine levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and adjustments (psychological, social and…
Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Yaffe, Mordechai
Investigated contributions of perceived parenting style, current relationship with parents, and psychological well-being on perceived student social/emotional adjustment to university and academic achievement. Found that mutual reciprocity and discussion with parents and psychological well-being variables had direct links to adjustment. There was…
Rudolph, C.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der
While a relatively large literature outlines adjustment processes for retirees in general, very little empirical and theoretical attention has focused on the psychological adjustment process for bridge employees. That is to say, few studies have attempted to understand the psychological mechanisms
Cort Rudolph; Annet de Lange; Beatrice van der Heijden
While a relatively large literature outlines adjustment processes for retirees in general, very little empirical and theoretical attention has focused on the psychological adjustment process for bridge employees. That is to say, few studies have attempted to understand the psychological mechanisms
Rudolph, Cort W.; de Lange, Annet H.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Bal, P. Matthijs; Kooij, Dorien T.A.M.; Rousseau, Denise M.
While a relatively large literature outlines adjustment processes for retirees in general, very little empirical and theoretical attention has focused on the psychological adjustment process for bridge employees. That is to say, few studies have attempted to understand the psychological mechanisms
An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...
Cherian, V I; Cherian, L
Considerable information is available on the adjustment problems of first-year university students in developed countries, but comparatively little is known about such problems in Asia and Africa. This study of a representative sample of 1257 first-year students conducted at the University of the North showed that 33 to 85% of the first-year students experienced various adjustment problems.
Conclusion: Type-D personality, high anxiety, hypertension and dyslipidemia seem to cluster among female acute coronary syndrome patients. Nevertheless, type-D personality itself was not associated with higher anxiety and depressive scores during the post-acute period.
Sabatelli, Ronald M.; Anderson, Stephen A.
Examined differentiation patterns within marital, parental, and parent/child relationships and support level experienced within peer relationships as predictors of anxiety and depression in college students (n=60). Peer support and system of dynamics significantly covaried with reported levels of depression. Only differentiation level found within…
Janaína Thais Barbosa Pacheco
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to child maltreatment on self-esteem, social competence, peer relationships and school performance through a systematic literature review. For this purpose, a search of articles indexed in Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed databases between 1984 and 2012 was done. In this review, 19 empirical articles in English were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies highlight that, overall, both adults and children/teenagers who were exposed to maltreatment during childhood showed impairments on self-esteem, social competence, peer relationships, and school performance. The analysis of the articles has also allowed the identification of the instruments used to assess the variables of interest and the description of the profile of those who participated of the studies included in this review.
Ettner, Randi; Wylie, Kevan
Several forces conspire to make the later decades a climacteric for transgendered persons. This paper will examine the social, emotional, and hormonal influences that entwine and challenge the stability of the elderly transgendered person. Case studies and therapeutic interventions will be addressed. Within our article, the cases are fictitious and therefore consent was not required for our vignettes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skinner, T. C.
of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...
of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...
Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis was the factor that triggered the adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances accumulated in Romania. The current account deficit and budget deficit were two major structural imbalances that have created a high vulnerability for the economy and explained the extent of economic contraction in Romania during the economic crisis. This article identifies the main causes that lead to the need for fiscal adjustment both in the EU and in Romania, as well as main effects of adjustments in respect of their experience in recent years. The article deals with this topic, because the current topical debate in the field of fiscal adjustments implemented both in the EU and our country, and their need for economic activity aimed at economic recovery.
Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.
Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.
Anderson, Walter L.
The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.
for general adjustment, interaction adjustment, work adjustment and psychological adjustment. Neither was there a difference in the time-related variable; time to proficiency. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that the degree of cultural similarity/dissimilarity may be irrelevant as to how easily...... expatriates adjust is fundamental. Implications for theory, practice and future research of these findings are discussed in detail. ...
The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…
After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious
Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.
Sint Nicolaas, Simone M.; Schepers, Sasja A.; van den Bergh, Esther M. M.; Evers, Andrea W. M.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Verhaak, Christianne M.
Illness cognitions are an important mediator between disease and psychological adjustment. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), adjusted for the parents of an ill child. Participants were recruited from two multicenter studies: sample 1
Sint Nicolaas, S.M.; Schepers, S.A.; Bergh, E.M. van den; Evers, A.W.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Verhaak, C.M.
PURPOSE: Illness cognitions are an important mediator between disease and psychological adjustment. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), adjusted for the parents of an ill child. METHODS: Participants were recruited from two multicenter
Modification (CBM) Tools to Promote Adjustment during Reintegration following Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Professor Yair Bar-Haim...Tools to Promote Adjustment during Reintegration following Deployment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-2- 0001 5c...military performance and psychological adjustment both in theatre and upon reintegration back to civilian environments. The overarching goal of the
Chavoshi, Saeid; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dentakos, Stella; Wright, Lorna
The current study proposes a Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment and uses a multifaceted measure, including academic, social and psychological adjustment, to examine factors predictive of undergraduate international student adjustment. A hierarchic regression model is carried out on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire…
Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded
Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurd....../value - The paper offers new insights into the concept of CD and the findings may amount to a potentially fundamental contribution to the literature with important implications for the theory and practice of international human resource management.......Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...... of the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that German...
Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi
We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.
Stafford, Thomas H., Jr.; And Others
International students (N=747) completed a questionnaire to obtain information about their adjustment so that special services could be developed for them. Homesickness was their greatest area of concern, as well as housing, social relationships, the English language, and finances. (RC)
Abramson, Jane A.
Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…
Follick, M J; Smith, T W; Turk, D C
Ostomy patients have been identified as a chronic illness population frequently experiencing adjustment difficulties. The present study, based on the biopsychosocial model (Engel, 1977) of chronic illness, examined a range of post-surgical adjustment difficulties in a sample of 131 ostomy patients. The patient population reported experiencing a significant number of technical, emotional, social, marital/family, and sexual difficulties post-surgically. Technical difficulties were associated with impaired emotional, social, and marital/family functioning. Emotional difficulties were also associated with problematic social, marital/family adjustment, and impaired sexual functioning. Technical problems, emotional difficulties, and social problems were all associated with the patient's perception of having received inadequate preparatory information. Marital/family and sexual maladjustment, on the other hand, were associated with low levels of perceived social support. The results of this investigation are interpreted as supporting the biopsychosocial model of chronic illness, and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed as well as their relation to previous research on adjustment to stressful medical procedures.
Here, using input, output and nitrogen pollution data related to one state, we propose to extend the elasticity concept to include environmental pollution treated as undesirable output to provide the environmentally adjusted elasticity measures for the period, 1936-1997 in a two-step procedure.
Rabbit incisor teeth are open-rooted and, in healthy animals, grow continuously. Incisor adjustments are often necessary to maintain the health and well-being of rabbits with incisor malocclusion. This column will describe some techniques used to manage incisor malocclusion in the rabbit.
Seo, Hyunjin; Harn, Ren-Whei; Ebrahim, Husain; Aldana, José
Based on a survey of international students enrolled in a U.S. university, this study examines how social media use is associated with perceived social support and adjustment when demographic and social psychological characteristics are controlled for. Our research shows that level of social media use is positively associated with level of perceived social adjustment but not with level of perceived social support. International students don’t feel comfortable discussing their distress via soc...
Turkington, Catherine; Dempster, Martin; Maguire, Jennifer
Cross-sectional descriptive. Hand injuries are highly prevalent, and the impact they have on physical, emotional, and functional adjustment is well recognized. Increasingly, adjustment to health conditions including hand injuries is being understood in terms of psychological variables. To examine the role of illness beliefs and coping strategies in adjustment to hand injury. Adjustment was considered from a complete perspective including quality of life (QOL) and functional ability as well as mood and trauma symptoms. Cross-sectional survey whereby consecutive patients (n = 65) attending the regional plastic surgery service with hand injuries were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing illness perceptions, coping strategies, QOL, hand functioning, depression, and trauma symptoms. Data were analyzed in SPSS (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY) by correlation and then hierarchical regression analysis. Illness perceptions and coping strategies were significantly related to the adjustment outcomes (hand functioning, QOL, depression, and trauma symptoms). Specifically, poorer adjustment was associated with more negative illness beliefs (r = 0.31-0.47), greater use of denial (r = 0.24-0.53), and avoidance-based (r = 0.41-0.64) coping strategies. Illness beliefs and coping play an important role in adjustment after hand injury. Adjustment is multifaceted with a need to consider physical and emotional functioning. More optimistic beliefs and adaptive coping styles are associated with improved adjustment. The role of psychological variables in optimizing adjustment is an important consideration for the design of psychological interventions, but because this study was cross sectional and cannot assume directional effects, future longitudinal studies are needed. N/A. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...
Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten
The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This directs...... attention to the transformative implications of conscious strategic maneuvering by incumbent regime actors, when confronting regime structurations. This article provides insight to processes of regime enactment performed by local governments by applying a flow-oriented perspective on regime dynamics......, inspired by Actor-Network Theory to demonstrate that regime incumbent actors can induce gradual regime adjustments at the urban scale. This is done through a case study of an urban development project, where the Municipality of Egedal in Denmark has successfully promoted energy efficient buildings through...
Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...
Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.
The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.
Chaplin, James E.
An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri
In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.
King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F
The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...
Zhang, Jingyu; Mandl, Heinz; Wang, Erping
The effect of personality traits and acculturation variables on crosscultural adjustment were investigated in 139 Chinese students in Germany (52% girls; M age = 25.3 yr., SD = 2.9). Participants were surveyed by house visits to their dormitories. Several scales were administered: (a) Big Five Inventory; (b) Vancouver Index of Acculturation; (c) sociocultural adjustment, general and academic; and (d) psychological adjustment, i.e., depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results showed that Neuroticism and Openness were two shared predictors of sociocultural adjustment. Agreeableness and mainstream acculturation were only related to general adjustment, while Conscientiousness was only related to academic adjustment. All facets of psychological adjustment were related to Neuroticism and Consciousness, while positive components (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were also related to Extraversion and Openness. No influence of heritage acculturation was found. The findings are discussed in light of measurement issues and the shared and unique individual predictors of the different facets of adjustment.
Buss Shyness Scale (RCBS) developed by. Check and Buss and Loneliness and Social. Dissatisfaction Questionnaire, developed by Asher et. Al.,(1984). Finally, the. Personal-psychological. Adjustment Measure, adopted from. Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (1989) and. Measures of depression, anxiety and stress.
Ferguson, Lucy Rau; Allen, Deborah R.
Parents completed the Locke-Wallace Scale, the Interpersonal Checklist, and the Children's Behavior Checklist to assess marital satisfaction, congruence of perceptions, and agreement in perceptions of their child and child adjustment. Variables were positively intercorrelated. Similarity in partners' self-concepts and psychological empathy were…
Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.
Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…
Farley, Gary L.
Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.
Haupt, G F
The methods presently applied in the psychological training of astronauts are based on the principle of ensuring maximum performance of astronauts during missions. The shortcomings are obvious since those undergoing training provide nothing but the best ability to cope with Earth problem situations and add simply an experience of space problem situations as they are presently conceived. Earth attitudes and Earth behaviour remain and are simply modified. Through the utilization of interdisciplinary space knowledge a much higher degree of problem anticipation could be achieved and the astronaut be psychologically transformed into a space-being. This would at the same time stimulate interdisciplinary space research. The interdisciplinary space knowledge already available suggests that space requires not only physical and mental adjustments, but a profoundly new relationship with life.
Background: Physical illness is commonly associated with psychological distress that may be a direct effect of the illness or an adjustment in coping with the physical illness or its treatment. Little is known about psychological distress of patients on general wards in developing countries. Objectives: This study aimed to ...
The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.
Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron
A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.
Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…
Cheung, Fanny M.
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbæk explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...
of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances......In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions......’ of newcomers enacting the organizational emergent. The study throws light on the informal socialization in work-related interactions between newcomers and veterans and reveals professional relational histories, as well as the relationship between veteran coworker and hiring manager, to be important aspects...
Insufficient plasticity in threat processing may confer risk for military performance and psychological adjustment both in theatre and upon...goal is perused through unique research collaboration between WRAIR and Tel Aviv University offering a combination of experts in advanced psychological ...research in military context and in translational cognitive- neuroscience research. 5 BODY Recruitment of participants and data collection
This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...
Carr, Christopher M
This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine
Mirjana Nastran Ule
The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...
The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.
Lopes, Vânia Margarida Silva; Leal, Isabel Maria Pereira
To examine the relationship between adjustment to diagnosed infertility and personality, anxiety, depression and stress (in general and inherent to infertility) in couples. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample of 35 couples attending infertility consultations, in a public health service in the Lisbon district. Data was collected using the following main outcome measures: NEO Personality Inventory--Short Form; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; Fertility Problem Inventory; and Fertility Adjustment Scale. In women, neuroticism was associated with greater stress in situations of infertility, and depression was related with social, sexual and relational aspects of stress in infertility. Social aspects and need to be a parent expressed maladjustment to fertility. In men, personality was not related to stress in infertility; this was explained by the sexual and relational aspects. The maladjustment to fertility was explained by the need to be a parent. Infertile men and women are emotionally adjusted, determined to fulfill their goals while exhibiting low levels of anxiety, depression and stress. Thus, although it is relevant to identify the effects of infertility which may make one susceptible to maladjustment, psychological intervention is not always necessary in these couples. Although the results are very relevant, the sample's reduced dimension is a limitation.
Lloyd, Tracey; Hastings, Richard P.
Background: Psychological mechanisms may help to explain the variance observed in parental psychological adjustment in parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). In this study, parental locus of control and its role in relation to maternal psychological well-being was explored. Method: Questionnaires were sent to 91 mothers of children…
The issues related to socio-cultural and cross-cultural adaptation of foreign students have been analysed, the indicators of psychological adaptation have been identified, some aspects of their psychological adjustment have been studied, the concept of «culture shock» in the process of psychological adaptation to the cultural differences between countries has been analysed.
Full Text Available Developing learners’ ability to self-regulate their own learning has been an ideal sought after by researchers and practitioners alike. Over the past 40 years a plethora of educational psychology research on self-regulated learning (SRL has flooded the literature. In this article I attempt to consolidate key theories from this literature base and propose a 6-point strategy to CREATE a culture of SRL. I will argue that instructors must communicate proximal and long-term goals that have been negotiated by a community of learners, substantially reward all positive aspects of the learning process, judge and reward the learning process by assigning elaborative learning assessments, realistically attribute success and failure to appropriate processes, and tune ineffective strategies and goals to allow the curriculum to evolve in accordance with learner difficulty and success.Enseigner aux apprenants la capacité d’autoréguler leur propre apprentissage est un idéal que poursuivent les chercheurs et les praticiens. Au cours des quarante dernières années, il y a eu surabondance d’études sur l’autorégulation de l’apprentissage dans la littérature sur la psychologie de l’éducation. Dans cet article, l’auteur tente de regrouper les principales théories tirées de cette documentation et de proposer une stratégie composée de six éléments contribuant à la création d’une culture de l’autorégulation. Il soutient que les enseignants doivent communiquer les objectifs à court et à long terme convenus par les apprenants, reconnaître de façon marquée tous aspects positifs du processus d’apprentissage, évaluer et reconnaître ce processus en donnant des travaux élaborés afin de mesurer l’apprentissage, attribuer de façon réaliste les succès et les échecs aux processus appropriés et adapter les stratégies et buts inefficaces afin de permettre l’évolution du curriculum en tenant compte des difficultés et des r
Moreno-Villanueva, M; Bürkle, A
Psychological stress has often been described as a feeling of being overwhelmed by the necessity of constant adjustment to an individual's changing environment. Stress affects people of all ages, but the lives of the elderly may particularly be affected. Major changes can cause anxiety leading to feelings of insecurity and/or loss of self-esteem and depression. The cellular mechanisms underlying psychological stress are poorly understood. This review focuses on the physical and molecular consequences of psychological stress linked to aging processes and, in particular, how molecular changes induced by psychological stress can compromise healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca
This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A "High Functioning" (n = 173) group, which…
Salami, Samuel O.
The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of psychological and social factors to the prediction of adjustment to college. A total of 250 first year students from colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria, completed measures of self-esteem, emotional intelligence, stress, social support and adjustment. Regression analyses…
Hayeems, R Z; Geller, G.; Finkelstein, D; Faden, R. R.
Background: People with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) experience functional and psychological challenges as they adjust to progressive loss of visual function. The authors aimed to understand better the process of adjusting to RP in light of the emotional suffering associated with this process.
Costigan, Catherine L.; Koryzma, Celine M.
This study examined parenting efficacy beliefs as a mediator of the association between acculturation and adjustment. The sample consisted of 177 immigrant Chinese mothers and fathers with early adolescent children in Canada. Acculturation was assessed bidimensionally as Canadian and Chinese orientations. A latent psychological adjustment variable…
This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.
Fagulha, T; Dana, R H
This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.
... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...
Hjern, Anders; Alfven, Gösta; Ostberg, Viveca
The proportion of Scandinavian school children reporting psychosomatic pain and psychological complaints have increased in recent decades. In this study we investigated these symptoms in relation to potential stressors in the school environment. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on child interviews linked to nationally representative household surveys in Sweden during 2002-2003 covering a sample of 2588 children aged 10-18 years. The main outcome variable of psychosomatic pain signified suffering from headache as well as recurrent abdominal pain on a weekly basis. School stressors, such as harassment by peers, schoolwork pressure and being treated poorly by teachers, were associated with psychosomatic pain as well as psychological complaints such as sadness, irritability, feeling unsafe and nervous. Harassment was identified as a particularly important determinant with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 3.1 to 8.6 for psychosomatic pain. All psychological complaints were associated with psychosomatic pain with adjusted ORs ranging from 2.2 to 3.7, and mediated most of the association of harassment to psychosomatic pain. School stressors are strongly associated with psychosomatic pain and psychological complaints in school children. Psychological complaints seem to function as mediators in the association of school stressors to psychosomatic pain symptoms to a great extent.
In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...
PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...
Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)
Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)
Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.
Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…
Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.
Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…
Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio
The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Asian American adolescents are often depicted as academically successful but psychologically distressed, a pattern known as the achievement/adjustment paradox. In a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (54 % females), we identified three distinct patterns of adjustment in early adolescence, middle adolescence, and emerging adulthood: the well-adjusted group, which was the largest, exhibited high achievement and low psychological distress; the poorly-adjusted group exhibited poor achievement and moderate distress; and the paradox group exhibited relatively high achievement and high distress. More than half of the adolescents remained in the same profile over time. Adolescents with supportive parents were more likely to stay well-adjusted, and those with "tiger" parents were more likely to stay in the paradox group over time. The present study focused on the critical role of parenting in early adolescence, highlighting variations in Chinese American adolescents' adjustment in multiple domains over time.
Luh Putu S. Kusumaningsih, Ruseno Arjanggi
This research aims to analyze the correlation between social anxiety and college adjustment. 436 undergraduate psychology students of five universities in Central Java were involved in this study. All respondents completed a questionnaire about student adjustment to college, and social anxiety scale. Canonical correlation was conducted to analyze the data. The result showed that fear of negative evaluation correlates with academic and personal-emotional adjustment, but not with social adjustm...
Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank
We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....
Ghilani, Charles D
the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu
Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.
Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…
Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.
formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...
Ziglar, Elisa J.
This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…
Cheung, Fanny M
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Vossler, Andreas; Steffen , Edith; Joseph, Stephen
The aim of this chapter is to explore the relation between the professional specialty of counseling psychology and positive psychology. Following a brief historical overview of counseling psychology, we explore its theoretical convergence with positive psychology and examine how the ideas from positive psychology have been received by counseling psychologists. We argue that although counseling psychology has its roots in ideas that are consistent with positive psychology, the profession has d...
Montgomery, R L; Haemmerlie, F M; Ray, D M
This study assessed optimism held by 300 college students at a midwestern university using Scheier and Carver's Life Orientation Test. Optimism ratings were compared to measures of psychological functioning. Analysis showed that optimism was significantly associated with all of the adjustment measures (social, academic, personal, and goal commitment) assessed with Baker and Siryk's Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, higher self-esteem measured with Rosenberg's Self-esteem scale, and with lower ratings of loneliness as assessed with the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale.
Prospective, multicenter, controlled study of quality of life, psychological adjustment process and medical outcomes of patients receiving a preemptive kidney transplant compared to a similar population of recipients after a dialysis period of less than three years--The PreKit-QoL study protocol.
Sébille, Véronique; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Giral, Magali; Bonnaud-Antignac, Angélique; Tessier, Philippe; Papuchon, Emmanuelle; Jobert, Alexandra; Faurel-Paul, Elodie; Gentile, Stéphanie; Cassuto, Elisabeth; Morélon, Emmanuel; Rostaing, Lionel; Glotz, Denis; Sberro-Soussan, Rebecca; Foucher, Yohann; Meurette, Aurélie
Treatment of end stage renal disease has an impact on patients' physical and psychological health, including quality of life (QoL). Nowadays, it is known that reducing the dialysis period has many advantages regarding QoL and medical outcomes. Although preemptive transplantation is the preferred strategy to prevent patients undergoing dialysis, its psychological impact is unknown. Moreover, transplantation can be experienced in a completely different manner among patients who were on dialysis and those who still had a functioning kidney at the time of surgery. Longitudinal data are often collected to allow analyzing the evolution of patients' QoL over time using questionnaires. Such data are often difficult to interpret due to the patients' changing standards, values, or conceptualization of what the questionnaire is intended to measure (e.g. QoL). This phenomenon is referred to as response shift and is often linked to the way the patients might adapt or cope with their disease experience. Whether response shift is experienced in a different way among patients who were on dialysis and those who still had a functioning kidney at time of surgery is unknown and will be studied in the PreKit-QoL study (trial registration number: NCT02154815). Understanding the psychological impact of pre-emptive transplantation is an important issue since it can be associated with long-term patient and graft survival. Adult patients with a pre-emptive transplantation (n = 130) will be prospectively included along with a control group of patients with a pre-transplant dialysis period < 36 months (n = 260). Only first and single kidney transplantation will be considered. Endpoints include: comparison of change between groups in QoL, anxiety and depressive disorders, perceived stress, taking into account response shift. These criteria will be evaluated every 6 months prior to surgery, at hospital discharge, at three and six months, one and two years after transplantation
Mirjana Nastran Ule
Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.
Yilmaz Ozpolat, Ayşe Gül; Ayaz, Tuğba; Konağ, Ozlem; Ozkan, Asiye
Social support is associated with a decrease in psychological symptoms and a better quality of life in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of attachment dimensions on social and psychological adjustment to cancer and to explore the social and psychological adjustments, and medical adherence, among patients. The study was conducted with 68 cancer patients, between 18 and 74 years of age. The measures taken were the Demographic Information Form, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS-SR). The results showed that an avoidant attachment style was related to difficulties in social relationships and an increase in psychological distress following cancer diagnosis. People who perceive more social support orient to health care more easily than people who perceive less social availability. It was shown that a higher level of perceived social support has a positive impact in adjustment to family relationships and leads to experiencing less psychological distress than in people who perceived less social support. Considering the complicated nature of cancer, a multi-perspective approach should be applied during the treatment process, and it is important to determine the psychosocial factors, and the causal pathways by which they lead to a better adjustment, in developing effective interventions.
DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the th...
It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....
Sicras-Mainar, Antonio; Dirección de Planificación, Badalona Serveis Assistencials. Barcelona, España. Médico doctor en Medicina, especialista en Salud Pública.; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Hospital Germans Trías i Pujol. Badalona, Barcelona, España. médica especialista en Documentación Médica.
Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) are risk adjustment systems that classify people according to their age, sex and medical conditions, these people have a similar consumption of health resources over a given period of time. They were developed by Starfield and Weiner (Johns Hopkins University, USA, 1991), and their objective is to measure the degree of illness among patients based on the levels of comorbidity. Their main applications are: a) the evaluation of the efficiency in the use of hea...
Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M
The literature on "Sojourner Adjustment," a term expanding on the acculturation concept to apply to groups residing temporarily in foreign environments, suggests that engagement, participation, and temporary integration into the host culture may contribute to less psychological and sociocultural difficulty while abroad. The present study was designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations residing temporarily in foreign environments (e.g., international students, foreign aid workers). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a sample of 248 American study abroad college students, we established a 24-item measure of Sojourner Adjustment composed of four positive factors (social interaction with host nationals, cultural understanding and participation, language development and use, host culture identification) and two negative factors (social interaction with co-nationals, homesickness/feeling out of place). Preliminary convergent validity was examined through correlations with established measures of acculturation. Further research with the SAM is encouraged to explore the relevance of this measure with other groups of sojourners (e.g., foreign aid workers, international businessmen, military personnel) and to determine how SAM factors relate to psychological well-being, health behaviors, and risk behaviors abroad among these diverse groups.
Pedersen, Eric R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lee, Christine M.
The literature on “Sojourner Adjustment,” a term expanding on the acculturation concept to apply to groups residing temporarily in foreign environments, suggests that engagement, participation, and temporary integration into the host culture may contribute to less psychological and sociocultural difficulty while abroad. The present study was designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations residing temporarily in foreign environments (e.g., international students, foreign aid workers). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a sample of 248 American study abroad college students, we established a 24-item measure of Sojourner Adjustment composed of four positive factors (social interaction with host nationals, cultural understanding and participation, language development and use, host culture identification) and two negative factors (social interaction with co-nationals, homesickness/feeling out of place). Preliminary convergent validity was examined through correlations with established measures of acculturation. Further research with the SAM is encouraged to explore the relevance of this measure with other groups of sojourners (e.g., foreign aid workers, international businessmen, military personnel) and to determine how SAM factors relate to psychological well-being, health behaviors, and risk behaviors abroad among these diverse groups. PMID:22125351
Yihun, A; Anand, P; Abebe, F
.... Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...
Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko
The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Stephen J. Guastello
Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.
Costigan, Catherine L; Koryzma, Céline M
This study examined parenting efficacy beliefs as a mediator of the association between acculturation and adjustment. The sample consisted of 177 immigrant Chinese mothers and fathers with early adolescent children in Canada. Acculturation was assessed bidimensionally as Canadian and Chinese orientations. A latent psychological adjustment variable was composed of symptoms of depression, feelings of self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results showed that relations between Canadian orientation and psychological adjustment were partially mediated by parenting efficacy. As expected, the more parents were oriented toward Canadian culture, the more efficacious they felt in their parenting, which in turn was associated with better psychological adjustment. In contrast, mediation of relations between Chinese orientation and psychological adjustment was not supported, as Chinese orientation was not associated with parenting efficacy and was positively associated with psychological adjustment for mothers only. Similar results were found when the meditational model was extended to evaluate parenting practices as an outcome (i.e., warmth, reasoning, and monitoring). That is, parenting efficacy mediated the relation between higher Canadian orientation and more positive parenting practices, whereas Chinese orientation was unrelated to parenting practices. Invariance testing suggested that the models were similar for mothers and fathers. Results support the theory that higher orientation to Canadian culture may advance feelings of parenting efficacy because parents have the cultural knowledge and skills to feel confident parenting in a new intercultural context. Further, they support the expectation that parenting efficacy beliefs, in turn, are important determinants of psychological adjustment and effective parenting for immigrant parents. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer
Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…
Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.
Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…
Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L
A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness Thoughts of suicide Worry Trouble sleeping If you're dealing with a stressful situation in your life, try ...
Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan
This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...
Wingo, Jana; Kalkut, Erica; Tuminello, Elizabeth; Asconape, Josefina; Han, S Duke
Many students have difficulty adjusting to college, and the contribution of academic and relational factors have been considered in previous research. In particular, depression commonly emerges among college women at this time and could be related to poor adjustment to college. This study examined the relationship between executive functions, depressive symptoms, and college adjustment in college women. Seventy-seven female participants from a midsize urban university completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, College Adjustment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and four subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System: the Trail-Making Test, Design Fluency Test, Verbal Fluency Test, and Color-Word Interference Test. After controlling for IQ score, hierarchical regression analyses showed that subjective and objective measures of executive functioning and depressive symptoms were significantly related to college adjustment problems in academic, relational, and psychological areas. The current study provides evidence for a relationship between cognitive abilities, psychiatric symptoms, and college adjustment.
Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann
Mexican-origin parents’ work experiences are a distal extra-familial context for adolescents’ adjustment. This two-wave multi-informant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents’ work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents’ adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents’ psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, two-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers’ occupational self-direction on all three aspects of adolescents’ adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents’ adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents’ gender moderated the associations between fathers’ self-direction and girls’ depressive symptoms, and fathers’ experiences of discrimination and boys’ risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents’ adjustment across the transition to high school. PMID:25938710
Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann
Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Park, Crystal L; Cho, Dalnim
Spirituality is related to many aspects of cancer survivors' physical and psychological adjustment. Given their unique developmental issues, spiritual issues may be especially important to adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors, yet little research has been conducted on spirituality with AYA survivors. The present study examines how two aspects of spirituality, spiritual well-being (comprising faith and meaning/peace), and spiritual struggle relate to later post-cancer adjustment. At Time 1 (T1), 120 AYA survivors completed questionnaires on spirituality and adjustment (fear of recurrence, post-traumatic stress symptoms, perceived post-traumatic growth, psychological distress, and health-related quality of life). Eighty-three of these participants also completed these questionnaires at Time 2 (T2), one year later. Our sample reported fairly low spiritual well-being (meaning/peace, faith) and spiritual struggle. As expected, T1 spiritual well-being was positively correlated with some aspects of psychological adjustment at T2, whereas T1 spiritual struggle was inversely correlated with T2 psychological adjustment. Both dimensions of T1 spiritual well-being, but not struggle, were positively associated with perceived T2 posttraumatic growth. In general, T1 spiritual well-being and struggle correlated with T2 psychological adjustment even when demographics and cancer-related variables were controlled. These results suggest that while spirituality is not important to all AYA survivors, both spiritual well-being and struggle have important associations with adjustment and may warrant clinical attention. Future research is needed to more fully understand the role of spirituality in AYA survivors' adjustment in more depth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kamrowska, Anna; Florkowski, Antoni
Adjustment disorders in soldiers of mandatory military service are one of most frequent causes of early military discharges. Their occurrence brings about economic, social and medical consequences. The analysis of reasons and circumstances for adjustment disorders in solders of mandatory military service accepted by Medical Military Boards as unfit for military service. Studies included 91 cases of soldiers of mandatory military service hospitalised at the Psychiatry Clinical Department of Psychiatry in 10th Clinical Military Hospital in Bydgoszcz for the occurrence of symptoms of adjustment disorder acc. to criteria ICD-10 and certified by Medical Military Boards. The examined soldiers were at the age of 19-24, and the period of their military service ranged from one week to three months. To evaluate statistical correlations chi-square test (chi2) was used. Before the call-up, more than a half of the soldiers revealing symptoms of adjustment disorder lived in the country or in big urban agglomerations. Those soldiers had primary or vocational education certificates and every third was brought up in one-parent family. In the tested population of soldiers there was found a statistical relation between the appearance of adjustment disorders and the education of soldiers' mothers, parents' diseases and factors impeding their military service. Factors conducive to adjustment disorders under conditions of mandatory military service in the studies carried out included: education of soldiers' mothers, raised difficulties while serving in the army and parents' diseases.