Gonsiorek, John C.
In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…
Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others
Examined relationship between psychological separation and adjustment to college in freshmen (N=130) and upperclassmen (N=123). Found freshmen showed more psychological dependencies on parents than upperclassmen; separation appeared more strongly related to personal/emotional adjustment, particularly functional and emotional independence from…
Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood
This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…
Dekker, Joost; de Groot, Vincent
Psychological adjustment has a major impact on chronic disease health outcomes. However, the classification of psychological adjustment is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We aim (i) to characterize the process of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, and (ii) to analyze how various categories of the psychological adjustment process could be incorporated into the ICF. We provide a summary of models of psychological adjustment to chronic disease. We also evaluate various options for incorporating categories of psychological adjustment into the ICF. Acute and ongoing illness stressors; emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses; personal background; and social and environmental background are major categories in the adjustment process. These categories could, in principle, be integrated with various components of the ICF. Any future revision of the ICF should explicitly incorporate psychological adjustment and its (sub)categories. The ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications will be required. Implications for Rehabilitation In the context of an ageing society and large numbers of people living with chronic diseases, it is essential to understand psychological adjustment to chronic disease. However, the classification of psychological adjustment to chronic disease is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We demonstrate that the ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications would first be required. We suggest that these adaptations and clarifications should be considered in any future revision of the ICF.
Examines the psychological adjustment of well child siblings living with siblings with diabetes. Psychological adjustment was assessed by measuring self-concept; behavioral difficulties; competence; anxiety; and depression on standardized tests. The well siblings demonstrated significant internal psychological stressors and maintained high levels…
Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal
The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…
The term school adjustment according to this study relates directly to personality formation of a child at school. ... The Student's Adjustment Inventory (SAI) represents the results of 3 years of intensive research studies leading to a doctorate degree in educational psychology by the and to the award of the Commonwealth ...
Children with chronic medical conditions are at higher risk for behavioral and emotional problems compared to physically healthy children. This study used a conceptual model to examine factors associated with psychological adjustment in children aged 7-11 years old with any of four chronic illnesses. The variables most closely associated with child adjustment included the following: mothers' evaluation of the impact of the child's illness on the family; child's perceptions of parental acceptance; and child's self-perceptions of physical appearance, social acceptance, and athletic competence. These findings confirm the importance of maternal and child perceptions in understanding the psychological adjustment of children with chronic conditions.
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott
Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…
Eggerth, Donald E.
This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…
Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.
This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…
In the present study gender differences in psychological adjustment of Spinal Cord Injured (SCI) patients was studied. The sample of 70 SCI patients (35 male and 35 female) was selected from the National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) Islamabad, Bagh and Muzafrabad, (Azad & Jammu Kashmir AJK).
This study assessed emotional intelligence as a predictor of psychological adjustment to anxiety and depression among Nigerian adolescents. Five hundred (500) adolescents drawn from 10 Senior Secondary Schools participated in the study. The participants were drawn through a multi-stage sampling procedure from the ...
Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia
This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…
Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the social network structure in a university class and how it changed over time. In addition, student rankings of social status in the class based on different network centrality measures were compared, and associations between students’ social status and psychological adjustment were evaluated. One university seminar class in which ten juniors and ten seniors were enrolled was followed for six months. Although the class network consisted of some disconnected subgroups at baseline, it became a single group at followup. In addition to these structural changes, measures of network integration (density and transitivity also increased from baseline to follow-up. Comparisons of centrality measures indicated that the information centrality measure best captured the network infrastructure compared to the betweenness, closeness, and degree centrality measures. Furthermore, among the centrality measures, information centrality had the most stable positive association with psychological adjustment. Theoretical and practical implications of these peer network dynamics and adjustment issues are discussed.
Cantón Cortés, David; Justicia Justicia, Fernando
The aim of the study was to analyze the consequences of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) on the psychological adjustment of university students, as well as the way in which several avoidance and approach coping strategies affect that adjustment. The sample comprised 1162 students from the University of Granada. Data about CSA was obtained from a questionnaire developed with this aim. We used the How I Deal with Things Scale of Burt and Katz to evaluate coping strategies, whereas depression and self-esteem were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Subjects who were victims of CSA showed significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem. An analysis of coping strategies revealed that only the use of avoidance strategies was related to psychological adjustment. Subjects who used these strategies obtained higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem. These results confirm the idea of CSA as a risk experience that can affect victims' psychological adjustment, to a greater or lesser extent, according to the coping strategy employed.
The present study investigated the social network structure in a university class and how it changed over time. In addition, student rankings of social status in the class based on different network centrality measures were compared, and associations between students social status and psychological adjustment were evaluated. One university seminar class in which ten juniors and ten seniors were enrolled was followed for six months. Although the class network consisted of some disconnected s...
Eva M. Romera; Olga Gómez-Ortiz; Rosario Ortega-Ruiz; Rosario Ortega-Ruiz
There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychoso...
Romera, Eva M; Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario
There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy) could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34). The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire , the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.
Eva M. Romera
Full Text Available There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34. The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.
Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro
Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters.
Michaels, C R; Lewandowski, L J
This study examined parent reports of behavioral and family functioning for 59 boys with learning disabilities (LD) and 65 nondisabled boys (NLD) of ages 6 to 12 years. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES III). Boys with LD were reported as having significantly more behavior problems of both the Internalizing and Externalizing types than NLD boys. Individual scales yielded group differences indicating higher scores (more problems) for the group with LD on the Hyperactive, Schizoid or Anxious, Depressed, and Obsessive Compulsive scales, but no differences on the Aggressive or Social Withdrawal scales. Furthermore, families of boys with LD tended to score more frequently in the extreme (disturbed) range of family functioning. However, boys of families in the extreme range did not have more behavior problems than the boys of other families. The findings suggest that a greater than average proportion of boys with LD are at risk for developing psychological adjustment problems.
Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel
Background: The psychological impact of abortion is a controversial issue. While some studies indicate that women who had elective abortions present lower psychological distress when compared with those who had spontaneous or therapeutic abortions, other studies found abortion to be associated with significant psychological distress. Objectives: To assess psychological adjustment (emotional disorder, trauma symptoms and couple relationship) one and six months after abortion,...
Guzmán-Parra, José; Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Navais-Barranco, Miriam; Castro-Zamudio, Serafina; Bergero-Miguel, Trinidad
This study examined the sociodemographic characteristics and the psychological adjustment of transsexuals in Andalusia (Spain), and also analyzed the differences between female-to-male (FtM) and male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals. The sample included 197 transsexuals (101 MtF and 96 FtM) selected from those who visited the Transsexual and Gender Identity Unit at the Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga between 2011 and 2012. Our analyses indicated that MtF transsexuals were more likely to have lower educational levels, live alone, have worked less frequently throughout their lifetime, and have engaged in prostitution. For FtM transsexuals, there were more frequent references to the mother's psychiatric history and more social avoidance and distress. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of personality dysfunctional traits and unemployment status were associated with depression in the entire sample. The following three conclusions can be made: there are significant differences between MtF and FtM transsexuals (mainly related to sociodemographic variables), depression was high in both groups, and a remarkable percentage of transsexuals have attempted suicide (22.8 %) or have had suicidal thoughts (52.3 %).
Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Fong Cheng, Alison Lai
University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions, namely: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous researches show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The purpose of this…
Yazdanshenas Ghazwin, Manijeh; Tavakoli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Latifi, Sahar; Saberi, Hooshang; Derakhshanrad, Nazi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Sadeghi, Majid; Emami Razavi, Seyed-Hassan; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad
The used psychological defense styles among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) with adjustment disorders (AJD) have not yet been described. In the present investigation, the prevalence of AJD among people with SCI has been estimated and the pattern of used defense styles has been identified. Cross-sectional investigation. A tertiary rehabilitation center in Iran. Individuals referred to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center were invited to participate in a screening interview. AJD was diagnosed based on DSM-V criteria. Those with AJD diagnosis were scheduled for another interview to assess defense mechanisms. Demographic and injury-related variables were recorded. Defense mechanisms were assessed by the 40-item version of the Defense-Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). Among 114 participants, 32 (28%) were diagnosed with AJD among whom 23 subjects attended the second interview. Mean age and time since injury were 29.57 ± 9.29 years and 11.70 ± 6.34 months, respectively. The majority of patients were using idealization defense mechanism (91.3%). In the second and third place, passive aggression (87.0%) and somatization (82.6%) defense mechanisms were observed, respectively. Neurotic style was dominantly used (11.52 ± 2.26). Sex, marital status, educational level, cause of the injury and injury level were not related to defense style (P: 0.38, 0.69, 0.88, 0.73, and P: 0.32, respectively). Prevalence of AJD is estimated to be 28% among individuals with SCI. The most prevalent defense style was neurotic and the dominant used defense mechanism was "idealization." The role of demographic and injury-related variables in determining the used defense mechanisms was insignificant.
Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc
Examined the association between psychological separation and adjustment to university among college students. Found that two dimensions of psychological separation--independence from parents and positive separation feelings--predicted better adjustment to college life. Independence from parents was moderated by grade, gender, and perceived…
A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…
Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…
Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo
The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…
Wagner, William G.
In this study of brief-term concomitant of child sexual abuse, children's reports of self-concept and depression, and parents' ratings of their children's depressive symptomology, were examined for child victims of molestation or sexual abuse outside the family, and for nonabused children whose parents sought psychological services for them. (BB)
Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne
To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.
M. Graça Pereira
Full Text Available Objective: this study assessed dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in type 2 diabetic patients and their partners, focusing on the role of gender. Methods: 214 diabetic patients and their partners participated in the cross-sectional study and were assessed on psychological morbidity (HADS and marital adjustment (RDAS. Data was analyzed using dyadic analysis, a statistical process that studies the patient/partner dyads simultaneously. Results: results revealed that the negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in female patients was stronger than in male diabetic patients or in partners of male diabetic patients. On the other hand, the relationship between dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in partners of diabetic men was stronger than the same relationship in partners of diabetic women. Conclusion: since gender is a moderator, it is important to attend to the different needs of female and male patients and the education of diabetic patients should be centered on the patient/partner dyad.
Shontz, F C
Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development.
Evans, Daphne; Norman, Paul
The present study reports an application of the common sense model (CSM) of illness representations to the prediction of psychological distress in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The study sought to (i) examine cross-sectional and prospective associations between illness representations, coping and psychological distress, and (ii) test the hypothesis that coping would mediate any relationships between illness representations and psychological distress. Patients with PD (n = 58) completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, the Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Patients (n = 57) were followed-up at 6 months. Illness representations explained large amounts of variance in time 1 anxiety (R(2) = 0.42) and depression (R(2) = 0.44) as well as additional variance in time 2 anxiety (DeltaR(2) = 0.12) and depression (DeltaR(2) = 0.09) after controlling for baseline scores. In addition, avoidance mediated the effect of emotional representations on time 1 anxiety, and acceptance-resignation mediated the effects of both consequences and emotional representations on time 1 depression. The present study therefore provides partial support for the mediational model outlined in the CSM, as significant mediation effects were found only in the cross-sectional analyses.
Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin
This study investigates the influence of length of stay in a foreign country on international students' adjustment and attachment attitude and examines the relationship between such acculturation attitude with psychological and sociocultural adaptations in a host country. Moreover, it investigates whether psychological and sociocultural…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…
Kef, S.; Bos, H.
In the present study, we examined sexual knowledge, sexual behavior, and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness. The sample included 36 Dutch adolescents who are blind, 16 males and 20 females. Results of the interviews revealed no problems regarding sexual knowledge or psychological
Hack, Thomas F; Degner, Lesley F
The relationship between coping responses and psychological adjustment to a breast cancer diagnosis is well documented for time periods close to diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the long term association between these two variables. Fifty-five women completed measures of coping response, decisional control, frustration expression, and psychological adjustment within six months of receiving their breast cancer diagnosis. These women were contacted three years later and their psychological adjustment-as measured by the profile of mood states (POMS)-was reassessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The results showed that women who were depressed at time of treatment planning, and who responded to their cancer diagnosis with cognitive avoidance, i.e. acceptance/resignation, had significantly worse psychological adjustment three years later. Poor adjustment was significantly associated with cognitive avoidance and minimal use of approach-based coping responses. The findings suggest that women who respond to their breast cancer diagnosis with passive acceptance and resignation are at significant risk for poor long term psychological adjustment. Psychological interventions for these women should address cognitive avoidance, with the aim of fostering approach-based coping and positive well-being. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Cao, Ruixin
The purpose of this study was to examine how shyness-sensitivity and unsociability were associated with social, school, and psychological adjustment in rural Chinese children. Participants were third- to fifth-grade students (N = 820; M age = 10 years) in rural schools in P. R. China. Data on shyness-sensitivity, unsociability, and adjustment were…
Shim, Sungok Serena; Wang, Cen; Makara, Kara A.; Xu, Xiao-Guang; Xie, Li-Na; Zhong, Ming
University life can be stressful and students may struggle to adjust socially. We examined students' social achievement goals--their orientations towards their relationships with their peers--as one important factor underlying students' social and psychological adjustment in college. When investigating the direct and indirect effects of social…
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.
SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264
Brandão, Tânia; Schulz, Marc S; Matos, Paula Mena
Breast cancer (BC) can be a traumatic and stressful experience for women, but there are wide-ranging differences in the ways in which women respond and adapt to BC. This systematic review examines which sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors near diagnosis predict later psychological adjustment to BC. Database searches were conducted in 9 different health-related databases from 2000 to December 2015 using relevant search terms. Full-text, peer-reviewed articles in English that analyzed potential predictors of psychological adjustment in longitudinal studies were considered for inclusion. Of 1780 abstracts, 41 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Consistent sociodemographic and disease-related variable predictors of adjustment were income, fatigue, cancer stage, and physical functioning. Psychosocial factors, particularly optimism and trait anxiety, as well as perceived social support, coping strategies, and initial levels of psychological functioning, were found to be predictive of later depressive and anxiety symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life for women with BC, in predictable ways. Other psychosocial variables, such as cognitive and body image factors, predicted psychological adjustment but were explored only by a few studies. The majority of studies showed a significant relationship between psychosocial factors and psychological adjustment. These results point to specific sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors that can help to identify women at the time of diagnosis who are at risk for long-term psychological challenges so they can be referred for psychological support that targets their specific needs and can improve their quality of life and mood and decrease indicators of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay
This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience.
Blais, Marie Claude; Boisvert, Jean-Marie
The first part of this paper examines current data describing the psychological and marital adjustment of couples following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although these findings reveal some discrepancies, they highlight that adjustment following a TBI represents a genuine challenge for those involved in the process. The second part moves toward the examination of factors associated with psychological and marital adjustment in both couple partners. Here again, there exists a large diversity in empirical data and theoretical models informing this emerging area of interest. Nevertheless, cognitive variables such as coping skills are commonly seen as critical variables to explain the adjustment level in people with TBI and their spouse/caregivers. Concurrently with the discussion of the methodological issues and pitfalls encountered in this area of research, the conclusion provides suggestions of further steps to undertake in this endeavour toward a better understanding of the adjustment process following TBI.
Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin
Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Church, A. Timothy; Anderson-Harumi, Cheryl A.; del Prado, Alicia M.; Curtis, Guy J.; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko; Valdez Medina, José L.; Mastor, Khairul A.; White, Fiona A.; Miramontes, Lilia A.; Katigbak, Marcia S.
Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on cross-role consistency and its relation to adjustment were examined in two individualistic cultures, the United States (N = 231) and Australia (N = 195), and four collectivistic cultures, Mexico (N = 199), Philippines (N = 195), Malaysia (N = 217), and Japan (N = 180). Cross-role consistency in trait ratings was evident in all cultures, supporting trait perspectives. Cultural comparisons of mean consistency provided support for cultural psychology...
Bosman Anna MT
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spina Bifida (SB is the second most common birth defect worldwide. Since the chances of survival in children with severe SB-forms have increased, medical care has shifted its emphasis from life-saving interventions to fostering the quality of life for these children and their families. Little is known, however, about the impact of SB on family adjustment. Reviewers have struggled to synthesize the few contradictory studies available. In this systematic review a new attempt was made to summarize the findings by using meta-analysis and by delimiting the scope of review to one concept of family adjustment: Parents' psychological adjustment. The questions addressed were: (a do parents of children with SB have more psychological distress than controls? (b do mothers and fathers differ? and (c which factors correlate with variations in psychological adjustment? Methods PsycInfo, Medline, and reference lists were scanned. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified of which 15 were eligible for meta-analysis. Results SB had a negative medium-large effect on parents' psychological adjustment. The effect was more heterogeneous for mothers than for fathers. In the reviewed studies child factors (age, conduct problems, emotional problems, and mental retardation, parent factors (SES, hope, appraised stress, coping, and parenting competence, family factors (family income, partner relationship, and family climate, and environmental factors (social support were found to be associated with variations in parents' psychological adjustment. Conclusion Meta-analysis proved to be helpful in organizing studies. Clinical implications indicate a need to be especially alert to psychological suffering in mothers of children with SB. Future research should increase sample sizes through multi-center collaborations.
Berrocal Montiel, Carmen; Rivas Moya, Teresa; Venditti, Francesca; Bernini, Olivia
This study explored the contribution of Psychological Flexibility (PF) to predict adjustment to breast cancer. Sixty-four females with breast cancer completed self-report measures of PF and adjustment (anxiety, depression, negative and positive affect) at baseline, and forty-two patients returned for assessment six months later. Higher flexibility at baseline significantly contributed to predict lower anxiety, depression and negative affect at follow-up. The effect sizes ranged from moderate to large. Results provide evidence for targeting PF to prevent enhanced psychological distress in patients with breast cancer, and add to a growing body of research supporting PF as a common protective factor across different contexts and populations.
Stock, N. M.; Feragen, K. B.
Objective: Adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is multifaceted, involving several domains of psychological and social functioning. A substantial increase in research in this area has been evident in recent years, along with a preliminary shift in how adjustment to CL/P is conceptualised and measured. An updated and comprehensive review of the literature is needed in light of the rapidly expanding and changing field.\\ud \\ud Design: A narrative review of 148 quantitative and qualitativ...
Ali, S.; Haider, S.K.F.
Amputation is the removal of a limb or part of a limb by a surgical procedure in order to save the life of a person. The underlying reasons behind the occurrence of this tragic incidence may be varied. However, irrespective of its cause limb loss is associated with wide range of life challenges. The study was done to investigate the psychological sequel of an individual after losing a limb and to know the level of strain and pressure they experience after this traumatic event. It also attempts to examine the moderating role of some demographic traits such as age, sex and cause of limb loss in psychosocial adjustment to amputation. Methods: The study includes 100 adult amputees of both genders and the data was collected from major government and private hospitals of Peshawar district. Demographic data sheet was constructed in order to know the demographics traits of amputees and a standardize Psychological Adjustment Scale developed by Sabir (1999) was used to find out the level of psychological adjustment after limb loss. Results: Nearly all the amputees' exhibit signs of psychological maladjustment at varying degrees. Males showed much greater signs of maladjustment than women and young adults were much psychologically shattered and disturbed as a result of limb loss. Amputation caused by planned medical reasons leads to less adjustment issues as compared to unplanned accidental amputation in which patient were not mentally prepare to accept this loss. Conclusion: Psychological aspect of amputation is an important aspect of limb loss which needs to be addressed properly in order to rehabilitate these patients and helps them to adjust successfully to their limb loss. (author)
Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Calvin, Grace
Objectives This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents’ psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the two cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Methods Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the U.S. (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. Results American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Conclusions Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as one critical mechanism that transmits the effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents’ ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. PMID:27077796
Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S L; Calvin, Grace
This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents' psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the 2 cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as 1 critical mechanism that transmits effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents' ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Dufner, Michael; Denissen, Jaap J A; van Zalk, Maarten; Matthes, Benjamin; Meeus, Wim H J; van Aken, Marcel A G; Sedikides, Constantine
The relation between self-enhancement and psychological adjustment has been debated for over 2 decades. This controversy is partly due to the variety of approaches implicated in the assessment of mainly self-enhancement but also psychological adjustment. We adopted a face-valid approach by statistically removing actual intellectual ability variance from self-rated intellectual ability variance. Study 1 (N = 2,048), a concurrent Internet investigation, provided initial insight into the relation between intellectual self-enhancement and psychological adjustment. Study 2 (N = 238), a longitudinal round-robin investigation, allowed a closer examination of the dynamic processes underlying this relation. Self-enhancement was positively linked to multiple indicators of intrapersonal and interpersonal adjustment, and predicted rank-order increases in adjustment over time. The links between intellectual self-enhancement and intrapersonal adjustment were mediated by self-esteem. Finally, the interpersonal costs and benefits of self-enhancement systematically varied depending on methodology. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available // Introduction: The impact of the diagnosis of an oncologic disease is well-known in terms of psychological adjustment and quality of life. On the other hand it is known that depressive symptoms may also overlap the physical symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment, which may interfere in their detection and appropriate treatment approach. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between psychological adjustment to lung cancer, self-compassion, social support and emotional negative states in patients with lung cancer. Method: Fifty-five patients diagnosed with lung cancer (38 men and 17 women with ages ranging from 44 to 87 years old participated in the study. A set of self-report instruments was used: the Mini Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MiniMac, the Self-compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003, the Social Support Satisfaction Scale (SSSS and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Results: Significant correlations were found between psychological adjustment, psychopathology, emotion regulation strategies (self-compassion, and social support. The predictive models for psychological adjustment and stress related symptomatology include self-compassion and social support as significant predictive variables. Regarding the predictive model for depressive symptomatology, mindfulness seems to be the only significant predictor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that these patients may benefit, in their therapeutic approach, from the development of this kind of strategies (new ways of relating themselves with their emotional experiences and quality of their social networks in order to promote a better psychological adjustment to their clinical condition.
Senra, Hugo; Barbosa, Fernando; Ferreira, Patrícia; Vieira, Cristina R; Perrin, Paul B; Rogers, Heather; Rivera, Diego; Leal, Isabel
To summarize relevant evidence investigating the psychologic adjustment to irreversible vision loss (IVL) in adults. Irreversible vision loss entails a challenging medical condition in which rehabilitation outcomes are strongly dependent on the patient's psychologic adjustment to illness and impairment. So far, no study has systematically reviewed the psychologic adjustment to IVL in adults. We reviewed all articles examining the psychologic adjustment to IVL in adults. We included articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. We performed a keyword literature search using 4 databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct) for all years through July 2014. We assessed risk of bias of selected studies using the RTI Item Bank for Assessing Risk of Bias and Confounding for Observational Studies of Interventions or Exposures and the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized controlled trials. Of a total of 3948 citations retrieved, we selected 52 eligible studies published between 1946 and 2014. The majority of studies were observational and cross-sectional in nature. Our review suggests that high levels of depression occur during the adjustment to IVL. Better adjustment to IVL was associated with greater acceptance of vision loss and use of instrumental coping, good social support, positivity, and use of assistive aids. The overall findings indicate that IVL often has negative effects on patients' quality of life and mental health and that such effects tend to remain over time. Specific factors and variables associated with the adjustment to IVL need to be clarified through further in-depth and longitudinal research. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun
This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived…
Verte, Sylvie; Hebbrecht, Lies; Roeyers, Herbert
This study investigated both the quality of sibling relationships and the psychological adjustment siblings experienced across two groups: siblings of children who are deaf or hard of hearing compared to siblings of children with no disability. Twenty-four siblings of children with hearing loss and 24 siblings of children without a disability…
Liu, Mowei; Chen, Xinyin
Examines friendship networks and their associations with social, academic and psychological adjustment in Chinese high school students. It was found that friendship group members had higher scores on social and school competence and lower scores on learning problems and loneliness, suggesting that friendship networks might represent a phenomenon…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.
We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…
Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo
In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…
Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li
This study examined the relations of maternal warmth, behavioral control, and encouragement of sociability to social, school, and psychological adjustment in migrant children in China. The participants were 284 rural-to-urban migrant children (M age = 11 years, 149 boys) in migrant children's schools and their mothers. Data on parenting were…
Spencer-Oatey, Helen; Xiong, Zhaoning
This paper reports an empirical study of the psychological and sociocultural adjustments of two cohorts of Chinese students taking a foundation course in English language at a British university. Using Zung's (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale and a modification of Ward and Kennedy's (1999) Sociocultural Adaptation Scale, quantitative data were…
Eyou, Mei Lin; Adair, Vivienne; Dixon, Robyn
Immigrant Chinese students (N=400) completed a questionnaire examining the relationship between psychological adjustment and cultural identity as determined by the strength of identification with their own ethnic group and mainstream society. Adolescents who were integrated had higher self-esteem than peers who were separated or marginalized.…
Pittman, Laura D.; Richmond, Adeya
The authors collected questionnaire data from college students (N = 79) at 2 time points during their freshman year to examine how changes in a sense of university belonging, quality of friendships, and psychological adjustment were associated. Students who had positive changes in university belonging had corresponding positive changes in…
Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.
The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by
Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina
The present study aims at systematically analyzing the findings reported in qualitative research on acculturation and psychological adjustment in the school context. Content analysis was conducted using the deductively developed and inductively enriched system of categories. The results of the study provide insights into youths' acculturation and…
Townes, Brenda D.; And Others
This study investigates differences in psychological sex, present and past adjustment, and parental influences among homosexual cross-dressers, homosexual non-cross-dressers, applicants for sex change surgery, and heterosexuals. Homosexual non-cross-dressers and heterosexual groups had the most masculine gender role, with the sex change group…
Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina
The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…
Beaty, Lee A.
The empirical research on psychological and social adjustment of children and adolescents with visual impairments is reviewed. The dichotomy between deficit and nondeficit functioning of these youths is explored. Personality research suggests that some youth with visual impairments display minor deficits in self-concept and self-esteem. It is…
Schachner, Maja K; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Eckstein, Katharina
The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural pluralism. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on 386 early adolescent immigrant students (Mage = 10.49 years) in 44 ethnically heterogeneous classrooms in Germany revealed that the manifestations of both types of policies promote psychological school adjustment (i.e., better well-being and fewer psychological and behavioral problems) at the individual level. However, they differ in their effects on acculturation orientations. At the classroom level, equality and inclusion promote assimilation. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Chan, J Yn; Lai, K Yc
Findings about the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been inconsistent in western literature and little is known among non-western societies. This study explored the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder in Hong Kong. A total of 116 families with siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders co-morbid with learning disability were included in the study. Parents completed questionnaires about sibling emotional and behavioural adjustment, and their own mental well-being, quality of life, and family functioning. Siblings completed a questionnaire on their relationship with the autistic proband. Parent ratings did not reveal any significant negative impact on the emotional and behavioural adjustment of the typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder, but there were concerns about their peer relationships and weak prosocial behaviours. When cut-off scores were used to screen for risk of mental health problems, a quarter of the siblings warranted further assessment. Parents' quality of life and family functioning were significant predictors of sibling adjustment. In managing children with autism spectrum disorder, it is necessary to bear in mind the adjustment of their siblings, especially their peer relationships and prosocial behaviour. Adopting a holistic approach to address the psychosocial needs of the parents can facilitate sibling adjustment.
Blais, Marie Claude; Boisvert, Jean-Marie
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH DESIGN: Using a correlational design, this study verifies the relationships between personal characteristics of individuals with TBI and their spouses and their level of psychological and marital adjustment. Seventy individuals with TBI and their spouses in the post-acute rehabilitation phase completed self-report questionnaires assessing the predictive variables (coping and social problem-solving strategies; perceived communication skills) and the criteria variables of psychological and marital adjustment. In the target group, the characteristics most strongly related to adjustment variables were an effective attitude towards problems, infrequent use of avoidance coping strategies, and a positive perception of one's spouse's communication skills. Individuals with TBI and their spouses report significantly lower scores on some of these personal characteristics, compared to those of a matched control group of 70 couples from the general population. Specific personal characteristics are critical for psychological and marital adjustment following TBI. This knowledge may be of relevance for detecting couples at risk for developing difficulties in the post-acute rehabilitation phase. Rehabilitation interventions targeting the personal characteristics identified as critical for the adjustment process could help to prevent these difficulties.
Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong
There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The…
Li, Lingyan; Li, Shichen; Wang, Yuping; Yi, Jinyao; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao
The study aimed to explore latent profiles of coping in Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and examine the differences of psychological distress, demographic, and medical characteristics across profiles. Latent profile analysis was used to identify 3 classes of copers based on data from 618 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who completed questionnaires assessing their coping strategies and psychological distress. "Adaptive coper," reporting most use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies, behaviors of acceptance and shifting attention, and least use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, had the best psychological adjustment. "Negative coper," characterized by most use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, least use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies except "putting in perspective," and median levels of medical coping behaviors, had the worst psychological adjustment. "Inconsistent coper," with great use of all cognitive coping strategies, and most behaviors of fighting against the disease, and fewest behaviors of attention shift, had relatively high levels of psychological distress. Younger age, less education, shorter time since diagnosis, widowed, living in rural areas, and undergoing chemotherapy are possible markers for patients with less adaptive coping patterns. Interventions should be developed according to the different coping profiles of patients, and the key group to target is "negative copers," who may benefit from cognitive behavioral approaches that combine emotion, cognition and behavior, which could help them more effectively appraise and cope with stressful events.
Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M Brent
Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment among a group of high-achieving adolescents. Drawing on survey data collected on 295 Chinese American and 192 European American 9th graders attending a highly selective magnet school, our findings show that Chinese American adolescents reported significantly lower levels of psychological adjustment (d = -.31), and significantly less family cohesion (d = -.34) and more conflict (d = .56) than their European American peers. Further, the ethnic differences on adjustment disappeared after controlling for perceptions of family cohesion and conflict, indicating that such perceptions may be a key factor in understanding the high academic achievement/low psychological adjustment paradoxical pattern of development among Chinese American adolescents. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tao, Annie; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun
The prospective relations between five types of parental reactions to children's negative emotions (PRCNE) and children's psychological adjustment (behavioral problems and social competence) were examined in a two-wave longitudinal study of 425 school-age children in China. Parents (mostly mothers) reported their own PRCNE. Parents, teachers, and children or peers reported on children's adjustment. Parental punitive reactions positively predicted externalizing problems (controlling for baseline), whereas emotion- and problem-focused reactions were negatively related to internalizing problems. Parental minimizing and encouragement of emotion expression were unrelated to adjustment. Concurrent relations were found between PRCNE and parents' authoritative and authoritarian parenting dimensions. However, PRCNE did not uniquely predict adjustment controlling for global parenting dimensions. The findings have implications for cultural adaptation of parent-focused interventions for families of Chinese origin. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M
The present longitudinal study examined the indirect effect of 6th-grade negative friendship quality on the associations between 5th-grade relational aggression and age 15 social-psychological adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and risky behavior). The study consisted of a secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development using 776 children (M = 10.42 years in 5th grade; 50.4% boys) from the original sample. Using teacher and self-report ratings, relational and physical aggression, friendship quality, depressive symptoms, and risky behavior were measured. Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted. Negative friendship quality was found to mediate the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms as well as between relational aggression and risky behavior, when controlling for physical aggression, gender and age. This longitudinal study identifies possible developmental pathways by which relational aggression and future social psychological adjustment may be linked.
Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T
BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender...... differences and quality of the marital relationship. METHODS The study included 76 RPL couples who visited the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. They completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed RPL-associated stress, quality of their marital relationship (Quality Marriage Index, QMI......), depression (Beck Depression Index) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). RESULTS Women showed significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety and RPL-associated personal and social stress compared with men. Although there were no differences in QMI scores and RPL-associated marital stress between...
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following exposure to actual or threatened traumatic experiences. Research has shown that experiencing a trauma may alter, disrupt or distort ones identity. This thesis focused on the relationship between self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1985, 1987) and posttraumatic psychological adjustment. SC is defined as the number of non-overlapping self-aspects (i.e., traits, roles and behaviours) that one uses to describe themselves. Greater SC (i.e., whe...
Human, Lauren J; Chan, Meanne; DeLongis, Anita; Roy, Laura; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith
There is evidence that parents play an important role in their adolescent's health and well-being, but the links between specific daily processes and biological mechanisms relevant to health remain to be determined. In this study, we examined the role of parental accuracy-that is, whether parents who are more accurate about their adolescents' daily experiences have adolescents with better psychological functioning and inflammatory regulation. In a 2-week daily diary study of 116 parent-adolescent dyads, we examined whether parental accuracy about their adolescent's daily demands and the positivity of their day together were associated with markers of psychological functioning and with regulation of the inflammatory response in terms of glucocorticoid sensitivity (the extent to which cortisol is able to dampen the production of inflammatory proteins) in adolescents. Adolescents whose daily experiences were perceived more accurately by their parents reported better psychological adjustment (lower stress and depression) and a greater sensitivity of their immune cells to anti-inflammatory signals from cortisol (i.e., diminished production of inflammatory proteins when cells were stimulated with the combination of a bacterial product [lipopolysaccharide] and cortisol; |β| range, 0.38-0.53, all p values adolescents' daily experiences is associated with better adolescent psychological adjustment and a more sensitive anti-inflammatory response to cortisol. These results provide preliminary evidence that parental accuracy regarding their adolescent's daily experiences may be one specific daily parent factor that plays a role in adolescent health and well-being.
Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S
This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students' academic functioning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Leeson, Fiona J; Nixon, Reginald D V
Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of psychopathology following psychological maltreatment in children. This study therefore examined the role of thinking styles on children's outcomes following this subtype of maltreatment. Children who had experienced past maltreatment (n = 24) and a control group (n = 26) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Maltreatment history, cognitive styles and psychological outcomes, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-esteem were assessed. Parents/caregivers also completed a measure of child internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Psychological maltreatment made a significant contribution to children's self-reported depression and low self-esteem, and parent reported internalizing and externalizing problems, even after controlling for other abusive experiences. This was not the case for PTSD symptoms. Further, children's cognitive styles were associated with self-reported depression, self-esteem and PTSD. They did not, however, predict parent-rated emotional and behavioural problems. This study provides preliminary support for a cognitive model of adjustment following psychological maltreatment. The results indicate the need for enhanced community awareness about the impact of psychological maltreatment, and suggest a direction for therapeutic intervention.
Church, A Timothy; Anderson-Harumi, Cheryl A; del Prado, Alicia M; Curtis, Guy J; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko; Valdez Medina, José L; Mastor, Khairul A; White, Fiona A; Miramontes, Lilia A; Katigbak, Marcia S
Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on cross-role consistency and its relation to adjustment were examined in 2 individualistic cultures, the United States (N=231) and Australia (N=195), and 4 collectivistic cultures, Mexico (N=199), the Philippines (N=195), Malaysia (N=217), and Japan (N=180). Cross-role consistency in trait ratings was evident in all cultures, supporting trait perspectives. Cultural comparisons of mean consistency provided support for cultural psychology perspectives as applied to East Asian cultures (i.e., Japan) but not collectivistic cultures more generally. Some but not all of the hypothesized predictors of consistency were supported across cultures. Cross-role consistency predicted aspects of adjustment in all cultures, but prediction was most reliable in the U.S. sample and weakest in the Japanese sample. Alternative constructs proposed by cultural psychologists--personality coherence, social appraisal, and relationship harmony--predicted adjustment in all cultures but were not, as hypothesized, better predictors of adjustment in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures.
Blucker, Ryan T; Elliott, Timothy R; Warren, Robert H; Warren, Ann Marie
Although much is known about the risks to health and well-being that occur among family caregivers of children with disability, little is known about the unique group of caregivers of children with severe neurodisabilities who require varying degrees of respiratory care including ventilator support. This present study examined the psychological adjustment of caregivers in these situations, and tested the prediction that caregiver coping and problem-solving styles would be predictive of their physical and emotional health. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that demographic characteristics and the severity of pulmonary condition were unrelated to caregiver adjustment. A coping style characterized by developing relationships, pursuing activities that promote self-worth and individuality, and a lower negative orientation toward solving problems were significantly predictive of caregiver distress. These data indicate that caregiver adjustment in these situations is influenced by cognitive-behavioral characteristics that could be addressed in educational and therapeutic programs provided in the clinic and in the community.
Pellissier, Sonia; Dantzer, Cécile; Canini, Fréderic; Mathieu, Nicolas; Bonaz, Bruno
Psychological factors and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to assess, firstly the way IBS and IBD patients cope with their pathology according to their affective adjustment and secondly the possible links between these affective adjustments and ANS reactivity. Patients with Crohn's disease (CD; n=26), ulcerative colitis (UC; n=22), or IBS (n=27) were recruited and compared to 21 healthy subjects based on psychological variables (trait- and state anxiety, depressive symptomatology, negative mood, perceived stress, coping, health locus of control) and sympatho-vagal balance through heart-rate variability monitored at rest. A principal component analysis, performed on all affective variables, isolated a leading factor labelled as "affective adjustment". In each disease, patients were distributed into positive and negative affective adjustment. In all the diseases, a positive affect was associated with problem-focused coping, and a negative affect with emotion-focused coping and external health locus of control. Results show that the sympatho-vagal balance varied according to the disease. In CD presenting positive affectivity, an adapted high sympathetic activity was observed. In UC, a parasympathetic blunt was observed in the presence of negative affectivity and an equilibrated sympatho-vagal balance in the presence of positive affectivity. In contrast, in IBS, an important dysautonomia (with high sympathetic and low parasympathetic tone) was constantly observed whatever the affective adjustment. In conclusion, this study suggests that the equilibrium of the ANS is differentially adapted according to the disease. This equilibrium is conjugated with positive affective and cognitive adjustment in IBD (CD and UC) but not in IBS. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chambers, Suzanne K; Ng, Shu Kay; Baade, Peter; Aitken, Joanne F; Hyde, Melissa K; Wittert, Gary; Frydenberg, Mark; Dunn, Jeff
To describe trajectories of health-related quality of life (QoL), life satisfaction, and psychological adjustment for men with prostate cancer over the medium to long term and identify predictors of poorer outcomes using growth mixture models. One-thousand sixty-four (82.4% response) men diagnosed with prostate cancer were recruited close to diagnosis and assessed over a 72-month (6-year) period with self-report assessment of health-related QoL, life satisfaction, cancer-related distress, and prostate specific antigen anxiety. Urinary, bowel, and sexual function were also assessed using validated questionnaires. Poorer physical QOL was predicted by older age, lower education, lower income, comorbidities, and receiving hormone therapy. Lower life satisfaction was related to younger age, lower income, not being partnered, and comorbidities. Poorer psychological trajectories were predicted by younger age, lower income, comorbidities, and receiving radical prostatectomy or brachytherapy. Better urinary, bowel, and sexual function were related to better global outcomes over time. Anxiety about prostate specific antigen testing was rare. Distinct trajectories exist for medium- to long-term QoL, life satisfaction, and psychological adjustment after prostate cancer; with age and socioeconomic deprivation playing a differential role in men's survivorship profile and the impact of functional status on outcomes increasing over time. These results reinforce the need for an appraisal of men's life course in addition to treatment side effects when planning survivorship care after cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Wu, Wesley C H; Lam, Ben C P; Bond, Michael Harris
We applied the concept of naïve dialecticism (Peng & Nisbett, ), which characterizes East Asians' greater tendency to encompass contradictory, ever-changing, and interrelated features of an entity, to bicultural contexts and examined its effects on psychological well-being across various acculturating groups. We administered questionnaire measures of the dialectical self, bicultural identity integration (BII; Benet-Martínez & Haritatos, 2005), and well-being to Hong Kong Chinese (N = 213) in Study 1 and Mainland Chinese (N = 239) in Study 2. In Study 3, a 4-week longitudinal study was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese (N = 173) to test the relationships of these variables over time. We then extended similar measures to new immigrants from Mainland China (N = 67) in Study 4 and Filipino domestic workers in Hong Kong (N = 153) in Study 5. Five studies converged to show that psychological adjustment was positively related to BII, but negatively related to the dialectical self. In Studies 1-3, dialecticism mediated the effect of BII on psychological adjustment among Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese bicultural individuals. Our findings reveal the deleterious effects of tolerance for contradiction on well-being and differentiate biculturalism patterns of immigration-based and globalization-based acculturation. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Caroline Tozzi Reppold
Full Text Available During the last decades several authors have indicated that being an adopted child resulted in a higher risk of psychological maladjustment. The objective of this research was to investigate the changes in perception of parental styles in adopted and no-adopted adolescents Brazilians. The sample comprised 524 adolescents (68 were adopted and 456 were raised by their biological parents. The instruments used were a demographic questionnaire and theResponsiveness Scales and Parental Demands. The findings indicated that adoptive parents are significantly more indulgent than biological parents. In comparison, the adolescents described their biological parents as more negligent. The findings corroborated the transcultural effects of parental styles on the psychological adjustment and confirmed the hypothesis that the parental socialization strategies moderate the development of adoptedadolescent.
Cheng, Cecilia; Lau, Hi-Po Bobo; Chan, Man-Pui Sally
Compared with the large body of literature on coping, coping flexibility has received relatively scant research attention, although more such studies have begun to emerge recently. Researchers have conceptualized coping flexibility in diverse ways: as a broad coping repertoire, a well-balanced coping profile, cross-situational variability in strategy deployment, a good strategy-situation fit, or the perceived ability to cope with environmental changes. This meta-analysis is the first to provide a summary estimate of the overall effect size and investigate cross-study sources of variation in the beneficial role of coping flexibility. The analysis covers all available studies conducted between 1978 and 2013 that empirically tested the relationship between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment. The results of a random-effects model revealed a small to moderate overall mean effect size (r = .23, 95% CI [.19, .28], 80% CRI [-.02, .49], k = 329, N = 58,946). More important, the magnitude of the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment varied with the conceptualization of such flexibility. Studies adopting the perceived ability or strategy-situation fit conceptualization yielded moderate effect sizes, whereas those adopting the broad repertoire, balanced profile, or cross-situational variability conceptualization yielded small effect sizes. In addition, the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment was stronger in samples from countries lower (vs. higher) in individualism and samples with higher (vs. lower) average ages. Individualism and age explained 10% and 13% of the variance, respectively. We discuss the conceptual problems and implications and propose a synthesized conceptualization of coping flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie
The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder.
Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
This study examined whether Mexican-American parent’s experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parent’s ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14 – 16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a two-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents, one year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents’ increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903
Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan
Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching adolescence. The Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched systematically for peer reviewed papers focusing on adolescent psychological adjustment and parent-adolescent relationships in families created by ART. Key search inclusion criteria included all papers published in English relating to adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years. Seventeen publications with varied methodologies were identified by this review. Only papers relating to in vitro fertilization (IVF), egg donation and donor insemination were identified. Results were categorized according to ART that used the parents' own gametes (IVF) and those that involved reproductive donation (egg donation, and donor insemination). Compared with naturally conceived adolescents and standardized normative samples, adolescents born through all ARTs seemed to be equally well adjusted, and to have positive parent-adolescent relationships. Some differences were however identified based on the type of ART used. In particular, the sex of the parent and child, along with age and process of disclosure of the adolescent's conception were identified as key mediators of parent-adolescent relationships in families created by donor insemination. The studies in this review indicate that children born through ART have positive parent-adolescent relationships and are well adjusted, with some slight differences based on different ART. The generalizability of findings may be limited by the general low level of disclosure to
Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan
BACKGROUND Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching adolescence. METHODS The Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched systematically for peer reviewed papers focusing on adolescent psychological adjustment and parent–adolescent relationships in families created by ART. Key search inclusion criteria included all papers published in English relating to adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years. RESULTS Seventeen publications with varied methodologies were identified by this review. Only papers relating to in vitro fertilization (IVF), egg donation and donor insemination were identified. Results were categorized according to ART that used the parents' own gametes (IVF) and those that involved reproductive donation (egg donation, and donor insemination). Compared with naturally conceived adolescents and standardized normative samples, adolescents born through all ARTs seemed to be equally well adjusted, and to have positive parent–adolescent relationships. Some differences were however identified based on the type of ART used. In particular, the sex of the parent and child, along with age and process of disclosure of the adolescent's conception were identified as key mediators of parent–adolescent relationships in families created by donor insemination. CONCLUSIONS The studies in this review indicate that children born through ART have positive parent–adolescent relationships and are well adjusted, with some slight differences based on different ART. The generalizability of findings may be limited
Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark
A community sample of 51 mother-father dyads with a school-age child rated marital functioning, parental psychological symptoms, and children's adjustment problems. Parents with more psychological symptoms reported lower marital satisfaction levels. Mothers' and fathers' marital functioning and symptomatology individually related to children's…
Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E
The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting.
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun
OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes.
Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Rose, Amanda J
The association between mothers' psychological control and their children's emotional adjustment problems is well documented. However, processes that may explain this association are not well understood. The present study tested the idea that relational aggression and psychological control within the context of the sibling relationship may help to account for the relation between mothers' psychological control and adolescents' internalizing symptoms. Older (M = 16.46, SD = 1.35 years) and younger (M = 13.67, SD = 1.56 years) siblings from 101 dyads rated the psychological control they received from mothers and siblings, and the relational aggression they received from siblings. Despite some similarities between psychological control and relational aggression, confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that the two sibling processes are distinct. Maternal psychological control was related to psychological control and relational aggression within the sibling relationship, which were related to adolescents' anxiety and depressed mood. In addition, sibling relational aggression was a more powerful mediator of the relationship between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment than sibling psychological control.
This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Cultural Distance Questionnaire (CDQ), and to examine whether or not the measured cultural distance influenced the psychological adjustment of international exchange students and, if so, which aspects were most influential. Subjects were 211 Japanese high school and college students who stayed for one year with a host family in one of 23 countries around the world. They were asked to complete the Maudsley Personality Inventory before departure from Japan, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire six months after arrival in the host country and the CDQ six months after they returned from abroad. We found that the CDQ had high internal consistency reliability. Satisfactory validity was suggested for the CDQ because it offered wide coverage of various aspects of daily lives that reflect cultural differences, because it was uncontaminated by social desirability or by personality traits and because the obtained scores by country and region were largely in accordance with the expected directions. It was found that the greater the cultural distance between Japan and the foreign community, as measured by the CDQ, the greater the psychological distress of the international student placed in that community. Furthermore, the results showed that it was the food that had the greatest impact on the intercultural adjustment.
Elizur, Y; Ziv, M
While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.
Xu, Wenxin; Ceng, Mengjuan; Yao, Jiwei; Chen, Longfei
Chinese medical workers suffer from a high incidence of mental health problems, resulting in reduced efficiency, increased medical malpractice, rising medical costs, and other issues. The effective alleviation of mental health problems among medical workers is therefore an important focus of research and social attention. The mental health of 842 medical workers from the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University in Fuzhou, China was evaluated between February 2016 and March 2016. Sixty-two workers with positive SCL-90 screening results were selected as the subjects to be investigated in the intervention experiment, with 31 in the intervention group and 31 in the control group. The control group did not participate in any regular physical exercise activity for the 4-month duration of the study, whereas the exercise-psychology adjustment mode was applied to the intervention group. Medical workers had a higher total SCL-90 score and number of positive items than the national norm ( P intervention, the SCL-90 score, number of positive results, somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and hostility of the intervention group were significantly lower than they were before the intervention ( P psychology adjustment is an effective intervention mode for the mental health of medical workers.
Nilgun Ongider Gregory
Full Text Available This study focused on finding answers about an important question that parents are recently asking psychological professionals. This question has become more relevant in the last couple of decades as there are increasing divorce rates in Turkey and the rest of the world. Because of this reason, parents are asking the important question: is it better for our child to divorce or continue our marriage? Researchers come up with very different results to this question. They need to not only focus on the effects of divorce itself but also need to examine the quality of the relationship between the parents. Parents need to remember this very important point that divorce is not the only thing that effects children's psychological adjustment by itself. So, the answer of the question to divorce or stay together is answered by the amount of parental conflict and the quality of the parent's relationship. As a result, the ideal environment for children's psychological development is living with both parents in the same household and having a low-conflict parents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(3.000: 275-289
Lee, Virgina; Cohen, S Robin; Edgar, Linda; Laizner, Andrea M; Gagnon, Anita J
To develop an intervention that uniquely addresses the existential impact of cancer through meaning-making coping strategies and to explore the intervention's impact on psychological adjustment. Descriptive, qualitative approach to develop the intervention; one-group pre- and post-test design to pilot test the intervention. Patients' homes or ambulatory oncology clinics affiliated with a university health center in eastern Canada. 18 participants who were newly diagnosed in the past three months (n = 14), had completed treatment (n = 1), or were facing recurrence (n = 3) of breast (n = 10) or colorectal (n = 8) cancer. Data were collected during interviews using a prototype intervention for trauma patients, and content was analyzed on an ongoing basis to fit the needs of the cancer population. Pretest and post-test questionnaires were administered to determine the intervention's effect. Meaning-making intervention (MMI), patients' background variables, disease- or treatment-related symptoms, and psychological adjustment. The MMI for patients with cancer consisted of as many as four two-hour, individualized sessions and involved the acknowledgment of losses and life threat, the examination of critical past challenges, and plans to stay committed to life goals. At post-test, participants significantly improved in self-esteem and reported a greater sense of security in facing the uncertainty of cancer. Findings suggest that meaning-making coping can be facilitated and lead to positive psychological outcomes following a cancer diagnosis. The MMI offers a potentially effective and structured approach to address and monitor cancer-related existential issues. Findings are useful for designing future randomized, controlled trials.
O'Donnell, Maeve B.; Shirley, Lauren A.; Park, Stacey S.; Nolen, Julian P.; Gibbons, Alyssa M.; Rosén, Lee A.
Several instruments exist to measure college adjustment: the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ; Baker & Siryk, 1989), the College Adjustment Rating Scale (Zitzow, 1984), and the College Adjustment Scales (Anton & Reed, 1991). Of these, the SACQ is the most widely used and takes a multifaceted approach to measuring college…
Baker, Sarah R; Owens, Jan; Stern, Melanie; Willmot, Derrick
To examine the role of parents' coping strategies and social support in the family impact of cleft lip and palate (CLP) and levels of adjustment and psychological distress and to investigate whether a child's age, type of cleft, or other reported medical problems influenced such outcomes. A cross-sectional study. One hundred three parents of children or young adults with CLP recruited from families attending a multidisciplinary cleft lip and palate clinic. Family impact, psychological distress, and positive adjustment were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires. Findings indicated that while there were many impacts of a child's CLP, negative outcomes (family impact, psychological distress) were not high. In contrast, parents reported high levels of positive adjustment or stress-related growth as a result of their child's condition. Participants also reported high levels of social support and relied more on the use of approach rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Having more support from friends and family was associated with less negative family impact, lower psychological distress, and better adjustment. Greater use of approach coping was associated with more positive adjustment; whereas, avoidant coping was associated with a greater family impact and more psychological distress. Having a younger child and/or a child with medical problems in addition to CLP was associated with a greater impact on the family. How parents cope with their child's condition and the levels of support received may have implications for caregivers, the family unit, and the delivery of more family-oriented CLP services.
The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural adjustment. These findings were discussed in relation to relevant international research and it was concluded that international students comprise a resourceful student sample and that the international academic environment at Aarhus University appears to be an adequately cultural and value-oriented good fit as a context of reception for the multicultural engagement of international students. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z
Little research has focused on predictors of psychological adjustment among early placed adopted children. Additionally, the research on adopted children in lesbian or gay parent-families is sparse. The current study examined 40 female same-sex, 35 male same-sex, and 45 different-sex parent families with adopted children, all of whom were placed in their adoptive homes under the age of 18 months. We explored aspects of children's preadoptive and postadoptive contexts (measured at 3 months postplacement) in relation to children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms (measured at 2 years postplacement; M age = 2.33 years). Findings revealed that lack of parental preparation for the adoption, and parental depressive symptoms, were associated with higher parent-reported levels of both externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Additionally, parents' relationship conflict was associated with higher levels of parent- and partner-reported internalizing symptoms. Children's adjustment outcomes did not differ by family type. Our findings point to the importance of considering the adoptive family context (including parent and couple subsystems) in predicting later adjustment in early placed adopted children, in diverse family contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Pereira, M Graça; Brito, Laura; Smith, Tom
Psoriasis is an incurable and chronic disease that includes unpredictable periods of remission and relapse requiring long-term therapy. This paper focuses on the relationship among family coping, psychological morbidity, body image, dyadic adjustment and quality of life in psoriatic patients and their partners. One hundred and one patients with psoriasis and 78 partners comprised the sample. They were regular users of the Dermatology Service of a Central Northern hospital in Portugal and a private dermatology clinic. Patients with psoriasis were assessed on anxiety, depression, body image, quality of life, dyadic adjustment and family coping. Partners were assessed on the same measures except body image and quality of life. A positive relationship among dyadic adjustment, psychological morbidity and family coping in patients and their partners was found. Also, patients with lower levels of quality of life had partners with higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms. Better dyadic adjustment predicted family coping in the psoriatic patient. High levels of dyadic adjustment in patients and low partners' trait anxiety predicted better dyadic adjustment in partners. The results highlight the importance of incorporating family variables in psychological interventions in psoriasis' care, particularly family coping and dyadic adjustment as well as the need for psychological intervention to focus both on patients and partners.
Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan
The aim of this study were to investigate the mediator role of coping strategies and gender roles attitudes on the relationship between women's marital adjustment and psychological symptoms. 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form. Regression analyses revealed that Submissive (Sobel z= -2.47, prole on the relationship between marital relationship score and psychological symptom level. Also, having Egalitarian Gender Role Attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but it is seen that this effect is not higher enough to play a mediator role (Sobel z =-1.21, p>.05). Regression analysis showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between women's marital adjustment and their psychological symptoms, indicating that the marital adjustment decreases as the psychological symptoms increases. It is also found out that submissive and helpless coping approach have mediator roles in this relationship. Also, contrary to expectations, having egalitarian gender role attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but this effect does not seem to play a mediator role. It is thought that the effects of marriage and couple therapy approaches considering coupless problem solving and coping styles should be examined in further studies.
Wong, J; Mellor, D; Richardson, B; Xu, X
The current study broadened the general scope of research conducted on childhood cruelty to animals by examining the association between psychological adjustment, family functioning and animal cruelty in an Eastern context, China. The mothers and fathers of 729 children attending primary school in Chengdu, China participated in this study. Each parent completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument, and the Children's Attitudes and Behaviours towards Animals questionnaire. Findings from an actor partner interdependence model demonstrated that parents' ratings of family functioning and of their child's externalizing coping style predicted only modest amounts of variance in animal cruelty. In particular, parents' ratings of their child's externalizing coping style most consistently predicted animal cruelty. Family functioning, fathers' ratings in particular, played a minor role, more so for boys compared with girls. This study provided the first insight into childhood animal cruelty in China, and suggests that further research may enhance our understanding of these phenomena. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N
This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. The current report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14 – 21) in New York City. Although differences in the timing of identity formation were not associated with psychological adjustment, greater identity integration was related to less depressive and anxious symptoms, fewer conduct problems, and higher self-esteem both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Individual changes in identity integration over time were associated with all four aspects of psychological adjustment, even after controlling for rival hypotheses concerning family and friend support, gay-related stress, negative social relationships, and other covariates. These findings suggest that difficulties in developing an integrated LGB identity may have negative implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths and that efforts to reduce distress among LGB youths should address the youths’ identity integration. PMID:19916104
Bovero, A; Leombruni, P; Miniotti, M; Rocca, G; Torta, R
The purpose of this study was to show the different components of spirituality in the last few weeks of life for advanced cancer patients admitted to hospice and to evaluate quality of life (QoL), pain, anxiety, depression and psychological adjustment to cancer. One hundred and fifteen patients were interviewed with a series of rating scales: the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain, the Brief Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale - General Measure. Workers and single patients with higher education level showed a worse QoL. Moreover, anxiety and pain were negatively associated with QoL, while spirituality and 'Instrumental Support' coping style were positively associated with QoL. In the Italian sample, it was observed that when patients are close to death, faith is a more important component of spirituality than meaning/peace. This study confirms that QoL could be related to physical and psychological symptoms, and this reiterates the importance of faith in end-of-life care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Grotz, Catherine; Matharan, Fanny; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Laberon, Sonia; Vonthron, Anne-Marie; Dartigues, Jean-François; Adam, Stéphane; Letenneur, Luc
To investigate the relationship between psychological transition and adjustment to retirement and cognitive performances in older adults. The study's sample was taken from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée cohort, a French prospective study of retirees from agriculture, aged 65 and over, living in rural settings in southwestern France. The cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a sample of 590 elderly people without dementia at baseline and for whom information on perception of the work setting, experience of the retirement transition and adaptation to retirement life (nine variables) as well as neuropsychological measures (global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, verbal fluency, attention and psychomotor speed) were available at first visit. Multivariable linear regression analyses, including nine variables related to retirement and adjusted for potential confounding factors, indicated that three of them - positive consideration of former work situation, development of new activities during retirement and good adaptation to free time - were associated with better cognitive performances. We found that several factors proved to be determinants of good cognitive functioning at retirement and could serve as a basis for the development of more efficient intervention programs aimed at helping retirees to maintain good cognitive functioning after retirement.
Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin
This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well...... as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students’ psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired...... psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally...
Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Harris Bond, Michael
The present investigation examined the impact of bicultural identity, bilingualism, and social context on the psychological adjustment of multicultural individuals. Our studies targeted three distinct types of biculturals: Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong, Filipino domestic workers (i.e., sojourners) in Hong Kong, and Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese college students. Individual differences in Bicultural Identity Integration (BII; Benet-Martínez, Leu, Lee, & Morris, 2002) positively predicted psychological adjustment for all the samples except sojourners even after controlling for the personality traits of neuroticism and self-efficacy. Cultural identification and language abilities also predicted adjustment, although these associations varied across the samples in meaningful ways. We concluded that, in the process of managing multiple cultural environments and group loyalties, bilingual competence, and perceiving one's two cultural identities as integrated are important antecedents of beneficial psychological outcomes.
Studies on fathering and child mental health are now increasingly looking for specificity in children's psychological adjustment, indicating whether the impact of fathering is diagnostically specific or non-specific. Data from 435 fathers of secondary school-aged children in Britain were used to explore the association between resident biological fathers', non-resident biological fathers' and stepfathers' involvement and children's total difficulties, prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems (all measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) in adolescence. After controlling for child-, father- and family-related factors, fathers' involvement was negatively associated with children's total difficulties and hyperactivity, was positively associated with children's prosocial behaviour, and was unrelated with children's emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. There was no non-resident biological father effect. Compared with resident biological fathers, stepfathers reported more total difficulties, conduct problems and hyperactivity in their children even after adjusting for involvement. Whether this reflects stepfathers' low tolerance levels or biological fathers' complacency, as sociobiologists would argue, or whether this is due to pre-existing predispositions of children in families which separate and restructure, to the effects of these multiple family changes or to the high exposure of children in restructured families to parental risk factors, is, given the data available and the study design, unclear. However, this study showed that, compared with their peers in biological father families, adolescents in stepfather families are perceived to be at higher risk of behaviour problems, and that father involvement is related to specific aspects of child adjustment.
Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.
Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Særvold, Tone Kristin; Aukner, Ragnhild; Stock, Nicola Marie
Despite the use of multidisciplinary services, little research has addressed issues involved in the care of those with cleft lip and/or palate across disciplines. The aim was to investigate associations between speech, language, reading, and reports of teasing, subjective satisfaction with speech, and psychological adjustment. Cross-sectional data collected during routine, multidisciplinary assessments in a centralized treatment setting, including speech and language therapists and clinical psychologists. Children with cleft with palatal involvement aged 10 years from three birth cohorts (N = 170) and their parents. Speech: SVANTE-N. Language: Language 6-16 (sentence recall, serial recall, vocabulary, and phonological awareness). Reading: Word Chain Test and Reading Comprehension Test. Psychological measures: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and extracts from the Satisfaction With Appearance Scale and Child Experience Questionnaire. Reading skills were associated with self- and parent-reported psychological adjustment in the child. Subjective satisfaction with speech was associated with psychological adjustment, while not being consistently associated with speech therapists' assessments. Parent-reported teasing was found to be associated with lower levels of reading skills. Having a medical and/or psychological condition in addition to the cleft was found to affect speech, language, and reading significantly. Cleft teams need to be aware of speech, language, and/or reading problems as potential indicators of psychological risk in children with cleft. This study highlights the importance of multiple reports (self, parent, and specialist) and a multidisciplinary approach to cleft care and research.
Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesus; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, Maria Teresa; Sanchez-Alcoba, Manuel Alejandro
In this study, the relation between levels of anxiety, self-esteem and subjective psychological well-being is analyzed in a Spanish sample of 28 fathers and 33 mothers of blind children. The results reveal a positive correlation between subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem, and a negative correlation between anxiety and subjective…
The beginning of a study represents for freshmen a difficult period of adjustment. Observations obtained in student counseling centers as well as in investigations of students' adjustment indicate that the beginning of a study represents for students a specific crisis period determined by dealing with the experiences of ‘psychological separation’. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to prove the existence of a crisis period at the beginning of a study by investigating ...
Gudmundsdottir, Eyglo; Schirren, Maria; Boman, Krister K
Studies of parental reactions to a child's cancer have traditionally been carried out within the framework of psychiatry and psychopathology. We studied the significance of individual resource factors strengthening parents' resilience to long-term cancer-related distress, a focus that has rarely been used. The two-nation Nordic sample included 398 parents; 190 of whom had experienced a child's cancer, and 208 reference parents. We studied the sense of coherence (SOC) using the SOC-13 questionnaire. For assessing distress reactions we used a primarily illness-specific 11-dimensional Parental Psychosocial Distress in Cancer (PPD-C) self-report questionnaire developed for use with parents of childhood cancer patients, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Resilience was defined as absence of/less severe distress. Low SOC was significantly associated with more severe distress in all dimensions of the PPD-C and GHQ. The protective effect of SOC was indicated by it being most negatively related to general psychiatric symptoms, physical and psychological stress symptoms, anxiety and depression. The influence of SOC varied with parents' gender, showing a stronger modifying influence among mothers. Mothers and fathers also differed in their utilisation of professional psychosocial support when confronted with the child's cancer. Parental resilience to cancer-related distress varies with identifiable strength factors. A strengths-oriented approach helps in understanding parental adjustment to childhood cancer. In order to counteract psychological vulnerability, addressing resilience instead of pathology helps to identify parents at risk and in need of professional support when faced with a child's cancer.
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided…
Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li
This study examined reciprocal contributions between shyness-sensitivity and social, school, and psychological adjustment in urban Chinese children. Longitudinal data were collected once a year from Grade 3 to Grade 6 (ages 9-12 years) for 1,171 children from multiple sources. Shyness-sensitivity positively contributed to social, school, and…
Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C.
The present study evaluated whether 3 indices of friendship adjustment (mutual friendship involvement, friendship stability, friendship quality) are important, but overlooked, moderators of the impact of anxious-withdrawal on trajectories of psychological maladjustment during early adolescence. Participants included 271 young adolescents (51%…
Trute, Barry; Benzies, Karen M.; Worthington, Catherine; Reddon, John R.; Moore, Melanie
Background: Mothers' cognitive appraisal of the family impact of childhood disability and their positive affect as a psychological coping resource, both key elements of the process model of stress and coping, were tested as explanatory variables of family adjustment. Method: In a sample of Canadian families, 195 mothers of children with…
Varni, James W.; And Others
The mediation of family and peer social support and self-esteem in the relationship between chronic strain and psychological adjustment in children and adolescents with juvenile diabetes is investigated. Family support is more important than peer support for children, while the opposite holds for adolescents. Self-esteem benefits both groups. (AF)
Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K
We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. © The Author(s) 2015.
Objectives. We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. Method. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Results. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Discussion. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that “continuing bonds” with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses. PMID:23811692
Shek, D T
Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psychological adjustment and their victim-blaming attributions. The sample consists of 314 men convictedof intimate partner violence who were referred to a community-based intervention program. Results froma structural equation model showed that social support and stressful life events were related topsychological adjustment. Psychological adjustment also was related to victim-blaming attributions amongintimate partner violence offenders. A better understanding of the relationships between psychologicaladjustment of intimate partner violence offenders and its determinants, as well as its impact on victimblamingattributions, may provide support to new intervention strategies. Implications of these results forimproving the effectiveness of intervention programs are discussed.
Bos, H.; van Beusekom, G.; Sandfort, T.
This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from
McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.
This investigation examined the links between preschoolers' internalizing problems and anxiety-related social difficulties and two aspects of maternal and paternal psychological control: overprotection and critical control. Some 115 mothers and 92 fathers completed the New Friends Vignettes (NFV), a new measure of psychological control and…
Prilleltensky, Isaac; Stead, Graham B.
Adjusting to the world of work or challenging it is a dilemma that career counselors and helpers encounter daily. Counselors and clients may opt for one of the following choices: (a) adjust to, and challenge the system, at the same time, (b) adjust to the system but do not challenge it, (c) challenge the system but do not adjust to it, and (d)…
Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio
The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…
Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L
Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Lila, Marisol; Gracia, Enrique; Murgui, Sergio
Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology) of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psy...
van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.
This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis
Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Pring, Christopher
Abstract Background Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective form of obesity management for those whose BMI is greater than 40 (or 35 with co morbidities). A minority of patients, however, either do not show the desired loss of excess weight or show weight regain by follow up. Research highlights some of the reasons for this variability, most of which centres on the absence of any psychological support with patients describing how although surgery fixes their body, psychological issu...
Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Hostinar, Camelia E
The goal of the current study was to provide the first investigation of whether appraisals of parental marital conflict mediate associations of family income with emerging adult psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol production. Participants were 178 college students who provided 3 saliva samples across the day and reported their family income, adjustment (depressive symptoms, perceived daily stress, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems), and appraisals of their parents' conflict (including perceptions of frequency, intensity, resolution, stability, as well as perceived threat and self-blame for conflict). Results indicated that emerging adults from low-income families reported more-negative conflict appraisals, which in turn predicted lower levels of adjustment; there was no association between income and patterns of cortisol production across the day. However, emerging adults who felt responsible for their parents' conflict displayed cortisol levels that were lower early in the day, with a tendency toward blunted cortisol slopes across the day; those who appraised their parents' conflict less negatively displayed a more normative pattern of cortisol production. These results suggest that effects of family income on psychological adjustment are explained, in part, by appraisals of parental conflict, particularly of appraisals of conflict as threatening, whereas self-blame conflict appraisals have main effects on cortisol, and predict a dysregulated and potentially maladaptive pattern of cortisol production across the day for emerging adults.
Park, Crystal L; Edmondson, Donald; Fenster, Juliane R; Blank, Thomas O
Cancer survivors' efforts at meaning making may influence the extent to which they successfully make meaning from their experience (i.e., experience posttraumatic growth, find life meaningful, and restore beliefs in a just world), which may, in turn, influence their psychological adjustment. Previous research regarding both meaning making processes and meanings made as determinants of adjustment has shown inconsistent effects, partly because of the lack of clearly articulated theoretical frameworks and problematic research strategies. In a 1-year longitudinal study, the authors distinguished the meaning making process from the outcomes of that process (meanings made), employing specific measures of both. The authors tested pathways through which meaning making efforts led to 3 different meanings made (growth, life meaning, and restored just-world belief) in a sample of 172 young to middle-age adult cancer survivors, and they explored whether those meanings made mediated the effect of meaning making efforts on psychological adjustment. Cross-sectional and longitudinal path models of the meaning making process indicate that meaning making efforts are related to better adjustment through the successful creation of adaptive meanings made from the cancer experience. The authors conclude with clinical implications and suggestions for future research. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
International populations face difficulties adjusting to a new culture. This is especially true for international students, who have to adjust to a new country and face academic demands concurrently. Research has explored various factors that impact psychological adjustment of international students and show the influence of self-esteem and social…
Roback, Howard B.; And Others
Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. (Author)
Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. Materials and method. A total of 249college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaireand Trauma Symptom Checklist. Results. The results showed significantdifferences in psychological adjustment among respondents whowere exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposedto bullying. Those exposed to bullying had significantly higherlevels of anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, and dissociative andtraumatic symptoms compared to those who were not exposed to bullying.Respondents who were exposed to bullying in all three examinedperiods (the period from the first to fourth grade, the period from the fifth to eighth grade and the high school period had higher scores on the subscale of dissociative symptoms and sexual trauma symptoms compared to respondents who were exposed through one or twoperiods. Victims abused in all three periods have more symptoms ofanxiety and sleeping problems compared to the subjects exposed tobullying during one examination period. There were no differences inthe level of depressive symptoms and sexual problems regarding theduration of bullying. Also, there were no differences in psychologicaladjustment between respondents who were bullied during one specificperiod. Conclusion. Bullying experiences in childhood and adolescenceare connected with difficulties in psychological adjustment inyoung adulthood.
Harman, Marsha J.; Arbona, Consuelo
Compares Hispanic adult children of alcoholics with Hispanic adult children of nonalcoholics on Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms. Finds significantly higher scores in Somatoform Disorders and Psychological Factors Affecting Physical Conditions scales among children of alcoholics. Women displayed higher scores than men on Affective…
Gilbert, Lucia A.
A model of psychological treatment increasing internality and regaining control over stressful environments was tested among college students. The two experiments assessed: (1) the locus of control regarding recent events and individual characteristics; and (2) the locus of control and manifest anxiety at pretreatment and posttreatment. Results…
Inconsistency in parenting is a factor that may influence children's mental health. A questionnaire, measuring three parental inconsistencies (temporal, situational, and father-mother inconsistency) was administered to adolescents in nine countries to assess its association with adolescents' psychological disorders. The results show that parental…
Bleidorn, W.; Ködding, C.
Classic and contemporary lines of research have studied the psychological meaning of self-concept differentiation (SCD), the tendency to see oneself as having different personality characteristics in different social contexts. A key question is whether SCD signifies specialization or, rather,
Objective: Cardiovascular reactivity is associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness as early as childhood. Excess cardiovascular responses relative to the metabolic demand during psychological stress have been proposed as a mechanism for this association. It is not known whether measure...
Benson, Paul R.
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment…
Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.
The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…
Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
Adduci, Annarita; Jankovic, Momcilo; Strazzer, Sandra; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo; Poggi, Geraldina
Internalizing problems, anxiety, depression, withdrawal, and consequent social problems are frequently observed in children with brain tumors. The objective of this work is to describe the relationship between these psychological problems and the type of parent-child communication established about the disease. A group of 64 children surviving a brain tumor (aged 4-18 years) underwent psychological assessment by means of parent reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). A semi-structured interview with each child and their parents enabled us to classify the method of communication regarding the disease as "avoidance," "ineffective," and "effective." Demographic, clinical, and functional data relating to the disease were also collected. A significant relationship between the onset of Internalizing problems, withdrawal, anxiety-depression, and social problems and the presence of avoidance or ineffective communication about the disease was observed (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.01, respectively). These psychological problems did not prove to be associated to demographic or clinical variables; however, they were found to be related to the children's residual functional problems. By contrast, the method of communication proved to be unrelated to clinical or functional variables, but it was associated to demographic variables such as sex and age at assessment. Effective (complete, truthful, consistent, comprehensible, gradual and continuous, and tailored) communication to the child about his/her condition proved to be associated with a better psychological outcome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dufner, Michael; Reitz, Anne K; Zander, Lysann
We investigated the reciprocal associations between academic self-enhancement and key indicators of intra- and interpersonal adjustment as well as the role of self-esteem as a mediator. This longitudinal study involved three assessments in a sample of 709 German children and adolescents (Mage = 11.83; 54% female) over the course of one academic year. We assessed self-reported subjective well-being as an indicator of intrapersonal adjustment and peer-reported popularity as an indicator of interpersonal adjustment. We computed cross-lagged and longitudinal mediational analyses. Academic self-enhancement prospectively predicted high subsequent well-being and popularity. Vice versa, well-being and popularity prospectively predicted high subsequent levels of self-enhancement. High self-esteem mediated the longitudinal associations between self-enhancement and well-being in both directions, but not the links between self-enhancement and popularity. Self-enhancement and adjustment are bidirectionally linked: Self-enhancement entails intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits; at the same time, adjustment in both domains fosters self-enhancement. In terms of intrapersonal, but not interpersonal adjustment, self-esteem seems to serve as a linchpin, accounting for all longitudinal associations. Furthermore, we present evidence indicating that self-enhancement indicators that are based on difference scores (instead of residuals) are problematic and might have led to negatively biased results in the literature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thaís Bento; Cachioni, Meire
Objectives The present study sought to characterize the degree of general satisfaction with life and degree of satisfaction on four domains: health, physical capacity, mental capacity and social involvement, and to determine the characteristics of self-reports of individuals enrolled on the program in relation to their psychological well-being focusing on the dimensions: autonomy, personal growth, control, positive relationships with others, purpose, personal acceptance and generativity, and to analyse the effect of time studying on level of well-being. Method A total of 140 elderly students of a University for the Third Age took part in the study. The Global Satisfaction With Life Scale and the Self Development Scale (with six psychological well-being subscales) were applied. Continuous variables for the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship among numeric variables. Internal consistency of the instrument scales was analysed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results Results showed that students who had attended the University of the Third Age for six months or longer had a higher level of satisfaction with life and greater psychological adjustment compared with new entrants to the same institution. Conclusion The study results confirmed the positive effects of continuing education on the well-being of elderly and its contribution to successful aging. PMID:29213747
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective form of obesity management for those whose BMI is greater than 40 (or 35 with co morbidities. A minority of patients, however, either do not show the desired loss of excess weight or show weight regain by follow up. Research highlights some of the reasons for this variability, most of which centres on the absence of any psychological support with patients describing how although surgery fixes their body, psychological issues relating to dietary control, self esteem, coping and emotional eating remain neglected. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of a health psychology led bariatric rehabilitation service (BRS on patient health outcomes. The bariatric rehabilitation service will provide information, support and mentoring pre and post surgery and will address psychological issues such as dietary control, self esteem, coping and emotional eating. The package reflects the rehabilitation services now common place for patients post heart attack and stroke which have been shown to improve patient health outcomes. Methods/Design The study is a randomised control trial and patients will be allocated to receive either usual care or the bariatric rehabilitation service pre and post bariatric surgery. Follow up measures of weight loss and psychological issues will be taken at baseline (2 weeks preoperatively, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The contents of the bariatric service and the follow up measures are based on previous pilot work and have been developed further by the research team working closely with two patient support groups (BOSPA & WLSinfo. This study will take place in St Richard's Hospital in Chichester in the UK. Discussion It is predicted that a bariatric rehabilitation service will improve weight loss following surgery and will also facilitate changes in other psychological variables such as quality of life, dietary control, self esteem, coping and
Grech, Lisa B; Kiropoulos, Litza A; Kirby, Katherine M; Butler, Ernest; Paine, Mark; Hester, Robert
To identify the moderating and mediating relationship of different coping strategies between executive function and stress, depression and anxiety in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Participants were 107 people with relapsing remitting or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis who were administered tasks of executive function and completed self-report measures of stress, depression, anxiety, and coping. An indirect relationship was found between executive function and psychosocial adjustment through maladaptive coping strategies: behavioral and mental disengagement, and substance abuse; adaptive coping strategies: acceptance, active, positive reinterpretation, and growth, as well as for an index of adaptive coping. In general, a relationship was found between better performance on tasks of executive function and psychosocial adjustment when adaptive coping strategies were low, as opposed to high, or maladaptive coping strategies were high, as opposed to low. Some unexpected findings are also discussed. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment is mediated and moderated by coping strategies used by PwMS. Well-preserved executive function provides relative protection from poorer adjustment in the presence of high maladaptive or low adaptive coping. PwMS who perform poorly on tasks of executive function benefit from using less cognitively demanding adaptive coping strategies to enhance adjustment outcomes and further research in this area would be advantageous to underpin effective intervention strategies. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs and their host-country nationals (HCNs colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them.
Jackson, Michelle; Ray, Sukanya; Bybell, Danica
In this study, we examined the role of self-esteem, hope, optimism, coping, acculturative stress, and social support on international students' depressive symptoms and sociocultural adjustment. Seventy international students completed a self-report online survey. The most notable finding was that the international students used adaptive and…
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…
Drogalis, Anna Rhoad; McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Chao, Jessica L.; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.
This article reports on the national standardization and psychometric properties of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents--Home Edition (ASCA-H) for use in Trinidad and Tobago. ASCA-H is a parent rating scale composed of behavioral indicators in play, social, and learning contexts. The sample was comprised of students (N = 780)…
Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.
Tested a model linking family financial resources to adjustment among African American 6- to 9-year olds with single, rural, Southern mothers. Found that inadequate financial resources related to mothers' depression and low self-esteem. Self-esteem was linked with family routines and mother-child relationship quality. Child self-regulation…
Werner, Helene; Buder, Kathrin; Landolt, Markus A; Neuhaus, Thomas J; Laube, Guido F; Spartà, Giuseppina
In children after haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), little is known about long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological adjustment as defined by behavioural problems, depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Sixty-two paediatric patients with a history of HUS were included in this study. Medical data of the acute HUS episode were retrieved retrospectively from hospital records. Data on the clinical course at study investigation were assessed by clinical examination and laboratory evaluation. HRQoL and psychological adjustment data were measured by standardised, parent- and self-reported questionnaires. Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome was diagnosed at a mean of 6.5 years before the initiation of the study (standard deviation 2.9, range 0.1-15.7) years. Among the preschool children, parents reported that their child was less lively and energetic (HRQoL emotional dimension), while no increased behavioural problems were reported. In the school-age children, self- and proxy-reported HRQoL was well within or even above the norms, while increased total behavioural problems were found. The school-age children reported no increased depression scores. Also none of the children met the criteria for full or partial HUS-associated posttraumatic stress disorder. Healthcare providers should be particularly alert to behavioural problems in school-age children with a history of HUS and to lower HRQoL in preschool children.
Cappe, Emilie; Bolduc, Mélanie; Rougé, Marie-Caroline; Saiag, Marie-Claude; Delorme, Richard
This study investigated quality of life and adjustment mechanisms in parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Ninety parents of children with ADHD completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and self-assessment scales to measure their perceived stress, social support, sense of control, coping strategies and quality of life. ADHD in children negatively affected parents' quality of life, especially their psychological well-being and personal fulfillment. Family and couple relationships, as well as daily life activities, were also affected. The severity of the disorder, perceiving the situation as a threat or a loss, feeling guilty and holding on to irrational beliefs were related to emotion-focused coping strategies and to a poorer quality of life. Furthermore, hyperactivity index and stress ratings relative to perceiving the situation as a threat or a loss, and adopting emotion-focused coping strategies, predicted poorer quality of life. In contrast, perceiving the situation as challenging was related to a greater sense of control and personal fulfillment. Moreover, perceiving the situation as challenging and adopting problem-focused coping strategies predicted better quality of life. The findings highlight the negative effects of ADHD on parent psychological adjustment and underline the need to recommend training programs that improve parenting skills, parents' perceptions concerning their child's behavior disorder and parental functioning.
Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined youths’ friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for online friendships, predicting decreases in internalizing symptoms for youth with lower initial levels of social acceptance, but increases in symptoms for youth with higher initial levels over the following year. Across the entire sample, deviant behavior in posted photos predicted increases in young adults’ problematic alcohol use over time. The importance of considering the interplay between online and offline social factors for predicting adjustment is discussed. PMID:23109797
Sesar, Kristina; Zivcić-Bećirević, Ivanka; Sesar, Damir
To determine the prevalence and intercorrelation of different forms of childhood maltreatment and psychological problems in adolescents in Western Herzegovina Canton. A questionnaire study was conducted in March 2003 on a convenient sample of 458 third-grade high-school students (39% boys) aged between 15 and 20 (median age, 17). Data were collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III, Child Maltreatment Questionnaire, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Sociodemographic and family characteristics and exposure to maltreatment were analyzed as possible predictors of exposure to a particular type of abuse and subsequent psychological adjustment problems. Out of 458 students, 77% were emotionally abused, 52% physically abused, 30% neglected, 20% witnessed family violence, and 13% of girls and 21% of boys were sexually abused before the age of 14. Significant association between the maltreatment by a mother, father, and other adults were found for emotional and physical abuse and for neglect and witnessing family violence (r=0.413-0.541, Pfamily violence (r=0.048, P=0.351). Almost two-thirds of students were exposed to multi-type maltreatment in childhood. Family characteristics and maltreatment scores significantly predicted anxiety/depression (R=0.456, R(2)=0.076), withdrawal (R=0.389, R(2)=0.049), somatic complaints (R=0.437, R(2)=0.059), social problems (R=0.417, R(2)=0.063), attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (R=0.368, R(2)=0.045), rule-breaking behavior (R=0.393, R(2)=0.045), aggression (R=0.437, R(2)=0.078) (Pfamily characteristics and exposure to some forms of abuse were significant predictors of exposure to other forms of abuse. Exposure to maltreatment in childhood predicted difficulties in psychological adjustment in adolescence.
Human, Lauren J; Dirks, Melanie A; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith
Parents and adolescents often hold discrepant views about the family environment and these discrepancies may in turn influence adolescents' psychological adjustment. The current study examined how adolescent-parent perceptions of family routines and chaos, and their congruence and incongruence, relate to adolescents' self-reported psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), both concurrently (N dyads = 261; 53 % female) and 2 years later (N dyads = 118; 50 % female). Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of the family environment were a stronger predictor of adolescents' adjustment than parents' perceptions (76 % mothers), concurrently and over time. However, both congruence and incongruence in adolescent-parent perceptions were also related to adolescents' adjustment. Specifically, congruently negative adolescent-parent perceptions were associated with worse concurrent adolescent adjustment. Further, incongruence defined by more negativity in adolescents' versus parents' perceptions was associated with worse adolescent psychological adjustment, concurrently and over time. In sum, in addition to the strong links between adolescents' perceptions of the family and their own psychological adjustment, examining how congruent and incongruent adolescents' perceptions are with parents' perceptions may shed additional light on how the family environment relates to adolescent adjustment.
Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara
Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Laurent, Heidemarie; Laurent, Sean; Hertz, Robin; Egan-Wright, Dorianne; Granger, Douglas A
Mindfulness is known to improve individuals' and couples' subjective stress regulation, but little is known about how it impacts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to acute psychosocial stress. The current study tested effects of dispositional mindfulness facets on young adult couples' cortisol responses to a conflict discussion stressor, as well as associations with psychological adjustment. One hundred heterosexual couples completed the five facet mindfulness questionnaire one week before engaging in a conflict discussion task. Each partner provided five saliva samples from pre- to post-conflict, which were assayed for cortisol. Measures of adjustment - depression and anxiety symptoms and global well-being - were also completed at this session. Hierarchical linear modeling of cortisol trajectories revealed sex-specific effects; whereas women's mindfulness (nonreactivity facet) predicted higher conflict stress cortisol levels, men's mindfulness (describing facet) predicted less pronounced cortisol reactivity/recovery curves. These patterns were related to better adjustment-lower depression symptoms for women and greater well-being for men. Implications for sex differences in mindfulness benefits are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Demby, Kimberly P; Riggs, Shelley A; Kaminski, Patricia L
This study examined the links between parent-child attachment, whole family interaction patterns, and child emotional adjustment and adaptability in a sample of 86 community families with children between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Family interactions were observed and coded with the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF; Lindahl, 2001). Both parents and each target child completed the appropriate form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). Target children also completed the Children's Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ; Yunger, Corby, & Perry, 2005). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that Secure mother-child attachment was a robust predictor of children's emotional symptoms, but father-child attachment strategies were not significant independent predictors. Positive Affect in family interactions significantly increased the amount of variance accounted for in children's emotional symptoms. In addition, Family Cohesion and Positive Affect moderated the relationship between father-child attachment and children's emotional symptoms. When data from all BASC-2 informants (mother, father, child) were considered simultaneously and multidimensional constructs were modeled, mother-child security directly predicted children's adjustment and adaptive skills, but the influence of father-child security was fully mediated through positive family functioning. Results of the current study support the utility of considering dyadic attachment and family interaction patterns conjointly when conceptualizing and fostering positive emotional and behavioral outcomes in children. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Trevino, Kelly M; Litz, Brett; Papa, Anthony; Maciejewski, Paul K; Lichtenthal, Wendy; Healy, Charlotte; Prigerson, Holly G
The psychosocial challenges confronted by bereaved survivors may contribute to poor bereavement adjustment. Measures of the challenges of bereavement are limited. This study is a preliminary examination of the factor structure of a new measure of bereavement challenges and their relationships to quality of life and mental illness in bereaved cancer caregivers. This measure was designed to identify intervention targets to reduce the likelihood of prolonged grief. Caregivers of advanced cancer patients were administered measures of bereavement challenges (Bereavement Challenges Scale, BCS), quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36), prolonged grief (PG-13), and mental disorders (Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV). Principal component factor analyses identified the underlying factor structure of the BCS. We examined associations between the factors and caregiver quality of life, prolonged grief, and rates of mental disorders. A factor analysis identified five factors: "Challenges with Connecting with Others," "Challenges with Change," "Challenges Imagining a Hopeful Future," "Challenges with Accepting the Loss," and "Challenges with Guilt." Greater endorsement of bereavement challenges was associated with worse quality of life, more severe symptoms of prolonged grief, and greater likelihood of meeting criteria for a mental disorder. Assessing the challenges associated with bereavement is important to understanding barriers to bereaved individuals' adjustment. The five factors of the BCS point to potential targets for clinical intervention. Additional research on the BCS is needed, including validation in larger more diverse samples, and confirmation that reduction of these challenges is associated with less psychiatric morbidity and, specifically, symptoms of prolonged grief.
Ferenczi, Nelli; Marshall, Tara C
Do insecurely attached individuals perceive greater rejection from their heritage culture? Few studies have examined the antecedents and outcomes of this perceived rejection - termed intragroup marginalization - in spite of its implications for the adjustment of cultural migrants to the mainstream culture. This study investigated whether anxious and avoidant attachment orientations among cultural migrants were associated with greater intragroup marginalization and, in turn, with lower subjective well-being and flourishing and higher acculturative stress. Anxious attachment was associated with heightened intragroup marginalization from friends and, in turn, with increased acculturative stress; anxious attachment was also associated with increased intragroup marginalization from family. Avoidant attachment was linked with increased intragroup marginalization from family and, in turn, with decreased subjective well-being.
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun
SYNOPSIS Objectives Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children’s psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. Design The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children’s adjustment was measured with parents’, teachers’, and peers’ or children’s reports. Results Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children’s externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. Conclusions Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child’s adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715
Full Text Available This study examines the migratory process and psychological adjustment of immigrant women currently residing in the Basque Country. Perceived stress is analyzed in relationship with relevant psychosocial variables from a gender perspective.The sample consisted of 206 immigrant women, proceeding from Latin America (61.2% and Maghreb (38.8%.The participants’ self-assessment of migratory and well-beingwas in overall positive, however, the diffi culties derived from thisprocess, and the migratory changes, infl uence the psychologicaladjustment of immigrant women.Results revealed that perceived stress is affected by the migratory process, educational level, residential status, and the balance of their situation, the elements crossed by factors asgender and/or cultural origin.
Rudiger, Jonathan A; Winstead, Barbara A
Talk about physical appearance and body image is common among young women. We investigated how body talk (negative, positive/self-accepting, and co-ruminative) is related to body image, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, psychological adjustment, and friendship quality via hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for social desirability and body mass index). In a sample of young adult women (N=203), negative body talk was, as predicted, negatively related to body satisfaction and self-esteem and positively related to appearance investment, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and depression, but not friendship quality. Self-accepting/positive body talk was negatively related to body-related cognitive distortions and positively related to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and friendship quality. Body-related co-rumination demonstrated adjustment trade-offs, being related to body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and higher friendship quality. Results indicated no advantage to negative body talk, both individual and relationship benefits from positive/self-accepting body talk, and mixed outcomes for body-related co-rumination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In numerous studies conducted in Western societies, shame as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA has correlated with maladjustment whereas the TOSCA Guilt Scale has predicted adjustment. The present investigation sought to determine if such linkages would also appear in the Muslim cultural context of Iran. Iranian university students (N = 132 responded to Shame and Guilt Scales from the third version of the TOSCA, along with an array of personality measures. Shame correlated negatively with adjustment and positively with maladjustment. Guilt displayed an opposite pattern of relationships. As in previous Western investigations, women scored higher than men on guilt, but the expected female elevation in shame failed to appear. Shame, nevertheless, interacted with gender to predict relationships with poorer psychological functioning in women, but not in men. These data most importantly confirmed that the TOSCA Shame and Guilt Scales in Iran display implications similar to those observed in the West and that gender differences in Iran may deserve additional research attention.
Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie
In spite of studies reporting a relatively high frequency of additional conditions in children with a cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P), almost no research has focused on this clinically important subgroup. The objective of this study was to compare psychosocial adjustment in children with CL/P with and without an additional condition. Cross-sectional data based on routine psychological assessments at age 10 years, with comparisons to national reference groups. Centralized treatment, Norway. Two hundred five children with CL/P (participation rate: 80.1%) from three consecutive birth cohorts. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self-report and parent report) and the Child Experience Questionnaire (self-report). Eighty-one children (39.5%) were identified as having at least one condition in addition to the cleft. These children reported significantly more psychosocial difficulties than children with a cleft alone. Differences between specific conditions were minor. Children with a cleft alone (n = 124) reported mean scores that were comparable to those reported by the reference group. There were no differences in adjustment between children with a visible versus a non-visible cleft. The present study highlights the need for research to be conducted in children with CL/P who have additional conditions to provide better knowledge and clinical care for a potentially vulnerable subgroup of children and their parents.
Full Text Available The study conducted to examine the relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht. The research is descriptive correlational. The target population includes all female students studying in Rasht in 2015. By random cluster sampling method and based on the variables, 180 subjects selected. In this study, to collect data, psychological adjustment and social support, academic self-concept and academic achievement questionnaire are used. To test the hypothesis of this research, the parametric statistical Pearson correlation and regression tests are used. Moreover, all statistical operations were analyzed by using SPSS software. The research results showed that the correlation values between psychological adjustment and social support with academic self-concept and academic achievement of high school female students is statistically significant ( 01/0 > p.
Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E.; Macejova, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.
The aim of this study was to determine whether self-esteem and adjustment to disease can mediate the association between pain and psychological well-being in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Coefficients of correlation, multiple linear regressions and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were
Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu
The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate psychometric properties that assess forms of aggression (i.e., relational and physical aggression) across cultures (i.e., Japan and the United States) and (2) to investigate the role of culture in the associations between forms of aggression and social-psychological adjustment problems such as…
Lahav, Orit; Apter, Alan; Ratzon, Navah Z.
This study evaluates how much the effects of intervention programs are influenced by pre-existing psychological adjustment and self-esteem levels in kindergarten and first grade children with poor visual-motor integration skills, from low socioeconomic backgrounds. One hundred and sixteen mainstream kindergarten and first-grade children, from low…
Sysko, Robyn; Devlin, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Tom B.; Brewer, Stephanie K.; Zitsman, Jeffrey L.; Walsh, B. Timothy
Objective Elevated rates of psychopathology are noted among severely obese youth presenting for weight loss surgery. The role of mental health providers in this population is not well defined, and the selection of candidates is often the result of clinical judgment alone. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate psychiatric symptoms among a large sample of adolescents receiving laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) by: (1) examining changes in depressive symptoms and quality of life in the year following surgery, (2) evaluating the interaction between patterns of change in depression, quality of life, and weight post-surgery, and (3) identifying pre-surgical psychological predictors of initial weight change. Method Participants were 101 severely obese adolescents aged 14 to 18. Measures of height, weight, depressive symptoms, and quality of life were obtained in the first year following surgery. Changes in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), and body mass index were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Results Significant changes in total BDI [βslope=−0.885 SE=0.279, psurgery (pAdolescents experienced notable improvements in initial depressive symptoms and quality of life after LAGB, and measures of pre-operative binge eating and family conflict affected post-surgery body mass index among youth. PMID:23140654
Su, S; Li, X; Lin, D; Xu, X; Zhu, M
Left-behind children refer to those rural children who are under 18 years of age and are left at home when both or one of their parents migrate to urban area for work. Recent findings showed that left-behind children were disadvantaged by developmental, emotional and social problems. A sample of 1165 rural children and adolescents were recruited to examine the characteristics of left-behind children and explore the differences in psychological adjustment (including satisfaction, loneliness and happiness) by patterns of parental migration (i.e. no parent migrating, one parent migrating or two parents migrating) and the level of parent-child communication in rural China. (1) Compared with children with one parent migrating, children with two parents migrating were separated from their parents at younger ages, for longer periods, and saw their migrant parents less frequently. (2) Children with two parents migrating reported the lowest level of satisfaction among the three groups of rural children. Both groups of children with one or two parents migrating experienced more loneliness compared with children with no parent migrating. There were no significant differences in school satisfaction and happiness among the three groups. (3) The children who reported a higher level of parent-child communication also reported a higher level of life and school satisfaction and happiness, and no differences in loneliness were found by levels of parent-child communication. These results indicate that loneliness was the most common and important experience of left-behind children. Parent-child communication is important for the development of all rural children, including those who were left behind by their migrant parents. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Comorbidity structure of psychological disorders in the online e-PASS data as predictors of psychosocial adjustment measures: psychological distress, adequate social support, self-confidence, quality of life, and suicidal ideation.
Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny
A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image-eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression-sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (P<.001). They were positively related to psychological distress and
Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick
Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…
Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG
This study examines the way coping styles and locus of control contribute to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment in adolescents with a chronic illness. Psychosocial adjustment of 84 adolescents aged 13-16 years with a chronic illness was assessed with measures of social adjustment. global
Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola
Cleft in the lip and/or the palate (CL/P) is considered to be a lifelong condition, yet relatively little is known about the long-term outcomes for patients. Existing literature is largely outdated and conflicted, with an almost exclusive focus on medical aspects and deficits. To explore the psychological adjustment and possible support needs of a large number of adults born with CL/P from their own perspective. Fifty-two individual telephone interviews eliciting qualitative data. Qualitative analysis identified five themes. Participants reported a range of challenges in relation to discharge from the service, additional surgery as an adult, social and romantic relationships, higher education, vocational achievement, and access to psychological support. The findings imply that most adults with a cleft adjust well to these challenges and report many positive outcomes. For a minority of patients, issues attributed to the cleft may continue to cause distress in adulthood. Adults with CL/P may require psychological support, information about the heritability of cleft, signposting and referrals from nonspecialists, support regarding further treatment, and opportunities to take part in research and activities. New issues arising in adulthood, such as entering the workplace, forming long-term relationships, and starting a family, may warrant both further investigation and additional support. Further work is needed to identify the factors that contribute to psychological distress and resilience, as well as the timing of particular points of risk and opportunity for personal growth.
Rodríguez Ruiz, Mercedes; Holgado-Tello, Francisco Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel Ángel
This study analyzes how a child's clinical condition modifies the relationship of father involvement, parental (fathers and mothers) acceptance and the child´s psychological adjustment, including the internalizing and externalizing problems. The cohort studied was composed of 226 subjects (61.94% males) with a mean age of 14.08 years, of which 113 children were from an incidental clinical sample and 113 from the general population. Both groups were matched by sex, age and family status, and the data show that the same structure of parent-child relationships that predict the child´s psychological adjustment can be accepted for both the clinical and non-clinical groups of children. However, the intensity of the relationships between the variables father involvement, parental acceptance and the child´s outcomes differed in function of the child's clinical status. Specifically, in the clinically-referred sample compared to non-clinical sample father involvement had a stronger effect on the children´s internalizing (but not the externalizing) problems and on their global psychological adjustment via their perceived maternal acceptance. The role of father involvement in the family relationships of clinical children is discussed. This study provides important evidence to support the need for enhanced paternal participation in the intervention programs for families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Malcolm I; Simpson, Grahame K; Daher, Maysaa; Matheson, Lucinda
A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the association between coping (as measured by the Ways of Coping Questionnaire [WOCQ]) and psychological adjustment in caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A search conducted using the CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO databases yielded 201 citations between 1974 and 2014. A total of seven articles met the inclusion criteria; namely, the respondents who completed the WOCQ were family caregivers of individuals with TBI (including 66-item, 42-item, or 21-item versions). Reviews were conducted in accordance with the American Academy of Neurology guidelines (2011) for classifying evidence. The results found no Class 1 or Class II studies but only four Class III and three Class IV studies. The major finding across the better-rated Class III studies was that the use of emotion-focused coping and problem-focused coping was possibly associated with psychological adjustment in caregivers. The Class IV studies were determined to be inadequate or conflicting in determining the association between coping and psychological adjustment. Future studies need to employ carefully crafted designs, adhere to statistical procedure, apply advanced analytic techniques, and employ explicit models of coping, which will increase the accuracy and generalizability of the findings.
Full Text Available The theoretical model of emotion regulation and many empirical findings have suggested that children’s emotion regulation may mediate the association between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment. However, limited research has been conducted on moderators of these relations, despite the argument that the associations between parenting practices and children’s psychological adjustment are probabilistic rather than deterministic. This study examined the mediating role of children’s emotion regulation in linking parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment, and whether dyadic collaboration could moderate the proposed mediation model in a sample of Chinese parents and their children in their middle childhood. Participants were 150 Chinese children (87 boys and 63 girls, Mage = 8.54, SD = 1.67 and their parents (Mage = 39.22, SD = 4.07. Parent–child dyadic collaboration was videotaped and coded from an interaction task. Parents reported on their emotion socialization, children’s emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms. Results indicated that child emotion regulation mediated the links between parental emotion socialization and child’s psychopathological symptoms. Evidence of moderated mediation was also found: supportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation were positively correlated only at high and medium levels of dyadic collaboration, with child’s psychopathological symptoms as the dependent variables. Our findings suggested that higher-level parent–child collaboration might further potentiate the protective effect of parental supportive emotion socialization practices against child psychopathological symptoms.
Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Van Dam, Dexter; Wassersug, Richard J
Prostate cancer and its treatments, particularly androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), affect both patients and partners. This study assessed how prostate cancer treatment type, patient mood, and sexual function related to dyadic adjustment from patient and partner perspectives. Men with prostate cancer (n = 206) and partners of men with prostate cancer (n = 66) completed an online survey assessing the patients' mood (profile of mood states short form), their dyadic adjustment (dyadic adjustment scale), and sexual function (expanded prostate cancer index composite). Analyses of covariance found that men on ADT reported better dyadic adjustment compared with men not on ADT. Erectile dysfunction was high for all patients, but a multivariate analysis of variance found that those on ADT experienced greater bother at loss of sexual function than patients not on ADT, suggesting that loss of libido when on ADT does not mitigate the psychological distress associated with loss of erections. In a multiple linear regression, patients' mood predicted their dyadic adjustment, such that worse mood was related to worse dyadic adjustment. However, more bother with patients' overall sexual function predicted lower relationship scores for the patients, while the patients' lack of sexual desire predicted lower dyadic adjustment for partners. Both patients and partners are impacted by the prostate cancer treatment effects on patients' psychological and sexual function. Our data help clarify the way that prostate cancer treatments can affect relationships and that loss of libido on ADT does not attenuate distress about erectile dysfunction. Understanding these changes may help patients and partners maintain a co-supportive relationship. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with congenital heart defects (CHD requiring open-heart surgery are a group at high risk for health-related sequelae. Little consensus exists regarding their long-term psychological adjustment (PA and health-related quality of life (QoL. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to determine the current knowledge on long-term outcome in this population. Methods We included randomized controlled trials, case control, or cohort studies published between 1990–2008 evaluating self- and proxy-reported PA and QoL in patients aged between two and 17 years with a follow-up of at least two years after open heart surgery for CHD. Results Twenty-three studies assessing psychological parameters and 12 studies assessing QoL were included. Methodological quality of the studies varied greatly with most studies showing a moderate quality. Results were as follows: (a A considerable proportion of children experienced psychological maladjustment according to their parents; (b studies on self-reported PA indicate a good outcome; (c the studies on QoL suggest an impaired QoL for some children in particular for those with more severe cardiac disease; (d parental reports of psychological maladjustment were related to severity of CHD and developmental delay. Conclusion A significant proportion of survivors of open-heart surgery for CHD are at risk for psychological maladjustment and impaired QoL. Future research needs to focus on self-reports, QoL data and adolescents.
Walsh, Deirdre M J; Morrison, Todd G; Conway, Ronan J; Rogers, Eamonn; Sullivan, Francis J; Groarke, AnnMarie
Background: Post traumatic growth (PTG) can be defined as positive change following a traumatic event. The current conceptualization of PTG encompasses five main dimensions, however, there is no dimension which accounts for the distinct effect of a physical trauma on PTG. The purpose of the present research was to test the role of PTG, physical post traumatic growth (PPTG), resilience and mindfulness in predicting psychological and health related adjustment. Method: Ethical approval was obtained from relevant institutional ethics committees. Participants ( N = 241), who were at least 1 year post prostate cancer treatment, were invited to complete a battery of questionnaires either through an online survey or a paper and pencil package received in the post The sample ranged in age from 44 to 88 years ( M = 64.02, SD = 7.76). Data were analysis using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results: The physical post traumatic growth inventory (P-PTGI) was used to evaluate the role of PPTG in predicting adjustment using structural equation modeling. P-PTGI predicted lower distress and improvement of quality of life, whereas conversely, the traditional PTG measure was linked with poor adjustment. The relationship between resilience and adjustment was found to be mediated by P-PTGI. Conclusion: Findings suggest the central role of PTG in the prostate cancer survivorship experience is enhanced by the inclusion of PPTG. Adjusting to a physical trauma such as illness (internal transgressor) is unlike a trauma with an external transgressor as the physical trauma creates an entirely different framework for adjustment. The current study demonstrates the impact of PPTG on adjustment. This significantly adds to the theory of the development of PTG by highlighting the interplay of resilience with PTG, PPTG, and adjustment.
Deirdre M. J. Walsh
Full Text Available Background: Post traumatic growth (PTG can be defined as positive change following a traumatic event. The current conceptualization of PTG encompasses five main dimensions, however, there is no dimension which accounts for the distinct effect of a physical trauma on PTG. The purpose of the present research was to test the role of PTG, physical post traumatic growth (PPTG, resilience and mindfulness in predicting psychological and health related adjustment.Method: Ethical approval was obtained from relevant institutional ethics committees. Participants (N = 241, who were at least 1 year post prostate cancer treatment, were invited to complete a battery of questionnaires either through an online survey or a paper and pencil package received in the post The sample ranged in age from 44 to 88 years (M = 64.02, SD = 7.76. Data were analysis using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.Results: The physical post traumatic growth inventory (P-PTGI was used to evaluate the role of PPTG in predicting adjustment using structural equation modeling. P-PTGI predicted lower distress and improvement of quality of life, whereas conversely, the traditional PTG measure was linked with poor adjustment. The relationship between resilience and adjustment was found to be mediated by P-PTGI.Conclusion: Findings suggest the central role of PTG in the prostate cancer survivorship experience is enhanced by the inclusion of PPTG. Adjusting to a physical trauma such as illness (internal transgressor is unlike a trauma with an external transgressor as the physical trauma creates an entirely different framework for adjustment. The current study demonstrates the impact of PPTG on adjustment. This significantly adds to the theory of the development of PTG by highlighting the interplay of resilience with PTG, PPTG, and adjustment.
Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhengyan
The purpose of this study was to examine relations between shyness-sensitivity and social competence, school performance, and psychological well-being in Chinese children with rural and urban backgrounds. Participants were students in rural migrant children schools and city schools in China (Ns = 411 and 518, respectively; M age = 10 years). Data…
Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth
This study determined whether participation in an accelerated curriculum (specifically, the International Baccalaureate [IB] program) upon entry to high school is associated with increases in stress and/or associated with psychological problems. Data from self-report questionnaires were collected at two time points (summer after eighth grade, fall…
Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Bargal, David
The article presents the results of a study on the relationship between exposure to (i.e., witnessing and experiencing) different patterns and types of family violence during childhood, during adolescence, and during young adulthood, on one hand, and adult post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), on the other. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,969 Palestinian students using a self-administered questionnaire. The results reveal that the more the participants witnessed and experienced psychological aggression (PS) and physical violence (PH) in their families of origin, the more they exhibited PTSS. Furthermore, the results indicate that a significant amount of the variance in the participants' PTSS could be attributed to their exposure to family violence, over and above the amounts of variance that were explained by their sociodemographic characteristics and by their perceptions of their parents' psychological adjustment. The limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Trejos, Ana María; Reyes, Lizeth; Bahamon, Marly Johana; Alarcón, Yolima; Gaviria, Gladys
A study in five Colombian cities in 2006, confirms the findings of other international studies: the majority of HIV-positive children not know their diagnosis, caregivers are reluctant to give this information because they believe that the news will cause emotional distress to the child becoming primary purpose of this study to validate a model of revelation. We implemented a clinical model, referred to as: "DIRE" that hypothetically had normalizing effects on psychological adjustment and adherence to antiretroviral treatment of HIV seropositive children, using a quasi-experimental design. Test were administered (questionnaire to assess patterns of disclosure and non-disclosure of the diagnosis of VIH/SIDA on children in health professionals and participants caregivers, Family Apgar, EuroQol EQ- 5D, MOS Social Support Survey Questionnaire Information treatment for VIH/SIDA and child Symptom Checklist CBCL/6-18 adapted to Latinos) before and after implementation of the model to 31 children (n: 31), 30 caregivers (n: 30) and 41 health professionals. Data processing was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 21 by applying parametric tests (Friedman) and nonparametric (t Student). No significant differences in adherence to treatment (p=0.392), in the psychological adjustment were found positive significant differences at follow-ups compared to baseline 2 weeks (p: 0.001), 3 months (p: 0.000) and 6 months (p: 0.000). The clinical model demonstrated effectiveness in normalizing of psychological adjustment and maintaining treatment compliance. The process also generated confidence in caregivers and health professionals in this difficult task.
Full Text Available Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP, while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism.The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R. The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better.Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control were
Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Zarafshan, Hadi
Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP), while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism. The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better. Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control) were significantly
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy
There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Schweitzer, Robert; Melville, Fritha; Steel, Zachary; Lacherez, Philippe
This paper explores the impact of pre-migration trauma, post-migration living difficulties and social support on the current mental health of 63 resettled Sudanese refugees. A semistructured interview including questionnaires assessing sociodemographic information, pre-migration trauma, anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress, post-migration living difficulties and perceived social support were administered assisted by a bilingual community worker. Resettled refugees from Sudan evidenced a history of trauma. Less than 5% met criteria for posttraumatic stress but 25% reported clinically high levels of psychological distress. The results indicate that social support--particularly perceived social support from the migrant's ethnic community--play a significant role in predicting mental health outcomes. Pre-migration trauma, family status and gender were also associated with mental health outcomes. Refugees in Australia may constitute a particularly vulnerable group in terms of mental health outcomes. Culturally specific sequelae in terms of social isolation and acculturation may be particularly problematic for these migrants.
Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bastos, Alice; Feinberg, Mark
The aim of this study was to identify post-divorce coparenting profiles and examine whether these profiles differentiate between levels of parents' well-being, parenting practices, and children's psychological problems. Cluster analysis was conducted with Portuguese heterosexual divorced parents (N = 314) to yield distinct post-divorce coparenting patterns. Clusters were based on parents' self-reported coparenting relationship assessed along four dimensions: agreement, exposure to conflict, undermining/support, and division of labor. A three cluster solution was found and replicated. Parents in the high-conflict coparenting group exhibited significantly lower life satisfaction, as well as significantly higher divorce-related negative affect and inconsistent parenting than parents in undermining and cooperative coparenting clusters. The cooperative coparenting group reported higher levels of positive family functioning and lower externalizing and internalizing problems in their children. These results suggested that a positive coparenting alliance may be a protective factor for individual and family outcomes after parental divorce.
Slanbekova, Gulnara; Chung, Man Cheung; Abildina, Saltanat; Sabirova, Raikhan; Kapbasova, Gulzada; Karipbaev, Baizhol
Focusing on a group of Kazakh divorcees, this study examined the inter-relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from past trauma, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, adjustment difficulties, and psychiatric symptom severity following divorce. One hundred and twenty divorcees participated in the research and completed the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Brief COPE, and Fisher's Divorce Adjustment Scale Results: About 29% reported no trauma; 53%, 21%, and 26% met the criteria for no-PTSD, partial-PTSD, and full-PTSD respectively. Emotion-focused coping and managing emotions predicted adjustment difficulties. Controlling for gender, PTSD, problem-focused coping, and managing emotions predicted psychiatric symptom severity. Problem-focused coping mediated the direct effect of the path between PTSD and psychiatric symptom severity with its mediational effect being moderated by the effect of managing emotions. Following divorce, people can experience psychological distress which is influenced by the effects of PTSD from past trauma, and whether they used problem-focused coping and were able to manage their emotions.
Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.
Research Findings The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This paper examined how engagement in preschool physical and relational aggression predicted psychosocial adjustment during the kindergarten school year. Observations and teacher reports of aggression were collected in preschool, and kindergarten teachers reported on student-teacher relationship quality, child internalizing problems, and peer acceptance in kindergarten. Results suggested that preschool physical aggression predicted reduced peer acceptance and increased conflict with the kindergarten teacher. High levels of relational aggression, when not combined with physical aggression, were related to more positive transitions to kindergarten in the domains assessed. Practice or Policy These data lend support to the need for interventions among physically aggressive preschoolers to target not only concurrent behavior but also future aggression and adjustment in kindergarten. Thus, educators should work to encourage social influence in more prosocial ways amongst aggressive preschoolers. PMID:26146468
Gower, Amy L; Lingras, Katherine A; Mathieson, Lindsay C; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R
The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This paper examined how engagement in preschool physical and relational aggression predicted psychosocial adjustment during the kindergarten school year. Observations and teacher reports of aggression were collected in preschool, and kindergarten teachers reported on student-teacher relationship quality, child internalizing problems, and peer acceptance in kindergarten. Results suggested that preschool physical aggression predicted reduced peer acceptance and increased conflict with the kindergarten teacher. High levels of relational aggression, when not combined with physical aggression, were related to more positive transitions to kindergarten in the domains assessed. These data lend support to the need for interventions among physically aggressive preschoolers to target not only concurrent behavior but also future aggression and adjustment in kindergarten. Thus, educators should work to encourage social influence in more prosocial ways amongst aggressive preschoolers.
Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S
Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Scimeca, Giuseppe; Alborghetti, Amelia; Bruno, Antonio; Troili, Giulia Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio
To investigate psychopathological correlates of child obesity via the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). The participants were 50 children with a mean age of 9.74 years. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of body fat. Children were divided into normal (n = 17), overweight (n = 14) and obese (n = 19). Two qualitative methods of scoring the DAP based on an integrative approach were used to assess self-concept (ESW) and overall level of children's adjustment (EAC). A procedure for judging interpretative skills of clinicians was implemented before they evaluated children's drawings. As predicted by our hypothesis, BMI was negatively correlated with ESW, r (50) = -0.29, P < 0.05, but not with EAC, r (50) = - 0.08, P = ns. To evaluate the effect of gender, Pearson correlations were re-computed regrouping the sample accordingly: BMI and EAC reached a significant negative correlation in female subjects, r (24) = -0.36, P < 0.05, and a positive correlation in male subjects, r (26) = 0.37, P = < 0.05; negative correlation between BMI and ESW became stronger in females, r (24) = -0.51, P < 0.01 but not in males, whose correlation disappeared resulting not-significant, r (26) = -0.06, P = ns. No effect of age was found. Results indicate that obesity has a negative correlation exclusively on overall adjustment and self-concept in female children. It was concluded that there is a negative bias toward females that reveals how the stigma of obesity is widespread in Western society.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the psychopathic tendencies in relation to childhood trauma, psychological adjustment, emotion regulation and parental patterns of acceptance-rejection towards their adolescents and the influence of demographic variables in socio-cultural context of Pakistan. Translated versions of Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire; Child PARQ, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory and bio-data form containing information regarding different demographic variables were used in order to collect the data from the participants. The sample consisted of 600 adolescents (281 males; 319 females with age ranged between 13 and 17 were selected with convenient random sampling from different private and public schools of the three major cities of Punjab; Lahore, Gujrat and Sialkot. The results indicated psychological maladjustment as the most significant predictor of psychopathic tendencies. However, emotion regulation appeared to be as the most significant predictor of psychopathic tendencies in male adolescents and parental acceptance-rejection (mother in female adolescents. The results further indicated that age, father’s education and profession, mother’s education and monthly income are significant determinants of psychopathic tendencies in participants of the study.
Malii, Ibraheem; Alshareef, Basma
This study aims to investigate the reduction of university students' depression level as well as improvement of their psychological adjustment level through a counseling programme, using Beck's Theories of depression. The sample of this study was randomly selected, and categorized into two groups: experimental and control groups. The former…
Routledge, Clay; Ostafin, Brian; Juhl, Jacob; Sedikides, Constantine; Cathey, Christie; Liao, Jiangqun
This research builds on terror management theory to examine the relationships among self-esteem, death cognition, and psychological adjustment. Self-esteem was measured (Studies 1-2, 4-8) or manipulated (Study 3), and thoughts of death were manipulated (Studies 1-3, 5-8) or measured (Study 4). Subsequently, satisfaction with life (Study 1), subjective vitality (Study 2), meaning in life (Studies 3-5), positive and negative affect (Studies 1, 4, 5), exploration (Study 6), state anxiety (Study 7), and social avoidance (Study 8) were assessed. Death-related cognition (a) decreased satisfaction with life, subjective vitality, meaning in life, and exploration; (b) increased negative affect and state anxiety; and (c) exacerbated social avoidance for individuals with low self-esteem but not for those with high self-esteem. These effects occurred only when death thoughts were outside of focal attention. Parallel effects were found in American (Studies 1-4, 6-8) and Chinese (Study 5) samples. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly
Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Perfis de vinculação, coparentalidade e ajustamento familiar em pais recém-divorciados: diferenças no ajustamento psicológico Attachment, coparenting and family adjustment profiles in newly divorced parents: differences in psychological adjustment
Full Text Available O objectivo deste estudo foi identificar, através de uma análise de cluster, perfis de regulação individual-diádica-sistémica em pais récem-divorciados (N=81 com base na vinculação, coparentalidade e ajustamento familiar. Três padrões de regulação foram identificados: regulado-seguro (RS, desregulado-ansioso (DA e desregulado-evitante (DE. O grupo RS mostrou níveis mais elevados de segurança na vinculação, maior qualidade na coparentalidade e no ajustamento familiar que os grupos DA e DE. A coparentalidade e o funcionamento familiar foram as dimensões que melhor diferenciaram os clusters. Avaliando o ajustamento psicológico dos pais recém-divorciados em função dos perfis encontrados, o grupo RS apresentou maiores níveis de ajustamento psicológico do que os restantes dois grupos. Não foram encontradas diferenças no ajustamento psicológico entre os grupos DA e DE.The aim of this study was to identify, using a cluster analysis, profiles of individual-dyadic-systemic regulation in newly divorced parents (N =81. Three profiles of regulation were identified: secure/regulated (SR, anxious/dysregulated (AD and avoidant/dysregulated (ED. The SR group reported higher levels of attachment security and high levels of perceived parenting alliance and family adjustment than AD and ED groups. Coparenting and family functioning were the dimensions that better discriminate between clusters. Assessing the newly divorced parents' psychological adjustment using the three profiles found, the parents of SR group showed higher levels of psychological adjustment than the ones in the other two groups. There were no differences in psychological adjustment between the AD and ED groups.
Hendriks, Karin S. W. H.; Grosfeld, F. J. M.; van Tintelen, J. P.; van Langen, I. M.; Wilde, A. A. M.; van den Bout, J.; ten Kroode, H. F. J.
Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,
Hendriks, Karin S. W. H.; Grosfeld, FJM; van Tintelen, JP; van Langen, IM; Wilde, AAM; van den Bout, J; ten Kroode, HFJ
Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,
This paper reports an ethnographic study of a group of Chinese international students' emotion-management experiences in intercultural adjustment in a UK university context. Drawing on a social constructionist paradigm, it investigates students' constructions of their emotion-management strategies, and the effects of social interactions on the…
Yusoff, Yusliza Mohd.
The globalization of the economy and society has had its impact on Malaysian higher education institutions, particularly universities. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education aims at intensifying globalization through increasing the number of international students. However, many international students struggle with adjusting to a new culture.…
Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I
Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.
Dóris Firmino Rabelo
Full Text Available Diante do aumento da prevalência de condições crônicas na população idosa, crescente atenção é dada à identificação dos fatores psicológicos e sociais que podem afetar o bem-estar e a qualidade de vida de indivíduos mais velhos com incapacidades. Os recursos psicológicos e sociais de que o indivíduo dispõe são um caminho na determinação das implicações da incapacidade funcional na vida das pessoas afetadas. Esta revisão tem como objetivo apresentar algumas maneiras pelas quais os indivíduos enfrentam suas perdas em funções físicas e papéis sociais e a extensão em que os recursos psicológicos e sociais operam sobre os efeitos negativos das condições crônicas na qualidade de vida dos idosos. Entre as variáveis explanatórias apresentadas estão o suporte social, as crenças e estados emocionais positivos, a regulação afetiva, o mecanismo de comparação social, o senso de auto-eficácia percebida, o mecanismo de seleção-otimização-compensação e mecanismos de coping.Considering the increase of chronic conditions in the elderly people, more attention has been given to the identification of the psychological and social factors that can affect the well-being and the quality of life of individuals with incapacities. The psychological and social resources that the individual disposes are clues to determine the implications of the functional incapacity in the life of affected people. This review has the objective to present some ways which the individuals face their losses in physical functions and social roles, and in which extension the psychological and social resources operate over the negative effects of the chronic conditions in the elderly quality of life. Among the explainable variables presented there is the social support, the positive emotional states and beliefs, the affectionate regulation, the mechanism of social comparison, the sense of self-sufficiency, the selection
M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha
A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...
Bem-estar subjetivo e senso de ajustamento psicológico em idosos que sofreram acidente vascular cerebral: uma revisão Subjective well being and perceived psychological adjustment among old people affected by stroke: a review
Dóris Firmino Rabelo
Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento dos estudos brasileiros e estrangeiros publicados entre 1996 e 2005 que relacionavam bem-estar subjetivo, senso de ajustamento psicológico e acidente vascular cerebral, com o objetivo de identificar variáveis mediadoras dessa relação em idosos. Estudos transversais e prospectivos indicaram que os afetados por acidente vascular cerebral apresentam menor bem-estar subjetivo quando comparados com a população geral. Boa capacidade cognitiva, suporte social efetivo, continuidade de uma ocupação produtiva, manutenção da competência em atividades instrumentais de vida diária e humor positivo são fatores que podem melhorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico. Variáveis que podem piorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico são incapacidade funcional, déficits cognitivos, depressão, dificuldade em restabelecer a identidade e restrição à possibilidade de desempenhar atividades e papéis que contribuem para a auto-definição. O conhecimento das implicações psicológicas de sofrer acidente vascular cerebral pode beneficiar pacientes, familiares e profissionais no gerenciamento do evento.We gathered data from Brazilian and foreign studies published between 1996 and 2005 which related subjective well-being, sense of psychological adjustment and stroke. The objective was identifying mediator variables of this relation among old people. Prospective and cross-sectional studies indicated that those affected by stroke showed less subjective well-being than the general population. Good cognitive capacity, effective social support, continuity of a productive occupation, keeping the competence in instrumental activities of daily living and good mood are factors which can affect positively the subjective and psychological well-being. Variables which can affect negatively the subjective and psychological well-being are functional incapacity, cognitive deficits, depression, difficulty in re-establishing the identity and
Molder, te H.F.M.
Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus
... Results Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only a modest benefit — similar to the results of more conventional treatments. Some studies suggest that spinal manipulation also may ...
... How you prepare No special preparation is required before a chiropractic adjustment. Chiropractic treatment may require a series of visits to your chiropractor. Ask your care provider about the frequency of visits and be ...
Jun 15, 2011 ... a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in. Ilorin metropolis. .... visually impaired.. Ideally for any blind patient, the eye doctor should look for maladjustment in social-economic functioning (unemployment, difficulty in unaided mobility ...
In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566
In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566
Harry, Herbert H.
Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.
Carlson, R.W.; Covic, J.; Leininger, G.
In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam
Journal Homepage Image. The journal has a multidisciplinary focus. It is not intended ... Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of Secondary School Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD
Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded
Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...... of the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that German...... expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality...
Canter, David V.
The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime
Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…
For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central
Batchelder, William H
Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Henriques, Gregg R
A new form of knowledge technology is used to diagnose psychology's epistemological woes and provide a solution to the difficulties. The argument presented is that psychology has traditionally spanned two separate but intimately related problems: (a) the problem of animal behavior and (b) the problem of human behavior. Accordingly, the solution offered divides the field into two broad, logically consistent domains. The first domain is psychological formalism, which is defined as the science of mind, corresponds to animal behavior, and consists of the basic psychological sciences. The second domain is human psychology, which is defined as the science of human behavior at the individual level and is proposed as a hybrid that exists between psychological formalism and the social sciences. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
Ajustamento psicológico e perspectiva de velhice pessoal em adultos com deficiência física Ajuste psicológico e la perspectiva percibida del envejecimiento personal en adulto y adultos moyores con discapacidad física Psychological adjustment and personal aging perspective in adults and older adults with physical disability
Marineia Crosara de Resende
exige capacidad adaptante, y resistencia para hacer frente a acontecimientos de vida y a los desafíos personales, sociales y ambientales producidos por la discapacidad.We carried out an investigation to analyze the relationships between perceived psychological adjustment and perspective of personal aging in adult and aged people with physical disability. Materials and Method: 90 participants, both genders, aged 25 to 84 , answered questionnaires asking for information on socio demographic characteristics and disability; the Sheppard Inventory of attitudes toward own aging; and a scale assessing perceived psychological adjustment. Results: The indexes of personal adjustment were moderate and high. The women had the lowest scores. There were observed positive correlations between positive psychological adjustment and positive attitudes toward own aging. Those that had congenital disability and reported higher psychological adjustment showed more positive perspectives of personal aging. Conclusion: Aging with physical disability is a complex process that demands adaptive competence, and resilience to cope with life events and the personal, social and environmental challenges produced by disability.
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175
Staats, A W
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon
For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not
Hansson, Robert O.; And Others
Two studies examined loneliness in older adults (N=177). Loneliness was found to be related to poor psychological adjustment and to dissatisfaction with family and social relationships. It was also related to fears, expectations, and personality characteristics likely to inhibit the restoration of personal support networks after a stressful life…
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67, (6): 3296-3319. Berger, K. B., 2011. The developing person through the lifespan. New York: Worth. Publishers. Chandola, A and Bhanot, S., 2008. Role of parenting style in adjustment of high school children. Journal of humanity and.
Adriana da Matta
Full Text Available Crenças irracionais (CIs são interpretações ilógicas da realidade que colaboram para o desenvolvimento de perturbações emocionais. A premissa deste estudo é que as CIs podem estar relacionadas ao ajustamento emocional e à satisfação de vida. Estudantes universitários (n=157, responderam ao Questionário de Crenças Irracionais, à Escala de Crenças Irracionais, à Escala Fatorial de Neuroticismo e à Escala de Satisfação de Vida. As CIs apresentaram correlações positivas com dois fatores da Escala Fatorial de Neuroticismo (Vulnerabilidade e Ansiedade e negativa com idade e com satisfação de vida. Os resultados levam a reflexões importantes sobre a efetividade da Terapia Cognitiva, em especial da Terapia Racional Emotivo-Comportamental, para o ajustamento emocional e para a satisfação de vida dos clientes, que poderiam ser medidas indiretas de sucesso terapêutico.Irrational beliefs (IB are illogical interpretations of reality that contribute to the development of emotional problems. This study aims to show that irrational beliefs in college students (n=157 might be related to emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. The participants have completed Irrational Beliefs Questionnaire, Neuroticism Factorial Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale. The IB showed positive correlation with two factors of the Neuroticism Factorial Scale (Vulnerability and Anxiety, and negative correlation with age and life satisfaction. The results suggest important considerations on the effectiveness of Cognitive Therapy, especially of Rational Emotive Therapy, for the emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of the clients, which could be an indirect measure of the therapeutic success.
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Skinner, T. C.
of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...
Bakker, Winny; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Van Der Zee, Karen I.
The present study examines the relationship of adult attachment styles with personality and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. A sample of 847 first-generation Dutch emigrants filled out measures for attachment styles, the Big Five, and indicators of psychological and sociocultural
This paper x-ray the psychosocial adjustment of adolescences based on their families structure, hence families were further revealed to include intact family, divorced family, separated family, psychological and none psychological broken homes, as it influence adolescence generally. Under the definition of terms ...
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...
Lucian Gideon Conway
Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.
Adrian, Stine Willum
During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...
Wang, Kenneth T.; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Fu, Chu-Chun; Zhao, Ran; Li, Feihan; Chuang, Chih-Chun
This is the first study to empirically identify distinct acculturative adjustment patterns of new international students over their first 3 semesters in the United States. The sample consisted of 507 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Using psychological distress as an indicator of acculturative adjustment, measured over…
"Adjustment disorder" occupies a peculiar position in the diagnostic system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) straddling the boundary between normal and abnormal psychology. A more human-centered approach in counseling offers a defense of "normal" adjustment as…
Chavoshi, Saeid; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dentakos, Stella; Wright, Lorna
The current study proposes a Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment and uses a multifaceted measure, including academic, social and psychological adjustment, to examine factors predictive of undergraduate international student adjustment. A hierarchic regression model is carried out on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire to examine theoretically pertinent predictors arranged in a developmental sequence in determining adjustment outcomes. This model...
Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin
This study aims to investigate the relationship between acculturation attitude (i.e. adjustment and attachment attitudes) and individuals' psychological adaptation (i.e. life satisfaction, depression and self-esteem). Additionally, the relationship between the dimensions of psychological adaptation with psychological well-being and their mediation…
Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.
Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.
there is a very real and palpable sense that psychologists working with deployed service personnel have an imperative to assist those who give of themselves to defend their countries. Deployment psychology's introduction begins and ends with testimonial accounts from US soldiers' experiences in theatres of war and ...
Abu Bakar, Abu Yazid; Ishak, Noriah Mohd
Gifted learners have special characteristics which make them unique individuals. However, just like their normative group, gifted learners experience some psychological issues that hinder their ability to adjust in new environments. This study aims to examine levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and adjustments (psychological, social and…
Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Yaffe, Mordechai
Investigated contributions of perceived parenting style, current relationship with parents, and psychological well-being on perceived student social/emotional adjustment to university and academic achievement. Found that mutual reciprocity and discussion with parents and psychological well-being variables had direct links to adjustment. There was…
Rudolph, C.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der
While a relatively large literature outlines adjustment processes for retirees in general, very little empirical and theoretical attention has focused on the psychological adjustment process for bridge employees. That is to say, few studies have attempted to understand the psychological mechanisms
Cort Rudolph; Annet de Lange; Beatrice van der Heijden
While a relatively large literature outlines adjustment processes for retirees in general, very little empirical and theoretical attention has focused on the psychological adjustment process for bridge employees. That is to say, few studies have attempted to understand the psychological mechanisms
Rudolph, Cort W.; de Lange, Annet H.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Bal, P. Matthijs; Kooij, Dorien T.A.M.; Rousseau, Denise M.
While a relatively large literature outlines adjustment processes for retirees in general, very little empirical and theoretical attention has focused on the psychological adjustment process for bridge employees. That is to say, few studies have attempted to understand the psychological mechanisms
An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...
Janaína Thais Barbosa Pacheco
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to child maltreatment on self-esteem, social competence, peer relationships and school performance through a systematic literature review. For this purpose, a search of articles indexed in Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed databases between 1984 and 2012 was done. In this review, 19 empirical articles in English were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies highlight that, overall, both adults and children/teenagers who were exposed to maltreatment during childhood showed impairments on self-esteem, social competence, peer relationships, and school performance. The analysis of the articles has also allowed the identification of the instruments used to assess the variables of interest and the description of the profile of those who participated of the studies included in this review.
Wang, Kenneth T; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Fu, Chu-Chun; Zhao, Ran; Li, Feihan; Chuang, Chih-Chun
This is the first study to empirically identify distinct acculturative adjustment patterns of new international students over their first 3 semesters in the United States. The sample consisted of 507 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Using psychological distress as an indicator of acculturative adjustment, measured over 4 time points (prearrival, first semester, second semester, and third semester), 4 distinct groups of student adjustment trajectories emerged: (a) a group exhibiting high levels of psychological distress across each time point (consistently distressed; 10%), (b) a group with decreasing psychological distress scores from Time 1 to Time 2 (relieved; 14%), (c), those with a sharp peak in psychological distress at Time 2 and Time 3 (culture-shocked; 11%), and (d) a group with relatively consistent low psychological distress scores (well-adjusted; 65%). Moreover, significant predictors of a better acculturative adjustment pattern included having higher self-esteem, positive problem-solving appraisal, and lower maladaptive perfectionism prior to the acculturation process. In addition, during the first semester of studying in the United States, having a balanced array of social support and using acceptance, reframing, and striving as coping strategies were associated with a better cross-cultural transition. Practical implications and future directions were also discussed.
Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis was the factor that triggered the adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances accumulated in Romania. The current account deficit and budget deficit were two major structural imbalances that have created a high vulnerability for the economy and explained the extent of economic contraction in Romania during the economic crisis. This article identifies the main causes that lead to the need for fiscal adjustment both in the EU and in Romania, as well as main effects of adjustments in respect of their experience in recent years. The article deals with this topic, because the current topical debate in the field of fiscal adjustments implemented both in the EU and our country, and their need for economic activity aimed at economic recovery.
Price adjustment mechanisms exist to account for fluctuations in commodity or labor prices and have : been used for highway construction in 47 states. They are useful in stabilizing bid prices in times of : economic uncertainty and preventing default...
After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious
The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…
Skinner, T. C.
Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...
Sint Nicolaas, Simone M.; Schepers, Sasja A.; van den Bergh, Esther M. M.; Evers, Andrea W. M.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Verhaak, Christianne M.
Illness cognitions are an important mediator between disease and psychological adjustment. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), adjusted for the parents of an ill child. Participants were recruited from two multicenter studies: sample 1
Sint Nicolaas, S.M.; Schepers, S.A.; Bergh, E.M. van den; Evers, A.W.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Verhaak, C.M.
PURPOSE: Illness cognitions are an important mediator between disease and psychological adjustment. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), adjusted for the parents of an ill child. METHODS: Participants were recruited from two multicenter
Chavoshi, Saeid; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dentakos, Stella; Wright, Lorna
The current study proposes a Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment and uses a multifaceted measure, including academic, social and psychological adjustment, to examine factors predictive of undergraduate international student adjustment. A hierarchic regression model is carried out on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire…
Kjær, Line; Fode, Mikkel; Nørgaard, Nis
. Fourteen patients (12%) ended up with an artificial sphincter or a urethral sling. Sixty patients (63%) experienced no discomfort and 58 (61%) reported being dry or markedly improved. Overall, 50 patients (53%) reported being very or predominantly satisfied. Conclusions. Adjustable continence balloons seem...
Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten
The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...
Hassan, Sarah Amir
The following research centers on the expatriates as work force in Malaysia and the challenges of acculturation adjustment. The research reviews challenges encountered by expatriates and psychological and socio-cultural adjustment. A qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews used to acknowledge the expatiates’ experience in each interview. My objective in this research was mainly to highlight challenges faced by expatriates working in Malaysia, especially in the context of cros...
Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E.; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R.
Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having exper...
Van Heerden, Adelaide
Full Text Available African Military Psychology community. Twenty-two years into democracy, this book Military psychology for Africa brings ‘wholeness’ for African soldiers, their families, psychological scientists, university scholars and practitioners. The scope...
Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...
Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri
In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
Chaplin, James E.
An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.
Zhang, Jingyu; Mandl, Heinz; Wang, Erping
The effect of personality traits and acculturation variables on crosscultural adjustment were investigated in 139 Chinese students in Germany (52% girls; M age = 25.3 yr., SD = 2.9). Participants were surveyed by house visits to their dormitories. Several scales were administered: (a) Big Five Inventory; (b) Vancouver Index of Acculturation; (c) sociocultural adjustment, general and academic; and (d) psychological adjustment, i.e., depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results showed that Neuroticism and Openness were two shared predictors of sociocultural adjustment. Agreeableness and mainstream acculturation were only related to general adjustment, while Conscientiousness was only related to academic adjustment. All facets of psychological adjustment were related to Neuroticism and Consciousness, while positive components (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were also related to Extraversion and Openness. No influence of heritage acculturation was found. The findings are discussed in light of measurement issues and the shared and unique individual predictors of the different facets of adjustment.
Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.
Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…
Ferguson, Lucy Rau; Allen, Deborah R.
Parents completed the Locke-Wallace Scale, the Interpersonal Checklist, and the Children's Behavior Checklist to assess marital satisfaction, congruence of perceptions, and agreement in perceptions of their child and child adjustment. Variables were positively intercorrelated. Similarity in partners' self-concepts and psychological empathy were…
Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.
. As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...... formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...
Cheung, Fanny M.
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
Russell, Dorothy S.
The paper discusses the birth of a mentally retarded infant in terms of initial parent reactions, adjustment, decision to institutionalize, psychological effect on the mother, psychological effect on the father, impact on the marriage, and impact on siblings. The birth is a traumatic experience for the parents and can result in initial feelings of…
Background: Physical illness is commonly associated with psychological distress that may be a direct effect of the illness or an adjustment in coping with the physical illness or its treatment. Little is known about psychological distress of patients on general wards in developing countries. Objectives: This study aimed to ...
This patent describes downhole adjustable apparatus for creating a bend angle in order to affect the inclination of a drilled borehole. It comprises an upper tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; lower tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; one of the portions being received within the other for relative rotational movement about an axis that is inclined with respect to the the longitudinal axes of the members, whereby in a first rotational position the longitudinal axes have one geometrical relationship, and in a second rotational position the longitudinal axes have a second, different geometrical relationship
Ševčík, Robert; Guttenová, Jana
This paper deals with problems and techniques connected with primary length standard adjusting, which includes disassembling of the device and by use of the secondary laser with collimated beam and diffraction laws successively reassembling of the laser. In the reassembling process the device was enhanced with substituting the thermal grease cooling of cold finger by copper socket cooler. This improved external cooling system enables more effective cooling of molecular iodine in the cell, which allows better pressure stability of iodine vapor and easier readjustment of the system.
Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron
A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.
Full Text Available Cancer is accompanied by important psychological distress experienced by both patient and family. From the moment of the diagnosis on, the patient has to develop a great number of mechanisms and tasks of adjustment to the illness and its circumstances. The high prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders during the course of cancer increases in the end stage disea‐ se. Therefore, a global plan of intervention integrating somatic and psychological/ psychiatric care throughout all the phases of the illness is crucial in the treatment of these patients. Health professionals working on this field can also experience emotional reactions to their patients’ suffering. They should be aware of the emotional aspects involved and develop training to help them intervene adequately with the patient and the family. The articulation between oncologists, palliative care professionals, and mental health care teams can be of great help in providing good quality of care to cancer patients.
Full Text Available ... paralysis and there is of course an adjustment period as you navigate your new normal. The most ... and psychological symptoms. It can worsen pain, make sleep difficult, cause loss of energy, take away your ...
This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...
establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state......) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...
In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbæk explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances......’ of newcomers enacting the organizational emergent. The study throws light on the informal socialization in work-related interactions between newcomers and veterans and reveals professional relational histories, as well as the relationship between veteran coworker and hiring manager, to be important aspects...
The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de
The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...
The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.
of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...
Fukui, Sakiko; Ozawa, Harumi
The objectives of this study were to examine the degree of psychological distress during the first 6 months after diagnosis of gastric cancer and investigate the relation to psychological support from public health nurses and family members. One hundred and five patients with stomach, colorectal, or esophagus cancer were mailed a questionnaire. They were asked questions concerning the level of shock on the day of diagnosis, at 1-week after the diagnosis, and at 6 months post diagnosis. In addition, their physical and psychological status was assessed at the 6-month time point. They were also asked about perceived psychological support from public health nurses and family members. The relation between psychological distress and such psychological support was then assessed using multiple regression analyses. The levels of shock on the day of diagnosis and after 1-week were both significantly related to the psychological support from public health nurses. Physical and psychological status at 6 months post diagnosis was significantly related to the level of psychological support from the patient's family members. The study revealed that psychological support from public health nurses improves the level of patient psychological distress during the first 1 week after the cancer diagnosis. Psychological support from family members facilitates the physical and psychological adjustment at 6 months post diagnosis. The results indicate that psychological support is important just after cancer diagnosis and for longer term adjustment, pointing to a major role of health care professionals alleviating problems associated with cancer diagnosis.
Lloyd, Tracey; Hastings, Richard P.
Background: Psychological mechanisms may help to explain the variance observed in parental psychological adjustment in parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). In this study, parental locus of control and its role in relation to maternal psychological well-being was explored. Method: Questionnaires were sent to 91 mothers of children…
The issues related to socio-cultural and cross-cultural adaptation of foreign students have been analysed, the indicators of psychological adaptation have been identified, some aspects of their psychological adjustment have been studied, the concept of «culture shock» in the process of psychological adaptation to the cultural differences between countries has been analysed.
Lopes, Vânia Margarida Silva; Leal, Isabel Maria Pereira
To examine the relationship between adjustment to diagnosed infertility and personality, anxiety, depression and stress (in general and inherent to infertility) in couples. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample of 35 couples attending infertility consultations, in a public health service in the Lisbon district. Data was collected using the following main outcome measures: NEO Personality Inventory--Short Form; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; Fertility Problem Inventory; and Fertility Adjustment Scale. In women, neuroticism was associated with greater stress in situations of infertility, and depression was related with social, sexual and relational aspects of stress in infertility. Social aspects and need to be a parent expressed maladjustment to fertility. In men, personality was not related to stress in infertility; this was explained by the sexual and relational aspects. The maladjustment to fertility was explained by the need to be a parent. Infertile men and women are emotionally adjusted, determined to fulfill their goals while exhibiting low levels of anxiety, depression and stress. Thus, although it is relevant to identify the effects of infertility which may make one susceptible to maladjustment, psychological intervention is not always necessary in these couples. Although the results are very relevant, the sample's reduced dimension is a limitation.
Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others
Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…
Staats, A W
Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.
Anders Richards, Donald
The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)
... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. ...
Full Text Available Developing learners’ ability to self-regulate their own learning has been an ideal sought after by researchers and practitioners alike. Over the past 40 years a plethora of educational psychology research on self-regulated learning (SRL has flooded the literature. In this article I attempt to consolidate key theories from this literature base and propose a 6-point strategy to CREATE a culture of SRL. I will argue that instructors must communicate proximal and long-term goals that have been negotiated by a community of learners, substantially reward all positive aspects of the learning process, judge and reward the learning process by assigning elaborative learning assessments, realistically attribute success and failure to appropriate processes, and tune ineffective strategies and goals to allow the curriculum to evolve in accordance with learner difficulty and success.Enseigner aux apprenants la capacité d’autoréguler leur propre apprentissage est un idéal que poursuivent les chercheurs et les praticiens. Au cours des quarante dernières années, il y a eu surabondance d’études sur l’autorégulation de l’apprentissage dans la littérature sur la psychologie de l’éducation. Dans cet article, l’auteur tente de regrouper les principales théories tirées de cette documentation et de proposer une stratégie composée de six éléments contribuant à la création d’une culture de l’autorégulation. Il soutient que les enseignants doivent communiquer les objectifs à court et à long terme convenus par les apprenants, reconnaître de façon marquée tous aspects positifs du processus d’apprentissage, évaluer et reconnaître ce processus en donnant des travaux élaborés afin de mesurer l’apprentissage, attribuer de façon réaliste les succès et les échecs aux processus appropriés et adapter les stratégies et buts inefficaces afin de permettre l’évolution du curriculum en tenant compte des difficultés et des r
Moreno-Villanueva, M; Bürkle, A
Psychological stress has often been described as a feeling of being overwhelmed by the necessity of constant adjustment to an individual's changing environment. Stress affects people of all ages, but the lives of the elderly may particularly be affected. Major changes can cause anxiety leading to feelings of insecurity and/or loss of self-esteem and depression. The cellular mechanisms underlying psychological stress are poorly understood. This review focuses on the physical and molecular consequences of psychological stress linked to aging processes and, in particular, how molecular changes induced by psychological stress can compromise healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James
Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…
Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…
Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio
The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…
Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.
Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…
Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor
Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010
Salami, Samuel O.
The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of psychological and social factors to the prediction of adjustment to college. A total of 250 first year students from colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria, completed measures of self-esteem, emotional intelligence, stress, social support and adjustment. Regression analyses…
Costigan, Catherine L.; Koryzma, Celine M.
This study examined parenting efficacy beliefs as a mediator of the association between acculturation and adjustment. The sample consisted of 177 immigrant Chinese mothers and fathers with early adolescent children in Canada. Acculturation was assessed bidimensionally as Canadian and Chinese orientations. A latent psychological adjustment variable…
Egan, S K; Perry, D G
This study examined the relations between components of gender identity and psychosocial adjustment. The aspects of gender identity assessed were (a) feelings of psychological compatibility with one's gender (i.e.. feeling one is a typical member of one's sex and feeling content with one's biological sex), (b) feelings of pressure from parents, peers, and self for conformity to gender stereotypes. and (c) the sentiment that one's own sex is superior to the other (intergroup bias). Adjustment was assessed in terms of self-esteem and peer acceptance. Participants were 182 children in Grades 4 through 8. Felt gender compatibility (when operationalized as either self-perceived gender typicality or feelings of contentment with one's biological sex) was positively related to adjustment, whereas felt pressure and intergroup bias were negatively associated with adjustment. The results provide new insights into the role of gender identity in children's well-being, help identify sources of confusion in previous work, and suggest directions for future inquiry.
Tang, C S; Chung, T K
The present study aimed to identify significant predictors of Chinese women's psychosexual adjustment after sterilization. One hundred fifteen multiparous Chinese women, aged 25-51 years, were interviewed before and after elective laparoscopic or postpartum sterilization. Eight-seven women were also interviewed about their pshychosexual adjustment at 1 year after sterilization. Results showed that the fear of negative evaluation by others, family cohesion and adaptability, and preoperative psychological distress were robust predictors of adverse psychosexual outcome immediately and 1 year after sterilization. There was significant improvement in women's mental health following sterilization, and their sexual adjustment such as coital frequency and sexual satisfaction were not adversely affected at 1 year follow-up. Women with either elective or postpartum sterilization had similar adjustment throughout, except the latter group tended to experience more physical discomfort at 1 year follow-up. About 3.4% of the women experienced regret at 12 months after sterilization.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Asian American adolescents are often depicted as academically successful but psychologically distressed, a pattern known as the achievement/adjustment paradox. In a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (54 % females), we identified three distinct patterns of adjustment in early adolescence, middle adolescence, and emerging adulthood: the well-adjusted group, which was the largest, exhibited high achievement and low psychological distress; the poorly-adjusted group exhibited poor achievement and moderate distress; and the paradox group exhibited relatively high achievement and high distress. More than half of the adolescents remained in the same profile over time. Adolescents with supportive parents were more likely to stay well-adjusted, and those with "tiger" parents were more likely to stay in the paradox group over time. The present study focused on the critical role of parenting in early adolescence, highlighting variations in Chinese American adolescents' adjustment in multiple domains over time.
Beginning around 1879, a Neoscholastic psychology developed, an experimental psychology with a soul. Opposed to materialism, it sought to renew Scholastic philosophy by incorporating the findings of the natural sciences. Neoscholastic psychology is an important chapter in the history of the relationships between science and religion in the 20th century. Neoscholastic psychology was both experimental and philosophical. This article presents the main accomplishments of North American Neoscholastic psychology in academic and applied areas. Neoscholastic psychologists championed scientific psychology while insisting on a better conception of human nature. Philosophical critiques led to a decline of Neoscholasticism; after the 1960s it was no longer official Catholic philosophy. Neoscholasticism gave psychologists concerned with philosophical questions impetus to turn to phenomenology, existentialism, and humanistic psychology.
Glassey, Rachael; Hardcastle, Sarah J; O'Connor, Moira; Ives, Angela; Saunders, Christobel
This study explored whether psychological consultation offered to women prior to bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) appeared to provide psychosocial benefit to younger women (intimacy, and body image. Participants that had seen a psychologist reported being more prepared for BPM and appeared to adjust positively post-surgery. They appeared to have improved psychological well-being, reported satisfaction with intimacy, and a more positive body image, compared with those who had no support. Women who undergo psychological consultation prior to BPM appear to adjust positively after surgery. Implications for practice include standard psychological consultation for younger women (>35 years) considering BPM. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M.; McDonell, James R.
This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents’ reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. PMID:27106255
Wisborg, K.; Barklin, A.; Hedegaard, M.
stress) and 3 (high psychological stress). Women with an intermediate level of psychological stress (scores of 7-11) were considered the reference group. Scores of 0-6 were defined as a low level of psychological stress and scores of 12-36 as the highest level. The association between psychological......) in the population studied. Compared with women with an intermediate level of psychological stress during pregnancy, women with a high level of stress had 80% increased risk of stillbirth (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.2). Adjustment for maternal age, parity, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about...
Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank
We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....
Cheung, Fanny M
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Oakland, Thomas D
International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development. Nine issues that will help shape the future of international school psychology are also identified. The importance of psychology, including school psychology, in promoting children's needs and rights is underscored. (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved.
Vossler, Andreas; Steffen , Edith; Joseph, Stephen
The aim of this chapter is to explore the relation between the professional specialty of counseling psychology and positive psychology. Following a brief historical overview of counseling psychology, we explore its theoretical convergence with positive psychology and examine how the ideas from positive psychology have been received by counseling psychologists. We argue that although counseling psychology has its roots in ideas that are consistent with positive psychology, the profession has d...
Mirjana Nastran Ule
Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.
Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.
Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…
Ziglar, Elisa J.
This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…
Montgomery, R L; Haemmerlie, F M; Ray, D M
This study assessed optimism held by 300 college students at a midwestern university using Scheier and Carver's Life Orientation Test. Optimism ratings were compared to measures of psychological functioning. Analysis showed that optimism was significantly associated with all of the adjustment measures (social, academic, personal, and goal commitment) assessed with Baker and Siryk's Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, higher self-esteem measured with Rosenberg's Self-esteem scale, and with lower ratings of loneliness as assessed with the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale.
Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantit...
It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....
Adler, Joanna R.
This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...
This paper aims to discuss the relationships between economics, psychology, and happiness. Economics was originally a moral philosophy which focused on some psychological processes of economic events. However, nineteenth century economists tried to change the nature of economics from that of being a moral philosophy to that of a more specialized scientific area. Some of the twentieth century psychologists have tried to reinstate economics as a moral science with the help of psychological cons...
Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko
The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...
Out of the eight points of methodological criticism against contemporary psychology formulated by Watson (Psychological Bulletin 31:755-776, 1934) and put forward by Toomela in this issue, the overemphasis on prediction, the neglect of individual differences, the habit of the differences between the mental states of subjects in objective experimental conditions are particularly important. Modem cognitive psychology has began to remedy those problems, in part by proposing broad, integrative theories. It is not useful to subdivide psychology into "schools of thought" defined by their methodological practices.
Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.
Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…
Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M
The literature on "Sojourner Adjustment," a term expanding on the acculturation concept to apply to groups residing temporarily in foreign environments, suggests that engagement, participation, and temporary integration into the host culture may contribute to less psychological and sociocultural difficulty while abroad. The present study was designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations residing temporarily in foreign environments (e.g., international students, foreign aid workers). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a sample of 248 American study abroad college students, we established a 24-item measure of Sojourner Adjustment composed of four positive factors (social interaction with host nationals, cultural understanding and participation, language development and use, host culture identification) and two negative factors (social interaction with co-nationals, homesickness/feeling out of place). Preliminary convergent validity was examined through correlations with established measures of acculturation. Further research with the SAM is encouraged to explore the relevance of this measure with other groups of sojourners (e.g., foreign aid workers, international businessmen, military personnel) and to determine how SAM factors relate to psychological well-being, health behaviors, and risk behaviors abroad among these diverse groups.
Costigan, Catherine L; Koryzma, Céline M
This study examined parenting efficacy beliefs as a mediator of the association between acculturation and adjustment. The sample consisted of 177 immigrant Chinese mothers and fathers with early adolescent children in Canada. Acculturation was assessed bidimensionally as Canadian and Chinese orientations. A latent psychological adjustment variable was composed of symptoms of depression, feelings of self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results showed that relations between Canadian orientation and psychological adjustment were partially mediated by parenting efficacy. As expected, the more parents were oriented toward Canadian culture, the more efficacious they felt in their parenting, which in turn was associated with better psychological adjustment. In contrast, mediation of relations between Chinese orientation and psychological adjustment was not supported, as Chinese orientation was not associated with parenting efficacy and was positively associated with psychological adjustment for mothers only. Similar results were found when the meditational model was extended to evaluate parenting practices as an outcome (i.e., warmth, reasoning, and monitoring). That is, parenting efficacy mediated the relation between higher Canadian orientation and more positive parenting practices, whereas Chinese orientation was unrelated to parenting practices. Invariance testing suggested that the models were similar for mothers and fathers. Results support the theory that higher orientation to Canadian culture may advance feelings of parenting efficacy because parents have the cultural knowledge and skills to feel confident parenting in a new intercultural context. Further, they support the expectation that parenting efficacy beliefs, in turn, are important determinants of psychological adjustment and effective parenting for immigrant parents. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L
A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare
Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf
Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen
Examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning, describing globalization worldwide and its psychological consequences. Notes that most people now develop bicultural identities that combine local identity with global culture-related identity. Identity confusion is increasing among young people in non-western cultures because…
Helton Marculino de Souza
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.
Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.
Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,
Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.
Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…
This article presents an address on anthropomorphism in psychology. Anthropomorphism assures that human beings are given human characteristics when participating in psychological research. This is significant because the research community does not often report results of studies in the language of feelings, thoughts, or desires, which has led to…
Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.
Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's
This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) and national development. The specific objective of the paper is to explore and establish the importance of psychological empowerment of the masses and particularly the.
The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID) compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.
Heyser, R. C.
Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.
... disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness ...
Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann
Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wada, Kenji; Yamamoto, Mikie; Nakashima, Kenji
Physical function was declined in aging as well as sensory function in human. Motor slowness and unbalance gait occur as well as decline of ability visual acuity and hearing let elderly people live in limited daily activity. Psychological functions are also thought to be decline in aging. In International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health(ICF), psychological functions are classified into attention, memory, psychomotor, emotion, perception, thought, higher-level cognitive functions, language, calculation, sequencing complex movements, experience of self and time functions and unspecified functions. It is difficult to assess an individual psychological function itself, because some functions may affect each other and results of evaluations of a psychological function may not represent the meaning of the function. There were numerous reports on physical function in aging in a cross sectional or a longitudinal study design. In this article, we review changes of psychological function in aging.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...
Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor
The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.
Przybylski, Andrew K
The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David
The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…
In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.
The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Amato, P R
Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce.
Czerw, Aleksandra I; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej
In Poland, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in males (20% of all cases) and third most common type of cancer in females (9% of all cases), right behind breast and colorectal cancers. Recently, 28,000 new cases of lung cancer per year were reported in both genders. The objective of the study was to asses coping strategies, pain management, acceptance of illness and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma and the effect of socioeconomic variables on the abovementioned issues. The study included 243 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during outpatient chemotherapy (classical chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies) at the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warszawa. We applied the Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique. The questionnaire interview was composed of demographic questions and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ measuring the influence of factors affecting pain management in patients, CSQ designed to evaluate pain coping strategies, AIS questionnaire, measuring disease acceptance, and the mini-Mac scale, assessing psychological adjustment to disease. The highest mean score recorded in the BPCQ was recorded in the powerful doctors subscale (16.79) and the lowest in the internal factors section (15.64). Education, professional status and income were the variables which differentiated the scores. We recorded the top average score in CSQ in the coping self statements subscale (mean = 19.64), and the lowest score in the reinterpreting pain sensations subscale (mean score = 10.32). The results of the test were differentiated by education and income. Patients had the highest Mini-MAC scale scores in the fighting spirit section (21.91). In the case of patients affected with lung cancer, education and professional status affect the way patients treat doctors in the disease process. These variables are also critical in patients' approach to disease and methods of coping with it.
Guveli, Hulya; Guveli, Murat Emin; Sen, Fatma; Oflaz, Serap; Gurdal, Necla; Tambas, Makbule; Kucucuk, Seden; Aydıner, Adnan; Ozkan, Mine
Early identification of patients coping poorly is important for compliance with treatment and control of distress. This study aims to investigate the effect of the childhood trauma experience on the type of reaction and adjustment that the person exhibits to the cancer among the patients with breast cancer. This cross-sectional study enrolled 310 patients with breast cancer. The effect of the childhood trauma and the psychological condition on the adjustment to cancer was investigated by assessing the adjustment to cancer, the experiences of childhood trauma and psychological status of the subjects using mental adjustment to cancer scale (MAC), childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ28), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck anxiety inventory (BAI). Majority of the subjects (77.4%) showed positive adjustment to cancer. Fighting spirit (63.9%) was the most commonly seen mechanism of adjustment to cancer. Of the subjects, 54.5% suffered at least one of the childhood trauma types. Among the patients, 47.1% had depression and 58.4% had anxiety. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, emotional neglect and depression, respectively, have an effect on both positive and negative adjustment to cancer. Our study demonstrated that childhood trauma, especially emotional neglect, affects coping and adjustment among the patients with breast cancer. It is necessary to determine the childhood experiences to ensure the development of psychosocial interventions that will increase the adjustment and quality of life after the diagnosis of the cancer.
Charles, Eric P
What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).
Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø
This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...
This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.
Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA
Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.
Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter
Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.
Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.
This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual
Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment.
Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua
Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...
Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia
We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...
This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.
Keutzer, Carolin S.
Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)
Oakland, Thomas D.
International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…
Roldus Andy Bunga
Abstract Obesity has become a leading public health concern. Over 1 billion people are now overweight or obese, and the prevalence of these conditions is rising rapidly. Psychological aspects of obesity are so important, psychological assessments and interventions have become an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating obesity. Multiple environmental, genetic, neuro-endocrinological, and psychosocial factors contribute to the development of obesity. Though there are many d...
Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia
Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions
An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...
Coles, Rebecca; Swami, Viren
The present research explores the sociocultural adjustment of international students and the role played by university structures in the process. The adjustment process of international students has been modelled in psychological literature as a U-curve, a learning curve and most recently as a long, uneven and unending process of change. Yet,…
Adjusting ability (technical competence) and sensibility (consciousness) are the two most important priorities any staff member of any organization should bear in mind while acting during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The discussion is aimed at the national authorities of states which do not have a major nuclear power reactor programme, and especially at the IAEA and WHO: although a decade has gone by, the lessons from the radiological accident in Goiania have not been fully learned. The events which unravelled in the fall of 1987 took the population of the city of Goiania completely by surprise: they did not comprehend what had happened and failed to grasp what measures needed to be taken, a situation which precipitated a very complex psychological reaction, coupled with discrimination. To ensure the safety of radiation sources and nuclear installations, national and international organizations should direct their efforts towards educating and training staff in developing countries who work with ionizing radiation and promoting organizational capacity. This should be done first, by improving safety qualitatively so as to better control the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and research, and secondly, by assisting countries without a major nuclear power reactor programme to develop an objective and realistic emergency response training programme. (author)
Haaser, M. J.
Jig adjusts for thermal expansion and contraction to hold parts being joined under constant pressure and in correct alignment during entire joining operation. Jig is simple and easy to use, durable and maintenance free. Several methods may be used to join parts of many sizes and shapes.
Telegin, A.N.; Levii, N.V.; Volovik, U.M.
The introduction of kinematic adjustments by adding the displaced blocks is studied theoretically and in test seismograms. The advantage to this method resulting from the weight variation in the trace is demonstrated together with its kinematic drawback. A variation on the displaced block addition method that does not involve realignment of the travel time curves and that has improved amplitude characteristics is proposed.
Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus
A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College of Science, .... It is first necessary to decide upon the level of accuracy, or correctness which is sought from the adjustment of the initial model, and this will be heavily influenced by the eventual application of the ..... reviewing the degree of success attained.
The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...
MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah
Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…
Hulme, Julie A.; Skinner, Rebecca; Worsnop, Francesca; Collins, Elizabeth; Banyard, Philip; Kitching, Helen J.; Watt, Roger; Goodson, Simon
The concept of psychological literacy has grown in importance within psychology education at all levels, in the UK and globally, in recent years. Increasingly, psychology educators and policy makers are seeking to emphasise the relevance and usefulness of psychology within everyday life, within the workplace, and as an element of global…
Kalat, James W.
Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…
Iwamitsu, Yumi; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Abe, Hajime; Tani, Tohru; Okawa, Masako; Buck, Ross
The authors examined the influence of anxiety and emotional suppression on psychological distress in 21 patients with breast cancer and 72 patients with benign breast tumor. The patients with breast cancer who suppressed emotion and had chronically high levels of anxiety felt higher levels of emotional distress both before and after the diagnosis. Such patients need psychological interventions, including encouragement to express and communicate their emotions, immediately after disclosure of the diagnosis to help maintain psychological adjustment in the face of the disease.
Full Text Available Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian-Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause-effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments.
Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian–Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause–effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments. PMID:21833199
physiological response associations (e.g., Lazarus & Folkman , 1984). This conclusion must be tentative, because two studies are insufficient to establish...adjustment in Navy recruit training. Journal of Co uunity Psychology, 5, 46-51. Lazarus , R.S., 4 Folkman , S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. MY
What was gained during this process, as well as the associated challenges encountered, suggest possible areas for research as well as changes and adjustments which could be made in similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport ...
The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…
Smith, Joanna; Castro, Dana
A first time attender at the annual conference of the "National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology" (NITOP, 2014), Castro was impressed with how throughout, discussions were vivid and innovative; talks were warm and interactive, handouts and other resources were diverse and abundant, with all materials very well adjusted to various…
Dworkin, Sari H.
Recent studies show that those lesbians and gays who are comfortable and "out" with their identities exhibit better psychological adjustment than those who are unaccepting and hidden. This paper explores the experiences of bisexuals within the gay and lesbian movement and shows how what is known about sexual orientation and the development of a…
Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.
Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)
The intuitively paradoxical research proposition that it could be as difficult for business expatriates to adjust to a similar as to a dissimilar host culture is tested in this exploratory study. Based on data from a mail survey, a comparison of American business expatriates in Canada and Germany...... respectively did not reveal any difference in their extent of adjustment. Besides a significant between-group difference in cultural distance, confirming that the American expatriates perceived Canada as more culturally similar to America than Germany, no significant inter-group differences were detected...... for general adjustment, interaction adjustment, work adjustment and psychological adjustment. Neither was there a difference in the time-related variable; time to proficiency. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that the degree of cultural similarity/dissimilarity may be irrelevant as to how easily...
Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Runge, T. E.
Issues affecting human psychological adjustments to long space missions are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle flight crewmembers will not have extensive flight qualification requirements, the effects of a more heterogeneous crew mixture than in early space flights is considered to create possibilities of social conflicts. Routine space flight will decrease the novelty of a formerly unique experience, and the necessity of providing personal space or other mechanisms for coping with crowded, permanently occupied space habitats is stressed. Women are noted to display more permeable personal space requirements. The desirability of planning leisure activities is reviewed, and psychological test results for female and male characteristics are cited to show that individuals with high scores in both traditionally male and female attributes are most capable of effective goal-oriented behavior and interpersonal relationships. Finally, it is shown that competitiveness is negatively correlated with the success of collaborative work and the social climate of an environment.
Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza
This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.
Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio
The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.
Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R
Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having experienced a recurrent dream during the past year, our hypothesis was only partially supported. Multivariate analyses revealed a marginally significant interaction between gender and recurrent dream presence and a significant main effect of gender. Univariate analyses revealed that boys reporting recurrent dreams reported significantly higher scores on reactive aggression than those who did not (d = 0.58). This suggests that by age 11 years, the presence of recurrent dreams may already reflect underlying emotional difficulties in boys but not necessarily in girls. Challenges in addressing this developmental question are discussed.
Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E.; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R.
Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having experienced a recurrent dream during the past year, our hypothesis was only partially supported. Multivariate analyses revealed a marginally significant interaction between gender and recurrent dream presence and a significant main effect of gender. Univariate analyses revealed that boys reporting recurrent dreams reported significantly higher scores on reactive aggression than those who did not (d = 0.58). This suggests that by age 11 years, the presence of recurrent dreams may already reflect underlying emotional difficulties in boys but not necessarily in girls. Challenges in addressing this developmental question are discussed. PMID:24976740
Cable, Noriko; Bartley, Mel; McMunn, Anne; Kelly, Yvonne
Little is known about whether the positive effect of breastfeeding on child health extends to adult psychological adjustment. We hypothesized that breastfed babies would have higher psychological well-being in adulthood in relation to the pathway of childhood psychosocial adjustment. We used the available cases with normal birthweight from the National Child Development Study (NCDS, N=7304, born in 1958) and the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70, N=6205, born in 1970). Childhood psychosocial adjustment was assessed by the child's teacher, using the Bristol Social Adjustment Guides for the NCDS and the Rutter Behaviour Scale for the BCS70. Adult psychological well-being was defined in terms of measures of emotional distress and self-efficacy. In this study, we controlled the effects of socio-demographic factors at birth: maternal age and educational status, two-parenthood and being a first-born child. We used path analysis to test life-course pathways between breastfeeding and adult psychological well-being independent of socio-demographic factors at birth and the role childhood psychosocial adjustment. After accounting for the effects of the socio-demographic factors at birth, being breastfed indirectly contributed to adult psychological well-being among women through the pathway from childhood psychosocial adjustment. Moreover, this was directly associated with better psychological well-being in adulthood among women from the BCS70. Being breastfed was not associated with psychological outcomes amongst men in either cohort. Being breastfed contributed to psychological outcomes in women, especially from the later born cohort. Our findings suggest that being breastfed can be important for women's psychological well-being throughout the lifecourse.
Canavan, Maureen E; Sipsma, Heather L; Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Jack, Helen; Udry, Christopher; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N = 5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries.
Kurman, Jenny; Eshel, Yohanan; Sbeit, Khalil
The authors investigated adjustment to an Israeli university by students from two minority groups, Israeli Arabs and Jewish Ethiopians, as a function of their different acculturation attitudes (J. W. Berry, 1990). Social adjustment of both Arabs and Ethiopians was contingent on acculturation attitudes supporting participation with the majority. Psychological adjustment of both groups was negatively associated with personal acculturation preferences that deviated from the shared acculturation attitudes of the respective in-group (i.e., assimilation in the Arab group, and separation in the Ethiopian group). The perceived attitude of the majority also contributed to the psychological adjustment of both groups. Major theoretical implications are that both attitudes of the majority and adjustment to the in-group play an important role in psychological adjustment of immigrants.
The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...
In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...
Fiese, Barbara H
To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...
Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A
Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Laws, Keith R
Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.
Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.
In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657
Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.
Plomin, Robert; Walker, Sheila O
Molecular genetics, one of the most energetic and exciting areas of science, is slowly but surely coming to educational psychology. We review recent molecular genetic research on learning disabilities as a sign of things to come in educational psychology. We also consider some misconceptions about genetics that have slowed the acceptance of genetics in educational psychology. Diverse samples of children with learning disabilities have been studied, primarily in the UK and the USA. Linkage analysis can detect genes that have large effects on learning disabilities. Association analysis can detect genes of much smaller effect size, which is important because common disorders such as learning disabilities are likely to be influenced by many genes as well as by many environmental factors. For reading disability, replicated linkages have been identified on chromosomes 6, 15 and 18. A gene responsible for a rare type of language impairment has recently been identified. For common language impairment, linkages on chromosomes 16 and 19 have recently been reported. More than 200 genetic disorders, most extremely rare, include mental retardation among their symptoms, and chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation. Although finding specific genes associated with learning disabilities is unlikely to have much of a direct application for teachers in the classroom, such findings will have far-reaching implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of learning disabilities and for research in educational psychology. Educational psychology has been slower to accept evidence for the importance of genetics than other areas of psychology in part because of misconceptions about what it means to say that genetics is important for common complex disorders such as learning disabilities.
Melero, Yolanda; Ferrer, José Vicente; Sanahuja, Angel; Amador, Lydia; Hernando, Denise
The aim of this study is to observe the psychological changes at one year postop in a group of patients undergoing laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (GVL) and multidisciplinary follow- up. A total of 46 patients with a BMI-35 or higher, who were selected for GVL, completed psychological testing. After GVL surgery, patients received psychological, nutritional, and medical attention during 12 months, and they retook the same tests. Psychological tests showed an improvement on almost all scales tested, except perfectionism. The most significant change was in the benchmark for Eating Disorders with an improvement of 89% for bulimia (Pchange in health status (Ppsychological changes are similar to Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass but different to vertical banded gastroplasty or adjustable gastric band, according to previous studies. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm this trend. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
Full Text Available "nHuman beings have always experienced disasters. A disaster may be brief,but its psychological effects may last for many years. These psychological effects are increasingly well documented."nDisasters affect not only those immediately involved, but also those whoknow the victims. This is perhaps particularly so when the victims arechildren. Commonly when adults hear news of disasters they ask first: What about the children? Of course, typically it is worse for the parents."nIn this article the definition and classification of disaster and the effects ofdisaster on survivors and their relatives will be discussed.
Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.
Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan
Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.
Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself? The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident
Mitchell, Roger E.; Hodson, Christine A.
Recent research on domestic violence has sought to provide insight into the psychological consequences of such violence. A conceptual framework, which suggests that both situational and person-centered factors contribute to adjustment to violence and affect a woman's personal and social resources, was formulated to examine the impact of stress,…
Erp, K.J.P.M. van; Giebels, E.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, K.I.
This research examines the moderating effect of conflict avoidance on the relationship between conflict and psychological adjustment among 45 expatriate couples at two points in time. We propose a model based on the actor-partner interdependence model, which assumes both intrapersonal and
Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra
Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and…
Erp, K.J.P.M. van; Giebels, E.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, K.I.
Framing expatriation as family relocation, this research examines the influence of perceived justice and conflict on the psychological adjustment of 103 expatriate couples. Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, the proposed model simultaneously addresses effects of justice and conflict
Bellmore, Amy D.; Witkow, Melissa R.; Graham, Sandra; Juvonen, Jaana
With a sample of 1,630 sixth-grade students from 77 classrooms, the authors used hierarchical linear modeling to examine how ethnicity within context and classroom social disorder influenced the association between peer victimization and social-psychological adjustment (loneliness and social anxiety). Victimized students in classrooms where many…
Martinez, Rebecca S.; Aricak, O. Tolga; Graves, Misha N.; Peters-Myszak, Jessica; Nellis, Leah
One of the most fundamental factors related to psychological well being across the lifespan is whether a person perceives social support from important others in his or her life. The current study explored changes in and relationships among perceived social support (SS) and socioemotional adjustment (SEA) across the 1-year transition from…
van Erp, Kim; Giebels, Ellen; van der Zee, Karen; van der Zee, Karen I.; van Duijn, Marijtje A.J.
Framing expatriation as family relocation, this research examines the influence of perceived justice and conflict on the psychological adjustment of 103 expatriate couples. Based on the actor–partner interdependence model, the proposed model simultaneously addresses effects of justice and conflict
Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy
Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n =…
Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.
This study examined the role of three spiritual responses to divorce for psychological adjustment: appraising the event as a sacred loss/desecration, engaging in adaptive spiritual coping, and experiencing spiritual struggles. A sample of 100 adults (55% female) was recruited through public divorce records. Most appraised their divorce as a sacred…
Alvarado-Aguilar, Salvador; Guerra-Cruz, Hilda Griselda; Cupil-Rodríguez, Aura Lizbet; Calderillo-Ruiz, Germán; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis Fernando
Psychosocial adaptation is a measurement that represents the patient's adjustment to those changes involved in their illness. We undertook this study to search for individual characteristics and clinical aspects associated with successful psychosocial adjustment in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing (CT) chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Seventy-five patients with CRC treated with CT or CRT in a cancer center were included. Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale Self-Reporting (PAIS-SR) questionnaire was used as a measurement of psychosocial adjustment. Psychosocial adaptation was successful in 18 patients (24%) and unsuccessful in 57 patients (76%). Young patients, married patients and males showed lower psychosocial adaptation to disease. This is associated with the decrease in sexual relations, economic resources and psychological symptoms. Patients complained that they were unsatisfied due to the lack of disease and treatment information offered by the heath care team. In the process of adaptation, clinical features such as tumor location and treatment scheme are considered basic, as well as age, education, marital status. Areas such as sexuality, interpersonal and family relationships, economic status and emotional state of patients affected by the disease and treatments provide a deep complexity in the study of the psychosocial adaptation process in patients with CRC.
... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within OFHEO's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as...
... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within the OCC's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b) The...
Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Klippel, Judith A.; DeJoy, David M.
Compares behavioral medicine and health psychology to establish counseling psychology's relationship with these approaches. Surveys three areas of training and application that the current research suggests will offer opportunities for meaningful participation by counseling psychologists. (JAC)
Friedman, Howard S; Silver, Roxane Cohen
... and Effective Treatment 9 Adjustment to Chronic Disease: Progress and Promise in Research Annette L. Stanton and Tracey A. Revenson 203 10 Aging and Health 234 Karen S. Rook, Susan T. Charles, and...
Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.
A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument
Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.
This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8
Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066. Author Affiliations.
This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…
Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.
The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs;…
patient's difficulties to psychological dysfunction. Much of this frustration is rooted in the conceptualization that medical science has long held of pain as a purely somatosensory phenomenon. This approach fails to consider the mediating effect that emotion, personality, psychopathological conditions and social influences ...
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.
William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…
Currently cancer is the first cause of death in Western society, but also: many patients survive, due to improved treatments. During the past 30 years psycho-oncology has grown from a non-issue to an important aspect of cancer-rehabilitation. Psychological adaptation to cancer is a complex process,
Reviews the present educational system in Greece at all levels and describes special education services. Describes the place of school psychology in Greek educational and professional structures and the major problems that the field is currently facing. Delineates emerging trends and presents recommendations for the alleviation of problems.…
Jones, Reginald L., Ed.
This book is the third edition of a resource for advanced students and professionals in black psychology in the form of 41 papers organized under 5 subheadings. The "overview" section includes one classic article and offers a new, world view paper. A "perspectives" section treats Afrocentric, humanistic, historical,…
McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.
The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036
Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.
Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…
Oscar R. Oro
Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach.
The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP) and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on ...
This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to empirically test an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence, with psychosocial adjustment during this stage being understood as a combination of school adjustment (or school engagement and subjective well-being. According to the hypothetic model, psychosocial adjustment depends on self-concept and resilience, which in turn act as mediators of the influence of perceived social support (from family, peers and teachers on this adjustment. Participants were 1250 secondary school students (638 girls and 612 boys aged between 12 and 15 years (Mean = 13.72; SD = 1.09. The results provided evidence of: (a the influence of all three types of perceived support on subject resilience and self-concept, with perceived family support being particularly important in this respect; (b the influence of the support received from teachers on school adjustment and support received from the family on psychological wellbeing; and (c the absence of any direct influence of peer support on psychosocial adjustment, although indirect influence was observed through the psychological variables studied. These results are discussed from an educational perspective and in terms of future research
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to empirically test an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence, with psychosocial adjustment during this stage being understood as a combination of school adjustment (or school engagement and subjective well-being. According to the hypothetic model, psychosocial adjustment depends on self-concept and resilience, which in turn act as mediators of the influence of perceived social support (from family, peers and teachers on this adjustment. Participants were 1250 secondary school students (638 girls and 612 boys aged between 12 and 15 years (Mean = 13.72; SD = 1.09. The results provided evidence of: (a the influence of all three types of perceived support on subject resilience and self-concept, with perceived family support being particularly important in this respect; (b the influence of the support received from teachers on school adjustment and support received from the family on psychological wellbeing; and (c the absence of any direct influence of peer support on psychosocial adjustment, although indirect influence was observed through the psychological variables studied. These results are discussed from an educational perspective and in terms of future research.
Petrie, Trent A.; And Others
Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…
Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.
This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…
Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta
The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…
Boneau, C. Alan
Utilizes a survey of authors of psychology textbooks to compile a list of the terms and concepts in psychology's 10 subfields that should be general knowledge to psychology students. Reports the "Top 100" concepts and ranks lists of the 100 highest-rated terms for each of the 10 subfields. (FMW)
Gordon, Wayne A.
Behavioral medicine is a field which attempts to integrate social, behavioral, and biological sciences through an application of bio-behavioral methods to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness. Because behavioral medicine overlaps many psychological disciplines, some disciplines of psychology such as medical psychology and…
Josef Mordechai Haik
Full Text Available Background: Burn victims experience immense physical and mental hardship during their process of rehabilitation and regaining functionality. We examined different objective burn related factors as well as psychological ones, in the form of personality traits, that may affect the rehabilitation process and its outcome. Objective: To assess the influence and correlation of specific personality traits and objective injury related parameters on the adjustment of burn victims post-injury. Methods: 62 male patients admitted to our burn unit due to burn injuries were compared with 36 healthy male individuals by use of questionnaires to assess each group's psychological adjustment parameters. Multivariate and hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to identify differences between the groups. Results: A significant negative correlation was found between the objective burn injury severity (e.g. TBSA and burn depth and the adjustment of burn victims (p<0.05, p<0.001, table 3. Moreover, patients more severely injured tend to be more neurotic (p<0.001, and less extroverted and agreeable (p<0.01, table 4. Conclusions: Extroverted burn victims tend to adjust better to their post-injury life while the neurotic patients tend to have difficulties adjusting. This finding may suggest new tools for early identification of maladjustment-prone patients and therefore provide them with better psychological support in a more dedicated manner.
Corbishley, M. Anne; Yost, Elizabeth B.
Because career decision making affects all aspects of a person's life, career counseling must take into account client expectations, psychological characteristics and personality traits, nonverbal cues, and psychological variables affecting the counselor-client relationship. (SK)
Manners, Ian James
The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....
Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter
Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...
Kelley, Michelle L; Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B
This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women ( N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner's alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner's physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners' alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples.
Salwen, Jessica K; O'Leary, K Daniel
Four hundred and fifty-three married or cohabitating couples participated in the current study. A meditational model of men's perpetration of sexual coercion within an intimate relationship was examined based on past theories and known correlates of rape and sexual coercion. The latent constructs of adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style were examined. Adjustment problem variables included perceived stress, perceived low social support, and marital discord. Maladaptive relational style variables included psychological aggression, dominance, and jealousy. Sexual coercion was a combined measure of men's reported perpetration and women's reported victimization. As hypothesized, adjustment problems significantly predicted sexual coercion. Within the meditational model, adjustment problems were significantly correlated with maladaptive relational style, and maladaptive relational style significantly predicted sexual coercion. Once maladaptive relational style was introduced as a mediator, adjustment problems no longer significantly predicted sexual coercion. Implications for treatment, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.
Julio Alfonso Piña López
Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.
Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn
While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…
Robertson, Peter J.
Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…
Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with
Cameron, R. J.
This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…
Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…
This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…
Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer
A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…
Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.
The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…
Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen
Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…
Nastasi, Bonnie K.
Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…
Kendler, Howard H.
Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic…
Dalal, Ajit K.
Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…
Stone, George C.; And Others
Maintains that medical students should learn more about psychology. Briefly describes why medical students have not learned more about psychology, discusses the aspects of psychology most relevant to the needs of medical students, and suggests teaching formats to accomplish this goal. (JR)
Dunn, Dana S; Ehde, Dawn M; Wegener, Stephen T
Historically, the Foundational Principles articulated by Wright (1983) and others guided theory development, research and scholarship, and practice in rehabilitation psychology. In recent decades, these principles have become more implicit and less explicit or expressive in the writings and work of rehabilitation professionals. We believe that the Foundational Principles are essential lodestars for working with people with disabilities that can guide inquiry, practice, and service. To introduce this special issues, this commentary identifies and defines key Foundational Principles, including, for example, Lewin's (1935) person-environment relation, adjustment to disability, the malleability of self-perceptions of bodily states, and the importance of promoting dignity for people with disabilities. We then consider the role the Foundational Principles play in the articles appearing in this special issue. We close by considering some new principles and their potential utility in rehabilitation settings. Readers in rehabilitation psychology and aligned areas (e.g., social-personality psychology, health psychology, rehabilitation therapist, psychiatry, and nursing) are encouraged to consider how the Foundational Principles underlie and can shape their research and practice. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
James A. Crowder
Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.
Rungreangkulkij, Somporn; Chafetz, Linda; Chesla, Catherine; Gilliss, Catherine
The paper presents data on families of a person with schizophrenia in rural Thailand, using the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation. The aim is to assess the impact of family factors on psychological morbidity of the mothers and relatives of a person with schizophrenia. One hundred and eight Thai families were interviewed based on family assessment instruments. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The findings suggest that in a stable stage of illness, other stresses of family life may have stronger impact on psychological status of family members, than the illness. Implications for clinical nurses and researchers are presented.